AN INTRODUCTION TO

Behavior Based Safety (BBS)

Dr. A. V. Singh
1

Traditional Safety Model

Safety Training Policies R e p ri m a n ds

Slogans

Fewer Accidents

R eg ul at io ns

Safety Meetings

Contests & Awards

Committees & Councils

2

Traditional Safety Management

PPE

Emergency Response

Policies Industrial Hygiene

in the workplace. Safety Management Safety Meetings Audits/Inspections System Features Limited effectiveness, why?

Procedures Safety Rules injuries Incident Investigation Purpose: To reduce/eliminate

Hazard Recognition Training Strong reliance Safety Permits on Antecedents Ergonomics Fire Protection Engineering Safety Incentives Safety Surveys SHE Standards Job Safety Analysis JSO
3

. How many of the above elements can be directly traced to injury elimination just at the moment the injury is about to occur ? Question: Are injuries totally eliminated? 4 . .Please think .

.000 people suffer from disabling injury everyday Question: Are injuries totally eliminated? 5 . . 14 people die at work in US everyday 11.Injury Statistics .

Injury Statistics .9 million people suffer disabling injuries •6. Year 2004 in US* •5200 workplace fatalities •3.8 fatalities per 100. .000 workers •3. .1 injuries or illnesses per 100 workers Question: Are injuries totally eliminated? 6 .

. In INDIA •124 people die at workplace everyday •46575 people are injured •32% contribution to global fatality at work •37% of global burden of occupational injury Question: Are injuries totally eliminated? 7 . .Injury Statistics .

To Conclude . . . still persists WHAT IS MISSING? WHERE IS THE CATCH? 8 . •Good Safety Management systems exist •Still workplace is injury prone & not safe •Injury although declined.

.Scientifically proven that . . In 1951. Dr. Heinrich claimed that more than 90% of injuries were caused by UNSAFE ACTS DuPont proved by research that: Injury Causes Injuries due to Unsafe Acts / Behavior Injuries due to combination of Unsafe Behavior & Conditions Injuries due Unsafe Conditions Percent 76 20 4 9 .

. . Percent by Cause (1999-2001) 100 80 60 40 20 0 Eq u Pr o Per De sig ce d son ipm n ure nel ent Er r or Tra inin g Ma nag em ent O th ers Personnel errors (Unsafe Acts) was present in 77% of incidents 10 .DOE. found out that . US Govt.

000 Hazards (Unsafe Acts & Conditions) 11 . .000 Near Miss / First Aid Eliminate 30. . Avoid 1 Fatal 30 LTAs 300 Non LTAs 3.DuPont Research found that .

Eliminate Unsafe Acts / Conditions = Avoid Injuries & Accidents Safety Activities Fewer Unsafe Acts Fewer Accidents 12 .To Conclude . . .

Also defined as “at risk” behavior Objective of BBS is to minimize “at risk” behavior at workplace 13 . Unsafe Acts is a behavioral process 2.Unsafe Acts & Objectives of BBS 1.

gets done Feedback is essential to improvement Quality is built early in the process Conversations change organizations 14 .Principles of BBS Behavior is the cause of accidents Consequence motivate behavior What gets measured.

Behavioral Safety Management reduce/eliminate injuries Policies PPE Purpose: To Emergency Response Improvement: Adding Consequences Safety Management Safety Meetings Audits/Inspections Industrial Hygiene System Features But. why? Fire Protection Ergonomics Safety Incentives JSO 15 Safety Surveys Behavioral Safety Not integrated with other elements OSHA Standards Job Safety Analysis . Safety Rules Incident Investigation Training Safety Permits Hazard Recognition Still limited Engineering effectiveness. Procedures in the workplace.

Behavioral Safety Management To be effective: – Integrate the fundamental elements1 of BBS into the Safety Management System elements – How? • Identify (pinpoint) critical behaviors • Define behaviors precisely to measure them reliably • Implement mechanisms to determine current status • Provide feedback • Reinforce progress 16 .

does.What is Behavior? Behavior is anything that a person says. specific 17 . thinks or feels Eg: Working at heights with safety belts Behavior should be observable.

What is Antecedent ? Anything that occurs before or during the behavior can be an antecedent for that behavior B: Working at heights with safety belts A: Painful Memory of past accident It is Antecedents that cause a certain types of behavior to happen 18 .

What is Consequence ? Anything that occurs after a behavior B: Working at heights with safety belts A: Painful Memory of past accident C: No more accidents 19 .

The ABC of BBS Program A: Antecedents – cause of certain behavior B: Behavior – what you see a person do C: Consequence – outcome of a behavior 20 .

.What is BBS Program? Understand & Influence Antecedents Make people behave safely. . 21 . work safely Minimize / eliminate workplace injuries This is Zero Injury Culture too .

BBS vs. Zero Injury Zero Injury is the GOAL BBS is the path to reach the GOAL 22 .

Measure no. Know your scores 4. 2.How to Implement BBS ? 7 Steps Process 1. Report 3. Identify actions to achieve the goals. of safe / unsafe acts. Make a list of safe acts for these unsafe acts. Identify Unsafe Acts in all your operations. Audit Unsafe Acts & Conditions. Set Improvement Goals. Implement Actions 23 .

Monitor actions implementation & trends of Unsafe Acts & conditions 6.How to Implement BBS ? 7 Steps Process 5. Recognize performers & celebrate achievement 24 . Continually improve performance 7.

Q: Why focus on behavior? Reactive Serious Injuries Non Serious Injuries Near Misses At-Risk Behaviors Proactive Systems’ Weaknesses A: It’s the best way of measuring how well your system is working! 25 .

. Safety Activities Fewer Unsafe Acts Fewer Accidents 26 .Recall . .

What do we do now? Safety Activities BBS Program + Traditional Model Fewer Unsafe Acts Fewer Accidents 27 .

Primary Team Roles Management  Lead by example  Support the process  Remove roadblocks  Monitor success  Provide resources 28 .

Measure process/activities. 29 . Improve process continuously. Analyze variance/take action. Deliver positive consequences.Basic Elements of BBS Identify/define targeted safe behaviors. Observe behaviors. Deliver feedback.

The Behavioral Process RESULTS CRITICAL SAFE & PROCESS SUPPORT BEHAVIORS PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT PERFORMANCE VERBAL & GRAPHIC ON PERFORMANCE 32 .

Top Management Commitment is essential Ownership & involvement from all employees Steering Committee to monitor in plants Training to all on BBS & safety practices Effective Feedback – Most important Performance monitoring & Continual improvement 34 . .If BBS has to Succeed then . .

Safe Behavior Is safe behavior an occupational necessity? Is safety only at work place? Don’t I want my son to drive safely & reach home every day? Can safe behavior be a philosophy of life? Safe Behavior = Safety Assurance 35 .

Thank you 36 .