Bluetooth

• Idea – Universal radio interface for ad-hoc wireless connectivity – Original founding members: Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Nokia, Toshiba – Interconnecting computer and peripherals, handheld devices, PDAs, cell phones – replacement of IrDA – Embedded in other devices, goal: 5€/device (2005: 40€/USB bluetooth) – Short range (10 m), low power consumption, license-free 2.45 GHz ISM – Voice and data transmission, approx. 1 Mbit/s gross data rate

One of the first modules (Ericsson).

Characteristics
• • 2.4 GHz ISM band, 79 (23) RF channels, 1 MHz carrier spacing – Channel 0: 2402 MHz … channel 78: 2480 MHz – G-FSK modulation, 1-100 mW transmit power FHSS and TDD – Frequency hopping with 1600 hops/s – Hopping sequence in a pseudo random fashion, determined by a master – Time division duplex for send/receive separation Voice link – SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) – FEC (forward error correction), no retransmission, 64 kbit/s duplex, point-to-point, circuit switched Data link – ACL (Asynchronous ConnectionLess) – Asynchronous, fast acknowledge, point-to-multipoint, up to 433.9 kbit/s symmetric or 723.2/57.6 kbit/s asymmetric, packet switched Topology – Overlapping piconets (stars) forming a scatternet

Piconet • • Collection of devices connected in an ad hoc fashion One unit acts as master and the others as slaves for the lifetime of the piconet P S S M SB P SB S P • Master determines hopping pattern. slaves have to synchronize Each piconet has a unique hopping pattern Participation in a piconet = synchronization to hopping sequence Each piconet has one master and up to 7 simultaneous slaves (> 200 could be parked) • • M=Master S=Slave P=Parked SB=Standby • .

8 bit) P • SB SB SB  SB  S SB S P S SB SB  SB SB SB M P  SB . unique worldwide) • Phase in hopping pattern determined by clock Addressing – Active Member Address (AMA. 3 bit) – Parked Member Address (PMA.Forming a piconet • All devices in a piconet hop together – Master gives slaves its clock and device ID • Hopping pattern: determined by device ID (48 bit.

Scatternet • • Linking of multiple co-located piconets through the sharing of common master or slave devices – Devices can be slave in one piconet and master of another Communication between piconets – Devices jumping back and forth between the piconets Piconets (each with a capacity of P 720 kbit/s) S S S M SB S P SB SB P M P M=Master S=Slave P=Parked SB=Standby S .

AT modem commands TCS BIN SDP Control Host Controller Interface . vCal/vCard OBEX telephony apps. apps. TCP/UDP IP BNEP PPP RFCOMM (serial line interface) Audio Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) Link Manager Baseband Radio AT: attention sequence OBEX: object exchange TCS BIN: telephony control protocol specification – binary BNEP: Bluetooth network encapsulation protocol SDP: service discovery protocol RFCOMM: radio frequency comm. mgmnt.Bluetooth protocol stack audio apps. NW apps.

Protocol stack • Core specifications – – – – – Radio Baseband Link manager protocol Logical link protocol and adaptation protocol (L2CAP) Service discovery protocol • Protocol specifications – RFCOMM • Replacement of serial line cables – TCS BIN • Establishment of voice and data calls between bluetooth devices .

and signalling channels Protocol multiplexing – RFCOMM. add/remove member . specifies delay. bandwidth Group abstraction – Create/close group. SDP. 16 bit CRC used from baseband QoS flow specification per channel – Follows RFC 1363.Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol • • • • • • Simple data link protocol on top of baseband Connection oriented. jitter.L2CAP . bursts. connectionless. telephony control Segmentation & reassembly – Up to 64kbyte user data.

CID>=64 – Signalling. CID =2 – CID 3-63 are reserved .L2CAP • Provide logical channels • For ACLs only • Audio applications using SCOs use baseband layer directly • Three logical channels – Connectionless. CID=2 – Connection oriented.

random number and signed responses • Synchronization – Clock offset is updated each time a packet is received from master • • • • QoS negotiation Power control Link supervision: set up/ finish link Transmission mode change . encription. pairing.Link manager control • Authentication. link key.

Radio layer .

Baseband layer: Frequency selection during data transmission 625 µs fk M fk+1 S fk+2 M fk+3 S fk+4 M fk+5 S fk+6 M t fk M fk M fk+3 S fk+1 S fk+4 M fk+5 S fk+6 M t fk+6 M t .

3. The reason for this is quite simple: not every slave might receive a transmission (hidden terminal problem) and it can not react on a multi-slot transmission.Baseband layer • Slot 125 microsec • 1. the radio returns to the frequency required for its hopping sequence. Those slaves not involved in the transmission will continue with the hopping sequence.5 slots • TDD •After transmitting the packet. .

device access.Baseband • • Piconet/channel definition Low-level packet definition – Access code • Channel. link type. active member address (broadcast + 7 slaves).g. alternating bit ARQ/SEQ. checksum 68(72) 54 0-2745 bits access code packet header payload 4 preamble 64 sync. (4) (trailer) 3 AM address 4 type 1 flow 1 ARQN 1 SEQN 8 HEC bits . e.. derived from master – Packet header • 1/3-FEC.

• The access code consists of a 4 bit preamble.Access code • This first field of a packet is needed for timing synchronization and piconet identification (channel access code. • In case of paging (DAC) the LAP of the paged device is used. •If a Bluetooth device wants to discover other (arbitrary) devices in transmission range (general inquiry procedure) it uses a special reserved LAP. CAC). IAC. . data transmission between a master and a slave or vice versa). • It may represent special codes during paging (device access code. a synchronization field. • Special LAPs can be defined for inquiries of dedicated groups of devices. and a trailer (if a packet header follows).. DAC) and inquiry (inquiry access code.5. LAP).5). see section 7. • The 64-bit synchronization field is derived from the lower 24 bit of an address (lower address part. • If the access code is used for channel access (i. the LAP is derived from the master’s globally unique 48-bit address.e.

transmission must stop. • The packet header is also protected by a one-third rate forward error correction (FEC) code . transmission may resume. • A simple alternating bit protocol with a single bit sequence number SEQN and acknowledgement number ARQN • An 8-bit header error check (HEC) is used to protect the packet header. As soon as a packet with flow=1 is received.Packet Header • • • • • AM: active address of slave Master to slave/slave to master Zero address is for broadcasting message from master to all slaves Type: type of the packet If a packet is received with flow=0. asynchronous data.

6 64.4 Asymmetric max. Data and Voice .0 64.3 57.6 SCO HV2 HV3 DV 10+(0-9) D 2/3 D Data Medium/High rate.6 185. High-quality Voice.8 723.8 172.2 185. Rate [kbit/s] Forward Reverse 108.7 433. Rate [kbit/s] 108.4 5 slot DM5 DH5 AUX1 HV1 2 2 1 na na na 1D 0-224 0-339 0-29 10 20 30 2/3 no no 1/3 2/3 no yes yes no no no no yes D 286.8 54.0 64.1 390.0 64.8 258.9 185.8 172.Baseband data rates ACL 1 slot Type DM1 DH1 3 slot DM3 DH3 Payload Header [byte] 1 1 2 2 User Payload [byte] 0-17 0-27 0-121 0-183 FEC 2/3 no 2/3 no CRC yes yes yes yes Symmetric max.4 86.8 172.6 D 477.0+57.8 387.2 585.6 108.6 36.

SCO payload types payload (30) HV1 HV2 HV3 audio (10) audio (20) audio (30) FEC (20) FEC (10) DV audio (10) header (1) payload (0-9) 2/3 FEC CRC (2) (bytes) .

ACL Payload types payload (0-343) header (1/2) DM1 DH1 DM3 DH3 DM5 DH5 AUX1 header (1) header (1) header (2) header (2) header (2) header (2) header (1) payload (0-29) payload (0-17) payload (0-27) payload (0-339) 2/3 FEC CRC (2) CRC (2) 2/3 FEC CRC (2) CRC (2) 2/3 FEC CRC (2) (bytes) payload (0-121) payload (0-183) payload (0-224) CRC (2) CRC (2) payload (0-339) .

Baseband states of a Bluetooth device standby unconnected detach inquiry page connecting transmit AMA connected AMA active park PMA hold AMA sniff AMA low power Standby: do nothing Inquire: search for other devices Page: connect to a specific device Connected: participate in a piconet Park: release AMA. possibly participate in another piconet . not each slot Hold: stop ACL. get PMA Sniff: listen periodically. SCO still possible.

Then the device becomes slave • Page mode – Master pages hopping sequence to slaves to synchronize – It enters into connection state . it returns a packet containing its address and timing information required by the master to initiate a connection. device not participating in a piconet – Low power mode • Inquiry – Device wants to establish a piconet • IAC (inquiry access code) • IAC is broadcast over 32 wake-up carriers in turn – Devices in standby that listens periodically • Using wake up carriers • When device detects an inquiry.• Standby.

transmitting. receiving • ACL and SCO links • 3 bit AMA – Low power • Sniff – Highest power consumption in low power state – Listen to the medium at reduced rate – Keeps AMA • Hold – Device stops ACL transmission but still exchange SCO packets – Keeps AMA • Park – Lowest duty cycle – Release AMA and receive PMA .• Connection state – Active • Listening.

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