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# Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## EXPERIMENT NO. 1 INTRODUCTION TO BASIC ELECTRONIC AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS

1.1 AIM: Study of various Electronic and Electrical components used in electronics laboratory. 1.2 PRIOR CONCEPTS:
Electronics Electrical component Electronic component

## 1.3 NEW CONCEPTS:

Proposition 1: A ti!" #n\$ p#ssi!" o%pon"nts The electronic & electrical components (like Resistor, capacitor, diode, BJT, ET etc.! are classified into active and passive components. "omponents that are capable of processin# the si#nal (e.#. rectify, amplify! are called active components and the components that pass the si#nal throu#h them \$ithout processin# are called passive components. Con "pt str& t&r" "omponents used in electronic laboratory

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## 1.' LEARNIN( OB)ECTI*ES:

Int"++" t&#+ S,i++s To identify the #iven components. To find the values of components. To learn to use the data sheet to kno\$ specifications of components. To test the #iven component by suitable method. Motor S,i++s %bility to list the #iven components. %bility to note do\$n the specifications of the component.

1.- APPARATUS:
Co%pon"nts: Resistors, "apacitors, Transformer, &iode, 'ener diode, Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT!, ield Effect Transistor ( ET!, (ni Junction Transistor ((JT!.

1.. T/EOR0:
R"sistor: % Resistor is an electronic component \$hose resistance value tells us about the opposition it offers to the flo\$ of the electric current. Resistance is measured in ohms ()!, kilo* ohms (k)! and me#a*ohms (+)! .

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

T1p"s o2 r"sistors:

Co+or o\$in3 o2 r"sistors The value of the resistance is found out by color codin#. The resistors have a band of colors sho\$n in their outer coverin#. ,ere are the steps to determine the value of the resistor. %ll resistors have three bands of colors, follo\$ed by a space and then a fourth band of color. The fourth band of color \$ill be bro\$n, red, #old or silver. To read the colors turn it to the position such as the three consecutive colors come on the left and then the space and the rest of the colors. The first t\$o colors from the left indicate the first t\$o di#its of the value. The third color represents the di#ital multiplier. That is, it indicates ho\$ much you have to multiply the first t\$o numbers \$ith. Thus if you have a resistance \$ith the first three colors bein# bro\$n, black and red, the value of resistance is -./-.. 0 -... ohms or -1. The last band, after the space indicates the tolerance of the resistor. This indicates the ran#e of accuracy of the resistor. Thus, alon# \$ith the three colors above, if the fourth colors are #old, it means you have a tolerance bet\$een 23*45. Thus the actual value of the resistance can be bet\$een 64. 7hms and -1. There can also be resistors \$ith five colors. 8f so, the first three represents the di#its, the fourth \$ill be the multiplier and the fifth \$ill be the percenta#e of tolerance. This indicates that a more precise value of the resistor used can be obtained from a 4*colour resistor.
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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## ;umber . 9 < = 4 ? @ B 6 -.*-.*9

"olor Black Bro\$n Red 7ran#e >ello\$ :reen Blue Aiolet :ray Chite :old(multiplier! Silver(multiplier!

Tolerance -5 9 4 -. 9.

## Most r"sistors 4#!" ' 5#n\$s:

The first band #ives the first di#it. The second band #ives the second di#it. The third band indicates the number of Deros(multiplier!. The fourth band is used to sho\$s the tolerance (precision! of the resistor, this may be

i#nored for almost all circuits but further details are #iven belo\$.

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## R"sistors 4#!" - 5#n\$s:

The first band #ives the first di#it. The second band #ives the second di#it. The third band #ives the second di#it The fourth band indicates the number of Deros(multiplier!. The fifth band is used to sho\$s the tolerance (precision! of the resistor, this may be

i#nored for almost all circuits but further details are #iven belo\$.

C#p# itors: "apacitors are components that are used to store an electrical char#e and are used in timer circuits. % capacitor may be used \$ith a resistor to produce a timer. Sometimes capacitors are used to smooth a current in a circuit as they can prevent false tri##erin# of other components such as relays. Chen po\$er is supplied to a circuit that includes a capacitor * the capacitor char#es up. Chen po\$er is turned off the capacitor dischar#es its electrical char#e slo\$ly. Electrolytic capacitors are #polarised\$ \$hich means they have a positive and ne#ative lead and must be positioned in a circuit the ri#ht \$ay round (the positive lead must #o to the positive side of the circuit!.

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

They also have a much hi#her capacitance than non*electrolytic capacitors. &on'electrolytic capacitors usually have a lo\$er capacitance. They are not polarised (do not have a positive and ne#ative lead! and can be placed any\$ay round in a circuit. They are normally used to smooth a current in a circuit.

C(P(CIT(&CE * means the value of a capacitor. C#p# itor N&%5"r Co\$" % number code is often used on small capacitors \$here printin# is difficultE the -st number is the -st di#it, the 9nd number is the 9nd di#it, the <rd number is the number of Deros to #ive the capacitance in p . 8#nore any letters * they Fust indicate tolerance and volta#e ratin#. or eGampleE 102 means -...p 0 -n )not 1* p+,or eGampleE '62) means =@..p 0 =.@n (J means 45 tolerance!.

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

C#p# itor Co+o&r Co\$" % colour code \$as used on polyester capacitors for many years. 8t is no\$ obsolete, but of course there are many still around. The colours should be read like the resistor code, the top three colour bands #ivin# the value in p . 8#nore the =th band (tolerance! and 4th band (volta#e ratin#!. or eGampleE 5ro7n8 5+# ,8 or#n3" means -....p 0 -.n 0 ...-H . ;ote that there are no #aps bet\$een the colour bands, so 9 identical bands actually appear as a \$ide band. or eGampleE 7i\$" r"\$8 1"++o7 means 99.n 0 ..99H . Po+1st1r"n" C#p# itors This type is rarely used no\$. Their value (in p ! is normally printed \$ithout units. Iolystyrene capacitors can be dama#ed by heat \$hen solderin# (it melts the polystyreneJ! so you should use a heat sink (such as a crocodile clip!. "lip the heat sink to the lead bet\$een the capacitor and the Foint.

*#ri#5+" #p# itors Aariable capacitors are mostly used in radio tunin# circuits and they are sometimes called Ktunin# capacitorsK. They have very small capacitance values, typically bet\$een -..p and 4..p (-..p 0 .....-H !. Tri%%"r #p# itors Trimmer capacitors (trimmers! are miniature variable capacitors. They are desi#ned to be mounted directly onto the circuit board and adFusted only \$hen the circuit is built.

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

% small scre\$driver or similar tool is reLuired to adFust trimmers. The process of adFustin# them reLuires patience because the presence of your hand and the tool \$ill sli#htly chan#e the capacitance of the circuit in the re#ion of the trimmerJ Trimmer capacitors are only available \$ith very small capacitances, normally less than -..p . 8t is impossible to reduce their capacitance to Dero, so they are usually specified by their minimum and maGimum values, for eGample 9*-.p .

In\$& tors: %n inductor is an electrical component that is used in circuits for its inductance ability. In\$& t#n ": the amount of ma#netic fluG that is produced in an electrical circuit M#3n"ti 2+&9: a measure of Luantity of ma#netism ( represented by the #reek leter phi! 8nductors are measured in henries ( named after %merican scientist John ,enry ! belo\$ is a ,enries chart.

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

M&+tip+" -.. -.-.9 -.< -.? -.6 -.-9 -.-4 -.-B -.9-.9=

N#%" henry decahenry hectohenry kilohenry me#ahenry #i#ahenry terahenry petahenry eGahenry Dettahenry yottahenry

## M&+tip+" -.M-.M9 -.M< -.M? -.M6 -.M-9 -.M-4 -.M-B -.M9-.M9=

N#%" decihenry centihenry millihenry microhenry nanohenry picohenry femtohenry attohenry Deptohenry yoctohenry

S1%5o+ d, c, m, H, n, p, f, a, D, y,

8nuctors are used in many electric circuits. Chen used \$ith a capacitor a tuned circuit is formed. Tuned circuits are used in broad castin# and radio reception. Dio\$":

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

:&n tion &iodes allo\$ electricity to flo\$ in only one direction. The arro\$ of the circuit symbol sho\$s the direction in \$hich the current can flo\$. &iodes are the electrical version of a valve and early diodes \$ere actually called valves.

;"n"r \$io\$"s 'ener diodes are a form of semiconductor diode that are \$idely used in electronics circuits as volta#e references. 'ener diodes provide a stable and defined volta#e and as a result 'ener diode circuits are often used in po\$er supplies \$hen re#ulated outputs are needed. 'ener diodes are cheap and they are also easy to use and as a result they are used in many applications and many circuits. 'ener diodes are sometimes referred to as reference diodes as they are able to provide a stable reference volta#e for many electronics circuits. The diodes themselves are cheap and plentiful and can be purchased in virtually every electronics components store. 'ener diodes have many of the same basic properties of ordinary semiconductor diodes. 8n the reverse direction, the operation of a 'ener diode is Luite different to an ordinary diode. or lo\$ volta#es the diodes do not conduct as \$ould be eGpected. ,o\$ever, once a certain volta#e is reached the diode Nbreaks do\$nN and current flo\$s. Oookin# at the curves for a 'ener diode, it can be seen that the volta#e is almost constant re#ardless of the current carried. This means that a 'ener diode provides a stable and kno\$n reference volta#e.

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

Ot4"r Dio\$"s :

Tr#nsistors: :&n tion Transistors #%p+i21 &rr"nt, for eGample they can be used to amplify the small output current from a lo#ic 8" so that it can operate a lamp, relay or other hi#h current device. 8n many circuits a resistor is used to convert the chan#in# current to a chan#in# volta#e, so the transistor is bein# used to #%p+i21 !o+t#3". % transistor may be used as a s7it 4 (either fully on \$ith maGimum current, or fully off \$ith no current! and as an #%p+i2i"r (al\$ays partly on!. The amount of current amplification is called the &rr"nt 3#in, symbol h E.

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

T1p"s o2 tr#nsistor There are t\$o types of standard transistors, NPN and PNP, \$ith different circuit symbols. The letters refer to the layers of semiconductor material used to make the transistor. +ost transistors used today are ;I; because this is the easiest type to make from silicon. 8f you are ne\$ to electronics it is best to start by learnin# ho\$ to use ;I; transistors. The leads are labelled 5#s" (B!, o++" tor ("! and "%itt"r (E!. These terms refer to the internal operation of a transistor but they are not much help in understandin# ho\$ a transistor is used, so Fust treat them as labelsJ T"stin3 7it4 # %&+ti%"t"r (se a multimeter or a simple tester (battery, resistor and OE&! to check each pair of leads for conduction. Set a di#ital multimeter to diode test and an analo#ue multimeter to a lo\$ resistance ran#e. T"st "# 4 p#ir o2 +"#\$s 5ot4 7#1s (siG tests in total!E
The 5#s"<"%itt"r =BE> Function should behave like a

## diode and conduct one \$ay only.

The 5#s"< o++" tor =BC> Function should behave like a

## diode and conduct one \$ay only.

The o++" tor<"%itt"r =CE> should not conduct either

\$ay.

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

The diodes are reversed in a I;I transistor but the same test procedure can be used.

Tr#nsistor o\$"s There are three main series of transistor codes used in the (1E
"odes be#innin# \$ith B (or % or " or R!, for eGample B"-.B, B"=@B

The first letter B is for silicon, % is for #ermanium (rarely used no\$!, " for :a%s and R for any "ompound Semiconductors. The second letter indicates the typeP for eGample " means lo\$ po\$er audio freLuencyP & means hi#h po\$er audio freLuencyP means lo\$ po\$er hi#h freLuency. The rest of the code identifies the particular transistor. There is no obvious lo#ic to the numberin# system. Sometimes a letter is added to the end (e# B"-.B"! to identify a special version of the main type, for eGample a hi#her current #ain or a different case style. 8f a proFect specifies a hi#her #ain version (B"-.B"! it must be used, but if the #eneral code is #iven (B"-.B! any transistor \$ith that code is suitable.
"odes be#innin# \$ith T8I, for eGample T8I<-%. T8I refers to the manufacturerE TeGas

8nstruments Io\$er transistor. The letter at the end identifies versions \$ith different volta#e ratin#s.

"odes be#innin# \$ith 9;, for eGample 9;<.4< The initial K9;K identifies the part as a transistor and the rest of the code identifies the particular transistor. There is no obvious lo#ic to the numberin# system.

8RST OETTER SIE"8 8ES SE+8"7;&("T7R +%TER8%O % 0 :ermanium B 0 Silicon " 0 :allium %rsenide

## SE"7;& OETTER SIE"8 8ES T>IE 7 &EA8"E

S(BSEQ(E;T ",%R%"TERSS(BSEQ(E ;T The characters follo\$in# the first t\$o letters form the serial number of the device. Those intended for domestic use have three numbers, but those intended for commercial or industrial use have letter follo\$ed by t\$o numbers, i.e. %-. * '66.

R 0 "ompound materials

% 0 &iode * lo\$ po\$er or si#nal B 0 &iode * variable capacitance " 0 Transistor * audio freLuency, lo\$ po\$er & 0 Transistor * audio freLuency, po\$er E 0 Tunnel diode 0 Transistor * hi#h freLuency, lo\$ po\$er : 0 +iscellaneous devices , 0 &iode * sensitive to ma#netism

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

O 0 Transistor * hi#h freLuency, po\$er ; 0 Ihotocoupler I 0 Oi#ht detector Q 0 Oi#ht emitter R 0 S\$itchin# device, lo\$ po\$er, e.#. thyristor, diac, uniFunction S 0 Transistor * s\$itchin# lo\$ po\$er T 0 S\$itchin# device, lo\$ po\$er, e.#. thyristor, triac ( 0 Transistor * s\$itchin#, po\$er C 0 Surface acoustic \$ave device R 0 &iode multiplier > 0 &iode rectifyin# ' 0 &iode * volta#e reference

:i"+\$ E22" t Tr#nsistor: % field*effect transistor ( ET! is a type of transistor commonly used for \$eak*si#nal amplification (for eGample, for amplifyin# \$ireless si#nals!. The device can amplifyanalo# or di#ital si#nals. 8t can also s\$itch &" or function as an oscillator. 8n the ET, current flo\$s alon# a semiconductor path called the channel. %t one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the source. %t the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the channel is fiGed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a volta#e to a control electrode called the gate.

):ET:

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

MOS:ET:

Uni )&n tion Tr#nsistor: % &ni?&n tion tr#nsistor (U)T! is an electronic semiconductor device that has only one Function.The (JT has three terminalsE an emitter (E! and t\$o bases (B- and B9!. The base is formed by li#htly doped n*type bar of silicon. T\$o ohmic contacts B- and B9 are attached at its ends. The emitter is of p*type and it is heavily doped. The resistance bet\$een B- and B9, \$hen the emitter is open*circuit is called interbase resistance.
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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

Ot4"r Co%pon"nts Li34t D"p"n\$"nt R"sistor =LDR> %n O&R is an input transducer (sensor! \$hich converts bri#htness (li#ht! to resistance. 8t is made from cadmium sulphide ("dS! and the resistance decreases as the bri#htness of li#ht fallin# on the O&R increases. % multimeter can be used to find the resistance in darkness and bri#ht li#ht, these are the typical results for a standard O&RE &arknessE maGimum resistance, about -+ . Aery bri#ht li#htE minimum resistance, about -.. .

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

T4"r%istor % thermistor is an inp&t tr#ns\$& "r (sensor! \$hich converts temperature (heat! to resistance. %lmost all thermistors have a ne#ative temperature coefficient (;T"! \$hich means their resistance decreases as their temperature increases. 8t is possible to make thermistors \$ith a positive temperature coefficient (resistance increases as temperature increases! but these are rarely used. %l\$ays assume ;T" if no information is #iven. % multimeter can be used to find the resistance at various temperatures, these are some typical readin#s for eGampleE I 1 7#t"r 0@CE hi#h resistance, about -9k . Roo% t"%p"r#t&r" 2-@CE medium resistance, about 4k . Boi+in3 7#t"r 100@CE lo\$ resistance, about =.. . Suppliers usually specify thermistors by their resistance at 94S" (room temperature!. Thermistors take several seconds to respond to a sudden temperature chan#e, small thermistors respond more rapidly.

Pi"Ao tr#ns\$& "r IieDo transducers are o&tp&t tr#ns\$& "rs \$hich convert an electrical si#nal to sound. They reLuire a driver circuit (such as a 444 astable! to provide a si#nal and if this is near their natural (resonant! freLuency of about <k,D they \$ill produce a particularly loud sound.

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

Lo&\$sp"#,"r Ooudspeakers are o&tp&t tr#ns\$& "rs \$hich convert an electrical si#nal to sound. (sually they are called KspeakersK. They reLuire a driver circuit, such as a 444 astable or an audio amplifier, to provide a si#nal. There is a \$ide ran#e available, but for many electronics proFects a <..mC miniature loudspeaker is ideal. This type is about @.mm diameter and it is usually available \$ith resistances of B and ?= . 8f a proFect specifies a ?= speaker you must use this hi#her resistance to prevent dama#e to the drivin# circuit.

B&AA"r #n\$ B+""p"r These devices are o&tp&t tr#ns\$& "rs convertin# electrical ener#y to sound. They contain an internal oscillator to produce the sound \$hich is set at about =..,D for buDDers and about <k,D for bleepers.

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## 1.6 St"p7is" Pro "\$&r":

7bserve the #iven components. Oist the #iven components and dra\$ their symbols. ;ote do\$n their values and ratin#s.
Test the components by suitable method.

1.B OBSER*ATIONS:
Sr.;o. "omponents Resistor(R! 9 < = 4 ? @ B 6 -. "apacitor("! 8nductor(O! &iode(&! 'ener &iode Bipolar Junction Transistor(;I; type! Bipolar Junction Transistor(I;I type! ield Effect Transistor (; "hannel! ield Effect Transistor (I "hannel! (ni*Junction Transistor Symbol Type3Type ;o. Aalue3ratin#

1.C CONCLUSION:

1.10 DUESTIONS:
-. Chy one of the leads of resistor connected in electronic circuit is opened \$hile measurin# its resistanceT 8f not opened \$hether the correct readin# \$ill be obtainedT 9. Crite colour code for follo\$in# resistance values. a! <4. k U b! 9<.. k U

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

<. 8s it possible to identify the terminals of diode by observationT 8f yes, ho\$T =. ,o\$ to identify the terminals of BJTT Crite procedure 4. Chat is the si#nificance of I8A ratin# of diodeT ?. 8s it possible to test a diode \$ith multimeterT 8f yes, ho\$T 8f no, \$hyT @. Chat different facilities are available in the laboratory to check a piece of \$ire for continuityT B. or \$hat purpose a transformer can be used in an electronic circuitT 6. Chich of the follo\$in# are active components (-! Electric bulb (9! Resistor (<! &iode (=! Transistor (4! "apacitor (?! 8nductor -.. Chich of the follo\$in# are passive components (-! Resistor (9! (niFunction transistor (<! "apacitor (=! 8nductor (4! BJT (?! ET

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## EXPERIMENT NO. 2 INTRODUCTION TO DI::ERENT ELECTRONIC EDUIPMENTS

2.1 AIM: Study of various Electronic eLuipments used in electronics laboratory. 2.2 PRIOR CONCEPTS:
Aoltmeter, ammeter, resistor, capacitor "olor code for resistor and capacitor.

## 2.3 NEW CONCEPTS:

Proposition 1: T1p"s o2 "+" troni "E&ip%"nts The instruments used in electronics laboratory are classified as follo\$s #> T"st "E&ip%"nt: ELuipment used to provide test si#nals for testin# the circuits. EGamplesE Io\$er supply, Si#nal #enerator, unction #enerator. 5> M"#s&rin3 "E&ip%"nt: ELuipment used to measure the different electrical Luantities like current, volta#e etc. EGamplesE +ultimeter, %mmeter, Aoltmeter, "athode Ray 7scilloscope ("R7! Con "pt str& t&r"

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

To achieve the purpose, various controls are provided on front panel of electronic eLuipment. The operatin# controls provided on the front panel of instruments are 7;37 s\$itch for channel selection and control knob for level, ocus etc. Con "pt str& t&r": s\$itch, selector s\$itch for current, volta#e, resistance, ran#e selection s\$itch for freLuency, Time3 div, volt3div,

## 2.' LEARNIN( OB)ECTI*ES:

Int"++" t&#+ S,i++s To identify the eLuipment. To identify the different operatin# controls of the eLuipment To understand the functions of different operatin# controls. To understand the functions and use of different eLuipment. Motor S,i++s %bility to dra\$ the front panel dia#ram of the eLuipment. %bility to list the different operatin# controls of the eLuipment

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

2.- APPARATUS:
+ultimeter, "athode Ray 7scilloscope ("R7!, unction #enerator, Io\$er supply

## 2.. STEPWISE PROCEDURE:

7bserve the #iven eLuipment. &ra\$ front panel dia#rams of a! Si#nal #enerator3 unction #enerator b! "R7, c! Io\$er supply d! +ultimeter. 8dentify the different operatin# controls and understand their functions. Oist the different operatin# controls and \$rite their functions.

2.6 OBSER*ATIONS:
EE&ip%"nt 1 N#%" o2 t4" "E&ip%"nt: "athode ray oscilloscope ("R7! N#t&r" o2 t4" "E&ip%"nt: +easurin# eLuipment :ront p#n"+ \$i#3r#% o2 CRO (Student to dra\$!

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

Op"r#tin3 ontro+s #n\$ t4"ir 2&n tions: reLuency3div E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.. Aolt3div E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.. 8ntensity E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.. ocus E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.. SLuare \$ave testin# E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.. %"3&"3:R7(;& E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.. (I3&7C; E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.. OE T 3R8:,T E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.. +ake E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.. +odel E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV..

EE&ip%"nt 2 N#%" o2 t4" "E&ip%"nt: +ultimeter N#t&r" o2 t4" "E&ip%"nt: VVVVVVV..(Student to \$rite! :ront p#n"+ \$i#3r#% o2 M&+ti%"t"r (Student to dra\$!

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

Op"r#tin3 ontro+s #n\$ t4"ir 2&n tions: Ran#e selector E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.. "ontinuity testin# E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.. &iode testin# E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.. +ake E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.. +odel E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.. Quantity measured E resistance, current, volta#e EE&ip%"nt 3 N#%" o2 t4" "E&ip%"nt: Re#ulated &" po\$er supply N#t&r" o2 t4" "E&ip%"nt: VVVVVVV..(Student to \$rite! :ront p#n"+ \$i#3r#% o2 R"3&+#t"\$ DC po7"r s&pp+1 (Student to dra\$!

Op"r#tin3 ontro+s #n\$ t4"ir 2&n tions: "oarse E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.VVVVVVV ine E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.VVVVVVV Aolta#e ran#e E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.VVVVVVV Resolution E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.VVVVVVV

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

8nput E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.VVVVVVV +ake E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.. +odel E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.. EE&ip%"nt ' N#%" o2 t4" "E&ip%"nt: unction :enerator3Si#nal :enerator N#t&r" o2 t4" "E&ip%"nt: VVVVVVV..(Student to \$rite! :ront p#n"+ \$i#3r#% o2 :&n tion ("n"r#torFSi3n#+ ("n"r#tor (Student to dra\$!

Op"r#tin3 ontro+s #n\$ t4"ir 2&n tions: 7peratin# controls and their functionsE unction selector E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.. reLuency ran#es E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.. %mplitude E +inimumVVVVVV+aGimum VVVVVV.. +ake E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV.. +odel E VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV..

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## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## 2.B CONCLUSION: 2.C DUESTIONS:

-. Oist the four Luantities that can be measured in the laboratory \$ith the help of a multimeter. 9. 8n \$hat respect does an electronic voltmeter differs from its analo# counter partT <. ,o\$ much is the internal resistance of an ideal po\$er supplyT =. Chich operatin# control of "R7 is used to check its >*calibrationT 4. Chat to do if the sinusoidal \$aveform on the screen of "R7 moves fastT ?. Chat to try if the \$aveform amplitude does not fit on the "R7 screenT @. Chat is the maGimum freLuency and maGimum amplitude that can be measured \$ith the "R7 available in laboratoryT B. Crite the minimum volta#e that can be supplied by the si#nal #enerator available in laboratoryT 6. 8s it possible to test a diode \$ith multimeterT 8f yes, ho\$T -.. Chether the function #enerator available in laboratory is capable of #eneratin# a sa\$ tooth \$aveformT 8f yes, \$rite one application of sa\$ tooth si#nalT --. 8f the "R7 is po\$ered 7; and beam is not appearin# on the screen. Chat to doT -9. 8f it is reLuired to measure the freLuency of a sinusoidal si#nal, \$hich eLuipment is to be usedT -<. 8f your electronic circuit reLuires trian#ular si#nal (\$aveform! as its input, \$hich eLuipment you \$ill useT -=. Chat precautions are reLuired to be taken \$hile measurin# current \$ith the help of multimeterT -4. To see nature of si#nal, \$hich eLuipment is to be usedT -?. 8n laboratory ho\$ to kno\$ that the po\$er supply is overloadedT Chat is overloadin#T -@. Chat to do if the po\$er supply is overloadedT

Page /

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## EXPERIMENT NO. 3 C/ARECTERISTICS O: PN )UNCTION DIODE

3.1 AIM: To determine A*8 characteristic of I; Junction &iode and to find their static and
dynamic resistances.

## 3.2 PRIOR CONCEPTS:

Semi conductor theory I*; Function

Semiconductor material.

## 3.3 NEW CONCEPTS:

Proposition 1: *<I 4#r# t"risti s o2 \$io\$". The relationship bet\$een volta#e across and current throu#h (in for\$ard bias and reverse bias condition! I; Function diode is called their AM8 characteristic. Con "pt Str& t&r" 1:

Page 0

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

Proposition 2: St#ti #n\$ D1n#%i R"sist#n " o2 \$io\$". Static resistance (Rstatic ! of I*; Function diode is ratio of for\$ard volta#e (A current (8 !. &ynamic resistance is a ratio of small chan#e in A particular operatin# point ! to for\$ard to small chan#e in 8 . at

static

V + I + V + +

dynamic

## 3.' LEARNIN( OB)ECTI*ES:

Int"++" t&#+ S,i++s To identify the components and eLuipment reLuired. To observe the current throu#h diode for various volta#es. To calculate static and dynamic resistance of diode at a particular operatin# point. To identify the different re#ions of operation of diode from their characteristics. Motor S,i++s %bility to make the connections as per circuit dia#ram. %bility to note do\$n the readin#s. %bility to plot #raph of volta#e versus current.

3.- APPARATUS:
I; Function diode, bread board, connectin# \$ires Aoltmeter (.*-. A! M 7ne Aoltmeter (.*<.A! M 7ne %mmeters (.*-.m%!, (.*-.. m%! , (.*-.. H %! M 7ne each &" po\$er supply (.*<.A, .*9%

Page 1

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## 3.. CIRCUIT DIA(RAM:

#> :or7#r\$ 5i#sin3

## 5> R"!"rs" 5i#sin3

3.6 T/EOR0:
The diode is a semiconductor device formed from a Function of n*type and p type semiconductor materials. The lead connected to p*type material is called as anode and the lead connected to n*type material is called cathode. Chen diode is in for\$ard bias (hi#her potential is connected to the anode lead!, current flo\$s throu#h it. %s the volta#e across diode increases, current also increases. 8t is observed that
Page !*

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

the rate of chan#e in current increases \$ith increase in the volta#e across diode. %fter some potential drop across the diode, the rate of chan#e in current increases rapidly. The potential drop after \$hich current increases rapidly is called as "ut in Aolta#e. 8t is measured by dra\$in# a tan#ent on the slope of the A*8 "haracteristics from \$here current increases drastically. or :ermanium diode is it around ..9*..<A, \$hile for Silicon diode it is ..=*..@A. Chen diode is in reverse bias (hi#her potential is connected to the cathode lead!, ideally no current flo\$s throu#h it, practically a very small leaka#e current (in micro ampere! flo\$s due to some impurity char#e carriers. 8n the p*n Function diode the value of reverse breakdo\$n volta#e is very hi#h. 8f this volta#e is applied in the reverse bias, then very hi#h value of current \$ill flo\$ and diode \$ill #et dama#ed. The characteristic curve for practical diode is sho\$n in eGpected #raph.

## 3.B STEPWISE PROCEDURE:

Set up the eGperimental kit 7R 8dentify the components reLuired.. "onnect the voltmeter, ammeter (m%, H%! as sho\$n in circuit dia#ram for diode in for\$ard biasin# mode 7R +ake the connections as per circuit dia#ram. S\$itch on the po\$er supply and increase applied volta#e #radually.

;ote do\$n voltmeter and ammeter readin#s. Repeat steps 9 to = for reverse bias mode. Tabulate the observations and plot the #raphs for diode. "alculate static and dynamic resistance for diode from the #raph plotted.

3.C OBSER*ATIONS:
e aRm"a!n"urasl!" C4#r# t"risti (;ote dSo\$.NnD o foilloo \$\$ "in:#osrp87ec #ifric\$atCio A (A! (m%! AR (A! 8R ( %! th

Page !1

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

Type number of the diode E VVVVVVVVV. 1nee volta#e 3 cut in volta#e E VVVVVVVVV. :iven diode is :e 3 Si diode E VVVVVVVVV.

## 3.10 EXPECTED (RAP/S:

Ilot characteristics for A 3 8 and AR 3 8R for diode.

3.11 PRECAUTIONS:
-! 9! "heck up the connections made on the board to avoid open and short circuits. "onnections should be made properly.

Page !

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

3.12 RESULT:
The for\$ard and reverse characteristics of a I; Function diode are studied and observed. -! "ut*in*Aolta#e. 0 9! Static Resistance. 0 <! &ynamic Resistance. 0 =! Reverse Resistance. 0

3.13 CONCLUSION:

3.1' DUESTIONS:
-. Chat is depletion layerT 9. 8s it possible to reduce the cut*in*volta#e of diodeT 8f yes, ho\$T 8f no, ChyT <. +ention cut*in volta#e for Si and :e diode. =. Chat is unidirectional property of diodeT +ention its uses. 4. State the effect of dopin# on diode characteristicsT ?. "an diode be used as a s\$itchT 8f yes, ho\$T @. Chat are the maFority char#e carriers in for\$ard biased diodeT B. Chat \$ill happen if a volta#e more than I8A ratin# of diode is applied across the diodeT 6. Chat \$ill happen if volta#e more than reverse breakdo\$n volta#e is applied across diodeT -.. 8s it possible to check diode in the laboratoryT 8f yes, ho\$ to check themT --. Chere from to #et the ratin#s and specifications of diodeT -9. Cill there be any effect of rise in temperature on depletion layer of the diodeT 8f yes, \$hatT -<. &efine semiconductor diode. -=. Chat is meant by for\$ard biasT -4. Chat is meant by reverse biasT -?. State the nature of for\$ard and reverse characteristics of diode. -@. B"-.@ is a type of diode. Chat does B and " indicateT -B. rom the available resources, list five types of diodes and note do\$n their specificationsT -6. 8n some diodes a rin# is printed on it. &oes it #ive any informationT 8f yes, \$rite the information #ivenT

Page !!

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## EXPERIMENT NO. ' C/ARECTERISTICS O: ;ENER DIODE

'.1 AIM: To determine A*8 characteristic of 'ener &iode and to find their static and dynamic
resistances.

## '.2 PRIOR CONCEPTS:

Semi conductor theory I*; Function

## '.3 NEW CONCEPTS:

Proposition 1: *<I 4#r# t"risti s o2 A"n"r \$io\$". The relationship bet\$een volta#e across and current throu#h (in for\$ard bias and reverse bias condition! 'ener diode is called their AM8 characteristic. Con "pt Str& t&r" 1:

Page !"

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013
! to for\$ard current

Static resistance (Rstatic ! of 'ener diode is ratio of for\$ard volta#e (A (8 !. &ynamic resistance is a ratio of small chan#e in A to reverse current (8R!. A R static 8 WA dynamic W8 A R R reverse 8 R At p#rti &+#r Op"r#tin3 Point

## to small chan#e in 8 . at particular

operatin# point. Reverse resistance (Rreverse ! of 'ener diode is ratio of reverse volta#e (A R !

## '.' LEARNIN( OB)ECTI*ES:

Int"++" t&#+ S,i++s To identify the components and eLuipment reLuired.
To observe the current throu#h Dener diode for various volta#es. To calculate static and dynamic resistance of Dener diode at a particular operatin# point. To identify the different re#ions of operation of Dener diode from their characteristics.

Motor S,i++s %bility to make the connections as per circuit dia#ram. %bility to note do\$n the readin#s. %bility to plot #raph of volta#e versus current.

'.- APPARATUS:
'ener diode, bread board, connectin# \$ires Aoltmeter (.*-. A! M 7ne

Aoltmeter (.*<.A! M 7ne %mmeters (.*-.m%!, (.*-.. m%! , (.*-.. H %! M 7ne each &" po\$er supply (.*<.A, .*9%

Page !%

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## '.. CIRCUIT DIA(RAM:

#> :or7#r\$ 5i#sin3

Page !.

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

'.6 T/EOR0:
The circuit dia#ram to plot the A8 characteristics of a Dener diode is sho\$n. 'ener doide is a special diode \$ith increased amounts of dopin#. This is to compensate for the dama#e that occurs in the case of a pn Function diode \$hen the reverse bias eGceeds the breakdo\$n volta#e and thereby current increases at a rapid rate. %pplyin# a positive potential to the anode and a ne#ative potential to the cathode of the Dener diode establishes a for\$ard bias condition. The for\$ard characteristic of the Dener diode is same as that of a pn Function diode i.e. as the applied potential increases the current increases eGponentially. %pplyin# a ne#ative potential to the anode and positive potential to the cathode reverse biases the Dener diode. %s the reverse bias increases the current increases rapidly in a direction opposite to that of the positive volta#e re#ion. Thus under reverse bias condition breakdo\$n occurs. 8t occurs because there is a stron# electric filed in the re#ion of the Function that can disrupt the bondin# forces \$ithin the atom and #enerate carriers. The breakdo\$n volta#e depends upon the amount of dopin#. or a heavily doped diode depletion layer \$ill be thin and breakdo\$n occurs at lo\$ reverse volta#e and the breakdo\$n volta#e is sharp. Chereas a li#htly doped diode has a hi#her breakdo\$n volta#e. This eGplains the Dener diode characteristics in the reverse bias re#ion. The maGimum reverse bias potential that can be applied before enterin# the Dener re#ion is called the Ieak 8nverse Aolta#e referred to as I8A ratin# or the Ieak Reverse Aolta#e Ratin# (IRA ratin#!.

## '.B STEPWISE PROCEDURE:

Set up the eGperimental kit 7R 8dentify the components reLuired..
"onnect the voltmeter, ammeter (m%, H%! as sho\$n in circuit dia#ram for Dener diode in

for\$ard biasin# mode 7R +ake the connections as per circuit dia#ram. S\$itch on the po\$er supply and increase applied volta#e #radually.

;ote do\$n voltmeter and ammeter readin#s. Repeat steps 9 to = for reverse bias mode.
Tabulate the observations and plot the #raphs for Dener diode. "alculate static, dynamic and reverse resistance for Dener diode from the #raph plotted.

Page !/

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

A (A! 8 (m%!

## R"!"rs" C4#r# t"risti

AR (A! 8R ( %!

(;ote do\$n the follo\$in# specifications from &iode data manual! Type number of the diode E VVVVVVVVV. 1nee volta#e 3 cut in volta#e E VVVVVVVVV. :iven diode is :e 3 Si diode E VVVVVVVVV.

## '.10 EXPECTED (RAP/S:

Ilot characteristics for A 3 8 and AR 3 8R for diode.

Page !0

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

'.11 PRECAUTIONS:
-! "heck up the connections made on the board to avoid open and short circuits. 9! "onnections should be made properly.

'.12 RESULT:
The for\$ard and reverse characteristics of a I; Function diode are studied and observed. - !Break do\$n volta#e. 0 9! Reverse Resistance. 0 <! "ut*in*Aolta#e. 0 =! Static Resistance. 0 4! &ynamic Resistance. 0 ?! Reverse Resistance. 0

'.13 CONCLUSION:

'.1' DUESTIONS:
-. "ompare diode and Dener diode 9. Chat is 'ener Break*do\$n and %valanche Break*do\$n <. Oist five specifications of Dener diode =. 8s it possible to check Dener diode in the laboratoryT 8f yes, ho\$ to check themT 4. %pplications Dener diodes & pn Function diodes ?. or Dener diode after reverse breakdo\$n \$ith increase in current throu#h it, the volta#e across it VVVV.. VVV..(remains constant3varies! \$ith current. @. The #iven diode isVVVV..VVVVVVV(Silicon3:ermanium! diode B. 'ener diode eLuivalent model

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## EXPERIMENT NO. RECTI:IERS WIT/ OUT :ILTERS

-.1 AIM: To study of the performance of half 3full \$ave rectifier in term of ripple factor and
efficiency.

## -.2 PRIOR CONCEPTS:

I*; Function I*; Function &iode. Transformer

## -.3 NEW CONCEPTS:

Proposition 1: R" ti2i"rs TransformerXs Fob is to step*up or to step*do\$n the %" supply volta#e as per our reLuirement. 7ne of the very important applications of diode is in &" po\$er supply as a rectifier convert %" into &". &" Io\$er is because it supply is provides the important element of any eLuipment. This po\$er to ener#iDe all electronic circuits like to electronic

oscillators, amplifiers and so on. 8n electronic eLuipments, &.". Io\$er supply is must. or eGample, \$e canXt think of television , computer , radio, telephone, mobile as \$ell as measurin# instruments like "R7, multi*meter etc. Cithout &" po\$er supply. desi#n The reliability and performance of the electronic system proper necessary. The first block of &" po\$er supply is rectifier. Essentially rectifier needs unidirectional device. of po\$er supply is

## Rectifier may be defined as an unidirectional property hence

electronic device used to convert ac volta#e or current into unidirectional volta#e or current. &iode has suitable for rectifier. Rectifier broadly divided into t\$o cate#oriesE ,alf \$ave rectifier and full \$ave rectifier. 8n this eGperiment, you \$ill construct half \$ave rectifier full \$ave rectifier \$ithout filters.

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## Con "pt Str& t&r" 1:

Proposition 2: Ripp+" 2# tor8 R"3&+#tion #n\$ E22i i"n 1 o2 2&++F4#+2 7#!" r" ti2i"r. Ripple factor is defined as the ratio of rms value of ac component to the dc component in the output. Efficiency is the ratio of the dc output po\$er to ac input po\$er ripple factor 0 The r.m.s. value of a.c. component of output volta#e 0 Ar, r (rms! 0 8r, r (rms! The d.c. component of output volta#e Adc 8dc

Page "%

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## -.' LEARNIN( OB)ECTI*ES:

Int"++" t&#+ S,i++s To identify the components and eLuipment reLuired.
To observe the current in half \$ave rectifier and full \$ave rectifier circuit. To observe the volta#e drop across resistor of the half \$ave rectifier and full \$ave

rectifier circuit
To calculate ripple factor and efficiency of half \$ave rectifier and full \$ave rectifier

circuit. Motor S,i++s %bility to make the connections as per circuit dia#ram. %bility to note do\$n the readin#s.
%bility to plot #raph of volta#es of full \$ave and half \$ave rectifier circuits.

-.- APPARATUS:
Bread Board. 9<.A %" (-9*.*-9A! Transformer (-;oXs!. "athode Ray 7scilloscope (.*9.+,'!. &i#ital +ulti +eter (-;oXs!. &" %mmeter .*9..m% (-;oXs!. &iodes -; =..@ (9;oXs!. &ecade Resistance boG (-;oXs!. "onnectin# Cires.
Page ".

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## -.. CIRCUIT DIA(RAM:

#> /#+2 7#!" R" ti2i"r

## 5> :&++ 7#!" R" ti2i"r

-.6 T/EOR0:
/#+2 7#!" #n\$ 2&++ 7#!" 5ri\$3" r" ti2i"r: 8n half \$ave rectification, sin#le diode act as a half \$ave rectifier. The %.". supply to be rectified is applied in series \$ith diode and load resistance R O. %.". supply is #iven throu#h a

Page "/

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

transformer. &urin# positive half cycles of input %.". volta#e, this make diode for\$ard biased and hence it conducts current. &urin# ne#ative half cycles, diode is reverse biased and it conducts no current. Therefore, current flo\$ throu#h the diode durin# positive half cycles of %.". input volta#e only. it is blocked durin# ne#ative half cycles. The circuit consists of t\$o ,alf*\$ave rectifiers connected to a sin#le load resistance \$ith each diode takin# it in turn to supply current to the load. Chen point % is positive \$ith respect to point B, diode &- conducts in the for\$ard direction as indicated by the arro\$s. Chen point B is positive (in the ne#ative half of the cycle! \$ith respect to point %, diode &9 conducts in the for\$ard direction and the current flo\$in# throu#h resistor R is in the same direction for both circuits. %s the output volta#e across the resistor R is the sum of the t\$o \$aveforms, this type of circuit is also kno\$n as a Nbi*phaseN circuit. %s the spaces bet\$een each half*\$ave developed by each diode is no\$ bein# filled in by the other diode the avera#e &" output volta#e across the load resistor is no\$ double that of the sin#le half*\$ave rectifier circuit and is about ..?<@AmaGof the peak volta#e, assumin# no losses.

## -.B STEPWISE PROCEDURE:

"onnect the circuit as sho\$n in fi#ure -.

%pply %.". supply throu#h transformerP ind the current throu#h load resistance.

## Repeat the same above steps for fi#ure 9.

-.C OBSER*ATIONS:

Page "0

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

S.N o

## R"sist#n "= )>

I\$ =%A>

*# =*>

*\$ =*>

Ripp+":# tor r G *# F *\$

(;ote do\$n the follo\$in# specifications from &iode data manual! Type number of the diode E VVVVVVVVV.
%" 8nput volta#e (rms ! Arms0VVVVVV. &" output volta#e A&" 0VVVVVVVVV &" current E 8&" 0VVVVVVVVVVV. %" output volta#e (Ripple volta#e! Ar 0VVVVV.

## :&++ 7#!" R" ti2i"r:

S.N R"sist#n "= I\$ =%A *# =*> *\$ =*> Ripp+":# tor r G *# F o )> *\$ >

%" 8nput volta#e (rms ! Arms0VVVVVV. &" output volta#e A&" 0VVVVVVVVV &" current E 8&" 0VVVVVVVVVVV. %" output volta#e (Ripple volta#e! Ar 0VVVVV.

Page "1

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## /#+2 7#!" r" ti2i"r 7it4o&t 2i+t"r

S No
1 2 3 ' . 6 B

R"sist#n "=H>
100 H 200 H '00 H B00 H 1, H 2,H ',H -,H

I\$ =%A>

*#

*\$

*r%s

Io2 r"3&+#tion

"22i i"n 1

Ripp+"2# tor

Page %*

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## :&++ W#!" R" ti2i"r 7it4o&t 2i+t"r

S No
1 2 3 ' . 6 B

R"sist#n "=H>
100 H 200 H '00 H B00 H 1, H 2,H ',H -,H

I\$ =%A>

*#

*\$

*r%s

Io2 r"3&+#tion

"22i i"n 1

Ripp+"2# tor

-.11 PRECAUTIONS:
-! "heck up the connections made on the board to avoid open and short circuits. 9! "onnections should be made properly.

-.12 RESULT:
The output \$aveforms have been observed and the ripple factor, percenta#e of \$ave and full \$ave rectifiers \$ith out filters has been calculated.
a! /#+2 7#!" R" ti2i"r 7it4 o&t 2i+t"r: Ripple factor E (Arms 3 A&"! 0 VVVVVVV EfficiencyE (I&"3I%"!0VVVVVV.. Iercenta#e of re#ulation. 0VVVVVV.. b! :&++ 7#!" R" ti2i"r 7it4 o&t 2i+t"r: Ripple factor E (Arms 3 A&"! 0 VVVVVVV EfficiencyE (I&"3I%"!0VVVVVV.. Iercenta#e of re#ulation. 0VVVVVV..

re#ulation of a half

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

-.13 CONCLUSION:

-.1' DUESTIONS:
-. 8n a full*\$ave rectifier \$ithout filter, the ripple factor is (%! ..=B9 (%! -.9 =. Chat is re#ulationT 4. Chat peak factor and orm factorT ?. &efine peak inverse volta#e(I8A! @. The transformer utiliDation factor of a half*\$ave rectifier is approGimately (%! ..? (B! ..< ("! ..6 (&! -.B. % sin#le phase diode brid#e rectifier supplies a hi#hly inductive load. The load current can be assumed to be ripple free. The ac supply side current \$aveform \$ill be (%! sinusoidal (B! constant dc. ("! sLuare (&! trian#ular 6. "ompare half \$ave rectifier \$ith full \$ave rectifier interms of rms, avera#e, efficiency, peak factor, form factor, ripple factor ,I8A and compleGity. -.. ,o\$ ripple factor can be minimiDedT --. Chat are the types of filter T -9. 8n \$hich type of filter you \$ill #et less ripple, \$hy T -<. &oes the process of rectification alter the freLuency of the \$aveformT -=. Chat is the necessity of the transformer in the rectifier circuitT (B! -.9(B! ..9 ("! -.@6 ("! 9.9 (&! 9..4 (&! 9..<. 9. The value of ripple factor of a half*\$ave rectifier \$ithout filter is approGimately <. &efine rectifier efficiency

Page %

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## EXPERIMENT NO. . RECTI:IERS WIT/ :ILTERS

..1 AIM: To study of the performance of half 3full \$ave rectifier \$ith filter in term of ripple
factor and efficiency.

## ..2 PRIOR CONCEPTS:

I*; Function &iode. Transformer Rectifiers

## ..3 NEW CONCEPTS:

Proposition 1: :i+t"rs %s \$e have already seen, the rectifier circuitry takes the initial ac sine \$ave from the transformer or other source and converts it to pulsatin# dc. % full*\$ave rectifier \$ill produce the \$aveform sho\$n in eGpected \$aveforms, \$hile a half*\$ave rectifier \$ill pass only every other half*cycle to its output. This may be #ood enou#h for a basic battery char#er, althou#h some types of rechar#eable batteries still \$onKt like it. 8n any case, it is no\$here near #ood enou#h for most electronic circuitry. Ce need a \$ay to smooth out the pulsations and provide a much NcleanerN dc po\$er source for the load circuit. To accomplish this, \$e need to use a circuit called a filter. 8n #eneral terms, a filter is any circuit that \$ill remove some parts of a si#nal or po\$er source, \$hile allo\$in# other parts to continue on \$ithout si#nificant hinderance. 8n a po\$er supply, the filter must remove or drastically reduce the ac variations \$hile still makin# the desired dc available to the load circuitry. ilter circuits arenKt #enerally very compleG, but there are several variations. %ny #iven filter may involve capacitors, inductors, and3or resistors in some combination. Each such

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

combination has both advanta#es and disadvanta#es, and its o\$n ran#e of practical application. Ce \$ill eGamine a number of common filter circuits on this pa#e. Con "pt Str& t&r" 1:

Proposition 2: Ripp+" 2# tor8 R"3&+#tion #n\$ E22i i"n 1 o2 2&++F4#+2 7#!" r" ti2i"r Ripple factor is defined as the ratio of rms value of ac component to the dc component in the output. Efficiency is the ratio of the dc output po\$er to ac input po\$er

ripple factor3

The r.m.s. value of a.c. component of output volta#e The d.c. component of output volta#e ull \$ave rectifier

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

Efficiency( Y! !0

## dc output po\$er ac input po\$er

P dc P ac

5 of Re gulation

V V &L +L 4 -.. V +L

## ..' LEARNIN( OB)ECTI*ES:

Int"++" t&#+ S,i++s To identify the components and eLuipment reLuired.
To observe the current in half \$ave rectifier and full \$ave rectifier circuit. To observe the volta#e drop across resistor of the half \$ave rectifier and full \$ave

rectifier circuit
To calculate ripple factor and efficiency of half \$ave rectifier and full \$ave rectifier

circuit \$ith filter. Motor S,i++s %bility to make the connections as per circuit dia#ram. %bility to note do\$n the readin#s.
%bility to plot #raph of volta#es of full \$ave and half \$ave rectifier circuits.

..- APPARATUS:
Bread Board. 9<.A %" (-9*.*-9A! Transformer (-;oXs!. "athode Ray 7scilloscope (.*9.+,'!. &i#ital +ulti +eter (-;oXs!. &" %mmeter .*9..m% (-;oXs!. &iodes -; =..@ (9;oXs!. &ecade Resistance boG (-;oXs!.
"apacitors * -..HfF?<A(-;oXs!

"onnectin# Cires.
Page %.

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## ... CIRCUIT DIA(RAM:

#> /#+2 7#!" R" ti2i"r

Page %/

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

..6 T/EOR0:
:i+t"rs: The most commonly used filter circuits are -! Shunt capacitor filter 9! Series inductor filter <! "hoke in put filter or O* filter and =! "apacitor in put filter or Z Mfilter. 1. S4&nt #p# itor 2i+t"r : The shunt capacitor filter is obtained by placin# a capacitor "9 in parallel \$ith a load resistor RO . The capacitor "9 is so chosen that its reactance ( -3["9 ! at the freLuency of a.c. main, is very small as compared to the load RO. Then the a.c components find a lo\$ reactance shunt path throu#h the capacitor and are mostly bypassed. Thus, the a.c components or ripples flo\$in# throu#h the load decrease or in other \$ords ripples are filtered from the output volta#e. 2. S"ri"s in\$& tor 2i+t"r : The series inductor filter is obtained by placin# an inductor coil ( O! in series \$ith a load resistor RO. The inductor stores ener#y as ma#netic ener#y, \$hen the current is above its avera#e value and delivers that ener#y to the circuit \$hen the current tends to fall belo\$ the avera#e level. Thus, it reduces the pulsation of the rectifier output. 3. L J 2i+t"r : To meet the demand for the lo\$er ripple factors, series inductor and shunt capacitor are combined to#ether to #ive O M filter. 8n this filter the series inductor passes the d.c components from the rectifier output but introduces the hi#h reactance ( [O! path for a.c . The a.c components that remain after passin# throu#h the inductor are bypassed by the shunt capacitor "9 \$hich offers a lo\$ reactance ( -3["9! to them, but infinite resistance to d.c . Thus the output across the load RO possesses less a.c. component or the lo\$ ripple factor. '. K < 2i+t"r : Chen hi#her output volta#e at li#ht loads is desired , an input capacitor "- is added to O M filter to form a Z *filter. The use of ZM filter provides an output volta#e that approaches the peak value of the a.c potential of the source, the ripple components bein# very small.

## ..B STEPWISE PROCEDURE:

"onnect the circuit as sho\$n in fi#ure -.

%pply %.". supply throu#h transformerP ind the current throu#h load resistance.

Page %0

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## Repeat the same above steps for fi#ure 9.

..C OBSER*ATIONS:
/#+2 7#!" R" ti2i"r:

S.No

## R"sist#n "= I\$ =%A> )>

*# =*>

*\$ =*>

Ripp+":# tor r G *# F *\$

(;ote do\$n the follo\$in# specifications from &iode data manual! Type number of the diode E VVVVVVVVV.
%" 8nput volta#e (rms ! Arms0VVVVVV. &" output volta#e A&" 0VVVVVVVVV &" current E 8&" 0VVVVVVVVVVV. %" output volta#e (Ripple volta#e! Ar 0VVVVV.

## :&++ 7#!" R" ti2i"r:

S.N R"sist#n "= I\$ =%A *# =*> *\$ =*> Ripp+":# tor r G *# F o )> *\$ >

%" 8nput volta#e (rms ! Arms0VVVVVV. &" output volta#e A&" 0VVVVVVVVV &" current E 8&" 0VVVVVVVVVVV.

Page %1

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## ..10 EXPECTED (RAP/S:

Page .*

2013
Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology
Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

..11 PRECAUTIONS:
-! "heck up the connections made on the board to avoid open and short circuits. 9! "onnections should be made properly.

## ..13 CONC LUSIO N:

..12 RESULT:
The output \$aveforms have been observed and the ripple factor, percenta#e of re#ulation of a half \$ave and full \$ave rectifiers \$ith out filters has been calculated.
c! /#+2 7#!" R" ti2i"r 7it4 2i+t"r: Ripple factor E (Arms 3 A&"! 0 VVVVVVV EfficiencyE (I&"3I%"!0VVVVVV.. Iercenta#e of re#ulation. 0VVVVVV.. d! :&++ 7#!" R" ti2i"r 7it4 2i+t"r: Ripple factor E (Arms 3 A&"! 0 VVVVVVV EfficiencyE (I&"3I%"!0VVVVVV.. Iercenta#e of re#ulation. 0VVVVVV..

## ..1' DUES TIONS :

-. Chy you use capacitiv e filters in rectifier circuitsT 9. Chat are the advanta# es of full* \$ave rectifiers over half*

\$ave rectifiersT <. %dvanta#es and &isadvanta#es of ,alf \$ave rectifierT =. Chat is the difference bet\$een the Adc and Arms T 4. % sin#le phase diode brid#e rectifier supplies a hi#hly inductive load. The load current can be assumed to be ripple free. The ac supply side current \$aveform \$ill be (%! sinusoidal sLuare ?. Chat is filterT @. Chat are the types of filterT B. Chy the filter used in rectifier circuitT (B! constant dc. (&! trian#ular ("!

## Vig na na Bh ara thi Ins titu te of Te ch nol og y

Depa rtme nt of Elect ronic s and com muni catio n Engi neeri ng Elect ronic Devi ces and Circu its Labo rator y

2013

## 6.1 AIM: -! To Study the characteristics of "ommon Emitter Transistor "onfi#uration.

9! To find input resistance and output resistance \$ith the help of characteristics curves.

## 6.2 PRIOR CONCEPTS:

Transistor Types of transistor(;I; & I;I!
Types of transistor "onfi#urations

## 6.3 NEW CONCEPTS:

Proposition 1: Inp&t #n\$ O&tp&t 4#r# t"risti s o2 Tr#nsistor CE Con2i3&r#tion. CE Con2i3&r#tions: +ost BJT circuits employ the "ommon*Emitter confi#uration. This is due to the fact it is desirable to use the small base current as the current Luantity rather than the emitter current. 8n this case the input is connected bet\$een emitter and base \$hile output is taken across collector and base. Thus, the emitter of the transistor is common to both input and output circuits and hence the name common emitter connection or common emitter configuration 8n the "E confi#uration, 8B, the input current, and A"E, the output volta#e, are the independent variables, \$hereas the input volta#e ABE and the output current 8" are the dependent variables. T4" O&tp&t C4#r# t"risti s: The common*emitter output characteristics is the family of curves sho\$n in output characteristic eGpected #raph in \$hich 8" versus A"E is plotted for various values of 8B. T4" Inp&t C4#r# t"risti s: The input characteristics are curves \$hich display the relationship bet\$een 8B and ABE for different values of A"E.

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

Page .!

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## Proposition 2: A ti!"8 C&t<o22 #n\$ S#t&r#tion R"3ion

8n this active re#ion, 8" increases sli#htly as A"E increases. The slope of the curve is little

bit more than the output characteristics of "B confi#uration. ,ence, the output resistance of this confi#uration is less as compared to "B confi#uration.

Since the value of 8" increases \$ith increase in A"E at constant 8B, the value of current amplification factor also increases. Chen A"E falls belo\$ the value of ABE (i.e. belo\$ a fe\$ tenth of a volt!, 8 " decreases rapidly. 8n fact at this sta#e, the collector base Function is also for\$ard biased and the transistor \$ork in saturation region. 8n this saturation re#ion, 8" becomes independent and it does not depend upon the input current 8B.

8n the active re#ion, a small chan#e in base current 8 B produces a lar#e chan#e in output

current 8". 8" \/8B Chen input current 8B0., the collector current 8" is not Dero but its value is eLual to the reverse leaka#e current 8"E7 (i.e. collector emitter current \$hen base is open!.

Page .%

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

Page ..

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## 6.' LEARNIN( OB)ECTI*ES:

Int"++" t&#+ S,i++s To identify the components and eLuipment reLuired.
To observe the variations in current throu#h Base \$ith respect to Base to Emitter volta#e. To observe the variations in current throu#h "ollector \$ith respect to "ollector to Emitter

volta#e.
To calculate the transistor parameters (i.e. input resistance and output resistance and

## amplification factor! at a particular operatin# point.

To identify the different re#ions of operation of transistor from its characteristics and

label them. Motor S,i++s %bility to make the connections as per circuit dia#ram. %bility to note do\$n the readin#s.
%bility to plot #raph of volta#es versus current.

6.- APPARATUS:
Bread Board. &" Re#ulated Io\$er Supply (.*<.A3-%!. &" %mmeters .*9..m% (-;oXs!, .*9..H% (-;oXs!. &" Aoltmeters .*9.A (9;oXs!.
Resistors \$ith ]-.5 tolerance (-F9C!EM -..1

(-;oXs!,-1

(-;oXs!.

Page ./

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## 6.. CIRCUIT DIA(RAM:

6.6 T/EOR0:
The characteristic curves of BJT are not only helpful in studyin# the behavior of the transistor but also in determinin# the re#ion of operation for the transistor. %s \$as done \$ith a diode, \$e can dra\$ a load line on the above curves to determine the operatin# point of the transistor. The intersection of the load line \$ith the curves #ives the operatin# point, referred to as the Q*point.
8n the active re#ion, the collector current is independent of the value of the collector volta#e and hence the transistor behaves as an ideal current source \$here the current is determined by A BE. The collector current is dependent on the base current as,

8
\$here

"

\8

B (\ -! 8 "7 A"E

costant

(-!

8 \ 8" B

(9!

Page .0

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

%nother parameter of interest in the active re#ion is , the current transfer ratio, or common base current #ain, \$hich is defined by

8 " 8

"7 A "E E

constant

(<!

and

^ - ^

(=!

## Lo#\$ +in" #n#+1sis

The operatin# point of a BJT can be found #raphically usin# the concept of load line .% load line is the relationship bet\$een 8" and A"E that is imposed on BJT by the eGternal circuit . or a #iven value of 8B , the 8" relationship bet\$een 8" and A"E characteristics curve of a BJT is the A"E values \$hich satisfy both and A"E as is set by BJT internals. The intersection of the load line

## \$ith the BJT characteristics represent a pair of 8" and Ioint .

Critin# the output loop eLuation from i#ure , \$e have

conditions and , therefore ,is the operatin# point of BJT (often called the Q point or Quiescent

or lar#e,

(4! (?!

"

(@!

## (sin# eLuations 4 and @, \$e can \$riteE

A"" * 8"

(R

"

R ! A E "E

(B!

This is the (strai#ht line! eLuation of the load line on a plot of 8 " vs A"E, \$here A"" is the po\$er supply volta#e. The aGis crossin#s can be found by settin# 8 "0. or A"E 0 ..

Page .1

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## 6.B STEPWISE PROCEDURE:

-. "onnections are made as per the "ircuit &ia#ram sho\$n above. :or Inp&t C4#r# t"risti s:<
9. By varyin# the A"", set the A"E 0 9A and keep it as constant then vary the input volta#e

source ABB from (.*-.A! in small steps and note do\$n correspondin# input volta#e (ABE! in volts and input current (8B! in H% readin#s and tabulate.
<. Repeat the step M 9 for different values of A"E 0 < to ?A.

=. 4.

Ilot a #raph by takin# the input volta#e (A BE! in volts on R*aGis and input current (8 B! in H% on >*aGis. "alculate the input resistance

:or o&tp&t C4#r# t"risti s:< ?. 1eep 8nput "urrent 8B 0-.H% as constant by varyin# the 8nput volta#e A BB and vary the output volta#e source A"" from (.*-.A! in small steps and note do\$n correspondin# output volta#e (A"E! in volts and output current (8"! in m% readin#s and tabulate. 6. Repeat the step * ? for different values of 8B 0 9. to =.H%. B. Ilot a #raph by takin# the output volta#e (A"E! in volts on R*aGis and output current (8"! in
m% on >*aGis. 6. "alculate the output resistance

## -.. "alculate the current #ain

6.C OBSER*ATIONS:
Inp&t C4#r# t"risti s: S.No *CE G 2 * *BE=*> IB =LA> *CE G ' * *BE=*> IB =LA> *CE G . * *BE=*> IB =LA>

Page /*

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

O&tp&t C4#r# t"risti s: S.No IB G 10 LA *CE=*> IC =%A> IB G 20 LA *CE=*> IC =%A> IB G '0 LA *CE=*> IC =%A>

=Not" \$o7n t4" 2o++o7in3 sp" i2i #tions 2ro% \$#t# %#n&#+> Type no. of TransistorE VVVVVVVVVVVV +aGimum "ollector current ratin# VVVVVV. m%. +aGimum "ollector volta#e ratin#E VVVVVV.A

Page /1

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

6.11 PRECAUTIONS:
-! "heck up the connections made on the board to avoid open and short circuits. 9! "onnections should be made properly.

6.12 RESULT:
The input and output parameters of a #iven transistor in common emitter mode have been measured and plotted. i! 8nput resistance (Ri!. 0 ii! 7utput resistance (Ro!. 0 iii! "urrent #ain (\!. 0

6.13 CONCLUSION:

6.1' DUESTIONS:
-. Chich confi#uration is best and \$hyT 9. :ive the comparison of all confi#urations in BJTT <. Chat is the ran#e of \ for the transistorT =. Chat are the input and output impedances of "E confi#urationT 4. &ra\$ dia#ram of "E confi#uration for I;I transistorT ?. Chat is the current and volta#e #ain of "E confi#urationT @. Sho\$ relationship bet\$een %lpha and BetaT B. Chat is the application of "E confi#urationT 6. Chat is the application of "" confi#urationT -.. Chat is TransistorT --. Chen transistor act as amplifierT -9. Chat is meant by Q*pointT -<. Chy BJT is current controlled deviceT

Page /!

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## EXPERIMENT NO. B COMMON BASE TRANSISTOR C/ARACTERISTICS

B.1 AIM: -! To Study the characteristics of "ommon Base Transistor "onfi#uration.
9! To find input resistance and output resistance \$ith the help of characteristics curves.

## B.2 PRIOR CONCEPTS:

Transistor Types of transistor(;I; & I;I! Types of transistor "onfi#urations

## B.3 NEW CONCEPTS:

Proposition 1: Inp&t #n\$ O&tp&t 4#r# t"risti s o2 Tr#nsistor CE Con2i3&r#tion. CB Con2i3&r#tions: 8n this case the input is connected bet\$een emitter and base \$hile output is taken across collector and base. Thus, the base of the transistor is common to both input and output circuits and hence the name common base connection or common base configuration5 T4" O&tp&t C4#r# t"risti s: 8n "B confi#uration, the curve plotted bet\$een collector current 8" and collector*base volta#e A"B at constant emitter current 8E is called output characteristics. The number of characteristic curves can be plotted for different settin#s of 8E. T4" Inp&t C4#r# t"risti s: 8n "B confi#uration the curve plotted bet\$een emitter current 8E and the emitter*base volta#e AEB at constant collector*base volta#e A"B is called input characteristics. % number of characteristics can be plotted for different settin#s of A"B. .

Page /%

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## Proposition 2: A ti!"8 C&t<o22 #n\$ S#t&r#tion R"3ion 8n terms of Function biasin#E

8n the active re#ion, \$here collector*base Function is reverse biased, the collector current 8" is almost eLual to the emitter current 8E. The transistor is al\$ays operated in this re#ion.

8n the active re#ion, the curves are almost flat. % very lar#e chan#e in A "B produces only

a tiny chan#e in 8". 8t means that the circuit has very hi#h output resistance.
Chen A"B becomes positive i.e. the collector*base Function is for\$ard biased, the

collector current 8" (for a #iven 8E! decreases abruptly. This is the saturated re#ion. 8n this re#ion 8" does not depend upon 8E.

Chen 8E0., collector current 8" is not Dero althou#h its value is very small. 8n fact, this is the reverse leaka#e current i.e. 8"B7 that flo\$s in the collector circuit.

Page /.

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

Page //

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## B.' LEARNIN( OB)ECTI*ES:

Int"++" t&#+ S,i++s To identify the components and eLuipment reLuired.
To observe the variations in current throu#h Emitter \$ith respect to Base to Emitter

volta#e.
To observe the variations in current throu#h "ollector \$ith respect to "ollector to Base

volta#e.
To calculate the transistor parameters (i.e. input resistance and output resistance and

## amplification factor! at a particular operatin# point.

To identify the different re#ions of operation of transistor from its characteristics and

label them. Motor S,i++s %bility to make the connections as per circuit dia#ram. %bility to note do\$n the readin#s.
%bility to plot #raph of volta#es versus current.

B.- APPARATUS:
Bread Board. &" Re#ulated Io\$er Supply (.*<.A3-%!. &" %mmeters .*9..m% (-;oXs!, .*9..H% (-;oXs!. &" Aoltmeters .*9.A (9;oXs!.
Resistors \$ith ]-.5 tolerance (-F9C!EM -..1

(-;oXs!,-1

(-;oXs!.

Page /0

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## B.. CIRCUIT DIA(RAM:

B.6 T/EOR0:
T\$o volta#es ABE and A"B are applied to the emitter E and collector " of the transistor \$ith respect to the common base B. The BE Function is for\$ard biased \$hile the "B Function is reverse biased. The behavior of the ;I;*transistor is determined by its t\$o I;*FunctionsE

The for\$ard biased base*emitter (BE! I;*Function allo\$s the free electrons to flo\$ from the emitter throu#h the I;*Function to form the emitter current 8E.

%s the I*type base is thin and li#htly doped, only a small number of the electrons

from the emitter are combined \$ith the holes in base to form the base current 8B, \$hile most of the electrons #o throu#h the base to reach the collector*base Function to form the collector current 8". The ratio of the output current 8" and the input current 8E is defined as the "B current gain or current transfer ratioE 8 " 08 E

Page /1

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

or e G a m p l e , ^

..66 indicates t h a t

## 665 of the electrons from the

emitter arrive at the collector to form 8" \$ h i l e only -5 combined \$ith the hole in the base to form 8B. _ The reverse biased collector*base ("B! I;*Function blocks the maFority carriers (holes in the I*type base and electrons in ;*type collector!, but lets the minority carriers to #o throu#h, includin# the free electrons in the base comin# from the emitter ^ 8 E , and the reverse saturation current of the collector*base I;*Function 8"B7 (much smaller than ^ 8 E !. The relationship bet\$een the output 8" and the input 8E can be found asE 8 " ^8 E 8 "B7 ^8 E

(- * ^!

## B.B STEPWISE PROCEDURE:

-. "onnections are made as per the "ircuit &ia#ram sho\$n above. :or Inp&t C4#r# t"risti s:< 9. By varyin# the A"", set the A"E 0 9A and keep it as constant then vary the input volta#e source AEE from (.*-.A! in small steps and note do\$n correspondin# input volta#e (A EB! in volts and input current (8E! in m% readin#s and tabulate. <. Repeat the step M 9 for different values of A"E 0 < to ?A. =. Ilot a #raph by takin# the input volta#e (AEB! in volts on R*aGis and input current (8E! in m% on >*aGis. 4. "alculate the input resistance

Page 0*

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

:or o&tp&t C4#r# t"risti s:< ?. 1eep 8nput "urrent 8E 09m% as constant by varyin# the 8nput volta#e A EE and vary the output volta#e source A"" from (.*-.A! in small steps and note do\$n correspondin# output volta#e (A"B! in volts and output current (8"! in m% readin#s and tabulate. 6. Repeat the step * ? for different values of 8E 0< to ? m%. B. Ilot a #raph by takin# the output volta#e (A "B! in volts on R*aGis and output current (8"! in
m% on >*aGis. 6. "alculate the output resistance

## -.. "alculate the current #ain

B.C OBSER*ATIONS:
Inp&t C4#r# t"risti s: S.No *CB G 2 * *EB=*> IE =%A> *CB G ' * *EB=*> *CB G . * *EB=*> IE =%A>

O&tp&t C4#r# t"risti s: S.No IE G 2 %A *CB=*> IC =%A> IE G ' %A *CB=*> IE G . %A *CB=*> IC =%A>

=Not" \$o7n t4" 2o++o7in3 sp" i2i #tions 2ro% \$#t# %#n&#+> Type no. of TransistorE VVVVVVVVVVVV +aGimum "ollector current ratin# VVVVVV. m%. +aGimum "ollector volta#e ratin#E VVVVVV.A

Page 01

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## B.10 EXPECTED (RAP/S:

B.11 PRECAUTIONS:
-! "heck up the connections made on the board to avoid open and short circuits. 9! "onnections should be made properly.

B.12 RESULT:
The input and output parameters of a #iven transistor in common Base mode have been measured and plotted. i! 8nput resistance (Ri!. 0 ii! 7utput resistance (Ro!. 0 iii! "urrent #ain ( !. 0

## B.13 CONCLUSION: B.1' DUESTIONS:

-. Chat is common base confi#urationT 9. Chy "B confi#uration havin# no current #ain and sho\$ its volta#e #ainT <. Chat is the application of "B confi#urationT =. 8n the name of B" -.@ \$hat B, " and -.@ stands forT 4. Chat is the ran#e of ^ for the transistorT ?. Chat are the input and output impedances of "B confi#urationT @. &efine ^(alpha!T B. Chat is E%RO> effectT 6. &ra\$ dia#ram of "B confi#uration for I;I transistorT -.. Chat is the po\$er #ain of "B confi#urationT
Page 0

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## EXPERIMENT NO. C :REDUENC0 RESPONSE O: CE AMPLI:IER

C.1AIM: To 7bserve the freLuency and #ain response of a "ommon Emitter amplifier.
ind the -. :ain of the amplifier in dB. 9. Band \$idth \$ith the help of #raph (freLuency AS #ain!.

Transistor

## C.3 NEW CONCEPTS:

Proposition 1: A%p+i2i"r %mplification is the process of increasin# the stren#th of a S8:;%O. 8n NElectronicsN, si#nal amplifiers are commonly used devices as they have the ability to amplify a relatively small input si#nal, for eGample from a Sensor such as a photo*device, into a much lar#er output si#nal to drive a Relay, lamp or loudspeaker for eGample. There are many forms of electronic circuits classed as amplifiers, from 7perational %mplifiers and Small Si#nal %mplifiers up to Oar#e Si#nal and Io\$er %mplifiers. %mplifiers can be thou#ht of as a simple boG or block containin# the amplifyin# device, such as a Transistor, ield Effect Transistor or 7p*amp, \$hich has t\$o input terminals and t\$o output terminals (#round bein# common! \$ith the output si#nal bein# much #reater than that of the input si#nal as it has been N%mplifiedN.

Page 0%

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## Con "pt str& t&r" 1:

Proposition 2: :r"E&"n 1 r"spons" The freLuency response of an amplifier refers to the band of freLuencies or freLuency ran#e that the amplifier \$as desi#ned to amplify. The three broad cate#ories of freLuency response for amplifiers are %(&87 %+IO8 8ER, R %+IO8 8ER, and A8&E7 %+IO8 8ER.%n audio amplifier is desi#ned to amplify freLuencies bet\$een -4 ,D and 9. k,D. 8n the term rf amplifier, the NrfN stands for radio freLuency. These amplifiers are desi#ned to amplify freLuencies bet\$een -. k,D and -..,... +,D. % video amplifier is an amplifier desi#ned to amplify a band of freLuencies from -. ,D to ? +,D. (#in: The #ain of an amplifier is the ratio of output to input po\$er or amplitude, and is usually measured in decibels. (Chen measured in decibels it is lo#arithmically related to the po\$er ratioE 6(dB!0-. lo#(Pout 3(Pin!!. B#n\$7i\$t4: The ran#e of freLuency that an amplifier can amplify properly is called the band\$idth of that particular amplifier. (sually the band\$idth is measured based on the half

Page 0.

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

po\$er points i.e. the points \$here the output po\$er becomes half the peak output po\$er in the freLuency As output #raph.

C&to22 2r"E&"n 1: The cutoff freLuency is defined as the freLuency at \$hich the ratio of the output input

Aout Ain
O ,

Page 0/

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## C.' LEARNIN( OB)ECTI*ES:

Int"++" t&#+ S,i++s To identify the components and eLuipment reLuired.

To observe the phase difference bet\$een input volta#e to the output volta#e.

To calculate the amplifier parameters (:ain, "utoff freLuencies and Band\$idth!. To obtain transient response and freLuency response of common*emitter amplifier.

Motor S,i++s %bility to make the connections as per circuit dia#ram. %bility to note do\$n the readin#s.
%bility to plot #raph of volta#es versus freLuency.

C.- APPARATUS:
-. 9. <. =. 4. Bread Board. &" Re#ulated Io\$er Supply (.*<.A3-%!. unction #enerator (-,D*-+,D Sine3SLuare3Trian#le!. "athode Ray 7scilloscope (.*9.+,D!. Resistors \$ith ]-.5 tolerance (-F9C!EM =@. (-;oXs!,-1 (-;oXs!,=.@1 (9;oXs!,<<1 (-;oXs!. ?. "apacitors * -.HfF?<A(9;oXs!,-..HfF?<A(-;oXs!. @. Transistor * B"-.@(-;oXs!. B. "onnectin# \$ires.

Page 00

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

C.6 T/EOR0:
"ommon emitter amplifier is used to amplify \$eak si#nal. 8t utiliDes ener#y from &" po\$er supply to amplify input %" si#nal. Biasin# of transistor is done to tie Q*point at the middle of the load line. 8n the circuit sho\$n, volta#e divider bias is formed usin# resistors =.@1 and <<1. &urin# positive cycle, for\$ard bias of base*emitter Function increases and base current increases. Q point moves in up\$ard direction on load line and collector current increases times than base current. (is current #ain !. "ollector resistor drop 8cRc increases due to increase in collector current 8c. This \$ill reduce collector volta#e. Thus durin# positive input cycle, \$e #et ne#ative output cycle. Chen input is ne#ative cycle, for\$ard bias of base*emitter Function and base current \$ill reduce. "ollector current reduces (Q*point moves do\$n side!. &ue to decrease in collector current, collector resistance volta#e drop 8cRc reduces and collector volta#e increases. "han#e in collector volta#e is much hi#her than applied base volta#e because less base current variation causes lar#e collector current variation due to current #ain B. This lar#e collector current further multiplied by collector resistance Rc \$hich provides lar#e volta#e output. Thus "E amplifier provides volta#e #ain and amplifies the input si#nal. Cithout emitter resistance #ain of amplifier is hi#hest but it is not stable. Emitter resistance is used to provide stability. To compensate effect of emitter resistance emitter bypass capacitor is used \$hich provides %" #round to the emitter. This \$ill increase #ain of amplifier. "E amplifier does not provide constant volta#e #ain at all freLuencies. &ue to emitter bypass and couplin# capacitors r hence emitter bypass capacitor does not provide perfect %" #round (Emitter impedance is hi#h!. There is volta#e drop across couplin# capacitor at lo\$ freLuency because of hi#h reactance at lo\$ freLuencies. :ain of "E amplifier also reduces at very hi#h freLuency because of stray capacitances. %udio freLuency transistors like %"-9@, %"-9B \$orks for audio freLuency ran#e. 8t does not provide lar#e volta#e #ain for freLuency #reater than 9. 1,D. +edium freLuency transistors are B"-=@ 3 B"-= B3 B"4=@3 B"4=B provides volta#e #ain up to 4.. 1,D. ,i#h educes #ain of amplifier at lo\$ freLuency. Reactance of capacitor is hi#h at lo\$ freLuency, freLuency transistors like B -6=3 B 46=3 B 9.. provides #ain at radio freLuencies in the +,D ran#e. 8f \$e apply lar#e si#nal at the input of "E amplifier, transistor driven into saturation re#ion durin# positive peak and cut*off re#ion durin# ne#ative peak (Q*point reaches to saturation and cut*off points!. &ue to this clippin#
Page 01

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

occurs in amplified si#nal. So \$e have to apply small si#nal at the input and ensure that transistor operates in active re#ion.

## C.B STEPWISE PROCEDURE:

-. "onnections are made as per the "ircuit &ia#ram sho\$n above. 9. %pply the input from the function #enerator \$ith -1,D freLuency and fiGed <.mA of
amplitude peak to peak (As! at the input terminals of the circuit. <. 7bserve input and output \$aveforms from "R7 =. By keepin# the input si#nal amplitude constant at (A S!, vary the freLuency of the

function #enerator from 4.,D to -+,D in re#ular steps. 4. ;ote do\$n the correspondin# output volta#es (A0! from "R7 for each freLuency and tabulate. ?. Ilot a #raph bet\$een by takin# the freLuency in ,D on R*aGis and #ain in dB on >*aGis. @. "alculate the band\$idth from #raph.

C.C OBSER*ATIONS:
S.No :r"E&"n 1 =/A> *sG30%* *o =!o+ts> (#in A!G*oF*s (#in in =\$B>G20 +o3=A!>

=Not" \$o7n t4" 2o++o7in3 sp" i2i #tions 2ro% \$#t# %#n&#+> Type no. of TransistorE VVVVVVVVVVVV +aGimum "ollector current ratin# VVVVVV. m%. +aGimum "ollector volta#e ratin#E VVVVVV.A

Page 1*

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## C.10 EXPECTED (RAP/S:

Tr#nsi"nt r"spons"

:r"E&"n 1 r"spons"

## fh 0 (pper cut*off freLuency

Band\$idth 0 fO*fh

Page 11

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

C.11 PRECAUTIONS:
-. "heck the connections made on the board to avoid open and short circuits. 9. "onnections should be made properly.

C.12 RESULT:
The #ain and band\$idth of a common emitter amplifier has been measured. i! :ain in dB. 0 ii! Band\$idth. 0

C.13 CONCLUSION:

C.1' DUESTIONS:
-. Chat is phase difference bet\$een input and output \$aveforms of "E amplifierT 9. Chat type of biasin# is used in the #iven circuitT <. 8f the #iven transistor is replaced by a p*n*p, can \$e #et output or notT =. Chat is effect of emitter*bypass capacitor on freLuency responseT 4. Chat is the effect of couplin# capacitorT ?. Chat is re#ion of the transistor so that it is operated as an amplifierT @. ,o\$ does transistor acts as an amplifierT B. &ra\$ the h*parameter model of "E amplifierT 6. Chat type of transistor confi#uration is used in intermediate sta#es of a multista#e amplifierT -.. Chat is Early effectT
--. Chat are the applications of "E amplifierT

Page 1!

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## EXPERIMENT NO. 10 :IELD E::ECT TRANSISTOR C/ARACTERISTICS

10.1 AIM: To determine the &rain and Transfer characteristics of Junction ield Effect
Transistor (J ET!

## 10.2 PRIOR CONCEPTS:

ield effect transistor. Types of Junction field effect transistor (n channel and p channel!

## 10.3 NEW CONCEPTS:

Proposition 1: Dr#in #n\$ Tr#ns2"r 4#r# t"risti s ):ET. The &rain characteristics of J ET is a #raph of drain to source volta#e (A &S! versus drain current(8&!for constant #ate to source volta#e(A:S!. %nother characteristic curve for J ET is transfer characteristic curve. This is a variation curve of drain current 8& correspondin# to #ate*source volta#e A:S \$hile the drain*source volta#e A&S is constant. Con "pt Str& t&r" 1:

Page 1%

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

Proposition 2: R"3ions o2 op"r#tions o2 ):ET The A*8 characteristics of J ET can be #rouped in three re#ions viD. ohmic re#ion \$here it is steeper and has linear relation bet\$een 8 & and A&S, pinch*off*re#ion \$here relation bet\$een 8& and A&S is remains constant and break do\$n re#ion \$here 8 & suddenly increases \$ith small increase in A&S. Con "pt Str& t&r" 2:

Page 1.

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## 10.' LEARNIN( OB)ECTI*ES:

Int"++" t&#+ S,i++s To identify the components and eLuipment reLuired. To observe the variations in current throu#h drain \$ith respect to drain to source volta#e.

To calculate the J ET parameters (i.e. drain dynamic resistance, mutual conductance and

amplification factor! at a particular operatin# point. To identify the different re#ions of operation of J ET from its characteristics and label them. Motor S,i++s %bility to make the connections as per circuit dia#ram. %bility to note do\$n the readin#s.
%bility to plot #raph of volta#es versus current.

10.- APPARATUS:
Bread Board. &" Re#ulated Io\$er Supply (.*<.A3-%!. &" %mmeters .*9..m% (-;oXs!. &" Aoltmeters .*9.A (9;oXs!. Resistors \$ith ]-.5 tolerance (-F9C!E* -.1 ET M B C-- (-;oXs!. "onnectin# \$ires.

(-;oXs!,-..

(-;oXs!.

Page 1/

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## 10.. CIRCUIT DIA(RAM:

10.6 T/EOR0:
Transistor is a kind of current*control device, and its #eneratin# current includes electron flo\$ and hole flo\$. The transistor is therefore referred to as bipolar Function transistor. ET is a unipolar device, in \$hich the current of n*channel electron flo\$ and the current of p*channel is formed by hole flo\$. volta#e*control device. ET is formed by ET is a kind of

## ET can also perform the functions that #eneral transistors (BJT!

do, \$ith the only eGception that the bias conditions and characteristics are different. Their applications shall thus be chosen in accordance \$ith related advanta#es and dra\$backs.

Page 10

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## ET has very hi#h input impedance, typically around -.. +U.

Chen ET is used as s\$itch, there is no offset volta#e. ET is relatively independent of radiation, \$hereas BJT is very sensitive to radiation (\ value \$ill be varied!.
8ntrinsic noise of ET is lo\$er than BJT, \$hich makes ET suitable for the input sta#e of

lo\$*level amplifier &urin# operation the thermal stability of ET is hi#her than that of BJT. ,o\$ever, ET also has some dra\$backsE comparin# \$ith BJT, its product of #ain and band\$idth is smaller and it is easier to be dama#ed by static electricity. The J ET transistor is a three terminal device. The terminals are labeled as drain (&!, source (S! and #ate (:!.

## 10.B STEPWISE PROCEDURE:

-. "onnections are made as per the "ircuit &ia#ram sho\$n above. :or Dr#in C4#r# t"risti s:< 9. By varyin# the A::, set the A:S 0 *..4A and keep it as constant then vary the A&& from (.* -.A! in small steps and note do\$n correspondin# (A &S! in volts and (8&! in m% readin#s and tabulate. <. Repeat the step M 9 for different values of A:S 0 *- to *-.4A. =. Ilot a #raph by takin# the (A&S! in volts on R*aGis and (8&! in m% on >*aGis. 4. "alculate the drain resistance :or o&tp&t C4#r# t"risti s:< ?. 1eep the A&S 0 -A as constant by varyin# the A&& and vary the A:: from (.*-.A! in small steps and note do\$n correspondin# (A:S! in volts and (8&! in m% readin#s and tabulate. @. Repeat the step * ? for different values of A&S 0 9 to =A. B. Ilot a #raph by takin# the (A:S! in volts on R*aGis and (8&! in m% on >*aGis. 6. "alculate the Transconductance -.."alculate the %mplification factor H .

Page 11

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

10.C OBSER*ATIONS:
Dr#in C4#r# t"risti s: *(S G <0.-* S.No *DS=*> ID =%A> *(S G <1* *DS=*> *(S G <1.- * *DS=*> ID =%A>

Tr#ns2"r C4#r# t"risti s: S.No *DS G 1* *(S=*> ID =%A> *DS G 2* *(S=*> ID =%A> *DS G '* *(S=*> ID =%A>

(;ote do\$n the follo\$in# specifications from data manual! Type no. of ET E VVVVVVVVVVVV +aGimum drain current ratin# VVVVVV. m%. +aGimum drain volta#e ratin#E VVVVVV.A

Page 1**

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

10.11 PRECAUTIONS:
-! "heck up the connections made on the board to avoid open and short circuits. 9! "onnections should be made properly.

10.12 RESULT:
The drain and transfer characteristics, %mplification factor of a J ET in common source mode have been measured and plotted. i! &rain resistance (rd!. 0 ii! Transconductance (#m!. 0 iii! %mplification factor (H!. 0

10.13 CONCLUSION:

10.1' DUESTIONS:
-. Chat is channel in J ETT 9. ,o\$ many Functions are there in J ETT <. 8n an electronic circuit it is reLuired to have hi#h input impedance. Chich device \$ill you use as a input deviceT =. Chat does an arro\$ on the #ate terminal indicate in the symbol of J ETT 4. ,o\$ to test J ET in the laboratoryT ?. 8f there is no indication on J ET body about its terminals, ho\$ to identify themT @. Chy is J ET used as an input deviceT B. J ET is unipolar or bipolarT Chy it is soT 6. "ompare J ET and BJT. -.. Chat is pinch*off in J ETT --. &ra\$ symbol of ;*channel ET. -9. &ra\$ symbol of I*channel +7S ET.

Page 1*

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## EXPERIMENT NO. 11 :REDUENC0 RESPONSE O: COMMON SOURCE AMPLI:IER

11.1AIM: To 7bserve the freLuency and #ain response of a "ommon Source ET amplifier.
ind the -. :ain of the amplifier in dB. 9. Band \$idth \$ith the help of #raph (freLuency AS #ain!.

## ield Effect Transistor ET confi#urations

Types of ET

Biasin# %mplifiers

## 11.3 NEW CONCEPTS:

Proposition 1: :ET A%p+i2i"rs ield*effect transistor amplifiers provide an eGcellent volta#e #ain \$ith the added feature of hi#h input impedance. They are also lo\$*po\$er*consumption confi#urations \$ith #ood freLuency ran#e and minimal siDe and \$ei#ht. J ETs, depletion +7S ETs, and +ES ETs can be used to desi#n amplifiers havin# similar volta#e #ains. The depletion +7S ET (+ES ET! circuit, ho\$ever, has much hi#her input impedance than a similar J ET confi#uration. Chereas a BJT device controls a lar#e output (collector! current by means of a relatively small input (base! current, the ET device controls an output (drain! current by means of a small input (#ate* volta#e! volta#e. 8n #eneral, therefore, the BJT is a current'controlled device and the ET is a voltage'controlled device.

Page 1*"

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## Con "pt str& t&r" 1:

Proposition 2: 2r"E&"n 1 r"spons" Mi\$5#n\$: The freLuency ran#e of interest for amplifiers Oar#e capacitors can be treated as short circuit and small capacitors can be treated as open circuit
:ain is constant and can be obtained by small*si#nal analysis

Lo7<2r"E&"n 1 5#n\$: :ain drops at freLuencies lo\$er than fO Oar#e capacitors can no lon#er be treated as short circuit The #ain roll*off is mainly due to couplin# and by*pass capacitors

/i34<2r"E&"n 1 5#n\$:
:ain drops at freLuencies hi#her than f,

Small capacitors can no lon#er treated as open circuit The #ain roll*off is mainly due to parasitic capacitances of the +7S ETs and BJTs

Page 1*%

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## 11.' LEARNIN( OB)ECTI*ES:

Int"++" t&#+ S,i++s To identify the components and eLuipment reLuired.

To observe the phase difference bet\$een input volta#e to the output volta#e.

Page 1*.

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

To calculate the amplifier parameters (:ain, "utoff freLuencies and Band\$idth!. To obtain transient response and freLuency response of common*emitter amplifier.

Motor S,i++s %bility to make the connections as per circuit dia#ram. %bility to note do\$n the readin#s.
%bility to plot #raph of volta#es versus freLuency.

11.- APPARATUS:
Bread Board. &" Re#ulated Io\$er Supply (.*<.A3-%!. unction #enerator (-,D*-+,D Sine3SLuare3Trian#le!. "athode Ray 7scilloscope (.*9.+,D!. Resistors \$ith ]-.5 tolerance (-F9C!EM =@. (-;oXs!,=.@1 (-;oXs!,-.1 (-;oXs!,-+ "apacitors * -.HfF?<A(9;oXs!,-..HfF?<A(-;oXs!. ET M B C--(-;oXs!.

(-;oXs!.

"onnectin# \$ires.

Page 1*/

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

11.6 T/EOR0:
"ommon source ET amplifier is used to amplify \$eak si#nal. Small %" si#nal is applied at #ate terminal via couplin# capacitor. :ate resistance provides self bias. 8nput %" si#nal provides variations in :ate to source volta#e A:S. Because of chan#e in A:S, drain current 8d also chan#es. 8f \$e apply sinusoidal input si#nal, sinusoidal variation in drain current produces sinusoidal output at drain terminal. &urin# positive input si#nal, A:S increases \$hich \$ill cause increase in drain current. &rain volta#e decreases due to drop across drain resistance increases. Thus \$e #et -B.. phase shift bet\$een input and amplified output si#nal. 7utput volta#e from ET amplifier can be #iven asE Aout 0 *#mA#sR& Chere, #m 0 transconductance of ET R& 0 &rain resistance A#s 0 Aariation in #ate to source volta#e due to input si#nal +inus si#n in the eLuation indicates -B.. phase shift. :ain of amplifier is ratio of output volta#e to input volta#e. %A Aout Ain # mR & ET, "S amplifier distorts lar#e

## Because of the non*linear transconductance curve of

si#nals. 8t can amplify small si#nal \$ithout introducin# non*linearity into it. or lar#e si#nal, it introduces non*linearity called sLuare la\$ distortion. This is due to parabolic transconductance curve of ET. S\$ampin# resistor can be used \$ith source terminal to provide local feedback. This \$ill s\$ampout non*linearity of the transconductance curve. &ifferent types of biasin# techniLues are used for "S amplifier. :ate bias is similar to base bias in BJT, self bias, volta#e divider bias, current*source bias etc. "ircuit dia#ram of "S amplifier \$ith s elf bias is sho\$n here.

Page 1*0

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## 11.B STEPWISE PROCEDURE:

"onnections are made as per the "ircuit &ia#ram sho\$n above. %pply the input from the function #enerator \$ith -1,D freLuency and fiGed <.mA of amplitude peak to peak (As! at the input terminals of the circuit. 7bserve input and output \$aveforms from "R7
By keepin# the input si#nal amplitude constant at (A S!, vary the freLuency of

## the function #enerator from 4.,D to -+,D in re#ular steps.

;ote do\$n the correspondin# output volta#es (A 0! from "R7 for each freLuency

and tabulate.
Ilot a #raph bet\$een by takin# the freLuency in ,D on R*aGis and #ain in dB on

## >*aGis. "alculate the band\$idth from #raph.

11.C OBSER*ATIONS:
*sG100%* S.No :r"E&"n 1 =/A>

*o =!o+ts>

(#in A!G*oF*s

## (#in in =\$B>G20 +o3=A!>

=Not" \$o7n t4" 2o++o7in3 sp" i2i #tions 2ro% \$#t# %#n&#+> Type no. of ETE VVVVVVVVVVVV +aGimum "ollector current ratin# VVVVVV. m%. +aGimum "ollector volta#e ratin#E VVVVVV.A

Page 1*1

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## 11.10 EXPECTED (RAP/S:

Tr#nsi"nt R"spons":

:r"E&"n 1 R"spons":

## f, 0 (pper cut*off freLuency

Band\$idth 0 fO*f,
Page 11*

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

11.11 PRECAUTIONS:
<. "heck the connections made on the board to avoid open and short circuits. =. "onnections should be made properly.

11.12 RESULT:
The #ain and band\$idth of a common Source amplifier has been measured. i! :ain in dB. 0 ii! Band\$idth. 0

11.13 CONCLUSION:

11.1' DUESTIONS:
-. Chy #ate bias is not preferred for ET amplifierT ET is unipolar or bipolarT 9. "an \$e use ET as electronic s\$itchT 8f yes ho\$T Chat are the applications of ETT

<. ET is volta#e controlled or current controlledT =. &ra\$ the eLuivalent circuit of common source ET amplifierT 4. Chat is the volta#e #ain of the ET amplifierT ?. Chat is the input impedance of ET amplifierT
@. Chat is the output impedance of ET amplifierT

Page 11

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## EXPERIMENT NO. 12 U)T C/ARACTERISTICS

12.1 AIM: To observe the characteristics of (JT and to calculate the 8ntrinsic Stand*7ff Ratio
(a!.

## 12.2 PRIOR CONCEPTS:

Transistor &iode Resistor

## 12.3 NEW CONCEPTS:

Proposition 1: Uni<)&n tion tr#nsistor =U)T> %n (ni*Junction transistor ((JT! is a semiconductor device havin# only one p*n Function and three terminals. These three terminals are named as Base-, Base9, and Emitter. Con "pt Str& t&r" 1:

Page 11"

Page 11!

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

Proposition 2: U)T 4#r# t"risti s The #raph of emitter to base- volta#e versus emitter current is called (JT characteristics. The characteristics can be divided in three re#ions, cut*off re#ion, ne#ative resistance re#ion and saturation re#ion. The most important re#ion is ne#ative resistance re#ion. ;e#ative resistance re#ion is the part of the characteristics \$here as current increases volta#e decreases. Con "pt Str& t&r" 2:

Page 11"

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## 12.' LEARNIN( OB)ECTI*ES:

Int"++" t&#+ S,i++s To identify the components and eLuipment reLuired. To understand the behavior of (JT by observin# the variation in emitter current \$ith respect to emitter base volta#e. To identify the different re#ions of operation of (JT from its characteristics and label them. Motor S,i++s %bility to dra\$ necessary circuit dia#ram. %bility to list the component and eLuipment reLuired. %bility to make the connections as per circuit dia#ram. %bility to note do\$n the readin#s. %bility to plot the necessary #raph.

12.- APPARATUS:
Bread Board. Re#ulated Io\$er Supply (.*<.A, -%! (JT 9;9?=?
Resistors -k),

* 9;os

*9;os

*9;os

"onnectin# Cires

Page 110

Page 11%

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## 12.. CIRCUIT DIA(RAM:

12.6 T/EOR0:
% (ni*Junction Transistor ((JT! is an electronic semiconductor device that has only one Function. The (JT (niFunction Transistor ((JT! has three terminals an emitter (E! and t\$o bases (B- and B9!. The base is formed by li#htly doped n*type bar of silicon. T\$o ohmic contacts Band B9 are attached at its ends. The emitter is of p*type and it is heavily doped. The resistance bet\$een B- and B9, \$hen the emitter is open*circuit is called inter base resistance. The ori#inal uniFunction transistor, or (JT, is a simple device that is essentially a bar of ; type semiconductor material into \$hich I type material has been diffused some\$here alon# its len#th. The 9;9?=? is the most commonly used version of the (JT.

Page 11.

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

The (JT is biased \$ith a positive volta#e bet\$een the t\$o bases. This causes a potential drop alon# the len#th of the device. Chen the emitter volta#e is driven approGimately one diode volta#e above the volta#e at the point \$here the I diffusion (emitter! is, current \$ill be#in to flo\$ from the emitter into the base re#ion. Because the base re#ion is very li#htly doped, the additional current (actually char#es in the base re#ion! causes (conductivity modulation! \$hich reduces the resistance of the portion of the base bet\$een the emitter Function and the B9 terminal. This reduction in resistance means that the emitter Function is more for\$ard biased, and so even more current is inFected. 7verall, the effect is a ne#ative resistance at the emitter terminal. This is \$hat makes the (JT useful, especially in simple oscillator circuits. Chen the emitter volta#e reaches Ap, the current starts to increase and the emitter volta#e starts to decrease. This is represented by ne#ative slope of the characteristics \$hich is referred to as the ne#ative resistance re#ion, beyond the valley point ,R B- reaches minimum value and this re#ion, AEB proportional to 8E.

## 12.B STEPWISE PROCEDURE:

+ake connections as per circuit dia#ram.
Set AB-B9 0 .A, vary AEB-, & note do\$n the readin#s of 8E & AEB Set AB-B9 0 -.A, vary AEB-, & note do\$n the readin#s of 8E & AEB Ilot the #raph E 8E Aersus AEB- for constant AB-B9.

## ind the intrinsic standoff ratio.

12.C OBSER*ATIONS:
S.No *B1B2 G 0* *EB1=*> IE =%A> *B1B2 G -* *EB1=*> IE =%A> *B1B2 G 10* *EB1=*> IE =%A>

=Not" \$o7n t4" 2o++o7in3 sp" i2i #tions 2ro% \$#t# %#n&#+> Type no. of (JTE VVVVVVVVVVVV Ieak volta#eE VVVVVV.A
Page 11/

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## 12.10 EXPECTED (RAP/:

12.12 RESULT:
The characteristics of (JT are observed and the values of 8ntrinsic Stand*7ff Ratio is calculated. 8ntrinsic Stand*7ff Ratio(a!0VVVVVVVV..

## 12.13 CONCLUSION: 12.1' DUESTIONS:

-. Chy name of the device is (JTT 9. "an the intrinsic standoff ratio of (JT be chan#edT 8f yes, ho\$T <. "an (JT replace BJTT JustifyJ =. Chat \$ill happen if a.c. volta#e is applied bet\$een emitter and base- of (JTT 4. Chat is the importance of ne#ative resistance re#ion of (JTT ?. Chat \$ill happen if intrinsic standoff ratio of (JT is doubledT @. Enlist t\$o applications of (JT. B. 8s it possible to use (JT to tri##er S"RT 8f yes, dra\$ the necessary circuit dia#ram. 6. rom the characteristics obtained calculate the slope of ne#ative resistance part of characteristics. Chat does it si#nifyT

Page 110

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## EXPERIMENT NO. 13 :REDUENC0 RESPONSE O: CC AMPLI:IER

13.1AIM: To 7bserve the freLuency and #ain response of a "ommon "ollector amplifier.
ind the -. :ain of the amplifier in dB. 9. Band \$idth \$ith the help of #raph (freLuency AS #ain!.

Transistor

## 13.3 NEW CONCEPTS:

Proposition 1: *o+t#3" (#in8 C&rr"nt (#in8 Inp&t I%p"\$#n " #n\$ O&tp&t I%p"\$#n " *o+t#3" (#in: Aolta#e :ain of the amplifier is defined as the ratio bet\$een the input volta#e to the output volta#e. The volta#e #ain of the "" amplifier is less than unity. C&rr"nt (#in: "urrent :ain of the amplifier is defined as the ratio bet\$een the input current to the output current. The volta#e #ain of the "" amplifier is lar#e. Inp&t I%p"\$#n ": The input impedance of the amplifier is defined as the ratio bet\$een the input volta#e to the input current. "" amplifier has hi#h input 8mpedance. O&tp&t I%p"\$#n ": The output impedance of the amplifier is defined as the ratio bet\$een the output volta#e to the output current. "" amplifier has lo\$ output 8mpedance

Page 1 *

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## 13.' LEARNIN( OB)ECTI*ES:

Int"++" t&#+ S,i++s To identify the components and eLuipment reLuired.

## To observe the input volta#e to the output volta#e.

To calculate the amplifier parameters (:ain, "utoff freLuencies and Band\$idth!. To obtain transient response and freLuency response of common*emitter amplifier.

Motor S,i++s %bility to make the connections as per circuit dia#ram. %bility to note do\$n the readin#s.
%bility to plot #raph of volta#es versus freLuency.

Page 1 1

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

13.- APPARATUS:
-. 9. <. =. 4. ?. Bread Board. &" Re#ulated Io\$er Supply (.*<.A3-%!. unction #enerator (-,D*-+,D Sine3SLuare3Trian#le!. "athode Ray 7scilloscope (.*9.+,D!. +ulti meter Resistors \$ith ]-.5 tolerance (-F9C!EM =@. (-;oXs!,-1 (-;oXs!,-..1 (-;oXs!,<<1 (-;oXs!. @. "apacitors * -.HfF?<A(9;oXs!,-HfF?<A(-;oXs!. B. Transistor * B"-.@(-;oXs!. 6. "onnectin# \$ires.

## 13.. CIRCUIT DIA(RAM:

13.6 T/EOR0:
The common collector circuit is also kno\$n as emitter follo\$er. The ac output volta#e from a "" circuit is essentially the same as the input volta#eP there is no volta#e #ain or phase shift. Thus, the "" circuit can be said to have a volta#e #ain of -. The fact that the "" output volta#e follo\$s the chan#es in si#nal volta#e #ives the circuit its other name emitter follo\$er. Because of
Page 1

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

these "haracteristics the "" circuit is normally used as a buffer amplifier, placed bet\$een a hi#h impedance si#nal source and a lo\$ impedance load

## 13.B STEPWISE PROCEDURE:

-. "onnect the circuit as per the circuit dia#ram. 9. %pply As0..4 volts - 1,D si#nal from the si#nal #enerator. <. 7bserve correspondin# output from the "R7 and then calculate volta#e #ain usin# the formula %v0Ao3Ai. =. +easure volta#e across %B terminals and then calculate input current by usin# the formula 8in0Aab3Rab. 4. +easure current flo\$in# throu#h resistor at Source (or Emitter! terminal and note do\$n it as 8out. ?. "alculate "urrent #ain usin# the formula %808in38out. @. "alculate input resistance usin# the formula Rin0Ain38in. B. To calculate the output resistance, connect the pot at the output and vary the resistance of the pot up to half of the output \$ith R O is eLual to infinity. The resistance of pot is the output resistance. 6. or plottin# the freLuency response the input volta#e is kept constant a ..4A peak*to* peak and the freLuency is varied from -..,Dto -+,D. -.. ;ote do\$n the values of output volta#e for each freLuency. --. %ll the readin#s are tabulated the volta#e #ain in dB is calculated by usin# the eGpression, %v09.lo# -.(A.3Ai! -9. % #raph is dra\$n by takin# freLuency on R*aGis and #ain in dB on y*aGis on Semi*lo# #raph sheet. -<. The Band\$idth of the amplifier is calculated from the #raph usin# the EGpression, Band\$idth BC0f9*f-

Page 1 !

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

13.C OBSER*ATIONS:
*S G 0.-* S.No :r"E&"n 1 =/A> *o =!o+ts> (#in A!G*oF*s (#in in =\$B>G20 +o3=A!>

=Not" \$o7n t4" 2o++o7in3 sp" i2i #tions 2ro% \$#t# %#n&#+> Type no. of TransistorE VVVVVVVVVVVV +aGimum "ollector current ratin# VVVVVV. m%. +aGimum "ollector volta#e ratin#E VVVVVV.A

## 13.10 EXPECTED (RAP/S:

Tr#nsi"nt r"spons"

:r"E&"n 1 r"spons"

Page 1 "

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## fh 0 (pper cut*off freLuency

Band\$idth 0 fO*fh

13.11 PRECAUTIONS:
-. "heck the connections made on the board to avoid open and short circuits. 9. "onnections should be made properly. <. The input volta#e must be kept constant \$hile takin# freLuency response. =. Iroper biasin# volta#es should be applied.

13.12 RESULT:
The #ain and band\$idth of a common emitter amplifier has been measured. i! :ain in dB. 0 ii! Band\$idth. 0 iii! 8nput resistance 0 iv! 7utput resistance 0 v! Aolta#e :ain 0 vi! "urrent :ain 0

13.13 CONCLUSION:

Page 1 %

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

13.1' DUESTIONS:
-. Chat are the applications of "" amplifierT 9. Chat is the volta#e #ain of "" amplifierT <. Chat are the values of input and output impedances of the "" amplifierT =. To \$hich #round the collector terminal is connected in the circuitT 4. 8dentify the type of biasin# used in the circuitT ?. :ive the relation bet\$een ^, \ and b. @. Crite the other name of "" amplifierT B. Chat are the differences bet\$een "E,"B and ""T 6. Chen compared to "E, "" is not used for amplification. Justify your ans\$erT -.. Chat is the phase relationship bet\$een input and output in ""T

Page 1 .

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## EXPERIMENT NO. 1' MEASUREMENT O: /<PARAMETERS O: TRANSISTOR IN CE CON:I(URATION

1'.1AIM: To calculate the ,*parameters of transistor in "E confi#uration. 1'.2 PRIOR CONCEPTS:

Transistor

## 1'.3 NEW CONCEPTS:

Proposition 1: TWO PORT NETWORM % t\$o*port net\$ork is represented by four eGternal variablesE volta#e A- and current 8- at the input port, and volta#e A9 and current 89 at the output port, so that the t\$o*port net\$ork can be treated as a black boG modeled by the relationships bet\$een the four variables A-, A9, 8- and 89. There eGist siG different \$ays to describe the relationships bet\$een these variables, dependin# on \$hich t\$o of the four variables are #iven, \$hile the other t\$o can al\$ays be derived.

; or i%p"\$#n " %o\$"+: :iven t\$o currents 8- and 89 find volta#es A- and A9 byE *1G;11 I1N;12 I2 *2G;21 I1N;22 I2 0 or #\$%itt#n " %o\$"+: :iven t\$o volta#es A- and A9 find currents 8- and 89 I1G011 *1N012 *2 I2G021 *1N022 *2 A or tr#ns%ission %o\$"+: :iven A9 and 89 find A- and 8byE
Page 1 /

byE

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

*1GA11 *2<A12 I2 I1GA21 *2<A22 I2 / or 415ri\$ %o\$"+: :iven A9 and 8- find A- and 89 *1G/11 I1N/12 *2 I2G/21 I1N/22 *2 Proposition 2: /15ri\$ %o\$"+ The h*parameter model is typically suited to transistor circuit modelin#. 8t is important becauseE -. its values are used on specification sheets 9. it is one model that may be used to analyDe circuit behavior <. it may be used to form the basis of a more accurate transistor model Con "pt str& t&r" 2: byE

Page 1 0

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

rom 8nput & 7utput characteristics of "E confi#uration -. WA 8nput 8mpedance hie 0 WABE 3 W8B at A"E constant 9. 7utput impedance hoe 0 WA"E 3 W8" at 8B constant <. Reverse Transfer Aolta#e :ain hre 0 WABE 3 WA"E at 8B constant =. or\$ard Transfer "urrent :ain hfe 0 W8" 3 W8B at constant A"E A

## 1'.' LEARNIN( OB)ECTI*ES:

Int"++" t&#+ S,i++s To identify the components and eLuipment reLuired.

To observe the phase difference bet\$een input volta#e to the output volta#e.

To calculate the amplifier parameters (:ain, "utoff freLuencies and Band\$idth!. To obtain transient response and freLuency response of common*emitter amplifier.

Motor S,i++s %bility to make the connections as per circuit dia#ram. %bility to note do\$n the readin#s.
%bility to plot #raph of volta#es versus freLuency.

1'.- APPARATUS:
-. 9. <. =. Bread Board. &" Re#ulated Io\$er Supply (.*<.A3-%!. Aoltmeter (.*9.A! (- ;oXs!. Resistors \$ith ]-.5 tolerance (-F9C!EM -1 (-;oXs!,-..1 (-;oXs!. 4. %mmeter (.*9..m%! (- ;oXs!, %mmeter (.*9..H%! (- ;oXs! . ?. Transistor * B"-.@(-;oXs!. @. "onnectin# \$ires.

Page 1 1

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## 1'.. CIRCUIT DIA(RAM:

1'.6 T/EOR0:
The h parameter model has values that are compleG numbers that vary as a function ofE -. reLuency 9. %mbient temperature <. Q*Ioint The revised t\$o port net\$ork for the h*parameter model is sho\$n on the ri#ht. %t lo\$ and mid*band freLuencies, the h*parameter values are real values. 7ther models eGist because this model is not suited for circuit analysis at hi#h freLuencies.

Page 1!*

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

S4ort Cir &it Inp&t I%p"\$#n " hie 0 '8; \$ith output shorted cUd hie 0Ao38i e Ace0constant -. Short terminals collector and emitter 9. %pply test source Abe to terminal base and emitter <. +easure ib =. "alculate hie Op"n Cir &it R"!"rs" Tr#ns2"r R#tio hre cdimensionlessd hre0Abe3Ace at 8b0 constant

-. 7pen terminals base and emitter 9. %pply test source Ace to terminal collector and emitter <. +easure Abe =. +easure Ace 4. "alculate hre S4ort Cir &it :or7#r\$ Tr#ns2"r R#tio hfe 0 cdimensionlessd hfe 0 8c38b at Ace 0 constant

-. Short terminals collector and emitter 9. %pply test source Abe to terminal base and emitter <. +easure 8b =. +easure 8c 4. "alculate hfe Op"n Cir &it O&tp&t A\$%itt#n " hoe cSiemansd
Page 1!1

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

hoe 0 8c3Ace at 8b 0 constant -. 7pen terminals base and emitter 9. %pply test source Ace to terminal collector and emitter <. +easure 8c =. +easure Ace 4. "alculate hoe

## 1'.B STEPWISE PROCEDURE:

-. "onnect a transistor in "E confi#uration circuit for plottin# its input and output characteristics. 9. Take a set of readin#s for the variations in 8 B \$ith ABE at different fiGed values of output volta#e A"E . <. Ilot the input characteristics of "E confi#uration from the above readin#s. =. rom the #raph calculate the input resistance hie and reverse transfer ratio hre by at different values of takin# the slopes of the curves. 4. Take the family of readin#s for the variations of 8 " \$ith A"E fiGed 8B. ?. Ilot the output characteristics from the above readin#s. @. rom the #raphs calculate hfe ands hoe by takin# the slope of the curves.

## 1'.C OBSER*ATIONS: Inp&t C4#r# t"risti s:

S.No *CEG0 * *BE=*> IB=LA> *CEG. * *BE=*> IB=LA>

Page 1!

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## O&tp&t C4#r# t"risti s:

IB G '0 LA S.No IB G 20 LA *BE=*> IB=LA> *BE=*> IB=LA> IB G .0 LA *BE=*> IB=LA>

=Not" \$o7n t4" 2o++o7in3 sp" i2i #tions 2ro% \$#t# %#n&#+> Type no. of TransistorE VVVVVVVVVVVV +aGimum "ollector current ratin# VVVVVV. m%. +aGimum "ollector volta#e ratin#E VVVVVV.A

Page 1!!

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

1'.11 PRECAUTIONS:
-. "heck the connections made on the board to avoid open and short circuits. 9. "onnections should be made properly.

1'.12 RESULT:
The h*parameter model parameters of transistor "E confi#uration have been measured. i! Short "ircuit 8nput 8mpedance =hie ! . 0 ii! 7pen "ircuit Reverse Transfer Ratio =hre !. 0 iii! Short "ircuit or\$ard Transfer Ratio =hfe! . 0 iv! 7pen "ircuit 7utput %dmittance =hoe ! . 0

1'.13 CONCLUSION:

1'.1' DUESTIONS:
-. Chat are the h*parametersT 9. Chat are the limitations of h*parametersT <. Chat are its applicationsT =. &ra\$ the ELuivalent circuit dia#ram of , parametersT 4. &efine , parameterT ?. Chat are tabular forms of , parameters monoculture of a transistorT @. Chat is the #eneral formula for input impedanceT B. Chat is the #eneral formula for "urrent :ainT 6. Chat is the #eneral formula for Aoilta#e #ainT

Page 1!"

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## EXPERIMENT NO. 1SILICON CONTROLLED RECTI:IER =SCR> C/ARACTERISTICS

1-.1AIM: To determine the A8 characteristics of #iven S"R at different #ate currents. 1-.2 PRIOR CONCEPTS:

Semiconductor Theory

## 1-.3 NEW CONCEPTS:

Proposition 1: Si+i on<Contro++"\$ R" ti2i"r 8t is a four layer semiconductor device bein# alternate of I*type and ;*type silicon. 8t consists of < Functions J-, J9, J< the J- and J< operate in for\$ard direction and J9 operates in reverse direction and three terminals called anode %, cathode 1, and a #ate :. Con "pt str& t&r" 1:

Page 1!%

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

Proposition 2: SCR C4#r# t"risti s The #raph of anode to cathode volta#e versus anode current is called S"R characteristics. The characteristics can be divided in three re#ions, Reverse blockin# re#ion, or\$ard blockin# re#ion and or\$ard conduction re#ion. Con "pt str& t&r" 2:

## 1-.' LEARNIN( OB)ECTI*ES:

Int"++" t&#+ S,i++s To identify the components and eLuipment reLuired.

## To measure the Threshold volta#e and ,oldin# current.

Motor S,i++s %bility to make the connections as per circuit dia#ram. %bility to note do\$n the readin#s.
%bility to plot #raph of volta#es versus freLuency.

1-.- APPARATUS:
-. Bread Board. 9. &" Re#ulated Io\$er Supply (.*<.A3-%!. <. unction #enerator (-,D*-+,D Sine3SLuare3Trian#le!. =. S"R*S;-.9 ( -;oXs!

Page 1!.

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

4. Resistors \$ith ]-.5 tolerance (-F9C!EM 4?. (-;oXs!,-1 (9;oXs!. ?. Aoltmeter M(.*<.v! (- ;oXs!. @. %mmeter M(.*-..m%! (9 ;oXs!. B. "onnectin# \$ires.

## 1-.. CIRCUIT DIA(RAM:

1-.6 T/EOR0:
The operation of S"R can be studied \$hen the #ate is open and \$hen the #ate is positive \$ith respect to cathode. Chen #ate is open, no volta#e is applied at the #ate due to reverse bias of the Function J 9 no current flo\$s throu#h R9 and hence S"R is at cutt off. Chen anode volta#e is increased J 9 tends to breakdo\$n. Chen the #ate positive, \$ith respect to cathode J < Function is for\$ard biased and J 9 is reverse biased .Electrons from ;*type material move across Function J< to\$ards #ate \$hile holes from I*type material moves across Function J< to\$ards cathode. So #ate current starts flo\$in#, anode current increase is in eGtremely small current Function J9 break do\$n and S"R conducts heavily. Chen #ate is open thee breakover volta#e is determined on the minimum for\$ard volta#e at \$hich S"R conducts heavily. ;o\$ most of the supply volta#e appears across the load

Page 1!/

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

resistance. The holdin# current is the maGimum anode current #ate bein# open, \$hen break over occurs. -. or\$ard breakover volta#e A(BR! / is that volta#e above \$hich the S"R enters the conduction re#ion. The asterisk (/! is a letter to be added that is dependent on the condition of the #ate terminal as follo\$sE 7 0 open circuit from : to 1 S 0 short circuit from : to 1 R 0resistor from : to 1 A 0 fiGed bias (volta#e! from : to 1 9. ,oldin# current (8,! is that value of current belo\$ \$hich the S"R s\$itches from the conduction state to the for\$ard blockin# re#ion under stated conditions. <. or\$ard and reverse blockin# re#ions are the re#ions correspondin# to the open*circuit condition for the controlled rectifier \$hich block the flo\$ of char#e (cur*rent! from anode to cathode. =. Reverse breakdo\$n volta#e is eLuivalent to the 'ener or avalanche re#ion of the fundamental t\$o*layer semiconductor diode.

## 1-.B STEPWISE PROCEDURE:

-. +ake the connections as per the circuit dia#ram. 9. S\$itch 7; the po\$er supply. <. 1eep 8: constant. current (8%! 4. &ra\$ the #raph in bet\$een A%1 and 8%. ?. Repeat the above procedure of = and 4 for different values of 8:. @. S\$itch 7 the po\$er supply. B. &isconnect the components. as

=. Aary the volta#e A%1 step by step from .A and note its correspondin# anode

Page 1!0

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

1-.C OBSER*ATIONS:
S.No I(G0.1=%A> A%1(v! I(G0.2=%A> A%1(v!

8%1(m%!

8%1(m%!

=Not" \$o7n t4" 2o++o7in3 sp" i2i #tions 2ro% \$#t# %#n&#+> Type no. of S"RE VVVVVVVVVVVV +aGimum "ollector current ratin# VVVVVV. m%. +aGimum "ollector volta#e ratin#E VVVVVV.A

## 1-.10 EXPECTED (RAP/S:

1-.11 PRECAUTIONS:
-. "heck the connections made on the board to avoid open and short circuits. 9. "onnections should be made properly.

Page 1!1

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

1-.12 RESULT:
The threshold volta#e and holdin# current of S"R has been measured. i! Threshold Aolta#e. 0 ii! ,oldin# "urrent. 0

1-.13 CONCLUSION:

1-.1' DUESTIONS:
-. Chat the symbol of S"RT 9. 8; \$hich state S"R turns of conductin# state to blockin# stateT <. Chat are the applications of S"RT =. Chat is holdin# currentT 4. Chat are the important typeXs thyristorsT ?. ,o\$ many numbers of Functions are involved in S"RT @. Chat is the function of #ate in S"RT B. Chen #ate is open, \$hat happens \$hen anode volta#e is increasedT 6. Chat is the value of for\$ard resistance offered by S"RT -.. Chat is the condition for makin# from conductin# state to non conductin# stateT

Page 1"*

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

EXPERIMENT NO. 1.

Page 1"1

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

Page 1"

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

EXPERIMENT NO. 16

Page 1"!

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

Page 1""

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

## EXPERIMENT 1B =D"si3n "9p"ri%"nt> DESI(N O: SIMPLE DC POWER SUPPL0

1..1 AIM:< To desi#n a lo\$ cost, reliable, and effective &" po\$er supply 1..2 APPARATUS: Bread Board. 9<.A %" (-9*.*-9A! Transformer "athode Ray 7scilloscope (.*9.+,'!. &i#ital +ulti +eter &iodes -; =..@ Iotentiometer 4..7hms Resistors =@. 7hms, <.<1ohms "apacitors 99..u , ..9@u ,-.u Re#ulator 8"(@B.4! use -% OE& -;oXs =;oXs -;oXs -;oKs -;oKs -;oKs -;oKs -;oKs -;oXs

Page 1"%

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

1..' T/EOR0:<The po\$er that comes into the house travels, sometimes, hundreds of miles to #et there.Throu#h this processes %" current is used. %" or alternatin# current has different phases dependin# on the application. These phases are created by the physical offset of the ori#inal po\$er #enerator. 8n contrast to %" there is &" or direct current. &" doesnKt alternate the current, it outputs a steady current to be applied to circuits. &" is useful in circuit desi#n because many of the components do not function \$ell if an %" is applied. %" is the current that is brou#ht to a normal house \$all socket. Throu#h the \$all socket many different devices are plu##ed in and used everyday but most of these devices need &" to operate correctly. Chen a plu# is inserted into a \$all socket there is an %" to &" conversion that takes place. This circuit dia#ram sho\$s you ho\$ to make a 4A to -9A variable &" po\$er supply from a fiGed 4A re#ulator 8" @B.4. This is attained by addin# t\$o resistors R- and R9 as sho\$n in fi#ure. Chen the resistors R- and R9 are added the eLuation for the output volta#e of @B.4 becomes *out0 *fiGed 2 O R9 f (* fiGed3R-! 2 Istandbyg P 8

\$here *fiGed04A and Istandby0*fiGed3R-.By varyin# the I7T R9 you can adFust the output volta#e bet\$een 4A and -9A.

1..- STEPWISE PROCEDURE:< "onnect the circuit as sho\$n in fi#ure . %pply %.". supply throu#h transformerP ind the output &" volta#e usin# multimeter.

7bserve volta#e \$ave across the load on "R7. 7bserve OE&. ind the output usin# the above eLuation compare the result \$ith theoretical values by varyin# potentiometer 1... RESULTS:< The output \$aveforms have been observed and the output &" volta#e is calculated.

Page 1".

## Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory

2013

EXPERIMENT 1C
=OPEN ENDED EXPERIMENT>

## RC P/ASE S/I:T OSCILLATOR

DESCRIPTION: R"*Ihase shift 7scillator has a "E amplifier follo\$ed by three sections of R" phase shift feedback ;et\$orks the output of the last sta#e is return to the input of the amplifier. The values of R and " are chosen such that the phase shift of each R" section is ?.h.Thus The R" ladder net\$ork produces a total phase shift of -B.h bet\$een its input and output volta#e for the #iven freLuencies. Since "E %mplifier produces -B. h phases shift the total phase shift from the base of the transistor around the circuit and back to the base \$ill be eGactly <?.h or .h. This satisfies the Barkhausen condition for sustainin# oscillations and total loop #ain of this circuit is #reater than or eLual to -, this condition used to #enerate the sinusoidal oscillations. The freLuency of oscillations of R"*Ihase Shift 7scillator is,