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Tastes of Paradise 17/07/2007 07:30:00

A New Kind of Empire [Pagden, 83 – 90]

• differing visions of empire
• England, Netherlands, France
o Empires of liberty
o The liberty of the empire expands with the empire
o Every person had some form of equal footing
o This empires would actually bring liberty
o Different approach to indigenous people, more tolerant toward
o They are now more focused in commerce rather than territory
or precious metals
o Now it is about controlling the seas, commercial lines
o They see themselves as a new kind of empire
o Avoided conquest unless absolutely necessary
• CAPITALISM is the new empire building term
• A shift from north to south
o The centers of Europeans move to the Netherlands, Britain
and France
o Technological developments by the Dutch, the culture and
religions and the financial decline of Spain and Portugal
o The Europeans power have moved north to Britain, France and
Case Study: The Dutch
• The low countries
• Emergence of the Dutch Republic
o Eighty Years War (1568 – 1648)
o The spread of Calvinism changes the religion majority in this
o Philip II was a catholic and does not like this
o They finally declare their independence in 1561 but not
officially until 1648
o The Spanish spends too much money in the war leading to the
eventually demise of the Spanish empire
• Constitutionalism
o Regents controlled the internal affairs of the government
o Estates Generals
o Stadholder (House of Orange)
 No political power other than that granted by the
Estates Generals
 Almost always selected from the House of Orange
o Netherlands were different because they were a republic and
have a constitution
o They are also very tolerant of other people and thousands of
people flee to the Netherlands for a better life
Anglo-Dutch rivalry
• The Dutch become Britain’s main rival
• First Navigation Act (1651)
o If you were involved in shipping goods for the English you had
to have an English ship, with English people.
• Mercantilism
o Related to capitalism
o Wealth accumulation is a zero sum game
 If I don’t have that wealth then somebody else has it
 Countries compete for that wealth
 Governments help for that goal such as state sanctioned
monopolies like the East India Trading Company
o Countries were highly involved in the economic proceeds of
the country
• Anglo-Dutch wars (1652-54, 1665-67, 1672-74)
The Dutch seaborne empire
• The Dutch golden age
• Exchange bank (1609)
• Amsterdam Bourse (1611)
o “stock exchange”
o they would bet on pretty much everything
o Tulip Mania (1636-37)
• Financial services
• The Dutch dominated commerce with their shipping, cheap loans,
and shipping insurances
• Dutch East India Company (1602)
o Like the English counterpart it was given government
monopolies in certain regions
o Allowed to have an army and print their own money
• New Mercantile Elite
o The most prosperous and highly educated
o Almost everybody could read in Netherlands
o They printed books that other countries banned
o High levels of urbanization. High concentration of people
o Among the first to have a mass market for artwork
 Not sold to elites, but to middle class merchants
The Birth of Consumer Society
• Consumption, the use of goods and wants and desires
• The growth of international trade grows consumerism
• Sugar becomes a commodity, calicos (a textile), tobacco (English)
• The French quadruple their outputs
• Chocolate, tea, coffee become a necessity
• Coffee houses become a place to change information and political
17/07/2007 07:30:00
17/07/2007 07:30:00