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ULRICH-SCHLUMBOHM Final Exam Prompt Western Civ I

NAME:__Hamad-Al Shatti___________________________________________
Final Exam Prompt: You will write a 5-7 page critical analysis essay for ONE of the following questions. (That is a total of 5 pages of text minimum if you are a page counter!) Make sure you use proper citations, a clear thesis statement, and evidence from your texts and lectures. You should have a minimum of 10 citations from varying sources (that you have been assigned in the class) that back up your thesis. Do not use any outside sources for this exam. But you may use your journal article, the textbooks, lectures and online files provided through blackboard. One citation from one source does not constitute using more than one source. Remember the Rule of 5 is in effect, and all spelling and grammatical errors will be point deductions. Make sure you PROOFREAD YOUR WORK!!! Attach this sheet to the top of your exam; it will serve as your coversheet. MARK THE QUESTION YOU ANSWERED AND MAKE SURE YOUR NAME IS ON THE COVERSHEET. Remember Great Ideas +Bad Grammar/Spelling = 0 Points! No cover sheet is a 10% deduction. If you write more than 10 pages you need to reconsider your answer! Rule of 5 is in effect. 1. Compare and contrast the role of one of these factors on multiple (a minimum of 4) civilizations that we have studied. Trace the evolution of the factor. Be sure to address how it changes the civilizations for the good and bad. Address how the factor still impacts modern life. Give modern examples as well. Remember to only use your lecture notes and course materials. Present the historical and somewhat objective evidence, before you infuse the narrative with personal positions and thoughts. Look at ONE of the following topics: a. Environmental Factors or Food Production b. Race/ Class/ Social Stratifications based on Race or Class Political Developments c. Disease d. Technology e. Economic Structures f. Trade g. Religion (Must hit the major Religions) h. Education i. Gender/Sexuality j. Philosophy k. Political Systems or Empire Building l. Arts or Architecture m. The Family What does it mean to be a Citizen? How does Race/gender/class/religion impact the meaning of citizenship? How does citizenship change the national identity? Give historical examples of how we as citizens of the world, decided, or attempted to define what it is to be a Citizen. How or will the meaning of citizenship change in this globalized world? Why? Examine historical and modern elements and address multiple perspectives. a. Hint: Address one Western Ancient Civilization, one Western Medieval Civilization, one Early Modern Civilization, and either one Early Native American Civilization or a Middle Eastern Civilization.

2.

***Remember to only use your lecture notes and course materials. Present the historical and somewhat objective evidence, before you infuse the narrative with personal positions and thoughts.

ULRICH-SCHLUMBOHM Final Exam Prompt Western Civ I

NAME:__Hamad-Al Shatti___________________________________________

Evolution has a broad definition and is considered to be one of the most interesting subjects when talking about humans or living things. It is believe that evolution changes over time which denotes varieties of changes that occurs throughout the years. Colby (1996, January 7), states that evolution is the cornerstone of modern biology. It unites all the fields of biology under one theoretical umbrella. It is not a difficult concept, but very few people -- the majority of biologists included -- have a satisfactory grasp of it (Colby, C., 1996). Throughout different eras and civilizations that have developed, evolution takes place in different factors. These factors contributes to the molding of society and how the people adapt to these changes throughout these years. Environmental factors such as, food production has been substantially affected by this evolution and showed a great impact on the development of the modern humans. Early man consumed their time searching and gathering foods for them to be survived. Hunt (2012), Prehistoric human societies existed at the mercy of the environment and the constant search for food. By cooperating in hunting and gathering, members of Paleolithic societies ensured their survival (Hunt, p.1).They have no technology or resources for transportation or stockpiling of food. Everything that had to be transported was allowed by humans, so they choose to travel light. As they collected and verified numerous foods, they do exposed their selves from hazards and occasionally its because from choosing unsuitable food. This led to building up a comprehensive information of the flora, fauna and animals within their variety that were not only safe but good to eat. With the discovery of agriculture and the domestication of animals, the Neolithic Revolution (10,0004000 B.C.E.) marked the human transition from a nomadic existence as hunter-gatherer to a more settled lifestyle. It also led to an increasingly gender-based division of labor and the emergence of social hierarchy. By 6500 B.C.E., the invention of irrigation facilitated the establishment of settled agricultural communities in the Fertile Crescent. As time passed, man learned that domesticating animals and thereby stockpiling of food, was preferable than chasing their food down every day. Having domestic animals meant that they had a ready supply of milk, meat, fertilizer and eventually transportation to draw ploughs and carry food. This ability to make the food obey and follow gave early man a more leisured existence. Hunt

ULRICH-SCHLUMBOHM Final Exam Prompt Western Civ I

NAME:__Hamad-Al Shatti___________________________________________ (2012) states that, Women, whose mobility was limited by the need to carry and nurse infants, usually stayed near the camp and gathered edible plants, fruits, and nuts. Men did most of the hunting of large animals, which took them far from their camps (Hunt, pp.5-6). An extra sedentary population inclines to have more children than the hunter gatherers did. While a hunter assembly family would only repeat every four years, a nomadic or semi-nomadic group would reinstate every one or two years. It all be contingent on the presence of a steady source of food. In animals, wolves will not repeat if there is inadequate food to support its offspring. Maybe man should study and observe from wolves. Western civilization arises and Mesopotamia enclosed the Wests rst significant civilization. Based on customary denition, Western civilizations foundations lie in Mesopotamia 40003000 B.C.E. and in Egypt beginning around 3050 B.C.E. Mesopotamia's abundance in food constantly involved its inferior fellow citizen. During this civilization, the first cities industrialized in Mesopotamia, when its inhabitants gured out how to increase crops on the productive but dry land along the Tigris and Euphrates waterways. Mesopotamians watered their countries by building canals. To uphold this complicated system, they needed a high level of public association. The Mesopotamians industrialized the city- state in which an urban center trained political and economic control over the nearby country (Hunt, pp. 7-12). Although Mesopotamia was for the most part very dry and hot, the Tigris and the Euphrates watered the soil on its panels and formed a lot of very productive soil that was used to grow many other kinds of crops. Heise (1996) states that, Over-irrigation and limited drainage gradually brackish the fields, often causing ecological crisis. Together with the change of river flow, it stimulates throughout the Mesopotamian history the foundation of new settlements and cities (Heise, J., 1996). Some of these other crops comprised wheat, leeks, lentils, onions, and barley. Each of these crops were willingly obtainable to the Mesopotamians and were spent at a much shared rate. As well as lentils, leeks, and other types of crops, many herbs, spices, and fruits such as the fig were obtainable. Grapes were also very significant to the Mesopotamians and were used in the making of wine. The olive tree, which was natural to the Mesopotamian area, was very valuable as well. It was valued through Mesopotamia and its nearby areas for its oil which was used to make perfume bases, medicines, lamp fuel, and most of all for culinary.

ULRICH-SCHLUMBOHM Final Exam Prompt Western Civ I

NAME:__Hamad-Al Shatti___________________________________________ The Mesopotamians made good use of the assets that were obtainable to them and were very useful. Another civilization, is the Egyptian civilization. As compared to the ancient Mesopotamians, they are both civilizations rose in productive river valleys and established composite systems of polytheistic religion, stratied social hierarchies, and justice. The chief ecological difference was that the Euphrates and Tigris rivers ooded more erratically and aggressively than the Nile. Egyptian civilization, rotated around the Nile River and the richness that its yearly ood provided to the nearby farmland. Egypts site on the Nile River delta maintained seaborne trade to Mediterranean ports, and the deserts on the east and west sides of the river secure Egypt from incursion (Hunt, p. 16). Egypt's highest achievement in farming was due to many things, reaching from a close endless weather, to the Nile and its yearly floods causing the land to be vast, to Egypt's massive amount of other natural assets. The Nile is of specific significance, as it was the basis of life in Egypt. Egypt's crop fields are the product of the productive soil. Egypt's main distress was on cereal crops that's yields had numerous purposes. Egypt's swamps provided Egypt with plants that could deliver oil as well as construction materials. It was also a basis of a wide range of classes of fish. Animal farming was predominantly vital in Old Kingdom Egypt, particularly when commerce with cows. Cattle were a basis of meat, of milk, and of prize animals. Greece civilization also experienced changes in their food production. During the Dark Age, Greeks have fewer land refined and agricultural sustained on an existence level. As driving became more mutual than agricultural, the population became more itinerant. Based on Lerner (1986) journal, she hypothesized that "the step from foraging to gathering food for later consumption, possibly by more than one individual, was crucial in advancing human development. It must have fostered social interaction, the invention and development of containers, and the slow evolutionary increase in brain size (Lerner, G., 1986). Increase in nutrition of food have a great impact on the biological features of humans. Due to increase in nutrition, several aspects such as the brain size and body size also develops. Lerner (1986), also stated that, Nancy Tanner suggests that females caring for their helpless infants had the most incentive to develop these skills, while males may have, for a long period, continued to forage alone. She speculates that it was these activities which led to the first use of tools for opening

ULRICH-SCHLUMBOHM Final Exam Prompt Western Civ I

NAME:__Hamad-Al Shatti___________________________________________ and dividing plant food with children and for digging for roots. At any rate, the infant's survival depended on the quality of maternal care (Lerner, G., 1986). During the Greek civilization, Gods and Goddesses were idolized by the people. They do believe that these Gods and Goddesses will help them on their daily lives. Osborn (1997), discussed about Judith Lorbers findings which states that, These goddess idols have a great significance, I think. Women unquestionably lost their status at some point, a loss that is still with us," she explains. She stresses, however, that women were probably venerated in these early cultures because of their food-producing and child bearing roles--she endorses the theory that they invented both beer and bread--not because of any monolithic system called matriarchy (Osborn, L., 1997). Romans have emerged and had taken the power after the Hellenistic Kingdom. The Romans were able to create a very large kingdom. They working a symmetrical scheme to lay out crop lands and also working crop rotation. They were recognized to try and exploit land use which finally lead to soil exhaustion. Like Greece, Italy has a large amount of hilly topography unfit for cultivation. The Romans during their supremacy introduced much of their crops from subject countries to retain the empire feedstuff. After Rome occupied Egypt, they were able to ingress enough wheat to give free grain to all of the one million Romans living in the capitol. The Romans comprehended that the soil would develop exhausted if it didnt obtain impregnation. They were one of the primary civilizations to employ a type of mixed agriculture. They would use compost from their farm animals to aid rejuvenate their soils. Agriculture during Roman civilization is associated with their Gods and Goddesses too. Grant (1957), on his article, he said that The offering of a pig preliminary to harvesting crops was perhaps originally Intended to placate the 'Di Manes,' offended by the disturbance of the soil or by some accidental or unintentional wrong committed during the sowing, growth or maturing of the grain. Eventually it was understood to refer solely to the harvest (Grant, F., 1957). Separation from human contact retains a society pure in its ethnic state, but also rejects it any benefit of development. Thus, food systems that were used six thousand years ago would remain to be used unaffected and unopposed over time. These tribes are infrequent in our world but offer a captivating vision into our own evolution. Food hoarding, means man could live in greater groups, thus growing the likelihood of illness, population burst and war. The people with

ULRICH-SCHLUMBOHM Final Exam Prompt Western Civ I

NAME:__Hamad-Al Shatti___________________________________________ the food excesses are the ones who can give to feed armies, fight wars and form political bodies to administrate things. As Diamond (2013), pointed out in the National Geographic film, Once food can be stockpiled, political elite can gain control of food produced by others, assert the right of taxation, escape the need to feed itself, and engage full time in political activities. Hence moderate-sized agricultural societies are often organized into chiefdoms, and kingdoms are confined to large agricultural societies. Those complex political units are much better able to mount a sustained war of conquest than is an egalitarian band of hunters (National Geographic, 2013). Most people in the developed ecosphere shop in superstores where the food has been full-grown and manufactured someplace. As a result, people have become detached from the food they eat and pushed, by the wonder of quantity manufacture, into compliant foods that are substandard. A whole group of baby boomers was persuaded that TV dinners, Wonder Bread, fast food, preserved soup, pizza and extremely processed convenience food was the only way to go. Only newly have we come to realize the enormous influence these highly sugar laden, salty foods and high fat are having on the general health of the country. On the other hand, there has been a level of convenience obtainable by quantity manufacture, but on the other, an excessive deal of food veracity has been misplaced. As fish stocks reduce, prices increase, incomes drop, crops fail, vegetables pesticide ridden, meats are hormonally charged, some foods are exposed and chemicals create flavor where it once happened logically the picture isnt good. Decided modern farming approaches, comprising the use of insecticides and hormones have amplified production, obtainability, sometimes security and income for the farmer. While farmers used to farm for nourishment, now its just a business. In Season (1997), had an interview with Victor Hanson regarding family farms and he stated that Right now it seems to me that what could be done to help family farmers would be to break up vertical integration in the food industry. I dont see why someone should be able to own 7,000 acres of farmland and also be a broker and an owner of trucks, controlling the process all the way to the produce section of the supermarket (In Season, 1997). By fertilizers, science, effective crop rotation and companion planting, manufacture is enormous. Weather and topography play a part in the development of food production, but do not clarify the whole thing. One would accept that people would head for enjoyable, agriculturally opulent areas to live. People do not automatically do that depending on

ULRICH-SCHLUMBOHM Final Exam Prompt Western Civ I

NAME:__Hamad-Al Shatti___________________________________________ whether or not they can, their existence or want to change. There have been a quantity of mysterious examples where apparently lush, opulent landscapes have continued unsolicited and unharmed by humans. Illness between humans and undernourishment is always present with each other. Peoplle relying on one crop can lead to a huge problem when the crop is devastated by a corrosive substance or agent. This would lead to starvation and disease that may causes death to many people. The Potato Scarcity is an instance of a problem that shows how the society relies to much on this crop as their food. Rugles (1792), reported that In Great Britain, therefore, the wages of the laborer must be evidently more than what is precisely necessary to bring up a family, and the price of grain must determine everything in regard to the economics of labor. However, failure to implement this level of wages may, perhaps, be mitigated by the adoption by the poor of the potato, a nutritious and cheap substitute (Rugles, T., 1792). During the potato revolution, there are people who suggests solutions too on how to find some food alternative for grain. The Times (1795, July 11) paper said that, The solution to the lack of grain for our rising population is simple. The poor should adopt the diet of Lancashire, with its abundant potatoes and oatmeal porridge. Also, the poor can eat a soup of water and potatoes. If a bread is required, one of corn and potatoes is both pleasant and nutritious (The Times, 1795). Humans have never been immobile in travelling and in our present day that drive has been eased by air, ocean, rail, and automobile travel. It has not only amplified the number of people who are able to transfer around but speeded up their arrival in new lands as well. Massive relocations unheeded of 600 years ago now happen daily from all our main airports. As people mix, they interchange ideas, machineries and information. The Internet provides an enormous highway for this type of bulk mixture. Hence, our food and arrogance towards it are varying continually.

ULRICH-SCHLUMBOHM Final Exam Prompt Western Civ I

NAME:__Hamad-Al Shatti___________________________________________ References Colby, C. (1996, January 7). Evolution within a Lineage. Introduction to Evolutionary Biology. Retrieved December 14, 2013, from http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/faq-intro-tobiology.html Grant, F. (1957, January 1). Mircea Eliade "From Primitives to Zen": A ROMAN HARVEST SACRIFICE. A ROMAN HARVEST SACRIFICE. Retrieved December 14, 2013, from http://www.mircea-eliade.com/from-primitives-to-zen/099.html Heise, J. (1996, February 17). Akkadian Cuneiform, Chapter II Mesopotamia . Index of Mesopotamia pages. Retrieved December 16, 2013, from http://www.sron.nl/~jheise/akkadian/Welcome_mesopotamia.html Hunt, L. A. (2012). Early Western Civilization, 4000-1000 B.C.E. . The making of the West : peoples and cultures (4. ed., pp. 7-12). Boston: Bedford [u.a.]. Hunt, L. A. (2012). Early Western Civilization, 4000-1000 B.C.E. . The making of the West : peoples and cultures (4. ed., p. 16). Boston: Bedford [u.a.]. Hunt, L. A. (2012). The Beginnings of Human Society To C. 4000 B.C.E.. The making of the west: peoples and cultures. (4. ed., pp. 5-6). Boston [u.a.]: Bedford/St. Martin's. In Season (1997). The Family Farm Is Doomed. Way Back Machine Internet Archive. Retrieved December 15, 2013, from http://web.archive.org/web/19980111181627/http://www.marketreport.com/hanson.htm Lerner, G. (1986). The Creation of Patriarchy . Sunshine for Women, 1. Retrieved December 13, 2013, from http://web.archive.org/web/20000815214445/http:/www.pinn.net/~sunshine/booksum/lerner1.html

ULRICH-SCHLUMBOHM Final Exam Prompt Western Civ I

NAME:__Hamad-Al Shatti___________________________________________ National Geographic. (2013). Guns, Germs and Steel [Documentary]. USA: National Geographic. Osborne, L. (1997). The Women Warriors. Lingua franca -- November 1997. Retrieved December 14, 2013, from http://linguafranca.mirror.theinfo.org/9712/nosborne.html Rugles, T. (1792). Modern History Sourcebook: Accounts of the "Potato Revolution," 1695 1845. Internet History Sourcebooks. Retrieved December 13, 2013, from http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/1695potato.asp The Times. (1795, July 11). The Times. Fordham University. Retrieved December 16, 2013, from http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/1695potato.asp