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Sect|on 1. Inst|tut|on of cr|m|na| and c|v|| act|ons.
(a) When a cr|m|na| act|on |s |nst|tuted, the c|v|| act|on for the
recovery of c|v|| ||ab|||ty ar|s|ng from the offense charged sha|| be
deemed |nst|tuted w|th the cr|m|na| act|on un|ess the offended party
wa|ves the c|v|| act|on, reserves the r|ght to |nst|tute |t separate|y or
|nst|tutes the c|v|| act|on pr|or to the cr|m|na| act|on.

1he reservat|on of the r|ght to |nst|tute separate|y the c|v|| act|on sha||
be made before the prosecut|on starts present|ng |ts ev|dence and
under c|rcumstances afford|ng the offended party a reasonab|e
opportun|ty to make such reservat|on.

When the offended party seeks to enforce c|v|| ||ab|||ty aga|nst the
accused by way of mora|, nom|na|, temperate, or exemp|ary damages
w|thout spec|fy|ng the amount thereof |n the comp|a|nt or
|nformat|on, the f|||ng fees therefor sha|| const|tute a f|rst ||en on the
[udgment award|ng such damages.

Where the amount of damages, other than actua|, |s spec|f|ed |n the
comp|a|nt or |nformat|on, the correspond|ng f|||ng fees sha|| be pa|d by
the offended party upon the f|||ng thereof |n court.

Lxcept as otherw|se prov|ded |n these ku|es, no f|||ng fees sha|| be
requ|red for actua| damages.

No counterc|a|m, cross-c|a|m or th|rd-party comp|a|nt may be f||ed by
the accused |n the cr|m|na| case, but any cause of act|on wh|ch cou|d
have been the sub[ect thereof may be ||t|gated |n a separate c|v||
act|on. (1a)

(b) 1he cr|m|na| act|on for v|o|at|on of 8atas ambansa 8|g. 22 sha|| be
deemed to |nc|ude the correspond|ng c|v|| act|on. No reservat|on to
f||e such c|v|| act|on separate|y sha|| be a||owed.

Upon f|||ng of the aforesa|d [o|nt cr|m|na| and c|v|| act|ons, the
offended party sha|| pay |n fu|| the f|||ng fees based on the amount of
the check |nvo|ved, wh|ch sha|| be cons|dered as the actua| damages
c|a|med. Where the comp|a|nt or |nformat|on a|so seeks to recover
||qu|dated, mora|, nom|na|, temperate or exemp|ary damages, the
offended party sha|| pay add|t|ona| f|||ng fees based on the amounts
a||eged there|n. If the amounts are not so a||eged but any of these
damages are subsequent|y awarded by the court, the f|||ng fees based
on the amount awarded sha|| const|tute a f|rst ||en on the [udgment.

Where the c|v|| act|on has been f||ed separate|y and tr|a| thereof has
not yet commenced, |t may be conso||dated w|th the cr|m|na| act|on
upon app||cat|on w|th the court try|ng the |atter case. If the
app||cat|on |s granted, the tr|a| of both act|ons sha|| proceed |n
accordance w|th Sect|on 2 of th|s ku|e govern|ng conso||dat|on of the
c|v|| and cr|m|na| act|ons. (C|r. S7-97)

I. Inst|tut|on of Cr|m|na| and C|v|| Act|ons
Genera| ku|e: Cnce a crlmlnal acLlon ls lnsLlLuLed, Lhe clvll
acLlon ls llkewlse lnsLlLuLed.
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o 1he Clvll AcLlon ls reserved
o 1he Clvll AcLlon ls walved
o 1he Clvll AcLlon ls lnsLlLuLed ahead of Lhe crlmlnal case
o 1he Clvll AcLlon ls an lndependenL one (Sect|on 3)

II. keservat|on of C|v|| Act|on ar|s|ng from de||ct
8eservaLlon should be done aL any Llme before Lhe prosecuLlon
commences wlLh Lhe presenLaLlon of lLs evldence and affordlng
Lhe prlvaLe offended parLy Lo properly reserve.
o 8elaLed reservaLlon may be allowed by Lhe CourL, Laklng
lnLo conslderaLlon Lhe clrcumsLances of Lhe case.
(Sect|on 2) A clvll acLlon LhaL has been valldly reserved cannoL
proceed unLll afLer flnal [udgmenL of Lhe crlmlnal case.
o Some persons Lend Lo reserve because [udges ln
crlmlnal cases are heslLanL Lo award damages of huge

III. ku|e on C|v|| L|ab|||ty NC1 ar|s|ng from the Cr|me
?ou cannoL flle a counLer-clalm, cross-clalm, Lhlrd-parLy
complalnL ln a crlmlnal case.
DWn v. CA ! aslde from Lhe Sandlganbayan case, Lhe prlvaLe
conLrLacLors lnsLlLuLed an acLlon for recovery of sum of money
agalnsL Lhe CovernmenL Lhere was a move Lo consolldaLe Lhe
Sandlganbayan case and Lhe acLlon for recovery of sum of
money from Lhe governmenL. 1he Supreme CourL sald you
CAnnC1 consolldaLe. llrsL, Lhe Sandlganbayan has no
[urlsdlcLlon for recovery of sum of money and Lo allow
consolldaLlon would amounL ln allowlng a counLer- clalm, cross-
clalm ln a crlmlnal case.

IV. ku|e on I|||ng Iees
llllng fees ls [urlsdlcLlonal.
lor ordlnary crlmes: llllng lees are requlred only for clalms
oLher Lhan acLual damages (e.g. moral, nomlnal, exemplary,
LemperaLe). llllng fees are noL requlred Lo be pald for acLual
lor 8.. 22 cases: llllng fees need Lo be pald for all damage
clalms lncludlng acLual damages.

V. 8atas ambansa 8|g. 22
8.. 22 ls under summary procedure whlch dlffers from ordlnary
because Lhere ls no dlrecL examlnaLlon buL merely submlsslon
of [udlclal affldavlLs sub[ecL Lo cross-examlnaLlon. Cn summary
procedure, unllke ordlnary procedure, once Lhe lnformaLlon ls
flled Lhe CourL need noL lssue a warranL of arresL. A warranL of
arresL wlll be lssued only lf afLer repeaLed demands, you sLlll fall
Lo appear ln CourL.
?ou cannoL reserve Lhe clvll aspecL of 8.. 22.
o lf Lhe clvll aspecL ls lnsLlLuLed prlor Lo Lhe crlmlnal case,
Lhe former wlll be suspended or consolldaLed wlLh Lhe
crlmlnal case.

VI. Cther |nstances of conso||dat|on w|th the cr|m|na| case
Can a peLlLlon for a wrlL of amparo be consolldaLe wlLh a
crlmlnal case? lf lL lnvolves Lhe same vlolaLlon or LhreaLened
vlolaLlon: ?LS lL can be consolldaLed!
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Can a clvll case be consolldaLed wlLh a peLlLlon for a wrlL of
amparo? nC.
Can a peLlLlon for a wrlL of amparo be consolldaLed wlLh an
admlnlsLraLlve case? 1he answer ls nC.

Sect|on 2. When separate c|v|| act|on |s suspended.
After the cr|m|na| act|on has been commenced, the separate c|v||
act|on ar|s|ng therefrom cannot be |nst|tuted unt|| f|na| [udgment has
been entered |n the cr|m|na| act|on.

If the cr|m|na| act|on |s f||ed after the sa|d c|v|| act|on has a|ready been
|nst|tuted, the |atter sha|| be suspended |n whatever stage |t may be
found before [udgment on the mer|ts. 1he suspens|on sha|| |ast unt||
f|na| [udgment |s rendered |n the cr|m|na| act|on. Neverthe|ess, before
[udgment on the mer|ts |s rendered |n the c|v|| act|on, the same may,
upon mot|on of the offended party, be conso||dated w|th the cr|m|na|
act|on |n the court try|ng the cr|m|na| act|on. In case of conso||dat|on,
the ev|dence a|ready adduced |n the c|v|| act|on sha|| be deemed
automat|ca||y reproduced |n the cr|m|na| act|on w|thout pre[ud|ce to
the r|ght of the prosecut|on to cross-exam|ne the w|tnesses presented
by the offended party |n the cr|m|na| case and of the part|es to present
add|t|ona| ev|dence. 1he conso||dated cr|m|na| and c|v|| act|ons sha||
be tr|ed and dec|ded [o|nt|y.
Dur|ng the pendency of the cr|m|na| act|on, the runn|ng of the per|od
of prescr|pt|on of the c|v|| act|on wh|ch cannot be |nst|tuted separate|y
or whose proceed|ng has been suspended sha|| be to||ed. (n)

1he ext|nct|on of the pena| act|on does not carry w|th |t ext|nct|on of
the c|v|| act|on. nowever, the c|v|| act|on based on de||ct sha|| be
deemed ext|ngu|shed |f there |s a f|nd|ng |n a f|na| [udgment |n the
cr|m|na| act|on that the act or om|ss|on from wh|ch the c|v|| ||ab|||ty
may ar|se d|d not ex|st. (2a)

I. Lffect of Acqu|tta|
AcqulLLal wlll noL bar Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of a clvll acLlon ln Lhe
followlng lnsLances:
1. 1he acqulLLal ls based on reasonable doubL, as only
preponderance of evldence ls requlred ln clvll cases,
2. Where Lhe courL declared LhaL Lhe accused's llablllLy ls noL
crlmlnal buL only clvll - LhaL's Lhe declaraLlon of Lhe courL, noL
crlmlnal, only clvll, and
3. Where Lhe clvll llablllLy does noL arlse or ls noL based upon Lhe
crlmlnal acL of whlch accused was acqulLLed.

II. Conso||dat|on
ueflnlLlon: 1wo cases are made lnLo one
o Marrlage of Lwo cases - ALLy. Salvador
1he Crlmlnal Case survlves wlLh Lhe opLlon Lo consolldaLe.
o ln Lhls case, Lhe courL Lrylng Lhe consolldaLed case may
render [udgmenL on boLh Lhe crlmlnal and clvll aspecL.

Sect|on 3. When c|v|| act|on may proceed |ndependent|y.
In the cases prov|ded |n Art|c|es 32, 33, 34 and 2176 of the C|v|| Code
of the h|||pp|nes, the |ndependent c|v|| act|on may be brought by the
offended party. It sha|| proceed |ndependent|y of the cr|m|na| act|on
and sha|| requ|re on|y a preponderance of ev|dence. In no case,
however, may the offended party recover damages tw|ce for the same
act or om|ss|on charged |n the cr|m|na| act|on. (3a)
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I. C|v|| Act|ons that do not requ|re reservat|on
Clvll AcLlons arlslng from Art|c|es 32, 33, 34 and 2176 of the
C|v|| Code.

Sect|on 4. Lffect of death on c|v|| act|ons.
1he death of the accused after arra|gnment and dur|ng the pendency
of the cr|m|na| act|on sha|| ext|ngu|sh the c|v|| ||ab|||ty ar|s|ng from the
de||ct. nowever, the |ndependent c|v|| act|on |nst|tuted under Sect|on
3 of th|s ku|e or wh|ch thereafter |s |nst|tuted to enforce ||ab|||ty
ar|s|ng from other sources of ob||gat|on may be cont|nued aga|nst the
estate or |ega| representat|ve of the accused after proper subst|tut|on
or aga|nst sa|d estate, as the case may be. 1he he|rs of the accused
may be subst|tuted for the deceased w|thout requ|r|ng the
appo|ntment of an executor or adm|n|strator and the court may
appo|nt a guard|an ad ||tem for the m|nor he|rs.

1he court sha|| forthw|th order sa|d |ega| representat|ve or
representat|ves to appear and be subst|tuted w|th|n a per|od of th|rty
(30) days from not|ce.

A f|na| [udgment entered |n favor of the offended party sha|| be
enforced |n the manner espec|a||y prov|ded |n these ru|es for
prosecut|ng c|a|ms aga|nst the estate of the deceased.

If the accused d|es before arra|gnment, the case sha|| be d|sm|ssed
w|thout pre[ud|ce to any c|v|| act|on the offended party may f||e
aga|nst the estate of the deceased. (n)

I. When the accused d|es
AfLer arralgnmenL ! Genera| ku|e: 1he crlmlnal case and Lhe
clvll case arlslng from Lhe dellcL are exLlngulshed.
o Lxcept|on: A clvll case arlslng from oLher sources of
obllgaLlon" may sLlll be lnsLlLuLed C8 lf Lhe clvll case was
lnsLlLuLed prlor Lo Lhe crlmlnal case.
8efore arralgnmenL ! 1he clvll case (lndependenL clvll acLlons
under Sect|on 3) can proceed agalnsL Lhe esLaLe, regardless of
wheLher Lhe clvll acLlon arlses from dellcL or oLher sources of
o lf Lhe case has noL been flled, you can flle a clvll case.

II. Subst|tut|on of the deceased accused (ku|e 3, Sect|on 16)
lf Lhe accused dles and an lndependenL clvll acLlon ls lnsLlLuLed,
Lhe deceased can be subsLlLuLed by a legal represenLaLlve.
o 1he clvll acLlon lnvolved here should noL arlse from
dellcL buL raLher from oLher sources of obllgaLlon llke
law, conLracL, quasl-dellcL or quasl-conLracL.

Sect|on S. Iudgment |n c|v|| act|on not a bar.
A f|na| [udgment rendered |n a c|v|| act|on abso|v|ng the defendant
from c|v|| ||ab|||ty |s not a bar to a cr|m|na| act|on aga|nst the
defendant for the same act or om|ss|on sub[ect of the c|v|| act|on. (4a)

Sect|on 6. Suspens|on by reason of pre[ud|c|a| quest|on.
A pet|t|on for suspens|on of the cr|m|na| act|on based upon the
pendency of a pre[ud|c|a| quest|on |n a c|v|| act|on may be f||ed |n the
off|ce of the prosecutor or the court conduct|ng the pre||m|nary
|nvest|gat|on. When the cr|m|na| act|on has been f||ed |n court for tr|a|,
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the pet|t|on to suspend sha|| be f||ed |n the same cr|m|na| act|on at any
t|me before the prosecut|on rests. (6a)

I. 1wo Cpportun|t|es to I||e the Mot|on for Suspens|on 8y keason of a
re[ud|c|a| uest|on
1. 8efore Lhe prosecuLor conducLlng prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon
2. 8efore Lhe CourL before Lhe prosecuLlon resLs lLs case or before
Lhe prosecuLlon flnlshes presenLlng lLs evldence.

II. When and where you can f||e a suspens|on on the ground of
pre[ud|c|a| quest|on
lf Lhe case ls sLlll under prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon ! Cfflce of Lhe
rosecuLor or Lhe CourL conducLlng Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon.
o When: AnyLlme durlng Lhe pendency of Lhe prellmlnary
lf Lhe lnformaLlon has already been flled ln Lhe courL ! 1he
courL where Lhe crlmlnal case ls belng Lrled.
o When: 8efore Lhe prosecuLlon resLs l.e. before Lhe
formal offer of evldence.
o 1he formal offer of evldence ls when Lhe prosecuLlon ls
done presenLlng lLs evldence and wlLnesses, and Lhe
nexL sLage ls when Lhe accused presenLs hls evldence.

Sect|on 7. L|ements of pre[ud|c|a| quest|on.
1he e|ements of a pre[ud|c|a| quest|on are: (a) the prev|ous|y
|nst|tuted c|v|| act|on |nvo|ves an |ssue s|m||ar or |nt|mate|y re|ated to
the |ssue ra|sed |n the subsequent cr|m|na| act|on, and (b) the
reso|ut|on of such |ssue determ|nes whether or not the cr|m|na| act|on
may proceed. (Sa)
I. L|ements of re[ud|c|a| uest|on
1. 1he Clvll Case should have been flled 8LlC8L Lhe Crlmlnal Case
and Lhe facLs of boLh are lnLlmaLely relaLed.
a. Case 1 - re[udlclal CuesLlon: 1here was a clvll case flled
clalmlng LhaL Lhe encumbrance on Lhe properLy was
falslfled. Whlle Lhls case was pendlng, Lhe properLy was
sold resulLlng lnLo a crlmlnal case.
b. Case 2 - no re[udlclal CuesLlon: A clvll case was flled
for unconsclounable lnLeresL. 8.. 22 case was
subsequenLly flled slnce Lhe defendanL refused Lo pay
Lhe lnLeresL.
2. 1he Clvll Case ls deLermlnaLlve of Lhe gullLy or lnnocence of Lhe
accused ln Lhe Crlmlnal Case
a. Case 1 - re[udlclal CuesLlon: 1he clvll acLlon LhaL alms
Lo deLermlne wheLher or noL Lhe encumbrance was
genulne or false ls deLermlnaLlve of wheLher Lhere ls
even a crlmlnal case of selllng encumbered properLy.
b. Case 2 - no re[udlclal CuesLlon: 8.. 22 only seeks Lo
deLermlne wheLher or noL you lssued a check wlLh
lnsufflclenL funds.