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# Dynamometer Basics Dr.

Horizon Gitano University Science Malaysia Dynamometer Overview Dynamometer Operation Dynamometer Controllers Testing: Power Curve Drive Cycle Simulation Power Testing: !urt"er e#planation an\$ \$ata Drive Cycle Testing: %urt"er e#planation DYNAMOMETER OVERVIEW dynamometer is a loa\$ \$evice w"ic" is generally use\$ !or measuring t"e power output o! an engine. Several &in\$s o! \$ynamometers are common' some o! t"em (eing re!erre\$ to as )(rea&s* or )(rea& \$ynamometers*: \$ry !riction (rea& \$ynamometers' "y\$raulic or water (rea& \$ynamometers an\$ e\$\$y current \$ynamometers. Dry friction dynamometers are t"e ol\$est &in\$' an\$ consist o! some sort o! mec"anical (rea&ing \$evice' o!ten a (elt or !rictional )s"oe* w"ic" ru(s a rotating "u( or s"a!t. T"e "u( or s"a!t is spun (y t"e engine. +ncreasing tension in t"e (elt' or !orce o! t"e s"oe against t"e "u( increases t"e loa\$ on t"e engine. Hydraulic dynamometers are (asically "y\$raulic pumps w"ere t"e impeller is spun (y t"e engine. ,oa\$ on t"e engine is varie\$ (y opening or closing a valve' w"ic" c"anges (ac& pressure on t"e "y\$raulic pump. Eddy current dynamometers are electromagnetic loa\$ \$evices. T"e engine (eing teste\$ spins a \$is& in t"e \$ynamometer. -lectrical current passes t"roug" coils surroun\$ing t"e \$is&' an\$ in\$uce a magnetic resistance to t"e motion o! t"e \$is&. .arying t"e current varies t"e loa\$ on t"e engine. T"e \$ynamometer applies a resistance to t"e rotation o! t"e engine. +! t"e \$ynamometer is connecte\$ to t"e engine/s output s"a!t it is re!erre\$ to as an Engine Dynamometer . 0"en t"e \$ynamometer is connecte\$ to t"e ve"icles \$rive w"eels it is calle\$ a !assis Dynamometer. T"e !orce e#erte\$ on t"e \$ynamometer "ousing is resiste\$ (y a strain measuring \$evice 1!or e#ample a strain gage2.

DYNAMOMETER O"ERATION Several components are typically pac&age\$ toget"er in a \$ynamometer: t"e s"a!t wit" (earings' t"e resistance sur!ace' t"e resistance mec"anism in a )!ree* rotating "ousing' a strain gage' an\$ a spee\$ sensor 1see !igure 3 !or a sc"ematic o! an -\$\$y Current Dynamometer2. Generally some met"o\$ o! cooling is also re4uire\$' an\$ t"is may re4uire eit"er a "eat e#c"anger or air or water circulation' t"is is not s"own in !igure 3. T"e entire assem(ly is typically mounte\$ on a stout !rame' w"ic" is mec"anically lin&e\$ to t"e !rame o! t"e engine (eing teste\$.

%igure 3.

## -\$\$y Current Dynamometer

T"e !orce signal 1%2 !rom t"e strain gage may (e converte\$ into a tor4ue 1T2 (y multiplying (y t"e \$istance !rom t"e center o! t"e s"a!t to t"e pivot point o! t"e strain gage 152: T65#% +! t"e units are in 7ewton8meters an\$ s"a!t spee\$ 1S2 is measure\$ in ra\$ians per secon\$' t"en t"e s"a!t power or #rea\$ %o&er 1P2 o! t"e engine can (e calculate\$ (y multiplying t"e spee\$ an\$ t"e tor4ue: P6T#S O(viously i! you are using \$i!!erent units t"an you will nee\$ to use t"e appropriate conversion !actors. Electric Dynamometer a \$evice t"at is \$esigne\$ to measure t"e tor4ue o! electric motors. -lectric \$ynamometers are use\$ in (enc" tests o! motors to \$etermine mec"anical or electromec"anical c"aracteristics o! t"e motors. Suc" a \$ynamometer is an electric mac"ine t"at operates as a generator an\$ is mec"anically couple\$ to a motor to (e teste\$. DC generators are most o!ten use\$ as electric \$ynamometers. T"e tor4ue \$evelope\$ (y an electric motor is given (y t"e e4uation

w"ere U is t"e voltage across t"e generator terminals in volts' I is t"e current in t"e !iel\$ win\$ing in amperes' n is t"e rotation rate in rpm' an\$ 9 is t"e e!!iciency o! t"e generator. T"e tor4ue is varie\$ (y a\$:usting t"e loa\$ resistance an\$ t"e current in t"e generator/s !iel\$ win\$ing.

-lectric \$ynamometers are use\$ to test "ig"8power traction mac"ines. T"e tor4ue o! low8power electric motors is sometimes measure\$ (y means o! a very simple \$ynamometer t"at consists o! a !erromagnetic \$is& mounte\$ on t"e s"a!t o! an electric motor an\$ a DC electromagnet wit" a counterweig"t. s t"e \$is& rotates' a (ra&ing tor4ue is pro\$uce\$ as a result o! t"e interaction o! e\$\$y currents in t"e \$is& an\$ t"e magnetic !iel\$ o! t"e electromagnet. T"e angle t"roug" w"ic" t"e electromagnet an\$ counterweig"t swing is proportional to t"e tor4ue to (e measure\$. HYDRA'(I BRA)E T"e "y\$raulic (ra&e system consists o! a "y\$raulic pump 1usually a gear type pump2' a !lui\$ reservoir an\$ piping (etween t"e two parts. inserte\$ in t"e piping is an a\$:usta(le valve an\$ (etween t"e pump an\$ t"e valve is a gauge or ot"er means o! measuring "y\$raulic pressure. usually' t"e !lui\$ use\$ was "y\$raulic oil' (ut recent synt"etic multi8gra\$e oils may (e a (etter c"oice. in simplest terms' t"e engine is (roug"t up to t"e \$esire\$ rpm an\$ t"e valve is incrementally close\$ an\$ as t"e pumps outlet is restricte\$' t"e loa\$ increases an\$ t"e t"rottle is simply opene\$ until at t"e \$esire\$ t"rottle opening. unli&e most ot"er systems' power is calculate\$ (y !actoring !low volume 1calculate\$ !rom pump \$esign specs2' "y\$raulic pressure an\$ rpm. (ra&e "p' w"et"er !igure\$ wit" pressure' volume an\$ rpm or wit" a \$i!!erent loa\$ cell type (ra&e \$yno' s"oul\$ pro\$uce essentially i\$entical power !igures. "y\$raulic \$ynos are renowne\$ !or "aving t"e a(solutely 4uic&est loa\$ c"ange a(ility' :ust slig"tly surpassing t"e e\$\$y current a(sor(ers. t"e \$ownsi\$e is t"at t"ey re4uire large 4uantities o! "ot oil un\$er "ig" pressure an\$ t"e re4uirement !or an oil reservoir.
Mec!anical Dynamometer or "rony Bra\$e Dynamometer T"e de "rony Bra\$e is a simple \$evice invente\$ (y Gaspar\$ \$e Prony to measure t"e tor4ue pro\$uce\$ (y an engine. T"e term ;(ra&e "orsepower; is one measurement o! power \$erive\$ !rom t"is met"o\$ o! measuring tor4ue. 1Power is calculate\$ (y multiplying tor4ue (y rotational spee\$.2 -ssentially t"e measurement is ma\$e (y wrapping a cor\$ or (elt aroun\$ t"e output s"a!t o! t"e engine an\$ measuring t"e !orce trans!erre\$ to t"e (elt t"roug" !riction. T"e !riction is increase\$ (y tig"tening t"e (elt until t"e !re4uency o! rotation o! t"e s"a!t is re\$uce\$. +n practice more engine power can t"en (e applie\$ until t"e limit o! t"e engine is reac"e\$. +n its simplest !orm an engine is connecte\$ to a rotating \$rum (y means o! an output s"a!t. !riction (an\$ is wrappe\$ aroun\$ "al! t"e \$rum<s circum!erence an\$ eac" en\$ attac"e\$ to a separate spring (alance. su(stantial pre8loa\$ is t"en applie\$ to t"e en\$s o! t"e (an\$' so t"at eac" spring (alance "as an initial an\$ i\$entical rea\$ing. 0"en t"e engine is running' t"e !rictional !orce (etween t"e \$rum an\$ t"e (an\$ will increase t"e !orce rea\$ing on one (alance an\$ \$ecrease it on t"e ot"er. T"e \$i!!erence (etween t"e two rea\$ings multiplie\$ (y t"e ra\$ius o! t"e \$riven \$rum is e4ual to t"e tor4ue. +! t"e engine spee\$ is measure\$ wit" a tac"ometer' t"e (ra&e "orsepower is easily calculate\$. n alternate mec"anism is to clamp a lever to t"e s"a!t an\$ measure using a single (alance. T"e tor4ue is t"en relate\$ to t"e lever lengt"' s"a!t \$iameter an\$ measure\$ !orce. T"e \$evice is generally use\$ over a range o! engine spee\$s to o(tain power an\$ tor4ue curves !or t"e engine' since t"ere is a non8linear relations"ip (etween tor4ue an\$ engine spee\$ !or most engine types.