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Examples Chemical Reaction Engineering: BR, first-order

Example 2a The reaction A B has k = 0.01 sec-1. The initial concentration is CA0 = 2.0 mol/L. What time is required for 90% conversion in a batch reactor? For 99%? For 99.9%?

Examples Chemical Reaction Engineering: BR, first-order Solution 2a 90% conversion: CA= 0.2 mol/L:

2 1 C 1 C 1 t = - ln A = + ln A0 = ln = 100 x ln 10 = 100 x 2.303 = 230 sec k C A0 k C A 0.01 0.2


99% conversion: CA= 0.02 mol/L:

1 t= ln 100 = 100 x 2 x 2.03 = 460 sec 0.01


99.9% conversion: CA= 0.002 mol/L:

1 ln 1000 = 100 x3 x 2.303 = 690 sec t= 0.01

Examples Chemical Reaction Engineering: BR, second-order

Example 3a The reaction A B obeys second-order kinetics k = 0.01 liter mole-1 sec-1. The initial concentration is CA0 = 2.0 moles liter-1. What time is required for 90% conversion in a batch reactor? For 99%? For 99.9%?

Examples Chemical Reaction Engineering: BR, second-order Solution 3a 90% conversion: CA= 0.2 mol/L:

1 1 1 1 1 1 = - = 100 x(5 - 0.5) = 450 sec = 7.5 min t= k C A C A0 0.01 0.2 2


99% conversion: CA= 0.02 mol/L:

1 1 1 - = 100(50 - 0.5) = 4950 sec = 1.38h t= 0.01 0.02 2


99.9% conversion: CA= 0.002 mol/L:

1 1 1 t= - = 100(500 - 0.5) = 49950 sec = 13.9h 0.01 0.002 2

Examples Chemical Reaction Engineering: PFR, first-order

Example 2b The reaction A B has k = 0.01 sec-1 and takes place in a continuous-plug-flow tubular reactor. The initial concentration is CA0 = 2.0 mol/L. What time is required for 90% conversion in a batch reactor? For 99%? For 99.9%?

Examples Chemical Reaction Engineering: PFR, first-order Solution 2b 90% conversion: CA= 0.2 mol/L:

1 C 1 C 1 2 t = - ln A = + ln A0 = ln = 100 x ln 10 = 100 x 2.303 = 230 sec k C A0 k C A 0.01 0.2


99% conversion: CA= 0.02 mol/L:

1 t= ln 100 = 100 x 2 x 2.03 = 460 sec 0.01


99.9% conversion: CA= 0.002 mol/L:

1 ln 1000 = 100 x3 x 2.303 = 690 sec t= 0.01

Examples Chemical Reaction Engineering: PFR, first-order

Example 2b The reaction A B, r = k CA occurs in PFTR with 90% conversion. If k = 0.5 min-1, CA0 = 2.0 moles/L, and v = 4 liter/min, what residence time and reactor volume will be required?

Examples Chemical Reaction Engineering: PFR, first-order

Solution 2b

2.0 1 C A (L ) 1 V =+ ln = 2 ln 10 = 4.61 min t = = - ln 0.5 0.2 v k C A0

V = vt = 4 x 4.61 = 18.4liters

Examples Chemical Reaction Engineering: PFR, second-order

Example 3b The reaction A B, r = k C2A occurs in PFTR with 90% conversion. If k = 0.5 liter mole -1 min-1, CA0 = 2.0 moles/L, and v = 4 liter/min, what residence time and reactor volume will be required?

Examples Chemical Reaction Engineering: PFR, second-order

Solution 3b
CA0

t=

CA

dC A 1 1 1 1 1 1 = = - = 9 min 2 k C A C A0 0.5 0.2 2 kC A

V = vt = 4 x 9 = 36liters

Examples Chemical Reaction Engineering: CSTR

A first-order irreversible reaction ist to be carried out: in a CSTR: A B, rA = k C A , CA = nA / vT If k = 0.01 s-1 and the volumetric flow rate is vT = 10-3 m3 s-1, calculate the reactor volume and residence time required for 30% conversion. Results:

vT V= k

1 vT xA (1 - xA ) - 1 = k (1 - xA ) =

4.29 10-2 m3

Mean residence time t = V/ vT = 42.9 s

Examples Chemical Reaction Engineering: CSTR, first-order

Example 2c The reaction A B, r = k CA occurs in a CSTR with 90% conversion. If k = 0.5 min -1, CA0 = 2 moles/liter, and v = 4 liter/min, what residence time and reactor volume will be required?

Examples Chemical Reaction Engineering: CSTR, first-order

Solution 2c

C A0 - C A C A0 - C A 2.0 - 0.2 1.8 t= = = = = 18 min r (C A ) kC A 0.5 x 0.2 0.1

V = vt = 4 x18 = 72liters

Examples Chemical Reaction Engineering: CSTR, second-order Example 3c The reaction A B, r = k C2A, occurs in CSTR with 90% conversion. If k = 0.5 liter mole-1, CA0 = 2 moles/liter, and v = 4 liter/min, what residence time and reactor volume will be required?

Examples Chemical Reaction Engineering: CSTR, second-order Solution 3c

C A 0 - C A C A0 - C A 2.0 - 0.2 1.8 t= = = = = 90 min 2 2 r (C A ) kC A 0.02 0.5 x (0.2 )

V = vt = 4 x 90 = 360liters

Examples Chemical Reaction Engineering: PFR/CSTR

Compare the reactor volumes necessary to attain the 90% conversions in the previous examples for first-order and second order irreversible reactions in PFR and CSTR !