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BIODIVERSITY AND FOREST MANAGEMENT

assam university ,silchar [Type the company address] [Type the phone number] [Type the fax number] 10/24/2012

Biodiversity
The word biodiversity is an abbreviated version of biological diversity. The convention on Bio logical diversity. The Convention on Biological Diversity defines biodiversity as: The variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia , terrestrial marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which that are a part; this includes diversity within species m between species and of ecosystems. Thus, Biodiversity refers to the variety of forms the different plants animals and micro-organisms. It also includes the genes they contain and the ecosystem they form .It deals essentially with dynamic processes and increases when new genetic variation is produced and decreases on the loss of genetic variation or species extinction. Thus, it is a concept laying emphasis on inter-related nature in of the living world with its processes .The conservation of biological diversity seeks to maintain the life-supports system, provided by nature in all ways and the living resources, essentially for ecologically sustainable development. Biodiversity is of fundamental importance to the functioning of all ecosystems and to the ecosystem services that nature provides to human society. Living organisms play central roles in the cycles of major elements (carbon, nitrogen and so on) and water in the environment and diversity specifically is important in that these cycles require numerous interacting species. Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity where each species, no matter how small, all have an important role to play. For example, (1) A larger number of plant species means a greater variety of crops (2) Greater species diversity ensures natural sustainability for all life forms (3) Healthy ecosystems can better withstand and recover from a variety of disasters .General interest in bio diversity has grown rapidly in recent years, largely as a consequence of accelerating rate of natural habitat loss, habitat fragmentation and degradation, and resulting extinctions of species. The IUCN Red List estimate that `12-52% of species within well studied higher taxa such as vertebrates and vascular plants are threatened with extinction .These estimates are the basis of the consensus at the Earth is in the midst o the sixth mass extinction event is termed the Holocene Mass Extinction. Types of Biodiversity Conservation of nature implies protection nature from the impacts of development , while biodiversity conservation essentially safeguards even the generic diversity of cultivated /domesticated as well as wild flora and fauna. There are three distinct levels of bio-diversity though all of them are components of a much intricate web. Genetic Diversity It refers to variation of genes within species. This variation can exist between different populations of the same species as well as between different genes within a population .It is estimated that about 109 different genes are distributed across the worlds biota .Genetic diversity provides organisms and ecosystems with capacity to recuperate after change has occurred. Thus Genetic

makeup of a species .It is distinguished from genetic variability, which describes the tendency of genetic characteristics to vary.

Species Diversity Refers to variety of living species .Measure of index to this diversity comprise of species richness , species abundances and phylogenetic diversity .Equatorial region is species rich than the rest. Species diversity is essential for the proper functioning of communities and for emergence of community level properties, just as many different DNA encoded enzymes are needed for a complex organism to function properly. A very similar occurrence is the cause of the infamous Potato Famine in Ireland .Since new potato plants do not come as a result of reproduction but rather from pieces of the parent plant no genetic diversity is developed and the entire crop is essentially a clone of one potato, it is especially susceptible to an epidemic .In the 1840s much of Irelands population depended on potatoes on potatoes for food .They planted the lumper variety of potato, which was susceptible to a rotcausing mold called Phytophthora .This mold destroyed the vast majority of the potato crop, and left thousands of people to starve to death . Each species is placed within a single genus .This is a hypothesis that the species is more closely related to other species within its genus thousand to species of other genera. All species are given a binomial name consisting of the generic name and specific name for Pinus palustris .The taxonomic ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum , class, order, family , genus and species. A usable definition of the word species and reliable methods of identifying particular species are essential for stating and testing biological theories and for measuring biodiversity .Traditionally, multiple examples of a proposed species must be studied for unifying characters before it can be regarded as a species. Extinct species known only from fossils are difficult t give precise taxonomic rankings to. Ecosystem Diversity This includes broad difference between ecosystem type. Each one is characterized with distinct patterns of energy flow and water cycles. This essential element is reflected in all bio-diversity measurements. The term ecosystem was coined in 1930 by Roy Clapham, to denote the physical and biological components of and environment considered in relation to each other as a unit .British , ecologist Arthur Tansley later refined the term, describing it as The whole system, including not only the organism-complex, but also the whole complex of physical factors forming what we call the environment. Tansley regarded ecosystems not simply as given natural units but as mental isolates. Tansley defined the spatial extent of ecosystems using term ecotope. Preservation of Bio-diversity Habitats are endangered by human activity .No one can predict the actual numbers of lives becoming extinct as rain forests are continuously cleared .So the urgent need to study and preserve

the ecology and bio-diversity of what remains has become and important issue of international priority .The need for preservation les in the value of the components of bio-diversity .It includes the indirect benefits arising from the conservation of these components viz. ecosystem services, biological resources and social benefits .A healthy biodiversity provides a number of natural services for everyone: 1. Ecosystem services Protection of water resources: The natural vegetation cover in catchments areas helps in maintaining hydrological cycles, regulating and stabilizing runoff and cats as buffer against extreme events like flood and drought. It also helps to regulate underground water table and prevents its drying up. Thus a pointer to degradation of habitats is the depletion of ground water levels .In India , the last 25 years have seen a decline of water levels by30 feets in the entire eastern coast and can be reasoned for the occurrence of frequent folds and drought. Soil formation and protection: Bio-diversity also helps maintenance of soil structure and increases the moisture retention capacity as well as nutrient level of soil .No sustained effort to preserve the ecology has resulted in denudation and soil erosion etc. lead to overall decline in soil erosion .Thus , salinization of soils ,leaching of nutrients , top soil erosion etc, lead to overall decline in soil productivity. Trees also help in soil formation, their root system enables deep penetration of water and transport mineral nutrients to surface. Nutrient storage and cycling: Nutrient recycling is an essential event concerned with maintenance of the ecosystem .Biological diversity is inevitable for this .Microorganism in the soil nutrients .The function of nitrate bacteria and that of a nitrifying bacteria being different , diversity of the microorganisms is also essential. Pollution, Breakdown and absorption: The many pollutants including sewage, garbage, oil spills etc. are all deleterious DDT levels have been reported in seals and other aquatic inhabitants of the Arctic ant the Antarctic . Climatic Stability: Vegetation influences climate both at the micro and macro levels. Forest maintain balance between living things and the needful resources .Thus vegetation is integral to maintenance of water and moisture levels as well .The web o life is so intricate that removal or disturbance3 of one part of the ecosystem could affect ht smooth functioning of many of its other components. Recovery from unpredictable events 2 Biological Resources Food Resources: Heterotrophs depend on autotrophs , he primary producers for food .Only through conservation of floral biodiversity can global food capacity be met with since nutritional value is different for different groups. Further, diversity of food crops increases opportunities for enhancing agricultural productivity. Medicine: The Ayurvedic system of medication is entirely dependent on the biodiversity of the flora. Diverse plants have diverse medicinal values .Plant products are immense ranging from Quinine ,Cinchona , Tylorebrine, to the Vine Tylophra .Thus , to provide resource of searching new medically active compounds, at least some part of the nature has to be left undisturbed . The Silent Valley Forests of Kerala are

preserved since it was known to hoard diverse endemic varieties with immense medicinal value . Wood requirements: Wood is a basic commodity and is harvested from the wild .The timber industry forms a significant part of our modern economy .Hard woods , soft woods etc, are put to entirely different uses; others are used as fuels , for paper manufacturing etc. So to meet different needs, bio-diversity has to be maintained. Breeding stocks, population reservoirs. Future resources Social Benefits Nature serves as the best laboratory for studies .Its hard to duplicate strictly a natural environment .So , research, education and such extension works can progress only with the help of nature and its inherent biodiversity .Unaltered habitants help us to evolve indexes to formulate different management levels. Recreation and tourism : The aesthetic qualities of natural habitats are a results of its biological diversity .No two spots in a forest can exactly be alike in all aspects. Since time immemorial nature has satisfied recreational pursuits of the human .The gifted nature and the rich bio-diversity have made India one of the important tourist attractions of the modern world. Cultural Value: There are ample evidences to prove that human culture has co-evolved with the environment .For this reason itself, conservation of bio-diversity is important for mans cultural identity. For, it has been found that nature has always provided inspiration , aesthetic and educational needs of the people. Nature also contributes to our emotional and spiritual well being. Research ,education and monitoring. That is quiet a lot of services we get for free! The cost of replacing these would be extremely expensive .It therefore makes economic and development sense to move towards sustainability. A report from Nature magazine also explains that genetic diversity helps to prevent the chances of extinction in the wild and claims to have shown proof of this . Threats to Bio-diversity Extinction is a natural event and, from a geological perspective , routine .We now know that species that have ever lived have gone extinct .The average rate over the past 200 m.y. is 1-2 species per year , and 3-4 families per my. The average duration of a species is 2-10 million years .There have also been occasional episodes of mass extinction , when many taxa representing a wide array of life forms have gone extinct in the same blink of geological time. Types of Threat to the bio-diversity

(1) Overhunting has been a significant cause of the extinction of hundreds of species and the endangerment of many more , such as whales and many African large mammals. The inability to site even a single tusker in Periyar Sanctuary of Kerala is a case in point. Animals are hunted for

many precious commodities , notably ivory, fur , skin, horn, etc. Most extinction over past several hundred years is mainly due to over-harvesting for food, fashion and profit. Though over-hunting , particularly illegal poaching remains a serious threat to certain species , for the future it is less important than other factors mentioned next. (2) Habitat loss is an important cause of extinctions. All species have specific food and habitat needs . The more specific these needs and localized the habitat, the greater the vulnerability of species to loss of habitat to agricultural land, livestock, roads and cities. The banning of buffaloes into Keoladeo National park of the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary since 1982 has led to and overgrowth of grass in wetlands, disrupting the aquatic habitat .In the future , ;the only species that survive are likely to be those whose habitat. In future , the only species that survive are likely to be those whose habitats are highly protected, or whose habitat corresponds to the degraded state associated with human activity. Habitat damage, especially the conversion of forested land to agriculture, has a long human history. The tropical humid forests came under attack mainly in 20th century, under the combined influences of population growth , inequitable land and income distribution , and development policies that targeted rain forests as the new frontier to colonize. The original extent of tropical rain forests was 15 million km2. Now there remains about 7.5-8 million km2 , so half is gone .The current rate of loss is estimated at near2% annually. While there is uncertainty regarding the rate of loss, and what it will be in future, the likelihood is that tropical forests will be reduced to 10-25% of their original extent by late21st C. (3) Invasion of non-native species is an important and often overlooked cause of extinctions. The African Great Lakes- Victoria, Malawi and Tanganyika are famous for their great diversity of endemic species, termed species flocks, of cichlid fishes. In Lake Victoria, a single, exotic species, the Nile Perch, has become established and may cause the extinction of most of the native species, by eating them all. It was purposeful introduction for subsistence and sports fishing but a great disaster. (4) Pollution from chemical contaminants certainly poses a great threat to species and ecosystems. While not commonly a cause of extinction, it can likely be for species whose range is extremely small, and threatened by contamination. (5) Climate change : A changing global climate threatens species and ecosystems .The distribution of species is largely determined by climate , as is the distribution of ecosystems and plant vegetation zones. Climate change may simply shift these distribution but , for a number of reasons, plants and animals may not be able to adjust. (6) Deforestation: Large forest areas have been cleared for constructional as well as extensive agricultural purposes leaving the native animals homeless. Construction of dams has destroyed many large sections of rivers and streams and their ecosystems. Coastal zone development is responsible for wiping out the reefs near the shores. Jhum cultivation has led to considerable decline in the North Eastern forests. Earlier , the Jhum cycle was 25 to 50 years ,now it is just 5-8

years , almost doubling the deforestation. In Nagaland alone , 4.4 lakhs tonnes of fertile top soil are lost every year from areas of Jhum practice. Over 300 sq. kms of forest cover has been lost in the North East , while the figure for India as a whole is 5482 sq.kms. The International Union for Conservation of Natural (IUCN) estimated that many species are threatened with extinction. In addition. 75%of genetic diversity of agricultural crops has been lost 75% of the worlds fisheries are fully or over expoited. Up to 70% of the worlds known species risks extinction if the global temperatures rise by more than 3.5C. 1/3 of reef-building corals around the world are threatened with extinction. Every second a parcel of rainforest the size of a football field disappears.

EFFECTS OF LOSS OF BIO-DIVERSITY Extinction has become frequent and many species are disappearing without even being documented. Species are generally not being documented .Species are generally not being described as extinct till they have not been spotted for many years. According to a recent study by the Zoological Survey of India, the Pink Headed Duck and the Mountain Quail have already become extinct in the last decade and the Brown Antlered Deer , Hispid Hare etc., are feared to be in a critical species status .The fate of its floral diversity follows the same suit. (a)Loss of genetic diversity: It imperils agriculture .The popularity of the hybrids among growers results in total neglect of its wild relatives , which finally die out .Some varieties of rice were susceptible to grassy stunt virus. When this disease assumed epidemic proportions , search began for its wild relative, seeking resistant genes. Only a wild variety , Oyzanivara from U.P., had the necessary genes . This proves the significance of conservation of genetic resources. Some 492 genetically distinct populations of tree species are endangered worldwide. (b)Loss of cultural diversity: The loss of both genetic and ecosystem diversities result in a loss of cultural diversity. As new strains and systems are introduced, they result in an overall change, the extinction of many species embedded in religion, mythology and folklore etc. Large animals in higher tropic levels with slow rate of population growth with longer gestation period are more susceptible to extinction due to habitat loss. The alteration on the habitat results in mass extinction of particularly the endemic species. Great Auck Stellars Sea Cow are examples. Species with high specific food and living requirements, species with narrow dispersal ability an low rates of reproduction, lesser level of adaptability etc. m are more prone to extinction. (c)Ecosystem Breakdown: The loss of a species can have deleterious effects on the remaining species on the remaining species in an ecosystem. The loss of even one species can ruin an ecosystem. The loss of even one species can ruin an entire forest ecosystem of

plant and animals. The animals that depended on this vanished species as prey have now lost their food source. In turn, the animals that it fed on have lost a predator, and these species often undergo population explosions which are devastating for the plants or animals that they feed on. This cascade effect occurs when local extinction of one species significantly alter the population size of other species. The entire ecosystem can collapse in this manner, and is therefore prevented from performing its usual ecosystem services, a utilitarian term for the natural processes which provide rich soil, clean water , and the air we breathe. (d)Food Insecurity: Biodiversity underpins the health of the planet and has a direct impact on all our lives. Put simply, reduced biodiversity means millions of people face a future where water is in irregular or short supply. (e) Economic Impact: The loss of plant species also means the loss of unknown economic potential, as extinct plants can hardly be harvested for food crops, fibers, medicines, and other products that forests, especially rainforests, provide. Thousands of small plants, insect and other less conspicuous creatures are vanishing before they are even discovered, but it is often these small, less spectacular species which have the greatest potential usefulness to humans. Also, loss of diversity would imply monetary loss of biodiversity would imply monetary loss in terms of decline in natural and wildlife tourism. (f) Impact on Marine Ecosystems: Human dominated marine ecosystem are experiencing accelerating loss of populations and species, with largely unknown consequences. Overall, rate of resource collapse have increased and recovery potential , stability and water quality have decreased exponentially with declining diversity. Restoration of biodiversity, in contrast , would increase variability by 21% on an average. We can conclude that marine biodiversity loss is increasingly impairing the oceans capacity to provide food , maintain water quality and recover from perturbations. (g) Biodiversity interacts with our life majority: We would not survive without it. If our Earths biodiversity gets too damaged we could lose our fresh water causing larger water restrictions. These would be more bushfires affecting our lives, home and property . It would spread Tropical diseases and parasites. There will damages or destroy our coastal areas and beaches .These will be a loss of Rainforests and jungles causing more deserts.

Extinction of species Extinction is a natural process. Species have disappeared and new ones have evolved to take their place over the long geological history of the earth. The World Conservation Monitoring Centre has recorded that 533 animal species and 384 plant species have become extinct since the year 1600. More species have gone extinct from the islands than from the mainland or the oceans. The current rate of extinction is 100 to 10,000 times higher than the

background rate of extinction. Some interesting observations about the current losses of species are: IUCN RED LIST CATEGORIES The IUCN Red list is a catalogue of Taxa that are facing the risk of extinction. It is important to understand that the Red List aims to impart information about the urgency and scale to conservation probes to the public and policy makers. The uses of Red List are: Developing awareness about the importance of threatened biodiversity; Identification and documentation endangered species ; Providing a global index of the decline of biodiversity; Species Categories by IUCN The rare species of plants and animals have been categorized for conservation purposes by the International Union of Conservation of Natural Resources (IUCN) .The following categories have been identified: (1) Endangered Species: Species that are on the verge of extinction are called endangered species and whose survival is unlikely if the causal factors continue t be operating. Their number have been reduced to a critical level or whose habitats have been reduced t a critical level or whose habitats have been so drastically reduced that they are deemed to be in immediate danger of extinction. (2) Vulnerable Species: The species are likely to move into the endangered category in the near future if the causal factors continue to operate. (3) Rare Species: These are species with small populations in the world . These are not at present endangered and vulnerable, but are at risk. (4) Threatened Species: The term threatened is used in the context of conservation of the species which are in any one of the above three categories viz. endangered, vulnerable or rare. Red List: The Red List assesses the statues of and threats to , animal species worldwide and aims to provide a system that can be applied consistently by different people to gauge the risk of extinction . The List places species in several categories depending on the threat to the species survival. BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN INDIA Indian region has contributed significantly to the global biodiversity. India is a homeland of 167 cultivates species and 320 wild relatives of crop plants. It is the centre of diversity of animal species (Zebu, Mithun, Chicken, water buffalo, camel);crop plants (rice, sugarcane banana, tea, millet); fruit plant and vegetables (mango, jackfruit ,cucurbits), edible diascoreas, alocasia, and colocasia; spices and condiments (cardamom, black pepper, ginger, turmeric); and bamboos , brassicas and tree cotton . India also represents a secondary

centre of domestication for some animals(horse , goat, sheep, cattle, yak and donkey) and plants( tobacoo, potato, and maize). The in situ conservation of biodiversity is being carried out though Biosphere Reserve , National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and other protected areas by the Ministry of Environment and Forests. The joint forest management systems involve forest departments and local community. This enables the tribal people and local communities . This enables the tribal people and local communities to have access to non-wood forest products , and at the same time protect the forest resources. The National Bureau of Plant , Animal and Fish Genetic Resources has a number of programmes to collect and conserve the germplasm of plants and animals in seed gene banks, and field gene banks for in virto conservation. Botanical and Zoological garden have laree collection so plant and animal species in different climatic regions of India. The Union Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF), India, passed the Biological Diversity Act, 2002, with an objective to regulate access to plant and animal genetic resources and traditional knowledge (TK). A three-tiered system of regulation is envisaged under the Biological Diversity Act which consists of the National Biodiversity boards(SSB) and locallevel biodiversity Management committees (BMC) . Every state of India , thus has a responsibility for the formation of the State Biodiversity Board that would be linked with the Biodiversity Management Committee. It can be categories into two parts (1) Forestry (2) Wildlife

Forestry
A forest is a natural ecosystem having multi species and multi-aged trees as dominant community. Forests cover about one-third of the earths land surface of which about 50% is occupied by tropical forest. Of the total geographical area of India 22.74 % is forest as against a minimum of 33% forest cover prescribed under National Forest Policy. Importance of Forests Functions of a forest may broadly be classified into following three categories: (1) Protective functions: These include the protective role of forest against soil erosion, drought, floods intense radiation etc. (2) Productive functions: Forests are the source of wood and many other products like gums, resins, fibers, medicines, katha, honey, bidi, pulp, paper etc.

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(3) Accessory functions: These include the role of forest in recreation , aesthetics, and as habitat of diverse wildlife etc. Ecological significance Environmentally , the forests are very important. They help in balancing oxygen and carbon dioxide level in atmosphere, regulate earths temperature regime and hydrological cycle . Forests increase local precipitation and water holding capacity of soil, thus preventing drought situation . Vegetation cover provided by forest impedes the velocity of runoff on soil surface; checks soil erosion, silting and landslides , thus reducing the danger of flood . The litter derived from fallen leaves maintains the fertility of soil by returning the nutrients. Forest also act as refuge of wild animals and provide protection to them against strong, cold or hot and dry winds, solar radiation, rain and enemies. Economic significance Wood , which has various applications in domestic and industrial processes, is the chief product of forest. Wood , when used as fuel , has certain advantage over coal as its sulphur and ash contents are very low byt , at the same times, excessive use of fuelwood would means pressure on forests which have many functions to serve. Wood may also be converted into solid , liquid and gaseous fuels. Timber is an important material in building construction and day-to-day uses . Forest provides raw material for various wood-based industries viz. pulp and paper , composite wood , rayon and other man made fibers, sport goods, furniture , boat building, matches etc. Miscellaneous products, like bamboos ,resins , gums, some oils, fibers, medicines, katha, lack , shellac etc. are also obtained from forests. Depletion of Forests Increased urbanization , industrialization and mining have entailed indiscriminate felling of trees resulting in the denudation of forests. This practice of logging down trees for human use has been going on or centuries unabated. Colonists used logs for their tools, furniture and fence posts etc. from it. For them forest had only a present and a past no future ; thus they resorted to ruthless exploitation of available forests-a story that still continues with more serious backlashes earth has ever witnessed. India also is losing more that 1.5 million hectare of forests has been destroyed during the last three decades due to over exploitation , misuse and conversion to agricultural fields. The depleted forest wealth would simply deprive the man of economic and environmental values offered by forest, as discussed earlier.

Management of Forests

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(1) (2) (3) (4)

In forestry, the yield is chiefly obtained from the accumulated growth of the past , so this industry has to depend upon the annual growth. Forests are managed to obtain a sustained yield which is obviously possible through sustained growth. Following considerations are important in this direction. A forest should have the trees of different ages and classes in correct proportion so that continuous removal of exploitable produce would not affect the future yield. Each tree crop should put on normal growth increments. No obstacle should exist to the continuous harvest of exploitable stems. Unrestrained felling should be prevented. For all such planning and decision making , sound ecological knowledge is desirable that includes knowledge about climatic conditions ,biotic community, succession trend, life cycle of important tree species , method of arresting growth of undesirable trees and promoting growth of high yield tree species , and biotic inter relationship. Of various tactics employed in forest management some , deserving special considerations, are as following : (1) restrained felling (2) block and selective cutting (3) reforestation (4) control to disasters and (5) recycling of forest products.

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Wildlife

Even on global level there appears to be a great deal of ambiguity attached to the term wildlife. Websters Dictionary defines wildlife as living things that are neither human nor domesticated, especially mammals , birds and fish hunted by man . In American usage, term wildlife is used to designate the games and excludes fish, thus they have Fish & Wildlife Services at the federal level .In India too, the common understanding of the people regarding wildlife is of wild animals and shirker more particularly mammals, birds and reptiles . However , a report entitled Wildlife Conservation in India (1970) of the country .The Wildlife (Protection)Act , 1972 , also defines wildlife as any animal , bees , butterflies, crustacean, moth and aquatic and land vegetation which form part of any habitat. Thus a comprehensive definition of wildlife may be given as any or all non-cultivated and non-domesticated life including both , plant and animals. Importance of Wildlife The Wildlife resources provide aesthetic , recreational and economic benefits and at the same time are important ecologically. Natures millions of forms of life on this earth perform some or the other definite biological function which keeps the delicate balance of our exosphere. In nature flora and fauna go hand-in hand and one cannot exist without the other. Birds and insects are necessary for the cross pollination of flowers and these along with other animals also serve for dispersal and propagation of vegetation . Not only animals also serve for dispersal and propagation of vegetation. Not only this , the health of vegetation also depends on natural browsing and grazing. It is needless to mention threat animals, directly or indirectly depend on green plants for their food. Besides food, plants as provide shelter or variety of animals populations. If too many herbivores are killed, the predators, deprived of their natural food, will leave forest , become vermin and prey upon domestic livestock or even man . On the other hand, if too many carnivores are killed the herbivores , because of release of predation pressure, will become too numerous and acquire the status of pest foe agricultural crops. Thus most important is the balance of nature of which wildlife is an integral and important part. Abuse and Depletion of Wildlife India is endowed with rich biological heritage and her forests are full of vivid and beautiful wild life. Over 500 mammalian and1,200 avian species contribute to the wealth . Unfortunately today the Indian wildlife ,as that in many other parts of the world, is threatened because of mans unprecedented intervention with nature . Nearly 134 plant species have been declared threatened as against 71 ,47 and 15 species of mammal, birds and reptiles respectively. Great India bustard, confined to the semiarid regions of Rajasthan and Gujarat, and the white-winded wood duck, inhabiting the Brahmaputra swamps and the floodplains of Assam are both on the brick of extinction.

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Wildlife Management The conservation is the practice embracing preservation , maintenance , sustainable utilization, restoration and enhancement of the natural environment. Wildlife conservation tin this sense is wildlife as consisting both of wild flora and fauna . Since one cannot manage living environment, the concept o wildlife management becomes the concept and implies management of wild animals as distinct from forestry , and it implies maintenance of habitats suitable to the different species. In American and Europe wild animals, particularly mammals, are treated as game crops, as do timber in forestry and food crops in agricultural, and hunting is developed as a viable economic activity. In America, wildlife and wildlife related recreation forms multimillion dollar industry. However m in India it is difficult of develops game as an industry. However, in India it is difficult of develop game as an industry because: (1) Our forest areas are already overburdened with grazing pressure of domesticated livestock and because of already scare pasture lands there is little hope of reducing gazing pressure in the forest areas to develop game: (2) Hunting as a source of recreation is beyond the means of he majority of population. The objective of wildlife management, as outlined in the world conservation Strategy, is thus as given below: (1) To maintain essential ecological processes and life support systems in natural ecosystems, on which human survival and development depends. These essential ecological processes and life support systems can be defined to include maintenance of both the biotic and a biotic components of the ecosystems. (2) To preserve genetic diversity on which depend the breeding programmes necessary for the protection and improvement of cultivated plants and domesticated animals as well as much scientific advance, technical innovation , and the security of the many industries that use living resources. (3) To ensure the sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems. This will include he proper utilization of wild animals for fame, forest and grazing, and to achieve proper integration for economy both of rural communities as well as trade and industry.

Today people have been alerted now and the strong measures being taken in favour of restoring, maintaining , and increasing wildlife population given hope that our rich legacy of wild life will not only be saved foe future but developed further. Ways and means employed in wildlife conservation include : (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Protection of breeding stock by enacting game laws and developing wildlife refuges Artificial stocking including introduction of exotics Control of predators Habitat improvement Game farming

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Methods of Wildlife Conservation This depends on the source of danger to the threatened species. In many cases, Wildlife can be helped by ensuring that their environment is favorable with regards to availability o food, water and shelter .This method is called Habitat Management .It involves such action as soil conservation, good forestry practices and wildlife management. (1) Several species have been threatened with extinction due to destruction of habitat by human activities like extinction due to destruction of habitat by human activities like deforestation for farming, pollution of air , water, land , plants and animals etc. People must set aside separate areas like sanctuaries, wildlife reserves, parks etc. in which wildlife can survive .Hunting is another major cause for the dwindling in the wildlife and this can be prevented by enforcement of strict laws that forbid or regulate such killings. (2) Excessive increase in the number of one species in a given area threatens not only its own endurance but also that of the other species by consuming major portion of the availability food .Such numbers must be reduced by controlled hunting or by restoring its natural enemies where they have become scarce. (3) Sometimes species find it extremely difficult to survive in their own once favorable environment . Such species can be protected by breeding in captivity and releasing in a protected area that satisfies the conditions favorable for survival. (4) A species threatened with disease can be protected by sanitation measures in a habitat .The success of wildlife conservation depends on the knowledge of the ECOLOGY of the species which involves an understanding of the way of life of the species and its relationship with its biotic and a biotic environment . History of wildlife conservation The story of the struggle for wildlife conservation is several decades old. It all started with few foresighted men who understood the role of wild animals in living landscapes and the necessity of preserving the threatened species .Encouraged by the pioneering efforts of these men several national and international organizations were formed for conservation of the most valuable of our natural resources. The first of such organizations was formed by a group of ornithologist in 1922 , the International Council for Bird Preservation (ICBP). The first post-war organization to be formed under the sponsorship of UNESCO was the international Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) in 1948. In 1961 the ICUN formed the first fund-raising organization, the International Wildfowl Research Bureau (IWRB). There are several other organizations like the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nation and the Conservation Foundation both in Washington DC and the Fauna Preservation Society in London. The IUCN through its Service Commission (SC) is dealing specifically with animals threatened with extinction .Their function is to collect data on endangered species throughout the world and to initiate action to prevent the extinction of these species . The SC investigates the status and ecology of a species and advise governments and organizations. Such advice is often continued with direct action financed by WWF. The SSC has long maintained a list of threatened mammals, birds ,reptiles , amphibians , fishes etc. called The Red Data Book.

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This conservation expansion has produced positive results in many parts of the world . In spite of such efforts, the future remains uncertain for the worlds wildlife. This uncertainty exists and intensifies with the increase in human population, destruction of wildlife habitats and spread of environmental pollution.

Indian scenario
The Indian Wildlife possesses a rich and diverse fauna and is unique in having immense natural beauty in its different ecosystems. Out of the 75,000 species known in India , there are 2,500 fishes, 150 amphibians, 450 reptiles , 2000 birds and 850 mammals. The remaining are the invertebrates, including protozoa ,worm ,insects ,mollusk and crustaceans . Of these ,81 species of mammals,47 of birds ,15 of reptiles, 3 of amphibians and a large number of butterflies ,moths and beetles are listed as endangered . The animals that make up the Indian fauna are Elephant ,Rhinoceros ,Musk deer, Barking deer, Spot deer , Hog deer , Mouse deer, Swamp deer, Dancing deer, Kashmir stag, Four horned antelope Indian Gazelle ,Nilgiri, Langur ,lion, Tiger, Leopard, Striped hyena , Nilgiri, lion tailed macaque Rhesus monkey, Hanuman monkey m Indian giant squirrel, Porcupine, Pangolin, Jungle fowl, Great Indian Bustard, Duck pigeon ,Sand grouse, Pelicans ,Eagle Crane, Owl, Hornbill , Crocodiles, Gharials , Lizards and about 216 species of snakes.

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SOME INTERNATION AGENCIES AND GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT


(1) UNITED NATION ENIVIRONMENT PROGRAM

The worlds governments have agreed to increase funding in support of actions to halt the rate of loss of biodiversity at the eleventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, which ended on 20th oct.2012. Objectives: Developed countries agreed to double funding to support efforts in developing states towards meeting the internationally-agreed Biodiversity Targets, and the main goals of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 The conference also saw the launch of the Hyderabad Call for Biodiversity Champions. The programme will accept pledges from governments and organizations in support of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity. The government of India this week committed over US$ 50 million as part of the programme.

(2) WORLD WILDLIFE FUND

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WWF-India today is engaged in many activities for protection and conservation of the environment in the Indian context. Climate Change and Energy Conservation are among the chief areas of concern. The Forest and Biodiversity Conservation Division strives to promote and enhance conservation of forest ecosystems through a participatory approach involving key stakeholders in India. Through its Environment Education Program, it aims at strengthening individual and institutional capacity in nature conservation and environmental protection through widespread education and awareness.

(3) MINISTRY OF ENVORNMENT AND FOREST

The Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) is the nodal agency in the administrative structure of the Central Government for the planning, promotion, co-ordination and overseeing the implementation of India's environmental and forestry policies and programmes. The primary concerns of the Ministry are implementation of policies and programmes relating to conservation of the country's natural resources including its lakes and rivers, its biodiversity, forests and wildlife, ensuring the welfare of animals, and the prevention and abatement of pollution. While implementing these policies and programmes, the Ministry is guided by the principle of sustainable development and enhancement of human well-being. The Ministry also serves as the nodal agency in the country for the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme (SACEP), International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) and for the follow-up of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). The Ministry is also entrusted with issues relating to multilateral bodies such as the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), Global Environment Facility (GEF) and of regional bodies like Economic and Social Council for Asia and Pacific (ESCAP) and South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC) on matters pertaining to the environment. The broad objectives of the Ministry are:

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(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Conservation and survey of flora, fauna, forests and wildlife Prevention and control of pollution Afforestation and regeneration of degraded areas Protection of the environment and Ensuring the welfare of animals

Corporate social responsibility for Biodiversity and forest

(1) JINDAL STEEL & POWER LIMITED

The environment management department of the company takes care of all the activities related to environmental safeguards. Some of the basic functions undertaken are as follows:

Assess new projects and determine its impact on the environment. Based on impacts, design a comprehensive environmental management plan to mitigate these. Seek clearances in matters of environmental issues from government bodies. Constant monitoring of emissions/discharges and their control. Continuous and rigorous research and development must to find ways for solid waste utilization. Ensure compliance to statutory obligations on all environmental issues. Increasing awareness among the workforce for safeguarding environment. Increasing and protecting the green cover within the premises. Keeping plant areas clean through mechanized house keeping initiatives. Initiate CDM projects and carbon foot-printing of processes.

(2)

TATA STEEL

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Tata Corporate citizenship means taking all necessary steps to maintain a safe, healthy and fair workplace for all our employees and contractors, protecting the environment, respecting and engaging with local communities, and maintaining high ethical standards wherever we operate. Environmental sustainability has become an increasingly important item on the Tata Steel agenda. The new basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) gas recovery project at Port Talbot in the UK will reduce the sites CO2 emissions by some 240,000 tonnes per year and its dust (PM10s) emissions by 40 tonnes.

(3) ITC LIMITED

Plantation of ITC
Over 1,16,000 hectares of greened land stand testimony to ITC PSPD's relentless pursuit of sustainability. Not only has our plantations programme changed landscapes, it has transformed the lives of millions of people who are benefited by the social and farm forestry programmes. ITC's afforestation mission goes beyond regenerating wastelands and forests - helping enhance farm incomes by providing attractive land-use alternatives and generating employment opportunities.

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Conclusion
It is very important to understand that what is the value of nature for living beings. If bio diversity gets any disturbance then it will directly hamper our lives. So our responsibility should be like that it should not negatively influence anyones life . Biodiversity is of fundamental importance to the functioning of all ecosystems and to the ecosystem services that nature provides to human society. Living organisms play central roles in the cycles of major elements (carbon, nitrogen and so on) and water in the environment and diversity specifically is important in that these cycles require numerous interacting species. The need for preservation les in the value of the components of biodiversity .It includes the indirect benefits arising from the conservation of these components viz. ecosystem services, biological resources and social benefits .A healthy biodiversity provides a number of natural services for everyone. In India conservation of biodiversity is being carried out though Biosphere Reserve , National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and other protected areas by the Ministry of Environment and Forests.

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References: (1) Assistant Professor (Assam University, Silchar) A.K. Das notes. (2) Internet ( Different organization sites)

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