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Ana Bucchia, Germán Manríqueza,b, Thomas Püschelc
Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Chile – Santiago,
Stgo: 7800284, Ñuñoa, Santiago, Chile.
Programa de Genética Humana, I.C.B.M. School of Medicine, University of Chile- Santiago,
Stgo: 8380453. Santiago, Chile.
Centre for Anatomical and Human Sciences, Hull York Medical School, University of York,
York, UK. Heslington, York YO10 5DD Keywords: Pre-Hispanic Atacama, Geometric morphometrics, multiple correspondence analysis. Number of pages: 24. Number of Figures: 5. Number of Tables: 4. Number of Graphs: 3. Bibliography: 36 references Abbreviated Title: Social Role of Artificial Cranial Deformation Corresponding Author: Germán Manríquez. Address: . Telephone: . E-mail address:
Grant Sponsorship: Proyecto Anillo ACT-96, Programa de Investigación Asociativa, Conicyt, Chile
ABSTRACT. Various explanations have been put forward to account for artificial cranial deformation (ACD) in South America. For the Atacama area (Northern Chile), some studies have concluded that was used to create a communal identity that could serve to resist, or to form alliances with, different outside sites (Inter Site Distinction hypothesis, this work). Other studies postulate that there existed a certain relationship between ACD and the social status and gender of individuals within the community (Intra Site Distinction hypothesis, this work). However, the methods used to arrive at the above conclusions have significant limitations. Studies of cranial shape variation have relied mainly on typological methods which reduce the great variability of artificial cranial shapes down to a few deformation styles. Moreover, the archaeological contexts to which said deformation categories have been associated have also been simplified, because all of these studies analyze only a part of the grave goods. In the present work we use a quantitative multivariate approach to assess the relationship between cranial morphology and grave goods diversity. We studied the deformation patterns of populations settled in northen Chile during the Formative (3500-1600 B.P) and Late Intermediate (950-500 B.P.) Periods. We used X-rays of 216 individuals belonging to 7 archaeological sites and, when possible, they were correlated with the corresponding funerary context. The results indicate that cranial morphology do not correlate with social identity, but with the networks of interaction among the sites. These results support the Inter Site hypothesis as opposed to the Intra Site one.
2006). by using different deforming devices during the first years of post natal life (Manríquez et al. classifying skulls in a priori categories defined mostly by eyeballing (e.Artificial cranial deformation is a cultural practice of corporal modification worldwide distributed (Dembo and Imbelloni 1938. Weiss. used to denote the social position of an individual or site within society (Munizaga 1987. 1969). Schijman 2005). typological approach. as members of another ethnic group (Barth. Dembo and Imbelloni 1938. therefore it was used as a social adscription sign to distinguish between different sites of the region (Torres-Rouff 2002. 2007 and 2008) and ii) ACD was a symbol of intra site identity. Perez 2007). These answers certainly depend on the specific cultural history of each site under study. 1962). Although several causal explanations for ACD have been proposed. In the South Central Andes ACD appears early in the archaeological record (Munizaga. both refer to social identity in two different levels. Weiss 1962) showing high demographic frequencies among pre Hispanic South American populations (Dingwall 1931. As we see these hypotheses. Its main effect is the permanent modification of the normal pattern of growth and development of the skull. 2007). 1980) and spans in Northern Chile for around 4000 years (Munizaga. 1980 and 1987). Traditionally ACD has been studied from a descriptive. Two main explanations have been proposed to elucidate the origin of this practice in this area: i) ACD was an Inter Site identity symbol. Although interlandmark and angular measurements have been also introduced for 3 .g. the first refers to ethnicity or the categories of ascription and identification by the individuals of a group and a dichotomization of others as strangers. The second hypothesis is related to a status differentiation among individuals of a same site. the question about why humans deformed skull vaults remains still open (Gerszten and Gerszten 1995. Torres-Rouff.
Pérez.classificatory purposes (i. it is considered the driest desert in the world. Calama. Falkenburger. this methodology has several limitations: i) the reduction of the total morphological variance of the skulls into a discrete and limited number of categories that supposedly are able to describe without any drawbacks the morphological continuum of craniofacial variation. due to the high subjectivity of the method and the lack of well defined classification criteria.e. As compared with traditional morphometrics. 3. they did not have any significative impact on the later research of ACD. 2009). San Pedro de Atacama. the absence of an appropriate mathematical background to separate shape and size components of variation led the application of geometric morphometrics to analyze ACD (Frieß and Baylac.000-1. The Atacama Desert. some researchers have applied linear morphometrics to classify ACD by applying multivariate statistics.850 B. extends over 3500 km.P. 2007 and Pérez et al. Despite the presence of scarce fertile and verdant oases in this region (e. it is based in a coherent and well developed statistical theory of shape and allows a direct visualization of the patterns of shape variation (Slice.) by agro pastoralist sites passing through strong processes of cultural influence and 4 . 1938. Despite the fact that these methodologies increase objectivity and describe in a better way the subtleties of morphological variation. Pica). This severe environment has been the scenario of a long and successful history of settlement. the area of this study. 2006. Numerous archaeological evidences demonstrate that oases has been occupied since the Formative period (ca. between the 15°S and 26° S. In order to overcome some of these limitations. Manríquez et al. 2007). 1924). Despite the straightforwardness and wide application of this approach. Imbelloni. and ii) the difficulty to compare the results obtained by different researchers.g. 2003. 2011.
These high ACD frequencies in the prehistoric populations from Northern Chile.P. Associations between ACD patterns and differential funerary goods were established applying a multiple correspondence analysis. MATERIAL The total sample was composed by 203 skull radiographies (aligned according to the Frankfurt plane) from northern Chile archaeological sites of the Formative and Late Intermediate periods (Table 1). 2007).P. These radiographic records are from northern Chile archaeological sites of the Formative and Late Intermediate periods (Table 1) and are housed in the Program of Human 5 . during Late Intermediate period this area has been characterized by the development of regional identity traits divided in traditional siteing areas (ayllus). 1. The last prehistoric stage of Atacama Desert populations corresponds to the Late period (550-600 B. Middle Loa Basin) (González and Westfall 2006. state the problem about the possible motivations underlying this body modification practice. and is characterized by the arrival of the Inca culture and its decline and ending because of the Spaniards invasion. Archaeological sites from the region show ACD frequencies from 50% on average (SPA oases) to even 90% (Chorrillos cemetery. Intra Site identity hypotheses). In order to address two possible explanations for this question (Inter Site vs.exchange with the Tiwanaku culture during the Middle period (ca. Following these periods.) (Berenguer and Dauelsberg 1989). which make it possible to retain all the available information of grave goods.550-950 B. Torres-Rouff. 1.). ACD patterns from different regions were compared synchronically and diachronically by means of standard geometric morphometrics techniques.
These radiographies correspond to four geographic areas (Fig. with a 2 m target film (Portable Geo Ray II X Ray system) distance. Figure 1. the closure of the spheno occipital synchondrosis and/or third molar final eruption were used (Hillson. archaeological information from the graves was included to test the Intra Site hypothesis. 1): San Pedro de Atacama. Later these radiographic plates were digitized using an Epson Expression 10000 XL scanner (300 pp resolution). Only well-preserved adult skulls were used. 1996). Faculty of Medicine. Table 1. Superior Loa.Genetics. As adulthood criterion. 6 . 2. Besides this radiographic record. Middle Loa and Arica (This last region was incorporated in order to test the Inter Site hypothesis). Map showing the approximate location of sites. ICBM. The remaining archaeological sites did not have available funerary context information. METHOD The radiographs were taken using tube voltage of 60 Kv. This information was obtained from the fieldwork report of the Regimiento Chorrillos archaeological excavation and from the field logs of Tchecar and Catarpe 2 sites written by Le Paige. University of Chile. 2 mA and exposure time was of 2 seconds. during his surveys and excavations in San Pedro de Atacama Oases.
ACD classification were corroborated using a cross validated discriminant analysis and a Hotelling’s T2 test evaluating. Geometric morphometric and statistical analyses were carried out in MorphoJ (Klingenberg. This qualitative data set was examined carrying out a multiple correspondence analysis 7 .1 Intra Site hypothesis testing: Explorative analyses were carried out using the frequency data from the funerary contexts. 1991). Table 2. After this first step.16 v. 2001). Then. mainly consisting in three steps: a) collecting primary data through the acquisition of Cartesian coordinates. we analyze again those skulls that were incorrectly classed according the discriminant function. and c) the multivariate statistical analysis of the shape variables. the level of matching with the a priori classification and the significance of the differences between sites multivariate means. Landmark coordinates were collected using TPSdig 2. On each skull 12 landmarks were digitized (Table 2). b) obtaining variables describing shape change (shape components) after a generalized Procrustes analysis. 2010). and Past (Hammer. 2011). This branch of shape analysis has been usually understood as the quantitative study of shape and its covariates (Bookstein. a standard workflow on Geometric Morphometrics was carried out. software (Rohlf. 2004). 2.Sex and deformation were estimated according to standard bioanthropological techniques based on cranial morphology (Walrath et al. respectively.
Finally. therefore instead of using that information.e. the morphometric distances between all the skulls within each site).e. 8 .(MCA) in Xlstat. and Euclidean (i. The correlation level was assessed after comparing Procrustes (i. In order to statistically test the Intra Site hypothesis. The artefact preservation in the Chorrillos site was not as good as for the other archaeological sites. the MCA distances corresponding to the differences found in grave goods) distance matrices by computing the product moment correlation and the Mantel test statistic (observed Z values compared to their permutational distribution). To establish the resemblance levels between geographic areas. we carried out another Mantel test using Procrustes distance matrices and the number of funerary goods. the spatial distribution of the graves within the cemetery was employed. geographic origin.e. Due to the absence of this information for the Chorrillos site. Pairwise Hotelling’s T2 tests with Bonferroni correction were applied to test for significant comparisons and a cross validated discriminant analysis was performed to the define matching level between ACD and the different classification criteria (i. Mahalanobis distances were calculated for the deformed and non deformed skulls. This technique is a data reduction method that generates a reduced number of new variables that maximizes the total variance of the sample. a Mantel test was applied on each archaeological site. a spatial distance matrix was used as an alternative.2 Inter Site hypothesis testing: Exploratory analyses were carried out using the landmark coordinates from each skull. In order to represent the ACD shape variation in morphospace the data was analyzed performing a Principal component analysis (PCA). The MCA was applied to Tchecar and Catarpe 2 using their archaeological context information. respectively. 2.
1 Inter Site distinctions The morphological differences between the sites were calculated with the Mahalanobis Distance. RESULTS The results are presented in two sections that correspond to the two hypotheses being tested. In order to estimate morphological affinities between the sites an UPGMA cluster analysis was performed using the Procrustes distances.001). The results of these two tests are set out in Table 3. The first section we describe and compare (both diachronically and synchronically) the deformation patterns in all the sites. p<0. irrespective of the archaeological period. 3. The significance of these distances was evaluated by means of Hotelling's T2 Test with Bonferroni Correction. in each of the sites. shows statistical tests that relate the cranial morphology with the funerary context of each individual. In the case of the deformed individuals. several comparisons showed significant differences. In the case of the non deformed ones. for San Pedro de Atacama. 3. In the second section. which explain approximately 95% of the variance in each case. 9 .chronological period). we considered the first 13 principal components. which shows that no significant differences were found among the non deformed individuals. the Chorrillos site being the one with the most different deformation pattern. regardless of the site. The diachronic comparisons of this test show that. These distances were estimated separately for the sites of deformed and non deformed individuals. there were no significant differences between the deformed individuals in any of the sites (Hotelling's T2 test. while for the deformed individuals we considered 12 components.
UPGMA tree based on the geometric morphometrics distance (Procrustes distances) between the consensuses configurations of the sample used in this study. Figure 3. Figure 2. This result is consistent with the low percentage of skulls correctly assigned in the cross validation table (Table 4). 3) being this latter greater than the distribution areas shared with other sites. Table 4. In this latter period there was greater similarity between ACD in the Chunchuri site (Middle Loa Basin) and the sites at San Pedro de Atacama. 2). Chorrillos clustered with Playa Miller 7. 10 . in the Loa River basin there were statistically significant differences in the morphology of deformed skulls between the Formative and the Late Intermediate Period.Table 3. Unlike San Pedro de Atacama. the closest Mahalanobis distance compared to the other sites (Table 3). In the UPGMA tree constructed from the matrix of the sites’ mean Procrustes distances (Fig. and the shared distribution area in the PCA graphic (Fig.
respectively the 36. the first two dimensions explain. For Catarpe 2. skulls that are more erected with respect to the Frankfurt plane are located further to the right of the graph. skulls located further to the right along the X axis have a greater height of the cranial vault and a smaller anteroposterior distance. they are the sites most distant from each other along the first dimension (X axis).2 Intra Site distinctions The following section shows the multiple correspondence graphics for Catarpe 2 and Tchecar. The graph shows that the biggest differences between individuals did not correspond to the presence or absence of grave goods. 3. In other words.010 and 0. Morphologically. which explains 30. and especially by the association of these grave goods with others that are also infrequent. in the PCA graphic. These major variances are explained by objects having low frequencies in the graves. for example bows and arrows. while the more oblique skull shapes are located towards the left. textiles. the Tchecar and Chorrillos sites had the highest Mahalanobis distances (Table 3) and. 4).29% of the total variance (Fig. These last three categories and the presence of foreign objects make a large contribution to the first two dimensions at Tchecar.99% and 19.25 out of a possible maximum of 1). 3). but to the presence or absence of specific types of objects in the graves.93% of the total variance (Fig.94% and 19% of the variance in grave goods (Fig. 11 .In these same tests. grave goods as a whole do make some contribution to the variance (the contribution to the first two dimensions ranged between 0. iconographic drug consumption paraphernalia and cucurbits. explaining 35. Nevertheless. 5).
Figure 5. which mean they are indeed associated with grave goods that make a large contribution to the variance. In order to determine whether the main differences in grave goods correspond to grave goods associated with status. we created a priori variables of status in accordance with the definitions given by archaeological literature (i. while high-status individuals had a maximum of 3 of these objects (Es-3). Figure 4 shows that levels Es-2 and Es-3 are located at the extremities of the first two dimensions. This analysis was done for Catarpe 2 (where there was presence of status objects in several of the graves).Figure 4. 1984). metals (Barón and Serracino. and Torres. Individuals in the first (lowest) status level had none of these objects (or categories) (Es-0). 1988. the Mantel test computed between morphological (Procrustes) distances and the Euclidean distances (calculated on the basis of the symmetric graph of the multiple 12 . which means that they do not affect the distribution of grave goods in the tombs. Finally. but not for Tchecar. 1976).e. 1980) and iconographic drug consumption paraphernalia (Llagostera et al. textiles (Murra. These graphics also show that the supplementary variables “sex” and “type of burial” are located near the center of both the X and Y axes..
4. Nor is there a relation between Procrustes distances and the number of objects in the graves. In order to test H2. DISCUSSION To elucidate the role of ACD as an identity marker in Central South Andean pre-Hispanic populations. Similar results were obtained by the Mantel test correlating the Procrustes distances and the quantity of objects in the tombs ( The sample size of Solor 3 was too small to run this test). Although multiple correspondence analysis allows to clearly distinguish the identity of the individuals.1 The relation between ACD and grave goods (H2: Intra Site distinction hypothesis) The analysis of the evidence does not support the Intra-Site hypothesis. produced a non significant correlation (p>0. without discarding any of the 13 . 4.05).correspondence analysis). we performed multivariate tests considering two factors simultaneously: the variability of the grave goods as a whole. We concluded that the social identity of an individual in a site has to be defined by the grave goods as a whole. The results of the Mantel test for the Regimiento Chorrillos site were also not significant. in the present work intra and Inter Site hypotheses were contrasted with grave goods and the ACD patterns of other sites. these differences do not correlate with the shape of the skull (Mantel test). and the continuous variations of cranial shapes in the sites (Procrustes distances). or between Procrustes distances and the location in which the individuals were buried (Regimiento Chorrillos).
but also between them. At both sites. However. unless it has been shown that certain objects contribute very little to the variance of the grave goods. Thus. the cranial shape of the great majority of deformed individuals falls into a continuous range of variations between these two extremes (Fig. comparisons of identity could be made not just within the sites. for Tchecar and Chorrillos). metal objects and iconographic drug consumption paraphernalia. there were two quite different deformation patterns (erect and oblique. as is done by the Dembo and Imbelloni method (1938). as is shown in both Catarpe 2 and Tchecar. 4. which make a big contribution to the variance of the grave goods and to the identity of the individual.objects a priori. which is used in most of the studies of ACD in the South Central Andes. shovels. Although the contribution of the objects to the variance of the grave goods varies from site to site some of the objects have a similar marked influence on the variance. we found certain tools (spindles. 3).2 Deformation patterns and their mutual relations (H1: Inter Site distinction hypothesis) The results of this study indicate that during the two periods in question. making it difficult to assign these skulls a priori into either category. This is in agreement with the observations made by Manríquez et al. axes). Geometric morphometric approach made it possible to maintain the data of all the variations of cranial shapes without having to classify them into a priori typological categories. If future studies were to show that this is a common pattern for different geographically distant sites. (2006). 14 .
1). Chunchuri (same area. Regarding this point it is interesting to mention that the archaeological context at Chorrillos reveals the existence of specialized exchange networks with the coast. The smallest Mahalanobis distance of Chorrillos is with the Arica coastal site Playa Miller 7 (Table 3. it is possible to state that the deformation patterns vary over time in certain areas. The deformation patterns in the sites of the Middle Loa had not previously been compared between themselves or with other areas. the southern Altiplano. So. unlike San Pedro de Atacama. 1989). The archaeological literature has concluded that transformation into a Formative society in northern Chile was marked by interaction networks with foreign sites. 2006). 3). Table 4 and Figure 3). and in lesser extent with the Atacama Plateau and the Norwest Argentina (Muñoz. The results of this study indicate that. San Pedro de Atacama. which is from an equivalent time period.Based on the above data. as shown by the Hotelling T2 test (Table 3) and the principal component graphic (Fig. (Fig. especially with populations coming from the highlands of Altiplano. but located in the coast of the Pacific Ocean at a distance of over 400 kms. different period) is more similar to the sites of San Pedro de Atacama (with which it has no significant differences (Fig. while other areas show no significant changes: in San Pedro de Atacama there is continuity in the deformation patterns between the Formative Period and later periods (end of the Middle and Late Intermediate Periods). the deformation patterns of the human sites living in the Middle Loa vary significantly between the two time periods in question. these interaction networks 15 . 2012). 3and Table 3). Arica and the Altiplano have shown no significant differences (Püschel. and north-western Argentina (González and Westfall. Regarding ACD patterns. It is interesting to note that while Chorrillos has the largest Mahalanobis distances of all the sites.
Briefly. the deformation patterns could be related with ethnic ascriptions and interaction networks between geographically distant sites as has been described in the literature. the literature concludes that (with some local exceptions) there existed an "Atacameño" cultural unit during this period. in regional textile styles (Agüero. On the contrary. 5. which is expressed.of these populations may also explain the resemblance between Arica and Chorrillos ACD patterns. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study do not support the Intra Site Distinction Hypothesis. our results show that ACD patterns vary in relation with interaction networks and superregional identities. which support the Intra Site hypothesis. Further studies should consider large numbers of 16 . they are influenced by deformation patterns of other sites in the interaction network. As for the similarity between Chunchuri and the sites of San Pedro de Atacama during the Late intermediate Period. 2002). This study evidenced the need to represent grave goods and cranial morphologies as objectively and precisely as possible. However. These conclusions support the Inter Site Distinction Hypothesis and are in agreement with previous works (Torres-Rouff. and when they do so. The differences in social identity between individuals of each site were represented in great detail. 2000) and funerary ceramics (Uribe. The deformation patterns may vary over time. for example. 2002). these variations do not correlate with the morphology of the deformed and non deformed skulls. These interaction networks could explain the similarities in the deformation patterns during this period and indicated the importance of San Pedro de Atacama in this common identity.
We also wish to thank Diego Salazar for his guidance and assistance in the archaeological context analysis and Giancarlo Bucchi for his help in writing this text. Véronique Laborde and Aurelie Fort from Musée de l'Homme (Paris) for the access to the bioanthropological collections.) and Becas Chile. P. Chile (G.synchronous archaeological sites over extensive geographical areas. we wish to thanks to Manuel Arturo Torres from Museo R. Programa de Investigación Asociativa. Conicyt-PCHA/2012/73130010 (T. This study was funded by Proyecto Anillo ACT-96. Corporación de Cultura y Turismo (Calama).P. who took the X ray images used in this study. Conicyt. and for his valuable advice. We wish to give special thanks to Juan Carlos Salinas and Alejandro Díaz. where ACD was extensively practiced.). Finally. Gustavo Le Paige. 17 . Acknowledgements. to Bernardo Arriaza from Museo San Miguel de Azapa (Arica) and to Philippe Mennecier. in order to observe relations between deformation patterns and interaction networks in South America. M.
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23 . T-1. The grids represent the magnitude and direction of the variation in the skull form along the X and Y axes of the bivariate graph (RW1 = 30. T-2. The two axes represent the 56. Te: Textile. B: Presence of baskets. spindles.-1 and D. M-1. 1. tie hooks (used to tie bundles to llamas).P. . P: pottery. Caspana with +. Symmetric variable plot of Multiple correspondence analysis for the grave goods at Catarpe 2. Ha: Hats. and several tools in the same grave. Caption Figure 2. Caption Figure 3.29% and RW2 = 17. Relative warp analysis (Principal component analysis and thin plate spline) of all deformed skulls. Gray labels represent the absence of the above grave goods. Tchecar with .93% of the total variance. Chunchuri with and Playa Miller 7 with Caption Figure 4.D. S-0 and S-1: Male and female. respectively.P-2: iconographic and undecorated drug consumption paraphernalia. Light gray labels are supplementary variables. The skulls of Regimiento Chorrillos are represented with . Solor 3 with . Map showing the approximate location of sites. T-3. UPGMA tree based on the geometric morphometrics distance (Procrustes distances) between the consensuses configurations of the sample used in this study. awls.6% of the total variance).Caption Figure 1. M-2: beads and metal ornaments. 2 and 3: Status levels (see below). Bu-1 y E-2: Single and multiple burials. Catarpe with . Cu: Curcubits. T-4 and T-5: bows and arrows. Es-0.
93% of the total variance. The two axes represent the 54. respectively. B: Baskets. T4: bows and arrows. 24 . spindles. Te: textile. Cu: Curcubits. UO: unique object (not found in another graves). T3. T2. Light gray labels are supplementary variables.T1. DP-1 and DP-2: iconographic and undecorated drug consumption paraphernalia. tie hookand and axes. Bu-1 and Bu-2: single and multiple burials. FO: foreign objects.Caption Figure 5. M: beads. Gray labels represent the absence of the above grave goods. Symmetric variable plot of Multiple correspondence analysis for the grave goods at Tchecar. P: Pottery. S-0 and S-1: Male and female.