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Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

By: Mahender Kumar

1 Control

Learning Objectives

• Understand the language of Measurement. • Show the importance of Measurement Measurement. • Walk away knowing how to perform a Gage R&R and how to interpret results results. • Share some lessons learned.

2

**Since Measurement systems represent y p a sub-process within a process...
**

• They are subject to Variation. • What could be the source of this variation? • Why do Measurements Vary?

3

Sources of Measurement Variation

**•Equipment q p •Part •Operator •Environment •Procedure
**

4

**Sources of Measurement Variation
**

Measurement System C&E Matrix

Measurements

Mechanical Integrety Wear Electrical Instability Algorithm Instability

Materials

Cleanliness Temperature Dimension Weight Corrosion Hardness Conductivity Density

Men

Procedure P d Fatigue Attention Calibration Error Interpretation Speed Coordination Know ledge Dexterity Vision

**Measurement System Error
**

Temp Fluxctuation Line Voltage Variation Vibration Cleanliness Humidity Operator Technique Standard Procedure Sufficient Work time Maintenance Standard Calibration Frequency Operator Training Ease of use Wear Stability Resolution Calibration Precision Design Temperature Cleanliness

Environment

Methods Sigma Champion Training Machines Six

5

**Possible Sources of Process Variation
**

Observed Process Variation

Actual Process Variation

Measurement Variation

Long-term Process Variation

Short-term Process Variation

Variation w/i sample

Variation due to gage

Variation due to operators

Repeatability

Accuracy

Stability

Linearity

Reproducibility

We will look at “repeatability” and “reproducibility” as these are the primary contributors to measurement error. ese e e p y co bu o s o e su e e e o .

6

Why MSA

RU = 0.0001 RU = 0.001

U= 0.0001

U : UNCERTAINITY

NATIONAL STANDARD

RANDOM UNCERTAINITY – FOUND THRU CALIBRATION SYSTEM UNCERTAINITY – OF MASTER TOTAL UNCERTAINITY – SQRT( RU*RU + SU*SU)

U= 0.001005

LABORATORY STANDARD

RU = 0.01

U= 0.01005

WORK STANDARD

RU = 0.05

U= 0.05099

GAUGE FOR INSPECTION / TESTING

Process Capability

Lower Spec. Limit Upper Spec. Limit

6σ Tolerance = T Process Capability = T / 6 σ Means, 6 σ < (0.75*T) > 1.33

Impact of Uncertainty

Lower Spec. Limit

**ERROR identified through Calibration Process
**

Upper Spec. Limit

Uncertainty

6σP Process Tolerance = T

Knowledge to be obtained

• How big is the measurement error? • What are the sources of measurement error? • Is the gage stable over time? • Is the gage capable for this process? • How do we improve the measurement system?

11

Sources of Variation

Product V i bilit P d t Variability

(Actual variability)

Measurement Variability

Total Variability

(Observed variability)

12

**Effects of Measurement Error
**

Averages

Measurement System Bias — Determined through “Accuracy Study”

**µ total = µ product + µ measurement
**

Variability

2 σ2 =σ2 + σ measurement total product

Measurement System Variability — Determined through “R&R Study” y

13

Terminology

• Location related terms:

– True value – Bias – Linearity

**• Stability (over time) • Variation related terms
**

– Repeatability – Reproducibility

14

Definition of Terms

• Reference Value

– The theoretically or agreed upon correct value of the characteristic being measured, traceable to some standard

• Resolution

– The smallest increment, or unit of , measure, available from a measurement process – Generally at least 1/10th of the specification range

Definition of Terms

• Precision

– The degree of agreement (or variability) between individual measurements or test results from measuring the same specimen(s)

• Accuracy (Bias) y( )

– The difference between the average of the measurement error distribution and the reference value of the specimen measured

**The Nature of Process Variation
**

1 2 3 4 5

Precise but not Accurate

1

2

3

4

Accurate but not Precise

Rule f thumb: R l of th b . . . . . .Test equipment MUST be a least 10 times more accurate & precise then what’s b i t t d t i th h t’ being tested

17

Measurement System Error

Precise but not accurate

Accurate but not precise

Not accurate or precise

Accurate and precise

Precision vs. Accuracy vs

Pr recision

Accuracy

Definition of Terms

• Repeatability p y

– The variation in repeated measurements of the same items with a single measurement system – Within appraiser/system variation

• R Reproducibility d ibilit

– The variation in the average measurements by different appraisers or systems measuring th diff t i t i the same items – Between appraiser/system variation

Terms

• Linearity

– The degree to which bias changes with changes in the magnitude of the characteristic measured

• Stability y

– The dependability, or consistency of the measurement process over time p

**Measurement Systems Capability
**

• The variability resulting from measurement error must not exceed a significant proportion of the intended specifications said to be capable • In addition, it is not desirable for measurement error to exceed a significant proportion of the total process variability • Capability is not the same as acceptability, acceptability must be determined on a case b case b i by basis

**Measurement System Studies
**

• Potential Studies

– Assess potential of a measurement system to be capable over the long term – 10 parts measured 2–3 times by one or more p y appraisers – A “quick and dirty” study to find out if you are in y y y the ballpark – Assesses repeatability and reproducibility – Often called an R&R study

• True value:

– Theoretically correct value – unknown and unknowable y – Reference standards – NIST standards

• Bias

– Distance between average value of all measurements and true value – Amount gage is consistently off target – Systematic error or offset

24

**BIAS Definition BIAS — Is the difference between the
**

observed average of the measurement and the reference value. The referencevalue is the value that serves as an agreed-upon reference. The reference value can be determined by averaging several measurements with a higher level (e.g., metrology lab) of measuring equipment. Reference Value

ACCURACY IS THE SAME AS BIAS

**Observed Average V l A Value
**

25

Linearity

Difference in the accuracy values of a gage through the expected operating range of the gage Good Linearity

Regression Plot

Bad Linearity

Linearity is N G ot ood

55

55

45

45

Trials

25

Y=0.934227+0.994959X R -Squared=0.981

Trials

35

35 Y=0.245295+0.99505X R -Squared=0.982

25

15

15

5 10 20 30 40 50

5 10 20 30 40 50

S tandard

S tandard

26

Stability

• The distribution of measurements remains constant and predictable over time for both mean and standard deviation • Total variation in the measurements obtained with a gage, on th same master or master parts, the t t t when measuring a single characteristic over an extended time period period. • Evaluated using a trend chart or multiple measurement analysis studies over time

27

**Stability (drift) Definition
**

Stability — Is the total variation in

the measurement obtained with a measurement system (test / gage ) on the same master parts when measuring p g a single characteristic over an extended time period. Magnitude g Time-2

Time-1 Ti 1

Points to the frequency of Mean center Calibration

time Stability

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• Total variation in the measurement system p • Measure of natural variation of repeated measurements • Terms: Random Error, Spread, Test/Retest error • Repeatability and Reproducibility

σ

2 MS

=σ +σ

2 G

2 O

29

Repeatability p y

σG

• The inherent variability of the measurement system • Variation in measurements obtained with a gage when used several ti d l times b one operator while measuring a by t hil i characteristic on one part. • Estimated by the pooled standard deviation of the distribution of repeated measurements R

σG =

* d2

• Repeatability is less than the total variation of the measurement system

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**Repeatability Definition R t bilit D fi iti
**

Repeatability — The variation in measurements obtained with one measurement instrument when used several times by one appraiser while measuring the identical characteristic on same part.

REPEATABILITY

31

Reproducibility p y

σO

• Operator variability of the measurement system • Variation in the average of the measurements made b diff d by different operators using the same gage i h when measuring a characteristic on one part • M t be adjusted f gage variation Must b dj t d for i ti • Reproducibility is less than the total variation of the measurement system

σ

O

R = * d2

32

Reproducibility Definition

Operator-B

Reproducibility — Is the

variation in the average of the measurements made by different appraisers using the same measuring instrument when measuring the identical characteristic on the same part.

Ope ato C Operator-C

**Operator-A Reproducibility d ibili
**

33

Accuracy of Measurement

• Broken down into three components: 1. Stability: the consistency of y y measurements over time. 2. Accuracy: a measure of the amount of y bias in the system. 3. Linearity: a measure of the bias values y through the expected range of measurements.

Precision of Measurement

• Precision, Measurement Variation, can be broken down into two components: p

1. Repeatability (Equipment variation): variation in measurements under exact conditions. 2. Reproducibility (Appraiser variation): variation in the average of measurements when different operators measure the same part.

**Measurement System Discrimination y
**

Least count should be at most one-tenth of the total process capability or tolerance (6 sigma) – Process capability 10 Max Least count 1 Part to Part variation must be greater than the smallest unit of measure it f

36

Types of R&R Studies

**• Variable Gage R&R
**

– Numbers – Units of measure

**• Attribute Gage R&R
**

– Subjective (cosmetic defects) – Scatter of defects – feel/visual

37

Basic Terms

EV= Equipment Variation (Repeatability) AV AV= Appraiser Variation (Reproducibility) R&R= Repeatability & Reproducibility PV= Part Variation TV= Total Variation of R&R and PV K1-Trial, K2-Operator, & K3-Part Constants

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**Gage R&R study
**

Generally two or three operators Generally 10 units to measure Each unit is measured 2-3 times by each operator

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**Preparation for a Measurement p Study
**

• Determine if reproducibility is an issue. If it is, select the number of operators to participate. • Operators selected should normally use the measurement system. • Select samples that represent the entire operating range. • Gage must have graduations that allow at least one-tenth of the expected process variation. • Insure defined gaging procedures are followed followed. • Measurements should be made in random order. • Study must be observed by someone who recognizes the importance of conducting a reliable study.

40

**Procedure for Performing R&R g Study
**

• Calibrate the gage, or assure that it has been calibrated. • Have the first operator measure all the samples once in random order. • Have the second operator measure all the samples once in random order. • Continue until all operators have measured the samples once p p (this is Trial 1). • Repeat above steps for the required number of trials. • Use GR&R form to determine the statistics of the study. y

– Repeatability, Reproducibility & %GR&R – Standard deviations of each of the above – % Tolerance analysis

**• Analyze results and determine action, if any.
**

41

Variable Gage R&R g

Guidelines

% R&R

≤ 10% 10% – 30% Over 30%

Results

Gage is OK Maybe acceptable based upon importance of application, and cost factor Gage system needs improvement/corrective action

42

**Xbar Chart by Operator
**

40 35 30

**Operator*Part No. Interaction
**

ABC-

40 35 30

Sample Mean n

25 20 15 10 5 0

Average

25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Part No.

43

Thanks

For any query pl. mail me at mahender.kumar@yahoo.co.in pl mahender kumar@yahoo co in

44

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