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News: Daffodil International University orum contains information a!out "pen #e$t material, which is only intended for the significant learning purposes of the university students, faculty, other mem!ers, and the %nowledge see%ers of the entire world and is hoped that the offerings will aide in the distri!ution of relia!le information and data relating to the many areas of %nowledge.

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Daffodil International University orum * aculties and Departments * &umanities + 'ocial 'cience * ,nglish -.oderator/ %ulsum0 * 1asic Aspects of Psycholinguistics

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Author Topic: Basic Aspects of Psycholinguistics (Read 1870 times) Antara11


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Basic Aspects of Psyc olin!uistics
2 on: .arch 98, 69:6, :6/:;/8< P. * 'r. .em!er

Posts/ 678 Lecturer, ,nglish Dept.

Psycholinguistics, earlier called the psychology of language, is the study of the language= processing mechanisms. It is concerned with the relationship !etween language and the human mind.

Psycholinguists are interested in the ac>uisition of language, how children ac>uire their mother tongue. #he study of the ac>uisition of language !y children is often called developmental psycholinguistics.

#here are two possi!le directions of study in psycholinguistics. "ne is that we may use language as a way of e$plaining psycholinguistic theories and processes, for e$ample, the role of language as it influences memory, perception, attention and learning. #he other is that we may study the effects of psychological constraints on the use of language, for e$ample, how memory limitations affect speech production and comprehension. It is the latter which has provided the main focus of interest inlinguistics, where the su!?ect is !asically regarded as the study of the mental processes underlying the planning, production, perception and comprehension of speech. #he !est=developed !ranch of the su!?ect is the study of language ac>uisition of children.
Logged Antara 1asa% Lecturer Dept. of ,nglish

Antara11

'r. .em!er

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"e: Basic Aspects of Psyc olin!uistics
2 "eply #1 on: .arch 98, 69:6, :6/6@/6@ P. *

Posts/ 678 Lecturer, ,nglish Dept.

Language Ac>uisition

Language ac>uisition refers to the learning and development of a personABCs language. #he learning of a native or first language is called first language ac>uisition - LA0, and te learning of a second or foreign language is called second language ac>uisition -'LA0. It is shown !y psycholinguistics that childrenABCs use of language is rule=governed. ,$. #ooths and mouses. #hese are e$amples of overgeneraliDation or overe$tension/ the e$tension of a rule !eyond its proper limits.

"vergeneraliDation is a fre>uent phenomenon in language development. It can !e found not only in syntactic usage !ut also in word meanings. ,$. All four=legged animals as dogs. All round o!?ects as moons, or call all vehicles cars.

(hildren also undergeneraliDe. When a child uses a word in a more limited way than adults do -e.g. refusing to call a ta$i a car0, this phenomenon is called undergeneraliDation or undere$tension. Indeed, undergeneraliDation is also a fre>uent phenomenon if first language ac>uisition.

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Antara11

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Posts/ 678 Lecturer, ,nglish Dept.

"e: Basic Aspects of Psyc olin!uistics


2 "eply #$ on: .arch 98, 69:6, :6/@6/:@ P. *

Different 'tages of (hild Language ac>uisition

#he prelinguistic stage -!a!!ling stage0/ At this stage, the earliest sounds produced !y infants cannot !e considered early language. #he first recogniDa!le sounds are descri!ed as cooing and the sounds and sylla!les that children utterer are as yet meaningless.

#he one=word stage/ At some point in the late part of the first year or the early part of the second year, the !a!!ling stage gradually gives way to the earliest reocgniDa!le stage of language, often referred to as the one=word stage. At this stage children learn that sounds are related to meanings. (hildrenABCs one=word utteracnes are also called holophrastic sentences, !ecause they can !e used to e$press a concept or predication that would !e associated with an entire sentence in adult speech. ,$. ABEdadaABF, ABEmoreABF, ABEupABF. Usually, these one=word utterances serve a naming function to refer to familiar people.

#he two=word stage/ In general, the two=word stage !egins roughly in the second half of the childABCs second year. At first, these utterances apepar to !e strings of two holophrastic utterances. 'oon after, children !egin to form actual two=word sentences with clear syntactic and semantic relations.

,$amples/1a!y chair. Daddy hat. .ummy soc%. Doggie !ar%. 'hoe mine.

#he multiword stage /1etween two and three years old, child starts stringing more than two words together,the utterances may !e the multiword stage. #he early multiword utterances of children have a special charactereistic. #hey typiclly lac% inflectional morphemes and most minor le$ical categories.

,$amples/ (at stand up ta!le. Daddy li%e this !oo%. &e paly little tune. #his shoe all wet. (hair all !ro%en.

#elegraphic speech/ 1ecause of their resem!lance to the style of language found in telegrams, utterances at this ac>uisition stage are often referred to as telegraphic speech. Although they lac% grammatical morphemes, telegraphic sentences are not simply words that are randomly strung together, !ut follow the principles of sentence formation. (hildren have clearly developed some sentence=!uilding capacity.

Logged Antara 1asa% Lecturer Dept. of ,nglish

nusrat%diu
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"e: Basic Aspects of Psyc olin!uistics
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Posts/ ::6@

good to %now a!out psycholinguistics. want more posts on it.


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Antara11

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Posts/ 678

Lecturer, ,nglish Dept.

"e: Basic Aspects of Psyc olin!uistics


2 "eply #' on: .arch 69, 69:6, ::/@6/:< A. *

#han% you madam. I will of course continue.


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Antara11
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"e: Basic Aspects of Psyc olin!uistics
2 "eply #( on: .arch 69, 69:6, ::/@;/@6 A. * 'r. .em!er

Posts/ 678 Lecturer, ,nglish Dept.

(hild Language

PIAI,#J' ("I3I#IK,=D,K,L"P.,3#AL #&,")L

(hildren move through four stages of development !etween infancy and adolescence. 'ensorimotor, pre=operational, concrete operations and formal operations

Piagetian (oncepts/ 'chemes

Psychological structures "rganiDed ways of ma%ing sense of e$perience (hange with age Action=!ased -motor patterns0 Later will move to a mental -thin%ing0 level

1uilding 'chemes

Adaptation Process of !uilding schemes through direct interaction with the environment

Assimilation Part of adaptation in which the e$ternal world is interpreted through e$isting schemes

Accommodation Part of adaptation in which new schemes are created or old ones ad?usted

,>uili!rium 3ot changingM steady, comforta!le cognitive state Assimilation used more than accommodation

Dise>uili!rium (ognitive discomfort during rapid change Accommodation used more than assimilation

.ovement !etween e>uili!rium and dise>uili!rium .ore effective schemes are produced.

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Antara11
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"e: Basic Aspects of Psyc olin!uistics
2 "eply #) on: .arch 69, 69:6, ::/N</@; A. * 'r. .em!er

Posts/ 678 Lecturer, ,nglish Dept.

'ensorimotor 'tage -9 to 6 Lears0

Infants and toddlers Othin%O with their eyes, ears, hands, and other sensorimotor e>uipment.

(ircular )eactions 9=:6 months

Infants e$plore the environment and !uild schemes !y trying to repeat chance events.

irst centered on own !ody -e.g. suc%ing0

(hange to manipulating o!?ects for effect "!?ect permanence

.ental )epresentation -:< .ths. #o 6 Lrs.0

.ental representations Internal images of a!sent o!?ects and past events A toddler can solve pro!lems through sym!olic means instead of trial and error. Permits ma%e=!elieve play

Deferred imitation A!ility to copy !ehavior of models who are not present
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Antara11
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"e: Basic Aspects of Psyc olin!uistics
2 "eply #* on: .arch 69, 69:6, ::/8@/99 A. * 'r. .em!er

Posts/ 678 Lecturer, ,nglish Dept.

I3 ").A#I"3 P)"(,''I3I ocus is on different aspects of thin%ing/

Attention .emory (ategoriDation Pro!lem solving

.emory 'ensory register )epresented directly and very !riefly 'hort=term -wor%ing0 memory Actively Owor%O on limited information Long=term memory Permanent %nowledge !ase Limitless capacity 'ometimes pro!lems with retrieval

Attention and .emory Infants gradually !ecome more efficient at managing their attention. )ecognition 'implest form of memory )ecall )emem!ering something not present 1y toddlerhood, recall for people, places and o!?ects is e$cellent.

(ategoriDation Infants can organiDe their physical, emotional, and social worlds. ,arly categories are perceptual. 1y the end of the :st year, categories !ecome conceptual. During the 6nd year, children actively categoriDe items during their play.
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Antara11

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Posts/ 678 Lecturer, ,nglish Dept.

"e: Basic Aspects of Psyc olin!uistics


2 "eply #+ on: .arch 69, 69:6, :6/96/89 P. *

#&, '"(IAL ("3#,P# " ,A)LL (&ILD&""D D,K,L"P.,3#

Kygots%y (omple$ mental functions originate in social interaction. tools of the mind i.e. language, pivot o!?ects, social interaction )ole of private speech

Qone of Pro$imal Development

#as%s a child cannot yet handle alone, !ut can with help of s%illed partners Iuidance within the Done of pro$imal development is related to advanced play, language, and pro!lem=solving s%ills.

Infant Intelligence #ests .easure early language and pro!lem solving #est perceptual and motor responses #est scores may not accurately reflect a!ilities. 1ayley 'cales=mental and motor tas%s
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Antara11

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Posts/ 678 Lecturer, ,nglish Dept.

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"e: Basic Aspects of Psyc olin!uistics
2 "eply #, on: .arch 69, 69:6, :6/9G/@7 P. *

,arly ,nvironment and .ental Development

,arly childhood mental development predicted !y/ "rganiDed, stimulating physical setting Parental encouragement, involvement, and affection )egardless of social=class and ethnic group

(are "utside of &ome

(hild care has an impact on childrenJs mental development and social s%ills. (are standards are set !y the states and vary greatly. U'A study showed few provided care ade>uate for healthy development./ 3ote higher standards in Australia Developmentally appropriate practice Program standards that meet the developmental needs of children

,arly Intervention for At=)is% Infants and #oddlers

(hildren of poverty "ften show gradual declines in intelligence test scores Achieve poorly when at school age Interventions are center= or home=!ased. #he more intense the intervention, the greater the intellectual gains

Individual and (ultural Differences

Iirls are ahead of !oys in early voca!ulary. )eferential style #oddlers use language mainly to la!el o!?ects. ,$pressive style #oddlers tal% a!out feelings and needs and those of other people. Parental speech is related to variations in early word learning. (lass and cultural variations (hild directed speech supports development
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Antara 1asa% Lecturer Dept. of ,nglish

mi -diu
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"e: Basic Aspects of Psyc olin!uistics
2 "eply #1. on: .arch 68, 69:6, 9:/@@/6@ P. * 3ew!ie

Posts/ @

its !ecome ones note wow


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s amsi
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"e: Basic Aspects of Psyc olin!uistics
2 "eply #11 on: April :6, 69:6, 9@/::/6@ P. * 'r. .em!er

Posts/ 67:

Dear Antara,

Lour posts are always informative.And as Psycholinguistics is one of my most favorite areas of teaching,I have found your posts !eneficial.

Reep it up.

)egards

'hamsi Ara &uda

'enior Lecturer,Dept.of ,nglish


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Antara11

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Posts/ 678 Lecturer, ,nglish Dept.

"e: Basic Aspects of Psyc olin!uistics


2 "eply #1$ on: April :8, 69:6, 9:/@</9G P. *

Dear 'amsi madam,

.any than%s for your appreciation and interest. I will of course carry on.
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nafrin
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"e: Basic Aspects of Psyc olin!uistics
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Posts/ ::9

I am ta%ing notes from your post, it really helps me


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Antara11
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"e: Basic Aspects of Psyc olin!uistics
2 "eply #1' on: Hune 68, 69:6, 9;/@;/9: A. * 'r. .em!er

Posts/ 678 Lecturer, ,nglish Dept.

#han% you dear 3u?hat madam.

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