This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Introduction: This tutorial demonstrates how to set up and solve a transient problem. The goal is to determine the time variation of the ﬂow and temperature distributions within the cabinet. In this tutorial, you will learn how to: • Deﬁne a transient problem • Specify time-dependent parameters for objects • Group and copy modeling objects • Examine the results of a transient simulation, including animating results over time Prerequisites: This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in Icepak and that you have solved or read Tutorial 1. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. Problem Description: The model consists of a natural-convection-cooled heat sink composed of a base plate, four heat sources, and nine tapered ﬁns, as shown in Figure 3.1. The sources are attached to the back of the base plate and each is turned on for 10 seconds, one after the other.
c Fluent Inc. October 23, 2007
Figure 3.1: Problem Speciﬁcation
Step 1: Open and Deﬁne a New Project
1. Start Icepak, as described in Chapter 1 of the User’s Guide. When Icepak starts, the New/existing panel will open automatically. 2. Click New in the New/existing panel to start a new Icepak project. The New project panel will appear. 3. Specify a name for your project. (a) In the Project text box, enter the name transient. (b) Click Create.
c Fluent Inc. October 23, 2007
select Turbulent and keep the default Zero equation turbulence model.Transient Analysis Icepak will create a default cabinet with the dimensions 1 m × 1 m × 1 m. To restore the cabinet to its default orientation. i. 2007 3-3 . You can zoom into and out from the cabinet using the right mouse button. and display the cabinet in the graphics window. Problem setup−→ Basic parameters (a) Click the General setup tab in the Basic parameters panel. October 23. Under Flow regime. You can rotate the cabinet around a central point using the left mouse button. 4. or you can translate it to any point on the screen using the middle mouse button. c Fluent Inc. Specify a transient simulation that includes gravity and turbulence eﬀects. select Home position from the Orient menu.
October 23.Transient Analysis ii. select Transient and set the Start and End times to 0 and 40 seconds. ii. 2007 . 3-4 c Fluent Inc. D. C. Specify the time step and how often to save the solution data. (c) Click Accept to save the new settings. iii. Icepak will open the Transient parameters panel. i. Click Accept to save the new time parameters. respectively. (b) Click the Transient setup tab in the Basic parameters panel. B. Click Edit parameters next to the Transient option.1 m/s. Turn on the Gravity vector option and keep the default settings. Set the Solution save interval to 5. Set the Time step increment to 1. A. set the initial Y velocity to 0. For the Time variation. Under Initial conditions.
(d) In the Orient menu. (i) Click Done to modify the plate and close the Plates panel. 1. click the Geometry tab. 2007 3-5 .1 yS 0. Model−→ Cabinet (a) In the Cabinet panel.25 (c) Click Update to resize the cabinet and then click Done to close the panel. Al-Duralumin is located in the Metals/Alloys category.35 0. and ﬁn. (b) Enter the following coordinates: xS 0. (d) Enter the following coordinates for the plate: xS 0. so you will need to scroll down through the drop-down list to ﬁnd it.05 xE yE zE 0. xE yE zE 0. heat sources. (c) Click the Geometry tab.3 0.55 0. you will ﬁrst resize the cabinet to its proper size.Transient Analysis Step 2: Build the Model To build the model. October 23.1 zS 0.01 m. (a) Click the button to create a new plate. and then click the the Plates panel. without changing the default X-Y plane.4 — c Fluent Inc. (h) Select Al-Duralumin in the Solid material drop-down list.05 yS 0. 2. Resize the default cabinet. you will need to change the size and set thermal properties.2 zS 0. select Scale to ﬁt to scale the view of the cabinet to ﬁt the graphics window. to open For the base plate. Hint: Click the button located next to the Solid material text ﬁeld to open the drop-down list. (g) Set the Thickness to 0. Create the base plate. select Conducting thick. Then you will create the objects in the cabinet: a base plate. (f) Under Thermal model. (b) Enter the name baseplate in the Name ﬁeld.12 (e) Click the Properties tab.
(l) For the Block type. select Cylinder. select Al-Duralumin in the Solid material dropdown list. oﬀset in the y direction. (m) Under Thermal speciﬁcation.13 (h) Set the Height to 0.Transient Analysis 3.012 for the second (top) external radius (Radius 2). October 23. create two copies. group the three blocks. 3-6 c Fluent Inc. (i) Enter 0. except with respect to its location. you will build a single solid block as a template. button Icepak will create a new solid prism block in the center of the cabinet. (d) In the Shape drop-down list.06. Create the ﬁrst tapered ﬁn. keep the default selection of Solid. (c) Click the Geometry tab.25 zC 0. (j) Enter 0. 2007 . and then make two copies of the group. Each ﬁn is physically identical to the others. and 0 for the second (top) internal radius (Int Radius 2). select X-Y. (e) In the Plane drop-down list. To create the set of nine ﬁns. (b) Enter the name fin in the Name ﬁeld and press the <Enter> key on the keyboard. (n) Click Done to modify the block and close the Blocks panel. each with a speciﬁed oﬀset in the x direction. You will need to change the size and shape of the block. (k) Click the Properties tab. (g) Enter the following coordinates for the center point: xC 0.02 for the ﬁrst (bottom) external radius (Radius). and 0 for the ﬁrst (bottom) internal radius (Int Radius). and then click the to open the Blocks panel. (a) Click the button to create a new block. (f) Turn on the Nonuniform radius option.15 yC 0.
v. 5. click the plus sign next to Groups. Edit−→Current group−→Create i. ii. October 23.05.05 m in the x direction. Click Done. Icepak will open a Query dialog box asking you for a text pattern. The Copy block ﬁn panel will open. (e) Click Apply. Click Done. (b) Click the button. The item group.1. ﬁn. Alternatively. select the ﬁn item under the Model node. (d) Turn on the Translate option and specify an X oﬀset of 0.1 item and select Add−→Name/pattern in the resulting pull down menu. Right-click the group. each oﬀset by 0. 2007 3-7 .2 will be added to the group in the Model manager window. iv. c Fluent Inc. Enter fin* in the Pattern for objects to add text ﬁeld of the Query dialog box. (a) In the Model manager window. Icepak will make two copies of the original block.2). Create the remaining six blocks. iii. and ﬁn. (a) Create a group consisting of the three blocks. ﬁn. each oﬀset by 0.1 and ﬁn. vi.1 will be added under the Groups node in the Model manager window. Keep the default group name. you can right click the ﬁn item in the Model manager window. Copy the ﬁrst block (ﬁn) to create the second and third blocks (ﬁn. (c) Enter 2 as the Number of copies. In the Model manager window.Transient Analysis 4. and select Copy object.05 m in the x direction from the previous one.
1 and select Copy group in the resulting pull down menu. The display will be updated to show all nine blocks. and size of the source. 2007 .12 yS 0.1 under the Groups node in the Model manager window. Click Apply. For this reason. i. indicating that the source is turned oﬀ at the start of the 3-8 c Fluent Inc. rather than making one and copying it. October 23.28 — (d) Specify the total heat (power) as an exponential function of time: Q = Q0 + 100e0. v. Q0 is the power output at t = 0 (speciﬁed as the Total heat). The Copy group group.18 0. which is equal to zero. ii. iv. and then click the to open the Sources panel.12 xE yE zE 0.22 zS 0. iii.Transient Analysis (b) Make two copies of this group.05 m. Turn on the Translate option. vi. Enter 2 for Number of copies. (b) Click the Geometry tab.1) Here. you will set up each one independently. The heat sources are identical. and specify its heat source parameters. You will need to change the geometry. Select group. button Icepak will create a prism source in the center of the cabinet. orientation. Create the ﬁrst heat source. Right-click group. Enter a Y oﬀset of 0. (c) Enter the following coordinates: xS 0. (a) Click the button to create a new source. 6. but will turn on and oﬀ at diﬀerent times during the simulation.1 panel will open.025t (3.
Under Time. and then turn oﬀ after 10 seconds. 2007 3-9 . (e) Click Update in the Sources panel to update the source deﬁnition. Click the Properties tab. enter 0 for tS and 10 for tE. This indicates that the source will turn on at the start of the simulation. iii. The values 100 and 0. Turn on the Transient option and click Edit. ii. c Fluent Inc. v. October 23. respectively.025 are speciﬁed as the coeﬃcient b and the exponent a.Transient Analysis simulation.025 and b to 100. keep the Total heat of 0 W. i. Click Done to modify the settings and close the Transient power panel. iv. Under Heat source parameters. vi. The Transient power panel will open. Note that the units for b are those speciﬁed for Total heat in the Sources panel. Select Exponential and set a to 0.
28 — • Heat source parameters: Total heat = 0 W. tE=30. Create the second heat source. tE=20.18 0.025.32 zS 0. b=100 ! Remember to click Done in the Transient power panel and then click Update in the Sources panel when you have completed the speciﬁcation.4) with the following speciﬁcations: • source.32 zS 0.025. tE=40.12 xE yE zE 0.3 and source. October 23.Transient Analysis 7.025.22 yS 0. 2007 . b=100 • source.28 0. Repeat to create the third and fourth sources (source. a=0.12 yS 0. Transient • Transient power parameters: tS=10.38 — – Heat source parameters: Total heat = 0 W. Exponential.12 xE yE zE 0.12 xE yE zE 0.38 — – Heat source parameters: Total heat = 0 W. a=0. a=0.2): • Location: xS 0. 8.22 yS 0. Transient – Transient power parameters: tS=30.22 zS 0. Transient – Transient power parameters: tS=20.4: – Location: xS 0. Exponential.28 0.3: – Location: xS 0. (a) Click New in the Sources panel and specify the following for the second source (source. b=100 3-10 c Fluent Inc. Exponential.
(a) Click the button to create a new opening.35 — 0.05 yS 0.35 — 0. Extra: Object names are displayed in Icepak by default.. 2007 3-11 . You will need to change the orientation and size of the opening.05 (e) Click Update to modify the opening.which is shown in the Isometric view (available in the Orient menu).1 zS 0. Check the model to be sure that there are no problems (e.05 yS 0.25 button (b) Click Done to modify the opening and close the panel. c Fluent Inc. Model−→Check model Note that you can also click the button to check the model. click the button. Create the second opening. objects that are too close together to allow for proper mesh generation). select X-Z. (d) Enter the following coordinates: xS 0.2. (b) Click the Geometry tab. and then click the to open the Openings panel. (a) Click New in the Openings panel and specify the following for the second opening: • Plane: X-Z • Location: xS 0.55 zS 0. To hide object names from the model view for ease of viewing.g.Transient Analysis 9. 11. October 23. 10. Icepak should report in the Message window that 0 problems were found. The completed model will look like Figure 3.25 xE yE zE 0. Create the ﬁrst opening in the cabinet. (c) In the Plane drop-down list.05 xE yE zE 0.
2007 . Check the deﬁnition of the modeling objects to ensure that you speciﬁed them properly. The summary displays a list of all the objects in the model and all the parameters that have been set for each object.Transient Analysis Y Z X Figure 3. you can return to the appropriate modeling object panel and change the settings in the same way that you originally entered them. October 23. You can view the detailed version of the summary by clicking the appropriate object names or property speciﬁcations. 3-12 c Fluent Inc. View−→Summary (HTML) The HTML version of the summary will be displayed in your web browser. If you notice any incorrect speciﬁcations.2: Completed Model for the Transient Simulation 12.
3. Examine the mesh on cross-sections of the model. The panel will be updated to show the mesh display tools.02. Turn oﬀ the Display mesh option. 1. Use the slider bar under Plane location to move the plane cut through the model. (a) Turn oﬀ the Display mesh and Surface options. In the Set position drop-down list. Model−→Generate mesh (a) In the Mesh control panel.Transient Analysis Step 3: Generate a Mesh For this model. (b) Turn on the Cut plane option. Turn on the Display mesh option. Generate the mesh for the model. (a) Click the Display tab in the Mesh control panel. (b) Turn on the Init height speciﬁcation and set it to 0. (b) Select Surface and select All objects. ii. The resulting mesh will be suﬃciently ﬁne near object faces to resolve the ﬂow physics properly. (e) Display the mesh on the y -z and x-z planes. (c) Turn on the Display mesh option. (d) Click Generate mesh. Examine the mesh on all objects in the model. (c) In the Set position drop-down list. i. (c) Change the Min elems in gap from 3 to 2.005. respectively. The mesh display plane is through the middle of the model. and the Max Z size to 0. select X plane through center or Y plane through center. c Fluent Inc.3. select Z plane through center. i.02. set the Max X size to 0. the Max Y size to 0. October 23. (d) Display the mesh on the x-y plane. The mesh display on all object faces is shown in Figure 3. 2. ii. 2007 3-13 . These settings will result in a mesh display on a y -z or x-z plane.02. you will generate the mesh in just one step.
Turn on the Display mesh option and use the slider bar under Plane location to move the plane cut through the model. 2007 . (a) Deselect the Display mesh option. (b) Click Close to close the Mesh control panel. Turn oﬀ the mesh display. October 23. 3-14 c Fluent Inc.3: Mesh on All Object Faces iii. 4.Transient Analysis Y Z X Figure 3.
you will ﬁrst review estimates of the Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers to check that the proper ﬂow regime is being modeled. The Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers are approximately 3. respectively. October 23. Check the values of the Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers.) File−→Save project c Fluent Inc. Icepak will simply overwrite your project ﬁle when it saves the model. If you exit Icepak before you start the calculation. 2007 3-15 .Transient Analysis Step 4: Check the Flow Regime Before starting the solver. (If you start the calculation in the current Icepak session. but it is a good idea to save the model (including the mesh) yourself as well.6×107 and 0. (b) Check the values printed to the Message window. 1. so the ﬂow is turbulent. Since you have already enabled turbulence. no changes are required. (c) Click Accept to accept the new solver settings. Solution settings−→ Basic settings (a) Click Reset in the Basic settings panel.7. Step 5: Save the Model to a Project File Icepak will save the model for you automatically before it starts the calculation. you will be able to open the project you saved and continue your analysis in a future Icepak session.
2007 . The solution will converge after about 670 iterations. 2. Start the calculation. Note. October 23. however. Solution settings−→ (b) Click Accept.Transient Analysis Step 6: Calculate a Solution 1. that the exact number of iterations required for convergence may vary on diﬀerent computers. Basic settings (a) Set the Iterations/timestep to 50. 3-16 c Fluent Inc. (b) Click Start solution to start the solver. Increase the maximum number of iterations per time step. Solve−→Run solution (a) Keep the default settings in the Solve panel.
3. iii. i. hold down the <Shift> key and select each source item: source. This will result in a display on all of the sources. c Fluent Inc. you can generate an animation that shows the ﬂow and temperature ﬁeld changing over time. (b) Turn on the Show contours option and click Parameters. source. 1. (e) Click Create in the Object face panel to update the graphics display. In the Transient animation panel.4. Display contours of temperature on the four sources.2. select all of the sources. keep all default values and click Animate. 2007 3-17 . ii. Orient−→Home position (g) Animate the temperature contours over time. October 23. Click Animate. source. In the Post-processing time panel. Hint: To select all of the sources in the tree listing. Post−→Object face (a) In the Object drop-down list. select the Time value option. The Object face contours panel will open.1. The Transient animation panel will open. animated over time. (f) Change the orientation of the model to the home position. and source. keep the default selection of Temperature in the Contours of drop-down list. (c) In the Object face contours panel.Transient Analysis Step 7: Examine the Results Since the simulation is transient. (d) Keep all defaults and click Done to save the settings and close the panel. Post−→Transient settings The Post-processing time panel will open.
3-18 c Fluent Inc. click the red Interrupt button in the upper right hand corner of the Icepak interface. (j) In the Object face panel.4 shows the temperature contours for the sources at t = 20.0967 24. (h) Click Done to close the Transient animation panel.0 Temperature C 28.1225 26. Time = 20. and the display will show the temperature contours for the solution at each time.1096 25.0838 23.1354 27.Transient Analysis The animation will begin. (i) Click Done to close the Post-processing time panel.0709 22. turn oﬀ the Active option and click Done. Figure 3.0322 Y Z X Figure 3. You will see each source get hotter as it is turned on.0451 20.4: Temperature Contours on the Sources at t = 20 To stop the animation. 2007 . October 23.0580 21.
To stop the animation. Click Animate to display the Transient animation panel. (d) Animate the velocity vectors over time. (b) Turn on the Show vectors option. select Z plane through center. Display velocity vectors on a plane cut through the center of the cabinet. October 23. The animation will begin. Post−→Transient settings i. (c) Click Create. ii.Transient Analysis 2. Post−→Plane cut (a) In the Set position drop-down list. (f) Click Done to close the Post-processing time panel. Select Time value in the Post-processing time panel. Air ﬂows from one opening to the other (and passes through the ﬁns of the heat sink). you can also see that the velocity distribution changes with time from the initial velocity proﬁle to that governed by the geometry and other parameters of the system. Keep the default settings in the Transient animation panel and click Animate to start the animation. (g) In the Plane cut panel. Figure 3. c Fluent Inc. and the display will show the velocity vectors for the solution at each time. iii.5 shows the velocity vectors at t = 20. 2007 3-19 . (e) Click Done to close the Transient animation panel. turn oﬀ the Active option and click Done. click the red Interrupt button in the upper right hand corner of the Icepak interface.
Transient Analysis Time = 20.0150848 0.0226272 0. 2007 . 3-20 c Fluent Inc.00754239 0. October 23.0 Velocity m/s 0.0377119 0. you set up and solved a transient model and used the animation technique to examine the results over time.000000 Y Z X Figure 3.0301696 0.0452543 0.5: Velocity Vectors at t = 20 Summary: In this tutorial.0527967 0.0603391 0.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.