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HOLY ANGEL UNIVERSITY College of Business and Accountancy Academic Year 2011-2012, 1st Semester

RIDING THE EMOTIONAL ROLLER COASTER A Case Study on Workplace Emotions, Attitudes, and Stress in YORGBEV

Submitted by: CUARTELON, Mark Anthony P. GOMEZ, Korina Lei G. LOYOLA, Ron Errick R. MUNGCAL, Kerrvee A. PANGILINAN, Kenneth L. A-331

Submitted to: QUIZON, Robert Q. September 12, 2011

I.

INTRODUCTION/SUMMARY The presented case, numbered 4.1 and entitled Riding the Emotional Roller Coaster, specifically identified three definite individuals, i.e., Louise Damiani, an oncology nurse at CentraState Healthcare System in Freehold Township, New Jersey; Lisa Salvatore, a charge nurse at Leon S. Peters Burn Center in Fresno, California; and, Anil Shandil, a medic at the 328 th Combat Support Hospital in Fort Douglas, Utah. In the account, each medical staff, stated or implied, was engaged to significant emotion as well as exposed to workrelated stress. Ms. Damiani, as per told, joins with her patients in rejoice and in defeat with a positive outlook, only identifying to her inner consciousness when she is about distant from her customers --- her patients --- placing them atop her priority list at work. She also has constantly created positivity on the bleakness and setback of others. Slightly different is that of Ms. Salvatore, who also understands the emotional weight of her active work duty; however, has not yet fully mastered the form, as her sentiments usually overcome her en route home. Probably the most experienced of the brood is Mr. Shandil, who has been exposed to the medical necessity of war guards. As per defined by his quoted statement on the account, the compassion fatigue on his line of work is rather higher than others. All the same, he has constantly and vigilant up-handed the challenge, going for assignments that require tougher emotion management. Upon skim analysis of the situation of three mentioned individuals, it is therefore foreseen that as their issues differ, their responses also differ. The case aims to shed light on how emotion and stress management vary from one another, the up and down of each and what we think is the most appropriate and most flexible to serve any kind of sudden circumstance.

II.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS Central Problem The three medical staff identified in the case had varying recourse actions in response to the emotional strain, as per stated. It is with thus, that similarly varying means of applying display rules of the organization are constituted. Minor Problem The aforementioned individuals, though similar in job and workplace pro forma, had to deal with conflicting kinds of work-related stresses. It is by this fact that their means of managing these stresses differed from one another.

III.

ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTION LOUISE DAMIANI 1. Maintaining the norm Louise Damiani, as described, is an oncology nurse who acts the appropriate emotions as part of her professional role. She is engaged in such emotional labor through surface acting by showing empathic behaviors toward the patient. She has mastered the skill of creating positive emotions in others. However, there is an absence of consistent emotional and cognitive reactions before and during her interactions with the patient. As stated in the case, she doesnt let her negative emotions surface until she gets into her car and heads home. She works in accordance with the required displays of her job by learning not to bring those emotions up and by focusing on the patient, which she considers as her priority. However, her true emotions are maintained, thus, still experiencing the effect of stress. She should employ herself in deepacting by changing her emotions into required one. Through this, the effect could be turned into eustress, which will greatly reduce the negative effect of stress and increase the sense of personal satisfaction. This would be a good work habit in managing stress from her job. 2. Moving on to greener pastures As mentioned in the case, she has mastered the skill of creating positive emotions in others, especially with her patients. This is a notable emotional labor, which has a positive effect on the organization, despite the true emotions of Ms. Damiani. Yet, if the job results to stress that may threaten her, she may probably ask for a departmental transfer, where she could work into a less exposed cancer environment. This will help her withdraw from the emotional stress in her past workplace setting. And this will give her a more satisfying experience with her job after considering the stressor that affects her emotion before. LISA SALVATORE 1. Faking in good faith It is evident in the case that Lisa is experiencing emotional dissonance, a mismatch between the true and required emotions. Also, she engages in surface acting as she continues to hold internal feelings that are different from what her job requires. The best solution to these problems is for her to engage in deep acting where she will align her true emotions to the emotions required by her tough work. By doing such, she will no longer experience emotional dissonance. It was mentioned in the case that she

cries on her way home. She should try to manage her work-related stress by receiving social support from her fellow nurses, family and friends as such support will help her to build and improve her resilience. Such resilience will make her adapt and respond more effectively to her workrelated stresses. 2. Taking the last option The next possible solution for Lisas problem is for her to ask for a reassignment. Instead of dealing with patients suffering from burns, she may ask the management to transfer her to one of the less strenuous departments of the hospital. After the transfer, the working conditions would probably be of lesser gravity than those of with the patients suffering from burns. Such actually constitutes withdrawing from the stressor. She should be assigned to a job that fit her competencies and values. And most importantly, she should be assigned to a job that she can handle without being too emotional. ANIL SHANDIL 1. Continuing with utmost care Of the three medical staff, only Shandil was able to engage in deep acting. He has to continue such so that he will not experience emotional dissonance. Also, this emotional labor may ultimately lead to emotional exhaustion and job burnout overtime that it why it is very important for him to manage the stresses he experiences. Having volunteered for a more challenging assignment, though he is not yet experiencing compassion fatigue, the risk of giving in to it is high as he is continually exposed to a lot of traumatic medical cases. To avoid such risks, he should not work longer than he can manage. By working for reasonable hours in a day, he will be able to avoid the stresses from work overload. 2. Matching the laid-out expectation His new assignment, which is more challenging than his previous job, requires a high degree of emotional intelligence. As he is now part of the group who treats and takes care of the enemies of his country, he should be able to manage his own emotions well, that is, self-management. But before he can manage his own emotions, he should first know himself, that is, self-awareness. To be able to deal with his patients well, he has to be aware of the pain they feel; he has to be empathic to them, that is, social awareness. Finally, so that he can manage the emotions of his patients, he has to have high levels of self-awareness, self-management and social awareness; that is, relationship management.

IV.

ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTION LOUISE DAMIANI 1. Maintaining the norm For many within the nursing profession, the work role involves a great deal of emotional work or 'emotional labor'. Such emotional work can be performed through 'surface acting' in which the individual simply feigns an appropriate emotion, or through 'deep acting' in which they actually try to feel the required emotion. In the case, Louise Damiani is engaged in surface acting. This is because she gives in to the negative emotions upon going home. The best solution to this is for her to engage in deep acting. If she will change her emotions to match those required by her work, no negative emotions will build up and surface when she goes home. In view of the fact that she continues to hold internal feelings that are different from what she shows to the patients, she experiences emotional dissonance. She feels uneasy because her emotional experience as a nurse is a threat to her identity as a person. And because of the mismatch between the display rules and her true emotions, she is more prone to stress, job burnout and psychological separation from self. In essence, stress can be positive. Such positive stress is called eustress and this is necessary because it activates and motivates people to achieve goals, change their environments, and succeed in lifes challenges. At present, the negative emotions that spring from her work create distress. She should try to turn that distress into eustress. The good thing about her is that she has mastered the skill of creating positive emotions in others. She should try to create positive emotions for herself and by doing so, her distress will turn to eustress. Making her patients happy also boosts her morale as a nurse. She should continue to make her patients feel positive so that she will also be personally fulfilled and satisfied. 2. Moving on to greener pastures When both surface and deep acting are performed well by the employees, the organization will benefit from it. But the condition of the employees should also be considered in determining what really benefits the organization without sacrificing employee well-being. If it so happens that Ms. Damiani is not really able to employ deep acting as she continues to hold internal feelings and if such results in distress, she should probably ask for a departmental transfer. Distress has a lot of negative consequences and they could be avoided by withdrawing from the stressor. She should be transferred to a different department in the hospital where she can handle and manage her work more effectively than in the oncology department. She can also have a few weeks of vacation

every now and then so that she can recover from the stresses of her job and reenergize for future challenges. LISA SALVATORE 1. Faking in good faith Emotional labor is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it can facilitate task performance by regulating interactions and precluding interpersonal problems. On the other hand, it can impair performance by priming expectations of good service that cannot be met. In the case, it is clear that Lisas emotional labor is only on the level of surface acting. The estrangement between herself and her work role is presented in the form of emotional dissonance, which can be seen as a result of surface acting. Such gap between felt emotions and expressed emotions alienates her from her work. This is harmful when it comes at her expense because she might blame herself for displaying feigned emotions and experiencing feelings of inconsistency. The best way to solve this is for her emotional labor to be on the level of deep acting. When her own emotions do not fit the situation, she should use her training or past experience to work up the appropriate emotions. In surface acting, emotions are changed from the outside in whereas emotions are changed from the inside out in deep acting. By doing this, she will no longer experience the negative consequences that come with surface acting, such as feelings of inconsistency and emotional dissonance. Stress and trauma come with her job and cannot really be avoided in any work setting. But she can manage her stresses in a way that they do not affect her negatively. The best way to do this is by seeking and receiving social support. This occurs when co-workers, supervisors, family members, friends, and others provide informational and emotional support to buffer her stress experience. This improves her resilience, particularly her optimism and self-confidence, because support makes her feel valued and worthy. She has to know that she is doing the right thing and that she is able to help a lot of patients and this can be done by receiving support from the people in her workplace and from her family and friends. Such will generate positive emotions and she will feel good about herself. Her resilience will develop and she will gain a defense against the stresses from her work. 2. Taking the last option Surface acting leads to emotional dissonance. And this estrangement of oneself ultimately leads to negative consequences such as depression and low self-efficacy. The mismatch between true and required emotions causes less personal problems but more work-related problems. Since Lisa has not internalized the display rules, she is more likely to be a poor performer because she might comply only when someone is monitoring

her. That can be a form of person-role conflict. And this conflict results to lower level of job satisfaction, leads to emotional exhaustion and is a clear threat to employee well-being. If this is the case, she should ask for a reassignment to a department in the organization where there is a workload of lesser gravity and where surface acting can suffice. The stress she gets from work can be managed by withdrawing from the stressor. She should ask for a reassignment to a job that she can handle and that better fits her values and competencies. Also, she should unwind from time to time. She should have days of relaxation, vacation and recreation so she can withdraw temporarily from the stressor. ANIL SHANDIL 1. Continuing with utmost care Employers and employees share a set of expectations about the nature of emotions that should be displayed during employee-customer interaction. These norms are known as display rules, which are shared expectations about which emotions ought to be expressed and which ought to be disguised. Medics are expected to act empathic and concerned to patients. They are also expected to show positive emotions so as to generate positive emotions in the patients. In the case, Anil engages in deep acting as he is able to change his true emotions into the display rules of the organization. He has to continue deep acting so as not to generate negative emotions from emotional dissonance that will lead to distress, job burnout, emotional exhaustion and lower personal satisfaction. In his more challenging work environment, there is a higher risk of compassion fatigue because of his constant exposure to traumatic medical cases. Compassion fatigue is also known as secondary traumatic stress disorder. One of its main symptoms is a decreasing ability to feel compassion for others. It is common among trauma victims and individuals that work directly with trauma victims, like Anil. This risk of burnout can be avoided by Shandil by working for reasonable hours. By working for a reasonable time in a day, he has the time to withdraw from the stressor to relax and reenergize for the next day. Also by working for enough hours, he is avoiding work overload and the stresses that come with it. Work overload is working more hours and more intensely during those hours than they can reasonably manage. If he works more than he can handle, he is on the risk of experiencing job burnout. Working for reasonable hours and withdrawing from the stressor can help him avoid compassion fatigue. 2. Matching the laid-out expectation Emotional intelligence (EI) includes a set of abilities to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason

with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and others. There are four dimensions of EI self-awareness and social awareness represent the recognition of emotions in oneself and others, while self-management and relationship management represent the regulation of emotions in oneself and others. Anils new and more challenging work assignment requires a high level of emotional intelligence. First, Anil should be conscious of his own emotions, that is, self-awareness. He has to know which emotions he is feeling and the reasons for this. He actually feels that he should not look after Iraqi detainees simply for the reason that they are enemies and that they have hurt a lot of his fellow Americans. He should have an accurate self-assessment. He can reflect, knowing that by not showing care and compassion for the detainees, he is actually doing the same thing as the detainees did the never-ending desire for revenge and retaliation. Second, Anil should be able to control his emotions and impulses and adapt to the circumstances, that is, self-regulation. He has to control himself by keeping the desires for retaliation at bay or totally eradicate them. He has to manage his impulsive feelings and the distressing emotions that come with them. He should stay composed, positive and unflappable especially in his new work assignment where everyday seems to be trying moments. He should act ethically and above reproach. Third, Anil should be able to sense, understand and react to others emotions. He should be attentive to emotional cues and listen well to the detainees. He should show sensitivity and understand others perspectives and help his patients based on their needs and feelings. He should also respect and relate well to the Iraqi detainees who have a way of living that is different from his. Lastly, he should have high levels of self-awareness, self-management and social awareness to have relationship management. Relationship management, the highest in the hierarchy, involves managing other peoples emotions. This is the hardest to develop as it requires the three below it but Anil should aim for this because it is only with relationship management that the conflict between him and the detainees can be solved. As he is able to completely understand his patients, the conflict they feel lessens and lessens overtime. Bonds with the detainees develop and ultimately, they become friends.

V.

RECOMMENDATION After careful analysis and study on each pair of alternatives cited and explained on each identified medical staff, our team has concluded to select the following as our particular recommendations per individual, of which the reasons are attached. LOUISE DAMIANI & LISA SALVATORE 1. Maintaining the norm & faking in good faith Though it cost Ms. Damiani and Ms. Salvatore a heavier amount of emotional labor as it is surface acting, it does mean that it is particularly taxing on their part. As per said, both are utilizing in their daily work what we could consider as surface acting, which generally attributes to negative emotions. Specifically, it results to an unsound work experience for them. This distress that they live through their work is hopefully transformed into eustress to build a healthier work performance. Thus, we strongly suggest for them to take a shot on deep acting to prevent the further formation of these negative emotions, before contemplating or even deciding on a departmental transfer. This corrective suggestion that they may act upon would eventually help them improve their ability to alter their true emotions and to cope easier with their work environment.

ANIL SHANDIL 1. Matching with laid-out expectations Though both alternatives presented in our analysis are positive and wouldbe beneficial to Mr. Shandil, we highly recommend him to take the second option. Basically, the second one would fit better to his upcoming, more challenging work responsibility, compared to the first option which is deep acting, considered as a part of emotional intelligence. This would help him to be aware of himself by knowing and recognizing more his true emotions, to have control over his feelings and to be adaptive with the environment by being composed in any situation, to be sensitive on his patients by understanding and responding to their needs, and to have a high level of relationship management by managing other peoples emotions. With these, Mr. Shandil would be able to completely appreciate the detainees and the conflict between them would eventually be solved.

VI.

FALLBACK (PLAN B) If, for some sound reason, the alternatives we have deemed more efficient, thus worthy to be recommended, failed to be effective, we suggest these fallbacks. LOUISE DAMIANI & LISA SALVATORE 1. Moving on to greener pastures & taking the last option In the case that the preceding alternative failed, it concretizes the judgment that both Ms. Damiani and Ms. Salvatore can only engage on surface acting. If this is so, it is recommended for them to consider being transferred or reassigned to another department where the emotional strain is less grave to save them from the emotional distress brought about by their work environment. This action would actually alleviate or probably eliminate the negative emotions that they faced before from their previous workplace.

ANIL SHANDIL 1. Continuing with utmost care If the first choice is deemed ineffective and impractical on his new job, he should consider continuing deep acting. This is if he finds deep acting satisfying enough to manage his emotional strain, he needs not consider complicating the entire situation. Also, if from his perspective, deep acting is already effective in his part to perform his duties healthily, he may continue doing well on his job and endure creating positive emotions throughout his work experience.