Journal for the Study of the New Testament

http://jnt.sagepub.com The Baptism of Jesus and the Son of Man Idea
Paul Garnet Journal for the Study of the New Testament 1980; 3; 49 DOI: 10.1177/0142064X8000300903 The online version of this article can be found at: http://jnt.sagepub.com

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Son of Man&dquo. Downloaded from http://jnt. Man&dquo. Quebec. as we hope to show in what follows. 26f. 243-267.2 D1N-11 Nevertheless. 1976. of Man in Myth and History.3 If Jesus paper read at Laval An elaboration of before the Canadian Society of Biblical Studies 2 University.Son of 3 contemporary Judaism. Montreal.sagepub.49 THE BAPTISM OF JESUS AND THE SON OF MAN 1 IDEA Paul Garnet Department of Theological Studies Concordia University. 18 Leivestad. The Son of Man question . 1967.. Borsch." NTS. Although the two qucstions are probably not of equal importance. including those connections which involve Noah typology and the dove of the Flood. London. Man. of the Son-of-Man figure in Judaism and early the problem of the origin and significance of the tradition of the descent of the Spirit as a dove at the baptism of Jesus are two questions which remain unresolved in New Testament research. It presupposes the following understandings of the Son of Man and the dove questions. The Son pp. a solution to one of them could contribute towards the solution of the other. 1. 2008 © 1980 SAGE Publications. 3 See F.H. All rights reserved. See R. The problem Christianity and This study seeks to explore the possible connections between the baptism of Jesus as presented in our ancient sources and the idea of the Son of Man. . It is also significant that Syriac and Aramaic translations of the New Testament did not use the generative NVJ 12 or its equivalent to translate the Gospels’ &dquo. It is clear that o title in the Gospels.~ TOO ~v8p¡¡BTIOU to is intended as a translate non-titular or VIM 12 was Utos àv8pWTIOU as we see from the LXX. Son of (1972). on 29 May.com by Feliz Delgado on May 31. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. probably did 1 at not exist in a the time of Jesus himself the title &dquo. The normal way U~o. "Exit the Apocalyptic pp.

This has given rise to a spate of theories which. assumption that he was perfectly at home in the language Nigel Turner has called &dquo. Edinburgh. L. was originally adverbial 9 and referred to the manner of the Spirit’s descent. seek to account for the use of a dove as a symbol for this in our canonical gospels. 21:13." NTS. pp. 8. is intended as a reminder both of his lowliness before God and of his dignity before men. It would appear that the term "Son of man".. this is emphasised in apocalyptic vision to the 8 point where supernatural beings are said to be in human likeness. Son of Man. on 6 144:3f. 41-67. All rights reserved. by which this prophet is constantly addressed. because the Aramaic term YJ] N 1J. Ezek. 174-188. 1965.). he probably created term not an Aramaic was a strong tradition of reflection upon the This of man in relation to God. but they have difficulty in accounting for the total failure of the traditiion to correct such a misunderstanding. One of the subtlest of these is the suggestion that the phrase &dquo. "The Spirit and the Dove." NTS. See B. Job 25:4-6.. The dove question It is clear that the dove was not a symbol for the divine in first-century Judaism.8 Jesus. 17 (1970). Downloaded from http://jnt. addressed In Isa. Apoc. or an early tradition of such experience. 1Q Gen. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. 146:3f. as J. to angels and to beasts. 52-72. though the (on Greek.. who fell is set on his feet. "Re-enter the Apocalyptic pp. as "Son of man" and given a message to proclaim fearlessly to man. the prophet. 19-48. 5 Grammatical Insights into the New Testament.as a dove&dquo. place 2.6 The lowliness of man was often connected with the fact that he 7 As for the idea of the exaltmust die. 35:8. Ps.5 What did exist in the Judaism contemporary with himself used it as a as a title. Bowker has shown.sagepub. 7 8 "The Son of Man. involved the idea of both the lowliness and the exaltation of man 6 and was frequently connected with the rather poetic term DIN 1J." JTS. was too generic to be used as a title. Many of these theories posit a verbal misunderstanding at some point.g. 22 9 (1975). E. his face before the glory of God. 28 (1977). 2008 © 1980 SAGE Publications.com by Feliz Delgado on May 31. 51:12f. Lindars. pp.E. Keck9 Spirit 4 pp. 2. . accepting either an experience of the historical Jesus with the Holy Spirit.50 it himself.biblical Greek&dquo.~ ation of man. however.

1. however.H. Sol.’ the Instead of seeking to dove was there from the very the premise beginning. because Jesus &dquo. 18 (1976). 11:2. Oxford. 9-11 und Joh. Historical Tradition in the Fourth Gospel. nevertheless.sagepub. "The Spirit as Dove at the Baptism of Jesus. Das Leben Jesu als Grundlage einer Probably the dove reinen Geschichte des Urchristentums. H. has conflated the two and produced the Spirit as a dove. The inconclusiveness of this whole debate. p. a 1:2. Jewish background for this in rabbinic interpretation of where the motion. 15 10 32-34. All rights reserved. Richter. 140). H. II. Heidelberg. Charlesworth. 1936." NT. 1963.E. Mark and John. Vienna. 15. seems to betray an awareof the Spirit-as-dove tradition. Die Taufe Jesu. loc. "Zu den Tauferz&auml. of He concluded the Spirit at creation was likened to that of a dove. tradition 15 Dodd.13 The significance of the latter would be as a means of designating Jesus as the Messiah. 4 According to our earliest available sources. ness 14 See J. 259-261. 134) or a prophetic sign of his presence (cf.51 found Gen. The Gospel according to the Hebrews has the Spirit without a dove 12 and Ode of Solomon 24 has the dove withoutthe Spirit.saw&dquo. pp. though apparently not the essence.H. 43-56.Markan redactor&dquo. op. the evangelists intend the reader to understand that either a materialization of the Spirit (so J. 2008 © 1980 SAGE Publications. cit. however. Comm. It may be questioned. which starts with that the dove is secondary. 1." 11 So G. Campp. ad Od. 10 More recently it has been suggested by Stephen Geroll that there were originally two pre-Markan traditions. that Luke’s reference to the an &dquo. on Isa. since this literature loves to play lyrically and devotionally upon images with extreme freedom. and the bewildering variety of the solutions offered. p.com by Feliz Delgado on May 31. This is unlikely interpretation even of Mark’s account. lead me to question the premise. . 17-35. was secondary. argued that it is possible the Fourth account of the sign of the dove derived from an earlier Gospel independent was of the synoptic gospels. The &dquo. bridge.G. Greeven suggested that Jn’s account gives us the clue: the BapDownloaded from http://jnt. the Spirit as a dove.bodily form&dquo. Kosnetter. C. Paulus.hlungen Mk ZNTW 65 (1974). The Odes of Solomon. 28:1. usefully summarize preceding work on the dove. 12 13 Cited by Jerome. of which there are two literary survivals. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. Gero’s and Keck’s ( ) articles between them pp. whether the Odes of Solomon can bear the weight of historical proof which Gero wishes to lay upon them. 1828. 1973.

we propose in this paper to start with the dove and ask. Downloaded from http://jnt. . but by my spirit.. The dove could have been seen by the Baptist as the prophetic sign confirming the divine word that he would see the Spirit descend upon the If this could Coming One.- VI.. therefore. pp. des r&eacute. In the preChristian "targum" 1 Q Gen Apoc. terminating with the revelatory motto.cits &eacute. was the same that foretold for the Spirit. 369) saw this language as a hint that Jesus’s bap( tism takes place in a heaven-like setting. Oxford. 1963. Burgos. 1970. however. 247ff. LentzenDeis claimed to have found a literary genre ) Deute-Vision to ( account for such a phenomenon . p.. pp.&tau.me de 16 J&eacute." argued for the dove as an historical. V. stance that Noah’s dove carried an olive twig in its beak. ch. F. Note the lan&kap a.&beta.vang&eacute. pp. vishistoricit&eacute.com by Feliz Delgado on May 31. This was in evident contrast with Jesus’s action of ascending from the water. &dquo.liques du bapNova et Vetera 52 (1977). cit.Not by might. Feuillet has ible theophany ("L’ t&ecirc. Targums frequently introduce a vision as a means of interpreting the significance of the events being described. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.&nu.sons of oil&dquo.&omega.&alpha. 1971. the connection with the Spirit would flow naturally from the circumZech. 2008 © 1980 SAGE Publications.&nu. it is clearly stated to be such.o&nu. the rest was A.&beta.&alpha.&iacgr.Die Taufe Jesu nach den SynoptikHe argued from the fact that the ern. the fact of Jesus’s baptism by legendary development ( History of the Synoptic Tradition.&iacgr.52 explain the dove from the experience of the Spirit. 4:2-6 had spoken of Messianic figures.How could the dove have been seen as an outward manifestation of the Spirit?&dquo. nor by power. as Paulus and Greeven have have recalled the dove’s approach to Noah after the Flood. saith proposed. All rights reserved. Ramon Trevijano ( Comienzo del Evangelio. Wherever there is a vision. Frankfurt. 3.) that it takes place where heaven and earth meet.). 137f.&nu. as . John a Bultmann argued that only historical.sus.sagepub. "descending". 178-187).16 tist TDNT was expecting pp.&alpha. R. was 63-72. op. we find nothing analogous to the Gospel baptismal narrative. Borsch guage in Mk’s account &a cgr. the Spirit and eventually he saw the dove.. &dquo. The physical action of the dove.&nu. in the context of a vision of two olive trees. The links between Jesus at his A baptism and Noah plausible answer to this question constitutes the first possible link between Jesus at his baptism and Noah.&alpha. in 1:10. &dquo.&alpha.

NF. In Gen. 18 Jahrbuch der theologischen in der Taufliturgie. All rights reserved. p. 16:13. I En.sagepub. See J. Abbott From ( 625-724) went so 22 Cf. instance of ? in the pi’el (Deut..18 Reflection on brought this passage could the Spirit All this in the lies Spirit Spirit. 2008 © 1980 SAGE Publications. p. E. 10:1-6. but in some sense was itself the suggests that the link between the dove and the dove of the Flood. Jn. See Chevallier. but this reading is nowhere attested and makes poor sense. pp. L’Esprit et Ze Messie dans le bas juda&iuml. an eagle over her young as a simile for Yahweh’s care for his people. p.22 ~ ~~ 17 So A. seen pp.2° A second link between the baptism of Jesus and Noah arises 1 The very name from the theme of rest which is present in both. suggests the action of a bird. an Spirit. 11:2 ? ("and shall rest"). 174-6. whilst Isa. 19 have led to the idea that the dove not only to Jesus.53 the LORD of hosts.com by Feliz Delgado on May 31. 1968. See "Le symbolisme de la colombe dans les &eacute. Paris." Downloaded from http://jnt. ngnin.&dquo. Letter to far as to account for the baptismal dove as an attempt to make a fulfilment of a mistaken reading of ? ("dove") for MT Isa. Feuillet suggested that this circumstance reinforced his theory that the dove represents the Messianic community (cf. A. Leiden.vang&eacute.sme et Ze nouveau testament." Wort und Hochschule Bethel.. following paras. 21. Lewis. 3 (1952). 17 Furthermore. 46 (1958).-A." Recherches de SciIn the the word is only other applied to ence 19 Rel. At least.me. however. 1903. 61. London. Lys. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. For the link between the Spirit and oil. 5:29 LXX. Paris. 61:1 actually referred to this receipt. n. 106:18: "Noe quiinterpretatur requies. 256 Noah’s dove has been seen as typifying the Spirit from the time of Tertullian.21 2 When the dove was of Noah was associated with rest (~nl~). 21 Chevallier. receipt of the Spirit had fol- lowed anointing with (olive) oil in I Sam. 1:2. A Study in the Interpretation of Noah and the Flood in Jewish and Christian Literature.ach: le 20 souffle dans l’ ancien testament. M. 1962. the term used. Adam.liques du bapt&ecirc. R&ucirc.A. . as an anointing. "Das Sintflutgebet Dienst. 3:29).P. see also D. the Spirit is said to have been hovering over the primeval chaos. cit. For a summary of modern interpreters who have allusion to Noah’s dove in the baptism tradition see Keck. 1958.crits &eacute.pp. Gen. 32:11). 529. These considerations would suggest that the dove was bringing the Spirit to Jesus. 48f. op. metaphorically. 539.

5:29 ?/&pi. 3:20f. 1:32.").s. .G. Jn. 2008 © 1980 SAGE Publications.ttingen.&alpha. 1 Q Gen Apoc 10:13. 24:4 (Gero’s rendering: "The bird let down its wings. The Babylonian Flood hero Atra-Hasis is a saviour in that he acts benevolent god Enki and mankind ( ibid.&aacgr.com by Feliz Delgado on May 31. Philo.24 The third link is constituted by the similarity between passing through the Flood and undergoing baptism. 3:19. Jn. Ziusudra. 29 For Noah. Orange. 13.is. The Preaching to the Spirits in Prison (reprinted 1970. Gen- 4:18.23 Now the idea of the Spirit resting on Jesus from the time of his baptism is attested in most of our sources. For LXX. Oxford. 2:5). Quod Deus sit immutabilis.&rho. 1969. as was noticed in I Pet. J. NTS. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. vid. supra. 24 23 the p. Jub. Mt. Furthermore. Jub. G&ouml. Lk.. was said to have protected the seed of mankind at the time of destruction (W. see Gen. see 25 the ibid. See H.&sigma..&sigma. I En.A. 1964. 25. Gunkel. which had already rested on the mountains of Ararat. California). Od.&aacgr. For Kelly’s precursors in this view of the passage.54 first released it found no rest except in the ark. 107. ) passim Downloaded from http://jnt. A possible fourth link is the position of both Jesus and Noah as righteous preachers amidst a corrupt generation (II Pet. 21. Ebion. 2:1. 73ff. 1:10 VL).&lambda.25 There are other links between Jesus and Noah..My Spirit shall not always strive with man&dquo. also Gen. Atrca-Hasis: the Babylonian Story of the Flood with The Swnerian Flood Story.29 This was probably esis. The Sumerian Flood hero. Ev. For detailed argument in support of this interpretation see nineteenth-century writer William Kelly. n.&upsi. Mt. Heb.&alpha. 5:4. pp.. 28 Jesus. pp. Sol. For Noah see Ecclus.&pi. see For Noah.&eta. Civil. 45:17. 27 ?/&aacgr. as referring to a rest for the divine Spirit (KaTa~Eívn). by M. which according to 1 :1012 would have been done in the Spirit of Christ. 11:28. Fitzmyer has drawn attention to points of comparison in the birth accounts. For Jesus see 4:28. Lambert and A. 26 p. 5:29 MT.R. as a mediator between the . (Mk. 20 (1974).sagepub.. Millard. All rights reserved. Ev. 57. it appears that LXX interpreted the enigmatic statement of Gen.&nu. original meaning. I Jn. 6:3. .27 as bringers of comfort. 6:2. 14:16 cf. possibly refers to the preaching of Noah. Welch Foundation.28 and as saviours of mankind. Thus the crux interpretum.&tau. I Pet.. apart from the baptism narratives. 399f. &dquo. 138ff.26 Both were seen as givers of rest.&kappa.

Links between Noah and the Son of Man idea First of all. 132f. cf. According to the summary which has survived. Rev. 10:1-11:2. p. gend probably Ibid. lumi&egrave.).. pp. after making sacrifice. where the restoration of the earth after the Flood is described in terms of the Messianic For the similarities between the two judgements cf. 37f. the hero of the granted immortality. All rights reserved. but the inter-testamental literature preserves super-human piety. 31 30 See J. In the Sumerian and Flood of a was Babylonian Flood stories. . natively.rature H&eacute.re des 32 Milik. These correspond with the two righteous men whom God uses to oppose them: Noah (called the son of 1 Lamech) and Enoch. it could represent a fusion of the biblical traditions.32 I En.n.31 Another link between the Enoch and the Noah traditions in connection with the Babylonian Flood story occurs in the account given by the pagan Berosus. in the centuries immediately preceding the Christian era. The opening section of I Enoch presents the reader with two leaders of evil spirits. 2008 © 1980 SAGE Publications. ( Downloaded from http://jnt. Whichever is the case. there was a tendency to think of Noah’s emergence from the Flood in close connection with the exaltation of Enoch. 106:13-107:1." Harvard Theo. The biblical Noah was not granted a tradition Noah linked with an immortalized Enoch. par. conjoined with a rationalization of the Babylonian. I shall explore those Son of Man features Man figure. 350. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. cit. Ibid. Mt. in the Noah tradition which are not connected with Enoch. op. this. Lk..nochique a la fragments aram&eacute. 64 For the text see Lambert and Millard. suddenly disappeared and was taken to dwell with the gods as a reward for his If this form of the story is very ancient. p.. the hero of the Flood. 17:26f. Q. "Probl&ecirc. I hope to show that Noah was connected with Enoch and that Enoch was presented in the tradition as a Son of After that.55 which The age of wrath leading to the Flood and the age of blessing was to follow it are spoken of in close connection with the judgement and the final blessings of the last days. it could be close to Alterthe root of the biblical traditions both of Noah and Enoch. 30 4.mes de la litt&eacute.T.ens de Qumr&acirc.com by Feliz Delgado on May 31.sagepub. contemporary of Alexander and Antiochus I. Semyaza and Azazel. 134-137. pp. 348.. The Ras-Shamra version of the Atra-Hasis lealso refers to the hero’s attaining immortality (1971). 24: age. Jude 14-18.

since no Christian would have invented a divine word granting the Son of Man title to any but Jesus. means &dquo. 85:3. Milik ( op. these particular words must derive from non-Christian35 Jewish tradition. 2:5 and possibly I Pet. Mearns.. 315-323. 36 37 as I En. 1965.&dquo. pp. argued that the latter refers to a proclamation made by Christ to the imprisoned Watchers after his resurrection. both these Old Testament passages a Son of Man figure stands beThat fore the throne. embodies Son of Man elem- Noah: II Pet. Enoch appears as a second Adam. See pp.. Knibb. Jewish Indeed. Christ’s Proclamation to the Spirits.com by Feliz Delgado on May 31. The name of Enoch’s wife. 83:1. . 1-5). 354f. cit. 360-369. Rome. who dates them about A. wards the end of pp.. ibid. where the vision of chapter 14 is elaborated further and Enoch is told. cit. 71.. Enoch preached both to the imprisoned Watchers (I En.36 paradise&dquo.sagepub. Jew could conceivably have described Enoch to exclude Jesus. 34 as See James H. op. 6:9).) points out in this connection that the hero of the Babylonian Flood story goes to dwell eternala paradise at the mouth of the rivers. though W. especially verse 14).J. ly with his wife in Downloaded from http://jnt. Enoch is indeed a Son of Man figure is made explicit later in the Similitudes of Enoch (I En. 35 Charlesworth. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. Milik has seen the content of this preaching in I En.Thou The consenart the Son of Man who art born unto righteousness. In I En. pp. too M.D. 345-359. &dquo. p. In I En.A. NTS 25 (1979).D.34 The tradition about 33 Noah. All rights reserved. Enoch was presented as a Son of Man figure in the interThe description of the divine throne in testamental literature. Dalton. 37 Edna. however. 1 and Dan. who dates the Similitudes tothe century. and Christopher L. 3:19. for he won immortality whilst Adam lost it. ibid. in Milik. Furthermore. 14 reflects the throne visions of Ezek. composition.the and recalls the Garden of Eden. 345. 2008 © 1980 SAGE Publications. sus amongst Enoch scholars (with the notable exception of Milik) now appears to be that the Similitudes are a first-century A. 15) well as to the godless generation of men before the Flood (4 Q 227 I. 7. 14 it is Enoch who approaches. 40. since an anti-Christian Son of Man in order though not necessarily pre-Christian. 5:24.56 Further links between the two figures may be seen in the fact that both were preachers of righteousness to a perverse generation33 and both were well-pleasing to God (Gen.

sembles that of the Ancient of Days himself :ure. 2008 © 1980 SAGE Publications. I.sagepub.likeness as the appearance of a man&dquo. 8-10 (Gabriel) are said to be like a man. Downloaded from http://jnt. 7:13. We shall first show that Noah. ‘’2 The 38 accompanying Table sets out some of the parallels in the See C. 38 Although Daniel avoids likening God himself to a man (at least LXX 7:13 seems to equate the Son of Man with the in the MT. 106. Joseph A. frag. ed. p. 7. and his eyes beautiful. 39 the 40 J. Bath-Enosh. Days). II. 1975.&dquo. 4). See too 1 Q 19. 26). Schnackenburg. 106:2f. Zimmerli. pp. For an analysis of the throne-vision type of call story see W. 10:6. 244. 18. 16 (probably Michael). . The Genesis Apocryphon of Qumran Cave I. Rome. the supernatural figures of Dan. (vs.. Basel. our Aramaic MT being a sort of targum (Eph.&dquo. he made the whole house bright like the sun so that the whole house was exceptionally bright.com by Feliz Delgado on May 31. Lov.39 body was white as snow . 40 In I En. in Dan. shall mention other elements which point to Noah in this capacity. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. &dquo. 3: "like the rays of the sun". and in the Qumran Genesis Apocryphon. 54(1978). 41 His father fears that his mother.57 ents quite apart from Then we his connection with the figure of Enoch.with the clouds of heaven. Theo. M. M. pp. has had carnal relations with an angel or a was &dquo. 187f. The Ethiopic Book of Enoch: Edition in the Light of the Aramaic Dead Sea Fragments. Ezekiel. 7 (perhaps Ancient of the archangel Michael) and of Dan.. 62-69). 1978. Knibb. R.one like the Son of man&dquo. Fitzmyer. pp. 92-99. like the Son of Man figure. 16. All rights reserved. 406. pp. 1. 16-21. I En. Oxford. 9:21. 8:15. 1969. The Son of Man in apocalyptic vision is a supernatural figIn the throne vision of Ezek. Similarly. 1971. He comes in the midst of a cloud (vs. Noah is clearly a man. and the hair of his head white like wool. Neukirchen-Vluyn. for it is emphasized that in Yet his appearance at birth refact both his parents are human.And his Watcher. tr..A. p. Yahweh himself is represented as a &dquo. Lust has recently argued that this rendering represents original Hebrew text. and when he opened his eyes. TDNT VIII. however.. Black has suggested even a divine status for Daniel’s Son of Man: Jesus und der Menschensohn. comes &dquo. is presented in the inter-testamental literature as a supernatural person. Colpe. Pesch and R. a 41 New 42 1 Q Gen Apoc 2:1-11.

.58 Downloaded from http://jnt. 2008 © 1980 SAGE Publications.sagepub. All rights reserved.com by Feliz Delgado on May 31. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.

c CO = C u E 4-1 > o (0 Cl) x C o w 4-1 0 m ~ u 13 n o « U fl .59 n r1 r x n S~ &dquo. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.r-! U U c < u C < 4J ~ 4-’ ~! 4-t M Cl) M (U ~: u ~! u n) o » n) 0 » Po m m m m o tO 0 ~! 3 v ~ 3 v c o Q) c 0 v ~ ~ « ~! ~ - Downloaded from http://jnt.i « *m tO ’o u u ~ i p -r-! ~: i . All rights reserved. 2008 © 1980 SAGE Publications.r-! c (U .com by Feliz Delgado on May 31. .1 » U w 3 w 4J ’d w ~ r-I M (U e o U = M ~ tO x 0 4-1 cd m 4-1 o 4-) 0 4-t c u &dquo.sagepub.

After all.and to plant. Gary V. 45 47 Op. 50). even the "one like the son of man" of Dan. 1:10 RV. 44 I En. 89:1." Jer.Why did he feel this to be necessary?&dquo. 47 parallel. eventually &dquo. to build. 1893.became a man. Later Moses According to R. . superhuman. but the angels are represented by men. Soc. pp. the Ancient of Days in Daniel 7.com by Feliz Delgado on May 31. op. these metamorphoses were merely to allow Noah and Moses to loc.44 This means that he became angelic. He was perhaps aware of this popular exaltation of Noah. cit. Theo. human beings are revarious animals. ment is so forced that we are tempted to ask. cit. 4 In the second dream vision of I Enoch. build the ark and the tabernacle respectively. Charles ( The Book of Enoch. 3 106 for easy comparison." Biblical Archeologists.60 descriptions of the glory of the LORD in Ezekiel 1. presented by All this illustrates the importance of the figure of Noah in pre-Christian Judaism. The publication of the Babylonian Atra-Hasis epic of the creation and Flood46 has pointed to the desirability of studying the creation and Flood narratives of Genesis as a Some have seen the two narratives as running in Indeed." Downloaded from http://jnt. Smith. 43 man". "Structure and Purpose in Genesis Journ. Ev. See Tikver Frymer-Kensky. for it is introduced at the time when the supernatural visitor is setting them on their feet. 48 The human figures Ezekiel and Daniel also are called "son of This too is a title of dignity. Noah unity. ad ). 27) and the kingdom this people receive is probably an extension of the power given to the quite human Jeremiah "over the nations and over the kingdoms. 307-319. Oxford. 20 (1977). 48 1-11. &dquo. to pluck up and to break down. Even Philo’s endeavour to prove that he His arguwas inferior to Moses45 is probably evidence for this.. 46 Lambert and Millard. pp. 40 (1977). Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. 147-155. 2008 © 1980 SAGE Publications. was said to become a man (89:36). "The Atrahasis Epic and its significance for our understanding of Genesis 1-9.sagepub.&dquo. 7 turns out in the interpretation to represent the people (human) of God (vs. Gabriel in Daniel 10 and the Risen Christ I have included details of Noah as in I Enoch in Revelation 1. Noah. however (vs.H. and to destroy and to overthrow. All rights reserved. 109ff. who was born as a bull in the dream vision. There is no metamorphosis for the building of the Temple.

2008 © 1980 SAGE Publications. He suggested that the baptism of Jesus was the &dquo. 35f. 7:17f.E.com by Feliz Delgado on May 31. after . recalls the rhetorical question asked in the wisdom literature about mankind in general. 1:51 sayings: 55 baptism of Jesus (heaven opened. Noah is the connecting link between the patriarchs before the Flood and those his election being the model for that of the later.seal&dquo. Op.God remembered Noah&dquo. &dquo. 1964. Job The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible. All rights reserved. Johnson has detected allusions to the in the Johannine Son of Man Jn. which the Son of Man had received according to Jn. Downloaded from http://jnt. the pp. pp. 54 55 8:4. (1978). 144:3f." (1977). in the extra-canonical tradition (Jub. New York.towards repose&dquo. on Genesis. cit. Rome.son of man&dquo. can him. &dquo. 1962. a whole. Smith. 52 53 Commentary JBL 97 Ps. p. a circumstance which accords well with her son being thought of as &dquo. IV. "Chronological VT 27 ation and the 50 51 Flood. and the son of man that thou visitest himTB54 Furthermore. as the flood increases on the earth. II. &dquo. pp. Within the larger framework of the book of Genesis as a whole. however. Anderson53 have reached the same conclusion regarding the canonical narrative as This pivotal phrase. 416.sagepub.61 be called a second Adam. McEvenue has shown. 1971.the daughter of man&dquo. 6:27. &dquo. 1 Q Gen Apoc 2).. Jerusalem.What is man’that thou rememberest him.51 Umberto Cassuto52 and Bernhard W. Noah’s mother was called Bath-Enosh. 12:28-34 (voice from heaven expressing the Father’s satisfaction in Jesus). 49 5. that the epic builds up to a crescendo.God remembered Noah&dquo. 50 In his analysis of the Flood story S6an E. pp. 49 Gerhard Larrson. in the 1 3 Ark (8:1). 30f.. 31-39. descending). Parallels between the Cre490-492.This suggests that John may know a story ascending. Every human being is descended from His ark was a second Eden with the animals in subjection The command to be fruitful and multiply. originally to man. was repeated to Noah. The Narrative Style of Priestly Writer. given to Adam. then turns &dquo. Other links between Jesus at his baptism and the Son of Man S. with reference to the Priestly element in the narrative. 4:28. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.. Cf. . after &dquo. c..

1957. (Spirit) flow vss. f. 1:14. 3: 16 Q j. b. cf. 56 T&uuml.. vs. pp. many differences between the Markan Jesus and this Man from the Sea in II Esdras 13. cf. are several points Mk. 16f. i. Mk. 27. 32 34 etc. Mk. cf. 2:7. 3f. c. Mt. Mk. and fights back. cf... Mt. .sagepub. 10f. Lk. he shows miracles to a peaceful multitude from northern Israel. 3:6 etc. cf. 3. 4:39. 366ff. 2:10 etc. 12f. 225. 6f. Besides these few resemblances there are. (see my discussion of this in Salvation and Atonement in the Qumran Scrolls. h. 1:10 d. Mk. vss. vss. Mk. 56 In II Esdras (4 Ezra) 13 there parison with the synoptic Jesus :a. cf. 50.. 222 Borsch argues for a similar idea in the Qumran scrolls. spoken mountain. cf. He claimed the idea derived ultimately from ceremonies for the ordination of royal of the Baptism figures. vss. Nevertheless.com by Feliz Delgado on May 31. p. Lk.. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution.&dquo. 26:51-56 cf. his coming is with the clouds.bingen. but this is based on some doubtful interpretations: "billows of the sea" instead of "birth pangs" in 1Q H 3:9f. of com- A Son of Man figure vs. 4:29f. vss. Op. cf. emerges from the water in connection with a movement of the Spirit (wind). 24 g. cit. cf. 5:1 fire and wind from him.) and the Messianic interpretation of ? and ? in 1Q S 4:2023 (see P. e. 1: 3:11 para. 1977. 8. 6:17f..ller’s discussion in The Manual of Discipline. 3. 36.. pp. 2008 © 1980 SAGE Publications.. weapons but with words 12:12. Mk. Mk. but also the Coming One himself (Jn. On p. vs.. from a with vss. 37f. he is opposed not 5. All rights reserved.. 14:62 he is always in command of the situation. Downloaded from http://jnt. these parallels with this particular form of Jewish expectation may prove to be significant. 3. Mk. 86). of course. Wernberg-M&oslash. 39f. vs. Mt. Lk. Leiden. Borsch that Jesus’ was an induction into the Messianic argued baptism office and that John the Baptist intended his rite to produce not only the remnant. 1:10 2f. 27f. 9-11. 1:31).62 in which Jesus is called Son of man.

of the dream.there fell a voice from heaven saying. Pritchard.sagepub. pp. since the interpretation betrays that the author &dquo.E. Charles. powers.H. The only person to attain immortality according to the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh was Utnapishtim who had passed through the Flood.S9 When Jesus abased himself in submitting to John’s baptism in expectation of the Kingdom of God. the vision material in this chapter. the voice from heaven declared that the kingdom had been taken from him and he was to be as a beast.). Downloaded from http://jnt.D. 59 60 Dan. The idea W.. goes back even further. There is a similar contrast between Jesus and Nebuchadnezzar.&dquo. Cambridge. The Babylonian deities were born in a watery chaos (Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. 4:31f. hearkened to the voice of the beast and set himself above God. "IV Pseudepigrapha of 1913. London. and giveth it to whomsoever he will. II Esdras. 58 Ezra: Introduction. of man in Psalm 8 In contrast. p. Oxford. 70. Box.5~ Furthermore.did not understand the meaning of the mythological element in the tradition&dquo. Best.O. ed. 7-9. as opposed to the interpretation. 10ff. howeve’r. 58 A further link between the baptismal narratives and the Son of Man idea is afforded by the theme of Man’s place in the universe as subject to God but lord over the beasts.. 0 king Nebuchadnezzar.. All rights reserved. And thou shalt be driven from men. of Noah in the Ark. 2008 Soteriology. See E. The beasts are probably intended to symbolize alien Mk. . When this king exalted himself. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. I. 1955. and more than a man. Like Nebuchadnezzar he was indeed to be expelled from the company of man and made to dwell amongst the beasts. 1933. ed.6° but throughout all this he remained a man.7. RV.). for he had not acknowledged the kingdom of God: &dquo. Oesterley. pp. James B.H. but it is probable 57 that chapter 13 was composed in Jewish circles before A." in The Apocrypha and the Old Testament. The Temptation and the Passion: the Markan 1965. of a supernatural person emerging from the water is very ancient indeed. 60ff. R. 552. The Egyptian sun-god emerges from the fresh-water ocean and climbs up a ben-ben stone. p. This was the place of Adam in paradise. man at the Fall and of the Son of Man in Dan. Princeton.63 II Esdras contains much Christian material. he was acclaimed by the celestial voice as a man. whence he is exalted to pursue his celestial career ( ibid. pp. 157. 1:13. until thou know that the Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men. © 1980 SAGE Publications. 57 See G. and thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field . to thee it is spoken: the kingdom is departed from thee.com by Feliz Delgado on May 31.

4:32. ( op. with the Son of Man in Mt. there is considerable stress on Jesus’ position as Man. 4:11. or of a nexus of ideas which could have found suitable expression through the term Son of Man.). . 6. 26.. Gospel according to the Hebrews has Jesus state that his mother. expounded this kingdom as a mystery (Mk. acknowledge his glory too late. 34). in maintaining intered course between himself and his Father. for the 1-11 par. cit. Comm. Origen. the Holy Spirit. in Joh. They are also associated Mt.61 In the Q temptation narrative. 8:3. Cf. etc. II. having passthrough this experience. 4:19ff. over the The dove acknowledges his lordship willingly. 30-32). 4: Yet he was more than a man. 87.&dquo. 12.63 This looks like some variant of the Temptation tradition. more often than any other person in the Old Testament. It is strongly reminiscent of Ezek. Another possible connection is through the figure of Ezekiel.64 When Satan invited Jesus to act as Son of God and seek dominion. 10 and parallels. Conclusion We have shown that there are connections between Jesus at baptism and the Son of Man idea in Judaism. but his contemporaries and the powers of darkness.. cf. 9) notes that angels minister to the Son of Man also in Jn. 61 baptism 1:12f.com by Feliz Delgado on May 31. What is the nature of these connections? his Sometimes they are possibilities. stances 1. in subjection to God. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. the theme is &dquo. 7. of an awareness on the part of certain individuals (Jesus and some of his contemporaries) of an aura surrounding Jesus himself. angels were his servants.62 In Odes of Sol 24. Q). All rights reserved. 62 63 Mk. 2.sagepub. 16:27f. symbolized by the creeping things and by the caverns of the earth. took him by one of the hairs of his The head and carried him off to Mount Tabor. 4: 3. 2008 © 1980 SAGE Publications. Jesus replied that as man he must obey God and his word (Mt.the triumph of Christ infernal powers. Lk. within the act and circumof Jesus’ historical baptism. Best.son of man&dquo. Daniel’s exposition to Nebuchadnezzar of the mystery of the tree vision (Dan. after his temptation in the desert. Similarly Jesus.. so that they perish. Now Ezekiel is the one who is called &dquo. Dan. Later Nebuchadnezzar. 4:1-13. 1:51. p. proclaimed the kingdom of God (Dan. 4:4. There are also overtones of such an aura in the narratives themselves and in their contexts. Downloaded from http://jnt.

however. 66 65 Morna D.. 47. to humiliation. over suffering65 death. Our phenomenon cannot be ascribed to the tendentiousness of the source authors. 1967. p. In the Gospel sources (Q.. Jn.64 The ance than in phenomena the title we have noted give a some content and significwas to by pointing to its background :person who a) b) the apocalyptic Son of Man. the Wisdom Son of Man. 2008 © 1980 SAGE Publications.sagepub. Borsch and others have shown. we should probably add that he did so from the very beginning of his ministry. the emphasis of Montreal.. Mk. multiple attestation for it (Q. It is a self-designation.65 Were these possibilities realized historically in the awareof Jesus himself and of his contemporaries? Do the overThese tones in the narratives reflect historical reminiscences? questions would warrant a separate treatment on their own account.Son of Man&dquo. These sources do not appear to be concerned to present a Son of Man christology. The Son of Man in Mark. to one supernatural to subject God. cit. that they must be titular. In the light of the links we have studied here. The Son of Man title occurs virtually nowhere else c) sayings of Jesus.) the title &dquo..).66 yet having dominion that Jesus himself linked these &dquo. Yet they are also self-designatory. Vermes and others have said these are generative or substitutes for "I".com by Feliz Delgado on May 31. Heb. cit. appears in a matter of fact way as a self-designation of Jesus. and even to creation.two of the phrase&dquo. Hooker. and only after Jesus has first been presented as Son of God.. This makes it unlikely Jesus would use the title to refer to anyone else. Here I shall restrict myself to pointing out ness a) b) The We have phenomenon we have noted is not limited to one source. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. destined to rule. Bultmann. Jeremias. Ibid. op. but may we not argue equally well that this title cannot be both a self-designation and a designation for another? We know that the humiliation sayings refer to Jesus himself. p. Downloaded from http://jnt. op. Mk. 67 Bowker.. All rights reserved. 39). Bowker has suggested 67 major Biblical senses argued that it cannot be both a title generic term (Borsch. Ev. Cf. even in the exaltBorsch and others have and a 64 ation passages. Jn. .

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