THE PPTSB MARINER’S GUIDE

ROPES, KNOTS. HITCHES & SPLICES
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Explanations of Rope fibERs and constructions How to tie Knots and Hitches How to splice Braided and Twisted Ropes How to make things with Ropes

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Beginners - What are KNOTS and SPLICES?

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What are KNOTS and SPLICES?

As a general term, 'knot' includes all configurations made in a cord or line (or other material). However, when naming knots, the term knot is used in a more specific way. The knotting 'family' is best explained by the following diagrams: INTERNATIONAL GUILD OF KNOT TYERS (IGKT) KNOTS The rope is tied to itself STOPPER KNOTS Making a bulky part in a rope to stop it passing through an object or to stop the strands unlaying BINDING KNOTS Joining the ends of a single rope around an object or objects. The knot 'bears upon' the object LOOP KNOTS FIXED LOOPS A single loop or more than one loop that does not close under strain. SLIP LOOPS Knots that slide, closing the loop under strain or allowing it to be opened.

Whippings, lashings and seizing are special types of binding knot. Thumb knot Figure of eight knot Oysterman's knot Reef knot Surgeon's knot Packer's knot Constrictor knot Bowline Artillery loop Figure of 8 loop Fireman's chair knot Alpine Butterfly knot Running Bowline Honda knot Handcuff knot Jar sling Hangman's knot

Whippings for binding Heaving line knots also make rope ends: Admiralty whipping weight at the end West Country of a rope: whipping Barrel knot Palm & needle Monkey's fist whipping Loaded Turk's Head Lashings for binding spars: Square/Japanese Diagonal/Filipino Sheer lashing Tripod l Seizing for binding ropes:

Beginners - What are KNOTS and SPLICES? Flat seizing Round seizing

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BENDS...join ends Joining the ends of two ropes. The knot must hold, even when jerked in mid-air. Unlike a binding knot, a bend does not have to bear upon an object

HITCHES...tie to something else MIDDLE HITCHES Attaching the middle of a rope to an object when there is strain on both sides of the knot.

SHORTENINGS

SPLICES Working with the constituent parts of the rope disturbing the structure and intertwining the strands.

END HITCHES Taking up the Attaching the end of slack in a rope. a rope to an object - a ring, a post, a bollard, a peg or even another rope.

Sheet bend Clove hitch Cat's paw Carrick Marlinspike Lark's Head bend hitch Timber hitch Fishermans Becket hitch Various other 'knot' Round turn and hitches are two half hitches Hunter's adapted as bend Anchor hitch 'crossing (Fisherman's hitches'Blackwall For different 'bend') from other knots: thicknesses: Buntline hitch Mooring Racking hitch bend To a hook: Constrictor Bowline Blackwall knot bend hitch Quick-release:

Sheepshank Chain shortening Bellringer's knot

Eye splice Short splice Long splice Cut splice Back splice Chain splice Tucked splice

Beginners - What are KNOTS and SPLICES? Highwayman's hitch Lengthwise pull: Rolling hitch Increase tension: Waggoner's hitch (Harvester's hitch)

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INTRODUCTION
This reference guide is designed to give the riggers, C.A.L.M Buoy operators and others who is interested with ropework a general knowledge of ropes, knots, hitches and splices. Those which are essential, and those which have become accepted as best suited for a particular purpose. Man, from his most primitive beginning, has joined vines, creepers and other flexible materials to make rope. Through trial and error over the centuries a great number of knots, hitches, splices, lashings and other fastenings have evolved. This guide contains those that are most used and most useful to everyday and in some cases industrial use. Modern rope is a product of science and technology. It combines great strength with light-weight flexibility to provide greater versatility and ease of handling than any of the natural fiber ropes. The best known synthetic fiber ropes are constructed of Nylon, Polyester, Polypropylene, Polyethylene and Kevelar etc. The advantages of these ropes are that they are strong; not damaged by oil, grease or gasoline; are rot-proof and, in the case of nylon, are able to take greater shock loads due to its elasticity. Polypropylene and polyethylene ropes have the ability to float on the surface of water. Polyester ropes provide great strength with an absolute minimum amount of stretch.

ROPE CONSTRUCTIONS
BRAID-ON-BRAID: Also known as Twin Braid and Double Braid. Actually two braided ropes combined into one rope. A braided core is covered with a braided jacket to produce a strong, handsome, easy handling rope. This rope is spliceable and, in most instances, is stronger than twisted rope of the same material and diameter. It is available in various synthetic fibers. Our 15 inch (381 mm) diameter Hawser system for the C.A.L.M buoy uses this particular type of nylon rope. Special floats are used to keep them floating.

DIAMOND BRAID: Also known as Hollow Braid and Maypole Braid. This rope is constructed of 8, 12 or 16 strands with a hollow center. An
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outstanding characteristic of this construction is its ability to be spliced in just seconds. It is available in various synthetic fibers. Our polypropylene Pick-up rope for the C.A.L.M buoy is normally of this construction. SOLID BRAID: A very firm, round rope that works extremely well and blocks and pulleys. Its name refers to the special lock-stitch construction of the rope. Solid Braid rope will not unravel when cut or accidentally broken. It is available in various synthetic and cotton fibers. LAID: Also known as Twisted rope. Just about all laid rope is 3-strand construction. It is spliceable and is available in virtually every type of rope fiber.

ROPE FIBERS
NYLON: The strongest fiber rope manufactured. Due to its elasticity, nylon can absorb sudden shock loads that would break ropes of other fibers. It has very good resistance to abrasion and will last four to five times longer than natural fiber ropes. Nylon rope is rot proof and not damaged by oils, gasoline, grease, marine growth or most chemicals. Manufactured by Puritan Mills, Inc, Wellington Ropes, British ropes, OLIVERA etc. GOLD BRAID: A gold colored Braid-On-Braid nylon rope, consisting of a braided jacket over a braided core. Combines excellent performance, spliceability and handsome appearance. Manufactured by Puritan Mills, Inc, Wellington Ropes, British ropes, OLIVERA etc. POLYESTER: Polyester is very strong, but not quite as strong as nylon rope. The difference between the two.ropes is that polyester does not have the stretch and elasticity of nylon. Other than this, the characteristics of the two fibers are practicallythe same. Manufactured by Puritan Mills, Inc, Wellington Ropes, British ropes OLIVERA etc. PIMM SHEET: A specially constructed rope designed specifically for sailing. It is available in either polyester or cotton. Polyester PIMM Sheet is far superior to cotton due to its great strength, minimum stretch,
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abrasion resistance and durability. it is Manufactured by Puritan Mills, Inc, Wellington Ropes, British ropes OLIVERA etc. TENSTRON: Combines tradition with progress. Tenstron is constructed from olefin fiber with the rich, golden tan color of manila rope. It has all the advantages of the modern synthetics, plus the rope color that many people like. It is rot proof, water proof and not damaged by oil, gasoline or most chemicals. In addition, Tenstron floats on the surface of water. Manufactured by Puritan Mills, Inc, Wellington Ropes, British ropes OLIVERA etc. POLYPROPYLENE: A lightweight, strong rope that is extensively used in many different ways. It is a floating rope and is rot proof and unaffected by water, oil, gasoline or most chemicals. Polypropylene rope is available in monofilament fiber, which is smooth surfaced, or multifilament fiber, which has a somewhat velvety appearance and feel. Manufactured by Puritan Mills, Inc,Wellington Ropes, British ropes, OLIVERA etc. PRO.LINE: Puritan Mills, Inc. registered trade name for multifilament polypropylene rope. Available in either solid braid or laid (twisted) construction. Manufactured by Puritan Mills, Inc,Wellington Ropes, British ropes, OLIVERA etc. POLYETHYLENE: One of the best known synthetic fiber ropes. A floating rope somewhat like polypropylene except that it is just a little lighter. Also, polyethylene’s handling characteristics are a little different than polypropylene. It is not quite as strong, size for size, as polypropylene. Manufactured by Puritan Mills, Inc,Wellington Ropes, British ropes, OLIVERA etc. COTTON: Much cotton rope and cord is used today. Most of it in the form of sash cord, clothesline, venetian blind cord and other uses. For handling quality, cotton is hard to beat. It is soft and pliable, and easy on the hands. Being a natural fiber, it does not have the strength or durability of synthetic fiber ropes. MANILA: The best known natural fiber rope. At one time it was the best available but it is steadily losing ground to the synthetic fiber ropes.
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Manila must be handled and stored with care as any dampness will cause it to rot and, of course, materially damage its effectiveness. SISAL: A rope that’s used primarily where strength and durability are not important. Sisal is a natural fiber that deteriorates rapidly when exposed to weather.

HOW TO MAKE YOUR ROPE LAST LONGER
AVOID OVERLOADING ... Safe working strength for any rope is 1/5th it’s breaking strength. Ignoring this safety factor is dangerous. If your rope is old or worn, make allowances for safety. AVOID ABRASION ... Outer and inner rope fibers contribute equally to the strength of your rope. When worn, your rope is naturally weakened. Where it is necessary for a rope to rub over an object protect it with chafing gear, such as canvas wrapped and tied around the rope. AVOID SUDDEN STRAIN ... Rope that is strong enough under a steady strain can be broken with a sudden jerk. Care when working with rope is extremely important. AVOID KINKS ... When rope is repeatedly turned or twisted in one direction, it is certain that kinks will develop, unless twists are repeatedly thrown in, or out of rope, Pulling a kink through a restricted space such as a tackle block will seriously damage the rope fibers. AVOID SHARP ANGLES... Sharp bends greatly affect the strenth of a rope. Any sharp angle is a weak spot. Pad it for safety, and even then, Be Careful! AVOID WRONG REEVING ... Always use the right size rope for the sheaves in the block or pulley. Too small sheaves cause added friction and rope wear. REVERSE ENDS ... Prolonged use, or wear, of one part of a rope will naturally, decrease it’s effectiveness at that point. Occasionally reverse your rope,
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end-for-end, to distribute the wear more evenly. A good example is an anchor line aboard a boat. AVOID CHEMICALS ... Virtually all synthetic fiber ropes are immune to damage from oil, gasoline, paint and most chemicals. To be on the safe side, however, keep your rope free of any type chemical. Natural fiber ropes are, of course, severely damaged by exposure to chemicals. KEEP ROPE CLEAN ... Dirt on the surface and imbedded in rope acts as an abrasive on fibers. When rope becomes dirty wash it thoroughly with clean water. Be sure to dry natural fiber ropes before storing. AVOID IMPROPER STORAGE... Synthetic fiber ropes require no special storing conditions other than keeping them out of sunlight and out of extremely hot rooms. The ultra-violet rays of sunlight has a weakening effect on rope that is exposed for prolonged periods of time. Natural fiber ropes must of course, be kept dry or they will rot in a very short time.

ROPE TERMINOLOGY
BIGHT: A loop made in any part of a rope. BITTER END: The end of a rope opposite the end in use. BLOCK: Similar to a pulley. Used to give mechanical advantage when lifting or pulling heavy objects. END: The end of a rope in use. (Opposite the bitter end). FATHOM: A unit of measurement. 1 fathom = 6 feet (1.8288 meter) FALL: The standing part of the rope coming from the fixed block on a block-and-tackle, on which strain is applied. LAY: The way a twisted rope is constructed. Lay is either right-hand (Z-lay) or left-hand (S-lay). LINE: Rope used aboard boats and ships is called line.

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PULLEY: A device consisting of a sheave mounted in a block or wall, which is used to achieve mechanical advantage when lifting or pulling heavy objects. ROUND TURN: Two turns of rope around the object to which it is being fastened. SHEAVE: Pronounced “shiv”. The grooved wheel in a block or pulley upon which the rope rides when in use. STANDING PART: The main part of the rope. TURN: One turn of a rope around the object to which it is being fastened.

KNOTS

OVERHAND KNOT A knot made in a rope to prevent it from pulling through your hand or a hole, is called a stopper knot. The simplest of these knots has many names, but is best known as the Overhand knot. It is tied by making an overhand loop. Then passing the end under and up through the loop... Tighten.

FIGURE of 8 KNOT The Figure 8 is an ideal basic knot form, used as a hand-hold at the end of a rope, or at any point between the ends... used at the end of a line to prevent a sheet or line from slipping through a block or pulley. This knot is tied by making an overhand loop, then bringing
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the free end over the standing part and back under and through the loop.

STEVEDORE’S KNOT Somewhat similar to the Figure 8 knot, the Stevedore’s knot is made with two turns around the rope, as illustrated. Inserting a stick in the loop before tightening permits this knot to be easily untied.

SURGEON’S KNOT Frequently used when tying packages with twine, to keep the first tie from slipping before the knot is completed. To tie... With one end in hand, take three turns around the other end. Pull tight. Pass one end over and under the other end. Draw up tight and the knot is complete.

SQUARE ( REEF) KNOT Originally used by seamen in reefing and furling sails aboard the old sailing ships. It is unsafe, however, forfasteningtwo ropes together...as it unties easily when either of the protruding ends is jerked. The square knot is used in first-aid for bandage tying. To tie
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this knot, pass the left end over and under the right end. Curve what is now the left end to the right, under and over the right end. Pull tight. BEWARE OF THE THIEF AND GRANNY KNOTS! TheThief and Granny knots, at first glance, look like the square knot but they are to be avoided. Study the illustrations closely to see the difference.

THIEF KNOT The Thief knot is not entirely trustworthy. It gets its name from the days of the old sailing ships, when sailors lived out of sea bags. If a man suspected that a shipmate was rummaging through his seabag when he wasn’t around, he would tie it closed with a thief knot, knowing that a sailor would invariably tie a square knot when tying the bag after searching through it.

GRANNY KNOT The Granny knot is usually the result of an improperly tied square knot. It may hold . .. It may not. This knot is not too reliable.

SHEET BEND
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An efficient knot for joining two ropes, especially hen they are of different diameters. ake a loop in the end of one rope, (the larger diameter rope if they are of different sizes). Run the end of the other rope through the loop, behind its standing part.. .then down through the loop again.Tighten, and that’s all there is to it. Make sure the ends of both ropes are on the same side of the knot. The Double Sheet Bend—made by running the rope end twice behind the standing part, then through the loop—is recommended for tying synthetic fiber lines together.

CARRICK BEND The Carrick Bend is an extremely strong knot suitable for all thicknesses of line. However, it is generally used for larger ropes. It will not jam, even when wet. To tie this knot, make a loop in the end of one rope as illustrated. Then thread the other rope end around the loop, using an over-an-under sequence. At no point does the rope pass through a loop, and the ends finish on opposite sides as illustrated.

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BOWLINE The most useful knot you can know. The Bowline forms a loop that will not slip or jam and is easily untied. It is used for mooring, hoisting, joining two ropes, and for fastening a rope to a ring or post. To tie... Form a small loop in the rope. Run the end up through the loop, behind the standing part, then back down through the loop. Pull tight.

RUNNING BOWLINE Used when a noose is needed to tighten a rope aro’jnd something. A regular Bowline is tied, with its loop around the standing part of the rope.

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DOUBLE BOWLINE Can be used as a seat sling, and is tied exactly in the same manner as the ordinary Bowline. The difference being that you pass the end through the loop twice, making two lower loops. The end is then passed behind the standing part and down through the first loop again, as in the ordinary Bowline. Tighten as illustrated. The right-hand loop goes under the arms, and the left-hand loop forms the seat.

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BOWLINE ON BIGHT A knot used to accommodate special loads or for holding an unconcious, or injured person. The tying of this knot is accomplished by taking a long bight (loop) of rope, making an overhand loop, then running the large loop up through the small loop. Flip the loop-end forward and around the large ioops, then up behind the standing part as shown. Pull right side of loop to tighten. For holding a person ... place one leg through each large loop and the loop-end under the arms and around the back, as illustrated.

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SPANISH BOWLINE Commonly used in slinging a ladder. The Spanish Bowline is tied by forming three loops in any central section of your rope, as illustrated. Flip the large center loop up, to encircle the smaller loops. Reach down through the small loops, grasp each side of the large loop, and pull it through the small loops simultaneously.

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FISHERMAN’S (ANCHOR) BEND When a rope is to be used as an anchor rode, it must be attached securely because you cannot inspect it in use. Taking a turn around a ring (or post) then running the rope end through the turn, between the turn and the ring. Two half hitches complete the knot. When this knot has been pulled tight and is wet, it is very difficult to untie.

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MILLER’S KNOT For tying bags and sacks. Take two turns around the neck of the bag, the first turn over the standing part, the second turn under the standing part, as shown. Draw up tight.

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FISHERMAN’S KNOT A good knot for joining small rope, twine and fishing line. One end is passed through an overhand knot in the other line, then knotted around it. Pull knots tightly together to complete knot.

MATHEW WALKER KNOT To tie the Mathew Walker knot, sometimes referred to as the Crown knot, unlay the strands at the end of your rope for a short distance. Then begin tying off as illustrated. Draw up tight and trim ends.

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HITCHES

HALF HITCH The most basic of knot forms. Used primarily in the formation of other knots, the Half Hitch can be used to secure an object for a right angle pull. When strain is constant this hitch is fairly reliable. Tie as Illustrated.

ROUND TURN and 2 HALF HITCHES Used for making fast the end of a rope to post or ring. Old time seamen said, “It will hold the devil.” Take two complete turns around the post or ring, then take two half hitches on the standing part as shown.

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CLOVE HITCH One of the fastest and easiest hitches to make. It is used to fasten a rope to a stake or post. Make it by taking two turns around the post; the first, under the standing part; the second, also under the standing part but in the opposite direction. WARNING: Never use the Clove Hitch where it needs to be released in a hurry. This hitch binds extremely tight and, in the case of a wet rope, may be virtually impossible to free quickly.

BLACKWALL HITCH Used only for light loads and, even then, with caution. The Blackwall Hitch holds under constant strain, but will free itself if the load is slackened. It simply consists of looping a rope around a hook with the end under the standing part.

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TIMBER HITCH A fast, convenient method of attaching a rope to a log for dragging or hoisting. The Timber Hitch is tied by taking a turn around the log, then a half hitch on the standing part. Then twist the end around itself at least three times, as illustrated. A half hitch around the log is desirable when dragging.

SHEEPSHANK You may find it necessary sometime to shorten, or take the load off a weak spot in the rope. When there is no time to do it right, the Sheepshank is the answer. Lay out two side-by-side loops as shown, then take a half hitch around each loop with the standing part. The Sheepshank holds pretty well under a steady strain, but remember.., it’s for temporary use only.

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MIDSHIPMAN’S HITCH Used generally for mooring and life-saving. This knot is tied by first taking a half hitch around the standing part, then a turn around the standing part, within the loop. Pass the end through the loop, then take a half hitch around the standing part, outside the loop. The loop can be made larger or smaller by sliding the hitch along the standing part. It will hold under strain, in any position.

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COW HITCH A simple and quick way to hitch a rope to a post. Double the end of your rope to form an open loop. Reach through the loop and pull both the end and the standing part back through the loop. Drop the double ioop over a post and tighten.

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HALTER HITCH The Halter Hitch is used for securing an animal, or anything, to a ring or post. Tie exactly as illustrated. Draw loop tight against post or ring when knot is as shown in Step 2. Then insert end or rope through small loop to prevent knot failure.

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CATSPAW Used for hoisting heavy loads. It is jam-proof and efficient. Tie it by holding the rope with both hands, well apart. Turn your hands away from you. Bring together the two loops and drop over the hook.

LASHINGS

SQUARE LASHING Used to secure two posts, poles or bars that cross and touch each other. Begin with a Clove Hitch around the upright pole just below the horizontal pole. Twist the end and standing part of the rope tightly together and pass the rope up over the horizontal pole and behind
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the upright pole. Now bring it forward and down around the horizontal pole, then back behind the upright pole, laying it just above the Clove Hitch. Repeat this procedure four times, laying each turn outside the previous turn on the horizontal pole, and inside each turn on the upright pole. Finish with three or four over-and-under passes around the lashing as illustrated and complete with a Clove Hitch on the horizontal pole, pulled tight next to the lashing.

DIAGONAL LASHING Used to pull together and secure two posts, poles or bars that cross but do not touch each other. Begin by making a Timber Hitch diagonally around both poles where they cross and tighten. Follow this with three or four turns at right angle to the first turns. Two over-and-under passes are made a round the lashing as illustrated in Step 2. Finish by making a Clove Hitch around the nearest post.

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SHEAR LASHING Used to secure two parallel poles, and also for rigging “shear legs” to support rope bridges, cables, etc. First make a Clove Hitch around one pole. Twist the end and standing part of the rope tightly together then take seven or eight turns around both poles, not too tight, laying each turn next to the previous one. Now take three or four turns around the first turns, between the poles. These last turns must be verytight to pull the lashing firmly around the poles. Finish with a Clove Hitch around the other pole. “Shear legs” are formed by making a Shear Lashing at the pivot point of two crossing poles, then spreading the poles apart at the base.

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TRIPOD LASHING Place three poles on the ground, parallel to each other and with the end of one between the ends of the other two. First make a Clove Hitch around the end of one pole, then take seven or eight loose turns around all three poles. Next take two or three loose turns around the first turns, between the poles. Finish with a Clove Hitch around the center pole. Raise tripod to standing position and adjust legs so they are spaced an equal distance apart.

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SPLICING

SHORT SPLICE 1. For end-to-end splicing of two ropes. First, unlay both ropes for a short distance and bring them together so that the main bodies of the ropes fit snugly and the unlaid strands mesh; alternating a strand of one with a strand of the other. Sealing the strand-ends of synthetic fiber ropes with a flame or hot knife will prevent their unravelling. It is helpful to temporarily tie the strands of one rope to the body of the other rope.

2. Now, tuck one of the unlaid strands over and under a strand of the opposite rope, working against the twist. Take the unlaid strand, next to the strand just tucked,and tuck it over and under the next strand in the opposite rope. Do the same thing with the remaining unlaid strand. Now, take one more tuck with each strand.

3. Remove the temporary tie and make two tucks with the other three strands. You now have the strands of each rope tucked two times through the strands of the other rope. Now go back and make
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at least two more tucks with each of the six strands.. . four additional tucks are recommended for synthetic ropes.

4. RoIl the splice under your foot, or a board and clip off ends of protruding strands. CAUTION: Do not clip ends too close to splice. LONG SPLICE The Long splice is not quite as strong as the Short splice, but it permits a rope to run freely through a block or pulley.

1. To make a Long splice, unlay the end of each rope about 14 turns and bring them together so that the main bodies of the ropes fit snugly and the unlaid strands mesh; alternating a strand of one with a strand of the other. Sealing strand-ends of synthetic fiber ropes with a flame or hot knife will prevent their unravelling.

2. Starting with any opposite pair, unlay one strand and replace it with it’s opposite strand from the other rope. Do the same thing with another pair of strands, going in the opposite direction. You now have two long opposing strands in the center, at the original meeting
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point of the two ropes, and a pair of long and short opposing strands on each side of center.

3. Now tie each pair of opposing strands tightly with an overhand knot, tuck each strand twice back into the rope, going against the twist. Roll the splice under your foot or a board, clip protruding strand-ends and your splice is complete.

CROWN SPLICE When you want a rope end to be a little larger in diameter than the rope, and have a finished appearance, the Crown Splice is the answer.

1. Unlay the end of your rope, (sealing the strand ends of synthetic fiber rope will prevent them from unravelling) and lay the right-hand strand across the other two as illustrated. 2. Then tuck the left-hand strand over the first strand, then back over the right-hand strand. 3. Pull all strands snug, then tuck them in sequence, over and under the strands in the main body of the rope, as in a short splice. Roll the splice under your foot or with a board, and clip protruding ends; not too close to the rope.

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EYE SPLICE The Eye Splice may be made as a loop of any size, or it can be made tight around a metal thimble to prevent chafing of the rope fibers.

1. To begin your Eye Splice unlay the strands for a short distance and double back to form a loop of the desired size, with the unlaid strands laying across the twist of the rope. Sealing strand-ends of synthetic fiber rope will prevent them from unravelling. Tuck the center unlaid strand under any one of the strands in the main body of the rope, going against the twist.

2. The next unlaid strand goes over the strand under which the center unlaid strand is tucked, and is tucked under the next strand in the rope.

3. Tuck the last unlaid strand under the remaining strand in the rope, making sure the tuck is against the twist.
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4. Pull each strand snugly up to the main body of the rope then tuck them, in sequence, over and under the strands in the rope. While it is traditional to use 4 tucks, at least 6 tucks are recommended for synthetic fiber ropes. Roll the splice under your foot or a board, and trim protruding strand ends, not too closely to rope. Your splice is complete. HOW TO WHIP A ROPE END

Whipping is used primarily to prevent the end of twisted rope from unravelling. It is done with twine; preferrably nylon twine because it is rot-proof. First, lay a loop of twine along side the rope, with open end of the loop toward the end of the rope. Then, beginning a short distance from the rope end, wind the twine tightly around both the rope and the twine loop. The last turn of the winding is inserted through the
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loop-end. Next; holding the rope in one hand, pull the twine end at the end of the rope until the loop-end is about mid-way in the whipping. Clip both twine ends and the job is complete. The whipping should be at least as long as the rope diameter. HOW TO MAKE ROPE TO A CLEAT

In “Belaying” or making fast to a cleat, take the standing part of the rope and make a turn around the stem of the cleat (away from the direction of strain), under the cleat horn, then up over it’s center (Fig. 1). Take a half-hitch over the opposite cleat horn if rope strain is under light strain, (Fig. 2). Under heavy strain, make one or two turns figure eight fashion over cleat horns before taking the half hitch, (Fig. 3).

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ROPE,KNOTS,HITCHES & SPLICES
MYGAZEE ‘99

HOW TO RIG SLINGS

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ROPE,KNOTS,HITCHES & SPLICES
MYGAZEE ‘99

A method used for centuries, and still the most satisfactory solution to many varied hoisting, hauling and pulling operations. It is important to remember that the angle of pull on a sling has a great deal to do with its safety and efficiency. Wide angles of pull increase the strain on the rope. When working with a sling be aware that the strain on the rope is equal to the weight of the object being hoisted, only when the object is being lifted with a straight pull. At a 120-degree angle of pull, the strain on the rope is double that of the object being lifted. At a 150-degree angle the strain is almost four times as great as the weight of the object being lifted. Illustrated above are several types of the most commonly used slings. All are tied with knots and hitches explained in this guide.

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ROPE,KNOTS,HITCHES & SPLICES
MYGAZEE ‘99

HOW TO RIG A BLOCK AND TACKLE

A block and tackle takes much of the work out of moving heavy objects. The mechanical advantage is one less than the number or ropes between the blocks. Terminology: Sheaves (pronounced “shivs”) - The grooved wheels upon which the rope rides in a block.
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ROPE,KNOTS,HITCHES & SPLICES
MYGAZEE ‘99

Becket - A bracket on a block, opposite it’s hook end, for fastening the rope end to the block. Fall block - The fixed block. Reeve - The procedure of rigging a block and tackle. The diagrams show, in a simplified manner, the easiest way to reeve a block and tackle. Start with the rope end that is to be fastened to the becket. This eliminates the necessity of pulling the entire rope length through the blocks. Reeve the rope end first over sheave No. 1; then No. 2; and so on ... ending up with the end eye-spliced to the becket. Double & Single: The becket is always on the single block. The single block is always the movable block. The double block is always the fall block. Double & Double: The becket is always on the fall block. HOW TO MAKE A CLIMBING and SAFETY LINE

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ROPE,KNOTS,HITCHES & SPLICES
MYGAZEE ‘99

A rope with a series of hand-holds is perfect for climbing, and when it is a floating rope. . . Like polypropylene or polyethylene.., for trailing from an anchored boat to provide a safety line for swimmers. It’s easy to make one. First, make a loop in the rope as illustrated, and flip it forward and slightly to the right. Pull the lower ioop under the rope and up through the top ioop, as shown. Complete the knot by pulling the loop sharply to the left. HOW TO MAKE A LEAD LINE

You will want a line that does not stretch so that measurements will be accurate. The best to use is twisted polyester or 100% polyester braided line such as PIMM Sheet or Braid-on-Braid, manufactured by Wellington Ropes, British Ropes etc. Select the length and diameter best suited to the “feel” you like and the depth of the water where most of your cruising is done. Attach the line to the sounding lead with an eye-splice if you’re using twisted or Braid-on-Braid line; with an anchor bend if you’re using PIMM Sheet Lash the end of the line securely to the standing part when using an anchor bend. Measurements are made in fathoms (1 fathom is 6 feet or 1.8288 meter). “Marks” are indicated by attaching the markers listed below. “Deeps” are indicated by a mark of black paint or, preferably, a seizing of black twine around the line. Measuring from the base of the lead, mark as follows:
1 fathom (Deep 1) - Black twine. 2 fathoms (Mark 2) - 2 strips of leather. 3 fathoms (Mark 3) - 3 strips of leather. 4 fathoms (Deep 4) - Black twine. 5 fathoms (Mark 5) - White rag. 6 fathoms (Deep 6) - Black twine. 7 fathoms (Mark 7) - Red rag. 8 fathoms (Deep 8) - Black twine. 9 fathoms (Deep 9) - Black twine. 10 fathoms (Mark 10) - Strip of leather with a hole in it.
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ROPE,KNOTS,HITCHES & SPLICES
MYGAZEE ‘99

11 fathoms (Deep 11) - Black twine. 12 fathoms (Deep 12) - Black twine. 13 fathoms (Mark 13) - 3 strips of leather. 14 fathoms (Deep 14) - Black twine. 15 fathoms (Mark 15) - White rag. 16 fathoms (Deep 16) - Black twine. 17 fathoms (Mark 17) - Red rag. 18 fathoms (Deep 18) - Black twine. 19 fathoms (Deep 19) - Black twine. 20 fathoms (Mark 20) - A line with 2 knots in it.

HOW TO MAKE A LARIAT (LASSO)

The first step in making your Lariat is to put a Crown knot or Mathew Walker knot in both ends of the rope. This prevents the rope end from unravelling and from slipping through the Honda knot used to make the noose. To make the Honda knot, tie a simple overhand knot in your Lariat. Pass the end through the opposite side of the overhand knot from which it protrudes, as illustrated. Pull overhand knot tight, leaving a small loop. Run the other end of your rope through the honda knot to form the noose. Your Lariat is now finished.

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Beginners - Monkey's Fist

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Monkey's Fist

Make three turns round the Start making turns passing outside hand. the middle of the first three turns.

Complete the three second turns.

Make three more turns passing inside the Tighten up the knot round a soft core, e.g. a ball first set of turns and outside the second of ropeyarn. Splice or whip the end to the set. standing part NOTE 1: Avoid the temptation to weight the core with a hard, heavy object. This can convert a useful knot into a potentially lethal missile. Any self-respecting wharfie will take out his knife and cut off any such knot. NOTE 2: The British Admiralty Manual of Seamanship illustrates a slightly different method whereby the working end comes out alongside the standing part

Beginners - Sea Cadet Knots

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Sea Cadet Knots
The U.K. Sea Cadet Corps requires that all candidates for promotion must have a basic grounding in seamanship. These knots are the basic requirement (Seamanship Third Class). A cadet pursuing a Seamanship Specialisation needs to know more. The table shows each knot and gives a brief note on the way the knot is made and its application on ships. The diagrams show the knots tied loosely so that their construction is clear. Overhand Knot Used to start the racking of a hawser

Figure of Eight Knot For stopping a rope unreeving through a block or to temporarily stop a rope from fraying.

Reef Knot Comprises two successive overhand knots. To secure furled canvas (because of the ease with which it may be spilled). Also used for finishing off the racking on a turned up hawser. WARNING: The reef knot should never be used as a bend to join two ropes that will be under load. Round Turn and two Half Hitches A round turn made round the spar and two half hitches made round the standing part of the line. Securing the head rope of a ship's boat to the ring of a buoy. A very useful general purpose hitch to a spar or ring.

Beginners - Sea Cadet Knots

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Rolling Hitch Two round turns and one half hitch made round the spar. Securing ropes that have lateral pull e.g. heaving line to the picking up rope, gun line on the messenger when returning gear after a refuelling at sea (RAS), fastening a line to a spar.

Clove Hitch Two similar half hitches put round the object to which it is to make fast. Securing items that hang vertically, e.g. paint kettles/ fenders attached to guardrail stanchions, fastening a rope to a spar, securing ratlines to the shrouds.

Sheet Bend Pass the end of one rope through the bight of a second rope, around both parts of the bight, and under its own standing part. Securing the boat's painter to the Jacob's Ladder on a boom, for joining two ropes the same or similar sizes, in bending small sheets to the clews of sails, in bending flags to halyards where snap hooks are not fitted.

Beginners - Sea Cadet Knots

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Double Sheet Bend Pass the end of the bending line through the bight of the standing line, twice around it and through its own part, giving added security. For securing the boat's painter to the lizard on a boom, joining ropes together when they are not too large, especially when they are of different sizes.

Timber Hitch Make a turn around a spar, around the standing part, and then several around its own part. Add an additional half turn round the spar when the pull on the spar is lateral. A quick way of securing a rope temporarily around a spar or timber. Much used in handling cargo.

Bowline Pass the end through a loop on the standing part, round the standing part and back through the loop. Securing the heaving line to the eye of the hawser, for tying around a person's waist whilst using a lifeline , e.g. when aloft, or when making a temporary eye in a rope. It does not slip or jam and can be cast loose instantly, as the tension is released

IGKT: Beginners - Sea Cadet Knots

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Fisherman's Bend Take a round turn with the end coming under the standing part under both turns, with two half hitches on the standing part. For security the end should be seized. Securing a boat's anchor cable to the anchor, making a buoyrope fast to a buoy .The greater the pull on the rope, the more tightly the parts of the bend are jammed against the anchor ring.

Heaving Line Knot Provides a temporary weight to the end of a heaving line, as a quick alternative to the Monkey's Fist.

Beginners - Six Knot Challenge

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Six Knot Challenge
The Six Knot Challenge is to tie six elementary knots against the clock. Guild members often hold this as a fun event at shows. It proves popular with all ages, and provides an opportunity for hands-on learning for children as young as seven. The world record, set by Clinton Bailey Sr., is an astonishing 8.1 seconds. Under 20 seconds is pretty good - under 15 is very good indeed .

Reef Knot

Sheet Bend

Round Turn and two Half Hitches

Sheepshank

Clove Hitch Bowline

Beginners - Trick Sennit

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Trick Sennit

1. Make two cuts in a leather strap to form three equal width strips joined at each end. 2. Pass one end of the strip under the centre strip and over the two edge strips from right to left. 3. Pass the same end under the two edge strips and over the centre strip from right to left. 4. Untwist the strips as necessary to flatten out the sennit. 5. Repeat to form a longer sennit

ROPE,KNOTS,HITCHES & SPLICES
MYGAZEE ‘99

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