You are on page 1of 11

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kULL 119: 1kIAL

Sect|on 1. 1|me to prepare for tr|a|.
After a p|ea of not gu||ty |s entered, the accused sha|| have at |east
f|fteen (1S) days to prepare for tr|a|. 1he tr|a| sha|| commence w|th|n
th|rty (30) days from rece|pt of the pre-tr|a| order. (Sec. 6, C|r. 38-98)

Sect|on 2. Cont|nuous tr|a| unt|| term|nated, postponements.
1r|a| once commenced sha|| cont|nue from day to day as far as
pract|cab|e unt|| term|nated. It may be postponed for a reasonab|e
per|od of t|me for good cause. (2a)

1he court sha||, after consu|tat|on w|th the prosecutor and defense
counse|, set the case for cont|nuous tr|a| on a week|y or other short-
term tr|a| ca|endar at the ear||est poss|b|e t|me so as to ensure speedy
tr|a|. In no case sha|| the ent|re tr|a| per|od exceed one hundred e|ghty
(180) days from the f|rst day of tr|a|, except as otherw|se author|zed by
the Supreme Court. (Sec. 8, C|r. 38-98).

1he t|me ||m|tat|ons prov|ded under th|s Sect|on and the preced|ng
Sect|on sha|| not app|y where spec|a| |aws or c|rcu|ars of the Supreme
Court prov|de for a shorter per|od of tr|a|. (n)

I. o|nt
1he courL should conclude Lrlal wlLhln a perlod of 180 days.

Sect|on 3. Lxc|us|ons.
1he fo||ow|ng per|ods of de|ay sha|| be exc|uded |n comput|ng the t|me
w|th|n wh|ch tr|a| must commence:
(a) Any per|od of de|ay resu|t|ng from other proceed|ngs concern|ng
the accused, |nc|ud|ng but not ||m|ted to the fo||ow|ng:

(1) De|ay resu|t|ng from an exam|nat|on of the phys|ca| and menta|
cond|t|on of the accused,

(2) De|ay resu|t|ng from proceed|ngs w|th respect to other cr|m|na|
charges aga|nst the accused,

(3) De|ay resu|t|ng from extraord|nary remed|es aga|nst |nter|ocutory

(4) De|ay resu|t|ng from pre-tr|a| proceed|ngs, prov|ded, that the de|ay
does not exceed th|rty (30) days,

(S) De|ay resu|t|ng from orders of |nh|b|t|on, or proceed|ngs re|at|ng to
change of venue of cases or transfer from other courts,

(6) De|ay resu|t|ng from a f|nd|ng of the ex|stence of a pre[ud|c|a|
quest|on, and

(7) De|ay reasonab|y attr|butab|e to any per|od, not to exceed th|rty
(30) days, dur|ng wh|ch any proceed|ng concern|ng the accused |s
actua||y under adv|sement.

(b) Any per|od of de|ay resu|t|ng from the absence or unava||ab|||ty of
an essent|a| w|tness.

Ior purposes of th|s subparagraph, an essent|a| w|tness sha|| be
cons|dered absent when h|s whereabouts are unknown or h|s
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whereabouts cannot be determ|ned by due d|||gence. ne sha|| be
cons|dered unava||ab|e whenever h|s whereabouts are known but h|s
presence for tr|a| cannot be obta|ned by due d|||gence.

(c) Any per|od of de|ay resu|t|ng from the menta| |ncompetence or
phys|ca| |nab|||ty of the accused to stand tr|a|.

(d) If the |nformat|on |s d|sm|ssed upon mot|on of the prosecut|on and
thereafter a charge |s f||ed aga|nst the accused for the same offense,
any per|od of de|ay from the date the charge was d|sm|ssed to the
date the t|me ||m|tat|on wou|d commence to run as to the subsequent
charge had there been no prev|ous charge.

(e) A reasonab|e per|od of de|ay when the accused |s [o|ned for tr|a|
w|th a co-accused over whom the court has not acqu|red [ur|sd|ct|on,
or, as to whom the t|me for tr|a| has not run and no mot|on for
separate tr|a| has been granted.

(f) Any per|od of de|ay resu|t|ng from a cont|nuance granted by any
court motu propr|o, or on mot|on of e|ther the accused or h|s counse|,
or the prosecut|on, |f the court granted the cont|nuance on the bas|s of
|ts f|nd|ngs set forth |n the order that the ends of [ust|ce served by
tak|ng such act|on outwe|gh the best |nterest of the pub||c and the
accused |n a speedy tr|a|. (Sec. 9, C|r. 38-98)

I. o|nt
1he Llme requlred by law for you Lo compleLe a case ls, excludes
LhaL porLlons of delay.
lor Lhls reason, Lhe delay could be 3, 4, 3 years, buL lf any of
Lhose under Sect|on 3 are presenL Lhe burden ls upon Lhe
prosecuLlon has Lhe burden Lo prove LhaL Lhe excluslons are
presenL Lhereby maklng Lhe delay excusable/[usLlfled.
o Lxample:
! 1he wlLness ls absenL meanlng LhaL hls
whereabouLs are nC1 known, Lherefore you
have Lo look for hlm.
! uelays by reason of exLraordlnary remedles and
delays by reason of re-1rlal for as long as noL
exceedlng 30 days ln boLh cases.
! uelays by reason of unflLness or lnablllLy of Lhe
wlLness Lo sLand Lrlal
lf you're confronLed wlLh a quesLlon on speedy Lrlal Lry Lo look
for excluslons before you make a concluslon LhaL lL's ln vlolaLlon
of speedy Lrlal.

Sect|on 4. Iactors for grant|ng cont|nuance.
1he fo||ow|ng factors, among others, sha|| be cons|dered by a court |n
determ|n|ng whether to grant a cont|nuance under Sect|on 3(f) of th|s

(a) Whether or not the fa||ure to grant a cont|nuance |n the proceed|ng
wou|d ||ke|y make a cont|nuat|on of such proceed|ng |mposs|b|e or
resu|t |n a m|scarr|age of [ust|ce, and

(b) Whether or not the case taken as a who|e |s so nove|, unusua| and
comp|ex, due to the number of accused or the nature of the
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prosecut|on, or that |t |s unreasonab|e to expect adequate preparat|on
w|th|n the per|ods of t|me estab||shed there|n.

In add|t|on, no cont|nuance under Sect|on 3(f) of th|s ku|e sha|| be
granted because of congest|on of the court's ca|endar or |ack of
d|||gent preparat|on or fa||ure to obta|n ava||ab|e w|tnesses on the
part of the prosecutor. (Sec. 10, C|r. 38-98)

I. Subsect|on a: Whether or not to grant a cont|nuance w||| |ead to a
m|scarr|age of [ust|ce
o lllness
o no wlLness
o no evldence

II. Subsect|on b: 1he |ssues presented |n the c|v|| case, |s so nove|,
unusua| and comp|ex, that |t w||| requ|re more t|me for the part|es and
the|r counse| to prepare.
now, leLs say you weren'L able Lo prepare because you were ouL
on a parLy lasL nlghL, ls LhaL a reason for conLlnuance? nC!
ls fallure or unavallablllLy of your wlLness ls LhaL a ground for a
conLlnuance? nC!
ls congesLlon of courL dockeLs a ground for conLlnuance? nC!

Sect|on S. 1|me ||m|t fo||ow|ng an order for new tr|a|.
If the accused |s to be tr|ed aga|n pursuant to an order for a new tr|a|,
the tr|a| sha|| commence w|th|n th|rty (30) days from not|ce of the
order, prov|ded that |f the per|od becomes |mpract|ca| due to
unava||ab|||ty of w|tnesses and other factors, the court may extend |t
but not to exceed one hundred e|ghty (180) days from not|ce of sa|d
order for a new tr|a|. (Sec. 11, C|r. 38-98)

Sect|on 6. Lxtended t|me ||m|t.
Notw|thstand|ng the prov|s|ons of Sect|on 1(g), ku|e 116 and the
preced|ng Sect|on 1, for the f|rst twe|ve-ca|endar-month per|od
fo||ow|ng |ts effect|v|ty on September 1S, 1998, the t|me ||m|t w|th
respect to the per|od from arra|gnment to tr|a| |mposed by sa|d
prov|s|on sha|| be one hundred e|ghty (180) days. Ior the second
twe|ve-month per|od, the t|me ||m|t sha|| be one hundred twenty
(120) days, and for the th|rd twe|ve-month per|od, the t|me ||m|t sha||
be e|ghty (80) days. (Sec. 7, C|r. 38-98)

I. o|nt
8ased on Lhe provlslon on Sect|on 6, ku|e119: from Lhe Llme
LhaL Lhe accused was arralgned unLll before Lrlal you should only
have consumed 80 days.
1he perlod for Lrlal should be 180 days. So ln less Lhan a year,
Lhe case should've been compleLed and LermlnaLed.
o Powever, you musL Lake noLe lf Lhere are [usLlfled
delays (e.g. excluslons)

Sect|on 7. ub||c attorney's dut|es where accused |s |mpr|soned.
If the pub||c attorney ass|gned to defend a person charged w|th a
cr|me knows that the |atter |s prevent|ve|y deta|ned, e|ther because he
|s charged w|th a ba||ab|e cr|me but has no means to post ba||, or, |s
charged w|th a non-ba||ab|e cr|me, or, |s serv|ng a term of
|mpr|sonment |n any pena| |nst|tut|on, |t sha|| be h|s duty to do the
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(a) Sha|| prompt|y undertake to obta|n the presence of the pr|soner for
tr|a| or cause a not|ce to be served on the person hav|ng custody of the
pr|soner requ|r|ng such person to so adv|se the pr|soner of h|s r|ght to
demand tr|a|.

(b) Upon rece|pt of that not|ce, the custod|an of the pr|soner sha||
prompt|y adv|se the pr|soner of the charge and of h|s r|ght to demand
tr|a|. If at anyt|me thereafter the pr|soner |nforms h|s custod|an that
he demands such tr|a|, the |atter sha|| cause not|ce to that effect to be
sent prompt|y to the pub||c attorney.

(c) Upon rece|pt of such not|ce, the pub||c attorney sha|| prompt|y seek
to obta|n the presence of the pr|soner for tr|a|.

(d) When the custod|an of the pr|soner rece|ves from the pub||c
attorney a proper|y supported request for the ava||ab|||ty of the
pr|soner for purposes of tr|a|, the pr|soner sha|| be made ava||ab|e
accord|ng|y. (Sec. 12, C|r. 38-98)

Sect|on 8. Sanct|ons.
In any case |n wh|ch pr|vate counse| for the accused, the pub||c
attorney, or the prosecutor:

(a) know|ng|y a||ows the case to be set for tr|a| w|thout d|sc|os|ng that
a necessary w|tness wou|d be unava||ab|e for tr|a|,

(b) I||es a mot|on so|e|y for de|ay wh|ch he knows |s tota||y fr|vo|ous
and w|thout mer|t,

(c) Makes a statement for the purpose of obta|n|ng cont|nuance wh|ch
he knows to be fa|se and wh|ch |s mater|a| to the grant|ng of a
cont|nuance, or

(d) W|||fu||y fa||s to proceed to tr|a| w|thout [ust|f|cat|on cons|stent
w|th the prov|s|ons hereof, the court may pun|sh such counse|,
attorney, or prosecutor, as fo||ows:

(1) 8y |mpos|ng on a counse| pr|vate|y reta|ned |n connect|on w|th the
defense of an accused, a f|ne not exceed|ng twenty thousand pesos

(2) 8y |mpos|ng on any appo|nted counse| de of|c|o, pub||c attorney, or
prosecutor a f|ne not exceed|ng f|ve thousand pesos (S,000.00), and

(3) 8y deny|ng any defense counse| or prosecutor the r|ght to pract|ce
before the court try|ng the case for a per|od not exceed|ng th|rty (30)
days. 1he pun|shment prov|ded for by th|s Sect|on sha|| be w|thout
pre[ud|ce to any appropr|ate cr|m|na| act|on or other sanct|on
author|zed under these ru|es. (Sec. 13, C|r. 38-98)

Sect|on 9. kemedy where accused |s not brought to tr|a| w|th|n the
t|me ||m|t.
If the accused |s not brought to tr|a| w|th|n the t|me ||m|t requ|red by
Sect|on 1(g), ku|e 116 and Sect|on 1, as extended by Sect|on 6 of th|s
ru|e, the |nformat|on may be d|sm|ssed on mot|on of the accused on
the ground of den|a| of h|s r|ght to speedy tr|a|. 1he accused sha|| have
the burden of prov|ng the mot|on but the prosecut|on sha|| have the
burden of go|ng forward w|th the ev|dence to estab||sh the exc|us|on
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of t|me under Sect|on 3 of th|s ru|e. 1he d|sm|ssa| sha|| be sub[ect to
the ru|es on doub|e [eopardy.

Ia||ure of the accused to move for d|sm|ssa| pr|or to tr|a| sha||
const|tute a wa|ver of the r|ght to d|sm|ss under th|s Sect|on. (Sec. 14,
C|r. 38-98)

Sect|on 10. Law on speedy tr|a| not a bar to prov|s|on on speedy tr|a| |n
the Const|tut|on.
No prov|s|on of |aw on speedy tr|a| and no ru|e |mp|ement|ng the
same sha|| be |nterpreted as a bar to any charge of den|a| of the r|ght
to speedy tr|a| guaranteed by Sect|on 14(2), Art|c|e III, of the 1987
Const|tut|on. (Sec. 1S, C|r. 38-98)

I. kemedy for V|o|at|on of Speedy 1r|a| (Standard: VCC)
eLlLlon for CerLlorarl
Where Lhe person ls consLanLly ln deLenLlon ln vlolaLlon of hls
rlghL Lo speedy Lrlal, your remedy ls habeas corpus.

Sect|on 11. Crder of tr|a|.
1he tr|a| sha|| proceed |n the fo||ow|ng order:

(a) 1he prosecut|on sha|| present ev|dence to prove the charge and, |n
the proper case, the c|v|| ||ab|||ty.

(b) 1he accused may present ev|dence to prove h|s defense and
damages, |f any, ar|s|ng from the |ssuance of a prov|s|ona| remedy |n
the case.

(c) 1he prosecut|on and the defense may, |n that order, present
rebutta| and sur-rebutta| ev|dence un|ess the court, |n furtherance of
[ust|ce, perm|ts them to present add|t|ona| ev|dence bear|ng upon the
ma|n |ssue.

(d) Upon adm|ss|on of the ev|dence of the part|es, the case sha|| be
deemed subm|tted for dec|s|on un|ess the court d|rects them to argue
ora||y or to subm|t wr|tten memoranda.

(e) When the accused adm|ts the act or om|ss|on charged |n the
comp|a|nt or |nformat|on but |nterposes a |awfu| defense, the order of
tr|a| may be mod|f|ed. (3a)

I. Steps
1. rosecuLlon presenLs evldence
2. 1he defense presenLs evldence
3. 8ebuLLal evldence (CourL dlscreLlon)
a. resenLaLlon of rebuLLals evldence ls noL mandaLory.
b. 8ebuLLal evldence ls presenLed lf allowed by Lhe courL
Lo meeL new maLLers presenLed ln Lhe presenLaLlon of
Lhe defense's evldence (e.g. allbl, self-defense)
4. (1he CourL MA? requlre) submlsslon of memorandum or
3. 1he case ls submlLLed for resoluLlon.
noLe: 1he order of presenLaLlon can be reserved lf Lhe accused
presenL self-defense or exculpaLory defenses, buL Lake noLe lL ls lefL
Lo Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe courL.

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Sect|on 12. App||cat|on for exam|nat|on of w|tness for accused before
When the accused has been he|d to answer for an offense, he may,
upon mot|on w|th not|ce to the other part|es, have w|tnesses
cond|t|ona||y exam|ned |n h|s beha|f. 1he mot|on sha|| state: (a) the
name and res|dence of the w|tness, (b) the substance of h|s test|mony,
and (c) that the w|tness |s s|ck or |nf|rm as to afford reasonab|e ground
for be||ev|ng that he w||| not be ab|e to attend the tr|a|, or res|des
more than one hundred (100) k||ometers from the p|ace of tr|a| and
has no means to attend the same, or that other s|m||ar c|rcumstances
ex|st that wou|d make h|m unava||ab|e or prevent h|m from attend|ng
the tr|a|. 1he mot|on sha|| be supported by an aff|dav|t of the accused
and such other ev|dence as the court may requ|re. (4a)

I. rov|s|ons on Cond|t|ona| Lxam|nat|on of W|tnesses
Sect|on 12, 13 and 1S of ku|e 119

II. 100 kM
1he 100km ls slgnlflcanL because LhaL ls Lhe llmlL of Lhe
subpoena (ku|e 21). As such, Lhe wlLness can no longer be
compelled Lo appear.

III. Manguera v. k|sos: Where ku|e 119 |s app||cab|e, the ku|es of C|v||
rocedure can never app|y.
lL ls Lrue LhaL Sect|on 3, ku|e 1 LhaL Lhe rules on clvll procedure
applles Lo all acLlons, clvll crlmlnal and speclal proceedlngs, ln
effecL lL says, Lhe rule on clvll procedure shall have suppleLory
appllcaLlon Lo crlmlnal cases.
Powever, lL ls llkewlse Lrue LhaL Lhe crlmlnal proceedlngs are
prlmarlly governed by Lhe 8evlsed 8ules on Crlmlnal rocedure
conslderlng LhaL ku|e 119 adequaLely and squarely covers Lhe
slLuaLlon ln Lhe lnsLanL case we flnd no cogenL reason Lo apply
ku|e 23 supppleLorlly or oLherwlse.

Sect|on 13. Lxam|nat|on of defense w|tness, how made.
If the court |s sat|sf|ed that the exam|nat|on of a w|tness for the
accused |s necessary, an order sha|| be made d|rect|ng that the w|tness
be exam|ned at a spec|f|c date, t|me and p|ace and that a copy of the
order be served on the prosecutor at |east three (3) days before the
schedu|ed exam|nat|on. 1he exam|nat|on sha|| be taken before a
[udge, or, |f not pract|cab|e, a member of the 8ar |n good stand|ng so
des|gnated by the [udge |n the order, or |f the order be made by a
court of super|or [ur|sd|ct|on, before an |nfer|or court to be des|gnated
there|n. 1he exam|nat|on sha|| proceed notw|thstand|ng the absence
of the prosecutor prov|ded he was du|y not|f|ed of the hear|ng. A
wr|tten record of the test|mony sha|| be taken. (Sa)

Sect|on 14. 8a|| to secure appearance of mater|a| w|tness.
When the court |s sat|sf|ed, upon proof or oath, that a mater|a|
w|tness w||| not test|fy when requ|red, |t may, upon mot|on of e|ther
party, order the w|tness to post ba|| |n such sum as may be deemed
proper. Upon refusa| to post ba||, the court sha|| comm|t h|m to pr|son
unt|| he comp||es or |s |ega||y d|scharged after h|s test|mony has been
taken. (6a)

Sect|on 1S. Lxam|nat|on of w|tness for the prosecut|on.
When |t sat|sfactor||y appears that a w|tness for the prosecut|on |s too
s|ck or |nf|rm to appear at the tr|a| as d|rected by the court, or has to
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|eave the h|||pp|nes w|th no def|n|te date of return|ng, he may
forthw|th be cond|t|ona||y exam|ned before the court where the case
|s pend|ng. Such exam|nat|on, |n the presence of the accused, or |n h|s
absence after reasonab|e not|ce to attend the exam|nat|on has been
served on h|m, sha|| be conducted |n the same manner as an
exam|nat|on at the tr|a|. Ia||ure or refusa| of the accused to attend the
exam|nat|on after not|ce sha|| be cons|dered a wa|ver. 1he statement
taken may be adm|tted |n beha|f of or aga|nst the accused. (7a)

I. Cond|t|ona| Lxam|nat|on of a rosecut|on W|tness
CondlLlonal LxamlnaLlon of a prosecuLlon wlLness for Lhe
purpose of Laklng hls deposlLlon should be made before Lhe
courL or aL leasL before Lhe [udge where Lhe case ls pendlng.
o lf you would noLe Lhe CourL has LreaLed CondlLlonal
LxamlnaLlon as some sorL of deposlLlon Laklng.
Genera| ku|e: Clvlng of LesLlmony durlng Lrlal.
o Lxcept|on: CondlLlonal LxamlnaLlon of a wlLness ouLslde
of Lrlal.
?ou usually use CondlLlonal LxamlnaLlon of WlLnesses when, Lhe
wlLness ls unavallable.

II. Cond|t|ona| Lxam|nat|on of a rosecut|on W|tness v. W|tness for the

Cond|t|ona| Lxam|nat|on
of a rosecut|on W|tness
Cond|t|ona| Lxam|nat|on of
a W|tness for the Accused
GkCUNDS 1he wlLness ls slck or lnflrm or unavallable
1he wlLness for Lhe
prosecuLlon ls abouL Lo
1he wlLness resldes more
Lhan 100km from Lhe place
deparL from Lhe
hlllpplnes wlLh no
deflnlLe daLe of reLurnlng.
where Lhe hearlng ls Lo be
MANNLk Should be made before
Lhe courL of before Lhe
[udge where Lhe case ls
?ou could Lake CondlLlonal
LxamlnaLlon before (1) any
[udge ln Lhe hlllpplnes, (2)
any member of Lhe 8ar ln
good sLandlng, and (3) lf
ordered by a superlor courL
dlrecLlng an lnferlor courL.

Sect|on 16. 1r|a| of severa| accused.
When two or more accused are [o|nt|y charged w|th an offense, they
sha|| be tr|ed [o|nt|y un|ess the court, |n |ts d|scret|on and upon mot|on
of the prosecutor or any accused, orders separate tr|a| for one or more
accused. (8a)

Sect|on 17. D|scharge of accused to be state w|tness.
When two or more persons are [o|nt|y charged w|th the comm|ss|on of
any offense, upon mot|on of the prosecut|on before rest|ng |ts case,
the court may d|rect one or more of the accused to be d|scharged w|th
the|r consent so that they may be w|tnesses for the state when, after
requ|r|ng the prosecut|on to present ev|dence and the sworn
statement of each proposed state w|tness at a hear|ng |n support of
the d|scharge, the court |s sat|sf|ed that:

(a) 1here |s abso|ute necess|ty for the test|mony of the accused whose
d|scharge |s requested,

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(b) 1here |s no other d|rect ev|dence ava||ab|e for the proper
prosecut|on of the offense comm|tted, except the test|mony of sa|d

(c) 1he test|mony of sa|d accused can be substant|a||y corroborated |n
|ts mater|a| po|nts,

(d) Sa|d accused does not appear to be the most gu||ty, and

(e) Sa|d accused has not at any t|me been conv|cted of any offense
|nvo|v|ng mora| turp|tude.

Lv|dence adduced |n support of the d|scharge sha|| automat|ca||y form
part of the tr|a|. If the court den|es the mot|on for d|scharge of the
accused as state w|tness, h|s sworn statement sha|| be |nadm|ss|b|e |n
ev|dence. (9a)

I. rocedure
1he accused, afLer belng arralgned, needs Lo flle an affldavlL for
why she should become sLaLe wlLness before Lhe prosecuLlon
resLs lLs case.
o lf Lhe appllcaLlon ls denled, Lhen Lhe affldavlL ls
lnadmlsslble as evldence.

II. D|scharge under the W|tness rotect|on rogram
1hls ls declded by Lhe uC!.
ulfference: ersons ln Lhe W were never Lhe accused (no
lnformaLlon, no arralgnmenL, no u!).
SlmllarlLy: 1he requlslLes are Lhe same.
Sect|on 18. D|scharge of accused operates as acqu|tta|.
1he order |nd|cated |n the preced|ng Sect|on sha|| amount to an
acqu|tta| of the d|scharged accused and sha|| be a bar to future
prosecut|on for the same offense, un|ess the accused fa||s or refuses to
test|fy aga|nst h|s co-accused |n accordance w|th h|s sworn statement
const|tut|ng the bas|s for h|s d|scharge. (10a)

I. Monge v. eop|e: "When can the test|mony of a D|scharged W|tness
be d|sregarded?"
1he only lnsLance where Lhe LesLlmony of a dlscharged accused
may be dlsregarded by Lhe courL ls when he dellberaLely falls Lo
LesLlfy LruLhfully ln courL, ln accordance wlLh hls commlLmenL."
lf he mlsleads Lhe courL, lf he makes an unLruLhful LesLlmony,
Lhe courL can dlsregard hls dlscharge as a SLaLe WlLness and
Lhere wlll be no acqulLLal.

Sect|on 19. When m|stake has been made |n charg|ng the proper
When |t becomes man|fest at any t|me before [udgment that a m|stake
has been made |n charg|ng the proper offense and the accused cannot
be conv|cted of the offense charged or any other offense necessar||y
|nc|uded there|n, the accused sha|| not be d|scharged |f there appears
good cause to deta|n h|m. In such case, the court sha|| comm|t the
accused to answer for the proper offense and d|sm|ss the or|g|na| case
upon the f|||ng of the proper |nformat|on. (11a)

Sect|on 20. Appo|ntment of act|ng prosecutor.
When a prosecutor, h|s ass|stant or deputy |s d|squa||f|ed to act due to
any of the grounds stated |n Sect|on 1 of ku|e 137 or for any other
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reason, the [udge or the prosecutor sha|| commun|cate w|th the
Secretary of Iust|ce |n order that the |atter may appo|nt an act|ng
prosecutor. (12a)

I. ku|e 137
Sect|on 1. D|squa||f|cat|on of [udges.
no [udge or [udlclal offlcer shall slL ln any case ln whlch he, or hls wlfe or
chlld, ls pecunlarlly lnLeresLed as helr, legaLee, credlLor or oLherwlse, or
ln whlch he ls relaLed Lo elLher parLy wlLhln Lhe slxLh degree of
consangulnlLy or afflnlLy, or Lo counsel wlLhln Lhe fourLh degree,
compuLed accordlng Lo Lhe rules of Lhe clvll law, or ln whlch he has been
execuLor, admlnlsLraLor, guardlan, LrusLee or counsel, or ln whlch he has
preslded ln any lnferlor courL when hls rullng or declslon ls Lhe sub[ecL
of revlew, wlLhouL Lhe wrlLLen consenL of all parLles ln lnLeresL, slgned
by Lhem and enLered upon Lhe record.

A [udge may, ln Lhe exerclse of hls sound dlscreLlon, dlsquallfy hlmself
from slLLlng ln a case, for [usL or valld reasons oLher Lhan Lhose
menLloned above.

Sect|on 21. Lxc|us|on of the pub||c.
1he [udge may, motu propr|o, exc|ude the pub||c from the courtroom |f
the ev|dence to be produced dur|ng the tr|a| |s offens|ve to decency or
pub||c mora|s. ne may a|so, on mot|on of the accused, exc|ude the
pub||c from the tr|a| except court personne| and the counse| of the
part|es. (13a)

I. Lxamp|e:
Move Lo exclude Lhe wlLnesses for grounds of publlc moral and
Sect|on 22. Conso||dat|on of tr|a|s of re|ated offenses.
Charges for offenses founded on the same facts or form|ng part of a
ser|es of offenses of s|m||ar character may be tr|ed [o|nt|y at the
d|scret|on of the court. (14a)

Sect|on 23. Demurrer to ev|dence.
After the prosecut|on rests |ts case, the court may d|sm|ss the act|on
on the ground of |nsuff|c|ency of ev|dence (1) on |ts own |n|t|at|ve after
g|v|ng the prosecut|on the opportun|ty to be heard or (2) upon
demurrer to ev|dence f||ed by the accused w|th or w|thout |eave of

If the court den|es the demurrer to ev|dence f||ed w|th |eave of court,
the accused may adduce ev|dence |n h|s defense. When the demurrer
to ev|dence |s f||ed w|thout |eave of court, the accused wa|ves the
r|ght to present ev|dence and subm|ts the case for [udgment on the
bas|s of the ev|dence for the prosecut|on. (1Sa)

1he mot|on for |eave of court to f||e demurrer to ev|dence sha||
spec|f|ca||y state |ts grounds and sha|| be f||ed w|th|n a non-extend|b|e
per|od of f|ve (S) days after the prosecut|on rests |ts case. 1he
prosecut|on may oppose the mot|on w|th|n a non-extend|b|e per|od of
f|ve (S) days from |ts rece|pt.

If |eave of court |s granted, the accused sha|| f||e the demurrer to
ev|dence w|th|n a non-extend|b|e per|od of ten (10) days from not|ce.
1he prosecut|on may oppose the demurrer to ev|dence w|th|n a s|m||ar
per|od from |ts rece|pt.

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1he order deny|ng the mot|on for |eave of court to f||e demurrer to
ev|dence or the demurrer |tse|f sha|| not be rev|ewab|e by appea| or by
cert|orar| before [udgment. (n)

I. "Mot|on to D|sm|ss for |nsuff|c|ency of ev|dence" that |s demurrer to

II. Demurrer of Lv|dence |n C|v|| v. |n Cr|m|na|

C|v|| Cr|m|na|
When |t
can be
AfLer Lhe plalnLlff compleLes
Lhe presenLaLlon of hls
When Lhe prosecuLlon has
resLed lLs case.
Same banana! lL only means LhaL you have submlLLed Lhe
formal offer of evldence, and Lhe accused was glven Lhe
opporLunlLy Lo flle hls commenL on Lhe prosecuLlon's formal
offer of evldence.
Is |eave
of Court
nC. you [usL flle your
demurrer Lo evldence
" lf you obLaln leave of
courL, and you were noL
glven leave buL you flled
demurrer neverLheless, lf
your demurrer ls denled Lhe
courL wlll already render
" lf you obLaln leave of
courL and Lhe courL granLs
your leave Lo flle demurrer
Lo evldence, and you flled
demurrer Lo evldence and lLs
denled, you can sLlll presenL
evldence afLer.
eLlLlon for cerLlorarl lf Lhe
denlal LalnLed wlLh grave
abuse of dlscreLlon
amounLlng Lo lack or excess
of [urlsdlcLlon, for as long as
Lhere was a MoLlon for
?ou cannoL flle an appeal or
even a peLlLlon for cerLlorarl
of a denlal of demurrer Lo
evldence ln a crlmlnal case.
?ou wlll have Lo walL unLll
Lhe compleLlon or Lhe
concluslon of Lhe maln case.
Lffect |f
1he case ls dlsmlssed. 1here ls an acqulLLal.
1herefore lL cannoL be Lhe
sub[ecL of an appeal.
noLe: 1he CourL can move for a demurrer on lLs own, so long as lL glves
Lhe prosecuLlon a chance Lo be heard.

III. Sa|azar v. eop|e
ln crlmlnal cases, demurrer of evldence parLakes of Lhe naLure
of a MoLlon Lo ulsmlss Lhe case for fallure of Lhe prosecuLlon Lo
prove Lhe gullLy of Lhe accused beyond reasonable doubL.
o Accordlng Lo Lhls case where Lhe accused flles a
demurrer Lo evldence wlLhouL leave of courL, he walves
hls rlghL Lo presenL evldence, and submlLs Lhe case for
declslon on Lhe basls of Lhe evldence of Lhe
lssue: lf Lhe demurrer ls granLed, and Lhe accused ls acqulLLed,
whaL happens Lo clvll llablllLy?
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!'&// %*.+/ <8 "&!=+''+ &%%+ >-.#+""+?
Peld: lf demurrer Lo evldence ls granLed and accused ls
acqulLLed by Lhe courL, Lhe accused has Lhe rlghL Lo adduce
evldence on Lhe clvll aspecL of Lhe case.
o unless Lhe courL also declares LhaL Lhe acL or omlsslon
from whlch Lhe clvll llablllLy wlll arlse does noL exlsL.
o Moreover, whaL Lhe Lrlal courL should do ls Lo lssue an
order or parLlal [udgmenL granLlng Lhe demurrer Lo
evldence and acqulLLlng Lhe accused, and seL Lhe case
for conLlnuaLlon of Lrlal for peLlLloner Lo adduce
evldence ln Lhe clvll case.
o So ln a demurrer Lo evldence, conslderlng LhaL Lhe
accused has noL yeL presenLed evldence, lL ls wrong for
Lhe [udge Lo rule on Lhe clvll llablllLy of Lhe accused
when he was noL allowed Lo presenL evldence.

Sect|on 24. keopen|ng.
At any t|me before f|na||ty of the [udgment of conv|ct|on, the [udge
may, motu propr|o or upon mot|on, w|th hear|ng |n e|ther case,
reopen the proceed|ngs to avo|d a m|scarr|age of [ust|ce. 1he
proceed|ngs sha|| be term|nated w|th|n th|rty (30) days from the order
grant|ng |t. (n)