You are on page 1of 11

!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 .

"&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
kULL 114: 8AIL

Sect|on 1. 8a|| def|ned.
8a|| |s the secur|ty g|ven for the re|ease of a person |n custody of the
|aw, furn|shed by h|m or a bondsman, to guarantee h|s appearance
before any court as requ|red under the cond|t|ons here|nafter
spec|f|ed. 8a|| may be g|ven |n the form of corporate surety, property
bond, cash depos|t, or recogn|zance. (1a)

I. resence of depr|vat|on of ||berty
Genera| ku|e: lor as long as Lhere ls deprlvaLlon of llberLy, you
could apply for ball, and your rlghL Lo ball ls a ConsLlLuLlonal
Lxcept|on: Cffense whlch by Lhelr naLure are non-ballable

II. Warrant|ess arrests
When Lhere ls a warranLless arresL and prlor Lo lnquesL !
appllcaLlon for ball ls premaLure.
Powever, where lnquesL has been conducLed and Lhe
prosecuLor requlres deLenLlon ! ball may be applled for
(assumlng lL ls a ballable offense)
lnquesL ! rellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon C8 ueLaln ! lf deLalned,
conslderaLlon for appllcaLlon of ball comes ln.

III. Arra|gnment not a requ|s|te for ba||
Serap|o v. Sand|ganbayan ! [urlsprudence Lells you LhaL an
arralgnmenL ls noL a prerequlslLe for an appllcaLlon for ball.

Sect|on 2. Cond|t|ons of the ba||, requ|rements.
A|| k|nds of ba|| are sub[ect to the fo||ow|ng cond|t|ons:

(a) 1he undertak|ng sha|| be effect|ve upon approva|, and un|ess
cance||ed, sha|| rema|n |n force at a|| stages of the case unt||
promu|gat|on of the [udgment of the keg|ona| 1r|a| Court, |rrespect|ve
of whether the case was or|g|na||y f||ed |n or appea|ed to |t,

(b) 1he accused sha|| appear before the proper court whenever
requ|red by the court or these ku|es,

(c) 1he fa||ure of the accused to appear at the tr|a| w|thout [ust|f|cat|on
and desp|te due not|ce sha|| be deemed a wa|ver of h|s r|ght to be
present thereat. In such case, the tr|a| may proceed |n absent|a, and

(d) 1he bondsman sha|| surrender the accused to the court for
execut|on of the f|na| [udgment.

1he or|g|na| papers sha|| state the fu|| name and address of the
accused, the amount of the undertak|ng and the cond|t|ons requ|red
by th|s sect|on. hotographs (passport s|ze) taken w|th|n the |ast s|x (6)
months show|ng the face, |eft and r|ght prof||es of the accused must
be attached to the ba||. (2a)

I. I|rst cond|t|on: 8a||, |f granted w||| be effect|ve |n the k1C whether
or|g|na||y f||ed or on appea|.
lf you're able Lo apply for ball ln Lhe M1C and you had Lo appeal
ln Lhe 81C, wlll lL be effecLlve? ?LS. 1haL ls a condlLlon of ball.

!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
II. Second cond|t|on: Accused w||| appear |n Court when requ|red

III. 1h|rd cond|t|on: Absence |s equ|va|ent to a wa|ver
lf you are absenL you are deemed Lo have walved your
appearance ln courL.
lf you are absenL Lhe case could proceed ln absenLla.

IV. Iourth Cond|t|on: Surrender of the accused for execut|on
1he bondsmen commlLs LhaL Lhey wlll brlng you Lo courL for
purposes of promulgaLlon of [udgmenL.
o LxecuLlon ! meanlng, lf Lhere ls a senLence, you wlll
have Lo serve senLence.

V. ku|e 11S, Sect|on 1(c)
1he accused can walve hls appearance lf sLlpulaLed ln Lhe
condlLlons for ball.

Sect|on 3. No re|ease or transfer except on court order or ba||.
No person under detent|on by |ega| process sha|| be re|eased or
transferred except upon order of the court or when he |s adm|tted to
ba||. (3a)

Sect|on 4. 8a||, a matter of r|ght, except|on.
A|| persons |n custody sha|| be adm|tted to ba|| as a matter of r|ght,
w|th suff|c|ent suret|es, or re|eased on recogn|zance as prescr|bed by
|aw or th|s ku|e (a) before or after conv|ct|on by the Metropo||tan 1r|a|
Court, Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Court, Mun|c|pa| 1r|a| Court |n C|t|es, or
Mun|c|pa| C|rcu|t 1r|a| Court, and (b) before conv|ct|on by the keg|ona|
1r|a| Court of an offense not pun|shab|e by death, rec|us|on perpetua,
or ||fe |mpr|sonment. (4a)

I. 8a|| as a matter of r|ght
lf Lhe case falls wlLhln Lhe orlglnal and excluslve [urlsdlcLlon of
Lhe Munlclpal 1rlal CourL, Munlclpal ClrculL 1rlal CourL,
MeLropollLan 1rlal CourL ! 8all ls a maLLer of rlghL.
o 8all ln all cases wlLh Lhe M1C ls a maLLer of rlghL
because Lhese cases are noL sLrong/serlous cases.
o lor as long as lL was flled ln Lhe M1C, you may flle for
ball wheLher before or afLer convlcLlon.
o Lven when Lhe accused ls convlcLed, lf he flles an appeal
hls ball wlll conLlnue Lo have effecL.
lf Lhe case falls wlLhln Lhe reglonal Lrlal courL (before
convlcLlon), and Lhe penalLy for Lhe offense exceeds 6 years buL
Lhe penalLy ls noL deaLh, llfe, recluslon perpeLua ! ball ls a
maLLer of rlghL.
o 1he CourL cannoL exerclse dlscreLlon.

II. 1he Court cannot deny ba||, on|y |ncrease the bond
So lf ball ls a maLLer of rlghL, and Lhe [udge fears LhaL Lhe
accused wlll whaL, flee or escape, he cannoL deny Lhe
appllcaLlon for ball.
o WhaL should he do? Pe should only lncrease Lhe bond,
lf he Lhlnks he ls a fllghL-rlsk. 1o deny hlm wlLh hls rlghL
Lo ball ls ln vlolaLlon of hls rlghL."
o San M|gue| v. Maceda ! (an admlnlsLraLlve case) Lhe
exlsLence of a hlgh degree of probablllLy LhaL Lhe
!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
defendanL wlll abscond confers upon Lhe courL no
greaLer dlscreLlon Lhan Lo lncrease Lhe bond."

Sect|on S. 8a||, when d|scret|onary.
Upon conv|ct|on by the keg|ona| 1r|a| Court of an offense not
pun|shab|e by death, rec|us|on perpetua, or ||fe |mpr|sonment,
adm|ss|on to ba|| |s d|scret|onary. 1he app||cat|on for ba|| may be f||ed
and acted upon by the tr|a| court desp|te the f|||ng of a not|ce of
appea|, prov|ded |t has not transm|tted the or|g|na| record to the
appe||ate court. nowever, |f the dec|s|on of the tr|a| court conv|ct|ng
the accused changed the nature of the offense from non-ba||ab|e to
ba||ab|e, the app||cat|on for ba|| can on|y be f||ed w|th and reso|ved by
the appe||ate court.

Shou|d the court grant the app||cat|on, the accused may be a||owed to
cont|nue on prov|s|ona| ||berty dur|ng the pendency of the appea|
under the same ba|| sub[ect to the consent of the bondsman.

If the pena|ty |mposed by the tr|a| court |s |mpr|sonment exceed|ng s|x
(6) years, the accused sha|| be den|ed ba||, or h|s ba|| sha|| be cance||ed
upon a show|ng by the prosecut|on, w|th not|ce to the accused, of the
fo||ow|ng or other s|m||ar c|rcumstances:

(a) 1hat he |s a rec|d|v|st, quas|-rec|d|v|st, or hab|tua| de||nquent, or
has comm|tted the cr|me aggravated by the c|rcumstance of

(b) 1hat he has prev|ous|y escaped from |ega| conf|nement, evaded
sentence, or v|o|ated the cond|t|ons of h|s ba|| w|thout va||d
(c) 1hat he comm|tted the offense wh||e under probat|on, paro|e, or
cond|t|ona| pardon,

(d) 1hat the c|rcumstances of h|s case |nd|cate the probab|||ty of f||ght
|f re|eased on ba||, or

(e) 1hat there |s undue r|sk that he may comm|t another cr|me dur|ng
the pendency of the appea|.

1he appe||ate court may, motu propr|o or on mot|on of any party,
rev|ew the reso|ut|on of the keg|ona| 1r|a| Court after not|ce to the
adverse party |n e|ther case. (Sa)

I. Does not cover non-ba||ab|e offenses
non-ballable offenses are covered by Lhe succeedlng secLlons 6,
7 and 8.

II. 8a|| as a matter of d|scret|on
lf Lhe case falls wlLhln Lhe reglonal Lrlal courL (afLer convlcLlon),
and Lhe penalLy for Lhe offense exceeds 6 years buL Lhe penalLy
ls noL deaLh, llfe, recluslon perpeLua ! balls ls dlscreLlonary
o 1he [udge wlll have Lo ascerLaln or [udlclally deLermlne
wheLher Lhe accused wlll be furLher enLlLled Lo ball.
ulscreLlon ls exerclsed when none of Lhe lnsLances
menLloned ln Sect|on S are presenL.
o Cnce Lhe courL ls saLlsfled LhaL Lhere ls a rlsk based on
any of Lhose, or LhaL he ls a hablLual dellnquenL,
recldlvlsL, or quasl-recldlvlsL, Lhe courL cannoL exerclse
dlscreLlon and musL deny ball (see case below).
!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
o Lxample: Lev|ste v. Sand|ganbayan ! 1he case of Cov.
LevlsLe, where he allegedly kllled hls ald, he was
charged of homlclde. 1hls was elevaLed Lo Lhe uC! who
Lhen flled a charge for murder. Mr. LevlsLe was
evenLually convlcLed, he was convlcLed for homlclde. Pe
was charged of murder, buL convlcLed of homlclde, can
you sLlll apply for ball? ?LS (ln Lhe appellaLe courL), buL
sub[ecL Lo CourL dlscreLlon.
Where Lhe offense charged ls non-ballable, buL Lhe convlcLlon
was for a ballable crlme, one may apply for ball ln Lhe nexL-level
courL or Lhe appellaLe courL.
1he courL wlll llkewlse exerclse dlscreLlon lf Lhere ls a eLlLlon
for 8all on non-ballable offenses.
o Serap|o v. Sand|ganbayan ! 8ecause lL requlres
dlscreLlon, Lhe hearlng ls requlred, and lL ls mandaLory.
" 1he hearlng ls summary.
" lf Lhere are numerous accused, meanlng 1, 2, 3
accused, Lhere be [olnL summary hearlngs of
appllcaLlons for ball.
o Mabutas v. ere||o ! a hearlng ls mandaLory

Sect|on 6. Cap|ta| offense, def|ned.
A cap|ta| offense |s an offense wh|ch, under the |aw ex|st|ng at the
t|me of |ts comm|ss|on and of the app||cat|on for adm|ss|on to ba||,
may be pun|shed w|th death. (6a)

Sect|on 7. Cap|ta| offense or an offense pun|shab|e by rec|us|on
perpetua or ||fe |mpr|sonment, not ba||ab|e.
No person charged w|th a cap|ta| offense, or an offense pun|shab|e by
rec|us|on perpetua or ||fe |mpr|sonment, sha|| be adm|tted to ba||
when ev|dence of gu||t |s strong, regard|ess of the stage of the cr|m|na|
prosecut|on. (7a)

I. Lv|dence of gu||t |s strong
Lev|ste v. Sand|ganbayan ! Whlle LevlsLe was deLalned, hls
lawyer flled for ball argulng LhaL Lhe evldence of LevlsLe's gullL
for murder was noL sLrong. As such, LevlsLe was allowed Lo go
on ball.
Powever, afLer convlcLlon - slnce such wlll only be lald down lf
evldence of gullL ls sLrong - Lhere can be no ball. (Sect|on 24)

II. kequ|s|tes for the app||cat|on of ba||
Summary hearlng ls requlred wheLher ball ls a maLLer of rlghL or
a maLLer of dlscreLlon.
o lull-blown hearlng ! you wlll be allowed Lo presenL
evldence as lf you were on Lrlal.
o Summary hearlng ! qulck, expedlLlous, you are noL
obllgaLed Lo presenL all your evldence slnce you are noL
requlred Lo prove your enLlre case aL Lhls polnL ln Llme,
buL only such evldence Lo prove Lhe sLrengLh of Lhe
evldence of gullL.
" rocess: 1he prosecuLor should be noLlfled and
should glve a recommendaLlon.
!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
" lf Lhe prosecuLlon ls delaylng or Lhe [udge ls
blaLanLly delaylng Lhe peLlLlon for ball, Lhe
defense may ask Lhe [udge Lo lnhlblL.

Sect|on 8. 8urden of proof |n ba|| app||cat|on.
At the hear|ng of an app||cat|on for ba|| f||ed by a person who |s |n
custody for the comm|ss|on of an offense pun|shab|e by death,
rec|us|on perpetua, or ||fe |mpr|sonment, the prosecut|on has the
burden of show|ng that ev|dence of gu||t |s strong. 1he ev|dence
presented dur|ng the ba|| hear|ng sha|| be cons|dered automat|ca||y
reproduced at the tr|a| but, upon mot|on of e|ther party, the court may
reca|| any w|tness for add|t|ona| exam|nat|on un|ess the |atter |s dead,
outs|de the h|||pp|nes, or otherw|se unab|e to test|fy. (8a)

Sect|on 9. Amount of ba||, gu|de||nes.
1he [udge who |ssued the warrant or granted the app||cat|on sha|| f|x a
reasonab|e amount of ba|| cons|der|ng pr|mar||y, but not ||m|ted to,
the fo||ow|ng factors:

(a) I|nanc|a| ab|||ty of the accused to g|ve ba||,

(b) Nature and c|rcumstances of the offense,

(c) ena|ty for the offense charged,

(d) Character and reputat|on of the accused,

(e) Age and hea|th of the accused,

(f) We|ght of the ev|dence aga|nst the accused,
(g) robab|||ty of the accused appear|ng at the tr|a|,

(h) Iorfe|ture of other ba||,

(|) 1he fact that the accused was a fug|t|ve from [ust|ce when arrested,

([) endency of other cases where the accused |s on ba||.

Lxcess|ve ba|| sha|| not be requ|red. (9a)

I. kecommendat|on of the rosecutor
When Lhe prosecuLor flles Lhe lnformaLlon, Lhey recommend
Lhe amounL of ball and lL ls for Lhe courL upon moLlon Lo
deLermlne wheLher Lo lncrease or Lo reduce Lhe amounL of ball,
based on any of Lhe sLandards ln Lhe SecLlon
1he recommendaLlon of Lhe prosecuLor for ball ls found aL Lhe
boLLom of Lhe lnformaLlon flled.

Sect|on 10. Corporate surety.
Any domest|c or fore|gn corporat|on, ||censed as a surety |n
accordance w|th |aw and current|y author|zed to act as such, may
prov|de ba|| by a bond subscr|bed [o|nt|y by the accused and an off|cer
of the corporat|on du|y author|zed by |ts board of d|rectors. (10a)

Sect|on 11. roperty bond, how posted.
A property bond |s an undertak|ng const|tuted as ||en on the rea|
property g|ven as secur|ty for the amount of the ba||. W|th|n ten (10)
days after the approva| of the bond, the accused sha|| cause the
!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
annotat|on of the ||en on the cert|f|cate of t|t|e on f||e w|th the
keg|stry of Deeds |f the |and |s reg|stered, or |f unreg|stered, |n the
keg|strat|on 8ook on the space prov|ded therefor, |n the keg|stry of
Deeds for the prov|nce or c|ty where the |and ||es, and on the
correspond|ng tax dec|arat|on |n the off|ce of the prov|nc|a|, c|ty and
mun|c|pa| assessor concerned.

W|th|n the same per|od, the accused sha|| subm|t to the court h|s
comp||ance and h|s fa||ure to do so sha|| be suff|c|ent cause for the
cance||at|on of the property bond and h|s re-arrest and detent|on.

Sect|on 12. ua||f|cat|ons of suret|es |n property bond.
1he qua||f|cat|ons of suret|es |n a property bond sha|| be as fo||ows:

(a) Lach must be a res|dent owner of rea| estate w|th|n the h|||pp|nes,

(b) Where there |s on|y one surety, h|s rea| estate must be worth at
|east the amount of the undertak|ng,

(c) If there are two or more suret|es, each may [ust|fy |n an amount
|ess than that expressed |n the undertak|ng but the aggregate of the
[ust|f|ed sums must be equ|va|ent to the who|e amount of the ba||

In a|| cases, every surety must be worth the amount spec|f|ed |n h|s
own undertak|ng over and above a|| [ust debts, ob||gat|ons and
propert|es exempt from execut|on. (12a)

Sect|on 13. Iust|f|cat|on of suret|es.
Lvery surety sha|| [ust|fy by aff|dav|t taken before the [udge that he
possesses the qua||f|cat|ons prescr|bed |n the preced|ng sect|on. ne
sha|| descr|be the property g|ven as secur|ty, stat|ng the nature of h|s
t|t|e, |ts encumbrances, the number and amount of other ba||s entered
|nto by h|m and st||| und|scharged, and h|s other ||ab|||t|es. 1he court
may exam|ne the suret|es upon oath concern|ng the|r suff|c|ency |n
such manner as |t may deem proper. No ba|| sha|| be approved un|ess
the surety |s qua||f|ed. (13a)

Sect|on 14. Depos|t of cash as ba||.
1he accused or any person act|ng |n h|s beha|f may depos|t |n cash
w|th the nearest co||ector of |nterna| revenue or prov|nc|a|, c|ty, or
mun|c|pa| treasurer the amount of ba|| f|xed by the court, or
recommended by the prosecutor who |nvest|gated or f||ed the case.
Upon subm|ss|on of a proper cert|f|cate of depos|t and a wr|tten
undertak|ng show|ng comp||ance w|th the requ|rements of Sect|on 2 of
th|s ku|e, the accused sha|| be d|scharged from custody. 1he money
depos|ted sha|| be cons|dered as ba|| and app||ed to the payment of
f|ne and costs wh||e the excess, |f any, sha|| be returned to the accused
or to whoever made the depos|t. (14a)

Sect|on 1S. kecogn|zance.
Whenever a||owed by |aw or these ku|es, the court may re|ease a
person |n custody on h|s own recogn|zance or that of a respons|b|e
person. (1Sa)

!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
I. k|nds of 8a||
A. Cash 8ond (Sect|on 14)
Means Lhe amounL of ball, l.e. lf Lhe ball recommended ls
30,000 you need Lo ralse 30,000.
A [udge ls noL allowed Lo recelve cash for ball nor should lL be
kepL ln hls offlce. (Lach|ca v. Iudge 1orm|s).
o Cash as ball musL be deposlLed only:
" 1o Lhe nearesL 8l8 collecLor, or
" 1o Lhe provlnclal, clLy or munlclpal Lreasurer
lL wlll be reLurned Lo you afLer Lhe LermlnaLlon of Lhe case lf
you're acqulLLed, or Lhe case agalnsL you dlsmlssed, even lf you
are convlcLed, assumlng Lhere ls no clvll llablllLy.
noLe Lo lawyers: LeL your cllenL wlLhdraw lL because LhaL could
be wlLhdrawn, and leL your cllenL pay LhaL Lo you. lf you're
cllenL allows you Lo geL lL, you have Lo obLaln whaL, a power of
aLLorney Lo wlLhdraw lL, and lf he says LhaL ls ln paymenL of
your fees" lssue a recelpL Lo evldenced Lhe paymenL, oLherwlse,
Lhere ls a danger LhaL you are uslng Lhe funds of your cllenL.

8. Surety 8ond (Sect|on 10)
lL ls a bond lssued by sureLy company. lf Lhe recommended ball
ls 100, 000 pesos, you wlll only have Lo pay a premlum Lo Lhe
sureLy company, and you wlll have Lo renew LhaL annually.
SureLy companles Loday should be accredlLed by Lhe SC. lf lL ls
noL accredlLed by Lhe SC lL wlll noL be enLerLalned by Lhe courLs.

C. roperty 8ond (Sect|on 11 to 12)
1he properLy ls a securlLy.
1he mosL lmporLanL requlremenL for a properLy bond ls LhaL Lhe
owner of Lhe properLy should be a resldenL of Lhe hlllpplnes.
lL ls noL requlred LhaL Lhe owner of Lhe properLy by Lhe accused
1o annoLaLe, reglsLer Lhe llen wlLhln 10 days from approval of
Lhe bond

D. kecogn|zance (Sect|on 1S to 16)
1he accused can be released on hls own recognlzance or LhaL of
a repuLable member of Lhe communlLy.

II. Cert|f|cat|on of Arrest not a requ|rement for app||cat|on
CerLlflcaLlon of arresL, when a warranL of arresL has been lssued,
ls noL requlred ln order Lo apply for ball because such
appllcaLlon amounLs Lo surrender (buL noL volunLary surrender).
o Powever, Lhe courL already has [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe
person of Lhe accused.
ln pracLlce: lf ball ls a maLLer of rlghL, Lhere may be an
appllcaLlon for ball even wlLhouL a hearlng. 1here wlll be an
order elLher Lo release or Lo llfL warranL.

Sect|on 16. 8a||, when not requ|red, reduced ba|| or recogn|zance.
No ba|| sha|| be requ|red when the |aw or these ku|es so prov|de.

When a person has been |n custody for a per|od equa| to or more than
the poss|b|e max|mum |mpr|sonment prescr|bed for the offense
charged, he sha|| be re|eased |mmed|ate|y, w|thout pre[ud|ce to the
cont|nuat|on of the tr|a| or the proceed|ngs on appea|. If the max|mum
!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
pena|ty to wh|ch the accused may be sentenced |s dest|erro, he sha||
be re|eased after th|rty (30) days of prevent|ve |mpr|sonment.

A person |n custody for a per|od equa| to or more than the m|n|mum
of the pr|nc|pa| pena|ty prescr|bed for the offense charged, w|thout
app||cat|on of the Indeterm|nate Sentence Law or any mod|fy|ng
c|rcumstance, sha|| be re|eased on a reduced ba|| or on h|s own
recogn|zance, at the d|scret|on of the court. (16a)

I. o|nt
ln lnsLances whereln he has served Lhe maxlmum penalLy, Lhe
courL wlll noL dlsmlss Lhe case, buL Lhe courL wlll release Lhe
accused wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo Lhe conLlnuaLlon of Lhe case.
WhaL lf Lhe accused has served only Lhe mlnlmum penalLy
wlLhouL conslderlng Lhe lSLAW? Pe can be released under a
reduced ball, or, recognlzance.

Sect|on 17. 8a||, where f||ed.
(a) 8a|| |n the amount f|xed may be f||ed w|th the court where the case
|s pend|ng, or, |n the absence or unava||ab|||ty of the [udge thereof,
w|th any reg|ona| tr|a| [udge, metropo||tan tr|a| [udge, mun|c|pa| tr|a|
[udge, or mun|c|pa| c|rcu|t tr|a| [udge |n the prov|nce, c|ty, or
mun|c|pa||ty. If the accused |s arrested |n a prov|nce, c|ty, or
mun|c|pa||ty other than where the case |s pend|ng, ba|| may be f||ed
w|th any reg|ona| tr|a| court of sa|d p|ace, or, |f no [udge thereof |s
ava||ab|e, w|th any metropo||tan tr|a| [udge, mun|c|pa| tr|a| [udge or
mun|c|pa| c|rcu|t tr|a| [udge there|n.

(b) Where the grant of ba|| |s a matter of d|scret|on, or the accused
seeks to be re|eased on recogn|zance, the app||cat|on may be f||ed on|y
|n the court where the case |s pend|ng, on tr|a| or appea|.

(c) Any person |n custody who |s not yet charged |n court may app|y
for ba|| w|th any court |n the prov|nce, c|ty or mun|c|pa||ty where he |s
he|d, (17a)

I. |ace of arrest and case |s same, prov|ded ba|| |s a matter of r|ght
Genera| ku|e: ?ou were arresLed ln Lhe place where your acLlon
ls pendlng. ?ou apply for ball ln Lhe courL where Lhe acLlon ls
Lxcept|on: ?ou could only go Lo oLher courLs (81C or M1C) when
Lhe [udge where your case ls pendlng ls absenL or unavallable.
o 1here musL be a cerLlflcaLlon LhaL Lhe [udge ls absenL or

II. |ace of the arrest and case d|ffer, prov|ded ba|| |s a matter of r|ght
Genera| ku|e: ?ou apply for ball ln Lhe place where your case ls
pendlng, C8 place of arresL (lf you are arresLed aL a dlfferenL
clLy) before any 81C [udge.
lf you are arresLed, or your cllenL ls arresLed ln a place oLher
Lhan where Lhe acLlon ls pendlng, Lhe ball records wlll have Lo
be LransmlLLed Lo Lhe courL where Lhe case ls pendlng, LhaL ls
Lhe duLy of Lhe [udge.
lf Lhe [udge ls noL saLlsfled on Lhe ball submlLLed ln Lhe place
where he was arresLed, Lhe [udge can requlre a new ball.

!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
III. Where ba|| |s d|scret|onary or recogn|zance
1haL wlll only be applled ln Lhe courL where Lhe acLlon ls

IV. Where there |s no pend|ng case yet
1haL wlll only be applled ln Lhe courL where Lhe accused ls held

Sect|on 18. Not|ce of app||cat|on to prosecutor.
In the app||cat|on for ba|| under Sect|on 8 of th|s ku|e, the court must
g|ve reasonab|e not|ce of the hear|ng to the prosecutor or requ|re h|m
to subm|t h|s recommendat|on. (18a)

I. near|ng on an app||cat|on for ba|| |s mandatory whether ba|| |s a
matter of r|ght or a matter of d|scret|on.
WheLher a maLLer of rlghL or dlscreLlon, Lhe prosecuLor should
be glven reasonable noLlce of hearlng, or aL leasL hls
recommendaLlon on Lhe maLLer musL be soughL.

II. In an app||cat|on for ba||, the [udge |s entrusted to observe the
fo||ow|ng dut|es:
1. noLlfy Lhe prosecuLor of Lhe hearlng for Lhe appllcaLlon of ball
or requlre hlm Lo submlL a recommendaLlon (Sect|on 18)
2. Where ball ls a maLLer of dlscreLlon, conducL a hearlng for Lhe
appllcaLlon for ball, regardless of wheLher or noL Lhe prosecuLor
refuses Lo presenL evldence.
3. ueclde wheLher Lhe gullL of Lhe accused ls sLrong based on Lhe
summary evldence of Lhe prosecuLlon (Sect|on 8)
4. lf Lhe gullL of Lhe accused ls noL sLrong, dlscharge Lhe accused
upon approval of Lhe ball bond (Sect|on 20)

III. near|ng when ba|| |s a matter of r|ght (|n pract|ce)
ln pracLlce: where ball ls a maLLer of rlghL, hearlng ls noL really
exerclsed slnce appllcaLlon of ball amounLs Lo surrender.
o 1here are [udges who wlll allow Lhls even when Lhe
cllenL does noL appear. Powever, Lhere are [udges who
wlll requlre Lhe appearance of Lhe accused before Lhe
order of release/llfLlng would be slgned.

Sect|on 19. ke|ease on ba||.
1he accused must be d|scharged upon approva| of the ba|| by the [udge
w|th whom |t was f||ed |n accordance w|th Sect|on 17 of th|s ku|e.

When ba|| |s f||ed w|th a court other than where the case |s pend|ng,
the [udge who accepted the ba|| sha|| forward |t, together w|th the
order of re|ease and other support|ng papers, to the court where the
case |s pend|ng, wh|ch may, for good reason, requ|re a d|fferent one to
be f||ed. (19a)

Sect|on 20. Increase or reduct|on of ba||.
After the accused |s adm|tted to ba||, the court may, upon good cause,
e|ther |ncrease or reduce |ts amount. When |ncreased, the accused
may be comm|tted to custody |f he does not g|ve ba|| |n the |ncreased
amount w|th|n a reasonab|e per|od. An accused he|d to answer a
cr|m|na| charge, who |s re|eased w|thout ba|| upon f|||ng of the
comp|a|nt or |nformat|on, may, at any subsequent stage of the
proceed|ngs and whenever a strong show|ng of gu||t appears to the
court, be requ|red to g|ve ba|| |n the amount f|xed, or |n ||eu thereof,
comm|tted to custody. (20a)

!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
Sect|on 21. Iorfe|ture of ba||.
When the presence of the accused |s requ|red by the court or these
ku|es, h|s bondsmen sha|| be not|f|ed to produce h|m before the court
on a g|ven date and t|me. If the accused fa||s to appear |n person as
requ|red, h|s ba|| sha|| be dec|ared forfe|ted and the bondsmen g|ven
th|rty (30) days w|th|n wh|ch to produce the|r pr|nc|pa| and to show
cause why no [udgment shou|d be rendered aga|nst them for the
amount of the|r ba||. W|th|n the sa|d per|od, the bondsmen must:

(a) produce the body of the|r pr|nc|pa| or g|ve the reason for h|s non-
product|on, and

(b) exp|a|n why the accused d|d not appear before the court when f|rst
requ|red to do so.

Ia|||ng |n these two requ|s|tes, a [udgment sha|| be rendered aga|nst
the bondsmen, [o|nt|y and severa||y, for the amount of the ba||. 1he
court sha|| not reduce or otherw|se m|t|gate the ||ab|||ty of the
bondsmen, un|ess the accused has been surrendered or |s acqu|tted.

Sect|on 22. Cance||at|on of ba||.
Upon app||cat|on of the bondsmen, w|th due not|ce to the prosecutor,
the ba|| may be cance||ed upon surrender of the accused or proof of
h|s death.

1he ba|| sha|| be deemed automat|ca||y cance||ed upon acqu|tta| of the
accused, d|sm|ssa| of the case, or execut|on of the [udgment of

In a|| |nstances, the cance||at|on sha|| be w|thout pre[ud|ce to any
||ab|||ty on the ba||. (22a)

I. Iorfe|ture v. Cance||at|on of 8a||

Iorfe|ture Cance||at|on
Meanlng When you Lalk of
cancellaLlon, Lhe ball
wlll no longer be ln
effecL elLher by
volunLary surrender
or by deaLh.
lf Lhe accused ls absenL, Lhe courL
wlll flrsL requlre Lhe bondsman Lo
explaln wlLhln a perlod of 30days,
and brlng Lhe body of Lhe accused
wlLhln a slmllar perlod. lf you fall Lo
presenL Lhe body wlLhln a slmllar
perlod, Lhe ball wlll be forfelLed.
lL wlll be cancelled
auLomaLlcally lf Lhe
accused ls acqulLLed,
convlcLed, or Lhe case
agalnsL hlm wlLhouL
Lhe express consenL
of Lhe accused.
8emedy Appeal Lo relnsLaLe Lhe ball

II. Iorfe|ture of the bond (|n pract|ce)
Absence of Lhe accused wlLhouL valld [usLlflcaLlon may cause
lmmedlaLe forfelLure aL Lhe pleasure of Lhe prosecuLlon.

Sect|on 23. Arrest of accused out on ba||.
Ior the purpose of surrender|ng the accused, the bondsmen may
arrest h|m or, upon wr|tten author|ty endorsed on a cert|f|ed copy of
!"#$#%&' )"*!+,-"+ %*.+/ 01234512367 &..89 ."&%:-#' /&';&,*"

!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
the undertak|ng, cause h|m to be arrested by a po||ce off|cer or any
other person of su|tab|e age and d|scret|on.

An accused re|eased on ba|| may be re-arrested w|thout the necess|ty
of a warrant |f he attempts to depart from the h|||pp|nes w|thout
perm|ss|on of the court where the case |s pend|ng. (23a)

Sect|on 24. No ba|| after f|na| [udgment, except|on.
No ba|| sha|| be a||owed after a [udgment of conv|ct|on has become
f|na|. If before such f|na||ty, the accused app||es for probat|on, he may
be a||owed temporary ||berty under h|s ba||. When no ba|| was f||ed or
the accused |s |ncapab|e of f|||ng one, the court may a||ow h|s re|ease
on recogn|zance to the custody of a respons|b|e member of the
commun|ty. In no case sha|| ba|| be a||owed after the accused has
commenced to serve sentence. (24a)

I. Where the accused |s |ater conv|cted he can no |onger app|y for ba||
Powever, lf you applled for probaLlon, you can conLlnue.
o 1he penalLy for whlch you were convlcLed ls less Lhan 6
o ulfference wlLh parole: you have already sLarLed servlng
your senLence buL you may be released.
?ou can conLlnue on your orlglnal ball lf one has been glven
lf you cannoL avall for one because of flnanclal lncapaclLy, you
can be released on recognlzance.

Sect|on 2S. Court superv|s|on of deta|nees.
1he court sha|| exerc|se superv|s|on over a|| persons |n custody for the
purpose of e||m|nat|ng unnecessary detent|on. 1he execut|ve [udges of
the keg|ona| 1r|a| Courts sha|| conduct month|y persona| |nspect|ons of
prov|nc|a|, c|ty, and mun|c|pa| [a||s and the pr|soners w|th|n the|r
respect|ve [ur|sd|ct|ons. 1hey sha|| ascerta|n the number of deta|nees,
|nqu|re on the|r proper accommodat|ons and hea|th and exam|ne the
cond|t|on of the [a|| fac|||t|es. 1hey sha|| order the segregat|on of sexes
and of m|nors from adu|ts, ensure the observance of the r|ght of
deta|nees to confer pr|vate|y w|th counse|, and str|ve to e||m|nate
cond|t|ons |n|m|ca| to the deta|nees.

In c|t|es and mun|c|pa||t|es to be spec|f|ed by the Supreme Court, the
mun|c|pa| tr|a| [udges or mun|c|pa| c|rcu|t tr|a| [udges sha|| conduct
month|y persona| |nspect|ons of the mun|c|pa| [a||s |n the|r respect|ve
mun|c|pa||t|es and subm|t a report to the execut|ve [udge of the
keg|ona| 1r|a| Court hav|ng [ur|sd|ct|on there|n.

A month|y report of such v|s|tat|on sha|| be subm|tted by the execut|ve
[udges to the Court Adm|n|strator wh|ch sha|| state the tota| number
of deta|nees, the names of those he|d for more than th|rty (30) days,
the durat|on of detent|on, the cr|me charged, the status of the case,
the cause for detent|on, and other pert|nent |nformat|on. (2Sa)

Sect|on 26. 8a|| not a bar to ob[ect|ons on |||ega| arrest, |ack of or
|rregu|ar pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on.
An app||cat|on for or adm|ss|on to ba|| sha|| not bar the accused from
cha||eng|ng the va||d|ty of h|s arrest or the |ega||ty of the warrant
|ssued therefor, or from assa|||ng the regu|ar|ty or quest|on|ng the
absence of a pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on of the charge aga|nst h|m,
prov|ded that he ra|ses them before enter|ng h|s p|ea. 1he court sha||
reso|ve the matter as ear|y as pract|cab|e but not |ater than the start
of the tr|a| of the case. (n)