You are on page 1of 4


Internal Energy: Molecules in a system are in constant motion by mutual forces of attraction. The molecular motion has Kinetic energy. The energy of mutual forces of attraction is Potential energy. The sum total of the energy is the internal energy. This internal energy is dependent upon temperature level of the system. Higher the temperature, higher the internal energy. U is the most common symbol used for internal energy. Eg. A room temperature glass of water sitting on a table has no apparent energy, either potential or inetic . !ut on the microscopic scale it is a seething mass of high speed molecules traveling at hundreds of meters per second. Heat: Energy transfer due to temperature difference is called as heat. This sub"ect studies the rate at which this energy is transferred. A system might have accepted or re"ected heat. This is reflected by the changes in temperature. A increase in temperature indicates that the system has accepted heat and a decrease in temperature indicates that the system has re"ected heat. The #uantity of heat transferred is given by the product of mass $m%, &pecific heat $ 'p or 'v % and the Temperature difference $ (T %. Difference Between Thermodynamic and Heat Tran fer: 'onsider a heated steel bar cooled in water. Thermodynamics helps to predict the final e#uilibrium temperature of the composite system. !ut heat transfer predicts the time ta en to reach the e#uilibrium temperature or to find what would the temperature be after a certain length of time. Thus heat transfer helps to predict the temperature of both bar and water as a function of temperature. Mode of Heat Tran fer : Conduction: The thermal energy transfer ta es place from a region of high temperature to the low temperature region, between two bodies which are in contact. The energy transfer ta es place by means of electrons, which are free to move. The observable effect is e#uali)ation of temperature. The flow of heat by conduction as given by *ourier law is + , - KA $ dT . d/% Convection:

0t is possible because of mi1ing of fluid medium. This type of heat transfer is possible only in a fluid medium and is directly lin ed with the transportation of fluid itself. The amount of heat transferred by convection depends largely upon the e1tent to which the fluids mi1 with each other. Thus there e1ists a mass moment. There are two types of convection, they are 2atural 'onvection3- This results because of the temperature different leading to the differences in density. *orced 'onvection3- This ta e place when the flow is caused by e1ternal means such as a fan or pump. Radiation: Thermal radiation is the form of transmission of heat from one body to another body without a intervening space. 0t does not re#uire a material medium, for the transfer of heat. The heat is transferred in the form of radiant energy or wave energy. The mechanism of heat transfer consists of three distinct phases.

'onversion of thermal energy to photons. Passage of photons in air space. Transformation of photons bac to heat.

Stefan Bolt!man "aw: The energy transmitted per unit time is directly proportional to the fourth power of absolute temperature. E 4 T5 A# or#i$ity% Reflecti$ity and Tran mi i#ility : 6et +a, Absorbivity or fraction of total energy absorbed by the body. +r, *raction of total energy reflected. +t, *raction of total energy transmitted. +o , +a 7 +r 7 +t +a . +o 7 +r . +o 7 +t . +o , 8 4 7 97 : , 8 ;here 4 , Absorptivity or fraction of total energy absorbed by the body. 9 , fraction of total energy reflected.

: , *raction of total energy transmitted. The following are the important conclusions drawn.

;hen 4 , 8 and 9 , : , <

Then it is a 2on-reflecting and 2on Transmitting surface. &uch a surface is called as blac body. ;hen 9 , 8 and 4 , : , < Then it reflects all radiation and is called a specular of a absolutely white body.

;hen : , 8 and 4 , 9 , <

Then it allow all radiations to pass throughout it and is called a transparent or diathermaneous body. &onden ation: *luid in gaseous or vapour phase changes to li#uid state, with the liberation of heat from the vapour. There are two types of condensation. They are film condensation and =rop wise condensation. 0n film condensation, li#uid drop lets cover the surface and further condensation is not possible. !ut in drop wise condensation, there is not wetting of cooling surface. Apart of the condensation film is always e1posed to vapour without the formation of li#uid film. Heat E'changer : 0t is a e#uipment designed for the effective heat transfer between two fluids, where one of them is hot and other is cold. The purpose may be to remove heat or add heat. E1amples of such heat e1changers are Automobile radiators. Air and water coolers > Air and ;ater Heaters. !ased on the nature of heat e1change process, the following are the classifications. =irect contact - !oth heat and mass transfer ta es place. ?egenerators - The hot fluid flows in a matri1 or tube followed by the cold fluid or vice versa. ?ecuperators - *luid flows simultaneously on either side of a separating unit. 2o physical contact of the fluids. The heat is transferred as follows.

'onvection - Hot fluid > ;all. 'onduction - Across the wall. 'onvection - ;all > 'old fluid. Parallel Flow Arrangement - The hot and cold fluids enter and leave the unit in the same direction $ @nidirectional % Counter Flow Arrangement - The two fluids enter the units from opposite ends, and travel in opposite directions. Ma1imum heat transfer rate. Cross Flow Arrangement - The fluids travel at right angles to each other. Ma Tran fer:

The transfer of one constituent from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentrations called mass transfer. There are two types of mass transfer. They are diffusive and convective mass transfer. E1amples of mass trasfer are Evaporation of petrol in the carburetor of engine. Evaporation of li#uid ammonia in the atmosphere of hydrogen in a electro flu1 refrigerator. (lan) "aw: All bodies emit radiation, the #uantity and #uality of which depends upon the temperature and property of the material. &om*re or : A simple definition of a compressor is a device used to pressuri)e a fluid, including li#uids and gases. There are many different inds of compressors, but typically the main purpose of using a compressor is to raise the pressure of a li#uid or gas. 'ompressors are found in both gas power cycles and vapor compression refrigeration cycles. A compressor converts shaft power to a rise in enthalpy of a fluid. The fluid, often a gas, enters the compressor at a low pressure $low enthalpy% and e1its at a high pressure $high enthalpy%. The rotating shaft is attached to a blade assembly. The rotating blades push on the gas and increase the pressure, thereby increasing the enthalpy. 'ompressors are continuous flow processes, and can be either a1ial or radial. 6ast updated on %