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A new command I give you: Love one another.
As I have loved you, so you must love one another
By this everyone will know that you are my disciples,
if you love one another.
John 13: 34-35
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!urlsdlcLlon ls deflned as Lhe auLhorlLy Lo hear and Lry a
parLlcular offense and lmpose Lhe punlshmenL for lL.
o !urlsdlcLlon breaLhes llfe Lo Lhe power of a courL Lo
hear and Lry cases

A. Venue |s Iur|sd|ct|ona|
1haL venue ls !urlsdlcLlonal slmply means LhaL Lhe place where
Lhe crlme was commlLLed deLermlnes noL only Lhe venue of Lhe
acLlon buL ls an essenLlal elemenL of [urlsdlcLlon.
o ln slmple words, where Lhe crlme was commlLLed ls Lhe
place where you could lnsLlLuLe Lhe acLlon.
Law confers [urlsdlcLlon and dlcLaLes Lhe parameLers, whlch Lhe
CourL can acL ln.
1he CourL needs Lo depend on allegaLlons wlLhln Lhe complalnL
Lo deLermlne where Lhe crlme was commlLLed and
subsequenLly, Lhe [urlsdlcLlon.
o lL does noL mean LhaL Lhe allegaLlons ln Lhe complalnL
or lnformaLlon confers [urlsdlcLlon - because lL ls only
Lhe LAW LhaL confers [urlsdlcLlon.
o 1haL ls why lf you wlll read an lnformaLlon lL says LhaL
Lhe crlme was commlLLed wlLhln Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe
clLy of manlla - ln order Lo show LhaL Lhe venue ls ln
Lhe place where Lhe acLlon was lnsLlLuLed.
!urlsdlcLlon cannoL be walved by any of Lhe parLles, because of
Lhe concepL of LerrlLorlallLy.
o Lxample 1: 8ape Case
! lacLs: Cn Lhe way Lo 1agayLay from MakaLl,
Lhere was carnal knowledge, and Lhe rape was
commlLLed along Lhe expressway by Suzanna
PelghLs exlL (MunLlnlupa). 1hen Lhe rape was
agalnsL commlLLed ln 1agayLay when Lhey
sLayed overnlghL.
! lssue: Where can Lhe acLlon be lnsLlLuLed?
! Peld: 1he flrsL rape ln MunLlnlupa, and Lhe
second ln 1agayLay.
o Lxample 2: vlolaLlon of 8.. 22 (lslp v. eople)
! lacLs: Check was drawn ln MakaLl, and Lhe
check bounced ln Caloocan.
! lssue: Where can acLlon be lnsLlLuLed?
! Peld: LlLher MakaLl or Caloocan.
ConLlnulng Cffense
o Lxample 1: 8ebelllon " places where Lhe rebels sLayed
can be venues for lnsLlLuLlon of crlmlnal acLlon.
o Lxample 2: LsLafa " MlsrepresenLaLlons made ln
MakaLl, money recelved ln Caloocan. LlLher can be a
venue of lnsLlLuLlon of acLlon.
LxcepLlon: 1he orderly admlnlsLraLlon of [usLlce (Lrlal and
hearlng only).
o So why Lhen ls Lhe Magulndanao case (AmpaLuan)
belng Lrled here ln Manlla?
! Cnly Lhe venue of Lhe Lrlal can be Lransferred
(sub[ecL Lo Lhe Lrlal of Lhe SC) once Lhe acLlon ls
lnsLlLuLed ln Lhe place where Lhe crlme was
commlLLed or any of Lhe essenLlal elemenLs
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8. 1ypes of Iur|sd|ct|on
C8lClnAL !u8lSulC1lCn " deLermlned by law whlch dlcLaLes
whlch case can be lnlLlaLed ln a parLlcular courL.
LxCLuSlvL !u8lSulC1lCn " deLermlned by law whlch dlcLaLes
whlch courL can CnL? hear Lhe case.
CCnCu88Ln1 !u8lSulC1lCn " you don'L have concurrenL
[urlsdlcLlon ln crlmlnal cases.
o ConcurrenL !urlsdlcLlon applles durlng lnvesLlgaLlon,
buL noL ln Lrlal. (ueparLmenL of !usLlce v. Llwag)
o ConcurrenL !urlsdlcLlon applles Lo speclal clvll acLlons
(e.g. wrlLs), buL Lhere musL be a deLermlnaLlon of
hlerarchy of courLs.
SLClAL !u8lSulC1lCn " Conferred by law
o Lxample 1: All crlmlnal cases or offenses arlslng from
vlolaLlon of sald law, 8.A. no. 6637 shall be lnsLlLuLed
where? ln Lhe reglonal Lrlal courL acLlng as a speclal
agrarlan courL.
o Lxample 2: lnLellecLual CourL (81C), urugs CourLs (81C),
lamlly CourL, Speclal Agrarlan CourL, 81C can declde on
cases of 8all ln Lhe absence of Lhe M1C !udge.

II. k.A. No. 7691, as amended by 8.. 129
A. Impr|sonment ena|ty
Lxceeds 6 years " lL wlll be wlLh Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourL,
regardless of flne or accessory penalLy.
noL exceedlng 6 years " regardless of flne or accessory
penalLy, lL wlll be Lhe munlclpal Lrlal courL, munlclpal clrculL
Lrlal or meLropollLan Lrlal courL.
lor purposes of deLermlnlng !urlsdlcLlon of CourLs, you don'L
need Lo dlsLlngulsh where Lhe crlme was commlLLed. 8uL for
purposes of deLermlnlng where Lhe acLlon should be lnsLlLuLed,
lL ls lmporLanL Lo deLermlne where Lhe crlme was commlLLed.

8. C|rcu|ar 09-94: If the pena|ty |s pure|y a I|ne (glvlng guldellnes wlLh
regard Lo Lhe lnLerpreLaLlon of 8.A. no. 7691)
Lxceedlng 4000 " 1he 8eglonal 1rlal CourL has [urlsdlcLlon.
noL exceedlng 4000 " 1he munlclpal Lrlal courL, munlclpal
clrculL Lrlal courL, and meLropollLan Lrlal courL. Agaln Lhere ls no
dlsLlncLlon as Lo manlla, ouLslde of MeLro Manlla.

III. now Iur|sd|ct|on |s Acqu|red Cver the erson of the Accused
1. 8y ArresL
a. When a person ls arresLed, Lhe wheels of [usLlce wlll
have Lo move l.e. Lhere wlll evenLually be an
b. 1he purpose of Lhe arresL ls Lo brlng you Lo Lhe process
ln CourL.
2. 8y volunLary Surrender
a. ?ou are wllllngly submlLLlng Lo Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe
b. Mere flllng of ball does noL amounL Lo volunLary
surrender. 8u1 flllng of any oLher moLlon or documenL
amounLs Lo volunLary submlsslon Lo courL [urlsdlcLlon.
Lxcept|ons: When Lhe accused lnvokes speclal
[urlsdlcLlon of Lhe courL concernlng hls person.
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l. Clvll Case " MoLlon Lo dlsmlss on Lhe ground
of lack of [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe person of Lhe
ll. Crlmlnal Case " (1) MoLlon Lo quash Lhe
complalnL for lack of [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe
accused, and (2) MoLlon Lo quash a warranL of
noL by ArralgnmenL
o 1hls ls necessary only for Lrlal ln absenLla Lo proceed.
ln conLrasL Lo [urlsdlcLlon over sub[ecL maLLer, fallure of a
person Lo quesLlon Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of a CourL over hls person ls
walved Lhe momenL he ralses oLher quesLlons.

A. When does the Sand|ganbayan have [ur|sd|ct|on over an offense?
1. k.A. No. 8249 prescrlbes LhaL Lhe Sandlganbayan has
[urlsdlcLlon lf Lhe offender ls publlc offlcer wlLh aL leasL Salary
Crade 27 Anu Lhe acL was commlLLed ln relaLlon Lo Lhe offlce.
a. 1he crlmes are noL llmlLed Lo k.A. No. 3019 or k.A. No.
b. !"#$%& ())%&*+ " 1he rlghL Lo hold a publlc offlce under
our pollLlcal sysLem ls noL a naLural rlghL as lL exlsLs
solely by vlrLue of a law, of some law, expressly or
lmplledly conferrlng lL.
c. As long as one ls salary grade 27, regardless of wheLher
he ls a prlnclpal, accompllce or accessory, Lhe whole
group lnvolved ln Lhe crlme wlll be Lrled under Lhe
Sandlganbayan even lf Lhe oLher consplraLors are noL
under salary grade 27 (.D. No. 1606 as amended by
.D. No. 1861)
d. CompensaLlon ls noL an essenLlal elemenL of publlc
offlce, aL mosL, lL ls merely lncldenL Lo Lhe publlc offlce.
2. Any crlme commlLLed ln relaLlon Lo offlce.
a. SLandard " As long as Lhe offense charged ln Lhe
lnformaLlon ls lnLlmaLely connecLed wlLh Lhe offlce and
ls alleged Lo have been perpeLraLed whlle Lhe accused
was ln Lhe performance Lhough lmproper or lrregular of
hls offlclal funcLlons Lhere belng no personal moLlve Lo
commlL Lhe crlme and had Lhe accused noL have
commlLLed lL had he noL held Lhe aforesald offlce.
b. A crlme ls commlLLed ln relaLlon Lo offlce lf wlLhouL Lhe
offlce Lhe crlme would noL have been commlLLed.
3. Who are by express provlslon under [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe
a. .D. No. 1606 as amended by L.C. No. 184, wh|ch has
been changed by k.A. No. 8249, Sect|on 4(g) "
!urlsdlcLlon over presldenLs, dlrecLors or LrusLees, or
managers of CCCCs, sLaLe unlverslLles or educaLlon
lnsLlLuLlons or foundaLlons. All Lhose llsLed ln Lhls law -
regardless of Lhelr salary grade - fall wlLhln Lhe
excluslve orlglnal [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe Sandlganbayan.
b. Munlclpal Mayor ls lncluded under Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of
Lhe S8 by vlrLue of [urlsprudence (8lnay v. S8).

8. Appe||ate Iur|sd|ct|on of the S8
1he Sandlganbayan can revlew declslons of Lhe
o 81C " especlally for publlc offlcers who do noL fall
wlLhln Lhe S8 [urlsdlcLlon.
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o M1C " ls revlewable by 81C, who ln Lurn ls revlewable
by S8.
1he Sandlganbayan cannoL revlew peLlLlons by Lhe CA because
Lhey are co-equal courLs.
S8 and CA declslons are revlewable by Lhe SC so long as Lhey
are purely quesLlons of law (ku|e 4S, ku|es of Court). CLherwlse
(quesLlons of facL), are noL enLerLalned.

All crlmes punlshable by more Lhan 6 years or by a flne over
ursuanL Lo C|rcu|ar 39-97, only 2
-Level CourLs have Lhe
power Lo lssue Pold ueparLure Crders.

VI. Appe||ate Iur|sd|ct|on
A declslon of Lhe CourL of 1ax Appeals can be revlewed by lLs en
banc, Lhen by a peLlLloner for revlew on cerLlorarl Lo Lhe
Supreme CourL.
A declslon of Lhe CourL of Appeals can be revlewed only vla a
peLlLlon for cerLlorarl ln Lhe Supreme CourL.
o 1he CourL of Appeals do noL render declslons en banc
Ceneral 8ule: A 2
MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon ls noL allowed.
o LxcepLlon: lor ordlnarlly persuaslve reasons and CnL?
Al1L8 an Lx8LSS leave shall have flrsL been obLalned.

A. owers of the Cmbudsman
1he power of Lhe C8, lL was granLed more Lhan Lhe usual
powers glven Lo Lhe prosecuLors.
o Cenerally, Lhe Cmbudsman performs funcLlons close Lo
LhaL of a publlc prosecuLor such as: conducLlng
lnvesLlgaLlon or conducLlng prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon.
o lL was vesLed wlLh power Lo lnvesLlgaLe complalnLs
agalnsL publlc offlce, or publlc offlcer on lLs own
lnlLlaLlve, even ln Lhe absence of a formal complalnL. ln
conLrasL, publlc prosecuLors cannoL lnlLlaLe prellmlnary
lnvesLlgaLlons absenL any complalnL.
! Lven complalnLs wrlLLen ln scraLch paper can
be Lhe basls for an lnvesLlgaLlon.
! lnvesLlgaLlons may be based on reporLs ln Lhe
medla concernlng acLs of governmenL agencles
and publlc servanLs.
1he Cfflce of Lhe Cmbudsman ls noL a CourL, buL merely an
lnvesLlgaLlve body.
1he Cmbudsman may dlsmlss a complalnL ouLrlghL for wanL of
palpable merlL.

8. Scope of the Cmbudsman
All LhaL ls requlred for Lhe C8 Lo have [urlsdlcLlon ls a
mlsfeasance or malfeasance of a publlc offlcer.
o DCI v. L|wag " Lhe Cmbudsman has prlmary
[urlsdlcLlon over cases cognlzable by Lhe Sandlganbayan
and auLhorlzes hlm Lo Lakeover aL An? S1ACL from
An? lnvesLlgaLory agency Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon of such
cases. 1he Cmbudsman ls whaL you call 8lMA8?
[urlsdlcLlon for cases falllng wlLhln Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of
Lhe Sandlganbayan.
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o Lazat|n v. Des|erto " Lhe Cfflce of Lhe Speclal
rosecuLor, formerly Lhe 1anodbayan, ls merely a
componenL of Lhe Cfflce of Lhe Cmbudsman. lL may
only acL under Lhe supervlslon and conLrol and upon
auLhorlLy of Lhe Cmbudsman. lL cannoL supersede, lL
cannoL superlmpose whaL lL wanLs. lL works under Lhe
Cfflce of Lhe Cmbudsman, lL ls subordlnaLe Lo Lhe
o erez v. Sand|ganbayan " Lhe power Lo prosecuLe
carrles wlLh lL Lhe power Lo auLhorlze Lhe of flllng
lnformaLlons whlch power had noL been delegaLed Lo
Lhe Cfflce of Speclal rosecuLor.
Sect|on 1S of k.A. No. 6770 glves Lhe Cmbudsman prlmary
[urlsdlcLlon over cases cognlzable by Lhe Sandlganbayan. 1he
granL of Lhls auLhorlLy does noL necessarlly lmply Lhe excluslon
from lLs [urlsdlcLlon of cases lnvolvlng publlc offlcers,
employees cognlzable by oLher courLs.

C. Appea||ng dec|s|ons of the Cmbudsman
Pow do you revlew Lhe acLlons of Lhe CM8?
o lf on admlnlsLraLlvr cases, go Lo Lhe CA under 8ule 43
o lf crlmlnal cases and Lhere ls grave abuse of
dlscreLlon amounLlng Lo lack or excess of [urlsdlcLlon,
go Lo Lhe SC under 8ule 63. (AnLonlno v
Whlch declslons of Lhe CM8 ln admln cases are noL
o ubllc censure or reprlmand
o Suspenslon of noL more Lhan 1 monLh
o llne of noL more Lhan 1 monLh salary
lnsLances when Lhe declslon of Lhe Cmbudsman may be
o When necessary Lo afford adequaLe proLecLlon Lo Lhe
consLlLuLlonal rlghL of Lhe accused,
o When Lhe necessary for Lhe orderly admlnlsLraLlon of
[usLlce or Lo avold oppresslon or mulLlpllclLy of acLlons,
o When Lhere ls a pre[udlclal quesLlon LhaL ls sub[udlce,
o When Lhe acLs of Lhe offlcer are w/o or ln excess of
o 1he prosecuLlon ls under an lnvalld law ordlnance or
o When double [eopardy ls clearly apparenL,
o When Lhe courL has no [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe offense,
o Where lL ls a case of persecuLlon raLher Lhan
o When Lhe charges are manlfesLly false 3900 and
moLlvaLed by vengeance, and
o llnally when Lhere ls clearly no prlma facle case agalnsL
Lhe accused.

unza|an v. De|a ena " 1he SecreLary of !usLlce LhaL
exerclses power of ul8LC1 CCn18CL Anu SuL8vlSlCn over
Lhe declslons or resoluLlons of Lhe prosecuLor.
o A publlc prosecuLor, by Lhe naLure of hls offlce, lS
unuL8 nC CCMuLSlCn Lo flle an lnformaLlon, where
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Lhere ls no clear [usLlflcaLlon LhaL Lhere ls a case or
Lhere ls a crlme LhaL was commlLLed.
o 1he uC! has power Lo approve, revlse or modlfy acLs
and declslon of subordlnaLe offlclals or unlLs

k. Who represents the State
ln Lhe 81C and M1C " ubllc rosecuLor
ln Lhe CA and SC " SollclLor Ceneral
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Sect|on 1. Inst|tut|on of cr|m|na| act|ons.
Cr|m|na| act|ons sha|| be |nst|tuted as fo||ows:

(a) Ior offenses where a pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on |s requ|red pursuant
to Sect|on 1 of ku|e 112, by f|||ng the comp|a|nt w|th the proper off|cer
for the purpose of conduct|ng the requ|s|te pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on,

(b) Ior a|| other offenses, by f|||ng the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on
d|rect|y w|th the Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Courts and Mun|c|pa| C|rcu|t 1r|a|
Courts, or the comp|a|nt w|th the off|ce of the prosecutor. In Man||a
and other chartered c|t|es, the comp|a|nt sha|| be f||ed w|th the off|ce
of the prosecutor un|ess otherw|se prov|ded |n the|r charters.

1he |nst|tut|on of the cr|m|na| act|on sha|| |nterrupt the runn|ng of the
per|od of prescr|pt|on of the offense charged un|ess otherw|se
prov|ded |n spec|a| |aws. (1a)

I. Where w||| you |nst|tute act|ons? (aragraph 1 & 2)
lf charLered clLy ! ALWA?S ln Lhe offlce of Lhe prosecuLor
regardless of Lhe gravlLy of Lhe crlme.
lf provlnclal area ! Ll1PL8 ln Lhe offlce of Lhe prosecuLor
(regardless of Lhe gravlLy of Lhe crlme) C8 dlrecLly ln Lhe courL
(only lf Lhe penalLy for Lhe crlme ls below aL leasL 4years,
2monLhs and 1day)
o nC1L: rlor Lo AugusL 2003, Munlclpal 1rlal !udges can
conducL prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon.
" 8efore, 8.. 129 auLhorlzed Mu1C only Lo
recelve complalnLs and conducL prellmlnary
o nC1L: A MeLropollLan 1rlal !udge can never conducL
prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon because Lhey are always
locaLed wlLhln charLered clLles.
II. rescr|pt|on
rescrlpLlon ls lnLerrupLed when:
o lor ordlnary offenses, falllng under Lhe 8evlsed enal
Code, prescrlpLlon ls lnLerrupLed when you flle a
complalnL before Lhe Cfflce of Lhe rosecuLor.
o lor Speclal Laws (because of Act No. 3326), prescrlpLlon
ls lnLerrupLed when you flle ln CourL.
anagu|ton v. DCI
o 1he Supreme CourL sald LhaL prescrlpLlon ls Lolled so
when a complalnL lf flled before Lhe Cfflce of Lhe
rosecuLor. eLlLloner's flllng of hls complalnL-affldavlL
before Lhe offlce of Lhe clLy prosecuLor ln 1993 slgnlfled
Lhe commencemenL of Lhe proceedlngs for Lhe
prosecuLlon of Lhe accused, Lhus effecLlvely lnLerrupLed
Lhe prescrlpLlve perlod of Lhe offenses Lhey have been
charged under 8.. 22.
" Note: Inco v. Sand|ganbayan and San k|o
Company Ltd v. L|m
o 8ullng: Any klnd of lnvesLlgaLlve proceedlng (wheLher
execuLlve or [udlclal) lnsLlLuLed agalnsL Lhe gullLy person
whlch may ulLlmaLely lead Lo hls prosecuLlon should be
sufflclenL Lo Loll prescrlpLlon.
eop|e v. komua|dez
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o k.A. No. 3019 was amended whereby Lhe crlmes
penallzed under lL prescrlbes ln 13 years (lnsLead of Lhe
orlglnal 10 years).
o lor offenses falllng under Lhls law, prescrlpLlon ls Lolled
when Lhe complalnL ls flled before Lhe Cmbudsman.
SLC v. Interport
o 1he CourL ruled LhaL Lhe naLure and purpose of an
lnvesLlgaLlon conducLed by Lhe SLC on vlolaLlon of Lhe
8evlsed SecurlLles AcL - anoLher speclal law - ls
equlvalenL Lo Lhe prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon conducLed
by Lhe uC! ln crlmlnal cases. 1hus, effecLlvely lnLerrupLs
Lhe prescrlpLlve perlod.

Sect|on 2. 1he comp|a|nt or |nformat|on.
1he comp|a|nt or |nformat|on sha|| be |n wr|t|ng, |n the name of the
eop|e of the h|||pp|nes and aga|nst a|| persons who appear to be
respons|b|e for the offense |nvo|ved. (2a)

Sect|on 3. Comp|a|nt def|ned.
A comp|a|nt |s a sworn wr|tten statement charg|ng a person w|th an
offense, subscr|bed by the offended party, any peace off|cer, or other
pub||c off|cer charged w|th the enforcement of the |aw v|o|ated. (3)

I. What |s a comp|a|nt?
A documenL flled elLher ln Lhe Cfflce of Lhe rosecuLor (lf wlLhln
a charLered clLy, or lf ln Lhe provlnce ln case Lhe crlme needs
prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon) or ln Lhe CourL.

Sect|on 4. Informat|on def|ned.
An |nformat|on |s an accusat|on |n wr|t|ng charg|ng a person w|th an
offense, subscr|bed by the prosecutor and f||ed w|th the court. (4a)

I. What |s an |nformat|on?
1he documenL flled ln courL

Sect|on S. Who must prosecute cr|m|na| act|ons.
A|| cr|m|na| act|ons e|ther commenced by comp|a|nt or by |nformat|on
sha|| be prosecuted under the d|rect|on and contro| of a pub||c
prosecutor. In case of heavy work schedu|e of the pub||c prosecutor, or
|n the event of |ack of pub||c prosecutors, the pr|vate prosecutor may
be author|zed |n wr|t|ng by the Ch|ef of the rosecut|on Cff|ce or the
keg|ona| State rosecutor to prosecute the case sub[ect to the
approva| of the court. Cnce so author|zed to prosecute the cr|m|na|
act|on, the pr|vate prosecutor sha|| cont|nue to prosecute the case up
to the end of the tr|a| even |n the absence of a pub||c prosecutor,
un|ess the author|ty |s revoked or otherw|se w|thdrawn. nowever, |n
Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Courts or Mun|c|pa| C|rcu|t 1r|a| Courts when the
prosecutor ass|gned thereto or to the case |s not ava||ab|e, the
offended party, any peace off|cer, or pub||c off|cer charged w|th the
enforcement of the |aw v|o|ated may prosecute the case. 1h|s
author|ty sha|| cease upon actua| |ntervent|on of the prosecutor or
upon e|evat|on of the case to the keg|ona| 1r|a| Court. (As amended by
C|rcu|ar No. 39-02 of the Cff|ce of the Court Adm|n|strator dated Aug.
21, 2002)

1he cr|mes of adu|tery and concub|nage sha|| not be prosecuted
except upon a comp|a|nt f||ed by the offended spouse. 1he offended
party cannot |nst|tute cr|m|na| prosecut|on w|thout |nc|ud|ng the gu||ty
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
part|es, |f both are a||ve, nor, |n any case, |f the offended party has
consented to the offense or pardoned the offenders.

1he offenses of seduct|on, abduct|on and acts of |asc|v|ousness sha||
not be prosecuted except upon a comp|a|nt f||ed by the offended party
or her parents, grandparents or guard|an, nor, |n any case, |f the
offender has been express|y pardoned by any of them. If the offended
party d|es or becomes |ncapac|tated before she can f||e the comp|a|nt,
and she has no known parents, grandparents or guard|an, the State
sha|| |n|t|ate the cr|m|na| act|on |n her beha|f.

1he offended party, even |f a m|nor, has the r|ght to |n|t|ate the
prosecut|on of the offenses of seduct|on, abduct|on and acts of
|asc|v|ousness, |ndependent|y of her parents, grandparents, or
guard|an, un|ess she |s |ncompetent or |ncapab|e of do|ng so. Where
the offended party, who |s a m|nor, fa||s to f||e the comp|a|nt, her
parents, grandparents, or guard|an may f||e the same. 1he r|ght to f||e
the act|on granted to parents, grandparents, or guard|an sha|| be
exc|us|ve of a|| other persons and sha|| be exerc|sed success|ve|y |n the
order here|n prov|ded, except as stated |n the preced|ng paragraph.

No cr|m|na| act|on for defamat|on wh|ch cons|sts |n the |mputat|on of
any of the offenses ment|oned above sha|| be brought except at the
|nstance of and upon comp|a|nt f||ed by the offended party. (Sa)
1he prosecut|on for v|o|at|on of spec|a| |aws sha|| be governed by the
prov|s|ons thereof. (n)

I. Who has contro| |n the conduct of prosecut|on of a cr|m|na| case
1he publlc prosecuLor has conLrol ln Lhe conducL of prosecuLlon
of a crlmlnal case.
o 1he publlc prosecuLor can sLop Lhe prlvaLe prosecuLor
and lnLervene because he ls ln conLrol.
A prlvaLe prosecuLor cannoL proceed wlLh Lhe Lrlal of a case
even ln Lhe absence of Lhe publlc prosecuLor.
o lf Lhe publlc prosecuLor ls absenL, reseL. Powever, you
could obLaln a cerLlflcaLlon from Lhe Chlef of Lhe
rosecuLlon Cfflce or Lhe 8eglonal SaLe rosecuLor or
Lhe 8eglonal rosecuLor Lo allow Lhe prlvaLe prosecuLor
Lo proceed even ln Lhe absence of a publlc prosecuLor. lf
you do noL have Lhe cerLlflcaLlon or auLhorlLy Lo
proceed, lndependenL of Lhe publlc prosecuLor, your
case wlll slmply be rescheduled.

A. Dut|es of a ub||c rosecutor
1. Pe can conducL prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon
2. Pe wlll be ln charge or wlll have conLrol over a prosecuLlon of
Lhe case.
3. Pe can, lf asslgned by Lhe clLy or provlnclal prosecuLor, can
conducL lnquesL proceedlngs.

8. L|m|tat|ons on the rosecutor's exerc|se of power
1he power of Lhe publlc prosecuLor Lo exerclse dlscreLlonary
power ls noL absoluLe and sub[ecL Lo appeal Lo Lhe uC!.
o 1he mode of appeal ls a 8evlew under C|rcu|ar 70 of Lhe
o 1he appeal should be elevaLed Lo Lhe uC! wlLhln 13
days from recelpL of Lhe resoluLlon or denlal of a
MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon.
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
1he CourL of Appeals may revlew of Lhe declslon of Lhe uC!
under ku|e 6S wlLh Lhe premlse LhaL lL was LalnLed wlLh grave
abuse of dlscreLlon amounLlng Lo lack or excess of [urlsdlcLlon
lf Lhe penalLy for Lhe offense ls ueaLh, Llfe lmprlsonmenL, or
8ecluslon erpeLua, you could go up Lo Lhe Cfflce of Lhe
o lf you have a case for grave LhreaLs, you cannoL Lake lL
up Lo Lhe Cfflce of Lhe resldenL.

III. Who can |nst|tute an act|on
rlvaLe Crlme ! only Lhe offended parLy can lnsLlLuLe
o lncludes: adulLery, concublnage, seducLlon, abducLlon,
acLs of lasclvlousness
ubllc Crlme ! anyone can lnsLlLuLe a complalnL
o 1he offended parLy
o A peace offlcer
o A person charged wlLh Lhe enforcemenL of Lhe law
Can a mlnor, on her own, lnsLlLuLe Lhe acLlon? ?LS. 1hls was parL
of Lhe amendmenL on Lhe 8ules of Crlmlnal rocedure because
of so many cases lnvolvlng ascendanLs vlolaLlng chlldren or Lhelr
descendanLs. 1haL ls why Lhe law provlded for a wlndow where
only Lhe mlnor can lnsLlLuLe Lhe acLlon. lf Lhe mlnor ls
lncapaclLaLed, Lhe SLaLe can lnsLlLuLe Lhe acLlon for Lhe mlnor.

Sect|on 6. Suff|c|ency of comp|a|nt or |nformat|on.
A comp|a|nt or |nformat|on |s suff|c|ent |f |t states the name of the
accused, the des|gnat|on of the offense g|ven by the statute, the acts
or om|ss|ons comp|a|ned of as const|tut|ng the offense, the name of
the offended party, the approx|mate date of the comm|ss|on of the
offense, and the p|ace where the offense was comm|tted.

When an offense |s comm|tted by more than one person, a|| of them
sha|| be |nc|uded |n the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on. (6a)

I. kemed|es for Insuff|c|ency of Informat|on
8lll of arLlculars (ku|e 116, Sect|on 9)
MoLlon Lo Cuash ! mosL especlally lf Lhe lnformaLlon does noL
consLlLuLe an offense or Lhe lnformaLlon ls defecLlve.

II. What the Informat|on shou|d conta|n
1. SLaLe Lhe name of Lhe accused (SecLlon 7)
2. 1he deslgnaLlon of Lhe offense glven by Lhe sLaLuLe (SecLlon 8)
3. 1he acLs or omlsslons complalned of as consLlLuLlng Lhe offense
(SecLlon 9)
4. 1he name of Lhe offended parLy (SecLlon 12)
3. 1he approxlmaLe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense (SecLlon
6. 1he place whereln Lhe offense was commlLLed (SecLlon 10)

Sect|on 7. Name of the accused.
1he comp|a|nt or |nformat|on must state the name and surname of the
accused or any appe||at|on or n|ckname by wh|ch he has been or |s
known. If h|s name cannot be ascerta|ned, he must be descr|bed under
a f|ct|t|ous name w|th a statement that h|s true name |s unknown.

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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
If the true name of the accused |s thereafter d|sc|osed by h|m or
appears |n some other manner to the court, such true name sha|| be
|nserted |n the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on and record. (7a)

I. kequ|rement: 1he name of the accused
lf hls name ls known ! full name should be lndlcaLed.
lf hls name ls unknown ! nlckname placed ln Lhe lnformaLlon
o An appellaLlon or nlckname ls sufflclenL (e.g. 8oy
8awang, 8oy 1aga, 8oy SlngklL, use of a.k.a.")
o A sLaLemenL LhaL hls name ls noL known sufflces
o use of !ohn uoe or !ane uoe
II. What |s |mportant |s |dent|f|cat|on
Lven lf Lhe name ls unknown, lf Lhe accused can be ldenLlfled by
descrlpLlon, lL ls consldered sufflclenL.

Sect|on 8. Des|gnat|on of the offense.
1he comp|a|nt or |nformat|on sha|| state the des|gnat|on of the offense
g|ven by the statute, aver the acts or om|ss|ons const|tut|ng the
offense, and spec|fy |ts qua||fy|ng and aggravat|ng c|rcumstances. If
there |s no des|gnat|on of the offense, reference sha|| be made to the
Sect|on or subsect|on of the statute pun|sh|ng |t. (8a)

I. kequ|rement: Acts or Cm|ss|ons Const|tut|ng the Cffense
?ou need Lo glve Lhe facLs and surroundlng clrcumsLances Laklng
lnLo conslderaLlon Lhe elemenLs of Lhe crlme.
AggravaLlng Cenerlc and Cuallfylng clrcumsLances musL be
o 1he exacL wordlng of Lhe law need noL be alleged
nombrecla v. eople ! WhaL deLermlnes Lhe real naLure and
cause of Lhe accusaLlon agalnsL Lhe accused ls Lhe acLual reclLal
of facLs sLaLed ln Lhe lnformaLlon and noL Lhe capLlon or
o So you have Lo look aL Lhe allegaLlon of facLs ln Lhe body
of Lhe lnformaLlon and noL Lhe preamble or capLlon nor
speclflcaLlons of Lhe provlslons of Lhe law alleged Lo
have been vlolaLed.

II. Des|gnat|on by Statute
noL all offenses have deslgnaLlon by sLaLuLe" (e.g. murder)
lf a deslgnaLlon by sLaLuLe ls noL avallable, all you need Lo refer
Lo ls Lhe secLlon or Lhe provlslon of law LhaL makes Lhe acLs an
offense (e.g. vlolaLlon of SecLlon 3(e), 8.A. no. 3019)

Sect|on 9. Cause of the accusat|on.
1he acts or om|ss|ons comp|a|ned of as const|tut|ng the offense and
the qua||fy|ng and aggravat|ng c|rcumstances must be stated |n
ord|nary and conc|se |anguage and not necessar||y |n the |anguage
used |n the statute but |n terms suff|c|ent to enab|e a person of
common understand|ng to know what offense |s be|ng charged as we||
as |ts qua||fy|ng and aggravat|ng c|rcumstances and for the court to
pronounce [udgment. (9a)

I. kequ|rement: Cause of Accusat|on
Cause of AccusaLlon ln Crlmlnal Cases ls Lhe equlvalenL of Cause
of AcLlon ln Clvll Cases.
1he requlremenL of law for Lhls purpose ls Lhe cause should be
ln a language LhaL ls undersLood by Lhe accused, because Lhe
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
same lnformaLlon where Lhe cause of accusaLlon ls alleged wlll
be read Lo Lhe accused durlng Lhe arralgnmenL.
o nC1L: An accused should be presenL Lo be arralgned or
else Lhe case cannoL proceed.
o nC1L: ln crlmlnal cases on envlronmenLal cases, one of
Lhe condlLlons for ball ls LhaL lf you are absenL you
walve Lhe readlng of Lhe lnformaLlon and Lhe CourL may
enLer a plea of noL gullLy."

Sect|on 10. |ace of comm|ss|on of the offense.
1he comp|a|nt or |nformat|on |s suff|c|ent |f |t can be understood from
|ts a||egat|ons that the offense was comm|tted or some of |ts essent|a|
|ngred|ents occurred at some p|ace w|th|n the [ur|sd|ct|on of the court,
un|ess the part|cu|ar p|ace where |t was comm|tted const|tutes an
essent|a| e|ement of the offense charged or |s necessary for |ts
|dent|f|cat|on. (10a)

I. kequ|rement: |ace of the Comm|ss|on of the Cffense
1he exacL address where Lhe crlme was commlLLed ls noL
necessary. An approxlmaLlon or a sLaLemenL LhaL Lhe crlme was
commlLLed wlLhln Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe clLy/provlnce would
unLLSS Lhe place of Lhe commlsslon ls a maLerlal elemenL of Lhe
o Lxample: vlolaLlon of uomlclle, 1respass Lo uwelllng

Sect|on 11. Date of comm|ss|on of the offense.
It |s not necessary to state |n the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on the prec|se
date the offense was comm|tted except when |t |s a mater|a|
|ngred|ent of the offense. 1he offense may be a||eged to have been
comm|tted on a date as near as poss|b|e to the actua| date of |ts
comm|ss|on. (11a)

I. kequ|rement: Date of Comm|ss|on
o SomeLlme ln Lhe monLh of Aprll of 1998
o Cn or abouL May 1998
o Cn or abouL 2004 ! noL accepLable because Lhe
posslblllLles are so huge. 1here should be some
1he exacL daLe of commlsslon of Lhe offense ls necessary ln Lhe
lnformaLlon only when lL ls a maLerlal elemenL of Lhe offense.
o 1he Ceneral 8ule ls LhaL whaL Lhe law requlres ls slmply
an approxlmaLlon of Lhe daLe of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
o Lxamples: lnfanLlclde, LlecLlon Cffenses

Sect|on 12. Name of the offended party.
1he comp|a|nt or |nformat|on must state the name and surname of the
person aga|nst whom or aga|nst whose property the offense was
comm|tted, or any appe||at|on or n|ckname by wh|ch such person has
been or |s known. If there |s no better way of |dent|fy|ng h|m, he must
be descr|bed under a f|ct|t|ous name.

(a) In offenses aga|nst property, |f the name of the offended party |s
unknown, the property must be descr|bed w|th such part|cu|ar|ty as to
proper|y |dent|fy the offense charged.
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
(b) If the true name of the person aga|nst whom or aga|nst whose
property the offense was comm|tted |s thereafter d|sc|osed or
ascerta|ned, the court must cause such true name to be |nserted |n the
comp|a|nt or |nformat|on and the record.

(c) If the offended party |s a [ur|d|ca| person, |t |s suff|c|ent to state |ts
name, or any name or des|gnat|on by wh|ch |t |s known or by wh|ch |t
may be |dent|f|ed, w|thout need of averr|ng that |t |s a [ur|d|ca| person
or that |t |s organ|zed |n accordance w|th |aw. (12a)

I. kequ|rement: Name of the Cffended art ! Not Ind|spensab|e
8ecause Lhere are crlmes where Lhe offended parLles cannoL be
ldenLlfled (e.g. homlclde case where Lhe body was found, buL
cannoL be ldenLlfled)
AlLhough, accordlng Lo Lduardo 8lcarse v. CA, lf Lhe crlme ls
agalnsL properLy and Lhe offended parLy cannoL be ldenLlfled,
Lhe properLy LhaL was vlolaLed musL be descrlbed.

Sect|on 13. Dup||c|ty of the offense.
A comp|a|nt or |nformat|on must charge on|y one offense, except
when the |aw prescr|bes a s|ng|e pun|shment for var|ous offenses.

I. Genera| ku|e: Cne |nformat|on, Cne offense
ConLrasL: ln clvll cases, ku|e 2, Sect|on S allows for a [olnder of
causes of acLlon so long as Lhe followlng rules are meL:
o ?ou cannoL [oln Lhose covered by Speclal 8ules l.e. a
speclal proceedlng and an ordlnary clvll acLlon (e.g.
adopLlon and sum of money)
o ?ou can [oln mulLlple parLles ln cases of mulLlple causes
of acLlon. ku|e 3, Sect|on 6 provldes LhaL lf Lhere ls
more Lhan one parLy ln one slde, lL should arlse from
Lhe same LransacLlon or serles of LransacLlons. ln such
case, Lhe parLles can be [olned [olnLly severally or ln Lhe
o 1oLallLy 8ule or sum of all Lhe clalms (e.g. lf all Lhe
clalms are clalms for sums of money, Lhey can be [olned

II. Lxcept|on: 1here |s a s|ng|e pun|shment for var|ous offenses

III. Lxcept|on: If there |s more than one offense |n one |nformat|on,
and a|| of them are estab||shed and proven, and there was no
ob[ect|on on the part of the accused, the Court can render [udgment
aga|nst the accused |n a|| of the offenses.

Sect|on 14. Amendment or subst|tut|on.
A comp|a|nt or |nformat|on may be amended, |n form or |n substance,
w|thout |eave of court, at any t|me before the accused enters h|s p|ea.
After the p|ea and dur|ng the tr|a|, a forma| amendment may on|y be
made w|th |eave of court and when |t can be done w|thout caus|ng
pre[ud|ce to the r|ghts of the accused.

nowever, any amendment before p|ea, wh|ch downgrades the nature
of the offense charged |n or exc|udes any accused from the comp|a|nt
or |nformat|on, can be made on|y upon mot|on by the prosecutor, w|th
not|ce to the offended party and w|th |eave of court. 1he court sha||
state |ts reasons |n reso|v|ng the mot|on and cop|es of |ts order sha||
be furn|shed a|| part|es, espec|a||y the offended party. (n)
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
If |t appears at any t|me before [udgment that a m|stake has been
made |n charg|ng the proper offense, the court sha|| d|sm|ss the
or|g|na| comp|a|nt or |nformat|on upon the f|||ng of a new one
charg|ng the proper offense |n accordance w|th Sect|on 19, ku|e 119,
prov|ded the accused sha|| not be p|aced |n doub|e [eopardy. 1he court
may requ|re the w|tnesses to g|ve ba|| for the|r appearance at the tr|a|.

I. keference o|nt:
ln crlmlnal cases: lea
o 8efore Lhe plea ls enLered, amendmenL as Lo form and
subsLance can be made.
" Lxample: correcLlng age
o AfLer Lhe plea ls enLered, only amendmenLs relaLlng Lo
form can be made.
" Lxample: lndlcaLlng lnsanlLy ! Lhey courL may
sLlll allow, buL ordlnarlly Lhe courL wlll noL
ln clvll cases: Answer

II. 1est of Whether |t |s a Substant|a| or Iorma| Amendment
A. Def|n|t|on
SubsLanLlal AmendmenL ! conslsLs of Lhe reclLal of facLs
consLlLuLlng Lhe offense charged and deLermlnaLlve of Lhe
[urlsdlcLlon of Lhe courL.
lormal AmendmenL ! CLher maLLers

8. Lxamp|es of Iorma| Amendments
1here ls a new allegaLlon LhaL relaLes only Lo Lhe range of
penalLy LhaL Lhe courL mlghL lmpose ln Lhe course of Lhe
convlcLlon. So lL's [usL Lhe range. lL dld noL change Lhe
lmposable penalLy buL merely Lhe range.
An amendmenL LhaL does noL charge anoLher offense dlfferenL
or dlsLlncL from LhaL charge ln Lhe orlglnal one.
AddlLlonal allegaLlons LhaL do noL alLer Lhe prosecuLlon's Lheory
and wlll noL surprlse Lhe accused.
An amendmenL whlch does noL adversely affecL any subsLanLlal
rlghL of Lhe accused and
An amendmenL LhaL merely adds speclflcaLlons Lo ellmlnaLe
vagueness of Lhe lnformaLlon.

C. 1est
8lcarse v. CA ! Lhe LesL as Lo wheLher a defendanL ls pre[udlced
by Lhe amendmenL, ls wheLher or noL Lhe defense avallable ln
Lhe orlglnal lnformaLlon ls sLlll avallable afLer Lhe amendmenL. lf
Lhe answer ls yes, lL ls only a formal amendmenL LhaL wlll noL
pre[udlce Lhe rlghLs of Lhe accused.

III. Can the Court order an amendment w|thout a mot|on to amend?
ln conLrasL: ln clvll cases, Lhe CourL can order an amendmenL
even wlLhouL a moLlon Lo amend or noLlce Lo amend under ku|e
under ku|e 117, lf Lhere ls a MoLlon Lo Cuash, Lhe CourL can -
lnsLead of dlsmlsslng Lhe complalnL - order Lhe amendmenL.
o Cnly when you fall Lo amend wlll Lhe CourL order Lhe
dlsmlssal of Lhe case.
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
o lnsLances:
" 1. lf Lhere ls a moLlon for 8lll of arLlculars,
lnsLead of denylng or granLlng lL Lhe courL can
order an amendmenL
" 2. When Lhere ls a MoLlon Lo ulsmlss under 8ule
16, Lhe CourL may elLher granL, deny, or order
an amendmenL

IV. ku|e 110, Sect|on 14: Lxc|us|on
A. Def|n|t|on
lL means you exclude an accused from Lhe lnformaLlon even
before an accused pleads.
A moLlon Lo exclude, Lo be allowed, should be flled before Lhe
plea ls made.
uouble !eopardy does noL aLLach when an accused ls excluded
from Lhe lnformaLlon.
o lor double [eopardy Lo aLLach, Lhere should be a courL
of compeLenL [urlsdlcLlon, Lhere should be a complalnL
or lnformaLlon, Lhere ls a valld plea and Lhere ls
convlcLlon, acqulLLal or dlsmlssal wlLhouL Lhe express
consenL of Lhe accused.

8. Methods
1he prosecuLlon moves for lL
WlLh noLlce Lo Lhe offended parLy
WlLh leave of courL

V. Downgrad|ng the Cffense
A moLlon Lo downgrade Lhe offense (e.g. Murder Lo Pomlclde,
ALLempLed homlclde Lo serlous physlcal ln[urles. Cuallfled LhefL
Lo slmple LhefL) should be made before plea.

VI. D|scharge as State W|tness v. D|scharge from the W|tness
rotect|on rogram
A. kequ|s|tes:
1. 1here ls no dlrecL evldence.
2. 1here ls absoluLe necesslLy of Lhe evldence.
3. lL could be corroboraLed ln lLs maLerlal polnLs.
4. 1he accused appears Lo be noL Lhe mosL gullLy.
3. Pe hasn'L been convlcLed of a crlme lnvolvlng moral LurplLude.
noLe: 1he requlslLes for boLh dlscharges are Lhe same, only Lhe
procedure ls dlfferenL.

8. ku|e 119, Sect|on 17: D|scharge as State W|tness
When an accused ls dlscharged, and assumlng Lhere ls a valld
dlscharge, double [eopardy aLLaches.
8ecause when you Lalk of Lhe dlscharge of Lhe accused as a
SLaLe WlLness, under ku|e 119, he should be arralgned alLhough
he needs Lo flle an affldaLvlL, he should be arralgned. And Lhe
effecL of a valld dlscharge as a SLaLe WlLness ls an acqulLLal.

C. D|scharge from the W|tness rotect|on rogram
uouble !eopardy does noL aLLache because Lhls ls applled before
Lhe plea.
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
ulscharge under Lhe W ls applled before Lhe uC!, and
approved by Lhe SecreLary and endorsed Lo Lhe clLy or provlnclal

VII. Subst|tut|on of Informat|on
When Lhe prosecuLlon ls convlnced LhaL lL would noL be able Lo
convlcL or Lo cause Lhe convlcLlon of Lhe accused, Lhe
prosecuLlon can cause Lhe subsLlLuLlon of lnformaLlon.

Sect|on 1S. |ace where act|on |s to be |nst|tuted.
(a) Sub[ect to ex|st|ng |aws, the cr|m|na| act|on sha|| be |nst|tuted and
tr|ed |n the court of the mun|c|pa||ty or terr|tory where the offense
was comm|tted or where any of |ts essent|a| |ngred|ents occurred.

(b) Where an offense |s comm|tted |n a tra|n, a|rcraft, or other pub||c
or pr|vate veh|c|e |n the course of |ts tr|p, the cr|m|na| act|on sha|| be
|nst|tuted and tr|ed |n the court of any mun|c|pa||ty or terr|tory where
such tra|n, a|rcraft, or other veh|c|e passed dur|ng |ts tr|p, |nc|ud|ng the
p|ace of |ts departure and arr|va|.

(c) Where an offense |s comm|tted on board a vesse| |n the course of
|ts voyage, the cr|m|na| act|on sha|| be |nst|tuted and tr|ed |n the court
of the f|rst port of entry or of any mun|c|pa||ty or terr|tory where the
vesse| passed dur|ng such voyage, sub[ect to the genera||y accepted
pr|nc|p|es of |nternat|ona| |aw.

(d) Cr|mes comm|tted outs|de the h|||pp|nes but pun|shab|e under
Art|c|e 2 of the kev|sed ena| Code sha|| be cogn|zab|e by the court
where the cr|m|na| act|on |s f|rst f||ed. (1Sa)

I. Genera| ku|e: Venue |s Iur|sd|ct|ona|
Ceneral 8ule: 1he place of Lhe commlsslon ls Lhe place where
Lhe acLlon wlll be lnsLlLuLed.

II. Lxcept|ons
Art|c|e 2, kC ! 1here ls forgery, or lllegal reproducLlon of
hlllpplne bank noLes and securlLles, Lhough Lhe crlme be
commlLLed ouLslde of Lhe hlllpplnes, can you be prosecuLed ln
Lhe hlllpplnes ln any 81C LhaL flrsL Lakes cognlzance of Lhe
case? ?es.
numan Secur|ty Law, Sect|on S7 ! AcLs of 1errorlsm. Maybe
rebelllon, acLs of Lerrorlsm coupled wlLh rebelllon, murder,
homlclde, sedlLlon and coup d'eLaL Lhough commlLLed ouLslde
of Lhe hlllpplnes, lL could be lnsLlLuLed and prosecuLed ln Lhe
A crlme agalnsL Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe hlllpplnes.
A crlme or offense commlLLed agalnsL llllplno clLlzens or
dlrecLed Lo Lhe llllplnos or a parLlcular eLhnlc group-Lhough
commlLLed ouLslde of Lhe hlllpplnes could be prosecuLed here
ln Lhe hlllpplnes.
An offense commlLLed agalnsL ulplomaLlc offlcers, or offenses
commlLLed w/ln dlplomaLlc premlses of Lhe hlllpplnes, Lhough
commlLLed ouLslde of Lhe hlllpplnes, could lL be prosecuLed ln
Lhe hlllpplnes.
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
nC1L: 8uL of course Lhe sLandard provlslons you wlll have Lo
know. lf Lhe alrcrafL of a moLor vehlcle ls ln LranslL, from Lhe
polnL of deparLure, Lo Lhe polnL of desLlnaLlon. When you Lalk of
vessel, from Lhe porL of flrsL enLry or any porLs LhaL Lhey may
have Lo pass Lhrough.

Sect|on 16. Intervent|on of the offended party |n cr|m|na| act|on.
Where the c|v|| act|on for recovery of c|v|| ||ab|||ty |s |nst|tuted |n the
cr|m|na| act|on pursuant to ku|e 111, the offended party may
|ntervene by counse| |n the prosecut|on of the offense. (16a)

I. Intervent|on, Def|n|t|on
When a prlvaLe prosecuLor enLers hls appearance for Lhe clvll
llablllLy of Lhe offended parLy, LhaL ls Lhe concepL of
lnLervenLlon ln a crlmlnal case.

II. Can you f||e a mot|on for |ntervent|on |n the CA]SC?
Crlglnal cases LhaL can be flled ln Lhe CA/SC: cerLlorarl,
prohlblLum, mandamus, quo warranLo, wrlL of amparo, habeas
daLa, and habeas corpus on cusLody of mlnors.
A moLlon for lnLervenLlon can be flled ln Lhe CA or SC, buL only
sub[ecL Lo Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe appellaLe courL.
o 1here ls noL provlslon of law allowlng onwe Lo flle a
moLlon for lnLervenLlon, and for Lhls reason, you wlll
have Lo seek Leave Cf CourL.
ku|e 19 ! provldes LhaL a moLlon of lnLervenLlon can be flled ln
clvll cases before Lrlal courLs.
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?

Sect|on 1. Inst|tut|on of cr|m|na| and c|v|| act|ons.
(a) When a cr|m|na| act|on |s |nst|tuted, the c|v|| act|on for the
recovery of c|v|| ||ab|||ty ar|s|ng from the offense charged sha|| be
deemed |nst|tuted w|th the cr|m|na| act|on un|ess the offended party
wa|ves the c|v|| act|on, reserves the r|ght to |nst|tute |t separate|y or
|nst|tutes the c|v|| act|on pr|or to the cr|m|na| act|on.

1he reservat|on of the r|ght to |nst|tute separate|y the c|v|| act|on sha||
be made before the prosecut|on starts present|ng |ts ev|dence and
under c|rcumstances afford|ng the offended party a reasonab|e
opportun|ty to make such reservat|on.

When the offended party seeks to enforce c|v|| ||ab|||ty aga|nst the
accused by way of mora|, nom|na|, temperate, or exemp|ary damages
w|thout spec|fy|ng the amount thereof |n the comp|a|nt or
|nformat|on, the f|||ng fees therefor sha|| const|tute a f|rst ||en on the
[udgment award|ng such damages.

Where the amount of damages, other than actua|, |s spec|f|ed |n the
comp|a|nt or |nformat|on, the correspond|ng f|||ng fees sha|| be pa|d by
the offended party upon the f|||ng thereof |n court.

Lxcept as otherw|se prov|ded |n these ku|es, no f|||ng fees sha|| be
requ|red for actua| damages.

No counterc|a|m, cross-c|a|m or th|rd-party comp|a|nt may be f||ed by
the accused |n the cr|m|na| case, but any cause of act|on wh|ch cou|d
have been the sub[ect thereof may be ||t|gated |n a separate c|v||
act|on. (1a)

(b) 1he cr|m|na| act|on for v|o|at|on of 8atas ambansa 8|g. 22 sha|| be
deemed to |nc|ude the correspond|ng c|v|| act|on. No reservat|on to
f||e such c|v|| act|on separate|y sha|| be a||owed.

Upon f|||ng of the aforesa|d [o|nt cr|m|na| and c|v|| act|ons, the
offended party sha|| pay |n fu|| the f|||ng fees based on the amount of
the check |nvo|ved, wh|ch sha|| be cons|dered as the actua| damages
c|a|med. Where the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on a|so seeks to recover
||qu|dated, mora|, nom|na|, temperate or exemp|ary damages, the
offended party sha|| pay add|t|ona| f|||ng fees based on the amounts
a||eged there|n. If the amounts are not so a||eged but any of these
damages are subsequent|y awarded by the court, the f|||ng fees based
on the amount awarded sha|| const|tute a f|rst ||en on the [udgment.

Where the c|v|| act|on has been f||ed separate|y and tr|a| thereof has
not yet commenced, |t may be conso||dated w|th the cr|m|na| act|on
upon app||cat|on w|th the court try|ng the |atter case. If the
app||cat|on |s granted, the tr|a| of both act|ons sha|| proceed |n
accordance w|th Sect|on 2 of th|s ku|e govern|ng conso||dat|on of the
c|v|| and cr|m|na| act|ons. (C|r. S7-97)

I. Inst|tut|on of Cr|m|na| and C|v|| Act|ons
Genera| ku|e: Cnce a crlmlnal acLlon ls lnsLlLuLed, Lhe clvll
acLlon ls llkewlse lnsLlLuLed.
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
o 1he Clvll AcLlon ls reserved
o 1he Clvll AcLlon ls walved
o 1he Clvll AcLlon ls lnsLlLuLed ahead of Lhe crlmlnal case
o 1he Clvll AcLlon ls an lndependenL one (Sect|on 3)

II. keservat|on of C|v|| Act|on ar|s|ng from de||ct
8eservaLlon should be done aL any Llme before Lhe prosecuLlon
commences wlLh Lhe presenLaLlon of lLs evldence and affordlng
Lhe prlvaLe offended parLy Lo properly reserve.
o 8elaLed reservaLlon may be allowed by Lhe CourL, Laklng
lnLo conslderaLlon Lhe clrcumsLances of Lhe case.
(Sect|on 2) A clvll acLlon LhaL has been valldly reserved cannoL
proceed unLll afLer flnal [udgmenL of Lhe crlmlnal case.
o Some persons Lend Lo reserve because [udges ln
crlmlnal cases are heslLanL Lo award damages of huge

III. ku|e on C|v|| L|ab|||ty NC1 ar|s|ng from the Cr|me
?ou cannoL flle a counLer-clalm, cross-clalm, Lhlrd-parLy
complalnL ln a crlmlnal case.
DWn v. CA ! aslde from Lhe Sandlganbayan case, Lhe prlvaLe
conLrLacLors lnsLlLuLed an acLlon for recovery of sum of money
agalnsL Lhe CovernmenL Lhere was a move Lo consolldaLe Lhe
Sandlganbayan case and Lhe acLlon for recovery of sum of
money from Lhe governmenL. 1he Supreme CourL sald you
CAnnC1 consolldaLe. llrsL, Lhe Sandlganbayan has no
[urlsdlcLlon for recovery of sum of money and Lo allow
consolldaLlon would amounL ln allowlng a counLer- clalm, cross-
clalm ln a crlmlnal case.

IV. ku|e on I|||ng Iees
llllng fees ls [urlsdlcLlonal.
lor ordlnary crlmes: llllng lees are requlred only for clalms
oLher Lhan acLual damages (e.g. moral, nomlnal, exemplary,
LemperaLe). llllng fees are noL requlred Lo be pald for acLual
lor 8.. 22 cases: llllng fees need Lo be pald for all damage
clalms lncludlng acLual damages.

V. 8atas ambansa 8|g. 22
8.. 22 ls under summary procedure whlch dlffers from ordlnary
because Lhere ls no dlrecL examlnaLlon buL merely submlsslon
of [udlclal affldavlLs sub[ecL Lo cross-examlnaLlon. Cn summary
procedure, unllke ordlnary procedure, once Lhe lnformaLlon ls
flled Lhe CourL need noL lssue a warranL of arresL. A warranL of
arresL wlll be lssued only lf afLer repeaLed demands, you sLlll fall
Lo appear ln CourL.
?ou cannoL reserve Lhe clvll aspecL of 8.. 22.
o lf Lhe clvll aspecL ls lnsLlLuLed prlor Lo Lhe crlmlnal case,
Lhe former wlll be suspended or consolldaLed wlLh Lhe
crlmlnal case.

VI. Cther |nstances of conso||dat|on w|th the cr|m|na| case
Can a peLlLlon for a wrlL of amparo be consolldaLe wlLh a
crlmlnal case? lf lL lnvolves Lhe same vlolaLlon or LhreaLened
vlolaLlon: ?LS lL can be consolldaLed!
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
Can a clvll case be consolldaLed wlLh a peLlLlon for a wrlL of
amparo? nC.
Can a peLlLlon for a wrlL of amparo be consolldaLed wlLh an
admlnlsLraLlve case? 1he answer ls nC.

Sect|on 2. When separate c|v|| act|on |s suspended.
After the cr|m|na| act|on has been commenced, the separate c|v||
act|on ar|s|ng therefrom cannot be |nst|tuted unt|| f|na| [udgment has
been entered |n the cr|m|na| act|on.

If the cr|m|na| act|on |s f||ed after the sa|d c|v|| act|on has a|ready been
|nst|tuted, the |atter sha|| be suspended |n whatever stage |t may be
found before [udgment on the mer|ts. 1he suspens|on sha|| |ast unt||
f|na| [udgment |s rendered |n the cr|m|na| act|on. Neverthe|ess, before
[udgment on the mer|ts |s rendered |n the c|v|| act|on, the same may,
upon mot|on of the offended party, be conso||dated w|th the cr|m|na|
act|on |n the court try|ng the cr|m|na| act|on. In case of conso||dat|on,
the ev|dence a|ready adduced |n the c|v|| act|on sha|| be deemed
automat|ca||y reproduced |n the cr|m|na| act|on w|thout pre[ud|ce to
the r|ght of the prosecut|on to cross-exam|ne the w|tnesses presented
by the offended party |n the cr|m|na| case and of the part|es to present
add|t|ona| ev|dence. 1he conso||dated cr|m|na| and c|v|| act|ons sha||
be tr|ed and dec|ded [o|nt|y.
Dur|ng the pendency of the cr|m|na| act|on, the runn|ng of the per|od
of prescr|pt|on of the c|v|| act|on wh|ch cannot be |nst|tuted separate|y
or whose proceed|ng has been suspended sha|| be to||ed. (n)

1he ext|nct|on of the pena| act|on does not carry w|th |t ext|nct|on of
the c|v|| act|on. nowever, the c|v|| act|on based on de||ct sha|| be
deemed ext|ngu|shed |f there |s a f|nd|ng |n a f|na| [udgment |n the
cr|m|na| act|on that the act or om|ss|on from wh|ch the c|v|| ||ab|||ty
may ar|se d|d not ex|st. (2a)

I. Lffect of Acqu|tta|
AcqulLLal wlll noL bar Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of a clvll acLlon ln Lhe
followlng lnsLances:
1. 1he acqulLLal ls based on reasonable doubL, as only
preponderance of evldence ls requlred ln clvll cases,
2. Where Lhe courL declared LhaL Lhe accused's llablllLy ls noL
crlmlnal buL only clvll - LhaL's Lhe declaraLlon of Lhe courL, noL
crlmlnal, only clvll, and
3. Where Lhe clvll llablllLy does noL arlse or ls noL based upon Lhe
crlmlnal acL of whlch accused was acqulLLed.

II. Conso||dat|on
ueflnlLlon: 1wo cases are made lnLo one
o Marrlage of Lwo cases - ALLy. Salvador
1he Crlmlnal Case survlves wlLh Lhe opLlon Lo consolldaLe.
o ln Lhls case, Lhe courL Lrylng Lhe consolldaLed case may
render [udgmenL on boLh Lhe crlmlnal and clvll aspecL.

Sect|on 3. When c|v|| act|on may proceed |ndependent|y.
In the cases prov|ded |n Art|c|es 32, 33, 34 and 2176 of the C|v|| Code
of the h|||pp|nes, the |ndependent c|v|| act|on may be brought by the
offended party. It sha|| proceed |ndependent|y of the cr|m|na| act|on
and sha|| requ|re on|y a preponderance of ev|dence. In no case,
however, may the offended party recover damages tw|ce for the same
act or om|ss|on charged |n the cr|m|na| act|on. (3a)
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
I. C|v|| Act|ons that do not requ|re reservat|on
Clvll AcLlons arlslng from Art|c|es 32, 33, 34 and 2176 of the
C|v|| Code.

Sect|on 4. Lffect of death on c|v|| act|ons.
1he death of the accused after arra|gnment and dur|ng the pendency
of the cr|m|na| act|on sha|| ext|ngu|sh the c|v|| ||ab|||ty ar|s|ng from the
de||ct. nowever, the |ndependent c|v|| act|on |nst|tuted under Sect|on
3 of th|s ku|e or wh|ch thereafter |s |nst|tuted to enforce ||ab|||ty
ar|s|ng from other sources of ob||gat|on may be cont|nued aga|nst the
estate or |ega| representat|ve of the accused after proper subst|tut|on
or aga|nst sa|d estate, as the case may be. 1he he|rs of the accused
may be subst|tuted for the deceased w|thout requ|r|ng the
appo|ntment of an executor or adm|n|strator and the court may
appo|nt a guard|an ad ||tem for the m|nor he|rs.

1he court sha|| forthw|th order sa|d |ega| representat|ve or
representat|ves to appear and be subst|tuted w|th|n a per|od of th|rty
(30) days from not|ce.

A f|na| [udgment entered |n favor of the offended party sha|| be
enforced |n the manner espec|a||y prov|ded |n these ru|es for
prosecut|ng c|a|ms aga|nst the estate of the deceased.

If the accused d|es before arra|gnment, the case sha|| be d|sm|ssed
w|thout pre[ud|ce to any c|v|| act|on the offended party may f||e
aga|nst the estate of the deceased. (n)

I. When the accused d|es
AfLer arralgnmenL ! Genera| ku|e: 1he crlmlnal case and Lhe
clvll case arlslng from Lhe dellcL are exLlngulshed.
o Lxcept|on: A clvll case arlslng from oLher sources of
obllgaLlon" may sLlll be lnsLlLuLed C8 lf Lhe clvll case was
lnsLlLuLed prlor Lo Lhe crlmlnal case.
8efore arralgnmenL ! 1he clvll case (lndependenL clvll acLlons
under Sect|on 3) can proceed agalnsL Lhe esLaLe, regardless of
wheLher Lhe clvll acLlon arlses from dellcL or oLher sources of
o lf Lhe case has noL been flled, you can flle a clvll case.

II. Subst|tut|on of the deceased accused (ku|e 3, Sect|on 16)
lf Lhe accused dles and an lndependenL clvll acLlon ls lnsLlLuLed,
Lhe deceased can be subsLlLuLed by a legal represenLaLlve.
o 1he clvll acLlon lnvolved here should noL arlse from
dellcL buL raLher from oLher sources of obllgaLlon llke
law, conLracL, quasl-dellcL or quasl-conLracL.

Sect|on S. Iudgment |n c|v|| act|on not a bar.
A f|na| [udgment rendered |n a c|v|| act|on abso|v|ng the defendant
from c|v|| ||ab|||ty |s not a bar to a cr|m|na| act|on aga|nst the
defendant for the same act or om|ss|on sub[ect of the c|v|| act|on. (4a)

Sect|on 6. Suspens|on by reason of pre[ud|c|a| quest|on.
A pet|t|on for suspens|on of the cr|m|na| act|on based upon the
pendency of a pre[ud|c|a| quest|on |n a c|v|| act|on may be f||ed |n the
off|ce of the prosecutor or the court conduct|ng the pre||m|nary
|nvest|gat|on. When the cr|m|na| act|on has been f||ed |n court for tr|a|,
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
the pet|t|on to suspend sha|| be f||ed |n the same cr|m|na| act|on at any
t|me before the prosecut|on rests. (6a)

I. 1wo Cpportun|t|es to I||e the Mot|on for Suspens|on 8y keason of a
re[ud|c|a| uest|on
1. 8efore Lhe prosecuLor conducLlng prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon
2. 8efore Lhe CourL before Lhe prosecuLlon resLs lLs case or before
Lhe prosecuLlon flnlshes presenLlng lLs evldence.

II. When and where you can f||e a suspens|on on the ground of
pre[ud|c|a| quest|on
lf Lhe case ls sLlll under prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon ! Cfflce of Lhe
rosecuLor or Lhe CourL conducLlng Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon.
o When: AnyLlme durlng Lhe pendency of Lhe prellmlnary
lf Lhe lnformaLlon has already been flled ln Lhe courL ! 1he
courL where Lhe crlmlnal case ls belng Lrled.
o When: 8efore Lhe prosecuLlon resLs l.e. before Lhe
formal offer of evldence.
o 1he formal offer of evldence ls when Lhe prosecuLlon ls
done presenLlng lLs evldence and wlLnesses, and Lhe
nexL sLage ls when Lhe accused presenLs hls evldence.

Sect|on 7. L|ements of pre[ud|c|a| quest|on.
1he e|ements of a pre[ud|c|a| quest|on are: (a) the prev|ous|y
|nst|tuted c|v|| act|on |nvo|ves an |ssue s|m||ar or |nt|mate|y re|ated to
the |ssue ra|sed |n the subsequent cr|m|na| act|on, and (b) the
reso|ut|on of such |ssue determ|nes whether or not the cr|m|na| act|on
may proceed. (Sa)
I. L|ements of re[ud|c|a| uest|on
1. 1he Clvll Case should have been flled 8LlC8L Lhe Crlmlnal Case
and Lhe facLs of boLh are lnLlmaLely relaLed.
a. Case 1 - re[udlclal CuesLlon: 1here was a clvll case flled
clalmlng LhaL Lhe encumbrance on Lhe properLy was
falslfled. Whlle Lhls case was pendlng, Lhe properLy was
sold resulLlng lnLo a crlmlnal case.
b. Case 2 - no re[udlclal CuesLlon: A clvll case was flled
for unconsclounable lnLeresL. 8.. 22 case was
subsequenLly flled slnce Lhe defendanL refused Lo pay
Lhe lnLeresL.
2. 1he Clvll Case ls deLermlnaLlve of Lhe gullLy or lnnocence of Lhe
accused ln Lhe Crlmlnal Case
a. Case 1 - re[udlclal CuesLlon: 1he clvll acLlon LhaL alms
Lo deLermlne wheLher or noL Lhe encumbrance was
genulne or false ls deLermlnaLlve of wheLher Lhere ls
even a crlmlnal case of selllng encumbered properLy.
b. Case 2 - no re[udlclal CuesLlon: 8.. 22 only seeks Lo
deLermlne wheLher or noL you lssued a check wlLh
lnsufflclenL funds.
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?

Sect|on 1. re||m|nary |nvest|gat|on def|ned, when requ|red.
re||m|nary |nvest|gat|on |s an |nqu|ry or proceed|ng to determ|ne
whether there |s suff|c|ent ground to engender a we||-founded be||ef
that a cr|me has been comm|tted and the respondent |s probab|y
gu||ty thereof, and shou|d be he|d for tr|a|.

Lxcept as prov|ded |n Sect|on 6 of th|s ku|e, a pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on
|s requ|red to be conducted before the f|||ng of a comp|a|nt or
|nformat|on for an offense where the pena|ty prescr|bed by |aw |s at
|east four (4) years, two (2) months and one (1) day w|thout regard to
the f|ne. (1a) (As amended by SC keso|ut|on A.M. No. 0S-8-26-SC,
August 30, 200S)

I. When re||m|nary Invest|gat|on |s requ|red
Wlll all cases ln Lhe M1C go Lhrough prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon?
Cnly cases whereln Lhe penalLy ls aL leasL 4 years, 2 mmonLhs
and 1 day Lo noL exceedlng 6 years.

II. Where the Case for re||m|nary Invest|gat|on |s f||ed
nC1L: 1hls ls appllcable Lo boLh Crdlnary roceedlngs and Lhose falllng
under Summary rocedure.
WlLhln charLered clLles ! Always ln Lhe Cfflce of Lhe rosecuLor
CuLslde charLered clLles/provlnces ! LlLher before Lhe offlce of
Lhe provlnclal prosecuLor or before Munlclpal Lrlal courL on a
dlrecL flllng.

III. When re||m|nary Invest|gat|on |s |n|t|ated
ln case of complalnLs flled ! rellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon ls
lnlLlaLed by Lhe affldavlL-complalnL
ln case of warranLless arresLs ! rellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon (ln
Lhe form of lnquesL) ls lnlLlaLed by Lhe affldavlL of Lhe arresLlng

Sect|on 2. Cff|cers author|zed to conduct pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on.
1he fo||ow|ng may conduct a pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on:

(a) rov|nc|a| or c|ty prosecutors and the|r ass|stants,

(b) Nat|ona| and keg|ona| State rosecutors, and

(c) Cther off|cers as may be author|zed by |aw.

1he|r author|ty to conduct pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|ons sha|| |nc|ude a||
cr|mes cogn|zab|e by the proper court |n the|r respect|ve terr|tor|a|
[ur|sd|ct|ons. (2a) (As amended by SC keso|ut|on A.M. No. 0S-8-26-SC,
August 30, 200S)

Sect|on 3. rocedure.
1he pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on sha|| be conducted |n the fo||ow|ng

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(a) 1he comp|a|nt sha|| state the address of the respondent and sha||
be accompan|ed by aff|dav|ts of the comp|a|nant and h|s w|tnesses, as
we|| as other support|ng documents to estab||sh probab|e cause. 1hey
sha|| be |n such number of cop|es as there are respondents, p|us two
(2) cop|es for the off|c|a| f||e. 1he aff|dav|ts sha|| be subscr|bed and
sworn to before any prosecutor or government off|c|a| author|zed to
adm|n|ster oath, or, |n the|r absence or unava||ab|||ty, before a notary
pub||c, each of whom must cert|fy that he persona||y exam|ned the
aff|ants and that he |s sat|sf|ed that they vo|untar||y executed and
understood the|r aff|dav|ts.

(b) W|th|n ten (10) days after the f|||ng of the comp|a|nt, the
|nvest|gat|ng off|cer sha|| e|ther d|sm|ss |t |f he f|nds no ground to
cont|nue w|th the |nvest|gat|on, or |ssue a subpoena to the respondent
attach|ng to |t a copy of the comp|a|nt and |ts support|ng aff|dav|ts and

1he respondent sha|| have the r|ght to exam|ne the ev|dence
subm|tted by the comp|a|nant wh|ch he may not have been furn|shed
and to copy them at h|s expense. If the ev|dence |s vo|um|nous, the
comp|a|nant may be requ|red to spec|fy those wh|ch he |ntends to
present aga|nst the respondent, and these sha|| be made ava||ab|e for
exam|nat|on or copy|ng by the respondent at h|s expense.

Cb[ects as ev|dence need not be furn|shed a party but sha|| be made
ava||ab|e for exam|nat|on, copy|ng or photograph|ng at the expense of
the request|ng party.

(c) W|th|n ten (10) days from rece|pt of the subpoena w|th the
comp|a|nt and support|ng aff|dav|ts and documents, the respondent
sha|| subm|t h|s counter-aff|dav|t and that of h|s w|tnesses and other
support|ng documents re||ed upon for h|s defense. 1he counter-
aff|dav|ts sha|| be subscr|bed and sworn to and cert|f|ed as prov|ded |n
paragraph (a) of th|s Sect|on, w|th cop|es thereof furn|shed by h|m to
the comp|a|nant. 1he respondent sha|| not be a||owed to f||e a mot|on
to d|sm|ss |n ||eu of a counter-aff|dav|t.

(d) If the respondent cannot be subpoenaed, or |f subpoenaed, does
not subm|t counter-aff|dav|ts w|th|n the ten (10) day per|od, the
|nvest|gat|ng off|cer sha|| reso|ve the comp|a|nt based on the ev|dence
presented by the comp|a|nant.

(e) 1he |nvest|gat|ng off|cer may set a hear|ng |f there are such facts
and |ssues to be c|ar|f|ed from a party or a w|tness. 1he part|es can be
present at the hear|ng but w|thout the r|ght to exam|ne or cross-
exam|ne. 1hey may, however, subm|t to the |nvest|gat|ng off|cer
quest|ons wh|ch may be asked to the party or w|tness concerned.

1he hear|ng sha|| be he|d w|th|n ten (10) days from subm|ss|on of the
counter-aff|dav|ts and other documents or from the exp|rat|on of the
per|od for the|r subm|ss|on. It sha|| be term|nated w|th|n f|ve (S) days.

(f) W|th|n ten (10) days after the |nvest|gat|on, the |nvest|gat|ng off|cer
sha|| determ|ne whether or not there |s suff|c|ent ground to ho|d the
respondent for tr|a|, (3a)

S1L 1: I|||ng of an aff|dav|t-comp|a|nt
1he affldavlL-complalnL should be duly sworn before a publlc
prosecuLor or a publlc offlcer auLhorlzed Lo admlnlsLer oaLh.
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Cenerally, you CAnnC1 subscrlbe before a noLary publlc, LxcepL
ln Lhe absence or unavallablllLy of a publlc prosecuLor.
S1L 2: ay the necessary f|||ng fees (ku|e 111) and subm|t |t
afterwards to the Dockets where |t w||| be raff|ed to an |nvest|gat|ng
lor acLual damages clalmed ln ordlnary offenses ! no flllng
fees. All oLhers, you have Lo pay. AlLhough once Lhe lnformaLlon
ls flled, you may be asked Lo pay more.
8.. 22 ! you are requlred Lo pay flllng fees for all damages
lncludlng acLual damages ! LahaL ng clalm, bayaran mo"
Coverlng conLalns lnformaLlon (someLhlng llke a summary
memo of why you are flllng Lhe case)
S1L 3: W|th|n 10 days, |nvest|gat|ng off|cer w||| dec|de whether he
w||| (1) d|sm|ss the case or (2) |ssue a subpoena where|n a counter-
aff|dav|t |s requ|red from the respondent to determ|ne the presence of
probab|e cause and whether an |nformat|on w||| be f||ed |n Court.
8espondenL" ls used. Pe becomes an accused" once Lhe
lnformaLlon ls flled ln CourL.
ls Lhe recelpL of Lhe subpoena necessary Lo acqulre [urlsdlcLlon
over Lhe person of Lhe respondenL? nC. Sect|on 3(d).
o lf a subpoena had been lssued and noL recelved or
refused Lo be recelved, Lhe publlc prosecuLor can
already render a resoluLlon or lssue a resoluLlon.
o ln reallLy, you wlll only recelve Lhe subpoena wlLhouL
Lhe complalnL affldavlL, buL Lhls prevenLs you from
preparlng a counLer-affldavlL. lf you are counsel of Lhe
defendanL, you wlll have Lo personally geL a copy aL
your/your cllenL's expense.
8emedy lf you don'L recelve Lhe subpoena/complalnL: MoLlon
for 8elnvesLlgaLlon ln Lhe CourL, and ask Lhem Lo reLurn lL Lo Lhe
Cfflce of Lhe rosecuLor.
o WhaL ls a relnvesLlgaLlon? 1haL ls noL deflned ln ku|e
112. A relnvesLlgaLlon ls slmllar Lo a moLlon for
reconslderaLlon, buL you are asklng for new prellmlnary
nC1L: rellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon ls mere sLaLuLory rlghL, and
Lhus, Lhe absence Lhereof wlll noL render Lhe lnformaLlon
o eop|e v. Anonas ! 1he vlolaLlon of one's rlghL Lo
speedy Lrlal or speedy dlsposlLlon of cases ls noL
appllcable Lo prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon. 8uL Lhere could
be lnordlnaLe delay whlch would be a vlolaLlon of Lhe
respondenL's rlghL Lo due process.

Sect|on 4. keso|ut|on of |nvest|gat|ng prosecutor and |ts rev|ew.
If the |nvest|gat|ng prosecutor f|nds cause to ho|d the respondent for
tr|a|, he sha|| prepare the reso|ut|on and |nformat|on. ne sha|| cert|fy
under oath |n the |nformat|on that he, or as shown by the record, an
author|zed off|cer, has persona||y exam|ned the comp|a|nant and h|s
w|tnesses, that there |s reasonab|e ground to be||eve that a cr|me has
been comm|tted and that the accused |s probab|y gu||ty thereof, that
the accused was |nformed of the comp|a|nt and of the ev|dence
subm|tted aga|nst h|m, and that he was g|ven an opportun|ty to
subm|t controvert|ng ev|dence. Ctherw|se, he sha|| recommend the
d|sm|ssa| of the comp|a|nt.

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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
W|th|n f|ve (S) days from h|s reso|ut|on, he sha|| forward the record of
the case to the prov|nc|a| or c|ty prosecutor or ch|ef state prosecutor,
or to the Cmbudsman or h|s deputy |n cases of offenses cogn|zab|e by
the Sand|ganbayan |n the exerc|se of |ts or|g|na| [ur|sd|ct|on. 1hey sha||
act on the reso|ut|on w|th|n ten (10) days from the|r rece|pt thereof
and sha|| |mmed|ate|y |nform the part|es of such act|on.

No comp|a|nt or |nformat|on may be f||ed or d|sm|ssed by an
|nvest|gat|ng prosecutor w|thout the pr|or wr|tten author|ty or
approva| of the prov|nc|a| or c|ty prosecutor or the Cmbudsman or h|s

Where the |nvest|gat|ng prosecutor recommends the d|sm|ssa| of the
comp|a|nt but h|s recommendat|on |s d|sapproved by the prov|nc|a| or
c|ty prosecutor or ch|ef state prosecutor or the Cmbudsman or h|s
deputy on the ground that a probab|e cause ex|sts, the |atter may, by
h|mse|f, f||e the |nformat|on aga|nst the respondent, or d|rect another
ass|stant prosecutor or state prosecutor to do so w|thout conduct|ng
another pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on.

If upon pet|t|on by a proper party under such ru|es as the Department
of Iust|ce may prescr|be or motu propr|o, the Secretary of Iust|ce
reverses or mod|f|es the reso|ut|on of the prov|nc|a| or c|ty prosecutor
or ch|ef state prosecutor, he sha|| d|rect the prosecutor concerned
e|ther to f||e the correspond|ng |nformat|on w|thout conduct|ng
another pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on, or to d|sm|ss or move for d|sm|ssa|
of the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on w|th not|ce to the part|es. 1he same
ru|e sha|| app|y |n pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|ons conducted by the off|cers
of the Cff|ce of the Cmbudsman. (4a)

S1L 4: After reso|ut|on of the ass|stant prosecutor] |nvest|gat|ng
off|cer, |t shou|d be forwarded to the c|ty prosecutor or the
Cmbudsman who w||| e|ther approve, d|sm|ss or perm|t h|m to
d|sm|ss. Sect|on 4(1).
1he power of Lhe asslsLanL prosecuLor ls only recommendaLory.
1he lasL say ln all of Lhls ls Lhe clLy/provlnclal prosecuLor or Lhe
o unless approved by Lhe ClLy rosecuLor, lL cannoL come
ouL of Lhe offlce ! no maLLer how long lL Lakes - whlch
ls normal.
o 1he ClLy rosecuLor
can hlmself conducL an
lnvesLlgaLlon or reasslgn lL Lo anoLher lnvesLlgaLlon
offlcer lf he dlsagrees wlLh Lhe resoluLlon of Lhe
lnvesLlgaLlon offlcer. Sect|on 4(4)
lf Lhe resoluLlon ls Lo flle, assL. prosecuLor wlll also prepare an
lnformaLlon whlch wlll be forwarded Lo hls superlors.
A copy of Lhe lnformaLlon need noL be glven Lo parLles. lL [usL
needs Lo be flled ln CourL. lnformaLlon ls noL served upon Lhe
parLles. lf Lhe resoluLlon ls Lo dlsmlss, Lhe resoluLlon wlll also be
served Lo Lhe parLles.
lf an asslsLanL prosecuLor was depuLlzed by Lhe Cfflce of Lhe
Cmbudsman, lL wlll be sub[ecL Lo Lhe approval of Lhe clLy or
provlnclal prosecuLor, Lo be furLher revlewed by Lhe uepuLy
Cmbudsman of Lhe area. And of course sub[ecL Lo Lhe flnal
approval of Lhe Cmbudsman.

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S1L S: 1he mode of appea| |s a et|t|on for kev|ew under C|rcu|ar 70
of the Dept. of Iust|ce w|th|n a per|od of 1S days ! no longer parL of
Lhe prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon.
Consequence: 1he lnformaLlon flled ln CourL, buL Lhe
arralgnmenL wlll be suspended for 60 days. ku|e 116.

Sect|on S. When warrant of arrest may |ssue.
(a) 8y the keg|ona| 1r|a| Court. - W|th|n ten (10) days from the f|||ng of
the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on, the [udge sha|| persona||y eva|uate the
reso|ut|on of the prosecutor and |ts support|ng ev|dence. ne may
|mmed|ate|y d|sm|ss the case |f the ev|dence on record c|ear|y fa||s to
estab||sh probab|e cause. If he f|nds probab|e cause, he sha|| |ssue a
warrant of arrest, or a comm|tment order when the comp|a|nt or
|nformat|on was f||ed pursuant to Sect|on 6 of th|s ku|e. In case of
doubt on the ex|stence of probab|e cause, the [udge may order the
prosecutor to present add|t|ona| ev|dence w|th|n f|ve (S) days from
not|ce and the |ssue must be reso|ved by the court w|th|n th|rty (30)
days from the f|||ng of the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on.

(b) 8y the Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Court. - When requ|red pursuant to the
second paragraph of Sect|on 1 of th|s ku|e, the pre||m|nary
|nvest|gat|on of cases fa|||ng under the or|g|na| [ur|sd|ct|on of the
Metropo||tan 1r|a| Court, Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Court |n C|t|es, Mun|c|pa|
1r|a| Court or Mun|c|pa| C|rcu|t 1r|a| Court SnALL be conducted by the
prosecutor. 1he procedure for the |ssuance of a warrant of arrest by
the [udge sha|| be governed by paragraph (a) of th|s Sect|on.

(c) When warrant of arrest not necessary. - A warrant of arrest sha||
not |ssue |f the accused |s a|ready under detent|on pursuant to a
warrant |ssued by the mun|c|pa| tr|a| court |n accordance w|th
paragraph (b) of th|s Sect|on, or |f the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on was
f||ed pursuant to Sect|on 6 of th|s ku|e or |s for an offense pena||zed by
f|ne on|y. 1he court sha|| then proceed |n the exerc|se of |ts or|g|na|
[ur|sd|ct|on. (6a) (As amended by SC keso|ut|on A.M. No. 0S-8-26-SC,
August 30, 200S)

I. When the Court can |ssue a warrant of arrest
Cnce lnformaLlon ls flled, Lhe CourL may elLher:
1. lssue a warranL of arresL whlch necessarlly means LhaL lL found
probable cause
2. ulsmlss Lhe case for absence of probable cause.
3. Call for a hearlng for furLher presenLaLlon of evldence

II. Warrant of Arrest and D|sm|ssa|
Cnce Lhe CourL lssues a warranL of arresL afLer Lhe lnformaLlon
was flled, Lhe CourL cannoL dlsmlss clalmlng absence of
probable cause 8LCAuSL Lhe mere lssuance of a warranL of
arresL means Lhe [udge found probable cause.
?ou can ask Lhe [udge Lo dlsmlss Lhe case for lack probable
cause Sect|on S(a). lL ls for Lhls reason LhaL counsel for Lhe
defense waLches ouL for Lhe flllng of lnformaLlon ln Lhe CourL,
o lf Lhe [udge flnds probable cause ! warranL of arresL
" Cnce a warranL of arresL has been lssued, lL
means Lhere has been a deLermlnaLlon of
probable cause by Lhe [udge, and Lhere ls
noLhlng you can do.
o lf Lhe [udge flnds lack of probable cause ! dlsmlss Lhe
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" Powever, lf a !udge dlsmlsses Lhe case wlLhouL
a moLlon, he ls placed ln a senslLlve poslLlon.
lf you flle a moLlon Lo deLermlne probable cause, and lL ls
dlsmlssed subsequenLly, double [eopardy aLLaches because
Lhere ls express consenL.
o 1he case cannoL be remanded Lo Lhe prosecuLor.

III. Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Court
1he Munlclpal 1rlal CourL wlll proceed under Lhe same process
dlscussed CnL? for cases LhaL wenL Lhrough prellmlnary
lf Lhere was no prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon (meanlng Lhe offense ls
below 4 years, 2 monLhs and 1 day), Sect|on S need noL be
followed. 8aLher, Sect|on 8 applles.

Sect|on 6. When accused |awfu||y arrested w|thout warrant.
When a person |s |awfu||y arrested w|thout a warrant |nvo|v|ng an
offense wh|ch requ|res a pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on, the comp|a|nt or
|nformat|on may be f||ed by a prosecutor w|thout need of such
|nvest|gat|on prov|ded an |nquest has been conducted |n accordance
w|th ex|st|ng ru|es. In the absence or unava||ab|||ty of an |nquest
prosecutor, the comp|a|nt may be f||ed by the offended party or by a
peace off|cer d|rect|y w|th the proper court on the bas|s of the
aff|dav|t of the offended party or arrest|ng off|cer or person.

8efore the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on |s f||ed, the person arrested may
ask for a pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on |n accordance w|th th|s ku|e, but he
must s|gn a wa|ver of the prov|s|ons of Art|c|e 12S of the kev|sed ena|
Code, as amended, |n the presence of h|s counse|. Notw|thstand|ng the
wa|ver, he may app|y for ba|| and the |nvest|gat|on must be
term|nated w|th|n f|fteen (1S) days from |ts |ncept|on.

After the f|||ng of the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on |n court w|thout a
pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on, the accused may w|th|n f|ve (S) days from
the t|me he |earns of |ts f|||ng, ask for a pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on w|th
the same r|ght to adduce ev|dence |n h|s defense as prov|ded |n th|s
ku|e. (7a, sec. 2, k.A. No. 7438)

I. Inquest
lor Lhe purposes of an lnquesL, Lhe arresLed person may declde
noL Lo ask for a prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon.
1he prosecuLor conducLs lnquesL. ln hls absence, Lhe case may
be flled dlrecLly ln CourL.

II. Inquest v. re||m|nary Invest|gat|on
1he duLy of an lnquesL prosecuLor ls elLher Lo order LhaL you be
deLalned, lf Lhe evldence appears Lo be sLrong, or LhaL you be
released for furLher prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon. lf Lhe laLLer, you
wlll go Lhen go Lhrough Lhe process ouLllned ln Sect|on 3.

S1L 1: Va||d Warrant|ess Arrest
Cnly Lhose who were valldly arresL wlLhouL a warranL undergo

S1L 2: Inquest
lf you're arresLed under 8ule 113, you wlll be broughL Lo Lhe
nearesL pollce sLaLlon.
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
?ou wlll sLay Lhere for a whlle, of course noL vlolaLlng your rlghL,
Lo lllegal deLenLlon, you wlll [usL sLay Lhere whlle Lhey prepare
your arresL reporL and Lhelr affldavlL. Cnce Lhey're ready wlLh
your arresL reporL and Lhelr affldavlL, Lhe arresLlng offlcers, you
wlll be broughL Lo Lhe lnquesL prosecuLor
o rovlded, Lhe crlme you commlLLed requlres prellmlnary
lnvesLlgaLlon (e.g. Chlld Lrafflcklng, Smuggllng).
o Crlmes whlch do noL requlre prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon
need noL go Lhrough lnquesL.

S1L 3: App||cat|on for 8a||

Sect|on 7. kecords.
(a) kecords support|ng the |nformat|on or comp|a|nt. - An |nformat|on
or comp|a|nt f||ed |n court sha|| be supported by the aff|dav|ts and
counter-aff|dav|ts of the part|es and the|r w|tnesses, together w|th the
other support|ng ev|dence and the reso|ut|on on the case.

(b) kecord of pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on. - 1he record of the pre||m|nary
|nvest|gat|on conducted by a prosecutor Ck C1nLk CIIICLkS AS MA
8L AU1nCkI2LD 8 LAW sha|| not form part of the record of the case.
nowever, the court, on |ts own |n|t|at|ve or on mot|on of any party,
may order the product|on of the record or any of |ts part when
necessary |n the reso|ut|on of the case or any |nc|dent there|n, or
when |t |s to be |ntroduced as an ev|dence |n the case by the
request|ng party. (8a)

I. W||| the records of pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on form part of the records
|n court?
nC. lf you wanL lL Lo be parL of Lhe records, ln Lhe crlmlnal case
ln courL, you should apply for an order Lo elevaLe Lhe records Lo
Lhe crlmlnal courL.

Sect|on 8. Cases not requ|r|ng a pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on nor covered
by the ku|e on Summary rocedure.
(a) If f||ed w|th the prosecutor. - If the comp|a|nt |s f||ed d|rect|y w|th
the prosecutor |nvo|v|ng an offense pun|shab|e by an |mpr|sonment of
|ess than four (4) years, two (2) months and one (1) day, the procedure
out||ned |n Sect|on 3(a) of th|s ku|e sha|| be observed. 1he prosecutor
sha|| act on the comp|a|nt based on the aff|dav|ts and other support|ng
documents subm|tted by the comp|a|nant w|th|n ten (10) days from |ts

(b) If f||ed w|th the Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Court. - If the comp|a|nt or
|nformat|on |s f||ed w|th the Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Court or Mun|c|pa| C|rcu|t
1r|a| Court for an offense covered by th|s Sect|on, the procedure |n
Sect|on 3(a) of th|s ru|e sha|| be observed. If w|th|n ten (10) days after
the f|||ng of the comp|a|nt of |nformat|on, the [udge f|nds no probab|e
cause after persona||y eva|uat|ng the ev|dence, or after persona||y
exam|n|ng |n wr|t|ng and under oath the comp|a|nant and h|s
w|tnesses |n the form of search|ng quest|ons and answers, he sha||
d|sm|ss the same. ne may, however, requ|re the subm|ss|on of
add|t|ona| ev|dence, w|th|n ten (10) days from not|ce, to determ|ne
further the ex|stence of probab|e cause. If the [udge st||| f|nds no
probab|e cause desp|te the add|t|ona| ev|dence, he sha||, w|th|n ten
(10) days from |ts subm|ss|on or exp|rat|on of sa|d per|od, d|sm|ss the
case. When he f|nds probab|e cause, he sha|| |ssue a warrant of arrest,
or a comm|tment order |f the accused had a|ready been arrested, and
ho|d h|m for tr|a|. nowever, |f the [udge |s sat|sf|ed that there |s no
!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
necess|ty for p|ac|ng the accused under custody, he may |ssue
summons |nstead of a warrant of arrest. (9a)

I. Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Court
Cnce Lhe lnformaLlon or complalnL ls flled, Lhe CourL may elLher:
1. lssue a warranL of arresL sub[ecL Lo Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe CourL
2. lssue a summons (Lhls ls Lhe only lnsLance whereln a crlmlnal
courL can lssue summons)
3. ulsmlss Lhe case for absence of probable cause
4. ConducL a hearlng for furLher presenLaLlon of evldence.

II. 1991 ku|es on Summary rocedure
AfLer lnformaLlon ls flled, CourL may lssue a noLlce Lo Lhe
accused Lo flle a counLer-affldavlL.
1he Munlclpal 1rlal CourL wlll noL lssue a warranL of arresL. lL
wlll lssue only lf desplLe noLlce, you repeaLedly absenLed
yourself durlng Lrlal.
All 8.. 22 cases fall under Lhe rules on summary procedure.

!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
!"#$ &&'( )!!$*+

*,-./01 &2 3,4/1/./01 04 566,7.2
)66,7. /7 .8, .59/1: 04 5 ;,6701 /1.0 -<7.0=> /1 06=,6 .85. 8, ?5> @,
@0<1= .0 517A,6 406 .8, -0??/77/01 04 51 044,17,2 B&C

*,-./01 D2 )66,7.E 80A ?5=,2
)1 566,7. /7 ?5=, @> 51 5-.<5F 6,7.65/1. 04 5 ;,6701 .0 @, 566,7.,=G 06
@> 8/7 7<@?/77/01 .0 .8, -<7.0=> 04 .8, ;,6701 ?59/1: .8, 566,7.2

H0 I/0F,1-, 06 <11,-,7756> 406-, 785FF @, <7,= /1 ?59/1: 51 566,7.2
+8, ;,6701 566,7.,= 785FF 10. @, 7<@J,-. .0 5 :6,5.,6 6,7.65/1. .851 /7
1,-,7756> 406 8/7 =,.,1./012 BD5C

*,-./01 '2 3<.> 04 566,7./1: 044/-,62
K. 785FF @, .8, =<.> 04 .8, 044/-,6 ,L,-<./1: .8, A56651. .0 566,7. .8,
5--<7,= 51= =,F/I,6 8/? .0 .8, 1,56,7. ;0F/-, 7.5./01 06 J5/F A/.80<.
<11,-,7756> =,F5>2 B'5C

*,-./01 M2 $L,-<./01 04 A56651.2
+8, 8,5= 04 .8, 044/-, .0 A80? .8, A56651. 04 566,7. A57 =,F/I,6,= 406
,L,-<./01 785FF -5<7, .8, A56651. .0 @, ,L,-<.,= A/.8/1 .,1 B&NC =5>7
460? /.7 6,-,/;.2 O/.8/1 .,1 B&NC =5>7 54.,6 .8, ,L;/65./01 04 .8,
;,6/0=G .8, 044/-,6 .0 A80? /. A57 577/:1,= 406 ,L,-<./01 785FF ?59, 5
6,;06. .0 .8, J<=:, A80 /77<,= .8, A56651.2 K1 -57, 04 8/7 45/F<6, .0
,L,-<., .8, A56651.G 8, 785FF 7.5., .8, 6,57017 .8,6,4062 BM5C

K2 $44,-./I, F/4, 04 5 A56651. 04 566,7.
A warranL of arresL ls effecLlve unLll (1) served or (2) seL aslde by
Lhe CourL.
1he 10 days as provlded ln SecLlon 4, ls CnL? Lhe 10 days for Lhe
publlc or pollce offlcers Lo comply wlLh Lhe servlce of Lhe
warranL of arresL.

KK2 PQH+!)*+( $44,-./I, F/4, 04 5 7,56-8 A56651.
1he search warranL ls only effecLlve for 10days, LhereafLer lL wlll
have no effecL already.

*,-./01 R2 )66,7. A/.80<. A56651.E A8,1 F5A4<F2
) ;,5-, 044/-,6 06 5 ;6/I5., ;,6701 ?5>G A/.80<. 5 A56651.G 566,7. 5

B5C O8,1G /1 8/7 ;6,7,1-,G .8, ;,6701 .0 @, 566,7.,= 857 -0??/..,=G /7
5-.<5FF> -0??/../1:G 06 /7 5..,?;./1: .0 -0??/. 51 044,17,E

B@C O8,1 51 044,17, 857 J<7. @,,1 -0??/..,= 51= 8, 857 ;60@5@F,
-5<7, .0 @,F/,I, @57,= 01 ;,67015F 910AF,=:, 04 45-.7 06
-/6-<?7.51-,7 .85. .8, ;,6701 .0 @, 566,7.,= 857 -0??/..,= /.E 51=

B-C O8,1 .8, ;,6701 .0 @, 566,7.,= /7 5 ;6/701,6 A80 857 ,7-5;,= 460?
5 ;,15F ,7.5@F/78?,1. 06 ;F5-, A8,6, 8, /7 7,6I/1: 4/15F J<=:?,1. 06
.,?;0656/F> -014/1,= A8/F, 8/7 -57, /7 ;,1=/1:G 06 857 ,7-5;,= A8/F,
@,/1: .65174,66,= 460? 01, -014/1,?,1. .0 510.8,62

K1 -57,7 45FF/1: <1=,6 ;565:65;87 B5C 51= B@C 5@0I,G .8, ;,6701
566,7.,= A/.80<. 5 A56651. 785FF @, 406.8A/.8 =,F/I,6,= .0 .8, 1,56,7.
!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
;0F/-, 7.5./01 06 J5/F 51= 785FF @, ;60-,,=,= 5:5/17. /1 5--06=51-, A/.8
*,-./01 S 04 !<F, &&D2 BR5C

K2 *,-./01 RB5C ! K1 TF5:651., 3,F/-.0
ln flagranLe dellcLo ! you were caughL whlle commlLLlng, abouL
Lo commlL, or has [usL commlLLed ln hls presence
ln hls presence ! Meanlng lL was wlLhln slghL or lL was wlLhln
percepLlon or hearlng.

KK2 *,-./01 RB@C ! K1 U0. V<67</.
1he crlme was [usL commlLLed buL noL ln hls presence.
8equlres LhaL Lhe arresLlng offlcer (or prlvaLe lndlvldual) has
personal knowledge of facLs and clrcumsLances, and Lhere ls
probable cause Lo belleve LhaL Lhe accused commlLLed lL.
o Pe dld noL see lL happen. lL has noL [usL been commlLLed
ln hls presence, buL, lL has [usL been commlLLed and
based on Lhe facLs and clrcumsLances he was able Lo
conclude LhaL Lhe person Lo be arresLed has ln facL
o lacLs: Mr. A was on board an lx, and lL was held-up,
one person made a sLaLemenL, Lhls ls a hold-up! So
brlng ouL all of your valuables! Cnce all Lhe valuables
were Laken by Lhe hold uppers, Lhey lefL, Lhey [umped
ouL of Lhe lx, M8. A lmmedlaLely allghLed Lhe lx, saw a
pollce offlcer ran Lowards hlm and explalned and
polnLed Lo Lhe runnlng hold-uppers.
o lssue: Can Lhe pollce offlcer arresL Lhem? ?es.
o 8aLlo: Was lL ln hls presence? nC, buL based on facLs
and clrcumsLances, Lhere ls whaL, reasonable ground Lo
belleve based on probable cause, LhaL he has
commlLLed lL.

KKK2 *,-./01 RB-C ! $7-5;,,
A person who escapes from a prlson cell, wheLher permanenLly
deLalned or Lemporarlly deLalned.

KW2 Q.8,6 /17.51-,7 04 5 I5F/= A56651.F,77 566,7.
*,-./01 &'G !<F, &&'
o A person who escapes or ls rescued may be valldly
arresLed wlLhouL a warranL.
*,-./01 D'G !<F, &&M
o A person who ls ouL on ball cannoL deparL from Lhe
hlllpplnes wlLhouL an approval from Lhe courL. lf he
deparLs, he may be arresLed wlLhouL a warranL.

W2 !,X</7/.,7 406 5;;F/-5./01 04 *,-./01 RG !<F, &&'
1. 1he person Lo be arresLed musL execuLe an overL acL.
o 1here should be an overL acL lndlcaLlng LhaL he has
commlLLed, ls acLually commlLLlng, or has [usL
commlLLed a crlme.
2. Such overL acL was done or commlLLed ln hls presence or wlLhln
Lhe vlew of Lhe arresLlng offlcer.
V,0;F, I2 #5:</0
o lacLs: SC2 vergel ue ulos, 8ogello Anoble and a
cerLaln Arrelano for unlawful possesslon of shabu.
8edenLor 1eck and !oseph !unlo were ldenLlfled as Lhe
!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
source of Lhe drug and where LhereafLer caughL ln an
enLrapmenL operaLlon. 1he Lwo ln Lurn clalmed Lhey
were worklng for Lawrence Wang. 1he followlng day,
Lhe pollce saw Wang come ouL of Lhe AparLmenL and
walked Lowards a parked 8MW car. 1hey approached
hlm, asked lf he was Lawrence Wang and upon
conflrmaLlon lmmedlaLely frlsked hlm and asked hlm Lo
open Lhe back comparLmenL of Lhe car. When Lhey
frlsked hlm, Lhey found ln hls rlghL pockeL an unllcensed
AM1 Cal.380 9mm 8ack up lsLol loaded wlLh
ammunlLlons. 1hey found ln hls car, a) 32 bags of shabu
wlLh a LoLal welghL of 29.241 kllos. 8)630,000 ln cash.
c) unllcensed uaewoo 9mm plsLol.
o lssue 1: Was Lhere an overL acL commlLLed ln Lhelr
presence LhaL would even glve rlse Lo a susplclon? nC.
SecLlon 3(a) does noL apply.
o lssue 2: ls Lhere probable cause Lo belleve LhaL a crlme
has [usL been commlLLed and based on Lhe facLs and
clrcumsLances presenLed and ls Lhere probable cause Lo
belleve LhaL Wang commlLLed lL? nC. SecLlon 3(b) does
noL apply.
o Peld: Wang's arresL was lnvalld.

*,-./01 Y2 +/?, 04 ?59/1: 566,7.2
)1 566,7. ?5> @, ?5=, 01 51> =5> 51= 5. 51> ./?, 04 .8, =5> 06 1/:8.2

*,-./01 S2 Z,.80= 04 566,7. @> 044/-,6 @> I/6.<, 04 A56651.2
O8,1 ?59/1: 51 566,7. @> I/6.<, 04 5 A56651.G .8, 044/-,6 785FF /1406?
.8, ;,6701 .0 @, 566,7.,= 04 .8, -5<7, 04 .8, 566,7. 51= .8, 45-. .85. 5
A56651. 857 @,,1 /77<,= 406 8/7 566,7.G ,L-,;. A8,1 8, 4F,,7 06 406-/@F>
6,7/7.7 @,406, .8, 044/-,6 857 0;;06.<1/.> .0 70 /1406? 8/?G 06 A8,1
.8, :/I/1: 04 7<-8 /1406?5./01 A/FF /?;,6/F .8, 566,7.2 +8, 044/-,6 1,,=
10. 85I, .8, A56651. /1 8/7 ;077,77/01 5. .8, ./?, 04 .8, 566,7. @<.
54.,6 .8, 566,7.G /4 .8, ;,6701 566,7.,= 70 6,X</6,7G .8, A56651. 785FF @,
780A1 .0 8/? 57 7001 57 ;65-./-5@F,2 BS5C

*,-./01 [2 Z,.80= 04 566,7. @> 044/-,6 A/.80<. A56651.2
O8,1 ?59/1: 51 566,7. A/.80<. 5 A56651.G .8, 044/-,6 785FF /1406? .8,
;,6701 .0 @, 566,7.,= 04 8/7 5<.806/.> 51= .8, -5<7, 04 .8, 566,7.G
<1F,77 .8, F5..,6 /7 ,/.8,6 ,1:5:,= /1 .8, -0??/77/01 04 51 044,17,G /7
;<67<,= /??,=/5.,F> 54.,6 /.7 -0??/77/01G 857 ,7-5;,=G 4F,,7G 06
406-/@F> 6,7/7.7 @,406, .8, 044/-,6 857 0;;06.<1/.> .0 70 /1406? 8/?G 06
A8,1 .8, :/I/1: 04 7<-8 /1406?5./01 A/FF /?;,6/F .8, 566,7.2 B[5C

K2 3<.> 04 51 044/-,6 A8,1 ,44,-./1: 51 566,7. B*,-./01 S \ [C
lf Lhe arresL ls Lo be made by a publlc offlcer wlLhouL a warranL,
he would have Lo sLaLe hls auLhorlLy and Lhe cause of Lhe arresL.
lf Lhe arresL ls by vlrLue of a warranL, Lhe arresLlng offlcer wlll
have Lo say LhaL he's arresLlng wlLh a warranL, wlLhouL
necessarlly presenLlng Lhe warranL of arresL, and Lhe cause of
Lhe arresL.

*,-./01 ]2 Z,.80= 04 566,7. @> ;6/I5., ;,67012
O8,1 ?59/1: 51 566,7.G 5 ;6/I5., ;,6701 785FF /1406? .8, ;,6701 .0 @,
566,7.,= 04 .8, /1.,1./01 .0 566,7. 8/? 51= .8, -5<7, 04 .8, 566,7.G
!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
<1F,77 .8, F5..,6 /7 ,/.8,6 ,1:5:,= /1 .8, -0??/77/01 04 51 044,17,G /7
;<67<,= /??,=/5.,F> 54.,6 /.7 -0??/77/01G 06 857 ,7-5;,=G 4F,,7G 06
406-/@F> 6,7/7.7 @,406, .8, ;,6701 ?59/1: .8, 566,7. 857 0;;06.<1/.> .0
70 /1406? 8/?G 06 A8,1 .8, :/I/1: 04 7<-8 /1406?5./01 A/FF /?;,6/F .8,
566,7.2 B]5C

K2 3<.> 04 5 ;6/I5., -/./^,1 A8,1 ,44,-./1: 51 566,7.
_,1,65F !<F,( Pe wlll have Lo.
o SLaLe hls lnLenLlon and
o 1he cause of Lhe arresL
$L-,;./01( 1he person Lo be arresLed ls.
o ln Lhe acL of commlLLlng Lhe offense
o ls pursued lmmedlaLely afLer lLs commlsslon, or has
escaped or flees
o lorclbly reslsLs before Lhe person maklng Lhe arresL has
opporLunlLy Lo so lnform hlm
o When Lhe glvlng of such lnformaLlon wlll lmperll Lhe
person maklng Lhe arresL.

*,-./01 &N2 Q44/-,6 ?5> 7<??01 577/7.51-,2
)1 044/-,6 ?59/1: 5 F5A4<F 566,7. ?5> 065FF> 7<??01 57 ?51> ;,67017
57 8, =,,?7 1,-,7756> .0 577/7. 8/? /1 ,44,-./1: .8, 566,7.2 $I,6>
;,6701 70 7<??01,= @> 51 044/-,6 785FF 577/7. 8/? /1 ,44,-./1: .8,
566,7. A8,1 8, -51 6,1=,6 7<-8 577/7.51-, A/.80<. =,.6/?,1. .0
8/?7,F42 B&N5C

*,-./01 &&2 !/:8. 04 044/-,6 .0 @6,59 /1.0 @</F=/1: 06 ,1-F07<6,2
)1 044/-,6G /1 06=,6 .0 ?59, 51 566,7. ,/.8,6 @> I/6.<, 04 5 A56651.G 06
A/.80<. 5 A56651. 57 ;60I/=,= /1 *,-./01 RG ?5> @6,59 /1.0 51>
@</F=/1: 06 ,1-F07<6, A8,6, .8, ;,6701 .0 @, 566,7.,= /7 06 /7
6,57015@F> @,F/,I,= .0 @,G /4 8, /7 6,4<7,= 5=?/..51-, .8,6,.0G 54.,6
5110<1-/1: 8/7 5<.806/.> 51= ;<6;07,2 B&&5C

*,-./01 &D2 !/:8. .0 @6,59 0<. 460? @</F=/1: 06 ,1-F07<6,2
O8,1,I,6 51 044/-,6 857 ,1.,6,= .8, @</F=/1: 06 ,1-F07<6, /1
5--06=51-, A/.8 .8, ;6,-,=/1: 7,-./01G 8, ?5> @6,59 0<. .8,6,460?
A8,1 1,-,7756> .0 F/@,65., 8/?7,F42 B&D5C

*,-./01 &'2 )66,7. 54.,6 ,7-5;, 06 6,7-<,2
K4 5 ;,6701 F5A4<FF> 566,7.,= ,7-5;,7 06 /7 6,7-<,=G 51> ;,6701 ?5>
/??,=/5.,F> ;<67<, 06 6,.59, 8/? A/.80<. 5 A56651. 5. 51> ./?, 51=
/1 51> ;F5-, A/.8/1 .8, V8/F/;;/1,72 B&'C

*,-./01 &M2 !/:8. 04 5..061,> 06 6,F5./I, .0 I/7/. ;,6701 566,7.,=2
)1> ?,?@,6 04 .8, V8/F/;;/1, `56 785FFG 5. .8, 6,X<,7. 04 .8, ;,6701
566,7.,= 06 04 510.8,6 5-./1: /1 8/7 @,85F4G 85I, .8, 6/:8. .0 I/7/. 51=
-014,6 ;6/I5.,F> A/.8 7<-8 ;,6701 /1 .8, J5/F 06 51> 0.8,6 ;F5-, 04
-<7.0=> 5. 51> 80<6 04 .8, =5> 06 1/:8.2 *<@J,-. .0 6,57015@F,
6,:<F5./017G 5 6,F5./I, 04 .8, ;,6701 566,7.,= -51 5F70 ,L,6-/7, .8,
75?, 6/:8.2 B&M5C

Q+U$! HQ+$*

K2 3/I,67/01 Ba<I,1/F, 51= O,F456, )-. 04 DNNYC
)2 3,4/1/./01
lL's a meLhod of conclllaLlon a meLhod of medlaLlon, a meLhod
of rehablllLaLlng Lhe accused.
!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
Accordlng Lo Q6.,:5 I2 V,0;F,, whaL ls conLrolllng, wlLh respecL
Lo exempLlon from crlmlnal llablllLy of a chlld ln confllcL wlLh Lhe
law ls noL Lhe age aL Lhe Llme of promulgaLlon of [udgmenL, buL
Lhe age aL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense.

`2 O8,1 5;;F/,=
lf Lhe chlld ls below 13 years of age, Lhe chlld ls exempL from
crlmlnal llablllLy. ! And for Lhls reason, he wlll noL be deLalned,
lf arresLed he wlll be placed ln Lhe cusLody, or lmmedlaLely
released Lo hls parenL or guardlan, or lf he has no known parenL
or guardlan, Lo a non-governmenLal organlzaLlon or a rellglous
lf Lhe chlld ls beLween 13 Lo 18 years of age:
o lf he acLed wlLhouL dlscernmenL. ! Same as above.
o lf he acLed wlLh dlscernmenL. ! ulverslon wlll follow.

P2 U0A 5;;F/,=
lf Lhe penalLy for Lhe offense does noL exceed 6 years, ulverslon
wlll be before Lhe 8arangay.
lf Lhe penalLy for Lhe offense exceeds 6 years, ulverslon wlll
always be ln CourL.
!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
kULL 114: 8AIL

Sect|on 1. 8a|| def|ned.
8a|| |s the secur|ty g|ven for the re|ease of a person |n custody of the
|aw, furn|shed by h|m or a bondsman, to guarantee h|s appearance
before any court as requ|red under the cond|t|ons here|nafter
spec|f|ed. 8a|| may be g|ven |n the form of corporate surety, property
bond, cash depos|t, or recogn|zance. (1a)

I. resence of depr|vat|on of ||berty
Genera| ku|e: lor as long as Lhere ls deprlvaLlon of llberLy, you
could apply for ball, and your rlghL Lo ball ls a ConsLlLuLlonal
Lxcept|on: Cffense whlch by Lhelr naLure are non-ballable

II. Warrant|ess arrests
When Lhere ls a warranLless arresL and prlor Lo lnquesL !
appllcaLlon for ball ls premaLure.
Powever, where lnquesL has been conducLed and Lhe
prosecuLor requlres deLenLlon ! ball may be applled for
(assumlng lL ls a ballable offense)
lnquesL ! rellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon C8 ueLaln ! lf deLalned,
conslderaLlon for appllcaLlon of ball comes ln.

III. Arra|gnment not a requ|s|te for ba||
Serap|o v. Sand|ganbayan ! [urlsprudence Lells you LhaL an
arralgnmenL ls noL a prerequlslLe for an appllcaLlon for ball.

Sect|on 2. Cond|t|ons of the ba||, requ|rements.
A|| k|nds of ba|| are sub[ect to the fo||ow|ng cond|t|ons:

(a) 1he undertak|ng sha|| be effect|ve upon approva|, and un|ess
cance||ed, sha|| rema|n |n force at a|| stages of the case unt||
promu|gat|on of the [udgment of the keg|ona| 1r|a| Court, |rrespect|ve
of whether the case was or|g|na||y f||ed |n or appea|ed to |t,

(b) 1he accused sha|| appear before the proper court whenever
requ|red by the court or these ku|es,

(c) 1he fa||ure of the accused to appear at the tr|a| w|thout [ust|f|cat|on
and desp|te due not|ce sha|| be deemed a wa|ver of h|s r|ght to be
present thereat. In such case, the tr|a| may proceed |n absent|a, and

(d) 1he bondsman sha|| surrender the accused to the court for
execut|on of the f|na| [udgment.

1he or|g|na| papers sha|| state the fu|| name and address of the
accused, the amount of the undertak|ng and the cond|t|ons requ|red
by th|s sect|on. hotographs (passport s|ze) taken w|th|n the |ast s|x (6)
months show|ng the face, |eft and r|ght prof||es of the accused must
be attached to the ba||. (2a)

I. I|rst cond|t|on: 8a||, |f granted w||| be effect|ve |n the k1C whether
or|g|na||y f||ed or on appea|.
lf you're able Lo apply for ball ln Lhe M1C and you had Lo appeal
ln Lhe 81C, wlll lL be effecLlve? ?LS. 1haL ls a condlLlon of ball.

!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
II. Second cond|t|on: Accused w||| appear |n Court when requ|red

III. 1h|rd cond|t|on: Absence |s equ|va|ent to a wa|ver
lf you are absenL you are deemed Lo have walved your
appearance ln courL.
lf you are absenL Lhe case could proceed ln absenLla.

IV. Iourth Cond|t|on: Surrender of the accused for execut|on
1he bondsmen commlLs LhaL Lhey wlll brlng you Lo courL for
purposes of promulgaLlon of [udgmenL.
o LxecuLlon ! meanlng, lf Lhere ls a senLence, you wlll
have Lo serve senLence.

V. ku|e 11S, Sect|on 1(c)
1he accused can walve hls appearance lf sLlpulaLed ln Lhe
condlLlons for ball.

Sect|on 3. No re|ease or transfer except on court order or ba||.
No person under detent|on by |ega| process sha|| be re|eased or
transferred except upon order of the court or when he |s adm|tted to
ba||. (3a)

Sect|on 4. 8a||, a matter of r|ght, except|on.
A|| persons |n custody sha|| be adm|tted to ba|| as a matter of r|ght,
w|th suff|c|ent suret|es, or re|eased on recogn|zance as prescr|bed by
|aw or th|s ku|e (a) before or after conv|ct|on by the Metropo||tan 1r|a|
Court, Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Court, Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Court |n C|t|es, or
Mun|c|pa| C|rcu|t 1r|a| Court, and (b) before conv|ct|on by the keg|ona|
1r|a| Court of an offense not pun|shab|e by death, rec|us|on perpetua,
or ||fe |mpr|sonment. (4a)

I. 8a|| as a matter of r|ght
lf Lhe case falls wlLhln Lhe orlglnal and excluslve [urlsdlcLlon of
Lhe Munlclpal 1rlal CourL, Munlclpal ClrculL 1rlal CourL,
MeLropollLan 1rlal CourL ! 8all ls a maLLer of rlghL.
o 8all ln all cases wlLh Lhe M1C ls a maLLer of rlghL
because Lhese cases are noL sLrong/serlous cases.
o lor as long as lL was flled ln Lhe M1C, you may flle for
ball wheLher before or afLer convlcLlon.
o Lven when Lhe accused ls convlcLed, lf he flles an appeal
hls ball wlll conLlnue Lo have effecL.
lf Lhe case falls wlLhln Lhe reglonal Lrlal courL (before
convlcLlon), and Lhe penalLy for Lhe offense exceeds 6 years buL
Lhe penalLy ls noL deaLh, llfe, recluslon perpeLua ! ball ls a
maLLer of rlghL.
o 1he CourL cannoL exerclse dlscreLlon.

II. 1he Court cannot deny ba||, on|y |ncrease the bond
So lf ball ls a maLLer of rlghL, and Lhe [udge fears LhaL Lhe
accused wlll whaL, flee or escape, he cannoL deny Lhe
appllcaLlon for ball.
o WhaL should he do? Pe should only lncrease Lhe bond,
lf he Lhlnks he ls a fllghL-rlsk. 1o deny hlm wlLh hls rlghL
Lo ball ls ln vlolaLlon of hls rlghL."
o San M|gue| v. Maceda ! (an admlnlsLraLlve case) Lhe
exlsLence of a hlgh degree of probablllLy LhaL Lhe
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
defendanL wlll abscond confers upon Lhe courL no
greaLer dlscreLlon Lhan Lo lncrease Lhe bond."

Sect|on S. 8a||, when d|scret|onary.
Upon conv|ct|on by the keg|ona| 1r|a| Court of an offense not
pun|shab|e by death, rec|us|on perpetua, or ||fe |mpr|sonment,
adm|ss|on to ba|| |s d|scret|onary. 1he app||cat|on for ba|| may be f||ed
and acted upon by the tr|a| court desp|te the f|||ng of a not|ce of
appea|, prov|ded |t has not transm|tted the or|g|na| record to the
appe||ate court. nowever, |f the dec|s|on of the tr|a| court conv|ct|ng
the accused changed the nature of the offense from non-ba||ab|e to
ba||ab|e, the app||cat|on for ba|| can on|y be f||ed w|th and reso|ved by
the appe||ate court.

Shou|d the court grant the app||cat|on, the accused may be a||owed to
cont|nue on prov|s|ona| ||berty dur|ng the pendency of the appea|
under the same ba|| sub[ect to the consent of the bondsman.

If the pena|ty |mposed by the tr|a| court |s |mpr|sonment exceed|ng s|x
(6) years, the accused sha|| be den|ed ba||, or h|s ba|| sha|| be cance||ed
upon a show|ng by the prosecut|on, w|th not|ce to the accused, of the
fo||ow|ng or other s|m||ar c|rcumstances:

(a) 1hat he |s a rec|d|v|st, quas|-rec|d|v|st, or hab|tua| de||nquent, or
has comm|tted the cr|me aggravated by the c|rcumstance of

(b) 1hat he has prev|ous|y escaped from |ega| conf|nement, evaded
sentence, or v|o|ated the cond|t|ons of h|s ba|| w|thout va||d
(c) 1hat he comm|tted the offense wh||e under probat|on, paro|e, or
cond|t|ona| pardon,

(d) 1hat the c|rcumstances of h|s case |nd|cate the probab|||ty of f||ght
|f re|eased on ba||, or

(e) 1hat there |s undue r|sk that he may comm|t another cr|me dur|ng
the pendency of the appea|.

1he appe||ate court may, motu propr|o or on mot|on of any party,
rev|ew the reso|ut|on of the keg|ona| 1r|a| Court after not|ce to the
adverse party |n e|ther case. (Sa)

I. Does not cover non-ba||ab|e offenses
non-ballable offenses are covered by Lhe succeedlng secLlons 6,
7 and 8.

II. 8a|| as a matter of d|scret|on
lf Lhe case falls wlLhln Lhe reglonal Lrlal courL (afLer convlcLlon),
and Lhe penalLy for Lhe offense exceeds 6 years buL Lhe penalLy
ls noL deaLh, llfe, recluslon perpeLua ! balls ls dlscreLlonary
o 1he [udge wlll have Lo ascerLaln or [udlclally deLermlne
wheLher Lhe accused wlll be furLher enLlLled Lo ball.
ulscreLlon ls exerclsed when none of Lhe lnsLances
menLloned ln Sect|on S are presenL.
o Cnce Lhe courL ls saLlsfled LhaL Lhere ls a rlsk based on
any of Lhose, or LhaL he ls a hablLual dellnquenL,
recldlvlsL, or quasl-recldlvlsL, Lhe courL cannoL exerclse
dlscreLlon and musL deny ball (see case below).
!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
o Lxample: Lev|ste v. Sand|ganbayan ! 1he case of Cov.
LevlsLe, where he allegedly kllled hls ald, he was
charged of homlclde. 1hls was elevaLed Lo Lhe uC! who
Lhen flled a charge for murder. Mr. LevlsLe was
evenLually convlcLed, he was convlcLed for homlclde. Pe
was charged of murder, buL convlcLed of homlclde, can
you sLlll apply for ball? ?LS (ln Lhe appellaLe courL), buL
sub[ecL Lo CourL dlscreLlon.
Where Lhe offense charged ls non-ballable, buL Lhe convlcLlon
was for a ballable crlme, one may apply for ball ln Lhe nexL-level
courL or Lhe appellaLe courL.
1he courL wlll llkewlse exerclse dlscreLlon lf Lhere ls a eLlLlon
for 8all on non-ballable offenses.
o Serap|o v. Sand|ganbayan ! 8ecause lL requlres
dlscreLlon, Lhe hearlng ls requlred, and lL ls mandaLory.
" 1he hearlng ls summary.
" lf Lhere are numerous accused, meanlng 1, 2, 3
accused, Lhere be [olnL summary hearlngs of
appllcaLlons for ball.
o Mabutas v. ere||o ! a hearlng ls mandaLory

Sect|on 6. Cap|ta| offense, def|ned.
A cap|ta| offense |s an offense wh|ch, under the |aw ex|st|ng at the
t|me of |ts comm|ss|on and of the app||cat|on for adm|ss|on to ba||,
may be pun|shed w|th death. (6a)

Sect|on 7. Cap|ta| offense or an offense pun|shab|e by rec|us|on
perpetua or ||fe |mpr|sonment, not ba||ab|e.
No person charged w|th a cap|ta| offense, or an offense pun|shab|e by
rec|us|on perpetua or ||fe |mpr|sonment, sha|| be adm|tted to ba||
when ev|dence of gu||t |s strong, regard|ess of the stage of the cr|m|na|
prosecut|on. (7a)

I. Lv|dence of gu||t |s strong
Lev|ste v. Sand|ganbayan ! Whlle LevlsLe was deLalned, hls
lawyer flled for ball argulng LhaL Lhe evldence of LevlsLe's gullL
for murder was noL sLrong. As such, LevlsLe was allowed Lo go
on ball.
Powever, afLer convlcLlon - slnce such wlll only be lald down lf
evldence of gullL ls sLrong - Lhere can be no ball. (Sect|on 24)

II. kequ|s|tes for the app||cat|on of ba||
Summary hearlng ls requlred wheLher ball ls a maLLer of rlghL or
a maLLer of dlscreLlon.
o lull-blown hearlng ! you wlll be allowed Lo presenL
evldence as lf you were on Lrlal.
o Summary hearlng ! qulck, expedlLlous, you are noL
obllgaLed Lo presenL all your evldence slnce you are noL
requlred Lo prove your enLlre case aL Lhls polnL ln Llme,
buL only such evldence Lo prove Lhe sLrengLh of Lhe
evldence of gullL.
" rocess: 1he prosecuLor should be noLlfled and
should glve a recommendaLlon.
!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
" lf Lhe prosecuLlon ls delaylng or Lhe [udge ls
blaLanLly delaylng Lhe peLlLlon for ball, Lhe
defense may ask Lhe [udge Lo lnhlblL.

Sect|on 8. 8urden of proof |n ba|| app||cat|on.
At the hear|ng of an app||cat|on for ba|| f||ed by a person who |s |n
custody for the comm|ss|on of an offense pun|shab|e by death,
rec|us|on perpetua, or ||fe |mpr|sonment, the prosecut|on has the
burden of show|ng that ev|dence of gu||t |s strong. 1he ev|dence
presented dur|ng the ba|| hear|ng sha|| be cons|dered automat|ca||y
reproduced at the tr|a| but, upon mot|on of e|ther party, the court may
reca|| any w|tness for add|t|ona| exam|nat|on un|ess the |atter |s dead,
outs|de the h|||pp|nes, or otherw|se unab|e to test|fy. (8a)

Sect|on 9. Amount of ba||, gu|de||nes.
1he [udge who |ssued the warrant or granted the app||cat|on sha|| f|x a
reasonab|e amount of ba|| cons|der|ng pr|mar||y, but not ||m|ted to,
the fo||ow|ng factors:

(a) I|nanc|a| ab|||ty of the accused to g|ve ba||,

(b) Nature and c|rcumstances of the offense,

(c) ena|ty for the offense charged,

(d) Character and reputat|on of the accused,

(e) Age and hea|th of the accused,

(f) We|ght of the ev|dence aga|nst the accused,
(g) robab|||ty of the accused appear|ng at the tr|a|,

(h) Iorfe|ture of other ba||,

(|) 1he fact that the accused was a fug|t|ve from [ust|ce when arrested,

([) endency of other cases where the accused |s on ba||.

Lxcess|ve ba|| sha|| not be requ|red. (9a)

I. kecommendat|on of the rosecutor
When Lhe prosecuLor flles Lhe lnformaLlon, Lhey recommend
Lhe amounL of ball and lL ls for Lhe courL upon moLlon Lo
deLermlne wheLher Lo lncrease or Lo reduce Lhe amounL of ball,
based on any of Lhe sLandards ln Lhe SecLlon
1he recommendaLlon of Lhe prosecuLor for ball ls found aL Lhe
boLLom of Lhe lnformaLlon flled.

Sect|on 10. Corporate surety.
Any domest|c or fore|gn corporat|on, ||censed as a surety |n
accordance w|th |aw and current|y author|zed to act as such, may
prov|de ba|| by a bond subscr|bed [o|nt|y by the accused and an off|cer
of the corporat|on du|y author|zed by |ts board of d|rectors. (10a)

Sect|on 11. roperty bond, how posted.
A property bond |s an undertak|ng const|tuted as ||en on the rea|
property g|ven as secur|ty for the amount of the ba||. W|th|n ten (10)
days after the approva| of the bond, the accused sha|| cause the
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
annotat|on of the ||en on the cert|f|cate of t|t|e on f||e w|th the
keg|stry of Deeds |f the |and |s reg|stered, or |f unreg|stered, |n the
keg|strat|on 8ook on the space prov|ded therefor, |n the keg|stry of
Deeds for the prov|nce or c|ty where the |and ||es, and on the
correspond|ng tax dec|arat|on |n the off|ce of the prov|nc|a|, c|ty and
mun|c|pa| assessor concerned.

W|th|n the same per|od, the accused sha|| subm|t to the court h|s
comp||ance and h|s fa||ure to do so sha|| be suff|c|ent cause for the
cance||at|on of the property bond and h|s re-arrest and detent|on.

Sect|on 12. ua||f|cat|ons of suret|es |n property bond.
1he qua||f|cat|ons of suret|es |n a property bond sha|| be as fo||ows:

(a) Lach must be a res|dent owner of rea| estate w|th|n the h|||pp|nes,

(b) Where there |s on|y one surety, h|s rea| estate must be worth at
|east the amount of the undertak|ng,

(c) If there are two or more suret|es, each may [ust|fy |n an amount
|ess than that expressed |n the undertak|ng but the aggregate of the
[ust|f|ed sums must be equ|va|ent to the who|e amount of the ba||

In a|| cases, every surety must be worth the amount spec|f|ed |n h|s
own undertak|ng over and above a|| [ust debts, ob||gat|ons and
propert|es exempt from execut|on. (12a)

Sect|on 13. Iust|f|cat|on of suret|es.
Lvery surety sha|| [ust|fy by aff|dav|t taken before the [udge that he
possesses the qua||f|cat|ons prescr|bed |n the preced|ng sect|on. ne
sha|| descr|be the property g|ven as secur|ty, stat|ng the nature of h|s
t|t|e, |ts encumbrances, the number and amount of other ba||s entered
|nto by h|m and st||| und|scharged, and h|s other ||ab|||t|es. 1he court
may exam|ne the suret|es upon oath concern|ng the|r suff|c|ency |n
such manner as |t may deem proper. No ba|| sha|| be approved un|ess
the surety |s qua||f|ed. (13a)

Sect|on 14. Depos|t of cash as ba||.
1he accused or any person act|ng |n h|s beha|f may depos|t |n cash
w|th the nearest co||ector of |nterna| revenue or prov|nc|a|, c|ty, or
mun|c|pa| treasurer the amount of ba|| f|xed by the court, or
recommended by the prosecutor who |nvest|gated or f||ed the case.
Upon subm|ss|on of a proper cert|f|cate of depos|t and a wr|tten
undertak|ng show|ng comp||ance w|th the requ|rements of Sect|on 2 of
th|s ku|e, the accused sha|| be d|scharged from custody. 1he money
depos|ted sha|| be cons|dered as ba|| and app||ed to the payment of
f|ne and costs wh||e the excess, |f any, sha|| be returned to the accused
or to whoever made the depos|t. (14a)

Sect|on 1S. kecogn|zance.
Whenever a||owed by |aw or these ku|es, the court may re|ease a
person |n custody on h|s own recogn|zance or that of a respons|b|e
person. (1Sa)

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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
I. k|nds of 8a||
A. Cash 8ond (Sect|on 14)
Means Lhe amounL of ball, l.e. lf Lhe ball recommended ls
30,000 you need Lo ralse 30,000.
A [udge ls noL allowed Lo recelve cash for ball nor should lL be
kepL ln hls offlce. (Lach|ca v. Iudge 1orm|s).
o Cash as ball musL be deposlLed only:
" 1o Lhe nearesL 8l8 collecLor, or
" 1o Lhe provlnclal, clLy or munlclpal Lreasurer
lL wlll be reLurned Lo you afLer Lhe LermlnaLlon of Lhe case lf
you're acqulLLed, or Lhe case agalnsL you dlsmlssed, even lf you
are convlcLed, assumlng Lhere ls no clvll llablllLy.
noLe Lo lawyers: LeL your cllenL wlLhdraw lL because LhaL could
be wlLhdrawn, and leL your cllenL pay LhaL Lo you. lf you're
cllenL allows you Lo geL lL, you have Lo obLaln whaL, a power of
aLLorney Lo wlLhdraw lL, and lf he says LhaL ls ln paymenL of
your fees" lssue a recelpL Lo evldenced Lhe paymenL, oLherwlse,
Lhere ls a danger LhaL you are uslng Lhe funds of your cllenL.

8. Surety 8ond (Sect|on 10)
lL ls a bond lssued by sureLy company. lf Lhe recommended ball
ls 100, 000 pesos, you wlll only have Lo pay a premlum Lo Lhe
sureLy company, and you wlll have Lo renew LhaL annually.
SureLy companles Loday should be accredlLed by Lhe SC. lf lL ls
noL accredlLed by Lhe SC lL wlll noL be enLerLalned by Lhe courLs.

C. roperty 8ond (Sect|on 11 to 12)
1he properLy ls a securlLy.
1he mosL lmporLanL requlremenL for a properLy bond ls LhaL Lhe
owner of Lhe properLy should be a resldenL of Lhe hlllpplnes.
lL ls noL requlred LhaL Lhe owner of Lhe properLy by Lhe accused
1o annoLaLe, reglsLer Lhe llen wlLhln 10 days from approval of
Lhe bond

D. kecogn|zance (Sect|on 1S to 16)
1he accused can be released on hls own recognlzance or LhaL of
a repuLable member of Lhe communlLy.

II. Cert|f|cat|on of Arrest not a requ|rement for app||cat|on
CerLlflcaLlon of arresL, when a warranL of arresL has been lssued,
ls noL requlred ln order Lo apply for ball because such
appllcaLlon amounLs Lo surrender (buL noL volunLary surrender).
o Powever, Lhe courL already has [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe
person of Lhe accused.
ln pracLlce: lf ball ls a maLLer of rlghL, Lhere may be an
appllcaLlon for ball even wlLhouL a hearlng. 1here wlll be an
order elLher Lo release or Lo llfL warranL.

Sect|on 16. 8a||, when not requ|red, reduced ba|| or recogn|zance.
No ba|| sha|| be requ|red when the |aw or these ku|es so prov|de.

When a person has been |n custody for a per|od equa| to or more than
the poss|b|e max|mum |mpr|sonment prescr|bed for the offense
charged, he sha|| be re|eased |mmed|ate|y, w|thout pre[ud|ce to the
cont|nuat|on of the tr|a| or the proceed|ngs on appea|. If the max|mum
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
pena|ty to wh|ch the accused may be sentenced |s dest|erro, he sha||
be re|eased after th|rty (30) days of prevent|ve |mpr|sonment.

A person |n custody for a per|od equa| to or more than the m|n|mum
of the pr|nc|pa| pena|ty prescr|bed for the offense charged, w|thout
app||cat|on of the Indeterm|nate Sentence Law or any mod|fy|ng
c|rcumstance, sha|| be re|eased on a reduced ba|| or on h|s own
recogn|zance, at the d|scret|on of the court. (16a)

I. o|nt
ln lnsLances whereln he has served Lhe maxlmum penalLy, Lhe
courL wlll noL dlsmlss Lhe case, buL Lhe courL wlll release Lhe
accused wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo Lhe conLlnuaLlon of Lhe case.
WhaL lf Lhe accused has served only Lhe mlnlmum penalLy
wlLhouL conslderlng Lhe lSLAW? Pe can be released under a
reduced ball, or, recognlzance.

Sect|on 17. 8a||, where f||ed.
(a) 8a|| |n the amount f|xed may be f||ed w|th the court where the case
|s pend|ng, or, |n the absence or unava||ab|||ty of the [udge thereof,
w|th any reg|ona| tr|a| [udge, metropo||tan tr|a| [udge, mun|c|pa| tr|a|
[udge, or mun|c|pa| c|rcu|t tr|a| [udge |n the prov|nce, c|ty, or
mun|c|pa||ty. If the accused |s arrested |n a prov|nce, c|ty, or
mun|c|pa||ty other than where the case |s pend|ng, ba|| may be f||ed
w|th any reg|ona| tr|a| court of sa|d p|ace, or, |f no [udge thereof |s
ava||ab|e, w|th any metropo||tan tr|a| [udge, mun|c|pa| tr|a| [udge or
mun|c|pa| c|rcu|t tr|a| [udge there|n.

(b) Where the grant of ba|| |s a matter of d|scret|on, or the accused
seeks to be re|eased on recogn|zance, the app||cat|on may be f||ed on|y
|n the court where the case |s pend|ng, on tr|a| or appea|.

(c) Any person |n custody who |s not yet charged |n court may app|y
for ba|| w|th any court |n the prov|nce, c|ty or mun|c|pa||ty where he |s
he|d, (17a)

I. |ace of arrest and case |s same, prov|ded ba|| |s a matter of r|ght
Genera| ku|e: ?ou were arresLed ln Lhe place where your acLlon
ls pendlng. ?ou apply for ball ln Lhe courL where Lhe acLlon ls
Lxcept|on: ?ou could only go Lo oLher courLs (81C or M1C) when
Lhe [udge where your case ls pendlng ls absenL or unavallable.
o 1here musL be a cerLlflcaLlon LhaL Lhe [udge ls absenL or

II. |ace of the arrest and case d|ffer, prov|ded ba|| |s a matter of r|ght
Genera| ku|e: ?ou apply for ball ln Lhe place where your case ls
pendlng, C8 place of arresL (lf you are arresLed aL a dlfferenL
clLy) before any 81C [udge.
lf you are arresLed, or your cllenL ls arresLed ln a place oLher
Lhan where Lhe acLlon ls pendlng, Lhe ball records wlll have Lo
be LransmlLLed Lo Lhe courL where Lhe case ls pendlng, LhaL ls
Lhe duLy of Lhe [udge.
lf Lhe [udge ls noL saLlsfled on Lhe ball submlLLed ln Lhe place
where he was arresLed, Lhe [udge can requlre a new ball.

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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
III. Where ba|| |s d|scret|onary or recogn|zance
1haL wlll only be applled ln Lhe courL where Lhe acLlon ls

IV. Where there |s no pend|ng case yet
1haL wlll only be applled ln Lhe courL where Lhe accused ls held

Sect|on 18. Not|ce of app||cat|on to prosecutor.
In the app||cat|on for ba|| under Sect|on 8 of th|s ku|e, the court must
g|ve reasonab|e not|ce of the hear|ng to the prosecutor or requ|re h|m
to subm|t h|s recommendat|on. (18a)

I. near|ng on an app||cat|on for ba|| |s mandatory whether ba|| |s a
matter of r|ght or a matter of d|scret|on.
WheLher a maLLer of rlghL or dlscreLlon, Lhe prosecuLor should
be glven reasonable noLlce of hearlng, or aL leasL hls
recommendaLlon on Lhe maLLer musL be soughL.

II. In an app||cat|on for ba||, the [udge |s entrusted to observe the
fo||ow|ng dut|es:
1. noLlfy Lhe prosecuLor of Lhe hearlng for Lhe appllcaLlon of ball
or requlre hlm Lo submlL a recommendaLlon (Sect|on 18)
2. Where ball ls a maLLer of dlscreLlon, conducL a hearlng for Lhe
appllcaLlon for ball, regardless of wheLher or noL Lhe prosecuLor
refuses Lo presenL evldence.
3. ueclde wheLher Lhe gullL of Lhe accused ls sLrong based on Lhe
summary evldence of Lhe prosecuLlon (Sect|on 8)
4. lf Lhe gullL of Lhe accused ls noL sLrong, dlscharge Lhe accused
upon approval of Lhe ball bond (Sect|on 20)

III. near|ng when ba|| |s a matter of r|ght (|n pract|ce)
ln pracLlce: where ball ls a maLLer of rlghL, hearlng ls noL really
exerclsed slnce appllcaLlon of ball amounLs Lo surrender.
o 1here are [udges who wlll allow Lhls even when Lhe
cllenL does noL appear. Powever, Lhere are [udges who
wlll requlre Lhe appearance of Lhe accused before Lhe
order of release/llfLlng would be slgned.

Sect|on 19. ke|ease on ba||.
1he accused must be d|scharged upon approva| of the ba|| by the [udge
w|th whom |t was f||ed |n accordance w|th Sect|on 17 of th|s ku|e.

When ba|| |s f||ed w|th a court other than where the case |s pend|ng,
the [udge who accepted the ba|| sha|| forward |t, together w|th the
order of re|ease and other support|ng papers, to the court where the
case |s pend|ng, wh|ch may, for good reason, requ|re a d|fferent one to
be f||ed. (19a)

Sect|on 20. Increase or reduct|on of ba||.
After the accused |s adm|tted to ba||, the court may, upon good cause,
e|ther |ncrease or reduce |ts amount. When |ncreased, the accused
may be comm|tted to custody |f he does not g|ve ba|| |n the |ncreased
amount w|th|n a reasonab|e per|od. An accused he|d to answer a
cr|m|na| charge, who |s re|eased w|thout ba|| upon f|||ng of the
comp|a|nt or |nformat|on, may, at any subsequent stage of the
proceed|ngs and whenever a strong show|ng of gu||t appears to the
court, be requ|red to g|ve ba|| |n the amount f|xed, or |n ||eu thereof,
comm|tted to custody. (20a)

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Sect|on 21. Iorfe|ture of ba||.
When the presence of the accused |s requ|red by the court or these
ku|es, h|s bondsmen sha|| be not|f|ed to produce h|m before the court
on a g|ven date and t|me. If the accused fa||s to appear |n person as
requ|red, h|s ba|| sha|| be dec|ared forfe|ted and the bondsmen g|ven
th|rty (30) days w|th|n wh|ch to produce the|r pr|nc|pa| and to show
cause why no [udgment shou|d be rendered aga|nst them for the
amount of the|r ba||. W|th|n the sa|d per|od, the bondsmen must:

(a) produce the body of the|r pr|nc|pa| or g|ve the reason for h|s non-
product|on, and

(b) exp|a|n why the accused d|d not appear before the court when f|rst
requ|red to do so.

Ia|||ng |n these two requ|s|tes, a [udgment sha|| be rendered aga|nst
the bondsmen, [o|nt|y and severa||y, for the amount of the ba||. 1he
court sha|| not reduce or otherw|se m|t|gate the ||ab|||ty of the
bondsmen, un|ess the accused has been surrendered or |s acqu|tted.

Sect|on 22. Cance||at|on of ba||.
Upon app||cat|on of the bondsmen, w|th due not|ce to the prosecutor,
the ba|| may be cance||ed upon surrender of the accused or proof of
h|s death.

1he ba|| sha|| be deemed automat|ca||y cance||ed upon acqu|tta| of the
accused, d|sm|ssa| of the case, or execut|on of the [udgment of

In a|| |nstances, the cance||at|on sha|| be w|thout pre[ud|ce to any
||ab|||ty on the ba||. (22a)

I. Iorfe|ture v. Cance||at|on of 8a||

Iorfe|ture Cance||at|on
Meanlng When you Lalk of
cancellaLlon, Lhe ball
wlll no longer be ln
effecL elLher by
volunLary surrender
or by deaLh.
lf Lhe accused ls absenL, Lhe courL
wlll flrsL requlre Lhe bondsman Lo
explaln wlLhln a perlod of 30days,
and brlng Lhe body of Lhe accused
wlLhln a slmllar perlod. lf you fall Lo
presenL Lhe body wlLhln a slmllar
perlod, Lhe ball wlll be forfelLed.
lL wlll be cancelled
auLomaLlcally lf Lhe
accused ls acqulLLed,
convlcLed, or Lhe case
agalnsL hlm wlLhouL
Lhe express consenL
of Lhe accused.
8emedy Appeal Lo relnsLaLe Lhe ball

II. Iorfe|ture of the bond (|n pract|ce)
Absence of Lhe accused wlLhouL valld [usLlflcaLlon may cause
lmmedlaLe forfelLure aL Lhe pleasure of Lhe prosecuLlon.

Sect|on 23. Arrest of accused out on ba||.
Ior the purpose of surrender|ng the accused, the bondsmen may
arrest h|m or, upon wr|tten author|ty endorsed on a cert|f|ed copy of
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the undertak|ng, cause h|m to be arrested by a po||ce off|cer or any
other person of su|tab|e age and d|scret|on.

An accused re|eased on ba|| may be re-arrested w|thout the necess|ty
of a warrant |f he attempts to depart from the h|||pp|nes w|thout
perm|ss|on of the court where the case |s pend|ng. (23a)

Sect|on 24. No ba|| after f|na| [udgment, except|on.
No ba|| sha|| be a||owed after a [udgment of conv|ct|on has become
f|na|. If before such f|na||ty, the accused app||es for probat|on, he may
be a||owed temporary ||berty under h|s ba||. When no ba|| was f||ed or
the accused |s |ncapab|e of f|||ng one, the court may a||ow h|s re|ease
on recogn|zance to the custody of a respons|b|e member of the
commun|ty. In no case sha|| ba|| be a||owed after the accused has
commenced to serve sentence. (24a)

I. Where the accused |s |ater conv|cted he can no |onger app|y for ba||
Powever, lf you applled for probaLlon, you can conLlnue.
o 1he penalLy for whlch you were convlcLed ls less Lhan 6
o ulfference wlLh parole: you have already sLarLed servlng
your senLence buL you may be released.
?ou can conLlnue on your orlglnal ball lf one has been glven
lf you cannoL avall for one because of flnanclal lncapaclLy, you
can be released on recognlzance.

Sect|on 2S. Court superv|s|on of deta|nees.
1he court sha|| exerc|se superv|s|on over a|| persons |n custody for the
purpose of e||m|nat|ng unnecessary detent|on. 1he execut|ve [udges of
the keg|ona| 1r|a| Courts sha|| conduct month|y persona| |nspect|ons of
prov|nc|a|, c|ty, and mun|c|pa| [a||s and the pr|soners w|th|n the|r
respect|ve [ur|sd|ct|ons. 1hey sha|| ascerta|n the number of deta|nees,
|nqu|re on the|r proper accommodat|ons and hea|th and exam|ne the
cond|t|on of the [a|| fac|||t|es. 1hey sha|| order the segregat|on of sexes
and of m|nors from adu|ts, ensure the observance of the r|ght of
deta|nees to confer pr|vate|y w|th counse|, and str|ve to e||m|nate
cond|t|ons |n|m|ca| to the deta|nees.

In c|t|es and mun|c|pa||t|es to be spec|f|ed by the Supreme Court, the
mun|c|pa| tr|a| [udges or mun|c|pa| c|rcu|t tr|a| [udges sha|| conduct
month|y persona| |nspect|ons of the mun|c|pa| [a||s |n the|r respect|ve
mun|c|pa||t|es and subm|t a report to the execut|ve [udge of the
keg|ona| 1r|a| Court hav|ng [ur|sd|ct|on there|n.

A month|y report of such v|s|tat|on sha|| be subm|tted by the execut|ve
[udges to the Court Adm|n|strator wh|ch sha|| state the tota| number
of deta|nees, the names of those he|d for more than th|rty (30) days,
the durat|on of detent|on, the cr|me charged, the status of the case,
the cause for detent|on, and other pert|nent |nformat|on. (2Sa)

Sect|on 26. 8a|| not a bar to ob[ect|ons on |||ega| arrest, |ack of or
|rregu|ar pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on.
An app||cat|on for or adm|ss|on to ba|| sha|| not bar the accused from
cha||eng|ng the va||d|ty of h|s arrest or the |ega||ty of the warrant
|ssued therefor, or from assa|||ng the regu|ar|ty or quest|on|ng the
absence of a pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on of the charge aga|nst h|m,
prov|ded that he ra|ses them before enter|ng h|s p|ea. 1he court sha||
reso|ve the matter as ear|y as pract|cab|e but not |ater than the start
of the tr|a| of the case. (n)
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Sect|on 1. k|ghts of accused at the tr|a|.
In a|| cr|m|na| prosecut|ons, the accused sha|| be ent|t|ed to the
fo||ow|ng r|ghts:

(a) 1o be presumed |nnocent unt|| the contrary |s proved beyond
reasonab|e doubt.

I. D|sputab|e presumpt|on
WhaL are Lhe facLs LhaL would lead Lo such presumpLlon:
o ?ou have Lo be Lhe accused
o 1here ls a charge agalnsL you

II. eop|e v. D|ma|anta
lf Lhe facLs would lead Lo a number of lnferences, one ls
presumpLlon of lnnocence and Lhe oLher one ls compaLlble wlLh
gullL, Lhe courL should acqulL.
lurLhermore, Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal presumpLlon of lnnocence
requlres Lhem Lo Lake a more Lhan casual conslderaLlon.
1he evldence of Lhe prosecuLlon musL sLand or fall on lLs own
welghL and cannoL be allowed Lo draw sLrengLh from Lhe
weakness of Lhe defense.

(b) 1o be |nformed of the nature and cause of the accusat|on aga|nst

I. Language of the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on
lf Lhe accused doesn'L know Lhe local language or even Lngllsh,
you wlll have Lo reLaln an auLhorlzed language lnLerpreLer Lo
saLlsfy Lhe mlnlmum requlremenLs of due process.
When Lhe complalnL or Lhe resoluLlon by Lhe publlc prosecuLor
whlch conLaln Lhe mlsslng avermenLs ls A11ACPLu Lo Lhe
lnformaLlon and form parL of Lhe records, Lhen Lhe accused's
rlghL Lo be lnformed of Lhe accusaLlon has been complled wlLh.
o C||varez v. CA ! where Lhe avermenLs of Lhe age of Lhe
vlcLlm (for purposes of Lhe AnLl-Chlld Abuse Law) were
aLLached Lo Lhe lnformaLlon, Lhere ls sufflclenL
compllance wlLh Lhe accused's rlghL Lo be lnformed.

(c) 1o be present and defend |n person and by counse| at every stage
of the proceed|ngs, from arra|gnment to promu|gat|on of the
[udgment. 1he accused may, however, wa|ve h|s presence at the tr|a|
pursuant to the st|pu|at|ons set forth |n h|s ba||, un|ess h|s presence |s
spec|f|ca||y ordered by the court for purposes of |dent|f|cat|on. 1he
absence of the accused w|thout [ust|f|ab|e cause at the tr|a| of wh|ch
he had not|ce sha|| be cons|dered a wa|ver of h|s r|ght to be present
thereat. When an accused under custody escapes, he sha|| be deemed
to have wa|ved h|s r|ght to be present on a|| subsequent tr|a| dates
unt|| custody over h|m |s rega|ned. Upon mot|on, the accused may be
a||owed to defend h|mse|f |n person when |t suff|c|ent|y appears to the
court that he can proper|y protect h|s r|ghts w|thout the ass|stance of

I. An accused |s ent|t|ed to counse| de parte
A counsel de parLe, a counsel of cholce, or lf he belleve he
doesn'L need one, he can proceed wlLh hlmself. Cr lf he cannoL
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afford one, Lhe courL can appolnL a counsel de offlclo. Cf course
Loday we have Lhe ubllc ALLorney's Cfflce (AC)

II. Instances where the Supreme Court or Lower Courts can appo|nt a
counse| de off|c|o.
1. uurlng ArralgnmenL
a. 1he CourL may slmply ask any lawyer presenL ln Lhe
room Lo asslsL Lhe defendanL for purposes of
2. lor purposes of Lrlal
3. lL ls Lhe duLy of Lhe clerk of courL Lo cerLlfy LhaL Lhe accused has
been lnformed of hls rlghL Lo counsel and hls rlghL Lo a counsel
de offlclo before Lhe records are elevaLed on appeal, lL ls Lhe
duLy of Lhe Clerk of CourL, Lo cerLlfy LhaL Lhe accused was glven
Lhe opporLunlLy Lo counsel.
4. ln Lhe CourL of Appeals, lf Lhe accused slgns hls appeal by
hlmself (ku|e 124) or lf Lhe accused ls ln prlson.

(d) 1o test|fy as a w|tness |n h|s own beha|f but sub[ect to cross-
exam|nat|on on matters covered by d|rect exam|nat|on. n|s s||ence
sha|| not |n any manner pre[ud|ce h|m.

(e) 1o be exempt from be|ng compe||ed to be a w|tness aga|nst

I. 8oth a Const|tut|ona| and Statutory r|ght

II. L|m|ted to Cra| 1est|mony
An accused can be compelled Lo sub[ecL hlmself Lo a blood
sample, urlne sample or any oLher bodlly examlnaLlon.
III. ost DNA exam|nat|on a||owed
ln Lhls case, Lhe defendanL ls no longer an accused buL a convlcL
1here can be posL-unA examlnaLlon even wlLhouL an order for
as long as you could show LhaL Lhe examlnaLlon ls maLerlal,
would show LhaL you're lnnocenL and would change Lhe
ouLcome of Lhe case.
8elease can be effecLed by habeas corpus flled ln Lhe CourL LhaL
rendered Lhe orlglnal [udgmenL.

(f) 1o confront and cross-exam|ne the w|tnesses aga|nst h|m at the
tr|a|. L|ther party may ut|||ze as part of |ts ev|dence the test|mony of a
w|tness who |s deceased, out of or can not w|th due d|||gence be found
|n the h|||pp|nes, unava||ab|e, or otherw|se unab|e to test|fy, g|ven |n
another case or proceed|ng, [ud|c|a| or adm|n|strat|ve, |nvo|v|ng the
same part|es and sub[ect matter, the adverse party hav|ng the
opportun|ty to cross-exam|ne h|m.

I. Lxcept|on to the hearsay ru|e (ku|e 130, Sect|on 47)
SubsecLlon (f) ls noL found ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon.
1he wlLness already dled or he ls unavallable, buL he has been
prevlously presenLed ln anoLher case lnvolvlng Lhe same parLles
and sub[ecL maLLer, can hls LesLlmony reproduced ln a LranscrlpL
be presenLed ln a crlmlnal case? ?LS!
1he only lmporLanL requlremenL ls LhaL Lhe wlLness should have
been sub[ecLed Lo cross-examlnaLlon, or aL leasL an opporLunlLy
Lo cross-examlne - only an opporLunlLy would sufflce.
o When Lhe wlLness ls dead or has mlgraLed Lo anoLher
counLry, buL hls LesLlmony was prevlously presenLed
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
lnvolvlng Lhe same case and parLles, hls LesLlmony may
be used.
Are deposlLlons allowed ln crlmlnal cases?
o ueposlLlon ! a klnd of LesLlmony and can be Laken
before any [udge, noLary publlc or any person
auLhorlzed Lo admlnlsLer oaLh. lL ls usually appllcable Lo
clvll cases.
o CondlLlonal LxamlnaLlon (Sect|on 12, 13, 1S of ku|e
119) ls of Lhe same naLure as deposlLlon, equlvalenL of
deposlLlon ln crlmlnal cases.
WlLness ls dead or cannoL be found
o CannoL be found" ! Lhere should have been a genulne
efforL Lo brlng forLh Lhe wlLness.

II. Cond|t|ons
1. Same parLles and sub[ecL maLLer ln anoLher proceedlng
2. CpporLunlLy Lo cross-examlne

III. S|tuat|on
lacLs: 1he prosecuLlon wlLness ls abouL Lo leave Lo work ln
anoLher counLry.
lssue: Can Lhe wlLness be examlned even before Lrlal?
Peld: ?LS. 1here can be a condlLlonal examlnaLlon of Lhe
wlLness even lf Lhere ls yeL no Lrlal.

(g) 1o have compu|sory process |ssued to secure the attendance of
w|tnesses and product|on of other ev|dence |n h|s beha|f,

I. Compu|sory process
Compulsory process ls a subpoena.
o As a consequence of non-compllance you could be held
ln conLempL.
1he provlslons for subpoenas are ln Sect|on 21 (ku|es on C|v||
o 1hls applles Lo boLh Clvll and Crlmlnal cases, ln Lhe same
manner as Lhe rule on moLlons ln ku|e 1S applles Lo clvll
and crlmlnal cases.

II. Subpoena
A. 1wo k|nds of Subpoena
1. Subpoena ad LesLlflcandum ! you are noL bound Lhereby and
Lhere ls no Lender of kllomeLrage and wlLness fees
2. Subpoena duces Lecum ! 1here ls Lender of kllomeLrage and
wlLness fees.

noLe: kllomeLrage ! lf you're wlLhln 100km from Lhe place where's Lhe
hearlng Lo be conducLed, your aLLendance can be compelled by a
subpoena lf you refuse Lo comply wlLh a subpoena, can you be arresLed
vla a bench warranL.
WarranL of arresL ! ls only lssued once lnformaLlon ls flled ln
courL afLer flndlng of probable cause. Slmply puL, lf Lhere ls a
warranL for your arresL, you have a pendlng case.
8ench warranL ! ls a warranL lssued by Lhe courL ln Lhe
exerclse of lLs [udlclal auLhorlLy Lo compel aLLendance of a
person ln courL. Slmply puL, Lhe courL ls compelllng your
aLLendance buL noL because you have a pendlng case.

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8. now to quash a subpoena
1. Subpoena duces Lecum ! lallure Lo Lender kllomeLrage and/or
wlLness fees. lallure Lo descrlbe Lhe books Lo be presenLed, and
fallure Lo Lender Lhe cosL of producLlon.

III. Contempt
Any person who refuses Lo appear ln courL or Lo LesLlfy can be
placed ln conLempL. 1here ls whaL you call dlrecL conLempL or
lndlrecL conLempL.

D|rect Contempt Ind|rect Contempt
1he express provlslon of law
(ku|e 71, Sect|on 3) could
make you llable for lndlrecL
8y acLs of dlsrespecL or
dlsobedlence ln Lhe
presence of so near a courL
or Lhe [udge. So you don'L
need a formal complalnL.
?ou don'L need a formal
peLlLlon, all LhaL ls requlred
ls you l88l1A1L Lhe [udge.
lf you are Lo flle an lndlrecL
conLempL, you cannoL do so by
a moLlon, you can only do lL
elLher by a verlfled peLlLlon
flled and dockeLed separaLely,
or upon a formal charge by Lhe
courL moLu proplo. no moLlon
for lndlrecL conLempL.
8emedy CerLlorarl Appeal

(h) 1o have a speedy, |mpart|a| and pub||c tr|a|.

I. Speedy 1r|a| v. Speedy D|spos|t|on of the Case

Speedy 1r|a| Speedy D|spos|t|on of the Case
Crlmlnal rocedure ConsLlLuLlon
Any Llme before Lrlal Any Llme for as long as Lhe
acLlon ls pendlng
Coverage LlmlLed Lo [udlclal cases LxLends Lo [udlclal or quasl-
[udlclal bodles
8emedy 8ule 63 (CerLlorarl,
Mandamus, rohlblLlon)
eLlLlon for Pabeas Corpus
*1wo k|nds of Speedy 1r|a|
1. Speedy 1rlal (sLaLuLory)
2. Speedy ulsposlLlon of cases (consLlLuLlonal)

II. k|ght to pub||c tr|a|
ubllc 1rlal" ! ubllc Lrlal requlres you Lo be presenL ln courL,
you cannoL record, you cannoL Lape wheLher audlo or vldeo.
o Genera| ku|e: anyone can come, sub[ecL Lo cerLaln
o Lxcept|on: When Lhe CourL asks for lL.
urpose: 1o proLecL Lhe accused and prevenL Lhe rallroadlng of
Lhe case
8ecordlng of Lhe a Lrlal
o Genera| ku|e: 8ecordlng ls noL allowed ln [udlclal
" 1o allow a recordlng or a vlewlng ln publlc of
Lhe proceedlngs wlll vlolaLe of whaL ls
undersLood Lo be a publlc Lrlal.
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
" 1o allow a recodlng and vlewlng as lL happens
wlll glve affecL [udges because of posslble publlc
oplnlon, and wlll glve an opporLunlLy for lawyers
Lo grand sLand."
o Lxcept|on: (MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon of Lhe Lrap
lunder case) 8ecordlng ls allowed for purposes of
educaLlonal and hlsLorlcal value, and sub[ecL Lo cerLaln
rules and regulaLlons.
o ln non-[udlclal proceedlngs: (8ules)
" no commerclal breaks
" no annoLaLlons durlng breaks
" no zoom-lns
WhaL abouL lmpeachmenL? lmpeachmenL ls noL a [udlclal
proceedlng. lL ls a SenaLe or a proceedlng before Lhe Congress
of Lhe hlllpplnes, lL ls noL Lhe same.

(|) 1o appea| |n a|| cases a||owed and |n the manner prescr|bed by |aw.
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Sect|on 1. Arra|gnment and p|ea, how made.
(a) 1he accused must be arra|gned before the court where the
comp|a|nt or |nformat|on was f||ed or ass|gned for tr|a|. 1he
arra|gnment sha|| be made |n open court by the [udge or c|erk by
furn|sh|ng the accused w|th a copy of the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on,
read|ng the same |n the |anguage or d|a|ect known to h|m, and ask|ng
h|m whether he p|eads gu||ty or not gu||ty. 1he prosecut|on may ca|| at
the tr|a| w|tnesses other than those named |n the comp|a|nt or

(b) 1he accused must be present at the arra|gnment and must
persona||y enter h|s p|ea. 8oth arra|gnment and p|ea sha|| be made of
record, but fa||ure to do so sha|| not affect the va||d|ty of the

(c) When the accused refuses to p|ead or makes a cond|t|ona| p|ea, a
p|ea of not gu||ty sha|| be entered for h|m. (1a)

(d) When the accused p|eads gu||ty but presents excu|patory ev|dence,
h|s p|ea sha|| be deemed w|thdrawn and a p|ea of not gu||ty sha|| be
entered for h|m. (n)

(e) When the accused |s under prevent|ve detent|on, h|s case sha|| be
raff|ed and |ts records transm|tted to the [udge to whom the case was
raff|ed w|th|n three (3) days from the f|||ng of the |nformat|on or
comp|a|nt. 1he accused sha|| be arra|gned w|th|n ten (10) days from
the date of the raff|e. 1he pre-tr|a| conference of h|s case sha|| be he|d
w|th|n ten (10) days after arra|gnment. (n)

(f) 1he pr|vate offended party sha|| be requ|red to appear at the
arra|gnment for purposes of p|ea barga|n|ng, determ|nat|on of c|v||
||ab|||ty, and other matters requ|r|ng h|s presence. In case of fa||ure of
the offended party to appear desp|te due not|ce, the court may a||ow
the accused to enter a p|ea of gu||ty to a |esser offense wh|ch |s
necessar||y |nc|uded |n the offense charged w|th the conform|ty of the
tr|a| prosecutor a|one. (C|r. 1-89)

(g) Un|ess a shorter per|od |s prov|ded by spec|a| |aw or Supreme Court
C|rcu|ar, the arra|gnment sha|| be he|d w|th|n th|rty (30) days from the
date the court acqu|res [ur|sd|ct|on over the person of the accused.
1he t|me of the pendency of a mot|on to quash or for a b||| of
part|cu|ars or other causes [ust|fy|ng suspens|on of the arra|gnment
sha|| be exc|uded |n comput|ng the per|od. (Sec. 2, C|r. 38-98)

I. Genera| o|nts
ArralgnmenL cannoL be dlspensed wlLh.
o lf Lhere ls no arralgnmenL, Lhe [udgmenL would be
CondlLlonal lea ! allows Lhe defendanL Lo requesL LhaL Lhe
courL revlew speclflc legal lssues before Lhe plea can be
o Lxample: l wlll plead lf you lnclude Lhese people/enLer
new lnformaLlon, eLc.

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II. When arra|gnment takes p|ace (Sect|on 1, c & g)
lf Lhe person ls noL yeL deLalned ! WlLhln a perlod of 30 days
from Lhe Llme Lhe courL acqulres [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe person of
Lhe accused. Pow? 8y arresL or volunLary surrender.
o WlLhln Lhe same 30 days, 8u1 Al1L8 arralgnmenL, pre-
Lrlal musL also be conducLed. (ku|e 118, Sect|on 1)
lf Lhe person ls prevenLlvely deLalned ! Lhe perlods are shorLer
(3:10:10), from Lhe Llme Lhe lnformaLlon ls flled, Lhe case wlll be
seL for raffle wlLhln 3 days, now from Lhe Llme Lhe raffle ls
concluded Lhe arralgnmenL wlll be scheduled wlLhln a perlod of
10 days Lherefrom. And Lhe pre-Lrlal wlll be scheduled wlLhln 10
days LhereafLer.

III. 8e|ated Arra|gnment Va||d (eop|e v. 1r|n|dad)
Were Lhe proceedlngs lnvalld? nC. Lhe procedural defecL was
cured when hls counsel parLlclpaLed ln Lhe Lrlal wlLhouL ralslng
any ob[ecLlon LhaL hls cllenL had yeL Lo be arralgned. Cn facL, hls
counsel cross-examlned Lhe prosecuLlon wlLnesses, moreover,
no proLesL was made when appellanL was subsequenLly
o ln shorL ! 8elaLed arralgnmenL ls valld for Lhe reason
LhaL Lhere was opporLunlLy Lo cross and Lhe lawyer
parLlclpaLed ln Lhe proceedlngs.

IV. When p|ea of not gu||ty |s entered by the Court
1. lf Lhe accused refuses Lo enLer a plea, Lhe courL wlll enLer for
hlm a plea of noL gullLy.
2. lf an accused enLers a plea of gullL wlLh an exculpaLory defense
or self-defense, Lhe courL wlll enLer a plea of noL gullLy.
3. lf lL ls a condlLlonal plea, Lhe courL wlll enLer a plea of noL gullLy.

V. When p|ea of gu||ty |s entered
lea of gullL ls equlvalenL Lo a [udlclal confesslon.
1he plea of gullL may be wlLhdrawn aL any Llme before Lrlal.
o lea of gullL Lo a caplLal offense (Sect|on 3)
o lea of gullL Lo a non-caplLal offense (Sect|on 4)
o lea of gullL Lo a lesser offense (Sect|on 2)
o lmprovldenL plea (Sect|on S)

VI. Who shou|d be present dur|ng arra|gnment
" Accused. 1he proceedlngs cannoL conLlnue ln Lhe accused's
absence, because arralgnmenL should be made personally by
Lhe accused. lf he's absenL Lhe courL wlll slmply whaL, reseL Lhe
hearlng and lssue a warranL for hls arresL.
! Cffended parLy. unless Lhe presence of Lhe offended parLy ls
requlred when Lhere ls a plea of gullL Lo a lesser offense, for
purposes of deLermlnlng clvll llablllLy. Cr when Lhe courL
requlres Lhe aLLendance of Lhe offended parLy.
o 8ecause Lhe offended parLy ls only a wlLness for Lhe
SLaLe. 1he offended parLy ls whaL you call a complalnlng
wlLness. 1herefore hls or her absence wlll noL affecL Lhe
conducL of Lhe proceedlngs.

Sect|on 2. |ea of gu||ty to a |esser offense.
At arra|gnment, the accused, w|th the consent of the offended party
and the prosecutor, may be a||owed by the tr|a| court to p|ead gu||ty
to a |esser offense wh|ch |s necessar||y |nc|uded |n the offense
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charged. After arra|gnment but before tr|a|, the accused may st||| be
a||owed to p|ead gu||ty to sa|d |esser offense after w|thdraw|ng h|s
p|ea of not gu||ty. No amendment of the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on |s
necessary. (Sec. 4, C|r. 38-98)

I. kequ|s|te
1. Genera| ku|e: ConsenL of Lhe offended parLy and prosecuLor ls
a. Lxcept|on: 1he prosecuLor may negoLlaLe for a lesser
offense when Lhe offended parLy was duly noLlfled and
Lhe offense Lhe accused pleaded Lo ls necessarlly
lncluded ln Lhe offense charged.
2. 1he plea ls made prlor Lo Lrlal.

II. When p|ea to gu||t for a |esser offense be made
uurlng arralgnmenL ! for as long Lhere ls noLlce Lo Lhe
offended parLy and Lhe prosecuLlon, even lf Lhe offended parLy
ls absenL, and Lhe lesser offense ls necessarlly lncluded ln Lhe
offense charged.
AfLer arralgnmenL
8efore Lrlal/AL re-1rlal
o Lqu|va|ent to p|ea barga|n|ng (ku|e 118) ! Lhe lasL
opporLunlLy Lo plead gullLy Lo a lesser offense ls durlng
II. Consent of the prosecutor and the offended party
Cffended parLy ! clvll aspecL of Lhe case, and Lhe offended
parLy was Lhe one dlrecLly damaged.
rosecuLor ! because Lhe sLaLe was offended by Lhe crlme.

Sect|on 3. |ea of gu||ty to cap|ta| offense, recept|on of ev|dence.
When the accused p|eads gu||ty to a cap|ta| offense, the court sha||
conduct a search|ng |nqu|ry |nto the vo|untar|ness and fu||
comprehens|on of the consequences of h|s p|ea and sha|| requ|re the
prosecut|on to prove h|s gu||t and the prec|se degree of cu|pab|||ty.
1he accused may present ev|dence |n h|s beha|f. (3a)

I. What |s a cap|ta| offense? (ku|e 114, Sect|on 6)
lL ls an offense whlch aL Lhe Llme of appllcaLlon for ball and aL
Lhe Llme of commlsslon Lhe penalLy for Lhe offense ls deaLh.
1he prosecuLlon, desplLe Lhe plea of gullL Lo a caplLal offense,
wlll sLlll have Lo presenL lLs evldence Lo esLabllsh Lhe exacL
culpablllLy of Lhe accused.
o A full Lrlal musL sLlll be conducLed Lo deLermlne Lhe
exacL culpablllLy of Lhe accused.

II. Gu|de||nes |n conduct|ng a Search|ng Inqu|ry (eop|e v. U||t)
1. ClrcumsLances on cusLodlal lnvesLlgaLlon and prellmlnary
lnvesLlgaLlon wlll have Lo be lnqulred upon by Lhe [udge. So Lhe
[udge shall sLlll lnqulre upon Lhe conducL of Lhese lnvesLlgaLlons.
2. Ask Lhe defense counsel wheLher he has conferred wlLh, and
compleLely explalned Lo Lhe accused Lhe consequences of hls
plea lncludlng Lhe meanlng of legal Lerms. ?ou wlll have Lo ask
Lhe accused do you know Lhe consequences of your plea?" do
you need Lo explaln whaL murder ls? uo u need Lo explaln whaL
aggravaLlng clrcumsLances are? MlLlgaLlng? ?LS, Lhe [udge wlll
have Lo explaln.
3. LllclL lnformaLlon on personallLy proflle of Lhe accused. uoes he
really know whaL Lhe plea ls all abouL?
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4. lnform Lhe accused of exacL lengLh of lmprlsonmenL or naLure of
penalLy under Lhe law. So Lhe accused wlll have Lo be lnformed.
3. 8equlre Lhe accused Lo fully narraLe Lhe lncldenL.
noLe: volunLarlness of Lhe accused ls lmporLanL.
noLe: 1here should be a dlllgenL efforL on Lhe parL of Lhe [udge.
1he background of Lhe accused musL be necessarlly examlned
(knowledge, famlly, educaLlon, eLc.)
1he experlence of Lhe accused under deLenLlon/cusLodlal
lnvesLlgaLlon musL also be examlned.

Sect|on 4. |ea of gu||ty to non-cap|ta| offense, recept|on of ev|dence,
When the accused p|eads gu||ty to a non-cap|ta| offense, the court
may rece|ve ev|dence from the part|es to determ|ne the pena|ty to be
|mposed. (4)

I. Non-Cap|ta| Cffense
Pearlng ls noL requlred/dlscreLlonary.
Pearlng lf ever lL ls conducLed, wlll only proceed for purposes of
deLermlnlng Lhe exacL penalLy for Lhe offense.
o lf Lhe CourL knows exacLly whaL penalLy Lo lmpose, Lhen
hearlng may be dlspensed wlLh.

Sect|on S. W|thdrawa| of |mprov|dent p|ea of gu||ty.
At any t|me before the [udgment of conv|ct|on becomes f|na|, the
court may perm|t an |mprov|dent p|ea of gu||ty to be w|thdrawn and
be subst|tuted by a p|ea of not gu||ty. (S)

I. Improv|dent |ea of Gu||ty Def|ned
lL ls a plea where Lhe consequence Lhereof ls noL known Lo Lhe
accused. 1herefore, Lhe accused dld noL lnLelllgenLly enLer hls
plea, he ls noL aware of Lhe consequence Lhereof - LhaL ls why
Lhe law glves hlm Lhe opporLunlLy Lo wlLhdraw before flnal
An lmprovldenL plea may be wlLhdrawn anyLlme before Lhe
[udgmenL of convlcLlon becomes flnal and execuLory.

II. ku|es when Improv|dent |ea of Gu||t |s made
lf Lhe sole basls of a convlcLlon ls an lmprovldenL plea ! and lL
reached Lhe Supreme CourL, usually ln cases lnvolvlng
Llfe/8ecluslon erpeLua, Lhe Supreme CourL wlll noL render
[udgmenL buL wlll only remand Lhe case for furLher proceedlngs
lf Lhe sole basls of Lhe convlcLlon ls an lmprovldenL plea.
lf Lhe basls of Lhe convlcLlon ls noL Lhe lmprovldenL plea, Lhough
Lhere was an lmprovldenL plea ! buL Lhere are oLher evldence
Lo esLabllsh/polnL on Lhe culpablllLy of Lhe accused, Lhen Lhe
Supreme CourL wlll render a [udgmenL.

Sect|on 6. Duty of court to |nform accused of h|s r|ght to counse|.
8efore arra|gnment, the court sha|| |nform the accused of h|s r|ght to
counse| and ask h|m |f he des|res to have one. Un|ess the accused |s
a||owed to defend h|mse|f |n person or has emp|oyed counse| of h|s
cho|ce, the court must ass|gn a counse| de of|c|o to defend h|m. (6a)

Sect|on 7. Appo|ntment of counse| de of|c|o.
1he court, cons|der|ng the grav|ty of the offense and the d|ff|cu|ty of
the quest|ons that may ar|se, sha|| appo|nt as counse| de of|c|o such
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members of the bar |n good stand|ng who, by reason of the|r
exper|ence and ab|||ty, can competent|y defend the accused. 8ut |n
|oca||t|es where such members of the bar are not ava||ab|e, the court
may appo|nt any person, res|dent of the prov|nce and of good repute
for prob|ty and ab|||ty, to defend the accused. (7a)

Sect|on 8. 1|me for counse| de of|c|o to prepare for arra|gnment.
Whenever a counse| de of|c|o |s appo|nted by the court to defend the
accused at the arra|gnment, he sha|| be g|ven a reasonab|e t|me to
consu|t w|th the accused as to h|s p|ea before proceed|ng w|th the
arra|gnment. (8a)

Sect|on 9. 8||| of part|cu|ars.
1he accused may, before arra|gnment, move for a b||| of part|cu|ars to
enab|e h|m proper|y to p|ead and prepare for tr|a|. 1he mot|on sha||
spec|fy the a||eged defects of the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on and the
deta||s des|red. (10a)

I. o|nt
?ou need Lo clLe Lhe defecL ln Lhe lnformaLlon.
?ou may ask Lhe prosecuLlon Lo speclfy or glve Lhe parLlculars
concernlng Lhe defecLs of Lhe lnformaLlon.
o ALLy. 1ranqull ! Lhls may noL necessarlly be a good
move, because lL can gulde Lhe prosecuLlon Lo amend a
defecLlve lnformaLlon LhaL could have been dlsmlssed
vla a moLlon Lo quash.
lf Lhe prosecuLlon does noL provlde a blll of parLlculars, or whaL
lL provlded was defecLlve, Lhe case wlll be dlsmlssed based on
fallure Lo prosecuLe.
o V|rata v. Sand|ganbayan ! Lhe 8lll of arLlculars merely
relLeraLed sLuff and even added allegaLlons.

Sect|on 10. roduct|on or |nspect|on of mater|a| ev|dence |n
possess|on of prosecut|on.
Upon mot|on of the accused show|ng good cause and w|th not|ce to
the part|es, the court, |n order to prevent surpr|se, suppress|on, or
a|terat|on, may order the prosecut|on to produce and perm|t the
|nspect|on and copy|ng or photograph|ng of any wr|tten statement
g|ven by the comp|a|nant and other w|tnesses |n any |nvest|gat|on of
the offense conducted by the prosecut|on or other |nvest|gat|ng
off|cers, as we|| as any des|gnated documents, papers, books,
accounts, |etters, photographs, ob[ects, or tang|b|e th|ngs not
otherw|se pr|v||eged, wh|ch const|tute or conta|n ev|dence mater|a| to
any matter |nvo|ved |n the case and wh|ch are |n the possess|on or
under the contro| of the prosecut|on, po||ce, or other |aw |nvest|gat|ng
agenc|es. (11a)

I. o|nt
1he accused can demand LhaL records, documenLs ln Lhe
possesslon of Lhe pollce offlcers or Lhe offended parLy be
presenLed Lo avold suppresslon, surprlse or even desLrucLlon.
?ou could requlre by moLlon Lhe presenLaLlon of Lhese

Sect|on 11. Suspens|on of arra|gnment.
Upon mot|on by the proper party, the arra|gnment sha|| be suspended
|n the fo||ow|ng cases:

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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
(a) 1he accused appears to be suffer|ng from an unsound menta|
cond|t|on wh|ch effect|ve|y renders h|m unab|e to fu||y understand the
charge aga|nst h|m and to p|ead |nte|||gent|y thereto. In such case, the
court sha|| order h|s menta| exam|nat|on and, |f necessary, h|s
conf|nement for such purpose,

(b) 1here ex|sts a pre[ud|c|a| quest|on, and

(c) A pet|t|on for rev|ew of the reso|ut|on of the prosecutor |s pend|ng
at e|ther the Department of Iust|ce, or the Cff|ce of the res|dent,
prov|ded, that the per|od of suspens|on sha|| not exceed s|xty (60)
days counted from the f|||ng of the pet|t|on w|th the rev|ew|ng off|ce.

I. Subsect|on (a): Where the accused |s of unsound m|nd
lf an accused ls of unsound mlnd, Lhere ls no way by whlch he
would know whaL he ls golng Lhrough.
ArralgnmenL durlng Lhls perlod would vlolaLe Lhe flrsL
requlremenL of arralgnmenL ls LhaL Lhe accused should've been
lnformed of Lhe naLure and cause of accusaLlon agalnsL hlm.

II. Subsect|on (b): re[ud|c|a| uest|on
So Lhe arralgnmenL could sLlll be suspended lf you are able Lo
Llmely flle a moLlon for suspenslon of proceedlngs on Lhe
ground of a pre[udlclal quesLlon.
Where can you flle Lhls? 8efore Lhe Cfflce of Lhe rosecuLor
conducLlng prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon or before Lhe courL before
Lhe prosecuLlon would resL lLs case.

III. Subsect|on (c): et|t|on for rev|ew pend|ng w|th the DCI
lf Lhe uC! ls unable Lo compleLe lLs resoluLlon wlLhln 60 days,
Lhe courL wlll arralgn.

IV. ku|e 6S: et|t|on for Cert|orar| w||| not sta|| proceed|ngs
Powever Lake noLe LhaL Lhe new provlslon glves you a wlndow
of 10 days. lf you flle a peLlLlon Lhe courL wlll noL acL wlLhln a
perlod of 10 days, buL LhaL ls noL a 18C.
?ou cannoL exLend Lhe perlod of 60 days even for a compelllng

V. eop|e v. Astro|ogo: Arrest v|s--v|s Arra|gnment
Any ob[ecLlon, defecL, or lrregularlLy aLLendlng an arresL musL
be made before Lhe accused enLers hls plea or arralgnmenL and
havlng falled Lo move for Lhe quashlng of Lhe lnformaLlon
agalnsL hlm before arralgnmenL, appellanL ls esLopped from
quesLlonlng Lhe legallLy of arresL."

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kULL 117: MC1ICN 1C UASn

Sect|on 1. 1|me to move to quash.
At any t|me before enter|ng h|s p|ea, the accused may move to quash
the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on. (1)

I. When Mot|on to uash Shou|d 8e I||ed
As a rule, you have Lo flle Lhe moLlon wlLhln a cerLaln perlod of
Llme. AfLer Lhe perlod, you can no longer flle a moLlon Lo quash.
o 8efore plea ! moLlon Lo quash
" 1heoreLlcally, you can flle a moLlon Lo quash
even afLer readlng of Lhe lnformaLlon.
" ln pracLlce: you need Lo make sure Lo flle Lhls
moLlon before arralgnmenL, because lf you
don'L, you may lrrlLaLe Lhe [udge.
o 8efore arralgnmenL ! moLlon for blll of parLlculars
AccepLance of a MoLlon Lo Cuash amounLs Lo an acqulLLal wlLh
consenL of Lhe accused (Lhus no double [eopardy aLLaches)

Sect|on 2. Iorm and contents.
1he mot|on to quash sha|| be |n wr|t|ng, s|gned by the accused or h|s
counse| and sha|| d|st|nct|y spec|fy |ts factua| and |ega| grounds. 1he
court sha|| cons|der no ground other than those stated |n the mot|on,
except |ack of [ur|sd|ct|on over the offense charged. (2a)

I. Mot|on to uash
A MoLlon Lo Cuash may be flled where Lhe lnformaLlon ls
defecLlve or Lhe CourL has no [urlsdlcLlon.
1hls wlll noL resulL ln double [eopardy unless such already exlsLs.
Sect|on 3. Grounds.
1he accused may move to quash the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on on any
of the fo||ow|ng grounds:

(a) 1hat the facts charged do not const|tute an offense,

(b) 1hat the court try|ng the case has no [ur|sd|ct|on over the offense

(c) 1hat the court try|ng the case has no [ur|sd|ct|on over the person of
the accused,

(d) 1hat the off|cer who f||ed the |nformat|on had no author|ty to do

(e) 1hat |t does not conform substant|a||y to the prescr|bed form,

(f) 1hat more than one offense |s charged except when a s|ng|e
pun|shment for var|ous offenses |s prescr|bed by |aw,

(g) 1hat the cr|m|na| act|on or ||ab|||ty has been ext|ngu|shed,

(h) 1hat |t conta|ns averments wh|ch, |f true, wou|d const|tute a |ega|
excuse or [ust|f|cat|on, and

(|) 1hat the accused has been prev|ous|y conv|cted or acqu|tted of the
offense charged, or the case aga|nst h|m was d|sm|ssed or otherw|se
term|nated w|thout h|s express consent. (3a)

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I. 1
Ground: 1hat the facts charged do not const|tute an offense
lf Lhe M1C ls grounded on Lhls, Lhe CourL can order Lhe
prosecuLlon Lo amend Lhe lnformaLlon. 1he prosecuLlon wlll be
glven a Llme Lo compleLe Lhe lnformaLlon. lf Lhey fall Lo do so, lL
wlll be dlsmlssed.
1he elemenLs of Lhe crlme musL be presenL ln Lhe facLs as
presenLed ln Lhe lnformaLlon.

II. 2
Ground: 1hat the court try|ng the case has no [ur|sd|ct|on over
the offense charged
1hls goes Lo Lhe law LhaL confers [urlsdlcLlon.
1he lnformaLlon may be re-flled ln Lhe CourL havlng [urlsdlcLlon
over Lhe case.

III. 3
Ground: 1hat the court try|ng the case has no [ur|sd|ct|on over
the person of the accused
volunLary surrender and arresL, so lf he hasn'L surrendered or
arresLed Lhe lnformaLlon can be quashed.

IV. 4
Ground: 1hat the off|cer who f||ed the |nformat|on had no
author|ty to do so
1ur|ngan v. Garf|n ! a sLaLe prosecuLor lacked Lhe auLhorlLy Lo
flle Lhe lnformaLlon because Lhere was nelLher a dlrecLlve from
Lhe SecreLary of !usLlce deslgnaLlng hlm as a speclal prosecuLor
nor Lhe wrlLLen approval of Lhe lnformaLlon by Lhe clLy
prosecuLor. Pere, Lhe lnformaLlon suffered from a [urlsdlcLlonal
defecL. 1herefore, Lhe [udge correcLly dlsmlssed Lhe case.
o 1he offlce of Lhe speclal prosecuLor can only flle an
lnformaLlon wlLh auLhorlLy granLed by Lhe Cmbudsman
o 1he clLy prosecuLor flles ln anoLher clLy noL wlLhln hls
o 1he asslsLanL prosecuLor wlLhouL consenL of Lhe clLy or
provlnclal prosecuLor.
1he lnformaLlon may be re-flled.

V. S
Ground: 1hat |t does not conform substant|a||y to the prescr|bed
form such as.
ku|e 112 ! no cerLlflcaLlon (A prosecuLor should cerLlfy Lhe
lnformaLlon LhaL he has served a copy of Lhe complalnL Lo Lhe
accused, who Lhen was Lhe respondenL, and Lhe accused-
respondenL was glven Lhe opporLunlLy Lo presenL hls slde. 1haL
ls parL of Lhe lnformaLlon.)

VI. 6
Ground: 1hat more than one offense |s charged except when a
s|ng|e pun|shment for var|ous offenses |s prescr|bed by |aw
Genera| ku|e: Cne offense only ln one lnformaLlon.
o lf you have more Lhan one offense charged ln one
lnformaLlon, Lhe lnformaLlon can be quashed.
o Complex Crlme
o Walver

VII. 7
Ground: 1hat the cr|m|na| act|on or ||ab|||ty has been
When Lhe acLlon has prescrlbed

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Ground: 1hat |t conta|ns averments wh|ch, |f true, wou|d
const|tute a |ega| excuse or [ust|f|cat|on
When Lhe lnformaLlon ralses an exculpaLory defense (l.e.
mlLlgaLlng or [usLlfylng clrcumsLance)
o 1he accused shoL Lhe vlcLlm because he had Lo defend

Ik. 9
Ground: 1hat the accused has been prev|ous|y conv|cted or
acqu|tted of the offense charged, or the case aga|nst h|m was
d|sm|ssed or otherw|se term|nated w|thout h|s express consent.
Doub|e Ieopardy ! cannot be re-f||ed
o Genera| ku|e: A dlsmlssal wlLh Lhe express consenL of
Lhe accused wlll noL lead Lo a double [eopardy.
" A dlsmlssal wlLhouL express consenL of Lhe
accused ls LhaL done wlLhouL lnlLlaLlon of Lhe
accused or wlLhouL ay suggesLlon from Lhe
" Lxample: lallure Lo prosecuLe because Lhe
moLlon of blll parLlculars was noL complled wlLh
(V|rata v. Sand|ganbayan)
o Lxcept|on: (Doub|e Ieopardy w||| attach here)
" uemurrer of evldence
" ulsmlssal of Lhe case on grounds of speedy Lrlal
Speedy 1r|a| ! cannot be re-f||ed, doub|e [eopardy attaches
o vCC ! vexaLlous, caprlclous and oppresslve delays
o Lxcluslons (ku|e 119, Sect|on 3) ! 1he law mandaLes
LhaL Lhe Lrlal should be compleLed swlfLly, lf Lhe case ls
delayed for one reason or anoLher llke Lhere ls a
peLlLlon for cerLlorarl, Lhere are exLraordlnary remedles,
or oLher pendlng cases, [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe person of
Lhe accused or oLher accused have noL yeL been
obLalned, llke delay by reason of oLher proceedlngs,
unsound mlnd of Lhe accused, llke unavallablllLy of
wlLnesses or absences of wlLnesses - Lhese are whaL
you call LxCLuSlCnS
" As long as Lhe prosecuLlon does someLhlng Lhe
courL ordlnarlly wlll noL dlsmlss.
o 1hls ls an excepLlon Lo Lhe rule LhaL dlsmlssal wlLh
consenL of Lhe accused wlll noL resulL Lo double

k. Grounds that w||| surv|ve even |f you |n|t|a||y fa|| a Mot|on to uash
(Sect|on 9, ku|e 117)
When Lhere ls double [eopardy
o Where has been: AcqulLLal, ConvlcLlon, ulsmlssal
wlLhouL express consenL of Lhe accused.
rescrlpLlon of crlmes (noL penalLy)
o rescrlpLlon of penalLles ! Lhere has been flnal
[udgmenL and such was noL execuLed
o rescrlpLlon of crlmes ! Lhere has been no flllng of any
acLlon for a cerLaln perlod of Llme.

Sect|on 4. Amendment of comp|a|nt or |nformat|on.
If the mot|on to quash |s based on an a||eged defect of the comp|a|nt
or |nformat|on wh|ch can be cured by amendment, the court sha||
order that an amendment be made. (4a)
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If |t |s based on the ground that the facts charged do not const|tute an
offense, the prosecut|on sha|| be g|ven by the court an opportun|ty to
correct the defect by amendment. 1he mot|on sha|| be granted |f the
prosecut|on fa||s to make the amendment, or the comp|a|nt or
|nformat|on st||| suffers from the same defect desp|te the amendment.

Sect|on S. Lffect of susta|n|ng the mot|on to quash.
If the mot|on to quash |s susta|ned, the court may order that another
comp|a|nt or |nformat|on be f||ed except as prov|ded |n Sect|on 6 of
th|s ru|e. If the order |s made, the accused, |f |n custody, sha|| not be
d|scharged un|ess adm|tted to ba||. If no order |s made or |f hav|ng
been made, no new |nformat|on |s f||ed w|th|n the t|me spec|f|ed |n
the order or w|th|n such further t|me as the court may a||ow for good
cause, the accused, |f |n custody, sha|| be d|scharged un|ess he |s a|so
|n custody for another charge. (Sa)

I. kesu|t of grant|ng a Mot|on to uash
uoes noL lead Lo an acqulLLal, buL raLher Lo a dlsmlssal wlLh
consenL of Lhe accused. 1hus, double [eopardy does noL aLLach.
Genera| ku|e: A new lnformaLlon can be re-flled.
Lxcept|on: uouble !eopardy or rescrlpLlon
o 1he only ground, where Lhe case wlll noL be dlsmlssed -
buL raLher Lhere wlll be an amendmenL - ls when Lhe
lnformaLlon does noL consLlLuLe an offense. Sect|on 3(a)
Any moLlon lnlLlaLed by Lhe accused LhaL wlll resulL Lo a
dlsmlssal wlll noL amounL Lo double [eopardy.

Sect|on 6. Crder susta|n|ng the mot|on to quash not a bar to another
prosecut|on, except|on.
An order susta|n|ng the mot|on to quash |s not a bar to another
prosecut|on for the same offense un|ess the mot|on was based on the
grounds spec|f|ed |n Sect|on 3 (g) and (|) of th|s ku|e. (6a)

Sect|on 7. Iormer conv|ct|on or acqu|tta|, doub|e [eopardy.
When an accused has been conv|cted or acqu|tted, or the case aga|nst
h|m d|sm|ssed or otherw|se term|nated w|thout h|s express consent by
a court of competent [ur|sd|ct|on, upon a va||d comp|a|nt or
|nformat|on or other forma| charge suff|c|ent |n form and substance to
susta|n a conv|ct|on and after the accused had p|eaded to the charge,
the conv|ct|on or acqu|tta| of the accused or the d|sm|ssa| of the case
sha|| be a bar to another prosecut|on for the offense charged, or for
any attempt to comm|t the same or frustrat|on thereof, or for any
offense wh|ch necessar||y |nc|udes or |s necessar||y |nc|uded |n the
offense charged |n the former comp|a|nt or |nformat|on.

nowever, the conv|ct|on of the accused sha|| not be a bar to another
prosecut|on for an offense wh|ch necessar||y |nc|udes the offense
charged |n the former comp|a|nt or |nformat|on under any of the
fo||ow|ng |nstances:

(a) the graver offense deve|oped due to superven|ng facts ar|s|ng from
the same act or om|ss|on const|tut|ng the former charge,

(b) the facts const|tut|ng the graver charge became known or were
d|scovered on|y after a p|ea was entered |n the former comp|a|nt or
|nformat|on, or

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(c) the p|ea of gu||ty to the |esser offense was made w|thout the
consent of the prosecutor and of the offended party except as
prov|ded |n Sect|on 1(f) of ku|e 116.

In any of the forego|ng cases, where the accused sat|sf|es or serves |n
who|e or |n part the [udgment, he sha|| be cred|ted w|th the same |n
the event of conv|ct|on for the graver offense. (7a)

I. kequ|s|tes for Doub|e Ieopardy:
1. A courL of compeLenL [urlsdlcLlon
2. A valld complalnL or lnformaLlon
3. A valld arralgnmenL/plea has been enLered
4. AcqulLLal, convlcLlon and dlsmlssal wlLhouL Lhe express consenL
of Lhe accused.

II. Lxcept|on
1. Supervenlng LvenL ! even lf Lhere ls already a [udgmenL or a
plea, lf Lhere ls a supervenlng evenL LhaL would resulL Lo a
graver offense, double [eopardy wlll noL apply.
2. 1he facLs consLlLuLlng Lhe graver offense were only dlscovered
afLer plea.
3. lea of gullLy Lo lesser offense was made Wl1PCu1 consenL of
prosecuLor and offended parLy
a. Lxcept|on: When Lhe prlvaLe offended parLy dld noL
appear durlng arralgnmenL for plea bargalnlng and Lhe
offense was necessarlly lncluded ln Lhe offense charged
(double [eopardy seLs ln).

Sect|on 8. rov|s|ona| d|sm|ssa|.
A case sha|| not be prov|s|ona||y d|sm|ssed except w|th the express
consent of the accused and w|th not|ce to the offended party.

1he prov|s|ona| d|sm|ssa| of offenses pun|shab|e by |mpr|sonment not
exceed|ng s|x (6) years or a f|ne of any amount, or both, sha|| become
permanent one (1) year after |ssuance of the order w|thout the case
hav|ng been rev|ved. W|th respect to offenses pun|shab|e by
|mpr|sonment of more than s|x (6) years, the|r prov|s|ona| d|sm|ssa|
sha|| become permanent two (2) years after |ssuance of the order
w|thout the case hav|ng been rev|ved. (n)

I. rov|s|ona| D|sm|ssa|
Any dlsmlssal where Lhe accused consenLs, wheLher expressly or
lmplledly, ls a provlslonal dlsmlssal. lor Lhls reason a rovlslonal
ulsmlssal can be revlved.
o 1here ls no re-flllng ln provlslonal dlsmlssal because
Lhere ls only provlslonal dlsmlssal. As such, you Lalk of
revlval nC1 re-flllng.
uouble [eopardy wlll noL aLLach.

II. When per|od commences to run
eop|e v. Lacson ! noLlce Lo Lhe offended parLy wlll noL sufflce
because lL ls noL Lhe offended parLy who wlll revlve Lhe case. lL
ls Lhe publlc prosecuLor, Lherefore noLlce of dlsmlssal should be
glven Lo Lhe publlc prosecuLor and Lhe perlod wlll only Lo
commence Lo run once Lhe publlc prosecuLor recelves Lhe
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o ALLy. 1ranqull ! when Lhe CourL lssues Lhe order, lL ls
posslble LhaL such was made ln open courL, and as such
Lhe publlc prosecuLor ls necessarlly presenL.

III. kequ|s|tes for grant|ng a rov|s|ona| D|sm|ssa| (Los 8aos v. edro)
1. 1he prosecuLlon wlLh Lhe express conformlLy of Lhe accused, or
Lhe accused, moves for a provlslonal dlsmlssal (sln per[ulclo) of
hls case, or boLh Lhe prosecuLlon and Lhe accused move for lLs
provlslonal dlsmlssal,
a. ln pracLlce: lf Lhe accused ls asked lf Lhere ls ob[ecLlon,
Lhe accused musL ob[ecL so LhaL you have ln your favor
Lhe posslblllLy of fallure Lo prosecuLe.
2. 1he offended parLy ls noLlfled of Lhe moLlon for a provlslonal
dlsmlssal of Lhe case,
3. 1he courL lssues an order granLlng Lhe moLlon and dlsmlsslng
Lhe case provlslonally, and
4. 1he publlc prosecuLor ls served wlLh a copy of Lhe order of
provlslonal dlsmlssal of Lhe case.

IV. Ieatures of Sect|on 8 (Los 8aos v. edro)
1. ku|e 117, Sect|on 8 does noL exacLly sLaLe whaL a provlslonal
dlsmlssal ls.
a. 1he modlfler "provlslonal" dlrecLly suggesLs LhaL Lhe
dlsmlssals whlch Sect|on 8 essenLlally refers Lo are
Lhose LhaL are Lemporary ln characLer (l.e., Lo dlsmlssals
LhaL are wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo Lhe re-flllng of Lhe case),
and noL Lhe dlsmlssals LhaL are permanenL (l.e., Lhose
LhaL bar Lhe re-flllng of Lhe case).
2. Sect|on 8 does noL sLaLe Lhe grounds LhaL lead Lo a provlslonal
dlsmlssal. 1hls ls ln conLrasL wlLh a M1C whose grounds are
speclfled under Sect|on 3.
a. 1he dellmlLaLlon of Lhe grounds avallable ln a M1C
suggesLs LhaL lL ls a class ln lLself, wlLh speclflc and
closely deflned characLerlsLlcs. A necessary
consequence ls LhaL where Lhe grounds clLed are Lhose
llsLed under Sect|on 3, Lhen Lhe approprlaLe remedy ls
Lo flle a M1C. Conversely, where a ground does noL
appear under Sect|on 3, Lhen a M1C ls noL a proper
remedy. A moLlon for provlslonal dlsmlssal may Lhen
apply lf Lhe condlLlons requlred by Sect|on 8 obLaln.
3. Consequences of a merlLorlous M1C ls dlfferenL from
provlslonal dlsmlssal.
a. 1he fallure of Lhe 8ules Lo sLaLe under Sect|on 6 (whlch
provldes for Lhe effecLs of susLalnlng a M1C - Lhe
dlsmlssal ls noL a bar Lo anoLher prosecuLlon for Lhe
same offense - unless Lhe basls for Lhe dlsmlssal ls Lhe
exLlncLlon of crlmlnal llablllLy and double [eopardy) LhaL
a Sect|on 8 provlslonal dlsmlssal ls a bar Lo furLher
prosecuLlon shows LhaL Lhe framers dld noL lnLend a
dlsmlssal based on a M1C and a provlslonal dlsmlssal Lo
be confused wlLh one anoLher,
b. Sect|on 8 operaLes ln a world of lLs own separaLe from
M1C, and merely provldes a Llme-bar LhaL unlquely
applles Lo dlsmlssals oLher Lhan Lhose grounded on
Sect|on 3.

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V. Mot|on to uash v. rov|s|ona| D|sm|ssa| (Los 8aos v. edro)

Mot|on to uash rov|s|ona| D|sm|ssa|
llled by Lhe accused Lo quesLlon
Lhe efflcacy of Lhe complalnL or
llled aL Lhe lnsLance of Lhe
prosecuLlon or Lhe accused
1he form and conLenL of a MoLlon
Lo Cuash are sLaLed ln SecLlon 2
1he grounds ln SecLlon 2 are noL
appllcable Lo rovlslonal ulsmlssal
Assalls Lhe valldlLy of a crlmlnal
complalnL or lnformaLlon
Crounded on reasons oLher Lhan
Lhe defecLs of Lhe complalnL or
lnformaLlon. So ln u Lhe
lnformaLlon can sLand, buL Lhere
could be oLher reasons LhaL would
cause lLs dlsmlssal.
Allowed only lf made before
arralgnmenL or plea. lf noL made,
lL wlll consLlLuLe a walver.
A u could be made aL any Llme,
even durlng Lrlal proper.
lnformaLlon LhaL ls quashed sLays
quashed unLll revlved, unless lLs
double [eopardy or prescrlpLlon.
lmpermanenL unLll Lhe Llme-bar
MusL be ln wrlLlng and slgned by
Lhe accused
no form requlred
lf Lhe problem relaLes Lo an
lnLrlnslc or exLrlnslc deflclency of
Lhe complalnL or lnformaLlon, as
shown on lLs face, Lhe remedy ls a
M1C under Lhe Lerms of 8ule 117,
SecLlon 3.
All oLher reasons for seeklng Lhe
dlsmlssal of Lhe complalnL or
lnformaLlon, before arralgnmenL
and under Lhe clrcumsLances
ouLllned ln 8ule 117, SecLlon 8, fall
under provlslonal dlsmlssal.

Sect|on 9. Ia||ure to move to quash or to a||ege any ground therefor.
1he fa||ure of the accused to assert any ground of a mot|on to quash
before he p|eads to the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on, e|ther because he
d|d not f||e a mot|on to quash or fa||ed to a||ege the same |n sa|d
mot|on, sha|| be deemed a wa|ver of any ob[ect|ons except those
based on the grounds prov|ded for |n paragraphs (a), (b), (g), and (|) of
Sect|on 3 of th|s ku|e. (8)

I. Mot|on to D|sm|ss v. Mot|on to uash

Mot|on to D|sm|ss (C|v||) Mot|on to uash (Cr|m|na|)
CranL, deny, or order an
CranL, deny or order Lo amend
(LlMl1Lu grounds: defecL LhaL
can be cured or facLs charged
do noL consLlLuLe an offense)
8e-flllng wede!
! rescrlpLlon
! unenforceable under
SLaLuLe of lrauds
! 8es !udlcaLa
! LxLlngulshed clalm or
! uouble [eopardy
! rescrlpLlon
noL ralsed
! Lack of [urlsdlcLlon
over SM
! rescrlpLlon
! Lack of [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe
! uoes noL consLlLuLe an
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! LlLls endenLla
! 8es !udlcaLa
! rescrlpLlon
! uouble [eopardy

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kULL 118: kL-1kIAL

Sect|on 1. re-tr|a|, mandatory |n cr|m|na| cases.
In a|| cr|m|na| cases cogn|zab|e by the Sand|ganbayan, keg|ona| 1r|a|
Court, Metropo||tan 1r|a| Court, Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Court |n C|t|es,
Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Court and Mun|c|pa| C|rcu|t 1r|a| Court, the court sha||,
after arra|gnment and w|th|n th|rty (30) days from the date the court
acqu|res [ur|sd|ct|on over the person of the accused, un|ess a shorter
per|od |s prov|ded for |n spec|a| |aws or c|rcu|ars of the Supreme
Court, order a pre-tr|a| conference to cons|der the fo||ow|ng:

(a) p|ea barga|n|ng,

(b) st|pu|at|on of facts,

(c) mark|ng for |dent|f|cat|on of ev|dence of the part|es,

(d) wa|ver of ob[ect|ons to adm|ss|b|||ty of ev|dence,

(e) mod|f|cat|on of the order of tr|a| |f the accused adm|ts the charge
but |nterposes a |awfu| defense, and

(f) such matters as w||| promote a fa|r and exped|t|ous tr|a| of the
cr|m|na| and c|v|| aspects of the case. (Secs. 2 and 3, C|r. 38-98)

I. re-1r|a| 8r|ef
All wlLnesses should be named and all documenLs should be
marked ln Lhe 1 8rlef. CLherwlse, lL wlll noL be allowed by Lhe
CourL, unless ln Lhe lnLeresL of [usLlce.
II. Gu|de||nes and Modes of D|scovery of 2004
WheLher ln clvll or crlmlnal cases, Lhere ls a rellmlnary
Conference before Lhe Clerk of CourL for Lhe purpose of
marklng of documenLs, admlsslons, namlng of wlLnesses, and
ldenLlflcaLlon of Lrlal daLes.
CLher cases where Lhere ls rellmlnary Conference
o CourL of Appeals ! ku|e 46-S7, 48
o Supreme CourL ! for Lhe purpose of sLlpulaLlon of facLs
ln cases of orlglnal acLlons or where Lhere ls a granL for
MoLlon for new 1rlal.

III. Iud|c|a| D|spute keso|ut|on 2006
Genera| ku|e: a compromlse ln a crlmlnal case ls an lmplled
admlsslon of llablllLy so lL ls noL pracLlced.
Lxcept|on: 1he CourL may allow compromlse for Lhe clvll aspecL
of some complalnLs vla CAM and afLer !u8. 1hls does noL
dlsmlss crlmlnal llablllLy or Lhe Lrlal for such.
CourL Annexed MedlaLlon (courL-appolnLed medlaLors)
o 1oday Lhere are cerLaln crlmlnal offenses (provlded for
ln Lhe !u8) LhaL by lLs very naLure are allowed by Lhe SC
Lo be compromlsed as Lo lLs clvll aspecL: 1hefL, llbel,
8..22, esLafa, crlmlnal negllgence, eLc.
!u8 (!udge wlll medlaLe ! !u8 !udge)
o ln CourLs where Lhe !u8 ls ln effecL, Lhe [udge wlll
explore Lhe posslblllLy of a compromlse.
o 1hus, even lf Lhe case ls crlmlnal, lL wlll go Lhrough
o lf Lhere ls no agreemenL, lL wlll be re-raffled unless Lhe
parLles agree Lo remaln ln Lhe [udge.
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IV. Aff|dav|t of Des|stance
An affldavlL LhaL Lhe wlLness of Lhe prosecuLlon wlll no longer
pursue Lhe case.
lL ls Lhe prosecuLlon LhaL moves for Lhe dlsmlssal on Lhe ground
of deslsLance.
o ALLy. 1ranqull ! 1he compromlse should be wlLh Lhe
knowledge of Lhe prosecuLor, because lf he refuses Lo
deslsL from Lhe case - even wlLh Lhe affldavlL of
deslsLance - Lhe case wlll conLlnue.
o Lven lf Lhe prosecuLlon conLlnues, slnce Lhey won'L
have a wlLness, Lhe case would evenLually be dlsmlssed
for fallure Lo prosecuLe.
ConLenL: lL should break Lhe case of Lhe prosecuLlon.
o ALLy. 1ranqull ! Can Lhe complalnanL-wlLness laLer be
charged of per[ury lf he changes hls allegaLlons? ?es.
1haL ls Lhe rlsk he wlll Lake.

A. Aff|dav|t of Des|stance I||ed Dur|ng re||m|nary Invest|gat|on At 1he
Cff|ce Cf 1he rosecutor
Allowed, and wlll dlsmlss Lhe case lf Lhe C decldes Lo.
Powever, no double [eopardy wlll seL ln yeL (slnce no

8. Aff|dav|t Cf Des|stance I||ed Wh||e 1he Case Is A|ready end|ng In
Court (Arra|gnment Done!)
AfflanL wlll have Lo Lake Lhe sLand Lo auLhenLlcaLe Lhe affldavlL.
And Lhen Lhe prosecuLlon wlll move for dlsmlssal.

V. er|od
WlLhln 30 days, boLh arralgnmenL and pre-Lrlal should have
been conducLed.

VI. What happens |n re-1r|a|
lea bargalnlng ! Lhls ls when Lhe presence of Lhe complalnlng
parLy ls requlred.
SLlpulaLlon of facLs ! amounLs Lo a [udlclal admlsslon.
WhaLever ls admlLLed here, shall be consldered as proved and
no furLher evldence ls needed.
ModlflcaLlon of Lhe order of Lrlal

Sect|on 2. re-tr|a| agreement.
A|| agreements or adm|ss|ons made or entered dur|ng the pre-tr|a|
conference sha|| be reduced |n wr|t|ng and s|gned by the accused and
counse|, otherw|se, they cannot be used aga|nst the accused. 1he
agreements cover|ng the matters referred to |n Sect|on 1 of th|s ku|e
sha|| be approved by the court. (Sec. 4, C|r. 38-98)

I. Iorm
1. 8educed ln wrlLlng
2. Slgned by Lhe accused and hls counsel.
o 1he [udge had Lhe accused slgn Lhe pre-Lrlal order
(whlch ls baslcally Lhe mlnuLes of Lhe pre-Lrlal)
noLe: Admlsslons of Lhe accused durlng Lhe pre-Lrlal - whlch ls valldly
reduced Lhe proper form - can be used agalnsL hlm.
eop|e v. Sunga ! Lhe accused allegedly slgned a confesslon
durlng prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon, and was helped by Lhe clLy
legal offlcer Lo execuLe lL. Supreme CourL sald Lhe exLra[udlclal
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
confesslon was lnadmlsslble because Lhe clLy legal offlcer was
noL an lndependenL counsel.

Sect|on 3. Non-appearance at pre-tr|a| conference.
If the counse| for the accused or the prosecutor does not appear at the
pre-tr|a| conference and does not offer an acceptab|e excuse for h|s
|ack of cooperat|on, the court may |mpose proper sanct|ons or
pena|t|es. (Sec. S, C|r. 38-98)

I. resence of the accused or offended party
lf Lhe accused ls absenL durlng Lhe pre-Lrlal, Lhe prosecuLlon
cannoL presenL ex-parLe (ln conLrasL Lo clvll cases).
o 1he accused however may be arresLed and hls ball
1he absence of Lhe complalnlng parLy or Lhe counsel wlll noL
affecL Lhe pre-Lrlal unless such absence ls repeaLed, ln whlch
case Lhere may be a vlolaLlon of speedy Lrlal.
o 1he complalnlng parLy ls only Lhe wlLness.

Sect|on 4. re-tr|a| order.
After the pre-tr|a| conference, the court sha|| |ssue an order rec|t|ng
the act|ons taken, the facts st|pu|ated, and ev|dence marked. Such
order sha|| b|nd the part|es, ||m|t the tr|a| to matters not d|sposed of,
and contro| the course of the act|on dur|ng the tr|a|, un|ess mod|f|ed
by the court to prevent man|fest |n[ust|ce. (3)

I. Content of the re-1r|a| Crder
1. AcLlons Laken
2. lacLs sLlpulaLed
3. Lvldence marked

II. eop|e v. Guzman
Sect|on 4 mandaLes LhaL Lhe maLLers agreed upon durlng Lhe
re-1rlal conference and as sLaLed ln Lhe 1 Crder shall blnd Lhe
parLles. lL wlll affecL Lhe parLles.
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
kULL 119: 1kIAL

Sect|on 1. 1|me to prepare for tr|a|.
After a p|ea of not gu||ty |s entered, the accused sha|| have at |east
f|fteen (1S) days to prepare for tr|a|. 1he tr|a| sha|| commence w|th|n
th|rty (30) days from rece|pt of the pre-tr|a| order. (Sec. 6, C|r. 38-98)

Sect|on 2. Cont|nuous tr|a| unt|| term|nated, postponements.
1r|a| once commenced sha|| cont|nue from day to day as far as
pract|cab|e unt|| term|nated. It may be postponed for a reasonab|e
per|od of t|me for good cause. (2a)

1he court sha||, after consu|tat|on w|th the prosecutor and defense
counse|, set the case for cont|nuous tr|a| on a week|y or other short-
term tr|a| ca|endar at the ear||est poss|b|e t|me so as to ensure speedy
tr|a|. In no case sha|| the ent|re tr|a| per|od exceed one hundred e|ghty
(180) days from the f|rst day of tr|a|, except as otherw|se author|zed by
the Supreme Court. (Sec. 8, C|r. 38-98).

1he t|me ||m|tat|ons prov|ded under th|s Sect|on and the preced|ng
Sect|on sha|| not app|y where spec|a| |aws or c|rcu|ars of the Supreme
Court prov|de for a shorter per|od of tr|a|. (n)

I. o|nt
1he courL should conclude Lrlal wlLhln a perlod of 180 days.

Sect|on 3. Lxc|us|ons.
1he fo||ow|ng per|ods of de|ay sha|| be exc|uded |n comput|ng the t|me
w|th|n wh|ch tr|a| must commence:
(a) Any per|od of de|ay resu|t|ng from other proceed|ngs concern|ng
the accused, |nc|ud|ng but not ||m|ted to the fo||ow|ng:

(1) De|ay resu|t|ng from an exam|nat|on of the phys|ca| and menta|
cond|t|on of the accused,

(2) De|ay resu|t|ng from proceed|ngs w|th respect to other cr|m|na|
charges aga|nst the accused,

(3) De|ay resu|t|ng from extraord|nary remed|es aga|nst |nter|ocutory

(4) De|ay resu|t|ng from pre-tr|a| proceed|ngs, prov|ded, that the de|ay
does not exceed th|rty (30) days,

(S) De|ay resu|t|ng from orders of |nh|b|t|on, or proceed|ngs re|at|ng to
change of venue of cases or transfer from other courts,

(6) De|ay resu|t|ng from a f|nd|ng of the ex|stence of a pre[ud|c|a|
quest|on, and

(7) De|ay reasonab|y attr|butab|e to any per|od, not to exceed th|rty
(30) days, dur|ng wh|ch any proceed|ng concern|ng the accused |s
actua||y under adv|sement.

(b) Any per|od of de|ay resu|t|ng from the absence or unava||ab|||ty of
an essent|a| w|tness.

Ior purposes of th|s subparagraph, an essent|a| w|tness sha|| be
cons|dered absent when h|s whereabouts are unknown or h|s
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
whereabouts cannot be determ|ned by due d|||gence. ne sha|| be
cons|dered unava||ab|e whenever h|s whereabouts are known but h|s
presence for tr|a| cannot be obta|ned by due d|||gence.

(c) Any per|od of de|ay resu|t|ng from the menta| |ncompetence or
phys|ca| |nab|||ty of the accused to stand tr|a|.

(d) If the |nformat|on |s d|sm|ssed upon mot|on of the prosecut|on and
thereafter a charge |s f||ed aga|nst the accused for the same offense,
any per|od of de|ay from the date the charge was d|sm|ssed to the
date the t|me ||m|tat|on wou|d commence to run as to the subsequent
charge had there been no prev|ous charge.

(e) A reasonab|e per|od of de|ay when the accused |s [o|ned for tr|a|
w|th a co-accused over whom the court has not acqu|red [ur|sd|ct|on,
or, as to whom the t|me for tr|a| has not run and no mot|on for
separate tr|a| has been granted.

(f) Any per|od of de|ay resu|t|ng from a cont|nuance granted by any
court motu propr|o, or on mot|on of e|ther the accused or h|s counse|,
or the prosecut|on, |f the court granted the cont|nuance on the bas|s of
|ts f|nd|ngs set forth |n the order that the ends of [ust|ce served by
tak|ng such act|on outwe|gh the best |nterest of the pub||c and the
accused |n a speedy tr|a|. (Sec. 9, C|r. 38-98)

I. o|nt
1he Llme requlred by law for you Lo compleLe a case ls, excludes
LhaL porLlons of delay.
lor Lhls reason, Lhe delay could be 3, 4, 3 years, buL lf any of
Lhose under Sect|on 3 are presenL Lhe burden ls upon Lhe
prosecuLlon has Lhe burden Lo prove LhaL Lhe excluslons are
presenL Lhereby maklng Lhe delay excusable/[usLlfled.
o Lxample:
! 1he wlLness ls absenL meanlng LhaL hls
whereabouLs are nC1 known, Lherefore you
have Lo look for hlm.
! uelays by reason of exLraordlnary remedles and
delays by reason of re-1rlal for as long as noL
exceedlng 30 days ln boLh cases.
! uelays by reason of unflLness or lnablllLy of Lhe
wlLness Lo sLand Lrlal
lf you're confronLed wlLh a quesLlon on speedy Lrlal Lry Lo look
for excluslons before you make a concluslon LhaL lL's ln vlolaLlon
of speedy Lrlal.

Sect|on 4. Iactors for grant|ng cont|nuance.
1he fo||ow|ng factors, among others, sha|| be cons|dered by a court |n
determ|n|ng whether to grant a cont|nuance under Sect|on 3(f) of th|s

(a) Whether or not the fa||ure to grant a cont|nuance |n the proceed|ng
wou|d ||ke|y make a cont|nuat|on of such proceed|ng |mposs|b|e or
resu|t |n a m|scarr|age of [ust|ce, and

(b) Whether or not the case taken as a who|e |s so nove|, unusua| and
comp|ex, due to the number of accused or the nature of the
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
prosecut|on, or that |t |s unreasonab|e to expect adequate preparat|on
w|th|n the per|ods of t|me estab||shed there|n.

In add|t|on, no cont|nuance under Sect|on 3(f) of th|s ku|e sha|| be
granted because of congest|on of the court's ca|endar or |ack of
d|||gent preparat|on or fa||ure to obta|n ava||ab|e w|tnesses on the
part of the prosecutor. (Sec. 10, C|r. 38-98)

I. Subsect|on a: Whether or not to grant a cont|nuance w||| |ead to a
m|scarr|age of [ust|ce
o lllness
o no wlLness
o no evldence

II. Subsect|on b: 1he |ssues presented |n the c|v|| case, |s so nove|,
unusua| and comp|ex, that |t w||| requ|re more t|me for the part|es and
the|r counse| to prepare.
now, leLs say you weren'L able Lo prepare because you were ouL
on a parLy lasL nlghL, ls LhaL a reason for conLlnuance? nC!
ls fallure or unavallablllLy of your wlLness ls LhaL a ground for a
conLlnuance? nC!
ls congesLlon of courL dockeLs a ground for conLlnuance? nC!

Sect|on S. 1|me ||m|t fo||ow|ng an order for new tr|a|.
If the accused |s to be tr|ed aga|n pursuant to an order for a new tr|a|,
the tr|a| sha|| commence w|th|n th|rty (30) days from not|ce of the
order, prov|ded that |f the per|od becomes |mpract|ca| due to
unava||ab|||ty of w|tnesses and other factors, the court may extend |t
but not to exceed one hundred e|ghty (180) days from not|ce of sa|d
order for a new tr|a|. (Sec. 11, C|r. 38-98)

Sect|on 6. Lxtended t|me ||m|t.
Notw|thstand|ng the prov|s|ons of Sect|on 1(g), ku|e 116 and the
preced|ng Sect|on 1, for the f|rst twe|ve-ca|endar-month per|od
fo||ow|ng |ts effect|v|ty on September 1S, 1998, the t|me ||m|t w|th
respect to the per|od from arra|gnment to tr|a| |mposed by sa|d
prov|s|on sha|| be one hundred e|ghty (180) days. Ior the second
twe|ve-month per|od, the t|me ||m|t sha|| be one hundred twenty
(120) days, and for the th|rd twe|ve-month per|od, the t|me ||m|t sha||
be e|ghty (80) days. (Sec. 7, C|r. 38-98)

I. o|nt
8ased on Lhe provlslon on Sect|on 6, ku|e119: from Lhe Llme
LhaL Lhe accused was arralgned unLll before Lrlal you should only
have consumed 80 days.
1he perlod for Lrlal should be 180 days. So ln less Lhan a year,
Lhe case should've been compleLed and LermlnaLed.
o Powever, you musL Lake noLe lf Lhere are [usLlfled
delays (e.g. excluslons)

Sect|on 7. ub||c attorney's dut|es where accused |s |mpr|soned.
If the pub||c attorney ass|gned to defend a person charged w|th a
cr|me knows that the |atter |s prevent|ve|y deta|ned, e|ther because he
|s charged w|th a ba||ab|e cr|me but has no means to post ba||, or, |s
charged w|th a non-ba||ab|e cr|me, or, |s serv|ng a term of
|mpr|sonment |n any pena| |nst|tut|on, |t sha|| be h|s duty to do the
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
(a) Sha|| prompt|y undertake to obta|n the presence of the pr|soner for
tr|a| or cause a not|ce to be served on the person hav|ng custody of the
pr|soner requ|r|ng such person to so adv|se the pr|soner of h|s r|ght to
demand tr|a|.

(b) Upon rece|pt of that not|ce, the custod|an of the pr|soner sha||
prompt|y adv|se the pr|soner of the charge and of h|s r|ght to demand
tr|a|. If at anyt|me thereafter the pr|soner |nforms h|s custod|an that
he demands such tr|a|, the |atter sha|| cause not|ce to that effect to be
sent prompt|y to the pub||c attorney.

(c) Upon rece|pt of such not|ce, the pub||c attorney sha|| prompt|y seek
to obta|n the presence of the pr|soner for tr|a|.

(d) When the custod|an of the pr|soner rece|ves from the pub||c
attorney a proper|y supported request for the ava||ab|||ty of the
pr|soner for purposes of tr|a|, the pr|soner sha|| be made ava||ab|e
accord|ng|y. (Sec. 12, C|r. 38-98)

Sect|on 8. Sanct|ons.
In any case |n wh|ch pr|vate counse| for the accused, the pub||c
attorney, or the prosecutor:

(a) know|ng|y a||ows the case to be set for tr|a| w|thout d|sc|os|ng that
a necessary w|tness wou|d be unava||ab|e for tr|a|,

(b) I||es a mot|on so|e|y for de|ay wh|ch he knows |s tota||y fr|vo|ous
and w|thout mer|t,

(c) Makes a statement for the purpose of obta|n|ng cont|nuance wh|ch
he knows to be fa|se and wh|ch |s mater|a| to the grant|ng of a
cont|nuance, or

(d) W|||fu||y fa||s to proceed to tr|a| w|thout [ust|f|cat|on cons|stent
w|th the prov|s|ons hereof, the court may pun|sh such counse|,
attorney, or prosecutor, as fo||ows:

(1) 8y |mpos|ng on a counse| pr|vate|y reta|ned |n connect|on w|th the
defense of an accused, a f|ne not exceed|ng twenty thousand pesos

(2) 8y |mpos|ng on any appo|nted counse| de of|c|o, pub||c attorney, or
prosecutor a f|ne not exceed|ng f|ve thousand pesos (S,000.00), and

(3) 8y deny|ng any defense counse| or prosecutor the r|ght to pract|ce
before the court try|ng the case for a per|od not exceed|ng th|rty (30)
days. 1he pun|shment prov|ded for by th|s Sect|on sha|| be w|thout
pre[ud|ce to any appropr|ate cr|m|na| act|on or other sanct|on
author|zed under these ru|es. (Sec. 13, C|r. 38-98)

Sect|on 9. kemedy where accused |s not brought to tr|a| w|th|n the
t|me ||m|t.
If the accused |s not brought to tr|a| w|th|n the t|me ||m|t requ|red by
Sect|on 1(g), ku|e 116 and Sect|on 1, as extended by Sect|on 6 of th|s
ru|e, the |nformat|on may be d|sm|ssed on mot|on of the accused on
the ground of den|a| of h|s r|ght to speedy tr|a|. 1he accused sha|| have
the burden of prov|ng the mot|on but the prosecut|on sha|| have the
burden of go|ng forward w|th the ev|dence to estab||sh the exc|us|on
!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
of t|me under Sect|on 3 of th|s ru|e. 1he d|sm|ssa| sha|| be sub[ect to
the ru|es on doub|e [eopardy.

Ia||ure of the accused to move for d|sm|ssa| pr|or to tr|a| sha||
const|tute a wa|ver of the r|ght to d|sm|ss under th|s Sect|on. (Sec. 14,
C|r. 38-98)

Sect|on 10. Law on speedy tr|a| not a bar to prov|s|on on speedy tr|a| |n
the Const|tut|on.
No prov|s|on of |aw on speedy tr|a| and no ru|e |mp|ement|ng the
same sha|| be |nterpreted as a bar to any charge of den|a| of the r|ght
to speedy tr|a| guaranteed by Sect|on 14(2), Art|c|e III, of the 1987
Const|tut|on. (Sec. 1S, C|r. 38-98)

I. kemedy for V|o|at|on of Speedy 1r|a| (Standard: VCC)
eLlLlon for CerLlorarl
Where Lhe person ls consLanLly ln deLenLlon ln vlolaLlon of hls
rlghL Lo speedy Lrlal, your remedy ls habeas corpus.

Sect|on 11. Crder of tr|a|.
1he tr|a| sha|| proceed |n the fo||ow|ng order:

(a) 1he prosecut|on sha|| present ev|dence to prove the charge and, |n
the proper case, the c|v|| ||ab|||ty.

(b) 1he accused may present ev|dence to prove h|s defense and
damages, |f any, ar|s|ng from the |ssuance of a prov|s|ona| remedy |n
the case.

(c) 1he prosecut|on and the defense may, |n that order, present
rebutta| and sur-rebutta| ev|dence un|ess the court, |n furtherance of
[ust|ce, perm|ts them to present add|t|ona| ev|dence bear|ng upon the
ma|n |ssue.

(d) Upon adm|ss|on of the ev|dence of the part|es, the case sha|| be
deemed subm|tted for dec|s|on un|ess the court d|rects them to argue
ora||y or to subm|t wr|tten memoranda.

(e) When the accused adm|ts the act or om|ss|on charged |n the
comp|a|nt or |nformat|on but |nterposes a |awfu| defense, the order of
tr|a| may be mod|f|ed. (3a)

I. Steps
1. rosecuLlon presenLs evldence
2. 1he defense presenLs evldence
3. 8ebuLLal evldence (CourL dlscreLlon)
a. resenLaLlon of rebuLLals evldence ls noL mandaLory.
b. 8ebuLLal evldence ls presenLed lf allowed by Lhe courL
Lo meeL new maLLers presenLed ln Lhe presenLaLlon of
Lhe defense's evldence (e.g. allbl, self-defense)
4. (1he CourL MA? requlre) submlsslon of memorandum or
3. 1he case ls submlLLed for resoluLlon.
noLe: 1he order of presenLaLlon can be reserved lf Lhe accused
presenL self-defense or exculpaLory defenses, buL Lake noLe lL ls lefL
Lo Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe courL.

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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
Sect|on 12. App||cat|on for exam|nat|on of w|tness for accused before
When the accused has been he|d to answer for an offense, he may,
upon mot|on w|th not|ce to the other part|es, have w|tnesses
cond|t|ona||y exam|ned |n h|s beha|f. 1he mot|on sha|| state: (a) the
name and res|dence of the w|tness, (b) the substance of h|s test|mony,
and (c) that the w|tness |s s|ck or |nf|rm as to afford reasonab|e ground
for be||ev|ng that he w||| not be ab|e to attend the tr|a|, or res|des
more than one hundred (100) k||ometers from the p|ace of tr|a| and
has no means to attend the same, or that other s|m||ar c|rcumstances
ex|st that wou|d make h|m unava||ab|e or prevent h|m from attend|ng
the tr|a|. 1he mot|on sha|| be supported by an aff|dav|t of the accused
and such other ev|dence as the court may requ|re. (4a)

I. rov|s|ons on Cond|t|ona| Lxam|nat|on of W|tnesses
Sect|on 12, 13 and 1S of ku|e 119

II. 100 kM
1he 100km ls slgnlflcanL because LhaL ls Lhe llmlL of Lhe
subpoena (ku|e 21). As such, Lhe wlLness can no longer be
compelled Lo appear.

III. Manguera v. k|sos: Where ku|e 119 |s app||cab|e, the ku|es of C|v||
rocedure can never app|y.
lL ls Lrue LhaL Sect|on 3, ku|e 1 LhaL Lhe rules on clvll procedure
applles Lo all acLlons, clvll crlmlnal and speclal proceedlngs, ln
effecL lL says, Lhe rule on clvll procedure shall have suppleLory
appllcaLlon Lo crlmlnal cases.
Powever, lL ls llkewlse Lrue LhaL Lhe crlmlnal proceedlngs are
prlmarlly governed by Lhe 8evlsed 8ules on Crlmlnal rocedure
conslderlng LhaL ku|e 119 adequaLely and squarely covers Lhe
slLuaLlon ln Lhe lnsLanL case we flnd no cogenL reason Lo apply
ku|e 23 supppleLorlly or oLherwlse.

Sect|on 13. Lxam|nat|on of defense w|tness, how made.
If the court |s sat|sf|ed that the exam|nat|on of a w|tness for the
accused |s necessary, an order sha|| be made d|rect|ng that the w|tness
be exam|ned at a spec|f|c date, t|me and p|ace and that a copy of the
order be served on the prosecutor at |east three (3) days before the
schedu|ed exam|nat|on. 1he exam|nat|on sha|| be taken before a
[udge, or, |f not pract|cab|e, a member of the 8ar |n good stand|ng so
des|gnated by the [udge |n the order, or |f the order be made by a
court of super|or [ur|sd|ct|on, before an |nfer|or court to be des|gnated
there|n. 1he exam|nat|on sha|| proceed notw|thstand|ng the absence
of the prosecutor prov|ded he was du|y not|f|ed of the hear|ng. A
wr|tten record of the test|mony sha|| be taken. (Sa)

Sect|on 14. 8a|| to secure appearance of mater|a| w|tness.
When the court |s sat|sf|ed, upon proof or oath, that a mater|a|
w|tness w||| not test|fy when requ|red, |t may, upon mot|on of e|ther
party, order the w|tness to post ba|| |n such sum as may be deemed
proper. Upon refusa| to post ba||, the court sha|| comm|t h|m to pr|son
unt|| he comp||es or |s |ega||y d|scharged after h|s test|mony has been
taken. (6a)

Sect|on 1S. Lxam|nat|on of w|tness for the prosecut|on.
When |t sat|sfactor||y appears that a w|tness for the prosecut|on |s too
s|ck or |nf|rm to appear at the tr|a| as d|rected by the court, or has to
!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
|eave the h|||pp|nes w|th no def|n|te date of return|ng, he may
forthw|th be cond|t|ona||y exam|ned before the court where the case
|s pend|ng. Such exam|nat|on, |n the presence of the accused, or |n h|s
absence after reasonab|e not|ce to attend the exam|nat|on has been
served on h|m, sha|| be conducted |n the same manner as an
exam|nat|on at the tr|a|. Ia||ure or refusa| of the accused to attend the
exam|nat|on after not|ce sha|| be cons|dered a wa|ver. 1he statement
taken may be adm|tted |n beha|f of or aga|nst the accused. (7a)

I. Cond|t|ona| Lxam|nat|on of a rosecut|on W|tness
CondlLlonal LxamlnaLlon of a prosecuLlon wlLness for Lhe
purpose of Laklng hls deposlLlon should be made before Lhe
courL or aL leasL before Lhe [udge where Lhe case ls pendlng.
o lf you would noLe Lhe CourL has LreaLed CondlLlonal
LxamlnaLlon as some sorL of deposlLlon Laklng.
Genera| ku|e: Clvlng of LesLlmony durlng Lrlal.
o Lxcept|on: CondlLlonal LxamlnaLlon of a wlLness ouLslde
of Lrlal.
?ou usually use CondlLlonal LxamlnaLlon of WlLnesses when, Lhe
wlLness ls unavallable.

II. Cond|t|ona| Lxam|nat|on of a rosecut|on W|tness v. W|tness for the

Cond|t|ona| Lxam|nat|on
of a rosecut|on W|tness
Cond|t|ona| Lxam|nat|on of
a W|tness for the Accused
GkCUNDS 1he wlLness ls slck or lnflrm or unavallable
1he wlLness for Lhe
prosecuLlon ls abouL Lo
1he wlLness resldes more
Lhan 100km from Lhe place
deparL from Lhe
hlllpplnes wlLh no
deflnlLe daLe of reLurnlng.
where Lhe hearlng ls Lo be
MANNLk Should be made before
Lhe courL of before Lhe
[udge where Lhe case ls
?ou could Lake CondlLlonal
LxamlnaLlon before (1) any
[udge ln Lhe hlllpplnes, (2)
any member of Lhe 8ar ln
good sLandlng, and (3) lf
ordered by a superlor courL
dlrecLlng an lnferlor courL.

Sect|on 16. 1r|a| of severa| accused.
When two or more accused are [o|nt|y charged w|th an offense, they
sha|| be tr|ed [o|nt|y un|ess the court, |n |ts d|scret|on and upon mot|on
of the prosecutor or any accused, orders separate tr|a| for one or more
accused. (8a)

Sect|on 17. D|scharge of accused to be state w|tness.
When two or more persons are [o|nt|y charged w|th the comm|ss|on of
any offense, upon mot|on of the prosecut|on before rest|ng |ts case,
the court may d|rect one or more of the accused to be d|scharged w|th
the|r consent so that they may be w|tnesses for the state when, after
requ|r|ng the prosecut|on to present ev|dence and the sworn
statement of each proposed state w|tness at a hear|ng |n support of
the d|scharge, the court |s sat|sf|ed that:

(a) 1here |s abso|ute necess|ty for the test|mony of the accused whose
d|scharge |s requested,

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(b) 1here |s no other d|rect ev|dence ava||ab|e for the proper
prosecut|on of the offense comm|tted, except the test|mony of sa|d

(c) 1he test|mony of sa|d accused can be substant|a||y corroborated |n
|ts mater|a| po|nts,

(d) Sa|d accused does not appear to be the most gu||ty, and

(e) Sa|d accused has not at any t|me been conv|cted of any offense
|nvo|v|ng mora| turp|tude.

Lv|dence adduced |n support of the d|scharge sha|| automat|ca||y form
part of the tr|a|. If the court den|es the mot|on for d|scharge of the
accused as state w|tness, h|s sworn statement sha|| be |nadm|ss|b|e |n
ev|dence. (9a)

I. rocedure
1he accused, afLer belng arralgned, needs Lo flle an affldavlL for
why she should become sLaLe wlLness before Lhe prosecuLlon
resLs lLs case.
o lf Lhe appllcaLlon ls denled, Lhen Lhe affldavlL ls
lnadmlsslble as evldence.

II. D|scharge under the W|tness rotect|on rogram
1hls ls declded by Lhe uC!.
ulfference: ersons ln Lhe W were never Lhe accused (no
lnformaLlon, no arralgnmenL, no u!).
SlmllarlLy: 1he requlslLes are Lhe same.
Sect|on 18. D|scharge of accused operates as acqu|tta|.
1he order |nd|cated |n the preced|ng Sect|on sha|| amount to an
acqu|tta| of the d|scharged accused and sha|| be a bar to future
prosecut|on for the same offense, un|ess the accused fa||s or refuses to
test|fy aga|nst h|s co-accused |n accordance w|th h|s sworn statement
const|tut|ng the bas|s for h|s d|scharge. (10a)

I. Monge v. eop|e: "When can the test|mony of a D|scharged W|tness
be d|sregarded?"
1he only lnsLance where Lhe LesLlmony of a dlscharged accused
may be dlsregarded by Lhe courL ls when he dellberaLely falls Lo
LesLlfy LruLhfully ln courL, ln accordance wlLh hls commlLmenL."
lf he mlsleads Lhe courL, lf he makes an unLruLhful LesLlmony,
Lhe courL can dlsregard hls dlscharge as a SLaLe WlLness and
Lhere wlll be no acqulLLal.

Sect|on 19. When m|stake has been made |n charg|ng the proper
When |t becomes man|fest at any t|me before [udgment that a m|stake
has been made |n charg|ng the proper offense and the accused cannot
be conv|cted of the offense charged or any other offense necessar||y
|nc|uded there|n, the accused sha|| not be d|scharged |f there appears
good cause to deta|n h|m. In such case, the court sha|| comm|t the
accused to answer for the proper offense and d|sm|ss the or|g|na| case
upon the f|||ng of the proper |nformat|on. (11a)

Sect|on 20. Appo|ntment of act|ng prosecutor.
When a prosecutor, h|s ass|stant or deputy |s d|squa||f|ed to act due to
any of the grounds stated |n Sect|on 1 of ku|e 137 or for any other
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reason, the [udge or the prosecutor sha|| commun|cate w|th the
Secretary of Iust|ce |n order that the |atter may appo|nt an act|ng
prosecutor. (12a)

I. ku|e 137
Sect|on 1. D|squa||f|cat|on of [udges.
no [udge or [udlclal offlcer shall slL ln any case ln whlch he, or hls wlfe or
chlld, ls pecunlarlly lnLeresLed as helr, legaLee, credlLor or oLherwlse, or
ln whlch he ls relaLed Lo elLher parLy wlLhln Lhe slxLh degree of
consangulnlLy or afflnlLy, or Lo counsel wlLhln Lhe fourLh degree,
compuLed accordlng Lo Lhe rules of Lhe clvll law, or ln whlch he has been
execuLor, admlnlsLraLor, guardlan, LrusLee or counsel, or ln whlch he has
preslded ln any lnferlor courL when hls rullng or declslon ls Lhe sub[ecL
of revlew, wlLhouL Lhe wrlLLen consenL of all parLles ln lnLeresL, slgned
by Lhem and enLered upon Lhe record.

A [udge may, ln Lhe exerclse of hls sound dlscreLlon, dlsquallfy hlmself
from slLLlng ln a case, for [usL or valld reasons oLher Lhan Lhose
menLloned above.

Sect|on 21. Lxc|us|on of the pub||c.
1he [udge may, motu propr|o, exc|ude the pub||c from the courtroom |f
the ev|dence to be produced dur|ng the tr|a| |s offens|ve to decency or
pub||c mora|s. ne may a|so, on mot|on of the accused, exc|ude the
pub||c from the tr|a| except court personne| and the counse| of the
part|es. (13a)

I. Lxamp|e:
Move Lo exclude Lhe wlLnesses for grounds of publlc moral and
Sect|on 22. Conso||dat|on of tr|a|s of re|ated offenses.
Charges for offenses founded on the same facts or form|ng part of a
ser|es of offenses of s|m||ar character may be tr|ed [o|nt|y at the
d|scret|on of the court. (14a)

Sect|on 23. Demurrer to ev|dence.
After the prosecut|on rests |ts case, the court may d|sm|ss the act|on
on the ground of |nsuff|c|ency of ev|dence (1) on |ts own |n|t|at|ve after
g|v|ng the prosecut|on the opportun|ty to be heard or (2) upon
demurrer to ev|dence f||ed by the accused w|th or w|thout |eave of

If the court den|es the demurrer to ev|dence f||ed w|th |eave of court,
the accused may adduce ev|dence |n h|s defense. When the demurrer
to ev|dence |s f||ed w|thout |eave of court, the accused wa|ves the
r|ght to present ev|dence and subm|ts the case for [udgment on the
bas|s of the ev|dence for the prosecut|on. (1Sa)

1he mot|on for |eave of court to f||e demurrer to ev|dence sha||
spec|f|ca||y state |ts grounds and sha|| be f||ed w|th|n a non-extend|b|e
per|od of f|ve (S) days after the prosecut|on rests |ts case. 1he
prosecut|on may oppose the mot|on w|th|n a non-extend|b|e per|od of
f|ve (S) days from |ts rece|pt.

If |eave of court |s granted, the accused sha|| f||e the demurrer to
ev|dence w|th|n a non-extend|b|e per|od of ten (10) days from not|ce.
1he prosecut|on may oppose the demurrer to ev|dence w|th|n a s|m||ar
per|od from |ts rece|pt.

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1he order deny|ng the mot|on for |eave of court to f||e demurrer to
ev|dence or the demurrer |tse|f sha|| not be rev|ewab|e by appea| or by
cert|orar| before [udgment. (n)

I. "Mot|on to D|sm|ss for |nsuff|c|ency of ev|dence" that |s demurrer to

II. Demurrer of Lv|dence |n C|v|| v. |n Cr|m|na|

C|v|| Cr|m|na|
When |t
can be
AfLer Lhe plalnLlff compleLes
Lhe presenLaLlon of hls
When Lhe prosecuLlon has
resLed lLs case.
Same banana! lL only means LhaL you have submlLLed Lhe
formal offer of evldence, and Lhe accused was glven Lhe
opporLunlLy Lo flle hls commenL on Lhe prosecuLlon's formal
offer of evldence.
Is |eave
of Court
nC. you [usL flle your
demurrer Lo evldence
" lf you obLaln leave of
courL, and you were noL
glven leave buL you flled
demurrer neverLheless, lf
your demurrer ls denled Lhe
courL wlll already render
" lf you obLaln leave of
courL and Lhe courL granLs
your leave Lo flle demurrer
Lo evldence, and you flled
demurrer Lo evldence and lLs
denled, you can sLlll presenL
evldence afLer.
eLlLlon for cerLlorarl lf Lhe
denlal LalnLed wlLh grave
abuse of dlscreLlon
amounLlng Lo lack or excess
of [urlsdlcLlon, for as long as
Lhere was a MoLlon for
?ou cannoL flle an appeal or
even a peLlLlon for cerLlorarl
of a denlal of demurrer Lo
evldence ln a crlmlnal case.
?ou wlll have Lo walL unLll
Lhe compleLlon or Lhe
concluslon of Lhe maln case.
Lffect |f
1he case ls dlsmlssed. 1here ls an acqulLLal.
1herefore lL cannoL be Lhe
sub[ecL of an appeal.
noLe: 1he CourL can move for a demurrer on lLs own, so long as lL glves
Lhe prosecuLlon a chance Lo be heard.

III. Sa|azar v. eop|e
ln crlmlnal cases, demurrer of evldence parLakes of Lhe naLure
of a MoLlon Lo ulsmlss Lhe case for fallure of Lhe prosecuLlon Lo
prove Lhe gullLy of Lhe accused beyond reasonable doubL.
o Accordlng Lo Lhls case where Lhe accused flles a
demurrer Lo evldence wlLhouL leave of courL, he walves
hls rlghL Lo presenL evldence, and submlLs Lhe case for
declslon on Lhe basls of Lhe evldence of Lhe
lssue: lf Lhe demurrer ls granLed, and Lhe accused ls acqulLLed,
whaL happens Lo clvll llablllLy?
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Peld: lf demurrer Lo evldence ls granLed and accused ls
acqulLLed by Lhe courL, Lhe accused has Lhe rlghL Lo adduce
evldence on Lhe clvll aspecL of Lhe case.
o unless Lhe courL also declares LhaL Lhe acL or omlsslon
from whlch Lhe clvll llablllLy wlll arlse does noL exlsL.
o Moreover, whaL Lhe Lrlal courL should do ls Lo lssue an
order or parLlal [udgmenL granLlng Lhe demurrer Lo
evldence and acqulLLlng Lhe accused, and seL Lhe case
for conLlnuaLlon of Lrlal for peLlLloner Lo adduce
evldence ln Lhe clvll case.
o So ln a demurrer Lo evldence, conslderlng LhaL Lhe
accused has noL yeL presenLed evldence, lL ls wrong for
Lhe [udge Lo rule on Lhe clvll llablllLy of Lhe accused
when he was noL allowed Lo presenL evldence.

Sect|on 24. keopen|ng.
At any t|me before f|na||ty of the [udgment of conv|ct|on, the [udge
may, motu propr|o or upon mot|on, w|th hear|ng |n e|ther case,
reopen the proceed|ngs to avo|d a m|scarr|age of [ust|ce. 1he
proceed|ngs sha|| be term|nated w|th|n th|rty (30) days from the order
grant|ng |t. (n)
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Sect|on 1. Iudgment, def|n|t|on and form.
Iudgment |s the ad[ud|cat|on by the court that the accused |s gu||ty or
not gu||ty of the offense charged and the |mpos|t|on on h|m of the
proper pena|ty and c|v|| ||ab|||ty, |f any. It must be wr|tten |n the
off|c|a| |anguage, persona||y and d|rect|y prepared by the [udge and
s|gned by h|m and sha|| conta|n c|ear|y and d|st|nct|y a statement of
the facts and the |aw upon wh|ch |t |s based. (1a)

I. No such th|ng as et|t|on for Annu|ment of Iudgment |n a cr|m|na|
ku|e 47 applles only ln clvll cases.

II. Manner |n wh|ch [udgment |s made
A [udgmenL ls LhaL whlch flnally dlsposes of Lhe case
8y law, lL ls requlred LhaL lL ls Lhe [udge hlmself who pens Lhe
declslon. Pe may have researchers buL he should pen Lhe
8uL whaL lf Lhere ls an lnsLance whereln Lhe [udge who heard
Lhe case ls noL Lhe [udge who penned Lhe declslon?
o kesayo v. eop|e ! Lhe [udge who penned Lhe declslon
only Look over from a colleague who earller preslded
over Lhe Lrlal. 1here was a valld [udgmenL.
o eop|e v. Ga||arde ! Lhe facL LhaL Lhe [udge who
penned Lhe declslon was noL Lhe [udge who heard Lhe
LesLlmony of wlLnesses ls noL enough reason Lo
overLurn Lhe flndlngs of facL of Lhe Lrlal courL, or even
Lhelr admlsslblllLy.
Sect|on 2. Contents of the [udgment.
If the [udgment |s of conv|ct|on, |t sha|| state (1) the |ega| qua||f|cat|on
of the offense const|tuted by the acts comm|tted by the accused and
the aggravat|ng or m|t|gat|ng c|rcumstances wh|ch attended |ts
comm|ss|on, (2) the part|c|pat|on of the accused |n the offense,
whether as pr|nc|pa|, accomp||ce, or accessory after the fact, (3) the
pena|ty |mposed upon the accused, and (4) the c|v|| ||ab|||ty or
damages caused by h|s wrongfu| act or om|ss|on to be recovered from
the accused by the offended party, |f there |s any, un|ess the
enforcement of the c|v|| ||ab|||ty by a separate c|v|| act|on has been
reserved or wa|ved.

In case the [udgment |s of acqu|tta|, |t sha|| state whether the ev|dence
of the prosecut|on abso|ute|y fa||ed to prove the gu||t of the accused
or mere|y fa||ed to prove h|s gu||t beyond reasonab|e doubt. In e|ther
case, the [udgment sha|| determ|ne |f the act or om|ss|on from wh|ch
the c|v|| ||ab|||ty m|ght ar|se d|d not ex|st. (2a)

I. Contents of Iudgment
1. 1he offense LhaL you have commlLLed
2. 1he penalLy Lo be lmposed
3. 1he parLlclpaLlon wheLher prlnclpal, accompllce or accessorles.
4. 1he aggravaLlng or mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLances.
3. lf lL ls an acqulLLal Lhere wlll be a sLaLemenL LhaL
a. lf Lhere's compleLe non-llablllLy
b. Cnly doubL LhaL led Lo Lhe acqulLLal l.e. reasonable
c. 1he facLs from whlch Lhe clvll llablllLy mlghL arlse do noL

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II. kemedy |n Case of Acqu|tta|
Genera| ku|e: none. 1he acqulLLal ls lmmedlaLely execuLory.
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Sect|on 3. Iudgment for two or more offenses.
When two or more offenses are charged |n a s|ng|e comp|a|nt or
|nformat|on but the accused fa||s to ob[ect to |t before tr|a|, the court
may conv|ct h|m of as many offenses as are charged and proved, and
|mpose on h|m the pena|ty for each offense, sett|ng out separate|y the
f|nd|ngs of fact and |aw |n each offense. (3a)

I. Can the court render a va||d [udgment |f once |nformat|on conta|ns
more than one offense?
?LS. lor as long as Lhe accused refuses or falls Lo ob[ecL. ln LhaL
case, every offense esLabllshed and proven can be Laken agalnsL
Lhe accused.
8ead wlLh Sect|on 13, ku|e 110

Sect|on 4. Iudgment |n case of var|ance between a||egat|on and proof.
When there |s var|ance between the offense charged |n the comp|a|nt
or |nformat|on and that proved, and the offense as charged |s |nc|uded
|n or necessar||y |nc|udes the offense proved, the accused sha|| be
conv|cted of the offense proved wh|ch |s |nc|uded |n the offense
charged, or of the offense charged wh|ch |s |nc|uded |n the offense
proved. (4a)

Sect|on S. When an offense |nc|udes or |s |nc|uded |n another.
An offense charged necessar||y |nc|udes the offense proved when
some of the essent|a| e|ements or |ngred|ents of the former, as a||eged
|n the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on, const|tute the |atter. And an offense
charged |s necessar||y |nc|uded |n the offense proved, when the
essent|a| |ngred|ents of the former const|tute or form part of those
const|tut|ng the |atter. (Sa)

I. What happens |f there's a d|fference between the offense charged |n
the comp|a|nt]|nfo and the offense proved?
Accused may be convlcLed of elLher:
" Cffense proved (whlch musL be lncluded ln Lhe
offense charged), or
" Cffense charged (whlch ls lncluded ln Lhe offense
8aslcally: Lhe lesser offense, wheLher lL be Lhe one
proved or charged
Consu|ta v. eop|e ! Pence, one can be convlcLed of grave
coerclon ln an lnformaLlon LhaL charges robbery wlLh vlolence
agalnsL persons.

Sect|on 6. romu|gat|on of [udgment.
1he [udgment |s promu|gated by read|ng |t |n the presence of the
accused and any [udge of the court |n wh|ch |t was rendered. nowever,
|f the conv|ct|on |s for a ||ght offense, the [udgment may be
pronounced |n the presence of h|s counse| or representat|ve. When
the [udge |s absent or outs|de the prov|nce or c|ty, the [udgment may
be promu|gated by the c|erk of court.

If the accused |s conf|ned or deta|ned |n another prov|nce or c|ty, the
[udgment may be promu|gated by the execut|ve [udge of the keg|ona|
1r|a| Court hav|ng [ur|sd|ct|on over the p|ace of conf|nement or
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detent|on upon request of the court wh|ch rendered the [udgment.
1he court promu|gat|ng the [udgment sha|| have author|ty to accept
the not|ce of appea| and to approve the ba|| bond pend|ng appea|,
prov|ded, that |f the dec|s|on of the tr|a| court conv|ct|ng the accused
changed the nature of the offense from non-ba||ab|e to ba||ab|e, the
app||cat|on for ba|| can on|y be f||ed and reso|ved by the appe||ate

1he proper c|erk of court sha|| g|ve not|ce to the accused persona||y or
through h|s bondsman or warden and counse|, requ|r|ng h|m to be
present at the promu|gat|on of the dec|s|on. If the accused was tr|ed |n
absent|a because he [umped ba|| or escaped from pr|son, the not|ce to
h|m sha|| be served at h|s |ast known address.

In case the accused fa||s to appear at the schedu|ed date of
promu|gat|on of [udgment desp|te not|ce, the promu|gat|on sha|| be
made by record|ng the [udgment |n the cr|m|na| docket and serv|ng
h|m a copy thereof at h|s |ast known address or thru h|s counse|.

If the [udgment |s for conv|ct|on and the fa||ure of the accused to
appear was w|thout [ust|f|ab|e cause, he sha|| |ose the remed|es
ava||ab|e |n these ru|es aga|nst the [udgment and the court sha|| order
h|s arrest. W|th|n f|fteen (1S) days from promu|gat|on of [udgment,
however, the accused may surrender and f||e a mot|on for |eave of
court to ava|| of these remed|es. ne sha|| state the reasons for h|s
absence at the schedu|ed promu|gat|on and |f he proves that h|s
absence was for a [ust|f|ab|e cause, he sha|| be a||owed to ava|| of sa|d
remed|es w|th|n f|fteen (1S) days from not|ce. (6a)

I. romu|gat|on, Mean|ng
lor purposes of a crlmlnal case ln Lhe Lrlal courL when we say
promulgaLlon, Lhe accused has Lo be presenL ln courL for Lhe
readlng of [udgmenL, LhaL ls promulgaLlon.

II. Not|ce Cf romu|gat|on
1o whom should noLlce of promulgaLlon be served?
Genera| ku|e: As much as posslble, Lo Lhe accused personally.
o lf ln [all: Lo Lhe warden
o lf ouL on ball: Lo Lhe bondsman.
o lf aL large: Lo hls lasL known address

III. Who Must 8e resent
A. Accused must be present
Genera| ku|e: 1he accused should be presenL.
Lxcept|on: ConvlcLlon for llghL offenses

8. |a|nt|ffs need not be present

C. Iudge or C|erk of Court w||| read the promu|gat|on
Genera| ku|e: !udge who ruled over Lhe case, or Lhe clerk of
courL (lf [udge ls absenL or ouLslde Lhe provlnce or clLy) ls Lhe
one who promulgaLes.
Lxcept|on: lf accused conflned elsewhere, Lhe execuLlve [udge
ln Lhe 81C who has [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe place of conflnemenL

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IV. Ia||ure of Accused to Appear
lf Lhe accused falls Lhe appear, Lhere wlll sLlll be promulgaLlon.
1he [udgmenL wlll be recorded, and LhaL has Lhe effecL of
Powever, lf such absence ls un[usLlflable, Lhen Lhe accused
Lhereby forfelLs all hls remedles.
o lf he appears wlLhln 13 days from Lhe promulgaLlon and
glves reasonable explanaLlon, he may sLlll avall of all Lhe

IV. kemed|es
MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon
MoLlon for new 1rlal
noLe: 1hese remedles are noL avallable when Lhe accused was

VI. romu|gat|on |n tr|a| courts v|s--v|s appe||ate courts
ln Lhe CA and SC you wlll noL be requlred Lo appear, you wlll noL
recelve a noLlce of promulgaLlon.
(CourL of Appeals) ln Lhe appellaLe courLs promulgaLlon means,
lf a declslon ls rendered by a ulvlslon, lL wlll be forwarded Lo Lhe
ulvlslon Clerk of CourL, he wlll Lhen lssue a noLlce of
promulgaLlon conLalnlng LhaL on such and such a daLe Lhls
ulvlslon of Lhe CA rendered a ueclslon.

VII. romu|gat|on Cf Iudgment In C|v|| v. Cr|m|na|

C|v|| Case Cr|m|na| Case
Manner ueclslons of Lhe clvll courLs are
served. 1hey are noL
ueclslons are
Appearance ls noL requlred Appearance ls requlred.
for Mk
?ou can flle for an M8 lf Lhe
[udgmenL ls conLrary Lo law, lL ls
noL supporLed by evldence, Lhe
amounL of damages awarded ls
Lrrors of facL or law
whlch requlre no
furLher proceedlngs.
for MN1
1. lAML - fraud, accldenL,
mlsLake, excusable negllgence
2. newly dlscovered evldence
1.Lrrors of facL or
lrregularlLles ln Lhe
proceedlngs LhaL wlll
pre[udlce Lhe rlghLs of
Lhe accused
2. newly dlscovered

Sect|on 7. Mod|f|cat|on of [udgment.
A [udgment of conv|ct|on may, upon mot|on of the accused, be
mod|f|ed or set as|de before |t becomes f|na| or before appea| |s
perfected. Lxcept where the death pena|ty |s |mposed, a [udgment
becomes f|na| after the |apse of the per|od for perfect|ng an appea|, or
when the sentence has been part|a||y or tota||y sat|sf|ed or served, or
when the accused has wa|ved |n wr|t|ng h|s r|ght to appea|, or has
app||ed for probat|on. (7a)

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I. Iudgment may be mod|f|ed before |t becomes f|na| and executory
Lxcept|on: When Lhe correcLlon lnvolves clerlcal errors

II. When [udgment becomes f|na|
1. AfLer lapse of perlod Lo appeal
2. SenLence has been parLlally or LoLally saLlsfled or served
3. Accused walved hls rlghL Lo appeal
4. Accused applled for probaLlon

Sect|on 8. Lntry of [udgment.
After a [udgment has become f|na|, |t sha|| be entered |n accordance
w|th ku|e 36. (8)

I. Def|ned
lL ls a recordlng of a [udgmenL LhaL has aLLalned flnallLy ln Lhe
books of enLry of [udgmenL.
o ln slmple words Lhe reglemenLary perlod has lapsed.
1he rule ls Lhe same ln Lhe Lrlal courL and ln Lhe appellaLe courL.

Sect|on 9. Lx|st|ng prov|s|ons govern|ng suspens|on of sentence,
probat|on and paro|e not affected by th|s ku|e.
Noth|ng |n th|s ku|e sha|| affect any ex|st|ng prov|s|ons |n the |aws
govern|ng suspens|on of sentence, probat|on or paro|e. (9a)
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kULL 121: NLW 1kIAL Ck

Sect|on 1. New tr|a| or recons|derat|on.
At any t|me before a [udgment of conv|ct|on becomes f|na|, the court
may, on mot|on of the accused, or at |ts own |nstance but w|th the
consent of the accused, grant a new tr|a| or recons|derat|on. (1a)

I. New 1r|a| v. Mot|on Ior kecons|derat|on

MN1 Mk
Crounds (Sect|on 2)
1.Lrrors of facL or lrregularlLles ln
Lhe proceedlngs LhaL wlll pre[udlce
Lhe rlghLs of Lhe accused
2. newly dlscovered evldence
(Sect|on 3)
Lrrors of facL or law
whlch requlre no
furLher proceedlngs.

LffecL 1he CourL wlll seL aslde lrregular
evldence. 1here wlll be Lrlal de
1he CourL wlll
slmply seL aslde and
glve a new [udgmenL

II. When you can f||e for new tr|a| or recons|derat|on
?ou can only flle a MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon or MoLlon for
new 1rlal wlLhln Lhe reglemenLary perlod.

III. Where you can f||e for new tr|a| or recons|derat|on
Sect|on 14, ku|e 124 ! Allows for Lhe flllng of a MoLlon for
new 1rlal ln Lhe CourL of Appeals on Lhe ground of newly
dlscovered evldence.
o 1hls applles Lo boLh clvll and crlmlnal cases.
o ln Lhe CourL of Appeals, once Lhe appeal ls perfecLed,
for as long as lL has [urlsdlcLlon, you can flle for a
MoLlon for new 1rlal.
o ?ou cannoL flle for an exLenslon.
Cenerally, you cannoL flle a MoLlon for new 1rlal ln Lhe
Supreme CourL. 8uL lf you do, lL ls lefL Lo Lhe CourL's dlscreLlon.
Lubr|ca v. eop|e ! Lven lf Lhe accused does noL appeal, buL lf
Lhe oLher accused appeals, and you dld noL appeal and lLs
favorable lL applles Lo or covers Lhe non-appeallng accused.
o ?ou appealed buL lL was denled so Lhe [udgmenL
became flnal, buL Lhe oLher accused who appealed
obLalned a favorable [udgmenL, wlll LhaL be Laken also ln
your favor? nC

IV. o|nt when per|od beg|ns to run
Sum|ran v. Damaso ! applylng Lhe neypes 8ullng, lf M8
denled, you have fresh 13 days Lo appeal.

V. 2
Mot|on Ior kecons|derat|on
ku|e 37 expressly prohlblLs Lhe flllng of a 2
M8 ln clvll cases.
Powever, ln pracLlce for crlmlnal cases, a 2
M8 ls frowned
upon. AlLhough, Lhere have been cases where Lhe Supreme
CourL allowed Lhe flllng of a 2

VI. now f||ed
1. CourL on lLs own lnsLance buL wlLh consenL of Lhe accused, or
2. Cn moLlon of Lhe accused.
Can Lhe prosecuLlon flle for an M8 or a Mn1? nC.

VII. If MN1 granted, how |ong does the court have to commence a new
30 days from noLlce of such order.
LxLendable up Lo 180 days from noLlce, lf Lhe perlod ls

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Sect|on 2. Grounds for a new tr|a|.
1he court sha|| grant a new tr|a| on any of the fo||ow|ng grounds:

(a) 1hat errors of |aw or |rregu|ar|t|es pre[ud|c|a| to the substant|a|
r|ghts of the accused have been comm|tted dur|ng the tr|a|,

(b) 1hat new and mater|a| ev|dence has been d|scovered wh|ch the
accused cou|d not w|th reasonab|e d|||gence have d|scovered and
produced at the tr|a| and wh|ch |f |ntroduced and adm|tted wou|d
probab|y change the [udgment. (2a)

I. kequ|s|tes for new|y d|scovered ev|dence
1. 1he evldence ls maLerlal
2. lL wasn'L avallable durlng Lrlal, desplLe Lhe exerclse of dlllgence
3. 1o conslder Lhe newly dlscovered evldence wlll change Lhe
ouLcome of Lhe case.
noLe: Can be LesLlmonlal, ob[ecL, documenLary.
Wr|t of nabeas Corpus of keyna|do de V|||a ! An Mn1 based
on newly dlscovered unA evldence of Lhe accused was noL
granLed because Lhe unA evldence was capable of belng
dlscovered or procured durlng Lhe Lrlal.

Sect|on 3. Ground for recons|derat|on.
1he court sha|| grant recons|derat|on on the ground of errors of |aw or
fact |n the [udgment, wh|ch requ|res no further proceed|ngs. (3a)

Sect|on 4. Iorm of mot|on and not|ce to the prosecutor.
1he mot|on for new tr|a| or recons|derat|on sha|| be |n wr|t|ng and
sha|| state the grounds on wh|ch |t |s based. If based on a new|y-
d|scovered ev|dence, the mot|on must be supported by aff|dav|ts of
w|tnesses by whom such ev|dence |s expected to be g|ven or by du|y
authent|cated cop|es of documents wh|ch are proposed to be
|ntroduced |n ev|dence. Not|ce of the mot|on for new tr|a| or
recons|derat|on sha|| be g|ven to the prosecutor. (4a)

Sect|on S. near|ng on mot|on.
Where a mot|on for new tr|a| ca||s for reso|ut|on of any quest|on of
fact, the court may hear ev|dence thereon by aff|dav|ts or otherw|se.

Sect|on 6. Lffects of grant|ng a new tr|a| or recons|derat|on.
1he effects of grant|ng a new tr|a| or recons|derat|on are the fo||ow|ng:

(a) When a new tr|a| |s granted on the ground of errors of |aw or
|rregu|ar|t|es comm|tted dur|ng the tr|a|, a|| the proceed|ngs and
ev|dence affected thereby sha|| be set as|de and taken anew. 1he court
may, |n the |nterest of [ust|ce, a||ow the |ntroduct|on of add|t|ona|

(b) When a new tr|a| |s granted on the ground of new|y-d|scovered
ev|dence, the ev|dence a|ready adduced sha|| stand and the new|y-
d|scovered and such other ev|dence as the court may, |n the |nterest of
[ust|ce, a||ow to be |ntroduced sha|| be taken and cons|dered together
w|th the ev|dence a|ready |n the record.

(c) In a|| cases, when the court grants new tr|a| or recons|derat|on, the
or|g|na| [udgment sha|| be set as|de or vacated and a new [udgment
rendered accord|ng|y. (6a)

I. Lffects of grant|ng a new tr|a| or recons|derat|on.
1. new Lrlal and granLed on errors of law or lrregularlLles ln Lrlal
! LveryLhlng shall be seL aslde and Laken anew. ln Lhe lnLeresL
of [usLlce, addlLlonal evldence may be adduced.
2. new Lrlal and granLed on newly dlscovered evldence
! Lvldence already adduced shall sLand, and new evldence wlll
be consldered
3. ALL cases:
! Crlglnal [udgmenL shall be seL aslde or vacaLed and a new
[udgmenL rendered accordlngly
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kULL 122: ALAL

Sect|on 1. Who may appea|.
Any party may appea| from a [udgment or f|na| order, un|ess the
accused w||| be p|aced |n doub|e [eopardy. (2a)

I. Who May Appea|
1. 1he accused
2. 1he offended parLy (buL only as regards Lhe clvll aspecL of Lhe
3. eople of Lhe hlllpplnes ! Llke when a moLlon Lo quash Lhe
lnformaLlon was granLed, Lhe SLaLe can appeal slnce double
[eopardy has noL seL ln (M1C ls flled 8LlC8L arralgnmenL).

II. Lffect of appea|s:
ln clvll ! courL wlll only conslder Lhe asslgnmenL of errors
ln crlmlnal ! Lhe Ln1l8L case ls open for revlew.
o So Lhe penalLy can acLually be lncreased on appeal.

Sect|on 2. Where to appea|.
1he appea| may be taken as fo||ows:

(a) 1o the keg|ona| 1r|a| Court, |n cases dec|ded by the Metropo||tan
1r|a| Court, Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Court |n C|t|es, Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Court, or
Mun|c|pa| C|rcu|t 1r|a| Court,

(b) 1o the Court of Appea|s or to the Supreme Court |n the proper
cases prov|ded by |aw, |n cases dec|ded by the keg|ona| 1r|a| Court,

(c) 1o the Supreme Court, |n cases dec|ded by the Court of Appea|s.

Sect|on 3. now appea| taken.
(a) 1he appea| to the keg|ona| 1r|a| Court, or to the Court of Appea|s |n
cases dec|ded by the keg|ona| 1r|a| Court |n the exerc|se of |ts or|g|na|
[ur|sd|ct|on, sha|| be by not|ce of appea| f||ed w|th the court wh|ch
rendered the [udgment or f|na| order appea|ed from and by serv|ng a
copy thereof upon the adverse party.

(b) 1he appea| to the Court of Appea|s |n cases dec|ded by the keg|ona|
1r|a| Court |n the exerc|se of |ts appe||ate [ur|sd|ct|on sha|| be by
pet|t|on for rev|ew under ku|e 42.

(c) 1he appea| |n cases where the pena|ty |mposed by the keg|ona|
1r|a| Court |s rec|us|on perpetua, ||fe |mpr|sonment or where a |esser
pena|ty |s |mposed for offenses comm|tted on the same occas|on or
wh|ch arose out of the same occurrence that gave r|se to the more
ser|ous offense for wh|ch the pena|ty of death, rec|us|on perpetua, or
||fe |mpr|sonment |s |mposed, sha|| be by not|ce of appea| to the Court
of Appea|s |n accordance w|th paragraph (a) of th|s ku|e.

(d) No not|ce of appea| |s necessary |n cases where the keg|ona| 1r|a|
Court |mposed the death pena|ty. 1he Court of Appea|s sha||
automat|ca||y rev|ew the [udgment as prov|ded |n Sect|on 10 of th|s
ku|e. (3a) (As amended by SC keso|ut|on A.M. No. 00-S-03-SC, Sept.
28, 2004)

I. M1C dec|des ! appea| to k1C
now: noLlce of appeal
o Lxample: ConvlcLed of acLs of lasclvlousness ln M1C, flle
noLlce of appeal ln M1C so 81C can rule on Lhe appeal
1he 81C may requlre Lhe submlsslon of memoranda by Lhe
parLles on whlch lL wlll base lLs rullngs.
o no hearlng wlll be conducLed slnce Lhe 81C ls acLlng
Lhrough lLs appellaLe [urlsdlcLlon.

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II. k1C dec|des ! appea| to CA
now: uepends on wheLher whaL ls belng appealed ls a declslon
from a case declded Lhrough orlglnal [urlsdlcLlon C8 a declslon
made Lhrough Lhe 81C's appellaLe [urlsdlcLlon.
81C acLlng orlglnally: vla noLlce of appeal flled ln Lhe 81C (ku|e
o Applles also lf penalLy lmposed by 81C ls recluslon
perpeLual or llfe lmprlsonmenL.
o lf deaLh ls lmposed, Lhe case goes sLralghL Lo Lhe CA (no
need for noLlce of appeal).
o Compared wlLh clvll: record of appeal allowed
o rocedure ln CA:
" llle appellanL's brlef wlLhln 30 days, appellee's
brlef wlLhln 30 days, and reply brlef wlLhln 20
days (30-30-20) ! ku|e 124
" Compared wlLh clvll: 43-43-20 (ku|e 44)
81C acLlng as an appellaLe courL: vla peLlLlon for revlew under
ku|e 42
o Llke when flled orlglnally ln M1C and afflrmed ln Lhe
o 1hls ls Lhe same wlLh clvll
Can a declslon from Lhe 81C go sLralghL Lo Lhe SC?
o ?LS. lf based purely on quesLlons of law. use ku|e 4S.

III. CA dec|des ! appea| to SC
Genera| ku|e: Always vla peLlLlon for revlew on cerLlorarl under
ku|e 4S (pure quesLlons of law)
o When CA decldes penalLy ls 8/Ll, (or offenses
commlLLed ln Lhe same occaslon or same occurrence
whlch game rlse Lo Lhe offense of 8/Ll) remedy ls by
noLlce of appeal wlLh Lhe CA Lo Lhe SC
" lmporLanL: 1hls ls Lhe only lnsLance when ku|e
4S ls noL used Lo go up Lo Lhe SC on appeal. 1he
same rule as from S8.
o When CA decldes deaLh, lL wlll render buL nC1 enLer a
[udgmenL and cerLlfy Lhe case Lo Lhe SC.
" 1he case of Lhe accompllces and accessorles wlll
also be cerLlfled Lo Lhe SC.

IV. S8 dec|des ! appea| to SC
enalLy ls less Lhan deaLh/llfe/8 ! ku|e 4S Lo SC (peLlLlon for
revlew on cerLlorarl)
enalLy ls llfe/8 ! noLlce of appeal Lo Lhe SC
o noLe: When Lhe declslon ls ralsed Lo Lhe SC on noLlce of
appeal (8/Ll), boLh quesLlons on facLs and law can be
enalLy ls deaLh ! auLomaLlc revlew Lo SC
S8 decldes on appellaLe [urlsdlcLlon from 81C lmposlng Lhe
penalLy of u/Ll/8 ! S8 wlll render buL noL enLer and cerLlfy up
Lo Lhe SC.

V. What happens |f the accused uses the wrong mode for appea|?
Genera| ku|e: 1he [udgmenL wlll become flnal and execuLory
because Lhe runnlng of Lhe appeal perlod wlll noL be Lolled.
Lxcept|on: When Lhe lnLeresL of [usLlce would allow
Deus v. eop|e ! where 8ule 63 was used lnsLead of a noLlce of
appeal. 8uL ln Lhe lnLeresL of [usLlce, Lhls fell ln Lhe excepLlon.
1he wrong mode of appeal was done by an lndlgenL who dld noL
have a lawyer.

Sect|on 4. ub||cat|on of not|ce of appea|.
If persona| serv|ce of the copy of the not|ce of appea| can not be made
upon the adverse party or h|s counse|, serv|ce may be done by
reg|stered ma|| or by subst|tuted serv|ce pursuant to Sect|ons 7 and 8
of ku|e 13. (4a)

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I. ku|e 13
Sect|on 7. Serv|ce by ma||.
Servlce by reglsLered mall shall be made by deposlLlng Lhe copy ln Lhe
posL offlce ln a sealed envelope, plalnly addressed Lo Lhe parLy or hls
counsel aL hls offlce, lf known, oLherwlse aL hls resldence, lf known, wlLh
posLage fully prepald, and wlLh lnsLrucLlons Lo Lhe posLmasLer Lo reLurn
Lhe mall Lo Lhe sender afLer Len (10) days lf undellvered. lf no reglsLry
servlce ls avallable ln Lhe locallLy of elLher Lhe senders or Lhe addressee,
servlce may be done by ordlnary mall. (3a, 8ar MaLLer no. 803, 17
lebruary 1998)

Sect|on 8. Subst|tuted serv|ce.
lf servlce of pleadlngs, moLlons, noLlces, resoluLlons, orders and oLher
papers cannoL be made under Lhe Lwo precedlng secLlons, Lhe offlce
and place of resldence of Lhe parLy or hls counsel belng unknown,
servlce may be made by dellverlng Lhe copy Lo Lhe clerk of courL, wlLh
proof of fallure of boLh personal servlce and servlce by mall. 1he servlce
ls compleLe aL Lhe Llme of such dellvery. (6a)

Sect|on S. Wa|ver of not|ce.
1he appe||ee may wa|ve h|s r|ght to a not|ce that an appea| has been
taken. 1he appe||ate court may, |n |ts d|scret|on, enterta|n an appea|
notw|thstand|ng fa||ure to g|ve such not|ce |f the |nterests of [ust|ce so
requ|re. (Sa)

Sect|on 6. When appea| to be taken.
An appea| must be taken w|th|n f|fteen (1S) days from promu|gat|on of
the [udgment or from not|ce of the f|na| order appea|ed from. 1h|s
per|od for perfect|ng an appea| sha|| be suspended from the t|me a
mot|on for new tr|a| or recons|derat|on |s f||ed unt|| not|ce of the order
overru||ng the mot|on has been served upon the accused or h|s
counse| at wh|ch t|me the ba|ance of the per|od beg|ns to run. (6a)

Sect|on 7. 1ranscr|b|ng and f|||ng notes of stenograph|c reporter upon
When not|ce of appea| |s f||ed by the accused, the tr|a| court sha||
d|rect the stenograph|c reporter to transcr|be h|s notes of the
proceed|ngs. When f||ed by the eop|e of the h|||pp|nes, the tr|a|
court sha|| d|rect the stenograph|c reporter to transcr|be such port|on
of h|s notes of the proceed|ngs as the court, upon mot|on, sha|| spec|fy
|n wr|t|ng. 1he stenograph|c reporter sha|| cert|fy to the correctness of
the notes and the transcr|pt thereof, wh|ch sha|| cons|st of the or|g|na|
and four (4) cop|es, and sha|| f||e sa|d or|g|na| and four cop|es w|th the
c|erk w|thout unnecessary de|ay.

If death pena|ty |s |mposed, the stenograph|c reporter sha||, w|th|n
th|rty (30) days from promu|gat|on of the sentence, f||e w|th the c|erk
the or|g|na| and four cop|es of the du|y cert|f|ed transcr|pt of h|s notes
of the proceed|ngs. No extens|on of t|me for f|||ng of sa|d transcr|pt of
stenograph|c notes sha|| be granted except by the Supreme Court and
on|y upon [ust|f|ab|e grounds. (7a)

Sect|on 8. 1ransm|ss|on of papers to appe||ate court upon appea|.
W|th|n f|ve (S) days from the f|||ng of the not|ce of appea|, the c|erk of
the court w|th whom the not|ce of appea| was f||ed must transm|t to
the c|erk of court of the appe||ate court the comp|ete record of the
case, together w|th sa|d not|ce. 1he or|g|na| and three (3) cop|es of the
transcr|pt of stenograph|c notes, together w|th the records, sha|| a|so
be transm|tted to the c|erk of the appe||ate court w|thout undue
de|ay. 1he other copy of the transcr|pt sha|| rema|n |n the |ower court.

Sect|on 9. Appea| to the keg|ona| 1r|a| Courts.
(a) W|th|n f|ve (S) days from perfect|on of the appea|, the c|erk of
court sha|| transm|t the or|g|na| record to the appropr|ate keg|ona|
1r|a| Court.

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(b) Upon rece|pt of the comp|ete record of the case, transcr|pts and
exh|b|ts, the c|erk of court of the keg|ona| 1r|a| Court sha|| not|fy the
part|es of such fact.

(c) W|th|n f|fteen (1S) days from rece|pt of sa|d not|ce, the part|es may
subm|t memoranda or br|efs, or may be requ|red by the keg|ona| 1r|a|
Court to do so. After the subm|ss|on of such memoranda or br|efs, or
upon the exp|rat|on of the per|od to f||e the same, the keg|ona| 1r|a|
Court sha|| dec|de the case on the bas|s of the ent|re record of the case
and of such memoranda or br|efs as may have been f||ed. (9a)

Sect|on 10. 1ransm|ss|on of records |n case of death pena|ty.
In a|| cases where the death pena|ty |s |mposed by the tr|a| court, the
records sha|| be forwarded to the Court of Appea|s for automat|c
rev|ew and [udgment w|th|n twenty (20) days but not ear||er than
f|fteen (1S) days from the promu|gat|on of the [udgment or not|ce of
den|a| of a mot|on for new tr|a| or recons|derat|on. 1he transcr|pt sha||
a|so be forwarded w|th|n ten (10) days after the f|||ng thereof by the
stenograph|c reporter. (10a) (As amended by SC keso|ut|on A.M. No.
00-S-03-SC, Sept. 28, 2004)

Sect|on 11. Lffect of appea| by any of severa| accused.
(a) An appea| taken by one or more of severa| accused sha|| not affect
those who d|d not appea|, except |nsofar as the [udgment of the
appe||ate court |s favorab|e and app||cab|e to the |atter.

(b) 1he appea| of the offended party from the c|v|| aspect sha|| not
affect the cr|m|na| aspect of the [udgment or order appea|ed from.

(c) Upon perfect|on of the appea|, the execut|on of the [udgment or
f|na| order appea|ed from sha|| be stayed as to the appea||ng party.

Sect|on 12. W|thdrawa| of appea|.
Notw|thstand|ng perfect|on of the appea|, the keg|ona| 1r|a| Court,
Metropo||tan 1r|a| Court, Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Court |n C|t|es, Mun|c|pa|
1r|a| Court, or Mun|c|pa| C|rcu|t 1r|a| Court, as the case may be, may
a||ow the appe||ant to w|thdraw h|s appea| before the record has been
forwarded by the c|erk of court to the proper appe||ate court as
prov|ded |n Sect|on 8, |n wh|ch case the [udgment sha|| become f|na|.
1he keg|ona| 1r|a| Court may a|so, |n |ts d|scret|on, a||ow the appe||ant
from the [udgment of a Metropo||tan 1r|a| Court, Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Court
|n C|t|es, Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Court, or Mun|c|pa| C|rcu|t 1r|a| Court to
w|thdraw h|s appea|, prov|ded a mot|on to that effect |s f||ed before
rend|t|on of the [udgment |n the case on appea|, |n wh|ch case the
[udgment of the court of or|g|n sha|| become f|na| and the case sha|| be
remanded to the |atter court for execut|on of the [udgment. (12a)

Sect|on 13. Appo|ntment of counse| de of|c|o for accused on appea|.
It sha|| be the duty of the c|erk of court of the tr|a| court, upon f|||ng of
a not|ce of appea|, to ascerta|n from the appe||ant, |f conf|ned |n
pr|son, whether he des|res the keg|ona| 1r|a| Court, Court of Appea|s
or the Supreme Court to appo|nt a counse| de of|c|o to defend h|m and
to transm|t w|th the record on a form to be prepared by the c|erk of
court of the appe||ate court, a cert|f|cate of comp||ance w|th th|s duty
and of the response of the appe||ant to h|s |nqu|ry. (13a)

I. 1r|a| court c|erk |s duty bound to ascerta|n from the accused |f he
wants a counse| de off|c|o, then court w||| appo|nt.

II. What're the other |nstances where mandatory to g|ve a counse| de
1. upon arralgnmenL, buL LhaL ls by Lhe courL.
2. 8ead wlLh ku|e 124, Sect|on 2 (appolnLmenL by Lhe CA)
3. Also allowed by Lhe SC buL noL found ln Lhe rules

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2"/.,.*3# 0!.3# ,+"!04

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kULL 124: kCCLDUkL IN 1nL CCUk1

Sect|on 1. 1|t|e of the case.
In a|| cr|m|na| cases appea|ed to the Court of Appea|s, the party
appea||ng the case sha|| be ca||ed the "appe||ant" and the adverse
party the "appe||ee," but the t|t|e of the case sha|| rema|n as |t was |n
the court of or|g|n. (1a)

Sect|on 2. Appo|ntment of counse| de of|c|o for the accused.
If |t appears from the record of the case as transm|tted that (a) the
accused |s conf|ned |n pr|son, (b) |s w|thout counse| de parte on
appea|, or (c) has s|gned the not|ce of appea| h|mse|f, the c|erk of court
of the Court of Appea|s sha|| des|gnate a counse| de of|c|o.

An appe||ant who |s not conf|ned |n pr|son may, upon request, be
ass|gned a counse| de of|c|o w|th|n ten (10) days from rece|pt of the
not|ce to f||e br|ef and he estab||shes h|s r|ght thereto. (2a)

I. Counse| De Cff|c|o
Can a counsel de officio be named in the CA? YES.
A counsel de officio mandatory when the accused:
o Is in prison
! If hes not confined, its not mandatory on the
o Is without counsel de parte on appeal, or
o Signed his own appeal

Sect|on 3. When br|ef for appe||ant to be f||ed.
W|th|n th|rty (30) days from rece|pt by the appe||ant or h|s counse| of
the not|ce from the c|erk of court of the Court of Appea|s that the
ev|dence, ora| and documentary, |s a|ready attached to the record, the
appe||ant sha|| f||e seven (7) cop|es of h|s br|ef w|th the c|erk of court
wh|ch sha|| be accompan|ed by proof of serv|ce of two (2) cop|es
thereof upon the appe||ee. (3a)

I. er|ods 1o kemember:
!"#$ &''#((&$) *+ &''#((## ,"*-(. /0(# & 1+0#/ *+ +#'(2 1+0#/

Sect|on 4. When br|ef for appe||ee to be f||ed, rep|y br|ef of the
W|th|n th|rty (30) days from rece|pt of the br|ef of the appe||ant, the
appe||ee sha|| f||e seven (7) cop|es of the br|ef of the appe||ee w|th the
c|erk of court wh|ch sha|| be accompan|ed by proof of serv|ce of two
(2) cop|es thereof upon the appe||ant.

W|th|n twenty (20) days from rece|pt of the br|ef of the appe||ee, the
appe||ant may f||e a rep|y br|ef travers|ng matters ra|sed |n the former
but not covered |n the br|ef of the appe||ant. (4a)

Sect|on S. Lxtens|on of t|me for f|||ng br|efs.
Lxtens|on of t|me for the f|||ng of br|efs w||| not be a||owed except for
good and suff|c|ent cause and on|y |f the mot|on for extens|on |s f||ed
before the exp|rat|on of the t|me sought to be extended. (Sa)

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Sect|on 6. Iorm of br|efs.
8r|efs sha|| e|ther be pr|nted, encoded or typewr|tten |n doub|e space
on |ega| s|ze good qua||ty ung|azed paper, 330 mm. |n |ength by 216
mm. |n w|dth. (6a)

Sect|on 7. Contents of br|ef.
1he br|efs |n cr|m|na| cases sha|| have the same contents as prov|ded
|n Sect|ons 13 and 14 of ku|e 44. A cert|f|ed true copy of the dec|s|on
or f|na| order appea|ed from sha|| be appended to the br|ef of the
appe||ant. (7a)

I. ku|e 44
Sect|on 13. Contents of appe||ant's br|ef3
4"# &''#((&$)5, 1+0#/ ,"&(( 6*$)&0$7 0$ )"# *+.#+ "#+#0$ 0$.06&)#.7 )"#

;&< = ,-1>#6) 0$.#? */ )"# @&))#+ 0$ )"# 1+0#/ 80)" & .09#,) */ )"#
&+9-@#$), &$. '&9# +#/#+#$6#,7 &$. & )&1(# */ 6&,#, &('"&1#)06&((2
&++&$9#.7 )#?)1**A, &$. ,)&)-)#, 60)#. 80)" +#/#+#$6#, )* )"# '&9#,
8"#+# )"#2 &+# 60)#.B

;1< =$ &,,09$@#$) */ #++*+, 0$)#$.#. )* 1# -+9#.7 8"06" #++*+, ,"&(( 1#
,#'&+&)#(27 .0,)0$6)(2 &$. 6*$60,#(2 ,)&)#. 80)"*-) +#'#)0)0*$ &$.
$-@1#+#. 6*$,#6-)0C#(2B

;6< D$.#+ )"# "#&.0$9 EF)&)#@#$) */ )"# G&,#7E & 6(#&+ &$. 6*$60,#
,)&)#@#$) */ )"# $&)-+# */ )"# &6)0*$7 & ,-@@&+2 */ )"# '+*6##.0$9,7
)"# &''#&(#. +-(0$9, &$. *+.#+, */ )"# 6*-+)7 )"# $&)-+# */ )"#
>-.9@#$) &$. &$2 *)"#+ @&))#+, $#6#,,&+2 )* &$ -$.#+,)&$.0$9 */ )"#
$&)-+# */ )"# 6*$)+*C#+,2 80)" '&9# +#/#+#$6#, )* )"# +#6*+.B
;.< D$.#+ )"# "#&.0$9 EF)&)#@#$) */ H&6),7E & 6(#&+ &$. 6*$60,#
,)&)#@#$) 0$ & $&++&)0C# /*+@ */ )"# /&6), &.@0))#. 12 1*)" '&+)0#, &$.
*/ )"*,# 0$ 6*$)+*C#+,27 )*9#)"#+ 80)" )"# ,-1,)&$6# */ )"# '+**/
+#(&)0$9 )"#+#)* 0$ ,-//060#$) .#)&0( )* @&A# 0) 6(#&+(2 0$)#((0901(#7 80)"
'&9# +#/#+#$6#, )* )"# +#6*+.B

;#< = 6(#&+ &$. 6*$60,# ,)&)#@#$) */ )"# 0,,-#, */ /&6) *+ (&8 )* 1#
,-1@0))#.7 )* )"# 6*-+) /*+ 0), >-.9@#$)B

;/< D$.#+ )"# "#&.0$9 E=+9-@#$)7E )"# &''#((&$)5, &+9-@#$), *$ #&6"
&,,09$@#$) */ #++*+ 80)" '&9# +#/#+#$6#, )* )"# +#6*+.3 4"# &-)"*+0)0#,
+#(0#. -'*$ ,"&(( 1# 60)#. 12 )"# '&9# */ )"# +#'*+) &) 8"06" )"# 6&,#
1#90$, &$. )"# '&9# */ )"# +#'*+) *$ 8"06" )"# 60)&)0*$ 0, /*-$.B

;9< D$.#+ )"# "#&.0$9 EI#(0#/7E & ,'#60/06&)0*$ */ )"# *+.#+ *+ >-.9@#$)
8"06" )"# &''#((&$) ,##A,B &$.

;"< J$ 6&,#, $*) 1+*-9") -' 12 +#6*+. *$ &''#&(7 )"# &''#((&$)5, 1+0#/
,"&(( 6*$)&0$7 &, &$ &''#$.0?7 & 6*'2 */ )"# >-.9@#$) *+ /0$&( *+.#+
&''#&(#. /+*@3 ;KL&7 IML<

Sect|on 14. Contents of appe||ee's br|ef.
4"# &''#((##5, 1+0#/ ,"&(( 6*$)&0$7 0$ )"# *+.#+ "#+#0$ 0$.06&)#. )"#

;&< = ,-1>#6) 0$.#? */ )"# @&))#+ 0$ )"# 1+0#/ 80)" & .09#,) */ )"#
&+9-@#$), &$. '&9# +#/#+#$6#,7 &$. & )&1(# */ 6&,#, &('"&1#)06&((2
&++&$9#.7 )#?)1**A, &$. ,)&)-)#, 60)#. 80)" +#/#+#$6#, )* )"# '&9#,
8"#+# )"#2 &+# 60)#.B

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;1< D$.#+ )"# "#&.0$9 EF)&)#@#$) */ H&6),7E )"# &''#((## ,"&(( ,)&)# )"&)
"# &66#'), )"# ,)&)#@#$) */ /&6), 0$ )"# &''#((&$)5, 1+0#/7 *+ -$.#+ )"#
"#&.0$9 EG*-$)#+NF)&)#@#$) */ H&6),7E "# ,"&(( '*0$) *-) ,-6"
0$,-//060#$60#, *+ 0$&66-+&60#, &, "# 1#(0#C#, #?0,) 0$ )"# &''#((&$)5,
,)&)#@#$) */ /&6), 80)" +#/#+#$6#, )* )"# '&9#, */ )"# +#6*+. 0$ ,-''*+)
)"#+#*/7 1-) 80)"*-) +#'#)0)0*$ */ @&))#+, 0$ )"# &''#((&$)5, ,)&)#@#$)
*/ /&6),B &$.

;6< D$.#+ )"# "#&.0$9 E=+9-@#$)7E )"# &''#((## ,"&(( ,#) /*+)" "0,
&+9-@#$), 0$ )"# 6&,# *$ #&6" &,,09$@#$) */ #++*+ 80)" '&9# +#/#+#$6#,
)* )"# +#6*+.3 4"# &-)"*+0)0#, +#(0#. *$ ,"&(( 1# 60)#. 12 )"# '&9# */ )"#
+#'*+) &) 8"06" )"# 6&,# 1#90$, &$. )"# '&9# */ )"# +#'*+) *$ 8"06" )"#
60)&)0*$ 0, /*-$.3 ;KO&7 IML<

Sect|on 8. D|sm|ssa| of appea| for abandonment or fa||ure to
1he Court of Appea|s may, upon mot|on of the appe||ee or motu
propr|o and w|th not|ce to the appe||ant |n e|ther case, d|sm|ss the
appea| |f the appe||ant fa||s to f||e h|s br|ef w|th|n the t|me prescr|bed
by th|s ku|e, except where the appe||ant |s represented by a counse|
de of|c|o.

1he Court of Appea|s may a|so, upon mot|on of the appe||ee or motu
propr|o, d|sm|ss the appea| |f the appe||ant escapes from pr|son or
conf|nement, [umps ba|| or f|ees to a fore|gn country dur|ng the
pendency of the appea|. (8a)

I. Grounds Ior D|sm|ssa| 8y 1he CA
Note: P0,@0,,&( @&2 1# #0)"#+ 12 @*)0*$ */ )"# '&+)2 ;&''#((## *+
&''#((&$)< *+ @*)- '+*'0* 12 )"# G*-+) */ =''#&(,3
K3 H&0(-+# )* /0(# 1+0#/ ;#0)"#+ '&+)2<
Q3 =66-,#. >-@', 1&0(7 #,6&'#, *+ /(##, )* & /*+#09$ 6*-$)+2
eop|e v. 1aruc " &''(0#. )"0, ,#6)0*$ )* )"# FG &, 8#((3

Sect|on 9. rompt d|spos|t|on of appea|s.
Appea|s of accused who are under detent|on sha|| be g|ven precedence
|n the|r d|spos|t|on over other appea|s. 1he Court of Appea|s sha|| hear
and dec|de the appea| at the ear||est pract|cab|e t|me w|th due regard
to the r|ghts of the part|es. 1he accused need not be present |n court
dur|ng the hear|ng of the appea|. (9a)

Sect|on 10. Iudgment not to be reversed or mod|f|ed except for
substant|a| error.
No [udgment sha|| be reversed or mod|f|ed un|ess the Court of
Appea|s, after an exam|nat|on of the record and of the ev|dence
adduced by the part|es, |s of the op|n|on that error was comm|tted
wh|ch |n[ur|ous|y affected the substant|a| r|ghts of the appe||ant. (10a)

Sect|on 11. Scope of [udgment.
1he Court of Appea|s may reverse, aff|rm, or mod|fy the [udgment and
|ncrease or reduce the pena|ty |mposed by the tr|a| court, remand the
case to the keg|ona| 1r|a| Court for new tr|a| or retr|a|, or d|sm|ss the
case. (11a)

Sect|on 12. ower to rece|ve ev|dence.
1he Court of Appea|s sha|| have the power to try cases and conduct
hear|ngs, rece|ve ev|dence and perform a|| acts necessary to reso|ve
factua| |ssues ra|sed |n cases fa|||ng w|th|n |ts or|g|na| and appe||ate
[ur|sd|ct|on, |nc|ud|ng the power to grant and conduct new tr|a|s or
further proceed|ngs. 1r|a|s or hear|ngs |n the Court of Appea|s must be
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cont|nuous and must be comp|eted w|th|n three months, un|ess
extended by the Ch|ef Iust|ce. 12(a) (As amended by SC keso|ut|on
A.M. No. 00-S-03-SC, Sept. 28, 2004)

I. o|nt
4"# G*-+) */ =''#&(, @&2 +#6#0C# #C0.#$6# &$. +#,*(C# 6&,#,
6*$6#+$0$9 /&6)-&( 0,,-#,3
4"# G= @&2 &(,* 6*$.-6) $#8 )+0&(,3

Sect|on 13. Cert|f|cat|on or appea| of case to the Supreme Court.
(a) Whenever the Court of Appea|s f|nds that the pena|ty of death
shou|d be |mposed, the court sha|| render [udgment but refra|n from
mak|ng an entry of [udgment and forthw|th cert|fy the case and
e|evate |ts ent|re record to the Supreme Court for rev|ew.

(b) Where the [udgment a|so |mposes a |esser pena|ty for offenses
comm|tted on the same occas|on or wh|ch arose out of the same
occurrence that gave r|se to the more severe offense for wh|ch the
pena|ty of death |s |mposed, and the accused appea|s, the appea| sha||
be |nc|uded |n the case cert|f|ed for rev|ew to the Supreme Court.

(c) In cases where the Court of Appea|s |mposes rec|us|on perpetua,
||fe |mpr|sonment or a |esser pena|ty, |t sha|| render and enter
[udgment |mpos|ng such pena|ty. 1he [udgment may be appea|ed to
the Supreme Court by not|ce of appea| f||ed w|th the Court of Appea|s.
(As amended by SC keso|ut|on A.M. No. 00-S-03-SC, Sept. 28, 2004)

I. Appea| Cf Cases Dec|ded 8y 1he CA
K3 G= 0@'*,#, .#&)" " 0) ,"*-(. +#$.#+ >-.9@#$) 1-) +#/+&0$ /+*@
@&A0$9 &$ #$)+2 */ >-.9@#$)3 G#+)0/2 )"# 6&,# )* )"# FG /*+
Q3 G= 0@'*,#, +#6(-,0*$ '#+'#)-&7 (0/# 0@'+0,*$@#$) *+ 6+0@#,
@&.# 0$ )"# *66&,0*$ */ IRSTJ " 0) ,"*-(. +#$.#+ &$. #$)#+
>-.9@#$) 0@'*,0$9 ,-6" '#$&()23
o 4"0, >-.9@#$) )* 1# &''#&(#. )* )"# FG 12 $*)06# */
&''#&( /0(#. 80)" )"# G=3

Sect|on 14. Mot|on for new tr|a|.
At any t|me after the appea| from the |ower court has been perfected
and before the [udgment of the Court of Appea|s conv|ct|ng the
appe||ant becomes f|na|, the |atter may move for a new tr|a| on the
ground of new|y-d|scovered ev|dence mater|a| to h|s defense. 1he
mot|on sha|| conform w|th the prov|s|ons of Sect|on 4, ku|e 121. (14a)

I. Ground Ior Mot|on Ior New 1r|a| In 1he Ca
U$(2 *$ )"# 9+*-$. /*+ $#8(2N.0,6*C#+#. #C0.#$6#

Sect|on 1S. Where new tr|a| conducted.
When a new tr|a| |s granted, the Court of Appea|s may conduct the
hear|ng and rece|ve ev|dence as prov|ded |n Sect|on 12 of th|s ku|e or
refer the tr|a| to the court of or|g|n. (1Sa)

I. Course Cf Act|on In Case CA Grants MN1
K3 G= @&2 6*$.-6) $#&+0$9 &$. +#6#0C# #C0.#$6#
Q3 G= @&2 +#/#+ )"# )+0&( )* )"# 6*-+) */ *+090$

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Sect|on 16. kecons|derat|on.
A mot|on for recons|derat|on sha|| be f||ed w|th|n f|fteen (1S) days
from not|ce of the dec|s|on or f|na| order of the Court of Appea|s, w|th
cop|es thereof served upon the adverse party, sett|ng forth the
grounds |n support thereof. 1he m|tt|mus sha|| be stayed dur|ng the
pendency of the mot|on for recons|derat|on. No party sha|| be a||owed
a second mot|on for recons|derat|on of a [udgment or f|na| order. (16a)

Sect|on 17. Iudgment transm|tted and f||ed |n tr|a| court.
When the entry of [udgment of the Court of Appea|s |s |ssued, a
cert|f|ed true copy of the [udgment sha|| be attached to the or|g|na|
record wh|ch sha|| be remanded to the c|erk of the court from wh|ch
the appea| was taken. (17a)

I. Cn|y Cne (1) Mot|on Ior kecons|derat|on Is A||owed
J$ )"# G*-+) */ =''#&(,

Sect|on 18. App||cat|on of certa|n ru|es |n c|v|| procedure to cr|m|na|
1he prov|s|ons of ku|es 42, 44 to 46 and 48 to S6 re|at|ng to procedure
|n the Court of Appea|s and |n the Supreme Court |n or|g|na| and
appea|ed c|v|| cases sha|| be app||ed to cr|m|na| cases |nsofar as they
are app||cab|e and not |ncons|stent w|th the prov|s|ons of th|s ku|e.
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Sect|on 1. Un|form procedure.
Un|ess otherw|se prov|ded by the Const|tut|on or by |aw, the
procedure |n the Supreme Court |n or|g|na| and |n appea|ed cases sha||
be the same as |n Court of Appea|s. (1a)

Sect|on 2. kev|ew of dec|s|ons of the Court of Appea|s.
1he procedure for the rev|ew by the Supreme Court of dec|s|ons |n
cr|m|na| cases rendered by the Court of Appea|s sha|| be the same as
|n c|v|| cases. (2a)

Sect|on 3. Dec|s|on |f op|n|on |s equa||y d|v|ded.
When the Supreme Court en banc |s equa||y d|v|ded |n op|n|on or the
necessary ma[or|ty cannot be had on whether to acqu|t the appe||ant,
the case sha|| aga|n be de||berated upon and |f no dec|s|on |s reached
after re-de||berat|on, the [udgment of conv|ct|on of the |ower court
sha|| be reversed and the accused acqu|tted. (3a)
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Sect|on 1. Search warrant def|ned.
A search warrant |s an order |n wr|t|ng |ssued |n the name of the
eop|e of the h|||pp|nes, s|gned by a [udge and d|rected to a peace
off|cer, command|ng h|m to search for persona| property descr|bed
there|n and br|ng |t before the court. (1)

I. Nature of a search warrant
AppllcaLlon for a search warranL ls a speclal [udlclal proceedlng.

Sect|on 2. Court where app||cat|on for search warrant sha|| be f||ed.
An app||cat|on for search warrant sha|| be f||ed w|th the fo||ow|ng:

a) Any court w|th|n whose terr|tor|a| [ur|sd|ct|on a cr|me was

b) Ior compe|||ng reasons stated |n the app||cat|on, any court w|th|n
the [ud|c|a| reg|on where the cr|me was comm|tted |f the p|ace of the
comm|ss|on of the cr|me |s known, or any court w|th|n the [ud|c|a|
reg|on where the warrant sha|| be enforced.

nowever, |f the cr|m|na| act|on has a|ready been f||ed, the app||cat|on
sha|| on|y be made |n the court where the cr|m|na| act|on |s pend|ng.

I. Where w||| you app|y for a search warrant?
Genera| ku|e: ?ou musL apply ln Lhe place where Lhe crlme was
commlLLed (rlnclple of 1errlLorlallLy).
Lxcept|on 1: lf Lhere ls a compelllng reason, you may apply ln a
place oLher Lhan where Lhe crlme was commlLLed. So long as
Lhe search warranL ls Lo be enforced ln Lhe same [udlclal reglon.
o Lxample: lf Lhe accused ls a councllor ln Manlla, you
may apply ln Cuezon ClLy.
Lxcept|on 2: lor cerLaln offenses, Lhe search warranL may be
enforced ln Lhe enLlre hlllpplnes.

ll. Can a search warranL applled for ln CC or Manlla be lmplemenLed
ouLslde of lLs LerrlLorlal [urlsdlcLlon?
Genera| ku|e: nC.
o uangerous urugs AcL
o lnLellecLual roperLy Code
o lllegal possesslon of flrearms
o lllegal gambllng
o Pelnous crlmes
o vlolaLlon of Larlff and cusLoms code
lor Lhese crlmes, you have Lo apply before an execuLlve [udge ln
Manlla or Cuezon ClLy. 1hen lL wlll be effecLlve anywhere.
(Mar|m|a v. eop|e, c|t|ng AM 99-10-09-SC)

Sect|on 3. ersona| property to be se|zed.
A search warrant may be |ssued for the search and se|zure of persona|

(a) Sub[ect of the offense,

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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
(b) Sto|en or embezz|ed and other proceeds, or fru|ts of the offense, or

(c) Used or |ntended to be used as the means of comm|tt|ng an
offense. (2a)

I. What can be the sub[ect of s search warrant?
1. Sub[ecL of offense
2. SLolen or embezzled or frulLs of Lhe offense
3. used or lnLended Lo be use as Lhe means of commlLLlng Lhe

II. Does the warrant have to spec|fy the quant|ty of drugs?
nC. WhaL ls requlred ls LhaL Lhe ob[ecL of Lhe search be
descrlbed wlLh parLlcularlLy.
o So, an undeLermlned amounL of shabu" ls valld.

III. Suppos|ng a po||ceman had a search warrant for p|rated DVDs but
before enforc|ng |t, he saw a stash of drugs. W||| there be a va||d
search and se|zure of the drugs?
?LS, under Lhe plaln vlew docLrlne.

Sect|on 4. kequ|s|tes for |ssu|ng search warrant.
A search warrant sha|| not |ssue except upon probab|e cause |n
connect|on w|th one spec|f|c offense to be determ|ned persona||y by
the [udge after exam|nat|on under oath or aff|rmat|on of the
comp|a|nant and the w|tnesses he may produce, and part|cu|ar|y
descr|b|ng the p|ace to be searched and the th|ngs to be se|zed wh|ch
may be anywhere |n the h|||pp|nes. (3a)

I. kequ|s|tes of Search Warrant
1. robable Cause
o lL ls Lhe [udge, noL Lhe prosecuLor, who deLermlnes
probable cause.
o CLher lnsLances where probable cause ls needed:
l. rellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon
ll. WarranLless arresLs (crlme [usL been
lll. WarranL of arresL
lv. Search and selzures
2. ersonal examlnaLlon of Lhe [udge
o 1he [udge should personally examlne Lhe cllenL and Lhe
wlLnesses LhaL may be produced by Lhe appllcanL.
o MusL do so by searchlng quesLlons.
3. LxamlnaLlon of Lhe complalnanL and wlLnesses under oaLh.
(Sect|on S)
o 1he appllcanL musL have personal knowledge of Lhe
facLs. A search warranL cannoL be lssued on hearsay
sLaLemenLs of Lhe appllcanL.
4. 1he warranL musL descrlbe wlLh sufflclenL parLlcularlLy Lhe lLems
Lo be selzed and Lhe place Lo be selzed.
o arLlcularlLy ! LhaL wlll allow Lhe lmplemenLlng offlcer
Lo reasonably deLermlne Lhe place Lo be searched and
Lhe lLems Lo be selzed.
o 8aLlonale for need of parLlcularlLy:
l. 8eadlly ldenLlfy Lhe properLles Lo be selzed
ll. Leave Lhe pollce wlLh no dlscreLlon regardlng
whaL ls Lo be selzed and Lhus prevenL
unreasonable searches and selzures
o lace
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
l. lf whaL was searched was Lhe wrong aparLmenL,
Lhe search, l.e. [usL Lhe lmplemenLaLlon, ls
lnvalld. 8u1 Lhe warranL ls valld.
ll. WhaL lf no way Lo descrlbe wlLh parLlcularlLy
(llke ln a provlnce)? osslble Lo saykM30" !
accepLable. 8u1 won'L apply Lo clLles or
munlclpallLles slnce Lhere are have sLreeL
o lLems ! 8uL lL ls nC1 requlred LhaL Lhe Lhlngs Lo be
selzed musL be descrlbed ln preclse and mlnuLe deLall.
l. 1esL: wheLher Lhe Lhlngs descrlbed are llmlLed
Lo Lhose whlch bear dlrecL relaLlon Lo Lhe
offense for whlch Lhe warranL ls lssued.
ll. Shabu" even wlLhouL Lhe amounL ls sufflclenL.
3. 1he warranL musL be for one offense only
o Pence, when Lhe search warranL was lssued for robbery,
buL Lhe lnformaLlon for robbery was quashed. 1he lLems
selzed Lhrough sald search warranL CAnnC1 be used for
re-flllng lnformaLlon of quallfled LhefL based on Lhe
same case. (Sy 1an v. Sy 1|ong)
l. ?ou need Lo procure a new search warranL.
o ALLy. 1ranqull ! 8uL, lf Lhere are Lwo separaLe cases
perLalnlng Lo one parLlcular properLy, and LhaL properLy
was already selzed by a search warranL ln one case,
Lhen Lhe properLy need only be ldenLlfled Lo be used ln
Lhe second case.
ll. Cun was used Lo klll LlllbeLh. lL was also used ln
anoLher occaslon Lo rob a bank. lL was selzed ln
a search warranL connecLed Lo Lhe murder case
of LlllbeLh. lf an lnformaLlon for robbery were Lo
be flled ln Lhe fuLure, no need for anoLher
search warranL Lo geL Lhe gun, lL need only be

Sect|on S. Lxam|nat|on of comp|a|nant, record.
1he [udge must, before |ssu|ng the warrant, persona||y exam|ne |n the
form of search|ng quest|ons and answers, |n wr|t|ng and under oath,
the comp|a|nant and the w|tnesses he may produce on facts
persona||y known to them and attach to the record the|r sworn
statements, together w|th the aff|dav|ts subm|tted. (4a)

Sect|on 6. Issuance and form of search warrant.
If the [udge |s sat|sf|ed of the ex|stence of facts upon wh|ch the
app||cat|on |s based or that there |s probab|e cause to be||eve that
they ex|st, he sha|| |ssue the warrant, wh|ch must be substant|a||y |n
the form prescr|bed by these ku|es. (Sa)

Sect|on 7. k|ght to break door or w|ndow to effect search.
1he off|cer, |f refused adm|ttance to the p|ace of d|rected search after
g|v|ng not|ce of h|s purpose and author|ty, may break open any outer
or |nner door or w|ndow of a house or any part of a house or anyth|ng
there|n to execute the warrant or ||berate h|mse|f or any person
|awfu||y a|d|ng h|m when un|awfu||y deta|ned there|n. (6)

Sect|on 8. Search of house, room, or prem|ses to be made |n presence
of two w|tnesses.
No search of a house, room, or any other prem|ses sha|| be made
except |n the presence of the |awfu| occupant thereof or any member
of h|s fam||y or |n the absence of the |atter, two w|tnesses of suff|c|ent
age and d|scret|on res|d|ng |n the same |oca||ty. (7a)
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
Sect|on 9. 1|me of mak|ng search.
1he warrant must d|rect that |t be served |n the day t|me, un|ess the
aff|dav|t asserts that the property |s on the person or |n the p|ace
ordered to be searched, |n wh|ch case a d|rect|on may be |nserted that
|t be served at any t|me of the day or n|ght. (8a)

I. Imp|ementat|on of the Search Warrant
A. 1|me of Imp|ementat|on (Sect|on 9)
Genera| ku|e: lL ls lmplemenLed ln day-Llme
o ln conLrasL Lo an arresL warranL whlch may be
lmplemenLed elLher day or nlghL.
Lxcept|on: ossesslon of Lhe Lhlng ls wlLh Lhe person Lo be

8. Who Must 8e resent Dur|ng Imp|ementat|on (Sect|on 8)
1wo-w|tness ku|e ! 1he warranL need noL be glven as long as
Lhe search ls conducLed ln Lhe presence of Lwo wlLnesses from
Lhe communlLy.
1he 2-wlLness rule applles only Lo:
o Searches made under auLhorlLy of a search warranL o of
a house, room or oLher premlses
o Where Lhe occupanL or hls famlly ls absenL.
uoes Lhe 2-wlLness rule apply Lo selzure of dangerous drugs?
o nC. lollow Set|onc 21 of the DDA.
o u|ncot v. eop|e ! drugs were selzed vla a buy-busL
operaLlon and was noL selzed lnslde a house.

C. kece|pt Conta|n|ng Items Se|zed (Sect|on 11)
ueLalled recelpL should be glven
1. lL musL be glven Lo Lhe lawful occupanL.
2. lf occupanL ls absenL, lL musL be lefL aL Lhe place where Lhe
selzed properLy was found. nC1 glven Lo Lhe Lwo wlLnesses!

II. Dangerous Drugs Act
Chaln of cusLody musL be esLabllshed
o lallure Lo esLabllsh Lhe chaln of cusLody would render
Lhe evldence lnadmlsslble.
o normally, Lhe lnvenLory can be done ln Lhe courL or
pollce sLaLlon, 8u1 ln uuA cases, Lhe lnvenLory musL be
made aL Lhe scene of Lhe crlme.
PCWLvL8, recenL [urlsprudence esLabllshed LhaL even lf Lhe
chaln of cusLody ls noL sLrlcLly followed, Lhe evldence may sLlll
be admlsslble provlded LhaL lLs lnLegrlLy ls proven Lo have been
o eop|e v. De Leon ! Lhe cops dld noL follow Sect|on 21
of DDA Lo Lhe leLLer buL Lhe courL admlLLed Lhe drugs
because Lhe lnLegrlLy of Lhe procedure was esLabllshed

Sect|on 10. Va||d|ty of search warrant.
A search warrant sha|| be va||d for ten (10) days from |ts date.
1hereafter, |t sha|| be vo|d. (9)

Sect|on 11. kece|pt for the property se|zed.
1he off|cer se|z|ng property under the warrant must g|ve a deta||ed
rece|pt for the same to the |awfu| occupant of the prem|ses |n whose
presence the search and se|zure were made, or |n the absence of such
occupant, must, |n the presence of at |east two w|tnesses of suff|c|ent
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
age and d|scret|on res|d|ng |n the same |oca||ty, |eave a rece|pt |n the
p|ace |n wh|ch he found the se|zed property. (10a)

Sect|on 12. De||very of property and |nventory thereof to court, return
and proceed|ngs thereon.
(a) 1he off|cer must forthw|th de||ver the property se|zed to the [udge
who |ssued the warrant, together w|th a true |nventory thereof du|y
ver|f|ed under oath.

(b) 1en (10) days after |ssuance of the search warrant, the |ssu|ng
[udge sha|| ascerta|n |f the return has been made, and |f none, sha||
summon the person to whqom the warrant was |ssued and requ|re
h|m to exp|a|n why no return was made. If the return has been made,
the [udge sha|| ascerta|n whether Sect|on 11 of th|s ku|e has been
comp||ed w|th and sha|| requ|re that the property se|zed be de||vered
to h|m. 1he [udge sha|| see to |t that subSect|on (a) hereof has been
comp||ed w|th.

(c) 1he return on the search warrant sha|| be f||ed and kept by the
custod|an of the |og book on search warrants who sha|| enter there|n
the date of the return, the resu|t, and other act|ons of the [udge.

A v|o|at|on of th|s Sect|on sha|| const|tute contempt of court. (11a)

Sect|on 13. Search |nc|dent to |awfu| arrest.
A person |awfu||y arrested may be searched for dangerous weapons or
anyth|ng wh|ch may have been used or const|tute proof |n the
comm|ss|on of an offense w|thout a search warrant. (12a)

I. o|nt
valld arresL 8LlC8L warranLless search.
lor as long as Lhe search ls conLemporaneous wlLh Lhe arresL,
Lhen lL wlll be valld.

Sect|on 14. Mot|on to quash a search warrant or to suppress ev|dence,
where to f||e.
A mot|on to quash a search warrant and]or to suppress ev|dence
obta|ned thereby may be f||ed |n and acted upon on|y by the court
where the act|on has been |nst|tuted. If no cr|m|na| act|on has been
|nst|tuted, the mot|on may be f||ed |n and reso|ved by the court that
|ssued the search warrant. nowever, |f such court fa||ed to reso|ve the
mot|on and a cr|m|na| case |s subsequent|y f||ed |n another court, the
mot|on sha|| be reso|ved by the |atter court. (n)

I. Mot|on to uash a Search Warrant or Suppress Lv|dence
M1 ! 1hls ls flled once a search warranL has been lssued.
o When: before lmplemenLaLlon of search warranL.
MSL ! lf Lhe lLems have been selzed, buL you don'L wanL Lhem
Lo be presenLed ln CourL, you flle a moLlon Lo suppress
o When: afLer lmplemenLaLlon buL before presenLaLlon of
selzed lLems ln courL.

II. Where to I||e
Genera| ku|e: 1hese moLlons are flled ln Lhe CourL LhaL lssued
Lhe warranL
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Lxcept|on: Where a crlmlnal case has already been flled ln
relaLlon Lo Lhe search warranL, you flle lL ln Lhe courL where Lhe
acLlon ls pendlng.
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
!"#$ &'() *!+,-.-+/0# !$1$2-$. -/
3!-1-/0# 30.$.

.456789 &: 0;<7=<>7=76? 8@ AB8;7C789<= B4D4E74C:
FG4 AB8;7C789<= B4D4E74C 79 57;7= <56789CH 79C8@<B <C 6G4? <B4
<AA=75<>=4H D<? >4 <;<7=4E 8@ 79 5899456789 I76G 6G4 57;7= <56789
E44D4E 79C676J64E I76G 6G4 5B7D79<= <56789: K&<L

.456789 ': 066<5GD496:
MG49 6G4 57;7= <56789 7C AB8A4B=? 79C676J64E 79 6G4 5B7D79<= <56789 <C
AB8;7E4E 79 !J=4 &&&H 6G4 8@@49E4E A<B6? D<? G<;4 6G4 AB8A4B6? 8@
6G4 <55JC4E <66<5G4E <C C45JB76? @8B 6G4 C<67C@<56789 8@ <9? NJEOD496
6G<6 D<? >4 B458;4B4E @B8D 6G4 <55JC4E 79 6G4 @8==8I79O 5<C4C)

K<L MG49 6G4 <55JC4E 7C <>8J6 68 <>C589E @B8D 6G4 *G7=7AA794CP

K>L MG49 6G4 5B7D79<= <56789 7C ><C4E 89 < 5=<7D @8B D894? 8B
AB8A4B6? 4D>4QQ=4E 8B @B<JEJ=496=? D7C<AA=74E 8B 589;4B64E 68 6G4
JC4 8@ 6G4 <55JC4E IG8 7C < AJ>=75 8@@754BH 8@@754B 8@ < 58BA8B<6789H
<668B94?H @<568BH >B8R4BH <O496 8B 5=4BRH 79 6G4 58JBC4 8@ G7C
4DA=8?D496 <C CJ5GH 8B >? <9? 86G4B A4BC89 79 < @7EJ57<B? 5<A<576?H 8B
@8B < I7==@J= ;78=<6789 8@ EJ6?P

K5L MG49 6G4 <55JC4E G<C 58954<=4EH B4D8;4EH 8B E7CA8C4E 8@ G7C
AB8A4B6?H 8B 7C <>8J6 68 E8 C8P <9E

KEL MG49 6G4 <55JC4E B4C7E4C 8J6C7E4 6G4 *G7=7AA794C: K'<L

-: *B8;7C789<= !4D4E74C
ueflnlLlon: A momenLary remedy whlch cannoL sLand wlLhouL
Lhe prlnclpal case.
&: ALLachmenL ! 1o secure properLy Lo address clvll aspecL of Lhe
<: Appllcable Lo:
7: Crlmes agalnsL properLy only ! 8 22, robbery
or esLafa.
77: noL Lo crlmes agalnsL persons ! homlclde,
rape, eLc.
>: 4 Crounds
7: lf Lhe accuse absconds
77: lf Lhe accused mlsapproprlaLes or embezzles
wlLh abuse of LrusL
777: lf Lhe accused removes or conceals properLy
7;: lf Lhe accused does noL reslde ln Lhe hlllpplnes
(even lf Lhere ls no allegaLlon of fraud)
': ln[uncLlon ! 1o sLop or en[oln someone from dolng someLhlng.
(e.g. esLafa ! Lransfer of money ls conLlnuous)
<: ulffers from prellmlnary mandaLory ln[uncLlon.
S: 8ecelvershlp ! 1he purpose ls Lo be able Lo preserve Lhe
sub[ecL of Lhe llLlgaLlon from blng dlsslpaLed whlle Lhe acLlon ls
T: 8eplevln ! 8ecovery of personal properLy
<: Can only be flled anyLlme before answer.
>: Pas no appllcaLlon ln crlmlnal cases because Lhere ls no
such Lhlng as answer" ln crlmlnal cases.
U: SupporL endenLe LlLe ! Appllcable ln lnsLances where as a
resulL ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense, a chlld ls born.