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Difference between OSI model and TCP/IP model The Internet Protocol Suite also known as TCP/IP is the

set of communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks. It is named from two of the most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first two networking protocols defined in this standard. IP networking represents a synthesis of several developments that began to evolve in the 1960s and 1970s, namely the Internet and LANs (Local Area Networks), which emerged in the mid- to late-1980s, together with the advent of the World Wide Web in early 1990s.The Internet Protocol Suite, like many protocol suites, may be viewed as a set of layers. Each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data, and provides a well-defined service to the upper layer protocols based on using services from some lower layers. Upper layers are logically closer to the user and deal with more abstract data, relying on lower layer protocols to translate data into forms that can eventually be physically transmitted. The main differences between the two models are as follows: 1. OSI is a reference model and TCP/IP is an implementation of OSI model. 2. TCP/IP Protocols are considered to be standards around which the internet has developed. The OSI model however is a 3. TCP/IP combines the presentation and session layer issues into its application layer. 4. TCP/IP combines the OSI data link and physical layers into the network access layer. 5. TCP/IP appears to be a simpler model and this is mainly due to the fact that it has fewer layers. 6. TCP/IP is considered to be a more credible model- This is mainly due to the fact because TCP/IP protocols are the standards around which the internet was developed therefore it mainly gains creditability due to this reason. Where as in contrast networks are not usually built around the OSI model as it is merely used as a guidance tool 7. The OSI model consists of 7 architectural layers whereas the TCP/IP only has 4 layers.

8. In the TCP/IP model of the Internet, protocols are deliberately not as rigidly designed into strict layers as the OSI model.[6] RFC 3439 contains a section entitled "Layering considered harmful." However, TCP/IP does recognize four broad layers of functionality which are derived from the operating scope of their contained protocols, namely the scope of the software application, the end-to-end transport connection, the internetworking range, and lastly the scope of the direct links to other node son the local network. 9. The presumably strict consumer/producer layering of OSI as it is usually described does not present contradictions in TCP/IP, as it is permissible that protocol usage does not follow the hierarchy implied in a layered model. Such examples exist in some routing protocols (e.g., OSPF), or in the description of

tunneling protocols, which provide a Link Layer for an application, although the tunnel host protocol may well be a Transport or even an Application Layer protocol in its own right.10.The TCP/IP design generally favors decisions based on simplicity, efficiency and ease of implementation

Advantages and Disadvantages of layering protocols in a computer network a. Layered protocols add headers in each layer as the datagram move down the stack. The addition of header bits needed for successful transmission will reduce the overall capacity to transmit the actual message-bits. b. Addition of headers in each layer also adds to the computation overhead c. Each lower layer in the stack relieves the higher layers from underlying network details. Therefore, even if the higher layer may benefit by using an alternative lower layer protocol, they will not be able to modify all the aspects of the lower layers. d. All the protocols higher in the stack must rely on the proper functioning of all the lower layers.

1. layering is kind of hiding information. 2. layered architecture can sometime results in poor performance. 3.the main problem with the layered architecture is that we loose touch with the

criteria used to evaluate transmission medium The criteria used to evaluate transmission medium are Throughput Propagation speed Propagation time Wavelength

Assume that a voice channel occupies a bandwidth of 4 KHz. We need to combine three voice channels into a link with a bandwidth of 12 KHz, from 20 to 32 KHz. Show the configuration using the frequency domain without the use of guard bands.


Shift (modulate) each of the three voice channels to a different bandwidth, as shown in Figure 6.6.

Four data channels (digital), each transmitting at 1 Mbps, use a satellite channel of 1 MHz. Design an appropriate configuration, using FDM.

Solution The satellite channel is analog. We divide it into four channels, each channel having 1M/4=250-kHz bandwidth. Each digital channel of 1 Mbps must be transmitted over a 250KHz channel. Assuming no noise we can use Nyquist to get: C = 1Mbps = 2x250K x log2 L -> L = 4 or n = 2 bits/signal element. One solution is 4-QAM modulation. In Figure 6.8 we show a possible configuration with L = 16.