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The USA since WWII ; COLD WAR COLD WAR : period of hostility and high tension btw US+SR

and their respective allies; not involving direct conflict btw them = instead use propaganda, threats, build up of nukes; includes proxy wars (use of 3rd party to indirectly fight btw 2 cs). -July 1944 : Bretton Woods Agreements: - $ linked to all currencies and gold, established IMF and int bank for reconstruct and devmt to help EU + JP -Feb. 1945 : Yalta Conference: (FDR, Church, ST) dismantle gs mil power, denazify g, split into 4 diff zones, free elect, sov soi, creat of UN -July 1945 : Potsdam Conference: (Attlee + Truman) no free elect, Red Army occupying Pol + Baltic states, US Abomb test successful -March 1946 : Fulton Speech (by Churchill iron curtain ): Church first person to openly realise this fact -June 1947 : Marshall Plan + Truman Doctrine policy of containment ( to help any c threatened by totalitarian aggress w/ TD + MP), MP ec ext of TD, offering ec + fin help to EU cs OEEC Created to share out money btw joined nations to help rebuild agr + ind infrastructure (build markets + avoid comm from affecting the EU cs) EE cs didnt join beg of div of the world -Sept. 1947 : Comminform: conference attended by all comm leaders from EE, control comm parties + maintain unity of EComm bloc -June 1948 : Unification of the 3 West Zones x currency SO Berlin Blockade: (ST cut off all rails + roads to WB, supplies brought by air) Failure for ST, re opened railways + roads. BB confirmed US fears of comm spread and justified the TD about sov expansionism -April 1949 : NATO: Wpowers met up during BB, created mil alliance relying on US mil (big change in their policy), US perm member in UN, biggest contributor in IMF. -May 1949 : Creation of GFR -Oct.1949 : Creation of GDR couldnt dev like GFR - 1950: USSR + CH Friendship treaty - 1951: USA + JP ally treaty -1950-1953 : Korean War K in 2 zones along 38th parallel, couldnt agree on a plan, 2 govs created, neither dems, soc reforms taken in NK some wanted same tension as US ignored it. Ended by Eisenhower (elected in 52) -1953 : Death of Stalin: Khruschev dest, first mentioned a peaceful coexistence, (bad ec prbs, arms race damaged it even more, wanted to reform SovUn), 10 y after started talking with US, Kitchen debate (59) Am Nat Exhib -1954 : Eisenhower mentions Domino Theory : refers to spread of comm in Asia

- 1955: Bandung Conference conf w/ cs that were ex colonies, discussing policy (third world cs), wanted self determination (IND + EGY) -May 1955 : Warsaw Pact: military alliance under Sov leadership, communist answer to integration of GFR to NATO -1955 : Beg. of Vietnam War: 46-54 Indoch war, Fr lost at Dien Bien Phu battle, domino theory why Us got involved in Vietnam, justified their intervention in AS + elsewhere (latin AM), in 56 refused free els for fear of comm gov, fighting Viet Congs (hard to distinguish), hostile battle, guerrilla warfare, diff to win, media played huge role (LIFE magazine, magazines, film, tv living room war public opinion would change etc) Consequences: influenced how US dealt w/ war, propaganda etc (ex Abu Ghraib 2004) -Oct. 1957 : Sputnik + 1958 : creation of NASA + Space and arms race USA won Mutually assured destruction (MAD) doctrine of mil strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of nukes by 2 opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender, becoming a war that has no victory nor any armistice but only total destruction. Theory of deterrence: deployment of strong weapons essential to threaten enemy in order to prevent the use of the same weapons. -Aug. 1961 : Berlin Wall construction: symbol of the CW -Oct. 1962 : Cuban Missile Crisis: JFK, Castro, Khruschev; bay of pigs US Attempt to get rid of castro Dtente: period of relaxation of tension during the CW (btw E+W bloc) (1968-1979), Its main features included arms control + agreement over human rights (started because of fear of NWar, needed to reduce defense spending, leadership challenged) -1963 : Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: limit nuke testing -1965 : USA sends troops to Vietnam -1968 : Nuclear Non-Profileration Treaty - 1968: Brezhnev doctrine: called for use of Warsaw Pact forces to intervene in countries with opposition to the domination of Moscow (ec stagnation, disastrous grain harvests, brink of famine) - decline of US in the 70s: WG scandal, loss of Viet war (sign of weakness), ec crisis, new competitors (EU + JP), NICs (4 asian tigers, since 60s), $ losing power -1971 : SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) decided on quotas control of number of missiles built, slowed the arms race -1971 : Henry Kissinger in China: national security advisor, important role in the US foreign policy (69-77), helped open relations w/ CH + ping pong diplomacy + China allowed in the UN -1972 : Nixon official visit in China -1972-1975 : Helsinki Declaration/Conference: most important achieve of Dtente, (Ford pres, Nix WG scandal): 1. Security + borders (EU), 2. Cooperation (Ec, sc, cu), 3. Human rights

(kippour war (73) oil crisis, int ec crisis (increase of prices), inflation + unemployment increase in US, reason for dtente) -1975 : end of Vietnam War containment failure, increased communism in SASIA, (75) Cambodia and Laos had comm govs) /end of dtente beg. of New Cold War/ - 1979: Reagan elected rep, anti sov, revived cold war dramatically, SDI increase in defense spending and rise in budget deficit, helped fuel the economy, Ams thought US was back; wanted to set up missiles in EU (like Sovs missiles), demonstrations in EU (by comms) Launched interventions around the world: Leb, Grenada (invasion 82), dic in El Sal+Nicara, bombed Lybia Acted like a world policemen w/o consulting allies, UN or even congress - SALT 2: never signed btw US + SU before AFG -1979-1988 : Afghanistan War: USSR invade Afgh to support a coup they launched a y ago in Moscow (78) brought comm regime in Kabul, arm resistance started against comm by the Mujahideens guerrilla warfare (Pak + SArabia), Carter helped mil support + money etc -1983 : evil empire speech by Reagan -1985 : Gorbachev new leader of the USSR: save USSR through reform, responsible for collapse of E bloc, launched 2 new policies: Glasnost (openness) and Perestroika (restructuring). Very different from Brezhnev created hope for countries under Moscow freedom, less ec control from state, less censorship, civic awakening in E bloc For pol: cut mil spending, give up arms race + negociate w/ USA to reduce level of armament, Reyjavik Summit US + USSE in 86, discussed arms reduction (-1987 : Treaty on Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces reduce level of armament, weapons destroyed) /end of New Cold War/ -1987 : Treaty on Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces - 1988: USSR withdrew from Afgh + stopped giving military support to comm govs in EE (end of BD) -Nov. 1989 : Fall of Berlin Wall