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ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering

Lecture 02: Introduction to Pipeline Systems

Shawn Kenny Ph D P Eng Assistant Professor Faculty of Engineering and Applied Sc ence Memorial University of Newfoundland spkenny@mun ca

Lecture Goals
! Students will be able to:
! gain a historical perspective of pipeline

engineering systems,
! characterize components of pipeline

transportations systems,
! gain knowledge on pipeline systems for

selected international projects, and


! identify technical and economic drivers

2009 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering

Lecture 02

Reading List
# 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Document Chaudhuri, J and Nash, I. (2005). Medgaz: the ultra-deep pipeline, Pipeline World, June, 10p. [2005_Pipeline_World_06_Medgaz_Pipeline.pdf] Hopkins, P. (2007). Oil and Gas Pipelines: Yesterday and Today. Chairman (2006-7), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), International Petroleum Technology Institute, Pipeline Knott, T. (2005). Langeled hits land, Offshore Engineer, 30(8), 1p. [2005_Offshore_Engineer_30(8)_Ormen_Lange_PL.pdf] Knott, T. (2005). Langeled hits land, Offshore Engineer, 30(8), 1p. [2005_Offshore_Engineer_30(8)_Ormen_Lange_PL.pdf]

2009 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

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Lecture 02

Historical Perspective
! Onshore Gas Pipeline
! 1000 ! Gas liquids through

bamboo pipeline

Ref: Bjrnsen (2003)

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Historical Perspective (cont.)


! Onshore Oil Pipeline
! 1878 ! Baku Balakhany fields

to Nobel's refinery in Cherny Gorod ! 10 km long and 76 mm diameter ! Decreased transport cost with 95% ! Pipeline return on investment in 1 year
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Ref: Bjrnsen (2003)

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Historical Perspective (cont.)


! Pipeline Under the

Ocean (PLUTO)
! R&D started 1942 ! Alternate to tankers
London Isle of Wight 4

Ref: CombinedOps (2005)

Dungeness 17 Boulonge

Cherbourg Paris

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Historical Perspective (cont.)


! PLUTO
! 3 pipeline ! 380,000 L/day ! Peak 5.1million L/day ! HAIS cable
Ref: CombinedOps (2005)

technology
! HAMEL coiled

tubing technology

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Historical Perspective (cont.)


! 19401950s
! Initial development ! Nearshore Gulf of Mexico (GoM)

! 19601970s
! Increasing growth and maturation ! Deeper water ~300m ! More hostile environments ! Global (e.g. Asia, North Sea, Mediterranean, Australia)

! 1980s+
! Technology development and innovation ! Extreme environments (e.g. deep water, Arctic) ! Ultra-deep water (3,000m+)
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Pipeline Transportation Systems


! Product Transport
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Liquid hydrocarbons Natural gas Natural gas liquids Water Chemicals

! Key Elements
Product type Delivery rate Operating pressure Distance from field development to market ! Current and future demand/ capacity
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Ref: Offshore Technology (2009)

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering

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Pipeline Transportation Systems


! Flowlines
! Field development to a

subsea manifold or production facility flowlines to a production facility

! Gathering Lines
! Connec ing multiple

! Export Pipeline
! Transport from a

production facility to domes ic or international market


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Current Technology

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Project Phases

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Systematic Approach
! Management
! Project execution plan

! Technical
! Development plan ! Design basis ! Safety plan

! Auxiliary
! ! ! !
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Project summary Economic benefits plan Environmental impact assessment Socio-economic impact assessment
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Project Execution Plan


! Overview
! Early stage, live document, project wide ! Client objectives, drivers and risk tolerance

! Primary Components
! Project scope and deliverables ! Organiza ional hierarchy, roles and responsibilities ! Execution strategies for engineering, quality, ! Project schedule ! Integrated communication protocols and decision

procurement, construction, commissioning and safety making processes


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Design Basis
! Overview
! Early stage, live document, project wide ! Clear, complete and authoritative reference

! Primary Components
! ! ! ! ! !
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Pipeline system overview Operational parameters Environmental and physical data Materials engineering Design issues and constraints Design methodology and philosophy
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Major Design Issues


! Reservoir and Product Characterization ! Route Selection ! Materials Selection ! Hydraulic Analysis ! Mechanical Design ! Coatings ! Components and Assemblies ! Constructability and Intervention ! Operation, Inspection and Repair ! Decommissioning and Abandonment
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Ormen Lange
! Overview
! ! ! ! !

800m-1100m 24 wells, 4 templates 70!106 m3/day gas 8500 m3/day condensate NOK 47B

Ref: Hydro (2005)

! Pipeline System
!

! 120km gathering pipeline

2!762mm

! MEG wellstream ! 1200km export pipeline


!

1067mm & 1118mm

! ~1million tonnes steel

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White Rose
! Overview
! ! ! !

120m 250 MMBBL oil 100,000 BPD $2.35B

! Pipeline System
! Flexible linepipe ! Production lines,

water injectors, gas injectors ! 2.5km, 7km flowlines

Ref: Husky (2005)

! Shuttle tanker
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Energy Demand
Ref: EIA (2005)

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Fuel Source Demand

Ref: EIA (2005)

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Pipeline Transportation Systems


! Safe, Reliable and Economic
! Liquid hydrocarbons ! Natural gas, natural gas liquids ! Chemicals, slurry, water

! Transportation System
! 50 years grown by factor 100 ! ~3,500,000km total high pressure system ! Ignores lower pressure distribution systems ! ~8,000km offshore pipeline per year Ref: Hopkins (2007)
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Major Cost Factors


! Linepipe Tonnage
! Material ! Transportation ! Length ! Alignment & heading angle changes

! Example
! " US$25k / WT(mm)-

Ref: SEIC (2005)

D(m)-L(km)

! 762mm OD; 100km;

17.1mm to 22.2mm WT
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! " US$10M differential


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Major Cost Factors (cont.)


! Vessel Selection
! Performance ! Water depth range ! Tension limits
Castoro Sei

! Vessel Time
! Alignment, heading angle ! Stinger change-out ! Platform, landfall

approach

! Crossings, interactions ! Monitored, restricted

lay operations

Ref: Saipem (2006)

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Major Cost Factors (cont.)


! Route Intervention

Activities
! Dredging ! Trenching ! Pre-sweeping ! Rock dumping ! Span correction

Ref: Saipem (2006) 2009 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering Lecture 02

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Gas to Market Options

Ref: Bruschi (2004)

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References
! Bjrnsen (2003). Experiences with new DNV pipeline

Codes. Milestones in Offshore/Onshore Pipeline Research, Japan Norwegian Seminar, Tokyo, Japan, 27 May 2003 ! Bruschi (2004). Natural Gas High Pressure Transportation over Long Distance and Harsh Environments. 4th International Pipeline Conference, Ostend, Belgium. ! CombinedOps (2005). http://www.combinedops.com ! EIA (2005). International Energy Outlook. Energy Information Administration, US Department of Energy, http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/world.html
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References
! Hopkins, P. (2007). Oil and Gas Pipelines: Yesterday and

! ! ! !

Today. Chairman (2006-7), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), International Petroleum Technology Institute, Pipeline Systems Division (PSD), 9p. Hydro (2005). http://www.hydro.com/ormenlange/en Offshore Technology (2009). http://www.offshoretechnology.com/projects/na_kika/na_kika5.html Saipem (2006). http://www.saipem.eni.it/index.asp SEIC (2005). http://www.sakhalinenergy.com/

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