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HISTORY REVIEWER 2006 PRE-HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE

PELEOLITHIC MESOLITHIC BRONZE AGE MEGALITHIC MENHIR DOLMEN CROMLECH MEGALITHIC TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION OLD STONE AGE MIDDLE STONE AGE MINOAN PD. OF THE CRETE & GREEK PD USE OF LARGE STONES IN CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM SINGLE LARGE URIGHT MONOLITH, SOMETMES IN PARALLEL ROWS REACHING SEVERAL MILES TOMB HAVING TWO OR MORE LARGE UPRIGHT STONES SUPPORTING A HORIZONTAL SLAB ENCLOSURE FORMED BY THREE OR MORE HUGE STONES PLANTED ON THE GROUND IN CIRCULAR FORM PASSAGE GRAVE; EARTHEN MOUNDS USE FOR BURIAL OF ORDINARY PERSON MASSIVE & MONUMENTAL TYPE CONSTRUCTION MUMMY CASES PICTURE WRITINGS OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLE MONUMENTAL GATEWAY TO AN EGYPTIAN TEMPLE CONSISTING OF SLANTING WALL FLANKING ON ENTRANCE PORTAL DIMINISHING IN WIDTH TOWARDS THE TOP. TOMBS FLAT-TOP FUNERARY MOUND, WITH BATTERED SLOPING SIDES MASSIVE FUNERARY STRUCTURE OF STONE OR BRICK WITH A SQUARE BASE AND FOUR SLOPING TRIANGULAR SIDES MEETING AT THE APEX MASSIVE FUNERARY EVOLVE FROM MASTABA MASSIVE FUNERARY HAVING 2 DEG. OF INCLINATION OF SLOPE FUNERARY BUILT ALONG HILLSIDE FOR NOBILITY RATHER THAN ROYALTY TEMPLES BUILT IN HONOR OF THE PHARAOH BUILT FIR THE WORSHIP OF THE GODS; ONLY HIGH PRIESTS CAN ENTER.

TUMULUS

EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE
SYCAMORE HEIROGLYPHICS PYLON BATTER WALLS

MASTABA ROYAL PYRAMIDS

STEP PYRAMID BENT PYRAMID ROCK HEWN TOMB

MORTUARY CULT

PYLON OBELISKS ELECTRUM HYPEATHRAL COURT HYPOSTYLE HALL CLERESTORY SANCTUARY AVE. OF SPHINX ANDROSPHINX HEIRAOSPHINX CRIOSPHINX LOTUS PAPYRUS & PALM SOLAR DISCS & VULTURES W/ WINGS SPIRAL & FEATHER ORNAMENT SCARAB & SACRED BEATLE

EGYPTIAN MONUMENTAL GATEWAY UPRIGHT STONE W/ PYRAMIDION ON TOP MONUMENTAL PILLARS USU. IN PAIRS; 9 OR 10 x BASE DIA. CAPPED PYRAMIDION @ OBELISKS LARGE OUTER COURT OPEN TO THE SKY PILLARED HALL WHERE ROOF SETS ON COLUMN BETWEEN ROOF & UPPER WALL, ADMITTING LIGHT USED SURROUNDED BY PASSAGES & CHAMBERS USED IN CONNECTION WITH THE TEMPLE SERVICE WHERE MYSTICAL MONSTER WERE PLACED MAN HEAD HAWK HEAD RAM HEAD ORNAMENT SYMBOLIZES FERTILITY ORNAMENT SYMBOLIZES PROTECTION ORNAMENT SYMBOLIZES ETERNITY ORNAMENT SYMBOLIZES RESURRECTION ARCTUATED TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM COLUMNAR & TRABEATED W/ FLAT TIMBER ROOF SOMETIMES DOMED. "ARTFICIAL MOUNTAINS" OF TIERED, RECTANGULAR STAGES WITH TEMPLE @ SUMMIT PALACE PROPER WHICH INCLUDES KING'S RESIDENCE PRIVATE CHAMBER SERVICE CHAMBER A COLONNADED SPACE FORMING AN ENTRANCE W/ A ROOF SUPPORTED ON AT LEAST ONE SIDE BY COLUMNS PRINCIPAL ROOM FOR ANATOLIAN HOUSE HALL OF PALACE W/ HUNDRED COLUMNS A CORBELLED ARCHED OF TRIANGULAR SHAPE COMMON ON BLDG. OF THE MAYA INDIANS OF YUCATAN COLUMNAR & TRABEATED TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM UPPER CITY

NEAR EAST ARCHITECTURE


PERSIAN ARCH'RE ZIGGURATS SERALIO HAREM KHAN PORTICO MEGARON PERSEPOLIS MAYA ARCH

GREEK ARCHITECTURE
CITADEL

THALAMUS CYCLOPEAN WALL POLYGONAL WALL

SLEEPING ROOM AT MEGARON A MASONRY MADE-UP OF HUGE STONE BLOCKS ADVANCE TECHNIQUE, NO PITH OR TAR; CONSTRUCTED W/ STONES HAVING POLYGONAL FACES GREEK TEMPLES GATEWAY CEILING WERE OMITTED & TREATED W/ PANELLED COFFERS REFINEMENT TO CORRECT OPTICAL ILLUSIONS OF DROPPING OR SAGGING FROM CENTER OF STRUCTURES A STONE VAULTED CONSTRUCTION; DOMED TOMBS OF MYCENEAN PD. LONG PASSAGEWAY LEADING TO DOMED CHAMBER ARCHITECTURAL DEVICE, WHICH W/ LIGHT & SHADE, PRODUCE DEFINITION TO A BLDG. SACRED ENCLOSURE, ALSO KNOWN AS CITADEL OR ACROPOLIS. PICTURE GALLERY SCULPTURE GALLERY SQUARE CITY OR MARKET PLACE GREEK CIVIC SQUARE; MARKET PLACE SENATE HOUSE COUNCIL HOUSE USED IN GATHERING A THEATER FOR MUSICAL PRESENTATIONS &/OR CONTESTS. FOOT RACE COURSE SIMILAR TO STADIUM IN PLAN USED FOR HORSE & CHARIOT RACING PROTOTYPE OF ROMAN CIRCUS WRESTLING SCHOOL USED 4 ALL TYPES OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE. PROTOTYPE OF ROMAN THERMAE ROOM FOR LECTURES ON GYMNASIUM ORNAMENT DIVIDIN ENTABLATURE TO HAVE AN ARCHITRAVE FOCAL POINT, STAGE OR CONCRETE CIRCLES ELEVATE W/ AN ALTAR DEDICATION TO THEIR GODS SPECTATOR'S SEATS (STONE SEATS) STAGE DCOR TANGENTIAL TO ORCHESTRA PASSAGEWAY TO SKENE PROJECTING WALL AT THE END OF SKENE. IN FRONT OF SKENE, USED FOR SPEECH OR LOCELON

PROPYLEA LACUNARIA ENTASIS THOLOS DROMOS MOULDINGS TEMENOS PINACOTHECA GLYPTHOTHECA CIVIC SQUARE AGORA PRYTANEION BOULEUTERION ASSEMBLY HALL ODEION STADIUM HIPPODROME PALAESTRA GYMNASIUM EPHEBIUM FASCIAE ORCHESTRA CAVEA SKENE PARADOS PARACENIA PROCENIUM

EPISCENIUM CARYATIDS CANEPHORAE ATLAS OR ATLANTES TELAMON OR TELAMONES ANTA COLUMN ORDERS DORIC ORDER IONIC ORDER CORINTHIAN ORDER SUPERIMPOSITION INTERCOLUMNATION ARCADE NAOS PRONAOS EPINAOS OR OPISTHODOMUS HENOSTYLE DISTYLE TRISTYLE TETRASTYLE PENTASTYLE HEXASTYLE HEPTASTYLE OCTASTYLE ENNEASTYLE DECASTYLE DODECASTYLE IN ANTIS AMPHI-ANTIS PROSTYLE AMPHI-PROSRYLE PERIPTERAL PSEUDO-PERIPTERAL DIPTERAL PSEUDO-DIPTERAL

RAISED BACKGROUND TO 2-STOREY SKENE BLDG. DROPPED FEMALE FIGURE COLUMN W/O HANDS & CARRYING NOTHING FEMALE FIGURE COLUMN W/ BASKET ON HER HEAD MALE FIGURE COLUMN IN KNEELING POSITION MALE FIGURE COLUMN IN STANDING POSITION PIER OR PILASTER FORMED NU S THICKENING AT THE END OF THE WALL. INCLUDES THE COLUMN WITH AN ENTABLATURE, WHICH FOLLOWING A CERTAIN RULE W/ REGADS TO SYSTEMS OF DESIGNING. THE SIMPLEST, EARLIEST & MOST PERFECT AMONG THE ORDERS. THE MOST SOPHISTICATED, LES HEAVY THAN THE DORIC ORDER THE SLANDEST, ELEGANT, & MOSTA ELABORATED ORDER THE PLACING OF ONE ORDER AFTER ANOTHER OR ABOVE ANOTHER. THE CLEAR SPACE B/N 2 ADJACENT COLUMNS USU. MEASURED AT THE LOWER PARTS OF THE SHAFTS. A LINE OF COUNTERTHRUSTING ARCHES RAISED ON COLUMNS OF PIERS PRINCIPAL CHAMBER CONTAINING THE STATUE OF THE GOD OR GODDESS THE INNER PORTICO IN FRONT OF NAOS OR CELLA OF THE NAOS. POSTICUM WHICH SERVES AS THE TREASURY CHAMBER 1 COLUMN 2 COLUMNS 3 COLUMNS 4 COLUMNS 5 COLUMNS 6 COLUMNS 7 COLUMNS 8 COLUMNS 9 COLUMNS 10 COLUMNS 12 COLUMNS TEMPLES THAT HAVE ONE TO FOUR COLUMNS B/N ANTAE AT THE FRONT. TEMPLES THAT HAVE ONE TO FOUR COLUMNS B/N ANTAE AT THE FRONT AND REAR. TEMPLES THAT HAVE PORTICO OF COLUMNS AT FRONT TEMPLES THAT HAVE PORTICO OF COLUMNS AT FRONT & NEAR TEMPLES THAT HAVE SINGLE LINE OF COLUMNS SURROUNDING THA NAOS TEMPLES THAT HAVE FLANKED OF COLUMNS ATTACHED TO THE NAOS WALL TEMPLES THAT HAVE A DOUBLE LINE OF COLUMNS SURROUNDING THE NAOS TEMPLES ARE LIKE DIPTERAL, BUT THE INNER RANGE OF COLUMN IS OMITTED ON THE FLANKS OF THE NAOS.

ABACUS ECHINUS DADO COFFERS EXEDRA PEDIMENT ANTELIXAE MUTULES ACROTERION TYMPANUM CORNICE FRIEZE ARCHITRAVE CAPITAL SHAFT CREPIDOMA STYLOBATE TRILYPH

METOPE TENIA GUTTAE ANNULETS TRACHELION

THE FLAT SQUARE ON THE TOP OF THE CAPITAL; UPPERMOST MEMBER OF CAPITAL THE CONVEX OR PROJECTING MOULDING, SUPPORTING THE ABACUS OF THE GREEK DORIC CAPITAL THE PORTION OF THE PEDESTAL B/N ITS BASE & CORNICE. A TERM APPLIED TO THE LOWER PORTION OF WALLS WHEN DECORATED SEPARATELY SUNK PANELS, CAISSON OR LACUNARIA FORMED IN CEILINGS VAULTS OF DOMES A RECESS OR ALCOVE W/ RAISED SEAT WHERE THE DISPUTATION OF THE LEARNED TOOK PLACE A TRIANGULAR PIECE OF WALL ABOVE THE ENTABLATURE ENCLOSED BY RAKING CORNICE ORNAMENTAL BLOCKS FIXED VERTICALLY REGULAR INTERVALS ALONG THE LOWER EDGE OF A ROOF, TO COVER THE ENDS OF TILES PROJECTING INCLINED BLOCKS IN DORIC CORNICES, DERIVED FROM THE ENDS OF WOODEN BEAMS BLOCKS RESTING ON THE VERTEX AND LOWER EXTRIMITIES OF THE PEDIMENT TO SUPPORT STATUARY OR ORNAMENTS THE TRIANGULAR SURFACE BOUNDED BY SLOPING AND HORIZONTAL CORNICES OF A PEDIMENT THE CROWNING OR UPPER PORTION OF THE ENTABLATURE ALSO USED FOR ANY CROWNING PROJECTION THE MIDDLE DIVISION OF THE CLASSIC ENTABLATURE THE BEM OR THE LOWEST DIVISION OF THE CLASSIC ENTABLATURE, W/C EXTENDS FROM COLUMN. ALSO A MOULDED FRAME AROUND A DOOR OR WINDOW THE CROWNING FEATURE OF A COLUMN OR A PILASTER THE PORTION OF A COLUMN BETWEEN BASE AND CAPITAL THE STEPS FORMING THE BASE OF COLUMNADED GREEK TEMPLE THE UPPER STEP FORMING A PLATFORM ON W/C A COLONNADE IS PLACED BLOCKS W/ VERTICAL CHANNELS W/C FORM A DISTINGUISHING FEATURE IN THE FRIEZE OF THE DORIC ENTABLATURE THE SPACE B/N DORIC TRIGLYPH, SOMETIMES LEFT OPEN IN ANCIENT EXAMPLES, AFTERWARDS APPLIED TO CARVED SLAB A FLAT PROJECTING BAND CAPPING THE ARCHITRAVE OF A DORIC ENTABLATURE SMALL CONES UNDER THE TRIGLYPHS AND MUTULES OF THE DORIC ENTABLATURE A SMALL FLAT FILLET ENCIRCLING A COLUMN. IT IS SEVERAL TIMES REPEATED UNDER THE OVOLO OR ECHINUS OF THE DORIC CAPITAL THE NECK OF GREEK DORIC COLUMN B/N THE ANNULETS AND THE GROMES OR HYPOTRACHELION

HYPOTRACHELION STOA DENTILS THEATER ANCON/ CONSOLE ANDRON/ ANDRONITIS APOTHECA CYROSTYLE CYCLOSYTLE DROMOS FLUTING

HECATOMPEDON KONISTRA LOGGIA MODILLION PLINTH VOLUTE

THE CHANNELS OR GROVE BENEATH THE TRACHELION A SHELTER PROMENADE A SMALL SQUARE BLOCK USED IN SERIESIN IONIC, CORINTHIAN, COMPOSITE AND RARELY IN DORIC CORNICES AN OPEN AIR STRUCTURE, W/C CONSISTED OF ORCHESTRA, AUDITORIUM, OR CAVEA OUT OF THE SLOPE OF HILLSIDE, IN OR NEAR CITY A SCROLLED BRACKET WHICH SUPPORT A CORNICE OR ENTABLATURE OVER A DOOR OR A WINDOW. THE PART OF A BLDG. USED BY MEN ESP. THE BANQUET ROOM STOR ROOM; WINE STORAGE A CIRCULAR PROJECTING PORTICO A CIRCULAR PROJECTING A COLLONADE THE LONG DEEP PASSAGE WAY TO AN ACIENT EGYPTIAN TOMB. A SHALLOW, CONCAVE GROOVES RUNNING VERTICALLY ON THE SHAFT OF A COLUMN, PILASTER OR OTHER SURFACES A BLDG. 100FT. IN LENGTH OR WIDTH, ESP., THE CELLA OF PARTHENON IN ANCIENT GREEK THEATER, IT WAS THE ORCHESTRA. AN ARCADED OR COLLONADED PORCH OR GALLERY ATTACHED TO A LARGER STRUC'RE A CONSOLE ON THE OTHER SIDE OF A DOORWAY SUPPORTING A CORNICE THE LOWEST SQUARE MEMBER OF THE BASE TREASURY HOUSE. A SPIRAL SCROLL INAN IONIC CAITAL; SMALLER VERSIONS APPEAR ON CORINTHIAN AND COMPOSITE CAPITALS UTILITARIAN; EARLIEST USE OF TRUE OR RADIATING ARCH IN CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM A THICK VOLCANIC EARTH MATERIAL SIMPLEST ORDER USED IN ROMAN ARCHITECTURE MOST DECORATIVE OF ALL ORDERS; COMBINES PROMINENT VOLUTES OF IONIC WITH ACANTHUS OF CORINTHIANS SMALL STONES, LOOSE PATTERN RESEMBLING POLYGONAL WALLING RECTANGULAR BLOCKS, WITH OR WITHOUT MORTAR JOINTS BUT FREQUENTLY SECURED W/ DOWELS & CRAMPS NET-LIKE EFFECT, W/ FINE JOINTS RUNNING DIAGONALLY BRICK FACING; TRIANGULAR IN PLAN ALTERNATION OF BRICKWORK AND SMALL SQUARED STONE BLOCKS CORRESPONDS TO AGORA IN GREEK ARCH'RE; CENTRAL OPEN SPACE USED

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE
POZZOLANA TUSCAN ORDER COMPOSITE ORDER OPUS INCERTUM OPUS QUADRATUM OPUS RETICULATUM OPUS TESTACEUM OPUS MIXTUM FORUMS

BASILICAS THERMAE TEPIDARIUM FRIGIDARIUM LACONICUM CALIDARIUM APODYTERIA UNCTUARIA SPAERESTERIUM CIRCUS TRIUMPHAL ARCHES DOMUS VILLA INSULA PROTHYRUM ATRIUM IMPLUVIUM TABLINUM

PERISTYLE FAUCES TRICLINUM CUBICULUM OECUS ALAE MOSACI AMPHITHEATERS ETRUSCAN

XYSTUS

BALNEUM

AS A MEETING PLACE, MARKET, VENUE FOR POLITICAL DEMONSTRATIONS FORMER COMMERCIAL EXCHANGE OR HALL OF JUSTICE, NOW A CHURCH PALATIAL BATHS WARM ROOM UNHEATED SWIMMING BATH/ COOLING ROM (SUDATORIUM) DRY SWEATING ROOM HOT ROOM DRESSING ROOM OILS ROOM GAME ROOM FOR HORSE AND CHARIOT RACING ERECTED TO EMPERORS AND GENERALS FOR VICTORIOUS CAMPAIGNS PRIVATE HOUSE COUNTRY HOUSE APARTMENT HOUSE ALSO CALLED "WERKMEN'S DWELLING" ENTRANCE PASSAGE ENTRANCE COURT, OPEN TO SKY & AT THE CENTER IS A IMPLUVIUM A WATER CISTERN COLLECTOR A LARGE OPEN ROOM OR APARTMENT FOR FAMILY RECORDS AND HEREDITARY STATUES SITUATED AT THE END OF THE ATRIUM FARTHEST FROM THE MAIN ENTRANCE AN INNER COLLONATED COURT W/ GARDEN THE PASSAGEWAY FROM THE STREET TO THE ATRIUM TO THE PERISTYLE A ROMAN DINING ROOM W/ COUCHES ON THREE SIDES A BEDROOM, BUT SOMETIMES USED IN A LESS SPECIFIC SENSE TO DENOTE OTHER ROOM THE MAIN ROOM, RECEPTION ROOM, THE SUCCESSOR OF THE MEGARON RECESSES FOR CONVERSATION DECORATIVE SURFACES FORMED BY SMALL CUBES OF STONE, GLASS AND MARBLE SEMI-CIRCULAR, ELLIPTICAL OR CIRCULAR AUDITORIUM WHERE ITS CENTRAL ARENA IS SURROUNDD BY SEATS NOTABLE FOR THE USE OF THE TRUE & RADIATING ARCH; THE EARLIEST CIVILIZATION AND GEAT BUILDERS, INVENTED THE TUSCAN CAPITAL. A LARGE OPEN SPACE W/ TREES & FOUNTAINS, PART OF IT WAS USED AS A STADIUM FOR FOOT RACING & WHERE ATHLETIC SPORTS TOOK PLACE. PRIVATE BATH IN ROMAN PALACES

COEMETRIA COLUMBARIA LOCULI MONUMENTAL TOMBS

TEMPLE-SHAPED TOMBS

SCULPTURED MEMORIALS

TOMBS SUBTERANEAN VAULTS AND LATER WERE CALLED CATACOMBS BY EARLY CHRISTIAN PD. NICHES FORMED IN THE ROCK TO RECEIVE A VASE CONTAINING THE ASHES OF THE DECEASED, & WITH THE NAME INSCRIBED THEREON. RECESSES FOR CORPSE WERE SEALED W/ A FRONT SLAB INSCRIBED W/ THE NAME. CONSISTED OF A LARGE CYLINDRICAL BLOCKS, OFTEN ON A QUADRANGULAR PODIUM, TOPPED W/ A CONOCAL CROWN OF EARTH OR STONE. USU. CONSISTED OF A MORTUARY CHAPEL OFTEN HAVING A COLONNADED PORTICO OR PERISTYLE MINOR TOMBS, SMALL BUT RICHLY OUTSIDE PILLARS OF VICTORY A ROMAN DORIC COLUMN, ENTIRELY OF MARBLE W/ A TOTAL HT. OF 115FT 7IN. & A SHAFT 12IN. DIA. W/ A SPIRAL STAIRCASE FREQUENTLY ERECTED IN THE TIME OF EMPERORS TO CELEBRATE NAVAL VICTORIES USE TO HOUSE EMPERORS USED FOR WATER SUPPLY, W/ SMOOTH CHANNELS OR SPECUS LINE W/ HARDCEMENT & CARRIED ON ARCHES, IN SEVERAL TIES. DESIGNED SIMILAR TO A LARGE BASIN OF WATER SIMILAR TO A LARGE BASIN OF WATER W/ SPOUTING JETS. HIGLY INFLUENCED BY ROMAN ART & ARCHITECTURE; SHELTERING WORSHIPPERS TOMB/ TABERNACLE/ BALDACHINO A RANGE OF ARCHES SUPPORTED ON PIERS OR COLUMNS ATTACHED TO OR DETACHED FROM THE WALL ERECTED OVER THE BURIAL PLACE OF A SAINT TO WHOM THE CHURCH WAS DEDICATED A RAISED STAGE RESERVED FOR THE CLERGY A SEAT BEHIND THE CHOIR RESERVED FOR THE CLERGY

TRAJAN'S COLUMN ROSTRAL COLUMN

PALACES AQUEDUCTS

LACUS/LOCUS SALIENTES

EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE


CIBORIUM ARCADE

BASILICAN CHURCHES BEMA ANTEPODIUM

BALDACHINO ATRIUM NARTHEX NAVE AMBULATORY APSE CHEVET AMBO TRIFORIUM BAPTISTERY FONT ARCHIVOLT CANCELI DAIS ORATORY REREDOS TRANSEPT TRIBUNE SEPULCHER

A CANOPY SUPPORTED BY COLOMNS GENERALLY PLACED OVER AN ALTAR OR TOMB OPEN FORECOURT COVERED AREA FOR PENITENTS CENTRAL AISLE LIT BY CLERESTORY A PASSAGEWAY AROUND THE APSE OF THE CHURCH SANCTUARY WHERE THE BISHOPS STANDS THE APSE, AMBULATORY, & RADIATING TERMINAL OF A CHURCH GOSPEL & EPISTLE WERE READ PASSAGEWAY LAGE SEPARATE BLDG. FOR SACRAMENT OF BAPTISM.EASTER, PENTECOST, & EPIPHANY A BASIN USU. OF STONE WHICH HOLDS THE WATER FOR BAPTISM A MORE WIDELY SPACED COLUMNS CARRYING SEMI-CIRCULAR ARCHES A LOW SCREEN WALL A RAISED FLATFORM RESERVED FOR THE SEATING OF SPEAKERS OR DIGNITARIES A SMALL PRIVATE CHAPEL FURNISHED W/ AN ALTAR AND A CRUCIFIX AN ORNAMENTAL SCREEN OR WALL AT THE BACK OF AN ALTAR THE PORTION OF A CHURCH CROSSING THE MAIN AXIS AT THE RIGHT ANGLE & FROMING A CRUCIFORM PLAN A SLIGHTLY ELEVATED FLATFORM OR DAIS FOR THE SPEAKER A TOMB OR A RECEPTACLE FOR RELICS ESP. IN A CHRISTIAN ALTAR DOMICAL TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM DEEP ABACUS, FOR SUPPORTING WIDE VOUSSOIRS GAUL CENTRAL EUROPE CONSTANTINOPLE MESOPOTAMIA PERSIA A TEMPORARY STRUCTURE UPON WHICH THE MATERIAL OF A VAULT OR ARCH ARE SUPPORTED POSITION UNTIL THE WORK BECOME SELF-SUPPORTING A SCREEN IN A GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH ON WHICH ICONS (SACRED IMAGE) ARE PLACED, SEPARATING THE CHANCEL FROM THE SPACE. OPEN TO THE LAITY

BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE
DOSSERET BLOCK FRANCE GERMANY ISTANBUL IRAQ IRAN CENTERING ICONOSTASIS

GYMNACEUM SIMPLE DOME COMPOUND DOME MELON-SHAPED DOME PEACOCK ORNAMENT ENDLESS KNOT ORNAMENT

A PART OF GREEK HOUSE, OR A BYZANTINE CHURCH RESERVED FOR WOMEN ONLY DOME & PENDENSIVE WERE PART OF THE SAME SPHERE DOME IS NOT A PART BUT RISES INDEPENDENTLY ABOVE THEM CONSIST OR CURVED FLUTINGS W/C AVOID THE NECESSARY OF PENDENSIVE SYMBOLIZES ETERNAL LIFE SYMBOLYZES ETERNITY

ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE
MOSQUE CHATRI DAR DIWAN HAREM MINARET A MUSLIM HOUSE OF WORSHIP KIOSK MEN'S APARTMENT PALACES WOMEN'S APARTMENT A TALL TOWER IN, OR CONTINOUS TO A MOSQUE ARCH STAIRS LEADING UPTO ONE OR MORE BALCONIES FROM WHICH THE FAITHFUL ARE CALLED TO PRAYER A NICHE WHERE THE LEADER OF THE CONGREGATION (THE IMAM) MAKES HIS PRAYER A RAISED FLATFORM FOR CEREMONIAL ANNOUNCEMENT THE HIGH PULPIT OR AMBO BALUSTER MEN'S QUEST QUARTER WOODEN SCROLL SCREEN A SMALL PAVILION, USU. OPEN, BUILT IN GARDENS AND PARKS A BLOCK OF STONE, OFEN ELABORATELY CARVED OR MOULDED PROJECTED FOM A WALL, SUPPORTING THE BEAMS OF A ROOF FLOOR OR VAULT A DIAGONAL CUTTING OF AN ARRIS FORMED BY TWO SURFACES MEETING AT AN ANGLE AXIS ORIENTED AT MECCA A SMALL COLUMN USU. DECORATIVE A COVERED PORCH OR BALCONY EXTENDING ALONG THE OUTSIDE OF A BUILDING, PLANNED FOR SUMMER LEISURE A MONUMENT ERECTED IN MEMORY OF ONE NOT INTERRED IN OR UNDER IT THE HIGH PLATFORM ON WHICH TEMPLES WERE GENERALLY PLACED AN UMBRELLA SHAPED CUPOLA

MIHRAB MIMBER MIMBAR MUHAJAR SELAMUK MOUCHRABIEHS KIOSK CORBEL

CHAMFER KIBLA COLONETTE VERANDAH CENOTAPH PODIUM CHATTRIS

ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE
OLD FOUNDATION MONASTIC FOUNDATION NEW FOUNDATION QUDROPARTITE SEXPARTITE BILLET DORMER WINDOW GROIN HELM ROOF TURRET/ BARTISAN KEEP

CONCENTRATE ON BEAUTY & DELICACY OF ORNAMENTAL DETAIL

CATHEDRAL FOUNDATIONS SERVED SECULAR CLERGY SERVED BY REGULAR CLERGY OR MONKS WHERE BISHOPS HAD BEEN APPOINTED FOUR-PART VAULTING SIX-PART VAULTING AROMANESQUE MOULDING CONSISTING OF SEVERAL BANDS OF RAISED SHORT CYLINDERS OR SQUARE PIECES, PLACED AT A REGULAR INTERVAL (LUCARNE) A WINDOW PLACED VERTICALLY IN A SLOPING ROOF W/ A ROOF ON ITS OWN. THE CARVED ARRIS FORMED BY INTERSECTING VAULTING SURFACES A ROOF IN /C RESTS DIAGONALLY BET. THE GABLES & CONVERGE AT THE ROOF

MOAT LOOPHOLE BATTLEMENT MERLON CRENEL ALLURE MACHICOLATION PORTICULLIS PILASTER STRIP NARTHEX PULPIT

DUNJON; THE STRONGHOLD OF THE MEDIEVAL USU. IN THE FORM OF A MASSIVE TOWER AND A PLACE OF RESIDENCE, ESP. IN TIMES OF SEIGE A BROAD DEEP TRENCH SURROUNDING THE RAMPARTS OF A TOWN OR FORTRESS USU. FILLED W/ WATER PARAPET HAVING A SERIES OF INDENTATIONS OR EMBRASURES B/N THE UPSTANDING PART OF EMBATTLED PARAPET, B/N 2 CRENELLES OR EMBRASURES

A PROJECTING WALL OR PARAPET ALLOWING FLOOR OPENINGS, THROUGH W/C MOLTEN LEAD, PITCH, STONES, WERE DROPPED AN ENEMY BELOW.

IS A RECTANGULAR FEATURE IN SHAPE OF A PILLAR, BUT PROJECTING ONLY ABOUT 1/6 OF ITS BREATH A LONG ARCADED ENTRANCE PORCH TO CHRISTIAN BASILICAN AN ELEVATED ENCLOSED STAND IN A CHURCH IN WHICH THE PREACHER STANDS

CLOISTERS

CRYPT

A SECLUDED PLACE COVER PASSAGES AROUND AN OPEN SPACE, CONNECTING THE CHURCH TO THE CHAPTER HOUSES, REFECTORY AND THE OTHER PARTS OF THE MONASTERY A SPACE ENTIRELY OR PARTLY UNDER A BLDG; IN CHURCHES GENERALLY BENEATH THE CHANCEL AND USED FOR BURIAL IN EARLY TIMES MOST IMPT. CHARACTERISTIC OF MATURE SPANISH ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE IN CHURCH DESIGN THE VESTRY OF EARLY CHRISTIAN CHURCH THE PART OF A CHUCH WHERE THE CREDENCE TABLE STANDS THE SMALL APSIDAL CHAPEL ONE PROJECTING FROM THE APSE A MOAT OR A DITCH THE SLOPE AS INCLINATION OF ANY WORK, OR A COARSE ROCK FRAGMENTS, MIXED W/ SOIL AT THE FOOT OF A CLIFF A SLOPE EMBANKMENT IN FRONT OF A FORTIFICATION SO RAISED AS TO BRING AN ADVANCING ENEMY INTO THE MOST DIRECT LINE OF FIRE AN ENTRANCE OF TWO GATEWAYS NOT IN LINE SO THAT IT IS NECESSARY TO MAKE A SHARP TURN TO PASS THRU THE SECOND, FOR PRIVACY IN HOUSES OR TEMPLES. FOR SECURITY IN FORTIFICATION AN ALLEY WALK OR PASSAGE, A GALLERY BEHIND A PARAPET THE PORTION OF WALL ABOVE ROOF GUTTER OR BALCONIES SOMETIMES BATTLEMENTED AT THE ENTRANCE OF FORTIFICATIONS, A BRIDGE OVER THE MOAT OR A DITCH HINGED AND PROVIDED W/ A RAISING AND LOWERING MECHANISM . SO AS TO HINDER OR PERMIT PASSAGE A DEFENSIVE GRATING, OF MASSIVE IRON OR TIMBER MOVABLE, VERT. IN RETAINING GROOVES CUT IN JAMBS OF A FORTIFIED GATEWAY ARCADED OR COLONNADED STRUCTURE OPEN ON ONE OR MORE SIDES, SOMETIMES W/ AN UPPER STOREY A STEP MOUND OF EARTH SURROUNDED BY A DITCH AND SUMOUNTED BY A TIMBER STOCKADE & TOWER; A MAIN FEATURE OF A NORMAN CASTLE THE OPEN AREA W/ A MEDIEVAL FORTIFICATION; THE OUTER WALL OF A FEUDAL CASTLE EARTHEN OR MASONRY DEFENSE WALL OF A FORTIFIDE SITE

HORSESHOE ARCH DIACONICON PROTHESIS APSIDOLES FOSSE-FOSS TALUS GLACIS BENT ENTRANCE

ALLURE PARAPET DRAWBRIDGE

PORTICULLIS

LOGGIA

MOTTE

BAILEY RAMPART

PALISADE

BAULKS MANOR HOUSE UNDERCROFT OR CRYPT CELLAR SOLAR LAPPED STAVED CHURCH

A SERIES OF STOUT POLES, POINTED ON TOP AND DRIVEN INTO THE EARTH, USED AS A FENCE OR FORTIFICATION. SQUARED TIMBER USED IN BLDG., CONSTRUCTION OR A LOW RIDGE OF EARTH THAT MARKS A BOUNDARY LINE THE MOST IMPT. HOUSE IN A COUNTRY OR VILLAGE NEIGHBORHOOD A VAULTED BASEMENT OF A CHURCH OR SECRET PASSAGE, OFTEN WHOLLY OR PARTLY BELOW GROUND LEVEL A CELLAR HAVING A HALF OR MORE OF ITS CLEAR HEIGHT BELOW GRADE A ROOM OR APARTMENT OF AN UPPER FLOOR, AS IN AN EARLY ENGLISH DWELLING HOUSE A JOINT FORM BY PLACING ONE PIECE PARTLY OVER ANOTHER AND UNITING THE OVERLAPPED PORTIONS A SCANDINAVIAN WOODEN CHURCH W/ VERT. PLANKS FORMING THE WALLS