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History of Jazz Education A Brief Outline Today, jazz education is an integral part of American music education -- but that

was not always the case. During the 1930s - 1950s, jazz often came under attack in music education texts and journals because it was thought to have a degenerative effect on school music. Indeed, a majority of music educators in the United States felt it was inappropriate to include jazz in their music curricula. In fact, many teachers of "serious" (classical) music went so far as to ban jazz from being played in practice rooms at their colleges, universities, and conservatories. However, attitudes began to change in the 1960s and 1970s and jazz was gradually accepted by the music education community at large. Two reasons for the shift were: 1) jazz came to be regarded as art music and not as mere entertainment; and 2) extracurricular jazz activities on college campuses were highly successful. By the mid 1970s to early 1980s, the music education mainstream began to signal their approval of jazz. In the 2000s, jazz education still has its critics but is now considered a vital component of music education in America.

I. Early Jazz Pedagogy

A. Exclusively an Aural Phenomenon Originally jazz was just an aural phenomenon, without any kind of written documentation 1. few scored arrangements existed 2. no method books 3. no published systems for instruction

B. Primarily Self Taught A small number of early musicians, primarily of African-American descent (e.g., Buddy Bolden, Joe Oliver, Jelly Roll Morton, Bunk Johnson), served as models for future generations 1. next generation of performers emulated prominent New Orleans musicians 2. jazz education activities consisted primarily of careful listening and purposeful rote memorization of key aspects of the style

C. Cutting Sessions and (later) Jam Sessions 1. served as the first "organized" group education activities in jazz (predecessors of todays performance master classes) 2. provided opportunities for musicians to learn from one another 3. rooted in African tradition of passing on culture via oral and aural means 4. served as primary vehicle for teaching jazz; still in practice (to a lesser degree) today

D. Activity on college campuses (1920s) 1. non-credit ensembles (usually student initiated and student directed); played dance music 2. credited ensembles - first was the Bama State Collegians (Alabama State Normal College) organized by Len Bowden and Fess Whatley

E. Recordings 1. first recordings (starting in 1917) had greatest impact on the spread of jazz 2. were disseminated by the phonograph and the radio 3. recordings served as the first "method books" 4. recordings were (and still are) necessary as jazz was inaccessible by traditional music instruction

F. Instructors (1930s - 1940s) 1. conservatory trained musicians who also played jazz began teaching jazz in major cities (e.g., New York, Los Angeles, Boston); had a lasting influence on the codification of the style 2. method books (often written or endorsed by celebrities) became available a. Modern Arranging and Orchestration by Norbert Bleihoof (1935) b. jazz solo transcriptions and "how to" columns began to appear in magazines such as Down Beat 3. Heinrick Schillinger taught improvisation and arranging at the Schillinger House in Boston (later to become Berklee College of Music)

G. Len Bowden and the Great Lakes Naval Base in Illinois (1942-45)

1. Len Bowden (pioneer in college jazz in the 20s and 30s) directed training activities for African-American service musicians to perform in military and jazz oriented dance bands 2. one of the birthplaces of formal jazz pedagogy 3. educators such as Bowden were the first to define the basic jazz curriculum that is still considered fundamental in contemporary approaches to training jazz musicians a. ensemble experience b. arranging c. improvisation d. rehearsal techniques 4. major catalyst in the school jazz ensemble movement Portions taken from "Jazz Studies in American Schools and Colleges: a Brief History" by Daniel Murphy -Jazz Educators Journal, Vol 26, 1994, pp 34-8

II. The Rise of Formal Jazz Education

A. First to Offer Credit Alabama State U, Tennessee State U, Wilbeforce U, North Texas State U, Berklee College of Music, and Los Angeles City College were the first to offer credit for jazz ensembles, improvisation, and arranging

B. G.I. Bill After WW II, many service musicians entered higher education on the G.I. Bill (institutions that foresaw and met the demand for specialized training were North Texas State U, Berklee College of Music, and U of Miami and rose to prominence in the field)

C. New School of Social Research in New York 1. first school to offer jazz history course (1941) 2. taught by Leonard Feather, Robert Goffin, and Marshall Stearns; viewed jazz from an academic scholarly perspective -- among the first scholarly seminars on jazz

D. 1950s

1. over 30 colleges and universities add jazz courses to their curriculum 2. music publishers influence growth of school jazz via graded arrangements 3. instrument companies influence growth of school jazz via sponsoring clinicians and underwriting school jazz festivals 4. first summer seminars a. National Stage Band Camp (Indiana Univesity) b. Lennox School of Jazz (1957) c. Stan Kenton (big band) camps (later to evolve into Jamey Aebersold combo camps) 5. Berklee College of Music was founded by pianist/arranger and MIT-trained engineer Lawrence Berk in 1945 as Schillinger House of Music; Berk changed the name to Berklee School of Music in 1954 (the school granted its first bachelor's degrees in 1966; in 1973, Berklee obtained its accreditation and the school's name was changed to Berklee College of Music)

E. 1960s 1. unprecedented growth of jazz in both college and secondary schools a. 30 college bands in 1960; 450 by 1970 b. 5,000 high school jazz bands in 1960; 15,000 in 1970 c. of 248 colleges surveyed in 1964, 41 offered jazz classes (classroom instruction) for credit; in 1974 the number had increased to 228 2. college bands became faculty (rather that student) directed 3. professional jazz musicians became involved in jazz education a. clinics b. master classes c. method books and other educational materials 4. more school jazz activities resulted in an increased demand for jazz education materials (much of which had questionable quality) 5. NAJE a. Matt Betton and friends founded the National Association of Jazz Educators (NAJE) in 1968 b. goals were to pool resources, set standards, authenticate materials, and assist the cause of those involved in jazz education c. first year membership was less than 100; it expanded to the International Association of Jazz Educators (IAJE) in the 1990's with a membership of over 8,000 jazz educators, students, performers, industry personnel, and enthusiasts in 31 countries

6. International Association of Jazz Educators (IAJE) a. an outgrowth of NAJE, IAJE served thousands of members from its inception in the early 1990's until its closing in 2008 due to financial reasons b. IAJE was best known for its annual conferences in which thousands of its constituents would gather in a different city every year for four days of jazz concerts by students and professionals (including world renowned artists), clinics, panel discussions, industry exhibitions, networking opportunities, and more

7. Jazz Education Network (JEN) a. an outgrowth of IAJE, JEN began in 2009 under the leadership of Mary Jo Papich with a mission dedicated to building the jazz arts community by advancing education, promoting performance, and developing new audiences

b. JEN's first annual conference was held in St. Louis in 2010 and was attended by 1200 jazz educators, students, performers, industry personnel, and enthusiasts

F. 1970s and 1980s 1. by 1980 there were more than 500,000 high school and college students involved in jazz activities 2. by 1980, over 500 colleges were offering jazz-related courses for credit 3. by 1980, more than 70% of Americas 30,000 junior and senior high schools had at least one stage band or jazz ensemble 4. by 1980, there were approximately 300 summer camp programs that included jazz 5. high school and collegiate jazz festivals become major events involving thousands of students annually; by 1980 approximately 250 school jazz festivals were being presented each year, some attracting as many as 200 school jazz ensembles 6. the Canadian Stage Band Festival increased from 18 groups in 1973 to 1500 groups in 1983 7. high school all-state jazz ensembles became popular (in 1970 only two states had allstate jazz ensembles; in 1989 over 25) 8. undergraduate degree programs that began in the 60s became more widespread; many colleges and universities instituted graduate programs; in 1972 only 15 U.S. institutions of higher learning offered a degree in jazz studies; by 1982 this number had increased to 72 9. schools expanded depth of their programs to include vocal jazz, rehearsal

techniques, jazz theory and harmony, performance styles and practice, arranging, and improvisation

G. The A B Cs of Jazz Education: Aebersold, Baker, Coker 1. Jamey Aebersold expanded "Music Minus One" concept whereby jazz students now can play along with a recorded rhythm section, practicing with accompaniment anytime they want a. play-along recordings feature professional jazz rhythm sections which play accompaniment to common chord progressions, standards, and classic jazz tunes b. the Aebersold play-along library includes over 100 full and double lenghth recordings categorized by jazz artist, particular standards, and common chord progressions c. recordings feature stereo separation so bassists can play along with piano and drums; pianists can play along with bass and drums; horn players play with full rhythm section d. inspiration for todays Band in a Box computer software (instantly creates rhythm section accompaniment for any tune--or any chord progression--in any key, tempo, or style) Jamey Aebersold is active today as the director of the Jamey Aebersold Summer Jazz Workshops, proprietor of Jamey Aebersold Jazz, Inc.(where he continues to produce play-along recordings and publish jazz education books), a jazz clinician, performer, and adjunct jazz professor at the University of Louisville 2. David Baker is considered one of the worlds most eminent jazz pedagogues a. founded jazz studies program at Indiana University b. has written over 60 books and 400 articles on jazz improvisation, arranging, composition, pedagogy, how to learn tunes, how to practice, and related topics c. active today as Director of Jazz Studies at IU, a composer, performer, clinician, and Director of the Smithsonian Jazz Masterworks Orchestra 3. Jerry Coker a. founded jazz program at the University of Miami (one of the most innovative schools of jazz today) b. has written numerous books on jazz improvisation, how to teach, how to practice, how to hear common chord progressions, how to listen to jazz, and related topics c. finished formal education career in the mid 90s at the University of Tennessee d. active today as a jazz clinician and performer

H. The Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz

1. a non-profit education organization 2. founded in 1986 by the Monk family along with the late Maria Fisher, an opera singer and lifelong devotee of music 3. the mission of the Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz is to offer the world's most promising young musicians college level training by America's jazz masters and to present public school-based jazz education programs for young people around the world. Portions taken from "Jazz Studies in American Schools and Colleges: a Brief History" by Daniel Murphy -- Jazz Educators Journal, Vol 26, 1994, pp 34-8

III. Jazz Education Today

A. Increased Credibility jazz has been increasingly legitimized in formal academia 1. university jazz studies programs proliferated in the 1970s, 80s, and 90s 2. today, jazz students study and practice side by side with their classical music counterparts in Americas most prestigious university schools of music and conservatories (e.g., Eastman, Indiana University, New England Conservatory) 3. today, students can earn a bachelors, masters, or even a doctoral degree in jazz studies

B. More than 120 Bona Fide Jazz Programs today there are more than 120 American colleges and universities where students can major in jazz studies

C. Cultural Export jazz education has become a major cultural export with post-secondary degree programs established in Europe, Australia, and South Africa; in Canada over 160 jazz courses are available at 76 institutions with 10 of them offering undergraduate degrees in jazz studies

D. Jazz Pedagogy Courses

jazz pedagogy courses are included in most college curriculums, available (although often not required) for music education majors

E. Jazz and the Mainstream mainstream music educators no longer consider jazz a passing trend; jazz is affirmed as both a highly expressive style and an appropriate topic for serious study

F. Research research has enhanced the historical, theoretical, and pedagogical knowledge of jazz 1. scholarly investigations have become more prevalent in the last decade (especially in pedagogy and history) 2. more professional musicians/educators are conducting and contributing formal research, expanding the knowledge base 3. research has helped jazz become recognized as a legitimate art form and strengthened its position in academia

G. Middle Schools jazz ensembles have become increasingly common in middle schools (and even have begun to appear in elementary schools)

H. General Music Classes general music students and college students in music survey courses are receiving more exposure to jazz

I. Jazz Improvisation Instruction jazz improvisation (at all levels) is receiving more and more attention

J. Performing Arts High Schools performing arts high schools proliferate the US (only five in 1970, over 100 today), most with specialized courses in jazz studies (e.g., combo performance, improvisation, jazz history, etc.)

K. Jazz Education Materials the number of available jazz education materials, including computer programs and multi-media, continues to increase; hundreds of related materials are available on the Internet

L. Jazz Educators Journal IAJEs major publication, Jazz Educators Journal,is currently published six times per year

M. Significant Contribution historians, musicians, and educators consider jazz to be among Americas most significant contributions to the world of music

N. Jazz Festivals hundreds of high school and collegiate jazz festivals and competitions are presented each year; numerous professional jazz festivals include an education component

O. Contemporary Concerns contemporary concerns deal with the quality of the student jazz experience and the discovery of more effective ways to teach and assess curricula now in place

P. Doctoral Degree in Jazz Studies three universities offer a doctoral degree in jazz studies: University of Miami, New York University, and the University of Southern California

Q. The Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz 1. includes bona fide jazz conservatory (located at Loyola University in New Orleans) for exceptional students 2. producer of Jazz in America: The National Jazz Curriculum which provides all American public elementary, middle, and high school students the opportunity to

study jazz history as part of their social studies and American history courses (an effort to teach Americas youth about its indigenous art form and develop jazz audiences for the future) 3. for more information on the Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz, click here

R. Berklee College of Music 1. offers approximately 650 jazz and jazz-related courses and ensembles, many highly specific including dozens of jazz improvisation courses (e.g., Improvisation in the Rock and R & B Idioms; Improvisation in the Jazz-Rock/Fusion Idioms; Improvisation on Standard Songs; Improvisation in the Jazz-Blues Idiom; Improvisation in the Latin/Jazz Idiom; etc.) 2. four-year degrees are offered in Jazz Performance (instrumental and vocal), Jazz Composition, Music Production & Engineering, Film Scoring, Music Business/Management, Composition, Music Synthesis, Contemporary Writing & Production, Music Education (jazz emphasis), Songwriting, and Professional Music 3. for more information on Berklee, click here

S. University of Miami 1. bachelor degrees are offered in Studio Music and Jazz/Instrumental, Studio Music and Jazz/Vocal, and Studio Music and Jazz/Instrumental and Performance (Double Major); masters degrees are offered in Jazz Performance/Instrumental, Jazz Performance/Vocal, Jazz Pedagogy, and Studio Jazz Writing; doctoral degrees are offered in Jazz Composition and Jazz Performance; degrees are also offered in Music Engineering, Music Business and Entertainment Industry, and Media Writing and Production besides traditional music degrees (Performance, Musicology, Music Education, etc.) 2. A joint program between Instrumental Studio Music and Jazz and Music Education enables students to earn teacher certification in music education concurrent with the jazz major 3. for more information on the University of Miami, click here

T. Brubeck Institute located east of San Francisco on the campus of the University of the Pacific in Stockton, CA, the Brubeck Institute was establised in 2000 by alumni Dave and Iola Brubeck so as to develop jazz artists and audiences for the future 1. Brubeck Institute Fellowship Program -- full scholarship, one- to two-year specialized performance program designed to facilitate the education of five to seven

exceptionally gifted jazz students, ages 18-19 2. Brubeck Institute Summer Jazz Colony -- week-long, full scholarship program that provides 17 exceptional young jazz musicians (ages 15-17) the opportunity to interact with and learn from jazz masters 3. Brubeck Festival -- annual, multi-day Spring music fest held in Stockton, CA; it features jazz, classical, and world music, celebrating the musical and social philosophy of Dave Brubeck 4. Jazz Outreach -- Institute sponsored concerts, masterclasses, clinics, seminars, and other events in elementary, middle, and high schools throughout the country by jazz masters and up-and-coming jazz students 5. The Brubeck Collection -- one of the largest personal jazz collections in the world (over 300 linear feet); contains hundreds of published and unpublished compositions, original manuscripts, recordings, photos, writings, press clippings, and memorabilia

U. Top Graduate Schools according to the 2002 U.S. News & World Report Survey of American Colleges and Universities, the top rated jazz graduate schools (ranked in 1997) are (in order): 1. University of North Texas 2. University of RochesterEastman School of Music (NY) 3. University of Miami 4. Indiana UniversityBloomington 5. University of Northern Colorado 6. New England Conservatory of Music (MA) 7. Manhattan School of Music (NY) 8. University of MichiganAnn Arbor 9. Florida State University 10. Northern Illinois University, University of Southern California, University of TexasAustin (three-way tie) Portions taken from "Jazz Studies in American Schools and Colleges: a Brief History" by Daniel Murphy originally published in Jazz Educators Journal, Vol 26, 1994, pp 34-8