History of the Modern Mac Operating Systems: Mac OS 8, 9, and X

Department of Computer and Information Science University of Tsukuba, Japan

1
X

Prologue
Mac OS ) 2005 Mac OS X OS X Classic? 10 Tiger) Mac OS Mac OS X ( (Cheetah, Puma, Jaguar, Panther 10.0 2001 Mac OS 9 ... Mac OS 9 Mac OS OS 9 (OS 9 emulator) OS X OS 9 OS 9 UNIX, privilege multi-users password

Mac OS X

? BSD, Cocoa, Carbon, ... ? ? Mac OS X

Mac OS Mac OS X Apple Mac OS X Apple OS X

Mac OS 9 Mac OS 9 NeXT Computer! Mac OS

2

The NeXT Overture
31 1985 John Sculley (CEO Apple Apple) ) Steve Jobs Apple Steve Jobs Steve Jobs (

-

1

: John Sculley Steve Jobs : http://www.aventure-apple.com/bios/sculley.html ( Interpersonal Computing Jobs Enterprise Apple Steve Jobs Jobs Steve Jobs Apple ) Ross Perot ( NeXT Computer, Inc. ) " " Jobs Jobs

: Steve Jobs Logo NeXT Computer : http://next.z80.org/next/employees/steve jobs/

UNIX (

"

")

Workstation UNIX Sun Microsystems Silicon Graphics Inc (SGI) Solaris IRIX

PC UNIX

UNIX

2

NeXT UNIX NeXTSTEP NeXT 0.8 NeXTSTEP NeXT Workstation 1993 NeXT 1988 (1.0) Object-Oriented Steve Jobs NeXTSTEP Steve Jobs

NeXT

: NeXT Station, NeXT Cube : http://www.alyon.org/InfosTechniques/informatique/NeXT/ NeXTSTEP NeXTSTEP ( Web Browser browse internet 1990 Tim Mach 2.5 kernel ... NeXT) WYSIWYG (What You See Is website authoring

What You Get) Tim Berners-Lee CERN NeXT NeXTSTEP Mellon BSD 4.3 BSD UNIX NeXTSTEP UNIX nical Mach kernel ) NeXTSTEP window server user window server NeXTSTEP NeXT event

CarnegieMach kernel tech-

microkernel kernel ( compile kernel OS/F 1 UNIX GNU HURD window server ( click mouse)

Mach

NeXTSTEP Display Postscript t ) code 3 PostScript ( PostScrip-

code ( Adobe NeXTstep 1992 NeXTSTEP 486 3.3 NeXT calibrate license NeXTSTEP 2.0 $995) Adobe 1990, 2.1 1991 Intel x86 (PC) NeXTSTEP 3.0 ) PostScript

NeXTSTEP NeXTWorld Expo 1992 ( 1995

: NeXTSTEP : http://www120.pair.com/mccarthy/nextstep/intro.htmld/ Sun Microsystems specification ( NeXTSTEP plication Programming Interface) Framework Step *STEP ( wild card NeXT 4.0 ( : NeXT 1996, 4.1 OpenStep OpenStep) whatever) OpenStep 1996 4.2 API OPENSTEP 1997 OPENSTEP NeXT OpenStep API (Apspecification Open: * )

: OPENSTEP : http://www.aci.com.pl/mwichary/guidebook/interfaces/nextstep/openstep4/openstep42

4

Solaris

OpenStep specification implement platform Sun Microsystems UNIX workstation Sun)

NeXT OpenStep for Solaris (

: OpenStep for Solaris Sun Microsystems : http://homepage.mac.com/troy stephens/OpenStep/screenShots/ NeXT Enterprise OpenStep Windows NT OPENSTEP

: OPENSTEP Windows NT : http://www.alyon.org/InfosTechniques/informatique/NeXT/ project active GNUstep (http://www.gnustep.org) ( Windows) OPENSTEP

OpenStep API WindowMaker (http://www.windowmaker.org)

5

: GNUstep GNU/Linux : http://www.roard.com/screenshots/

: GNUstep Windows XP : http://www.roard.com/screenshots/ ... OPENSTEP NeXT OPENSTEP platform WebObjects Macintosh ! NeXT web applications

3

Before 2000: The Apple’s OS Odyssey
Steve Jobs Apple Apple Windows 3.1 Microsoft Graphical User Interface (GUI) : Microsoft ( ( DOS GUI Xerox license MS-DOS Apple Apple Apple Jobs license .. Microsoft Excel )

GUI user interface Microsoft John Sculley, CEO Apple ) 1993 Microsoft client/server

Palo Alto Macintosh Apple Microsoft

Windows NT (New Technology) ( 6 Windows

Microsoft Windows 2000 XP NT ) Win32 API, preemptive scheduler, integrated networking, subsystems OS/2 POSIX, virtual machine DOS Windows 16-bit NTFS (NT File System) ... Microsoft Windows NT Chicago ( Windows 95)

: Windows 95 : http://toastytech.com/guis/win95.html Apple Chicago Windows 95 Star Trek Apple Intel x86 Apple Raptor ( microkernel Apple Red) Raptor advanced Apple modern

Novell

Apple

Raptor igent Apple Object-Oriented IBM Taligent NeXTSTEP ... ( ") IBM Apple Aaron Copland) Copland ( ) Copland ( 1994 Microsoft Windows 95 1995 Pink Apple 1992 Pink Object-Oriented " Apple Pink Tal-

C Apple RISC PowerPC OpenDOC, QuickDraw GX, ColorSync, QuickDraw 3D 7

Windows 95 Chicago Copland

Copland DOS Windows Copland microkernel NuKernel symmetric multiprocessing tual memory memory protection Apple preemptive multitasking Apple

vir-

: Copland : http://plaza.cypango.net/fr.GIF/ Copland Copland Copland David Nagel Copland Macintosh System Copland 1995 ( ") Apple Copland Apple Apple Gershwin ( codename Apple Solaris Gil Amelio CEO Copland internet Copland Apple 1996 Copland Apple Copland ’90s 1995 1996

"Copland Apple

, George Gershwin) Apple Windows NT Jean-Louis Gassee

Apple Microsoft

Sun Microsystems Apple

BeOS

Be

8

: BeOS

(Zeta Deluxe Edition, Apple : http://www.yellowtab.com/products/deluxe edition.php Copland x86

)

BeOS Apple ory protection, preemptive multitasking, symmetric multiprocessing PowerPC ( BeOS metadata BeOS

mem)

Apple ( 50 )

Be Be " Be " 275

Gassee 20 Apple Apple

Apple 200

500 Be Gassee

Apple .... "

"

4

The Return of the King
Steve Jobs Gil Amelio CEO Apple BeOS Apple BeOS BeOS design

: Gil Amelio : http://www.osnews.com/story.php?news id=8905 Apple OPENSTEP NeXT ( Wall Streets, NASA, 9 license )

" OpenStep API 1997 Apple Steve Jobs ( ) Apple Senior Vice-President Software Engineering Apple) Rhapsody ( ) Rhapsody OPENSTEP NeXTSTEP/OPENSTEP Apple (Developer Tools) NeXT Apple Steve Jobs .... Reality Distortion Field (RDF)

" NeXT

BeOS OPENSTEP

427 NeXT OPENSTEP Apple

Avie Tevanian

NeXT ( Apple Mac OS

: Avie Tevanian NeXT : http://next.z80.org/next/employees/people/ Jobs Amelio Jobs Pixar Animation Apple Amelio Apple 1997 carte blanche ( Jobs Jobs CEO Apple Apple") Rhapsody ( ) ( Developer Release 1 (DR1) CEO Jobs NeXT Computer "Apple NeXT NeXT 1997 Apple Steve Jobs Apple Gil Amelio CEO " " " " CEO Apple Computer Jobs " " ) 16 Apple Apple

10

OpenStep specification Yellow Box

OPENSTEP PowerPC

(Developer Tools) Yellow Box Intel x86

API Rhapsody DR1

5

The Renaissance: Copland Reloaded
Apple Apple Apple Rhapsody Jobs Apple Rhapsody Apple Yellow Box Copland Apple NeXTSTEP/OPENSTEP System Rhapsody , Steve Jobs DR1 ,

Mac

System Apple

...

... Apple Rhapsody Apple ( Redmond sody Rhapsody System ... Steve Jobs " ... ... " Copland Apple Rhapsody System System Macintosh Mac OS ( Mac clone Copland Mac OS 7.6 Apple 11 Apple Apple Apple " ) PC Microsoft NeXT

Rhap-

"

Apple 1997

)

Mac OS 8.0

: Mac OS 8.0 : http://www.aci.com.pl/mwichary/guidebook/interfaces/macos/macos80/macos80 1998 8.1 ( Carbon Apple m68k PowerPC Mac OS Extended) Carbon Mac OS HFS+ Apple

Apple Mac OS 8.1

: Mac OS 8.1 : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mac OS 8 1998 DR1 OS Mac OS OPENSTEP DR2 Yellow Box PowerPC Intel x86 Windows NT OPENSTEP Rhapsody Developer Release 2 Mac

DR1

12

: Rhapsody (Developer Release 2) Intel x86 (Pentium) : http://www.aci.com.pl/mwichary/guidebook/interfaces/nextstep/rhapsody/rhapsodydr2

: Yellow Box for Windows Windows 2000 : http://www.shawcomputing.net/resources/apple/os pictures/yb2k/index.html 1999 Apple " " Rhapsody Mac OS X Server X 10 UNIX ( UNIX X HP-UX, IRIX, AIX, A/UX, ) Apple Darwin 0.1 core Mac OS X Server open source Darwin BSD UNIX Mach microkernel FreeBSD open source kernel Darwin xnu ( X is Not Unix )

13

: Mac OS X Server 1.2 (Rhapsody 5.6) : http://www.shawcomputing.net/resources/apple/os pictures/rhap56/index.html UNIX server process UNIX ) Rhapsody multi-users Rhapsody (

Mac OS X STEP Mac OS Apple .... Apple Sonata ... OPEN-

6

Winter’s Sonata: The Final Flight of Classic Mac OS
Apple OPENApple

STEP

( Carbon Apple " " X ( Mac OS 8.1

) " OPENSTEP "!

( 8 Microsoft Windows 95 95, 98, 2000)

10) Windows 98 Windows NT

Mac OS X Mac OS Windows 2000

Redmond Windows 95 Apple Mac OS X

Microsoft Mac OS 8

Windows 98 Mac OS Mac OS X 14

23

Sonata 1999 Sonata

Mac OS 9.0

: Mac OS 9.2 : http://www.kernelthread.com/mac/oshistory/9.html Mac OS 9 Mac OS X Mac OS X Carbon Carbon "Classic environment" Mac OS X Mac OS X Mac OS 9 (Mac OS 8 680x0) Mac OS X (emulator mode) Carbon

Mac OS 8 PowerMac

Mac OS PC Apple OS X 9.2.x Mac OS 9 Classic Mac OS

PowerPC Mac OS 9

classic mode Mac OS

Mac OS X

7

Prelude to the NeXT Mac OS: Final Movement of Rhapsody
Apple Rhapsody Apple ( Developer Release DP1 ) Carbon API Apple DP Mac OS X vaporware Copland Copland (DP1-4) Carbon DP2 Classic Environment

Developer Preview (DP)

Mac OS 9.0.4

Mac OS 9 Mac OS 9 Mac OS X Blue Box DP2 15

OpenStep API

Yellow Box

Cocoa

API

Mac OS X

: Mac OS X Developer Preview 2 (DP2) : http://www.aci.com.pl/mwichary/guidebook/interfaces/macos/macosx/macosxdp2 DP1-2 DP3 Apple Aqua User Interface PDF PostScript Apple Display PostScript

Mac OS X " " DP3 Display PostScript Display PDF Display PDF Rhapsody

Mac OS X Quartz license

Adobe

: Mac OS X Developer Preview 3 (DP2) Mac OS 9 Classic Environment : http://www.shawcomputing.net/resources/apple/os pictures/osxdp3/index.html DP4 terface Builder Mac OS X DP 2000 Apple Apple Dock Mac OS X OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) , animation, 4 Public Beta ProjectDP4 User in-

16

: Mac OS X Public Beta : http://www.kernelthread.com/mac/oshistory/10.html

,

Mac OS X DP1-2 Aqua OS X DP3 Aqua anti-alias text, full-color scalable graphics, shading lighting icon transparency, animation Mac OS ( NeXTSTEP/OPEN DP3-4 ) Dock application launcher Public Beta Mac OS X kernel panic Mac OS Public Beta Public Beta milestone ( )

Mac OS

Copland

8

The Light at the End of the Long, Dark, and Winding Tunnel
24 Mac OS X 10.0 2001 Cheetah Apple ... Apple Cheetah

Cheetah Commercial Release Developer Preview Release Public Beta 1.0 Mac OS X 10.0) Public Beta Apple Cheetah Mac OS X Mac OS X Mac OS X Cheetah ital Lifestyle ( iMovies iLife " Apple ) Carbon API 17 Cheetah DigiTunes ... " Com-

mercial Release ( Commercial Release

Apple Mac OS 9 Cheetah Mac OS X 10.1 " " 29 Puma

Cheetah Apple Mac OS X Mac OS X

: Mac OS X 10.1 Puma : http://www.aci.com.pl/mwichary/guidebook/interfaces/macos/macosx Cheetah ( (printer) 200 CD/DVD Carbon API Puma Puma Mac OS X ) Cheetah Carbon

Classic Mac OS OS X ( native mode) Adobe Photoshop Photoshop 7.0 OS 9.x Puma ( native mode Classic environment) Apple Puma 5 (10.1.1 - 10.1.5) Puma Adobe Photoshop Microsoft Office UNIX Mac OS X UNIX GNU/Linux Mac OS X MySQL, PHP, Tomcat Apache open source Windows OS X PostgreSQL GNUstep OpenStep API Cocoa OS X Mac OS X Macromedia Flash, Dreamweaver Fireworks OS X Carbon Puma Apple Mac OS X Mac OS 9 Cheetah Mac OS 9 OS X ..... OS 9

9

The King is Dead. Long Live the King! : Beginning of the new Era
Puma Classic Mac OS ...

18

work flow ... Apple

Classic Mac OS

Classic Environment

Mac OS X Mac OS 9 ) Jaguar

( ) Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC; 2002 Apple Mac OS X Steve Jobs ( CEO ) Mac OS X Apple Jaguar WWDC

Mac OS 9 Classic Mac OS OS X

: Steve Jobs Mac OS 9 WWDC 2002 : http://homepage.mac.com/epal/.Pictures/funeral.jpg : http://homepage.mac.com/epal/.Pictures/headstone.jpg

: Mac OS 9 : http://www.watch.impress.co.jp/pc/docs/2002/0507/wwdc2.htm WWDC 2002 Jaguar 24 Jaguar infrastructure Rendezvous Conf (zero-configuration) Quartz Extreme Unit (GPU) antialiasing auto-configuration networking 2002 Apple Puma Mac OS X 10.2

Mac OS X ZeroQuartz Graphics Processing LCDAAC

video

audio

16MB MPEG4

19

: Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar : http://www.aci.com.pl/mwichary/guidebook/interfaces/macos/macosx102/macosx102 Jaguar instant messaging 3 iDVD Puma) browser KHTML iChat AOL Instant Messenger ( iPhoto ; Render) Finder Classic Mac OS ( wireless base station Windows access Jaguar X11 GNU/Linux X ) (Beta) Mac OS X UNIX GNU/Linux OpenOffice.org ( Jaguar X11 ( UNIX X11 GUI , OpenOffice.org TLE) XDarwin UNIX Mac OS OroborOSX Apple Sherlock) ( WebDAV IPv6 secure remote login internet protocol SSH, SSL TLS search ( Universal Access Jaguar Classic Mac OS SMB-server security VPN-PPTP based remote client ) AirPort OS X Finder Finder 4 iLife ( Safari web

)

: OpenOffice.org 20

Apple X11

Jaguar

: http://gallery.antiflux.org/albun91/x11screen2 Jaguar Mac OS X Jaguar release Panther Mac

Apple WWDC 2003 Apple OS X 10.3 ( )

10

Finding the Future, and the Future is Now
Jaguar 24 2003 Panther OS X infrastructure infrastructure Apple WWDC Apple Mac OS X

: Mac OS X 10.3 Panther : http://www.apple.com/macosx/ WWDC 2003 150 • Finder ( • Fast User Switching WWDC) • Fax printing • UNIX print " Panther X11 ( *.doc) TextEJobs WWDC Apple Panther 100

real-time search ( folder playlist iTunes)

iTunes) sidebar

sidebar

Windows XP (

Jobs

"

fax

remote

• TextEdit dit) • •

text editor/word processor Microsoft Word ( Windows FileVault

Home folder

21

• iChat AV • Expose (

Audio/Video conference Expose ) desktop

: Expose thumbnail : http://www.oliverobrien.co.uk/ weblog/images/expose.jpg • Preview PostScript (*.ps) • File/Folder labels • Pixlet • Mail Safari • FontBook • iDisk .Mac high-definition video codec organize by thread HTML mail thread WebKit PDF search

NeXTSTEP/OPENSTEP Developer Tools Xcode Xcode Panther Panther NeXT Xcode Fast Build, Fix and Continue, Zero Link, Predictive Compilation, Distributed Build iTunes Xcode GCC (GNU Compiler Collection) 3.3

22

: Xcode : Cocoa

Interface

Panther (Mac OS X 10.3.6)

OpenStep Xcode Mac OS X Windows ( Xcode level ’90s Apple

Mac OS X Mac OS

X editor ) NeXT .. Level

Windows

Level Windows

Rhapsody Classic Mac OS 2004 Steve Jobs !

Mac OS X

Macworld San Francisco "The transition is over. We made it". Apple ...

11

The Road Ahead: What’s NeXT?
Apple Apple "For you, Panther is over!" Jobs Mac OS X 10.4 WWDC 2004 Steve Jobs Mac OS X 2005 Mac OS X

Panther Tiger Panther

23

: Mac OS X Tiger Developer Preview Spotlight, Safari RSS, iChat : http://www.eweek.com/slideshow/0,2394,l=&s=25986&a=130460,00.asp Tiger infrastructure • • Spotlight system-wide 64 bit text Mac OS Jobs 32 bit metadata search PDF 150

Smart folder

iTunes Spotlight

• Finder search • iChat AV audio chat video chat Safari infrastructure JavaScript Dashboard widget

Spotlight

smart folder

iTunes

10 )

video chat

4

(

• RSS reader • Dashboard CSS,

Expose Apple

desktop widget Konfabulator

( Dashboard (

widget) HTML, :

concept Konfabulator

Dashboard

24

: Dashboard, "Expose for Widgets" : http://www.eweek.com/slideshow/0,2394,l=&s=25986&a=130460,00.asp • Automator pleScript visual-scripting workflow workflow Automator Ap-

• H.264 codec

Quicktime

codec Tiger Mac OS Xcode 2.0 SDK (Software Development Kit)

infrastructure plication Programming Interface) Core Video Core Data Core Image filter effect realtime video content image Core Data

API (ApCore Image, GPU Spotlight

Core Video

Tiger URL

WWDC 2004

(

)

http://www.macdd.com/f article/article 008 02.html Tiger Tiger Tiger .... Apple Tiger OS X .... Apple!

Mac OS X Steve Jobs ( )

"

Mac OS"

Appendix: Mac OS X Development Timeline

25

: OS X : http://www.objectfarm.org/Activities/Publications/TheMerger/ : diagram diagram Mac OS X Mac OS 8 Mac OS 9 Mac OS X

Server

Mac OS 9 Mac OS X Rhapsody Mac OS X Developer Preview

References and Further Reading
• Official Mac OS X Site: http://www.apple.com/macosx/ • Mac OS X Tiger Sneak Preview: http://www.apple.com/macosx/tiger/ • NeXTSTEP to Mac OS X Slashdot thread: http://apple.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=04/11/12/2214226&tid=189&tid=179&tid=130&tid=94&tid=1&tid=3 • Intro to NeXTSTEP: http://www120.pair.com/mccarthy/nextstep/intro.htmld/ • Mac OS X: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mac OS X • Mac OS X History: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mac OS X history • Mac OS History: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mac OS history • OpenStep: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenStep • History of Apple’s Operating Systems: http://www.kernelthread.com/mac/oshistory/ • A Brief History of Mac OS X: http://www.kernelthread.com/mac/osx/history.html • Mac OS Timeline: http://www.macos.utah.edu/Documentation/macosx/history/mac osx history.html • Mac OS X History: http://www.macos.utah.edu/Documentation/MacOSXClasses/macosxone/macosxhist.html • NeXT Information Archive: http://next.z80.org/ • The Merger of Apple and NeXT: http://www.objectfarm.org/Activities/Publications/TheMerger/ • GUI Guidebook (Mac OS): http://www.aci.com.pl/mwichary/guidebook/interfaces/macos • Taligent: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taligent • GNUstep: http://www.gnustep.org ( Ars Technica reference website review Developer Preview website ) link website

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