You are on page 1of 37

Computer Systems Architecture

Table of Contents

Table of Contents.............................................................................................................1
Acknowledgment ...........................................................................................................3
Chapter 1 .........................................................................................................................4
Major trends affecting microprocessor performance and design in recent......................4
Increasing number of Cores.............................................................................................5
Awareness and improvements in energy efficiency.....................................................8
Include High Speed Cache and Buses.......................................................................10
Reducing the size of the Processor............................................................................11
Continuing advances in virtualization.......................................................................13
Chapter 2....................................................................................................................14
Major differences between microprocessor design goals for desktop, Server and
embedded Systems........................................................................................................14
.......................................................................................................................................15
Desktop Processors .......................................................................................................16
Chapter 3.................................................................................................................. ...................19
The choice of buying two different computers..............................................................19
Our Choice will be: ‘A’ Processor.................................................................................19
‘A’ Processor have higher clock speed than b processor that means ‘A’ processor can
execute program interactions in a higher speed than ‘B’ Processor .But the Cache size
of ‘ A’ processor is small and ‘B’ Possessors cache is high .That means ‘B’ processor
can store more active potions of the programs than ‘A’ Processor. ..............................19
Chapter 4 .......................................................................................................................20
Compare having one ALU that is twice as fast as normal to having 2 ALU’s..............20
MutiTreading.............................................................................................................21
Chapter 5....................................................................................................................22
Problems currently facing by micro-architects..............................................................22
Software not keeping up with multicore........................................................................22
Limitation of the process size and related facts.........................................................23

1
Computer Systems Architecture

Research cost is high .................................................................................................24


Critical Appraisal.......................................................................................................25
FAQ....................................................................................................................... .......................29
1.What is the main goal of desktop processor?.......................................... ............................34
2.What is the main goal of Server processor?......................................................... ................34
3.What is the Main Purpose of embedded systems? ............................................................ ..34
4.Uptime is the main goal of?.................................................................................... ................34
5.Price is more considered in?........................................................................................ ..........34
6.The Intel Processor server family known as?....................................................... ................34
7.The Intel Processor Desktop family known as?.............................................................. ......34
8.If Processor Clock Speed is high?............................................................................. ............34
9.If Processor Cache is high? .............................................................................................. .....34
10.Embedded processors are used in?................................................................. ...................35
11.What is the most popular desktop processor in early 2000? ...................................... ......35
12. Name Two microprocessor manufactures ................................................................... ......35
13.Motorola is mainly designing?...................................................................... .......................35
14.Name a task of a Expert Home User? ........................................................ .........................35
15.Name a task of a Novice Home User?.......................................................................... ........35
Minutes of Meetings ......................................................................................... ........................36

2
Computer Systems Architecture

Acknowledgment

We would like to thank Dr.Gayan Jayakody for his continuous support, guidance
and effort in the preparation of this research.

The librarians of the Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology helped us


with many issues during this research and we would like to extend our whole
hearted gratitude for them.

Moreover, we owe a quit lot to our friends and our beloved parents who helped
us to make this research a success.

Last but not least we would like to thank all the friends who supported us morally
by staying with us all the time.
Finally, we are responsible for any errors that remain in this report.

3
Computer Systems Architecture

Chapter 1

Major trends affecting microprocessor performance and design in


recent

 Increasing number of Cores

 Awareness and improvements in energy efficiency

 Include High Speed Cache and Buses

 Reducing the size of the Processor

 Continuing advances in virtualization

Barb Goldworm. (2007). Technology trends in processors and servers. Available:


http://searchsystemschannel.techtarget.com/news/column/0,294698,sid99_gci1248914,00.html.
[Last accessed 9 April 2009.]

4
Computer Systems Architecture

Increasing number of Cores

Multi-core processor can be described in simple terms as two processors in one


system. A multi-core processor enables a far greater multitasking experience
than single-core processors by allowing each core to run a certain application or
task. You can have two processors running at the same speed, each performing
half the work of a single-core CPU, without being bogged down by single
application threading

Alienware Corporation. (Alienware). Understanding Processor Performance!. Available:


http://www.alienware.com/intro_pages/processors_101.aspx. Last accessed [5 May 2009].

Figure 1 - Intel Core 2 Extreme quad-core processor.

Alienware Corporation. (Alienware). Understanding Processor Performance!. Available:


http://www.alienware.com/intro_pages/processors_101.aspx. Last accessed [5 May 2009].

5
Computer Systems Architecture

Last year microprocessor manufactures have introduce several multi core


processors in to the market ,Specially like intel core 2 duo which contain 2 core’s
and intel core 2 quad which contain 4 cores

Figure 2 - Intel Core 2 Processor Logos

Also intel have introduced new Multicore processor intel core i7 which has 4
(physical), 8 (logical) cores which provide higher performance than Intel Core 2
Family Processors

Intel. (2009). Next-Generation Intel PC Chips to Carry Intel Core Name. Available:
http://www.intel.com/pressroom/archive/releases/20080811comp.htm. Last accessed [5 May
2009].

Figure 3 - Intel Core i7 Processor Logos

6
Computer Systems Architecture

32 Core Processor

In research level Intel have introduced the 32 core processor (Code Name
Keifer).Intel believes that this processor can hit the market with in 2010 as the
fastest processor in the universe

The Editors of Tom's Hardware. (2007). 32-Core Processors: Intel Reaches For (The) Sun.
Available: http://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/project-keifer-32-core,1280.html. Last accessed
[6 May 2009].

7
Computer Systems Architecture

Awareness and improvements in energy efficiency

Nowadays energy is one of the most important resources in the world. So we


must protect it. Then power consumption would be the important one of
important major trend.

As a example we can get the Intel Core 2 processor Family .This Family is a very
efficient processors which has very intelligent power management features, such
as the

Ability to deactivate unused cores, it still draws up to 24 watts in idle mode.


As a result. Also Modern Processors can deactivate unused areas in the Cache
also.

Also Intel have introduced a new micro architecture in Intel Core 2 and Intel
Core 7i which help to save energy

The Editorial team. (2007). Energy Efficiency: AMD vs. Intel. Available:
http://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/energy-efficiency-intel-left-out-in-the-cold,1641.html. Last
accessed [5 May 2009].

8
Computer Systems Architecture

Figure 4 - Power Consumption in Processors

Jupitermedia Corporation. (2009). Intel Core 2 Extreme QX9650 Review. Available:


http://www.sharkyextreme.com/hardware/cpu/article.php/3261_3707931__11. Last accessed [5
May 2009].

9
Computer Systems Architecture

Include High Speed Cache and Buses

In Past year Microprocessor Manufactures like intel has introduced new cache
technologies to their processors which can gain more efficiency improvements
and reduce latency.

Intel Advanced Smart Cache technology is a multicore cache that reduce latency
to frequency used data .in modern processors the cache size is increased up to
12MB

Intel Corporation .(2008). Intel® Core™ Microarchitecture. Available:


http://www.intel.com/technology/architecture-silicon/core/index.htm. Last accessed [ 5 May
2009 ].

Figure 5 - How Intel Smart Cache Works

Intel Corporation .(2008). Intel® Core™ Microarchitecture. Available:


http://www.intel.com/technology/architecture-silicon/core/index.htm. Last accessed [ 5 May 2009

10
Computer Systems Architecture

Reducing the size of the Processor

Size of the processor the one of the major trend what is affecting to the
processor in last years time .When the processor becoming small there will be
many advantages like it can include many cores to a processor, it will protect
energy, it will increase it’s speed also.

45nm Processor Technology

Intel has introduced 45nm Technology in Intel Core 2 and Intel Core i7 Processor
Family. Intel 45nm High-K Silicon Processors contain Larger L2 Cache than
65nm Processors.
Intel. (2008). First 45nm Intel® Core™ Microarchitecture . Available:
http://www.intel.com/technology/architecture-silicon/45nm-core2/. Last accessed [5 May 2009].

Figure 6 - Intel 45 nm Processor Technology

11
Computer Systems Architecture

32nm Processor Technology

At research level Intel have introduced 32nm processor (Code Name Nehalem-
based Westmere) which will be released in 2nd quarter of 2009.

Nicholas-Kolakowski. (2009). Intel's 32-Nm 'Westmere' Processors on Track for Late 2009.
Available: http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Desktops-and-Notebooks/Intels-32nm-Westmere-
Processors-on-Track-for-Late-2009/. Last accessed [5 May 2009].

12
Computer Systems Architecture

Continuing advances in virtualization

Virtualization technology helps CPU to act as if it were several CPU’s working in parallel,
In order to enable several operating systems to run at same time in the same machine.
Virtualization is not multi tasking or Hyper Threading

In virtualization each Operating System runs on a “Virtual CPU” or “Virtual machine”. Virtual
machine can “fool” applications into detecting hardware that actually not present

Figure 7 - How Virtualization Works

Christopher Saunders. (2005). Processor Virtualization: Many Computers, One Machine.


Available: http://hardware.earthweb.com/chips/article.php/3494096. Last accessed [ 6 May
2009 ].

13
Computer Systems Architecture

Chapter 2

Major differences between microprocessor design goals for


desktop, Server and embedded Systems

Introduction

When we consider about Microprocessor types we can look at three different


views its Desktop, Server and Embedded Systems. These Processor types have
different design goals because each system is unique from one to another.

Background

In Desktop based microprocessors manufactures are concerned about reliability


and ease of use. In Server based microprocessors main concerns are uptime
and stability issues. Embedded systems which are very popular in Electrical
industry which designed to act in a single purpose manner.(Eg-Telephones,
Clocks , Toys )

Purinda Gunasekara. (2007). Microprocessor design goals for Desktop, Server and Embedded
Systems . Available: http://www.codeproject.com/KB/scrapbook/Microprocessor.aspx. Last
[accessed 19 April 2009.]

14
Computer Systems Architecture

Figure 8 - Intel Desktop and Server Processor Family

3DNews.Ru. (2006). Intel Centrino Duo: new-generation mobility. Available:


http://www.digital-daily.com/mobile/centrino_duo/. Last accessed [19 April 2009 ].

15
Computer Systems Architecture

Desktop Processors

The goal of Desktop microprocessors is to deliver as much performance as


possible while keeping the cost of the processor low and power consumption
within reasonable limits.

Another important fact is out there, it is most of the programs which are being
used in desktop machines are designed to do long time processor scheduling
jobs like rendering a high definition image, or compiling a source file. So the
processors are also designed to adopt those kinds of processing.

Purinda Gunasekara. (2007). Microprocessor design goals for Desktop, Server and Embedded
Systems. Available: http://www.codeproject.com/KB/scrapbook/Microprocessor.aspx. Last
[accessed 19 April 2009.]

16
Computer Systems Architecture

Server Processors

The main goal is to give an uninterrupted uptime and stability also now a day’s
power consumption and heating also considered more.

Purinda Gunasekara. (2007). Microprocessor design goals for Desktop, Server and Embedded
Systems . Available: http://www.codeproject.com/KB/scrapbook/Microprocessor.aspx. Last
[accessed 23 April 2009.]

Figure 9 - Power Consumption in Intel Server Processors

17
Computer Systems Architecture

Embedded Processors

The main design goals is to use limited amount of physical space for circuitry and
lower system cost, If the Processor price is low the whole Embedded application
can be sell for low price in the market.

Enoch O. Hwang (2006). Digital Logic and Microprocessor Design. La Sierra


University, Riverside, CA: Thomson. 1-10

18
Computer Systems Architecture

Chapter 3
The choice of buying two different computers

A B
2Ghz
Clock Speed 3 Ghz

Cache Size 512KB 3MB

Features Lower program execution time High Program Execution Time

Can only store few active Can store high amount of active
potions of programs potions of programs

Table 1 – Processor figures

Our Choice will be: ‘A’ Processor

‘A’ Processor have higher clock speed than b processor that means ‘A’ processor
can execute program interactions in a higher speed than ‘B’ Processor .But the
Cache size of ‘ A’ processor is small and ‘B’ Possessors cache is high .That
means ‘B’ processor can store more active potions of the programs than ‘A’
Processor.
Why we Choose ‘A’?

But the cache size is larger but the hit ratio of the both cache may be slightly the
same .so we can’t say that if the cache is high the processor performances is
higher .While the ‘A’ processor have higher clock speed so we would prefer it .

19
Computer Systems Architecture

Chapter 4

Compare having one ALU that is twice as fast as normal to


having 2 ALU’s

Introduction

If a system has a one ALU that is twice as fast normal to having 2 ALU’s (2 Cores
)there will be much diffrrent in thsese two systems. Becouse System which has
two or more ALU’s will support more muti-tasking and muti- treading .

What is Mutitasking

In Computing multitasking is a method by which tasks, aslo known as processes


, share common processing resources such as CPU.With multitasking OS you
can simultaneously run multiple applications faster and more relabile .

Figure 10 – How Muticore CPU works

National Instruments Corporation. (2009). Differences Between Multithreading and Multitasking


for Programmers. Available: http://zone.ni.com/devzone/cda/tut/p/id/6424#toc0. Last accessed [5
May 2009].

20
Computer Systems Architecture

MutiTreading

What is MutiTreading ?

Multithreading extends the idea of multitasking into application , so you can


subdevide specific operations within a single application into individual threads.
Each of the threads can run in parallel.

Figure 11 - Multi Treading

Multi Treading Processors have number of Advantages

• More efficient CPU usage

• Better System Reliability

National Instruments Corporation. (2009). Differences Between Multithreading and Multitasking


for Programmers. Available: http://zone.ni.com/devzone/cda/tut/p/id/6424#toc0. Last accessed [5
May 2009].

21
Computer Systems Architecture

Chapter 5

Problems currently facing by micro-architects

Software not keeping up with multicore

When they introduced multicore it started with two and four cores per processor.
Now it has developed up to 32 cores per processor and in about 4 years, it will
develop until about 1024 per processor. Therefore, it has become a challenge to
the program developers to cope up with the development of the processes.

In other words, it is hard for the software to get used to the number of cores
increasing. And also due to the development of the cores the memory bus gets
affected. The memory bus is too small when compared with the cores and cause
of this the computer slows down. For a long time we used single processors and
then multi processors and finally multicores. In the near future, it will change into
“manycore”. Even though the processing hardware has changed from the past,
the paradigm has not developed accordingly. With the development of the cores
the memory bus is not developed therefore when two or more tasks occur
together, the memory bus does not have the capacity to cope up with it.

Mark Hermeling. (2009). Software Not Keeping Up With Multicore. Available:


http://blogs.windriver.com/hermeling/2009/01/software-not-keeping-up-with-multicore.html. Last
accessed [5 May 2009].

22
Computer Systems Architecture

Limitation of the process size and related facts

The process is made out of silicon sheets which vaporized transistors into
it. In the early stages the process was 65nm but now the metal gate silicon
technology has developed up to 45nm which stores double the amount of
transistors into the same silicon space as the 65nm metal gate.

In 1965 a visionaries called Gordon Moore said that “The number of transistors
on a chip will double about every two years.” According to him to increase the
performance the size of the metal gate must be decrease.

So they have researched reducing the size up to 32nm and had discovered that if
the size reduces further there will be an electrical current leakage in transistors.
So this has become a major problem for the micro architects because they
cannot increase the performance of the processor without decreasing the size of
the silicon gate.

Figure 12 – Standard Transistor

23
Computer Systems Architecture

Research cost is high

The research cost is high when making micro processors and when further
developing them. As the processor size becomes small so Micro-architects
should implement new type of equipments to work and research with them.

24
Computer Systems Architecture

Critical Appraisal

The Trouble with Multi-Core Computers

Multicore and Architectural problems

As the number of cores in the processor increase also the speed ratio of the
hardware should increased. Even now days to take the maximum performance of
a intel core 2 Duo Processor there should be at least of 2GB ram in the system
.so if we increased up to about 32 Cores in the processor the ratio of the ram
should be increased .So this will occur several problems because current most
popular system architecture x86 is only supported up to 4GB RAM. if we need to
use more than 4GB of Ram we move to 64bit architecture or should overcome
with a new architecture .64 bit architecture will create various problems to users
.

Problems on 64 bit systems

 Need special 64bit Operating Systems

 Most of the normal Software will not work on 64bit Operating System

Even the Programming on 64 bit processors will be harder because data


execution methods are different than x86 systems

In addition, multi cores are mostly supported by vista but in the present most of
the people use, Windows XP and therefore multicores are not very useful for
average popularity. Even though it states that, the multicores are mostly
supported by vista it is discovered that it supports only about 25% even in vista.
Therefore, in my opinion micro architects should develop cores that are
supported by the mostly used operating systems.

25
Computer Systems Architecture

Problems currently facing micro-architects

Reducing the Gate size of the processor

If we can decrease the size of the processor its good. Then no need to allocate
more space for it also as the Moore’s law if the processor size is half than the
normal size manufactures can include double transistors in the processor. But it
as a limit. If we make the processor too small, it causes some problems. When
the processor is too small it may be short-circuit.

Processor manufactures are researching and finding new technologies to


overcome the problem of reducing the gate size of the processor

Research scientists at Intel Corporation. Have overcome with a new Transistor


gate “High-k + Metal Gate Transistors “, Not as the normal transistor gate this
new gate has a layer of metal gate which increase the leakage reduction and the
performance. So the micro architects can continue on Moore’s low for several
time but soon as the processor size getting reduced this new gate technology will
not valid and they should come up with a new Technology to overcome this.

Figure 12 - High-K + Metal Gate Transistors

26
Computer Systems Architecture

However, according to the visionaries Gordon Moore to increase the


performance of the processor we have to reduce the size of the metal gate.
Therefore, the micro architects must find another method to increase the
performance of the processors. The above-mentioned electric leakage occurs
because the metal gates or the transistors are made out of silicon. So if the micro
architects can find another element that is similar to silicon they could avoid this
problem and increase the performance of the processors.

27
Computer Systems Architecture

Major differences between microprocessor design goals for


desktop, Server and embedded Systems

Several Users Categories in Desktop Processors

Some times the processors may be categorized for market Potential, not
depending on processor specifications or goals. Also if we get a Desktop User
First several desktop users may have various goals with there computing needs.

For a “beginner “user there main tasks will be Create Documents and Browsing
internet, The Tasks of” Moderate” users may be playing games, using Multimedia
applications, for an “Expert User” will render 3D Graphics, Programming,
Download Files which take long time.

So we can see that the Processors which in same category is used by different
users. But the design goal is the same. So some users may face difficulties in
this matter.

How can we overcome this?

To overcome this problem Intel Corporation. Have introduced “E numbers” to


their processor families’ .as these numbering system lower E numbered
processors have Lower Performance, Cache Size, Clock Speed, and reduced of
other technologies. Higher E numbered processors have high clock speeds ands
cache, High Performance and High Energy Efficiency. So Desktop users can
easily choose their processor needs.

But the problem with this E numbering system is that its bit technical. Novice
users who are not familiar with cache and stuff will be confused, so best way is
that to introduce a “Star Rating system” which users can understand easily.

28
Computer Systems Architecture

FAQ

1. What is a multi-core?

Two or more independent core combined into a single package


composed of a single integrated circuit is known as a multi-core
processor.

2. When they introduced multicores with how many processors, did it start?

They started with two or four processors.

3. What will the multicores change into in the near future?

It will change into many-cores

4. What happens when the memory bus is too small when compared with the
cores?

When the memory bus is too small compared with the cores the process
slows down.

5. With the development of the cores what happens to the memory bus when two
or more task occurs together?

The memory bus does not have the capacity to cope up with it.

6. Transistors are made out of what?

29
Computer Systems Architecture

They are made out of silicon

7. In the early stages what was the size of the processor?

The process was 65nm

8. What do we have to do to increase the performance of the processor?

We have to decrease the size of the metal gat to increase the


performance of the processor.

9. What will happen if the size of the metal gate to reduces less than 32nm’s?

If it reduces, further there will be an electrical current leakage.

10. From what silicon isotope are transistors made out of?

Transistors are made out of 28Si

11. Why do they use this specific isotope over natural silicon?

A clear reduction of about 5°C-7°C in transistor average temperature and


a corresponding 5%-10% decrease in overall packaged device thermal
resistance is consistently measured by infrared microscopy in devices
fabricated using 28Si over natural silicon.

12. What is the benefit for the users with the development of the processors?
The process becomes faster

30
Computer Systems Architecture

13. What is the disadvantage for micro architects with the development of the
processors?

They have to develop new software or to increase the


performance of the existing software to cope up with the
development of the processors.

14. How many cores do the current processors hold?

The current processors hold 32 cores per processor

15. How many cores will the future processors hold?

In the future, they will increase it up to 1024 cores per


processor

31
Computer Systems Architecture

1) How many cores does core i7 processor have?

Four cores

2) Why do we have to reduce power consumption?

Because nowadays energy is a most expensive resource in the world.

3) What is the size of the core i7 processor?

32nm

4) What is the advantage of using a big cache?

Have faster access to the active potions of the programs

5) What is Virtualization?

technology helps CPU to act as if it were several CPU’s working in parallel

6) How Muticore Processors Save Power?

By tuning off used cores

7) What kind of Environment we need for Virtualization?

Virtual Environment

8) What is the main advantage of muticore system?

Can do more multitasking

9) Does Intel have introduced a 32 Core Processors?

Yes they have introduced in research level

10) How Cache can speed up you computer?

32
Computer Systems Architecture

Give Faster Access to active potions of the program

11) How does Clock speed help to Speed up your computer?

Program execution time will be lower

12) Does Intel corei7 have a new micro architecture than Intel Pentium?

Yes

13) Does Intel Core 2 duo comes with 45nm Technology?

Yes

14) What is the Code name that Intel use for their 32nm Technology ?

Code Name Nehalem-based Westmere

15) Does Quad core Processors are faster than core 2 Duo Processors?

Yes because Quad Core Processors have 4 cores

33
Computer Systems Architecture

1. What is the main goal of desktop processor?


Ease of use

2. What is the main goal of Server processor?


Uptime

3. What is the Main Purpose of embedded systems?


Design to work on a certain task

4. Uptime is the main goal of?


Server processors

5. Price is more considered in?


Embedded processors

6. The Intel Processor server family known as?


Intel Xenon Processors

7. The Intel Processor Desktop family known as?


Intel Core 2 duo

8. If Processor Clock Speed is high?


Program execution time will be lower

9. If Processor Cache is high?


Give Faster Access to active potions of the program

34
Computer Systems Architecture

10.Embedded processors are used in?


Electronic Appliances

11.What is the most popular desktop processor in early 2000?


Intel Pentium 4

12. Name Two microprocessor manufactures

Intel,AMD

13.Motorola is mainly designing?


Embedded Processors

14. Name a task of a Expert Home User?


Render 3F graphics

15.Name a task of a Novice Home User?


Browse the internet

35
Computer Systems Architecture

Minutes of Meetings
First meeting
Date: 23rd March 2009
Venue: L2SR2
Start Time: 4.00 pm
End Time: 4.20 pm

Attendance: Sudantha
Neranjan
Sandaru
We choose a topic for our research and discussed how to do the research. Also
we discussed on how to gather the information we need. We divided the
research topics among the three of us.

Second meeting
Date: 7th April 2009
Venue: L2SR2
Start Time: 4.00 pm
Finish time: 4.30 pm

Attendance: Sudantha
Neranjan
Sandaru
We got together and discussed how far we have progressed in our project. We
discussed about the problems occurred when we were trying to gather the
information and helped each other to solve the problems that occurred.

36
Computer Systems Architecture

Third meeting

Date: 23rd April 2009


Venue: L2SR2
Start Time: 12.30 pm
Finished Time: 1.00 pm

Attendance: Sudantha
Neranjan
Sandaru

We finalized the research and discussed about the documentation. We thought to


finish the project by 8th May.

37