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Design Requirements of Highways

CE 122 C2 Traffic & Highway Engineering College of CE-ENSE Mapua Institute of Technology (MIT)

Highway Design Coverage


Horizontal alignment Vertical alignment Geotechnical Aspects Pavement Design Drainage Facilities Other Civil Structures Etc.

Design Speed
Is the maximum safe speed that can be maintained over a specified section of highway when conditions are so favorable that the design features of the highway may govern.

Sight Distance
length of roadway ahead that is continuously visible to the driver depends on the vehicle speed, vehicle size and driver PRT minimum sight distance available should be sufficiently long enough to enable a vehicle traveling at the design speed to stop before reaching a stationary object in its path (AASHTO)

Important elements in Sight Distance


Stopping Sight Distance
Decision Sight Distance Passing Sight Distance

Intersection Sight Distance

Stopping Sight Distance SSD


sum of the distance the vehicle travels from the drivers first possible sighting of the hazard to the instant the brakes are touched, plus the distance required to stop after the initial brake activation

Source: A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets (The Green Book). Washington, DC. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 2001 4th Ed.

Decision Sight Distance


distance required by the driver to detect an unexpected or otherwise difficult-to-perceive information source or hazard in a roadway environment that may be visually cluttered, recognize the hazard, select an appropriate speed or path, initiate and complete the required safety maneuver safely and efficiently

Source: A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets (The Green Book). Washington, DC. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 2001 4th Ed.

Passing Sight Distance (PSD)


for 2 lane rural road

Source: A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets (The Green Book). Washington, DC. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 2001 4th Ed.

Intersection Sight Distance - ISD


- should be sufficient to allow drivers on the dominant road to avoid a collision between a vehicle starting across the road from a stopping position and a vehicle on the through-road traveling at the design speed and appearing after the crossing movement has begun

Other Highway Design Requirement


Minimum Radius of Curvature - for any given design speed
Superelevation
- To counteract the centrifugal force acting on the vehicle.

Other Highway Design Requirement


Design Volume
- 30th highest peak hour volume has been found to be the most reasonable hourly volume that provides the best result

Other Highway Design Requirement


Number of Lanes
- Determination of number of lanes needed to meet the given design volume under specified level of service (LOS)

Horizontal Alignment
Circular Curve:
Sharpness of curve can be expressed by using 2 measurements: a.) Radius, R b.) Degrees of Curvature

Horizontal Alignment
Stationing:

Rewrite the following in station notations: a.) Stake located 10,682.325 m from beginning b.) Stake located 2,345.21 ft from the beginning

Simple Curve
Simple Curve defined as a circular arc between two tangents.
Where:

Figure:

Simple Curve
Simple Curve defined as a circular arc between two tangents.
Formulas:

Figure:

Simple Curve-Problem Solving

Compound Curve
Compound Curve defined as 2-arc simple curve having its centers on the same side of the common tangent

Reverse Curve
Reverse Curve is a two-arc simple curve having its centers on opposite sides. 2 Types: 1. Reverse Curve with parallel tangents 2. Reverse Curve with non-parallel tangents

Reverse Curve-Problem Solving

Reverse Curve
1. Reverse Curve with non-parallel tangents

Broken Back Curve


Broken Back Curve is characterized by short tangent between two curves in the same direction

Broken Back Curve Prob. Solving

Easement Curve or Clothoid


Easement Curve or Clothoid usually a spiral that serves as a transition path as the vehicle enters or leaves a circular curve.

Vertical Alignment
Properties of Vertical Alignment: a.) The rate of change of grade on a vertical curve is constant.

b.) Tangents drawn from any two points on a vertical axis parabola always intersects midway between the point of tangency.

Vertical Alignment
Properties of Vertical Alignment: c.) Vertical offsets from tangent to a parabola are proportional to the squares of the distances from the point of tangency.

d.) If a tangent to the parabola is drawn between main tangents, the horizontal projection of the intercept cut-off on this new tangent by the main tangents is equal to of the horizontal projection of the long chord of parabola

Types of Vertical Curve


a.) Crest Curve b.) Sag Curve

General Equation of Vertical Curve

Vertical Curve Problem Solving

Sight Distances at Crest Vertical Curves


Stopping Sight Distance:

Sight Distances at Crest Vertical Curves


Passing Sight Distance:

Sight Distances at Crest Vertical Curves


S < L:

Sight Distances at Crest Vertical Curves


S > L:

Sight Distances at Sag Vertical Curves


S < L:

Sight Distances at Sag Vertical Curves


S > L:

Problem Solving Vertical Curve

End