30 views

Uploaded by Luciano Robino

A small demostration of the so famous euler's identity. It is the simplest one I could develop with out using Calculus

- Differential Equations Problems
- differential equations
- 4400_4H_que_20090601
- solution_Calculus_Marsden_Tromba.pdf
- Differential Equations
- Physics for scientist and engeineers by serway jewett
- Calculus II Homework Section 10.1 Solutions of Elementary and Separable
- 159258080 CXC MATHS Formula Sheet
- 4037_w05_qp_1
- 11 5MB3H Unit 3 - Mock Paper
- XI Mathematics IIT JEE Advanced Study Package 2014 159
- Demidovich Problems in Mathematical Analysis
- Calculus II Homework Section 9.6 Double Integrals Problems 1-59 Odd,
- McGrawHill Functions 11 Unit 5
- IB Mathematics HL Exploration: Investigating the origins and applications of Euler’s number e in probability theory and statistical distributions
- CXCCSECMathsSpecimenPaper1ExamWorkedSoutions
- Precalculus Sample Lesson
- 2012 Edexcel Higher C Paper 2
- Maths Exam.docx
- xvTYUnqn2wY

You are on page 1of 8

Introduction

Imagine you give a blind man a pencil and you ask him to draw whatever he

wants to. It is quite likely that he wont be able to make a good performance in

such task due to his impairment. Imagine you give some monkeys a typewritter

and command him to type. Most likely they would write nonsense. Imagine

you throw a can of paint to a wall and the you look at the result. Then youll

probably have ruined a nice wall.

But still, theres a small chance that youll get a master piece with any of

those tasks. Theres a small chance that you can make a mumble into one of

the most remarkable piece of poetry ever written. Shouldnt you feel compelled

to tell everyone about it?

Thats Eulers Identity.

Euler Identity is a mathematical construct that contains some of the most

important numbers in maths and the most basic operation. Said ingredients are

combined in the most puzzling way posible. Dispite its weird expression, it IS

true.

Eulers Identity contains 5 numbers. 1, 0 , e, and i. 1 and 0 are probably

the most familiar number of this quintet. is also famous because of its appli-

cations in geometry, specially with circles and circle-like shapes and volumes.

i is the puzzling imaginary unit, a strange number that seem to make no

sense. But still this number is quite useful in electronic engineer, automatized

control, quantum mechanics, waves description, number theory to name a few

of its aplications. Interestingly i seem to shed some light on dicult problems

where real numbers just create nonsense.

e is a more ignored creature. e is a number with a certain pedigree, a snobish

one. While he remains unknown to most of the not methematical people but, it

is a quite important number. Whereever some inestability appears, e might be

there. Whereever a property fades over time, e is there. Whereever wave-like

behaivior emerges, e is there. When describing populations, e pops up. But Im

getting ahead of myself.

The operations that relate this numbers are quite known and dont deserve

any presentation: addition, multiplication, exponentiation. All recaped in a

simple equality.

1

With its simplicity, its puzzling structure and its truth, Eulers Identity is the

standard for beauty in math. Its just as provoking as an expresionist painting.

So lets meet this weird puzzle of math.

Some necessary identities

Ok, sooner or later you will face some weird equations and identities. So here

they are. Bear in mind that if you dont fully understand one of them you ought

to try to nd some textbook that help you shed some light on them.

sin(x + y) = sin(x) cos(y) + sin(y) cos(x)

sin(x y) = sin(x) cos(y) sin(y) cos(x)

cos(x + y) = cos(x) cos(y) sin(y) sin(x)

cos(x y) = cos(x) cos(y) + sin(y) sin(x)

lim

x

_

1 +

1

x

_

x

= e

z = a + ib = r(cos() + i sin())

r

2

= a

2

+ b

2

=

_

_

a > 0 = arctan

_

b

a

_

a < 0 b 0 = + arctan

_

b

a

_

a < 0 b < 0 = arctan

_

b

a

_

a = 0 b > 0 =

2

a = 0 b < 0 =

2

a = 0 b = 0 = 0

Concerning the number e and the exponential

function

Ok, lets get our hands dirty. We dene the exponential function as:

exp(x) = lim

y

_

1 +

x

y

_

y

From this denition is easy to note that x = 0 = exp(0) = 1

However for an other values of x this denition is a bit weird since it makes

it dicult to obtain any value from it. So lets try to play arround with it.

2

lim

y

_

1 +

x

y

_

y

= lim

y

_

1 +

x

y

_

y

x

x

= lim

y

_

1 +

1

y

x

_

y

x

x

We can do this operation as long as x = 0 since we are multiplying by 1 =

x

x

in the exponent. It is important to know that our result wont be true for x = 0,

but we have already considered that case.

lim

y

_

1 +

1

y

x

_

y

x

x

= lim

z

_

1 +

1

y

x

_

y

x

x

= lim

z

__

1 +

1

z

_

z

_

x

Here we have chaged the variable of the limit. We can do that because when

y is the same as

y

x

where x is a xed constant and it doesnt depends

on y. After that we dene z =

y

x

. Then we rearrange the exponente in a more

clear fashion. Heres the catch, we have stated that lim

x

_

1 +

1

x

_

x

= e

then:

lim

z

__

1 +

1

z

_

z

_

x

= e

x

except when x = 0. But exp(0) = 1 and e

0

= 1, therefore:

exp(x) = lim

y

_

1 +

x

y

_

y

= e

x

Now it makes total sense why we had dened the exponential in this way,

because we obtain an exponentiation. However, we have proven the relationship

between this limit and the function exp(x) = e

x

, but what does it happens when

we try to calculate:

lim

y

_

1 +

ix

y

_

y

= e

ix

Where i is the imaginary unit and x is a real number

1

. Can we calculate

this limit?

Multipling complex numbers and the behavior of

the argument

Theres a couple of stu we can do to:

1

Its easy to note that if x is a complex number then we have e

ix

= e

(ix)+i(ix)

=

e

(ix)

e

i(ix)

.

3

lim

y

_

1 +

ix

y

_

y

For starter we can use integers for y instead of a continious variable. This

comes from two reasons. First, we dont care how we apporach innity as long

as we reach it. Also, if y in integer, we are just multipling a certain numbers of

time a complex number. For multipling complex numbers we have some nifty

tricks. Lets take two complex numbers and multiply them in their polar form.

zw = r(cos() + i sin())(cos() + i sin())

= r(cos() cos() sin() sin() + i sin() cos() + i sin() cos())

= r(cos( + ) + i sin( + ))

Where we have only distributed multiplication and used the previous iden-

tities.

However there are some things we can take from this. First the arguments

of the complex numbers add when you multiply them, and the radii multiply.

Also if we impose r = and = then we obtain zw = r

2

. This is called

multiply a complex number by its conjugate. Since cos(x) is an even function

and sin(x) an odd one we can see that given z = a + ib then its conjugate is

z

= a ib.

Lets take these results to our initial problem. We had:

e

ix

= lim

n

_

1 +

ix

n

_

n

where n is an integer. Now lets calculate the radius of this limit. To get the

radius we must multiply this number for its conjugate. So if we have z = a+ib =

r(cos() +i sin()) its complex conjugate is z

so if we have z

n

= (a + ib)

n

= r

n

(cos(n) + i sin(n)) then its conjugate is

(z

n

)

= r

n

(cos(n) + i sin(n)). But r

n

(cos(n) + i sin(n) = (z

)

n

,

therefore (z

n

)

= (z

)

n

.

So

e

ix

2

= lim

n

_

1 +

ix

n

_

n

lim

n

_

1 +

ix

n

_

n

= lim

n

_

1 +

ix

n

_

n

_

1 +

ix

n

_

n

= lim

n

_

1 +

x

2

n

2

_

n

And the we do the trick we do with the exponential function:

4

e

ix

2

= lim

n

_

1 +

x

2

n

2

_

n

= lim

n

_

1 +

1

n

2

x

2

_

n

= lim

n

_

1 +

1

n

2

x

2

_

n

nx

2

nx

2

= lim

n

_

1 +

1

n

2

x

2

_n

2

x

2

x

2

n

= lim

n

_

_

_

_

1 +

1

n

2

x

2

_n

2

x

2

_

_

_

limn

x

2

n

= e

limn

x

2

n

= e

0

= 1

Therefore

e

ix

inside the argument.

Returning to our multiplication properties we can see that z

n

= r

n

(cos(n)+

i sin(n)) where n is an integer. So:

Arg(

e

ix

) = lim

n

nArg

_

1 +

ix

n

_

= lim

n

narctan

_

x

n

_

Now lets take tan() =

x

n

. Then we have,

Arg(

e

ix

) = lim

n

n

= lim

n

n

x

x

= lim

n

x

x

n

= xlim

n

tan()

Lets take a closer look. tan() =

x

n

means that n 0.

Therefore:

Arg(

e

ix

) = xlim

n

tan()

= xlim

0

cos()

sin()

= xlim

0

sin()

5

But how can we calculate said limit?

Finally we must point out something about multiplication of complexes and

arguments. Multipling numbers makes the arguments sum. This is quite similar

to exponentiation, where a

b

a

c

= a

b+c

. This statement should shed some light

on the nature of the argumente of

e

ix

.

Equivalence in the origin of sin x and x

Lets take a look a Fig 1. We have a trigonometric circunsference. Said cir-

cunsference has its center in the coordinates origin and their raduis is equal to

1 in the correct units. Then we have some auxiliar lines drawn. For instance

we have drawn a line tangent to the circunsference in the point (1,0) and a line

at radians from the x axis.

sin()

tan()

1

1

x

y

O

C

A

B

Figure 1: CORRECT THIS FIGURE Scheme showing the

areas we are interested in. With dierent shades of gray we

have a right triangle (dark gray), a smaller triangle (light gray)

and a circular sector (gray). The length of the base of said

triangles is 1 and their length hieght is shown in the picture.

6

CORRECT THIS TEXT ABC This lines dene a bigger triangle colored in

dark gray. Also in light gray theres a smaller triangle formed by the x axis,

the line of radians and a line passing through (1,0) and the intersection of the

line with the trigonometric circunsference. Also in gray is colored a circular

sector of radians.

Using some basic trigonometry it can be shown that the lenght of the height

of each triangle is the one noted in Fig 1. Both triangles share the same base,

and its length is 1. With this knowledge we can calcualte the area of each

triangle, since the area of a triangle is given by

bh

2

where b is the lengh of the

base and h the length of the height.

Now, whats the area of the sector? Since the radius is 1, the area of the full

circle is . There are 2 radians in a full circle, therefore the area of a sector

per radian is

2

=

1

2

. Since we have radians the area is

2

Since each area is inside another we can state that the area of the smaller

triangle is less or equal to the area of the sector. This later area is less or equal

to the area of the bigger triangle. In other words:

sin()

2

2

tan()

2

As long as

2

> 0. Now for 0 < <

2

the expression remains true as

long as we consider their absolute value.

sin()

2

tan()

2

For

2

>

2

. Now lets multiply each side of the inequality by

2

sin()

sin()

2

2

sin()

2

sin()

sin()

A

2 cos()

A

2

sin()

sin()

1

cos()

Lets take a closer look at this functions. First, we must point out that since

2

sin()

> 0 the signs of the inequation remains the same. Also we must point

out that the left and the right side of the inequation are even functions, and are

positive for

2

>

2

. The middle side is the product of 2 odd functions,

that means its an even function. Also in

2

> 0 both sin() and are

positive, therefore

sin()

> 0 for

2

>

2

. So we have:

1

sin()

1

cos()

Lets take the limits in the three sides as approaches 0.

lim

0

1 lim

0

sin()

lim

0

1

cos()

7

since 1 and

1

cos()

present no issues as 0, then

1 lim

0

sin()

1

So:

lim

0

sin()

= 1

Therefore:

Arg(

e

ix

) = x

Meaning:

e

ix

= cos(x) + i sin(x)

Which explains the weird exponent-like behavior of the argument.

Eulers Identity: the real deal

Finally lets take x = and add one at each side of the equality

.

e

i

+ 1 = cos() + i sin() + 1

e

i

+ 1 = 1 + i 0 + 1

e

i

+ 1 = 0

8

- Differential Equations ProblemsUploaded bypongbboy
- differential equationsUploaded bydion132
- 4400_4H_que_20090601Uploaded bynoorshamabdrashid
- solution_Calculus_Marsden_Tromba.pdfUploaded byMrbround Bround
- Differential EquationsUploaded byNirmal Jayanth
- Physics for scientist and engeineers by serway jewettUploaded byZaid Ur Rehman - Arch
- Calculus II Homework Section 10.1 Solutions of Elementary and SeparableUploaded byxxambertaimexx
- 159258080 CXC MATHS Formula SheetUploaded byEric D Medeci
- 4037_w05_qp_1Uploaded bymstudy123456
- 11 5MB3H Unit 3 - Mock PaperUploaded bymaths_mind
- XI Mathematics IIT JEE Advanced Study Package 2014 159Uploaded byAshok Pradhan
- Demidovich Problems in Mathematical AnalysisUploaded byjwcstar7985
- Calculus II Homework Section 9.6 Double Integrals Problems 1-59 Odd,Uploaded byxxambertaimexx
- McGrawHill Functions 11 Unit 5Uploaded byblabdude123
- IB Mathematics HL Exploration: Investigating the origins and applications of Euler’s number e in probability theory and statistical distributionsUploaded byHaihao Liu
- CXCCSECMathsSpecimenPaper1ExamWorkedSoutionsUploaded byDhanishan Indoi
- Precalculus Sample LessonUploaded byDylan Grey
- 2012 Edexcel Higher C Paper 2Uploaded byBrenda Walters
- Maths Exam.docxUploaded byKhaing26
- xvTYUnqn2wYUploaded byOmar Saeed
- mathsUploaded byKavita Kelly
- Maths FormulaeUploaded byJayanth Guntupalli
- Ah FormulaeUploaded byknoxmaths
- Coord Angle and BearingUploaded byyuritabasco
- A2 Maths QuestionsUploaded byIshwarya Sivakumar
- ACT Math SectionUploaded bysignin
- 1C2Sec2Uploaded byYavuz Keleş
- Jurongville Prelim 2009 Am p2Uploaded byJASON_INGHAM
- MATH23X-EXIT-EXAM-REVIEW-MATERIAL-TRIGONOMETRY.docxUploaded byJoachim De Leon
- Section3_3Uploaded bysonti11

- Following StarsUploaded byLuciano Robino
- Yp PDF Book03Uploaded byLuciano Robino
- Sobre la identidad de EulerUploaded byLuciano Robino
- teglia2015.pdfUploaded byLuciano Robino
- Guía del Consumidor - Guía de Capacitación ValorArUploaded byMartin Sanchez
- Guía del Consumidor - Guía de Capacitación ValorArUploaded byMartin Sanchez
- Informe.pdfUploaded byLuciano Robino

- Circular MeasuresUploaded byHayati Aini Ahmad
- Physics 2Uploaded byJeff Brown
- Lesson Plan for InTASC 4Uploaded byT.j. Miller
- Beyond AutoLisp.pdfUploaded bychoclate2012
- solucionario traducudoUploaded byrafael medina
- Maxon DC Motor 22mmUploaded byBea
- pptNotes-U4_T1_C2-CircularUploaded byPonraj Vijayan
- h alg 2 t10 2Uploaded byapi-261379705
- QuadraticFn_Differentiation Class TestUploaded byChung Voon Rou
- Motion in 2 dimensions Vidyamandir ClassesUploaded byYadav
- Chapter 1 Real NumbersUploaded bySaiful Syed Ahmad
- C12_Mock_1Uploaded byআব্দুল্লাহ্ইব্নসালাম
- 11_Lecture_ppt.pptUploaded byNguyen Thi Thanh Nha
- Mance Heart HeartUploaded byMary Ann Nazar
- 6 TrigonometryUploaded byshaannivas
- Mill DotUploaded bydestonhenson
- 0606_s06_qp_2Uploaded byBaoz Ping
- 05-01ChapGereUploaded byChristina Buckle
- Examples 2Uploaded byTimmy Vo
- Radian Astrology TablesUploaded byPatrick Mulcahy
- Ch2 Basic Concepts Signal ProcessingUploaded byMateus Galli
- Vibration of Spiral SpringUploaded byAbdul Rafaeh
- Ch#5 Circular MotionUploaded bysmart5733
- ch04solUploaded byEric Martin
- summary.pdfUploaded byTheReaderPig
- Apuntes Ingles Fyq t01Uploaded byjuanricitos01g
- SAEP-103Uploaded bybrecht1980
- Torsion ReportUploaded byEric Duncan
- mechanics_ch7.pdfUploaded bytomicatomica
- Modul Syed Malek _repairedUploaded bybangiidaman