You are on page 1of 11

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Sect|on 1. Inst|tut|on of cr|m|na| act|ons.
Cr|m|na| act|ons sha|| be |nst|tuted as fo||ows:

(a) Ior offenses where a pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on |s requ|red pursuant
to Sect|on 1 of ku|e 112, by f|||ng the comp|a|nt w|th the proper off|cer
for the purpose of conduct|ng the requ|s|te pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on,

(b) Ior a|| other offenses, by f|||ng the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on
d|rect|y w|th the Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Courts and Mun|c|pa| C|rcu|t 1r|a|
Courts, or the comp|a|nt w|th the off|ce of the prosecutor. In Man||a
and other chartered c|t|es, the comp|a|nt sha|| be f||ed w|th the off|ce
of the prosecutor un|ess otherw|se prov|ded |n the|r charters.

1he |nst|tut|on of the cr|m|na| act|on sha|| |nterrupt the runn|ng of the
per|od of prescr|pt|on of the offense charged un|ess otherw|se
prov|ded |n spec|a| |aws. (1a)

I. Where w||| you |nst|tute act|ons? (aragraph 1 & 2)
lf charLered clLy ! ALWA?S ln Lhe offlce of Lhe prosecuLor
regardless of Lhe gravlLy of Lhe crlme.
lf provlnclal area ! Ll1PL8 ln Lhe offlce of Lhe prosecuLor
(regardless of Lhe gravlLy of Lhe crlme) C8 dlrecLly ln Lhe courL
(only lf Lhe penalLy for Lhe crlme ls below aL leasL 4years,
2monLhs and 1day)
o nC1L: rlor Lo AugusL 2003, Munlclpal 1rlal !udges can
conducL prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon.
" 8efore, 8.. 129 auLhorlzed Mu1C only Lo
recelve complalnLs and conducL prellmlnary
o nC1L: A MeLropollLan 1rlal !udge can never conducL
prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon because Lhey are always
locaLed wlLhln charLered clLles.
II. rescr|pt|on
rescrlpLlon ls lnLerrupLed when:
o lor ordlnary offenses, falllng under Lhe 8evlsed enal
Code, prescrlpLlon ls lnLerrupLed when you flle a
complalnL before Lhe Cfflce of Lhe rosecuLor.
o lor Speclal Laws (because of Act No. 3326), prescrlpLlon
ls lnLerrupLed when you flle ln CourL.
anagu|ton v. DCI
o 1he Supreme CourL sald LhaL prescrlpLlon ls Lolled so
when a complalnL lf flled before Lhe Cfflce of Lhe
rosecuLor. eLlLloner's flllng of hls complalnL-affldavlL
before Lhe offlce of Lhe clLy prosecuLor ln 1993 slgnlfled
Lhe commencemenL of Lhe proceedlngs for Lhe
prosecuLlon of Lhe accused, Lhus effecLlvely lnLerrupLed
Lhe prescrlpLlve perlod of Lhe offenses Lhey have been
charged under 8.. 22.
" Note: Inco v. Sand|ganbayan and San k|o
Company Ltd v. L|m
o 8ullng: Any klnd of lnvesLlgaLlve proceedlng (wheLher
execuLlve or [udlclal) lnsLlLuLed agalnsL Lhe gullLy person
whlch may ulLlmaLely lead Lo hls prosecuLlon should be
sufflclenL Lo Loll prescrlpLlon.
eop|e v. komua|dez
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o k.A. No. 3019 was amended whereby Lhe crlmes
penallzed under lL prescrlbes ln 13 years (lnsLead of Lhe
orlglnal 10 years).
o lor offenses falllng under Lhls law, prescrlpLlon ls Lolled
when Lhe complalnL ls flled before Lhe Cmbudsman.
SLC v. Interport
o 1he CourL ruled LhaL Lhe naLure and purpose of an
lnvesLlgaLlon conducLed by Lhe SLC on vlolaLlon of Lhe
8evlsed SecurlLles AcL - anoLher speclal law - ls
equlvalenL Lo Lhe prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon conducLed
by Lhe uC! ln crlmlnal cases. 1hus, effecLlvely lnLerrupLs
Lhe prescrlpLlve perlod.

Sect|on 2. 1he comp|a|nt or |nformat|on.
1he comp|a|nt or |nformat|on sha|| be |n wr|t|ng, |n the name of the
eop|e of the h|||pp|nes and aga|nst a|| persons who appear to be
respons|b|e for the offense |nvo|ved. (2a)

Sect|on 3. Comp|a|nt def|ned.
A comp|a|nt |s a sworn wr|tten statement charg|ng a person w|th an
offense, subscr|bed by the offended party, any peace off|cer, or other
pub||c off|cer charged w|th the enforcement of the |aw v|o|ated. (3)

I. What |s a comp|a|nt?
A documenL flled elLher ln Lhe Cfflce of Lhe rosecuLor (lf wlLhln
a charLered clLy, or lf ln Lhe provlnce ln case Lhe crlme needs
prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon) or ln Lhe CourL.

Sect|on 4. Informat|on def|ned.
An |nformat|on |s an accusat|on |n wr|t|ng charg|ng a person w|th an
offense, subscr|bed by the prosecutor and f||ed w|th the court. (4a)

I. What |s an |nformat|on?
1he documenL flled ln courL

Sect|on S. Who must prosecute cr|m|na| act|ons.
A|| cr|m|na| act|ons e|ther commenced by comp|a|nt or by |nformat|on
sha|| be prosecuted under the d|rect|on and contro| of a pub||c
prosecutor. In case of heavy work schedu|e of the pub||c prosecutor, or
|n the event of |ack of pub||c prosecutors, the pr|vate prosecutor may
be author|zed |n wr|t|ng by the Ch|ef of the rosecut|on Cff|ce or the
keg|ona| State rosecutor to prosecute the case sub[ect to the
approva| of the court. Cnce so author|zed to prosecute the cr|m|na|
act|on, the pr|vate prosecutor sha|| cont|nue to prosecute the case up
to the end of the tr|a| even |n the absence of a pub||c prosecutor,
un|ess the author|ty |s revoked or otherw|se w|thdrawn. nowever, |n
Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Courts or Mun|c|pa| C|rcu|t 1r|a| Courts when the
prosecutor ass|gned thereto or to the case |s not ava||ab|e, the
offended party, any peace off|cer, or pub||c off|cer charged w|th the
enforcement of the |aw v|o|ated may prosecute the case. 1h|s
author|ty sha|| cease upon actua| |ntervent|on of the prosecutor or
upon e|evat|on of the case to the keg|ona| 1r|a| Court. (As amended by
C|rcu|ar No. 39-02 of the Cff|ce of the Court Adm|n|strator dated Aug.
21, 2002)

1he cr|mes of adu|tery and concub|nage sha|| not be prosecuted
except upon a comp|a|nt f||ed by the offended spouse. 1he offended
party cannot |nst|tute cr|m|na| prosecut|on w|thout |nc|ud|ng the gu||ty
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part|es, |f both are a||ve, nor, |n any case, |f the offended party has
consented to the offense or pardoned the offenders.

1he offenses of seduct|on, abduct|on and acts of |asc|v|ousness sha||
not be prosecuted except upon a comp|a|nt f||ed by the offended party
or her parents, grandparents or guard|an, nor, |n any case, |f the
offender has been express|y pardoned by any of them. If the offended
party d|es or becomes |ncapac|tated before she can f||e the comp|a|nt,
and she has no known parents, grandparents or guard|an, the State
sha|| |n|t|ate the cr|m|na| act|on |n her beha|f.

1he offended party, even |f a m|nor, has the r|ght to |n|t|ate the
prosecut|on of the offenses of seduct|on, abduct|on and acts of
|asc|v|ousness, |ndependent|y of her parents, grandparents, or
guard|an, un|ess she |s |ncompetent or |ncapab|e of do|ng so. Where
the offended party, who |s a m|nor, fa||s to f||e the comp|a|nt, her
parents, grandparents, or guard|an may f||e the same. 1he r|ght to f||e
the act|on granted to parents, grandparents, or guard|an sha|| be
exc|us|ve of a|| other persons and sha|| be exerc|sed success|ve|y |n the
order here|n prov|ded, except as stated |n the preced|ng paragraph.

No cr|m|na| act|on for defamat|on wh|ch cons|sts |n the |mputat|on of
any of the offenses ment|oned above sha|| be brought except at the
|nstance of and upon comp|a|nt f||ed by the offended party. (Sa)
1he prosecut|on for v|o|at|on of spec|a| |aws sha|| be governed by the
prov|s|ons thereof. (n)

I. Who has contro| |n the conduct of prosecut|on of a cr|m|na| case
1he publlc prosecuLor has conLrol ln Lhe conducL of prosecuLlon
of a crlmlnal case.
o 1he publlc prosecuLor can sLop Lhe prlvaLe prosecuLor
and lnLervene because he ls ln conLrol.
A prlvaLe prosecuLor cannoL proceed wlLh Lhe Lrlal of a case
even ln Lhe absence of Lhe publlc prosecuLor.
o lf Lhe publlc prosecuLor ls absenL, reseL. Powever, you
could obLaln a cerLlflcaLlon from Lhe Chlef of Lhe
rosecuLlon Cfflce or Lhe 8eglonal SaLe rosecuLor or
Lhe 8eglonal rosecuLor Lo allow Lhe prlvaLe prosecuLor
Lo proceed even ln Lhe absence of a publlc prosecuLor. lf
you do noL have Lhe cerLlflcaLlon or auLhorlLy Lo
proceed, lndependenL of Lhe publlc prosecuLor, your
case wlll slmply be rescheduled.

A. Dut|es of a ub||c rosecutor
1. Pe can conducL prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon
2. Pe wlll be ln charge or wlll have conLrol over a prosecuLlon of
Lhe case.
3. Pe can, lf asslgned by Lhe clLy or provlnclal prosecuLor, can
conducL lnquesL proceedlngs.

8. L|m|tat|ons on the rosecutor's exerc|se of power
1he power of Lhe publlc prosecuLor Lo exerclse dlscreLlonary
power ls noL absoluLe and sub[ecL Lo appeal Lo Lhe uC!.
o 1he mode of appeal ls a 8evlew under C|rcu|ar 70 of Lhe
o 1he appeal should be elevaLed Lo Lhe uC! wlLhln 13
days from recelpL of Lhe resoluLlon or denlal of a
MoLlon for 8econslderaLlon.
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1he CourL of Appeals may revlew of Lhe declslon of Lhe uC!
under ku|e 6S wlLh Lhe premlse LhaL lL was LalnLed wlLh grave
abuse of dlscreLlon amounLlng Lo lack or excess of [urlsdlcLlon
lf Lhe penalLy for Lhe offense ls ueaLh, Llfe lmprlsonmenL, or
8ecluslon erpeLua, you could go up Lo Lhe Cfflce of Lhe
o lf you have a case for grave LhreaLs, you cannoL Lake lL
up Lo Lhe Cfflce of Lhe resldenL.

III. Who can |nst|tute an act|on
rlvaLe Crlme ! only Lhe offended parLy can lnsLlLuLe
o lncludes: adulLery, concublnage, seducLlon, abducLlon,
acLs of lasclvlousness
ubllc Crlme ! anyone can lnsLlLuLe a complalnL
o 1he offended parLy
o A peace offlcer
o A person charged wlLh Lhe enforcemenL of Lhe law
Can a mlnor, on her own, lnsLlLuLe Lhe acLlon? ?LS. 1hls was parL
of Lhe amendmenL on Lhe 8ules of Crlmlnal rocedure because
of so many cases lnvolvlng ascendanLs vlolaLlng chlldren or Lhelr
descendanLs. 1haL ls why Lhe law provlded for a wlndow where
only Lhe mlnor can lnsLlLuLe Lhe acLlon. lf Lhe mlnor ls
lncapaclLaLed, Lhe SLaLe can lnsLlLuLe Lhe acLlon for Lhe mlnor.

Sect|on 6. Suff|c|ency of comp|a|nt or |nformat|on.
A comp|a|nt or |nformat|on |s suff|c|ent |f |t states the name of the
accused, the des|gnat|on of the offense g|ven by the statute, the acts
or om|ss|ons comp|a|ned of as const|tut|ng the offense, the name of
the offended party, the approx|mate date of the comm|ss|on of the
offense, and the p|ace where the offense was comm|tted.

When an offense |s comm|tted by more than one person, a|| of them
sha|| be |nc|uded |n the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on. (6a)

I. kemed|es for Insuff|c|ency of Informat|on
8lll of arLlculars (ku|e 116, Sect|on 9)
MoLlon Lo Cuash ! mosL especlally lf Lhe lnformaLlon does noL
consLlLuLe an offense or Lhe lnformaLlon ls defecLlve.

II. What the Informat|on shou|d conta|n
1. SLaLe Lhe name of Lhe accused (SecLlon 7)
2. 1he deslgnaLlon of Lhe offense glven by Lhe sLaLuLe (SecLlon 8)
3. 1he acLs or omlsslons complalned of as consLlLuLlng Lhe offense
(SecLlon 9)
4. 1he name of Lhe offended parLy (SecLlon 12)
3. 1he approxlmaLe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense (SecLlon
6. 1he place whereln Lhe offense was commlLLed (SecLlon 10)

Sect|on 7. Name of the accused.
1he comp|a|nt or |nformat|on must state the name and surname of the
accused or any appe||at|on or n|ckname by wh|ch he has been or |s
known. If h|s name cannot be ascerta|ned, he must be descr|bed under
a f|ct|t|ous name w|th a statement that h|s true name |s unknown.

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If the true name of the accused |s thereafter d|sc|osed by h|m or
appears |n some other manner to the court, such true name sha|| be
|nserted |n the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on and record. (7a)

I. kequ|rement: 1he name of the accused
lf hls name ls known ! full name should be lndlcaLed.
lf hls name ls unknown ! nlckname placed ln Lhe lnformaLlon
o An appellaLlon or nlckname ls sufflclenL (e.g. 8oy
8awang, 8oy 1aga, 8oy SlngklL, use of a.k.a.")
o A sLaLemenL LhaL hls name ls noL known sufflces
o use of !ohn uoe or !ane uoe
II. What |s |mportant |s |dent|f|cat|on
Lven lf Lhe name ls unknown, lf Lhe accused can be ldenLlfled by
descrlpLlon, lL ls consldered sufflclenL.

Sect|on 8. Des|gnat|on of the offense.
1he comp|a|nt or |nformat|on sha|| state the des|gnat|on of the offense
g|ven by the statute, aver the acts or om|ss|ons const|tut|ng the
offense, and spec|fy |ts qua||fy|ng and aggravat|ng c|rcumstances. If
there |s no des|gnat|on of the offense, reference sha|| be made to the
Sect|on or subsect|on of the statute pun|sh|ng |t. (8a)

I. kequ|rement: Acts or Cm|ss|ons Const|tut|ng the Cffense
?ou need Lo glve Lhe facLs and surroundlng clrcumsLances Laklng
lnLo conslderaLlon Lhe elemenLs of Lhe crlme.
AggravaLlng Cenerlc and Cuallfylng clrcumsLances musL be
o 1he exacL wordlng of Lhe law need noL be alleged
nombrecla v. eople ! WhaL deLermlnes Lhe real naLure and
cause of Lhe accusaLlon agalnsL Lhe accused ls Lhe acLual reclLal
of facLs sLaLed ln Lhe lnformaLlon and noL Lhe capLlon or
o So you have Lo look aL Lhe allegaLlon of facLs ln Lhe body
of Lhe lnformaLlon and noL Lhe preamble or capLlon nor
speclflcaLlons of Lhe provlslons of Lhe law alleged Lo
have been vlolaLed.

II. Des|gnat|on by Statute
noL all offenses have deslgnaLlon by sLaLuLe" (e.g. murder)
lf a deslgnaLlon by sLaLuLe ls noL avallable, all you need Lo refer
Lo ls Lhe secLlon or Lhe provlslon of law LhaL makes Lhe acLs an
offense (e.g. vlolaLlon of SecLlon 3(e), 8.A. no. 3019)

Sect|on 9. Cause of the accusat|on.
1he acts or om|ss|ons comp|a|ned of as const|tut|ng the offense and
the qua||fy|ng and aggravat|ng c|rcumstances must be stated |n
ord|nary and conc|se |anguage and not necessar||y |n the |anguage
used |n the statute but |n terms suff|c|ent to enab|e a person of
common understand|ng to know what offense |s be|ng charged as we||
as |ts qua||fy|ng and aggravat|ng c|rcumstances and for the court to
pronounce [udgment. (9a)

I. kequ|rement: Cause of Accusat|on
Cause of AccusaLlon ln Crlmlnal Cases ls Lhe equlvalenL of Cause
of AcLlon ln Clvll Cases.
1he requlremenL of law for Lhls purpose ls Lhe cause should be
ln a language LhaL ls undersLood by Lhe accused, because Lhe
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same lnformaLlon where Lhe cause of accusaLlon ls alleged wlll
be read Lo Lhe accused durlng Lhe arralgnmenL.
o nC1L: An accused should be presenL Lo be arralgned or
else Lhe case cannoL proceed.
o nC1L: ln crlmlnal cases on envlronmenLal cases, one of
Lhe condlLlons for ball ls LhaL lf you are absenL you
walve Lhe readlng of Lhe lnformaLlon and Lhe CourL may
enLer a plea of noL gullLy."

Sect|on 10. |ace of comm|ss|on of the offense.
1he comp|a|nt or |nformat|on |s suff|c|ent |f |t can be understood from
|ts a||egat|ons that the offense was comm|tted or some of |ts essent|a|
|ngred|ents occurred at some p|ace w|th|n the [ur|sd|ct|on of the court,
un|ess the part|cu|ar p|ace where |t was comm|tted const|tutes an
essent|a| e|ement of the offense charged or |s necessary for |ts
|dent|f|cat|on. (10a)

I. kequ|rement: |ace of the Comm|ss|on of the Cffense
1he exacL address where Lhe crlme was commlLLed ls noL
necessary. An approxlmaLlon or a sLaLemenL LhaL Lhe crlme was
commlLLed wlLhln Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe clLy/provlnce would
unLLSS Lhe place of Lhe commlsslon ls a maLerlal elemenL of Lhe
o Lxample: vlolaLlon of uomlclle, 1respass Lo uwelllng

Sect|on 11. Date of comm|ss|on of the offense.
It |s not necessary to state |n the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on the prec|se
date the offense was comm|tted except when |t |s a mater|a|
|ngred|ent of the offense. 1he offense may be a||eged to have been
comm|tted on a date as near as poss|b|e to the actua| date of |ts
comm|ss|on. (11a)

I. kequ|rement: Date of Comm|ss|on
o SomeLlme ln Lhe monLh of Aprll of 1998
o Cn or abouL May 1998
o Cn or abouL 2004 ! noL accepLable because Lhe
posslblllLles are so huge. 1here should be some
1he exacL daLe of commlsslon of Lhe offense ls necessary ln Lhe
lnformaLlon only when lL ls a maLerlal elemenL of Lhe offense.
o 1he Ceneral 8ule ls LhaL whaL Lhe law requlres ls slmply
an approxlmaLlon of Lhe daLe of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
o Lxamples: lnfanLlclde, LlecLlon Cffenses

Sect|on 12. Name of the offended party.
1he comp|a|nt or |nformat|on must state the name and surname of the
person aga|nst whom or aga|nst whose property the offense was
comm|tted, or any appe||at|on or n|ckname by wh|ch such person has
been or |s known. If there |s no better way of |dent|fy|ng h|m, he must
be descr|bed under a f|ct|t|ous name.

(a) In offenses aga|nst property, |f the name of the offended party |s
unknown, the property must be descr|bed w|th such part|cu|ar|ty as to
proper|y |dent|fy the offense charged.
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(b) If the true name of the person aga|nst whom or aga|nst whose
property the offense was comm|tted |s thereafter d|sc|osed or
ascerta|ned, the court must cause such true name to be |nserted |n the
comp|a|nt or |nformat|on and the record.

(c) If the offended party |s a [ur|d|ca| person, |t |s suff|c|ent to state |ts
name, or any name or des|gnat|on by wh|ch |t |s known or by wh|ch |t
may be |dent|f|ed, w|thout need of averr|ng that |t |s a [ur|d|ca| person
or that |t |s organ|zed |n accordance w|th |aw. (12a)

I. kequ|rement: Name of the Cffended art ! Not Ind|spensab|e
8ecause Lhere are crlmes where Lhe offended parLles cannoL be
ldenLlfled (e.g. homlclde case where Lhe body was found, buL
cannoL be ldenLlfled)
AlLhough, accordlng Lo Lduardo 8lcarse v. CA, lf Lhe crlme ls
agalnsL properLy and Lhe offended parLy cannoL be ldenLlfled,
Lhe properLy LhaL was vlolaLed musL be descrlbed.

Sect|on 13. Dup||c|ty of the offense.
A comp|a|nt or |nformat|on must charge on|y one offense, except
when the |aw prescr|bes a s|ng|e pun|shment for var|ous offenses.

I. Genera| ku|e: Cne |nformat|on, Cne offense
ConLrasL: ln clvll cases, ku|e 2, Sect|on S allows for a [olnder of
causes of acLlon so long as Lhe followlng rules are meL:
o ?ou cannoL [oln Lhose covered by Speclal 8ules l.e. a
speclal proceedlng and an ordlnary clvll acLlon (e.g.
adopLlon and sum of money)
o ?ou can [oln mulLlple parLles ln cases of mulLlple causes
of acLlon. ku|e 3, Sect|on 6 provldes LhaL lf Lhere ls
more Lhan one parLy ln one slde, lL should arlse from
Lhe same LransacLlon or serles of LransacLlons. ln such
case, Lhe parLles can be [olned [olnLly severally or ln Lhe
o 1oLallLy 8ule or sum of all Lhe clalms (e.g. lf all Lhe
clalms are clalms for sums of money, Lhey can be [olned

II. Lxcept|on: 1here |s a s|ng|e pun|shment for var|ous offenses

III. Lxcept|on: If there |s more than one offense |n one |nformat|on,
and a|| of them are estab||shed and proven, and there was no
ob[ect|on on the part of the accused, the Court can render [udgment
aga|nst the accused |n a|| of the offenses.

Sect|on 14. Amendment or subst|tut|on.
A comp|a|nt or |nformat|on may be amended, |n form or |n substance,
w|thout |eave of court, at any t|me before the accused enters h|s p|ea.
After the p|ea and dur|ng the tr|a|, a forma| amendment may on|y be
made w|th |eave of court and when |t can be done w|thout caus|ng
pre[ud|ce to the r|ghts of the accused.

nowever, any amendment before p|ea, wh|ch downgrades the nature
of the offense charged |n or exc|udes any accused from the comp|a|nt
or |nformat|on, can be made on|y upon mot|on by the prosecutor, w|th
not|ce to the offended party and w|th |eave of court. 1he court sha||
state |ts reasons |n reso|v|ng the mot|on and cop|es of |ts order sha||
be furn|shed a|| part|es, espec|a||y the offended party. (n)
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If |t appears at any t|me before [udgment that a m|stake has been
made |n charg|ng the proper offense, the court sha|| d|sm|ss the
or|g|na| comp|a|nt or |nformat|on upon the f|||ng of a new one
charg|ng the proper offense |n accordance w|th Sect|on 19, ku|e 119,
prov|ded the accused sha|| not be p|aced |n doub|e [eopardy. 1he court
may requ|re the w|tnesses to g|ve ba|| for the|r appearance at the tr|a|.

I. keference o|nt:
ln crlmlnal cases: lea
o 8efore Lhe plea ls enLered, amendmenL as Lo form and
subsLance can be made.
" Lxample: correcLlng age
o AfLer Lhe plea ls enLered, only amendmenLs relaLlng Lo
form can be made.
" Lxample: lndlcaLlng lnsanlLy ! Lhey courL may
sLlll allow, buL ordlnarlly Lhe courL wlll noL
ln clvll cases: Answer

II. 1est of Whether |t |s a Substant|a| or Iorma| Amendment
A. Def|n|t|on
SubsLanLlal AmendmenL ! conslsLs of Lhe reclLal of facLs
consLlLuLlng Lhe offense charged and deLermlnaLlve of Lhe
[urlsdlcLlon of Lhe courL.
lormal AmendmenL ! CLher maLLers

8. Lxamp|es of Iorma| Amendments
1here ls a new allegaLlon LhaL relaLes only Lo Lhe range of
penalLy LhaL Lhe courL mlghL lmpose ln Lhe course of Lhe
convlcLlon. So lL's [usL Lhe range. lL dld noL change Lhe
lmposable penalLy buL merely Lhe range.
An amendmenL LhaL does noL charge anoLher offense dlfferenL
or dlsLlncL from LhaL charge ln Lhe orlglnal one.
AddlLlonal allegaLlons LhaL do noL alLer Lhe prosecuLlon's Lheory
and wlll noL surprlse Lhe accused.
An amendmenL whlch does noL adversely affecL any subsLanLlal
rlghL of Lhe accused and
An amendmenL LhaL merely adds speclflcaLlons Lo ellmlnaLe
vagueness of Lhe lnformaLlon.

C. 1est
8lcarse v. CA ! Lhe LesL as Lo wheLher a defendanL ls pre[udlced
by Lhe amendmenL, ls wheLher or noL Lhe defense avallable ln
Lhe orlglnal lnformaLlon ls sLlll avallable afLer Lhe amendmenL. lf
Lhe answer ls yes, lL ls only a formal amendmenL LhaL wlll noL
pre[udlce Lhe rlghLs of Lhe accused.

III. Can the Court order an amendment w|thout a mot|on to amend?
ln conLrasL: ln clvll cases, Lhe CourL can order an amendmenL
even wlLhouL a moLlon Lo amend or noLlce Lo amend under ku|e
under ku|e 117, lf Lhere ls a MoLlon Lo Cuash, Lhe CourL can -
lnsLead of dlsmlsslng Lhe complalnL - order Lhe amendmenL.
o Cnly when you fall Lo amend wlll Lhe CourL order Lhe
dlsmlssal of Lhe case.
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o lnsLances:
" 1. lf Lhere ls a moLlon for 8lll of arLlculars,
lnsLead of denylng or granLlng lL Lhe courL can
order an amendmenL
" 2. When Lhere ls a MoLlon Lo ulsmlss under 8ule
16, Lhe CourL may elLher granL, deny, or order
an amendmenL

IV. ku|e 110, Sect|on 14: Lxc|us|on
A. Def|n|t|on
lL means you exclude an accused from Lhe lnformaLlon even
before an accused pleads.
A moLlon Lo exclude, Lo be allowed, should be flled before Lhe
plea ls made.
uouble !eopardy does noL aLLach when an accused ls excluded
from Lhe lnformaLlon.
o lor double [eopardy Lo aLLach, Lhere should be a courL
of compeLenL [urlsdlcLlon, Lhere should be a complalnL
or lnformaLlon, Lhere ls a valld plea and Lhere ls
convlcLlon, acqulLLal or dlsmlssal wlLhouL Lhe express
consenL of Lhe accused.

8. Methods
1he prosecuLlon moves for lL
WlLh noLlce Lo Lhe offended parLy
WlLh leave of courL

V. Downgrad|ng the Cffense
A moLlon Lo downgrade Lhe offense (e.g. Murder Lo Pomlclde,
ALLempLed homlclde Lo serlous physlcal ln[urles. Cuallfled LhefL
Lo slmple LhefL) should be made before plea.

VI. D|scharge as State W|tness v. D|scharge from the W|tness
rotect|on rogram
A. kequ|s|tes:
1. 1here ls no dlrecL evldence.
2. 1here ls absoluLe necesslLy of Lhe evldence.
3. lL could be corroboraLed ln lLs maLerlal polnLs.
4. 1he accused appears Lo be noL Lhe mosL gullLy.
3. Pe hasn'L been convlcLed of a crlme lnvolvlng moral LurplLude.
noLe: 1he requlslLes for boLh dlscharges are Lhe same, only Lhe
procedure ls dlfferenL.

8. ku|e 119, Sect|on 17: D|scharge as State W|tness
When an accused ls dlscharged, and assumlng Lhere ls a valld
dlscharge, double [eopardy aLLaches.
8ecause when you Lalk of Lhe dlscharge of Lhe accused as a
SLaLe WlLness, under ku|e 119, he should be arralgned alLhough
he needs Lo flle an affldaLvlL, he should be arralgned. And Lhe
effecL of a valld dlscharge as a SLaLe WlLness ls an acqulLLal.

C. D|scharge from the W|tness rotect|on rogram
uouble !eopardy does noL aLLache because Lhls ls applled before
Lhe plea.
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ulscharge under Lhe W ls applled before Lhe uC!, and
approved by Lhe SecreLary and endorsed Lo Lhe clLy or provlnclal

VII. Subst|tut|on of Informat|on
When Lhe prosecuLlon ls convlnced LhaL lL would noL be able Lo
convlcL or Lo cause Lhe convlcLlon of Lhe accused, Lhe
prosecuLlon can cause Lhe subsLlLuLlon of lnformaLlon.

Sect|on 1S. |ace where act|on |s to be |nst|tuted.
(a) Sub[ect to ex|st|ng |aws, the cr|m|na| act|on sha|| be |nst|tuted and
tr|ed |n the court of the mun|c|pa||ty or terr|tory where the offense
was comm|tted or where any of |ts essent|a| |ngred|ents occurred.

(b) Where an offense |s comm|tted |n a tra|n, a|rcraft, or other pub||c
or pr|vate veh|c|e |n the course of |ts tr|p, the cr|m|na| act|on sha|| be
|nst|tuted and tr|ed |n the court of any mun|c|pa||ty or terr|tory where
such tra|n, a|rcraft, or other veh|c|e passed dur|ng |ts tr|p, |nc|ud|ng the
p|ace of |ts departure and arr|va|.

(c) Where an offense |s comm|tted on board a vesse| |n the course of
|ts voyage, the cr|m|na| act|on sha|| be |nst|tuted and tr|ed |n the court
of the f|rst port of entry or of any mun|c|pa||ty or terr|tory where the
vesse| passed dur|ng such voyage, sub[ect to the genera||y accepted
pr|nc|p|es of |nternat|ona| |aw.

(d) Cr|mes comm|tted outs|de the h|||pp|nes but pun|shab|e under
Art|c|e 2 of the kev|sed ena| Code sha|| be cogn|zab|e by the court
where the cr|m|na| act|on |s f|rst f||ed. (1Sa)

I. Genera| ku|e: Venue |s Iur|sd|ct|ona|
Ceneral 8ule: 1he place of Lhe commlsslon ls Lhe place where
Lhe acLlon wlll be lnsLlLuLed.

II. Lxcept|ons
Art|c|e 2, kC ! 1here ls forgery, or lllegal reproducLlon of
hlllpplne bank noLes and securlLles, Lhough Lhe crlme be
commlLLed ouLslde of Lhe hlllpplnes, can you be prosecuLed ln
Lhe hlllpplnes ln any 81C LhaL flrsL Lakes cognlzance of Lhe
case? ?es.
numan Secur|ty Law, Sect|on S7 ! AcLs of 1errorlsm. Maybe
rebelllon, acLs of Lerrorlsm coupled wlLh rebelllon, murder,
homlclde, sedlLlon and coup d'eLaL Lhough commlLLed ouLslde
of Lhe hlllpplnes, lL could be lnsLlLuLed and prosecuLed ln Lhe
A crlme agalnsL Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe hlllpplnes.
A crlme or offense commlLLed agalnsL llllplno clLlzens or
dlrecLed Lo Lhe llllplnos or a parLlcular eLhnlc group-Lhough
commlLLed ouLslde of Lhe hlllpplnes could be prosecuLed here
ln Lhe hlllpplnes.
An offense commlLLed agalnsL ulplomaLlc offlcers, or offenses
commlLLed w/ln dlplomaLlc premlses of Lhe hlllpplnes, Lhough
commlLLed ouLslde of Lhe hlllpplnes, could lL be prosecuLed ln
Lhe hlllpplnes.
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nC1L: 8uL of course Lhe sLandard provlslons you wlll have Lo
know. lf Lhe alrcrafL of a moLor vehlcle ls ln LranslL, from Lhe
polnL of deparLure, Lo Lhe polnL of desLlnaLlon. When you Lalk of
vessel, from Lhe porL of flrsL enLry or any porLs LhaL Lhey may
have Lo pass Lhrough.

Sect|on 16. Intervent|on of the offended party |n cr|m|na| act|on.
Where the c|v|| act|on for recovery of c|v|| ||ab|||ty |s |nst|tuted |n the
cr|m|na| act|on pursuant to ku|e 111, the offended party may
|ntervene by counse| |n the prosecut|on of the offense. (16a)

I. Intervent|on, Def|n|t|on
When a prlvaLe prosecuLor enLers hls appearance for Lhe clvll
llablllLy of Lhe offended parLy, LhaL ls Lhe concepL of
lnLervenLlon ln a crlmlnal case.

II. Can you f||e a mot|on for |ntervent|on |n the CA]SC?
Crlglnal cases LhaL can be flled ln Lhe CA/SC: cerLlorarl,
prohlblLum, mandamus, quo warranLo, wrlL of amparo, habeas
daLa, and habeas corpus on cusLody of mlnors.
A moLlon for lnLervenLlon can be flled ln Lhe CA or SC, buL only
sub[ecL Lo Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe appellaLe courL.
o 1here ls noL provlslon of law allowlng onwe Lo flle a
moLlon for lnLervenLlon, and for Lhls reason, you wlll
have Lo seek Leave Cf CourL.
ku|e 19 ! provldes LhaL a moLlon of lnLervenLlon can be flled ln
clvll cases before Lrlal courLs.