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APedagogical Approach to ICT Integration in English Language Teaching

Mrs. K.N.Deshmukh
Shri Datta Meghe Polytechnic, Wanadongri, Nagpur

Abstract: The future of technology in English Language Teaching and Learning is quite promising. It has given rise
to new era of innovative teaching methods. It would be a waste of valuable resources if pedagogy does not take
advantage of the technologies available. The pedagogical tools provided by technology can enable language
teachers and learners to quickly reach new goals. The ultimate maturity of Information Communication Technology
(ICT) could make English as a Second Language teaching, more effective and spontaneous.
This research paper attempts to examine the pedagogical approaches for English language teaching with ICT.
Teachers
need to take active roles in exploring how to utili:e available technologies to provide optimal help to English
Language learning students to improve their LSRW skills.
Interactive Multimedia Environments
Keywords: Pedagogical tools, ICT, LSRW(Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing), Interactive Multimedia
Environments, ICT-based activity,
Introduction
st
21 century is the age oI globalization and is important to grasp on various Ioreign languages where
English language comes Iirst. Its signiIicance continues to grow, Iuelled, partially by the internet.
Technological innovations have gone hand in hand with the growth oI English and are changing the way in
which we communicate. It is Iair to assert that the growth oI the internet has Iacilitated the growth oI the
English language.
There is growing concern about the level oI English proIiciency at the workplace. II it is leIt unchecked,
it could lead to the country losing its competitiveness especially in the industry and technical Iields. The
learners Irom all the disciplines need communicative competence to maintain its competitive edge in all
aspects oI our economic environment such as administration, education, trade or Iinance
In the last Iewyears there has been an important reIorm in the syllabus oI the education system and in
the educational role oI teachers who have had to learn to integrate ICTin their teaching practices. There is no
single most excellent way oI teaching ESL (English as a Second Language). ELT (English Language
Teaching) practitioners have put into practice a great deal oI diverse activities to keep themselves up-to-date
and enhance their teaching. ICThas proved its potential by providing various techniques to teach and learn
English language. The impact oI ICT is observed on both, at pedagogical level and in the structure oI the
current educative system.
ELTin Multimedia Environments
The ubiquity oI technology cannot be denied. It has inIused modiIications in the pedagogy oI teaching
methodologies. The classroom environment oI today is totally diIIerent Irom that oI yesteryears'
classrooms. The need oI today's classroom is catered by technology. In traditional classrooms, English
language learning was not less than mechanical memorization. None oI these traditional manners are bad or
damaging the students. In Iact, till date they are proving to be useIul also. But the process oI developing
The
teachers own pedagogical beliefs and values play an important part in shaping technology-mediated learning
opportunities. The use of ICT requires a new approach to pedagogy, lesson planning and the curriculum.
Teachers skills to organi:e and stimulate the ICT-based
activity can be equally effective to both the whole-class and individual work. It is the need of hour that teachers should
modify their pedagogical knowledge for teaching English language in . We
knowthat to teach is to learn again.
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English language as a skill was hampered due to lecturing and rote learning. In addition, exam-oriented
cultures exerted a harmIul eIIect on the learners' overall development including their development oI
creative and critical thinking abilities. ICTcan be utilized by capable and creative ELTpractitioners to make
learning more interesting, motivating, stimulating, and meaningIul to the ELL. Use oI ICTin ELTcan be a
whole-class activity where teacher can use Projector, Smart board, head projectors, interactive boards, i-
pads, blogs, computers, the internet, video cameras, PA-system (PublicAddress system), scanners, printers,
video conIerencing, E-mails and many more. Whereas it can be an individual activity in which a well
equipped Language Laboratory is necessary. The learners can work at their own pace using electronic tools.
Teacher can assist the weaker students individually. These tools can enhance the eIIect oI teaching and also
support the changes to the way students are learning. ICT can Ioster the need oI ELLby involving them in
reIlective learning and equipping them with the tools necessary to develop their oral as well as written
proIiciency oI the English language. On the other hand, the instrumentality oI ICT cannot be denied in
eliminating the drawback oI traditional method; that it ignores the development oI oral proIiciency oI the
learners. The institute where the Spoken English is practiced individually in Language Laboratory supports
the viability oI ICT as a supportive pedagogical tool across curriculum. Findings have shown that schools
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which have very good ICTresources achieved better results in English than schools with poor ICT.
ICT APedagogical Tool
Pedagogy is a generic Iorm oI knowledge that is involved in all issues oI student learning, classroom
management, lesson plan development and implementation, and student evaluation. It includes knowledge
about techniques or methods to be used in the classroom; the nature oI the target audience; and strategies Ior
evaluating student understanding. Ateacher with deep pedagogical knowledge understands how students
construct knowledge, acquire skills, and develop habits oI mind and positive dispositions toward learning.
It is the Iact that technologies are here to stay. Due to rapidity in digital evolution, the technology has
become an inseparable part oI knowledge oI pedagogy and content. The teachers have to shiIt their Iocus to
a very diIIerent context Irom earlier conceptualizations oI knowledge, in which technologies were
standardized and relatively stable.
Teaching with technology requires an understanding oI the representation oI concepts using
technologies; pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content;
knowledge oI what makes concepts diIIicult or easy to learn and howtechnology can help redress some oI
the problems that students Iace; knowledge oI students' prior knowledge and theories oI epistemology; and
knowledge oI how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge and to develop new
epistemologies or strengthen old ones. Technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK) is knowledge oI the
existence, components, and capabilities oI various technologies as they are used in teaching and learning
settings, and conversely, knowing how teaching might help to achieve desired eIIect as the result oI using
particular technologies.
There are two main aspects where ICTis used as a tool Ior teaching English and English is taught via ICT.
Both the aspects demand modiIication in teacher's pedagogical approach. An eIIective blend oI these two
methodologies can justiIy the eIIicacy oI using wide range oI ICT application. ELT practitioners are
expected to teach content knowledge using pragmatic pedagogical method in indissoluble conjunction with
ICTskills and knowledge. The quality use oI ICTand the use with a pedagogical incentive become urgency
where English material should be the only Iocus and ICTIacilities become pedagogical and environmental
agent. Exclusive use oI ICTas a tool demand lot oI preparation on teacher's part.

Pedagogical Reasoning forICTintegration
1. To cultivate students' interest in Study.

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2. To promote students' communication capacity.


3. To widen students' knowledge to gain an insightIul understanding to Western culture.
4. To improve teaching eIIect.
5. To improve interaction between teacher and student.
6. To provide language environment.
7. To provide Ilexibility to course content.
Bower, Hedberg and Kuswara (2010) a Iramework Ior technology learning design, suggesting Iour
types oI online pedagogies transmissive , dialogic, constructionist and co-constructive. These
pedagogies are categorized according to their degree oI production and collaboration.
The transmissive pedagogical approach ( learning from ICT ) is based on inIormation delivery
approaches with inIormation broadcast and made available to learners.
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The dialogic, constructionist and co-constructive pedagogies, (to learn withICT)
provide opportunities to students Ior interaction and construction.
According to Melhuish (2008), the social, collaborative nature oI Web 2.0 oIIers English teachers and
their students' newopportunities to re-examine howthe language could be taught and learnt via such online
social platIorms. The web eIIectively helps to develop students' personal voices by providing them with
platIorms Ior digital selI-expression. This development is harder to achieve through conventional written
assignments. This approach provides a much wider readership with more valid and authentic writer-reader
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relationships than that between students and teachers.
Mullamaa (2010) shared the experience in using an e-learning environment Ior the teaching oI English.
The Iocus was to support student-centered learning to increase student motivation, individualisation and
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cooperation in creating students' own learning digital materials.
Implications of Pedagogical Motive of ICTon ELLand ELT
1. The use oI ICT promotes independent learning which allowstudents to reinIorce their learning
through repeated exercises.
2. It provides the teacher with a quick and accurate overviewoI the students' understanding
3. OI the basic content knowledge taught. Teachers can also provide instantaneous Ieedback On
learners' responses.
4. The online quizzes can provide Ior a more transmissive pedagogical approach.
5. Selected use oI the quiz module can reinIorce the grammar items taught in class.
6. Lessons can be made interesting and engaging.
7. Stimulate and Ioster learners' enjoyment to learn a language.
8. Cater Ior the development oI learners' intercultural awareness.
9. Achieve the phased introduction oI the Iour skills.
10. Introduce increased cognitive and linguistic demands on children and cater Ior the
development oI learners' meta-linguistic awareness.
ICTThreats
1. Teachers' attitudes towards ICTintegration in English Language Class.
2. Feeling oI insecurity Ior not possessing the necessary training.
3. The rigidness oI the educational system.
4. Non availability oI soItware in the market which can adapt to the pedagogical needs.
5. The impediments to completing the objectives oI the English syllabus due to the high number oI
students per class.
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6. Major means may be replaced by the assisting one.


7. Loss oI speaking communication.
8. Students' eagerness, willingness and technological expertise.
9. The restriction oI students' thinking potential. Abstract thinking replaced by imaginable thinking.
Suggestions to overcome ICT-threats
The Internet is a valuable tool Ior English teaching. The use oI ICT must always be supported by clear
linguistic and pedagogical goals which teachers must communicate to their learners. It is the responsibility
oI the teacher to harness the motivational qualities oI the ICT-tools to enhance students' cognitive and
attitudinal outcomes. The instructors have to develop the right ways oI using the Internet based on general
goals, teaching style and approach, an analysis oI students' needs, and the technological tools at hand. Use oI
ICT is Ior educational beneIits. So do not underestimate the complexity oI using computers in ESL
classroom. Web materials should be exploited only when they have something to contribute to traditional
teaching methods or when they have considerable advantages over traditional methods.
FewIacts to be remembered:
The ComputerScreen can't substitute the blackboard.
PowerPoint cannot take the place of student's thinking and practices.
Traditional teaching instruments and devices should not be overlooked.
Multimedia Technology should not be overused.
Machine can neverreplace man (teacher) togetherthey can do wonders.
Teachers' excellence in interpretation and discussion can empowerthe learners.
Teachers' instructional belieIs have a strong impact on teaching and learning.
Instructor should keep ready web-learning material to overcome Ieeling oI insecurity.
An Appeal to All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) and Maharashtra State Board of
Technical Education
The educational theory Irom an instructivist transmission approach to constructivist and
socio-cultural theories oI learning, demands more adapted teacher training programs, both technical and
pedagogical. Hence Iollowing is an appeal to AICTE and MSBTE:
To provide training in 'Developing OnlineTeaching Skills (DOTS).
Increase AICTE's Iunding to create speciIic language classrooms, with loudspeakers, microphones
and appropriate soundprooIing at the institute level.
To provide Iormal training Ior developing teachers' cognitive ICT-related capabilities oI problem
solving and inIormation processing.
To develop an instructional manual to guide teachers about what to teach and what pedagogical
knowledge and ICT-skills they may need in ESLclass
Recommendation of 'E'-lesson plan
Remembering Recognising, listing, describing, identiIying, retrieving, naming, locating, Iinding, bullet
pointing, highlighting, bookmarking, social networking, social bookmarking, favouriting/local
bookmarking, searching, googling.
Understanding Interpreting, Summarising, inIerring, paraphrasing, classiIying, comparing,
explaining, exempliIying, advanced searching, blog fournaling, twittering, categorising, commenting,
annotating, subscribing
Applying Implementing , carrying out, using, executing, running, loading, playing, operating,
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hacking, uploading, sharing, editing


A nalysing Comparing, organising, deconstructing, Attributing, outlining, Iinding, structuring,
integrating, mashing, linking, tagging, validating, reverse-engineering, cracking
E valuating Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting, judging, testing, detecting,
Monitoring, blog/vlog commenting, reviewing, posting, moderating, collaborating, networking,
Refactoring, alpha/beta testing
C reating designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, making, programming,
filming, animating, blogging, video blogging, mixing, remixing, wiki-ing, publishing, videocasting ,
podcasting, directing/producing.
Conclusion
The use oI ICT will lead ELT to be more interactive, Ilexible and innovative when English teachers
spontaneously develop the link between their pedagogical knowledge and ICT literacy. Use oI ICT across
curriculum has constructed new belieIs that change the pedagogical reasoning in ELT. English teachers
need not only possess such basic ICT skills as word processor, Power Point, video editor and access to the
Internet, but also develop pedagogical knowledge to eIIiciently integrate ICTinto English curriculum. ICT
demands the metamorphosis oI a teacher Irom a traditional role to a Iacilitator. The integration oI ICT will
lead diversiIication not only in English content, contexts and pedagogical methods, but also in teaching
environment. ICT will extend the boundary oI English teaching and characterize it as interactive, Ilexible
and innovative. The eIIorts Irom educators, teachers as well as the power oI technology will guarantee a
brighter Iuture Ior ELLstudents in their academic and proIessional liIe.
Recommendation of websites as an authentic learning material
Web 2.0 Community, collaboration, creativity, more socially connected Web in which learners can
contribute as much as they consume. Blogs, video-sharing, podcasting, wikis and social-networking.
Collaboration, contribution etc. Learners are the creators and generators oI the content oI the course.
AWiki is a web page or series oI web pages which can be easily edited by anyone with access.
Splendid Speaking Podcast are audio recordings, usually in MP3 Iormat, oI talks interviews,
lectures which can be played on a desktop computer or a wide range oI handheld MP3 devices .
MAGAZINES Newsweek- URL
People Online-URL
National Geographic Online -URL
Newsweek URL-
DICTIONARIES Merriam-Webster Online - URL
Olsen, M.Roget's Thesaurus-URL
Cambridge Dictionaries Online URL
The CMUPronouncing Dictionary URL
LITERATURE American and English Literature Online Books Ior Educators URL-

An Online Library oI Literature URL
TELEVISIONBBCURL
CNNURL
http://www.newsweek.com
http://www.pathIinder.com/people/web/home.html
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3032542/site/newsweek/
http://www.m-w.com
http://humanities.uchicago.edu/Iormsunrest/ROGET.html
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/
http://www.speech.cs.cmu.edu/cgi-bin/cmudict
http://Ialcon.jmu.edu/~ramseyil/online.htm
http://www.literature.org/
http://www.bbc.co.uk
http://cnn.com
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References
Becta Report, (2001), pg-10,Section-A( Statistical Data on Schools)
Matt Bower, John G. Hedberg & Andreas Kuswara (2010): A Iramework Ior Web 2.0 learning design, Educational Media
International, 47:3, 177-198
Melhuish, K. (2008). 2.0 be or not 2.0 be: HowEnglish teachers are embracing the world wide web. English in Aotearoa, 27(1),
23-30.
Mullamaa, K. (2010). ICTin language learning - beneIits and methodological
implications.InternationalEducationStudies,3(1),38-44. ) http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ies/article/download/4965/4131
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