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The student voice of the Colorado School of Mines
Volume 94, Issue 13 January 20, 2014
Spatial models help with geophysical data.
COURTESY ANTONIO ZUGALDIA
Google Glass meets Mines.
Dr. Ed Nissen from the Department of Geophysics studies seismic activity in the Zagros mountains in Iran. The mountains began forming 20 million years ago and have yet to finish growing, making for many earthquakes in the area.
Mechanics of earthquakes in Iran
Hope Sisley Staff Writer
Last Thursday, Ed Nissen from the Geophysics department crossed Kafadar to deliver a talk on earthquakes to the geologists of Berthoud Hall. Nissen’s research focuses broadly on faulting and LIDAR applications. LIDAR is a type of satellite mapping that penetrates through ground cover, such as trees, to give detailed bare-Earth topography. He spoke about the Zagros Mountains, which range across the entire western border of Iran, specifically focusing on an island at the southernmost end of the range called Qeshm Island. Nissen began by differentiating oceanic plate-boundary tectonics from intracontinental tectonics. Most world tectonism, meaning any deformation of the Earth’s crust, including folding and faulting, but referring mainly in this case to seismic slip along faults, occurs along the boundaries of the plates which make up the Earth’s crust. If a map of measured earthquakes is overlaid on a map of the plates, seismic activity clusters tightly where one plate meets another. The majority of this activity is in subduction zones, where an oceanic plate is being overridden by a continental plate. Regions like this cause the largest earthquakes including the one that instigated the 2004 Indonesian tsunami, the quake responsible for the 2011 Fukushima nuclear meltdown, and the single most powerful earthquake ever recorded, a magnitude 9.5, which occurred in Chile in 1960. However, where two continental plates hit each other, the character of seismicity is different. These earthquakes do not cluster along the plate boundary, as in a subduction zone or along an oceanic spreading ridge. Instead, they make a diffuse cloud, sometimes occurring thousands of kilometers from the collision zone. Furthermore, while most of the seismogenic (earthquake-causing) faults in a subduction zone are normal or reverse, steep faults with vertical slip, the faults in a continent-continent collision zone can be of any kind. Continental earthquakes also tend to be of smaller magnitude than subduction zone quakes, but the death toll and damage resulting from continental quakes, especially when the effects of tsunamis are ignored, and only deaths and damage caused directly by the earthquake itself considered, is greater than that resulting from oceanic-boundary quakes. The main locus for continental earthquakes on this planet is a collisional band known as the Alpine-Himalayan Earthquake Belt, which ranges from Turkey to Nepal. Here, the Eurasian plate in the north contacts the African, Arabian, and Indian plates to the south. Iran itself comprises the collision zone between Arabia and Eurasia. The country’s mountainous topography is an analogue for its seismicity as most continental faulting is related to mountain-building. Indeed, the modern mountain-building now going on in this area can tell a lot about the formation of ancient, now extinct mountain belts such as the Appalachians and even the Front Range. Iran’s mountains were formed starting around 20 million years ago (MYA), when the Arabian plate, having separated from the African plate about 200 MYA, struck Eurasia. This mountain range is far from done growing, as can be seen in the extreme tectonic activity of the area. Short of Nepal, Kyrgyzstan, and the Phillipines, the country has the highest uniform risk of earthquakes in all Asia; global risk assessment places it the third most vulnerable to natural disaster of any country in the world. In other words, nowhere in Iran is safe. Iran held the earthquake with the highest percentage of deaths in the area affected when 85% of the population of the city of Tabas were killed in 1978. Over 120,000 people have been killed by earthquakes in Iran in just the last century. In the 9th century, two earthquakes killed more than double that number; and the city of Tehran, which has a current population of 12 million, has already been destroyed four times by earthquakes. Therefore, research into the causes and nature of continental quakes, especially in this region, is of the greatest imperative. The Zagros mountains, where Nissen did his research, have the densest concentration of earthquakes of any mountain range in the world. These quakes can account for only 20% of the crustal shortening observed in the region. This means that the rest of the shortening must be taken up by other means, either aseismic slip (movement along a fault which does not result in an earthquake) or ductile deformation (folding of the crust, rather than breaking). Determining the answer to this mystery is no easy prospect. Unlike in most other places with major seismic activity, the quakes here do not produce surface ruptures, only minor bedding-plane slip, rather than causing a visible fault scarp, the only surface expression of seismicity is in the form of small extension cracks on the ground. This means that the local faults are blind, or buried beneath the ground surface, and makes the determination of their exact nature quite difficult. Further complicating matters is the lack of data available: only four seismic reflection profiles of the region have ever been released to the public by the Iranian national oil company, meaning there is essentially no data available on the nature of the subsurface, which seismic reflections image. The result is that multiple interpretations abound, with little agreement and no good constraints. Continued at Earthquakes on page 3
Basketball competes on the road.
Minds @ Mines asks about some ridiculousness
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n e w s
january 20, 2014
Madison, Wisconsin - Learning comes at a cost: sleep The purpose of sleep perplexes scientists, and though there are common theories, none of them have been proven as fact. However, a recent study may hold a key to understanding the need for getting enough shut-eye every night. Dr. Giulio Tononi and Dr. Chiara Cirelli, leading sleep scientists at the University of Wisconsin, recently published their findings on the importance of sleep to learning in the journal “Neuron.”
Jessica Deters, Staff Writer
Netherlands - Working organelle developed for plastic cells Researchers at the Institute for Molecules and Materials at Radboud University Nijmegen developed organelle for plastic cell that can carry out the chemical reactions necessary for a cell to function. Other groups are researching methods by which to develop artificial cells and organelles using everything from polymers to a solution that imitates cytoplasm. By developing a working imitation of a cell, researchers hope to gain a deeper understanding of the origin of life as well as looking at cell’s chemistry and biology.
Arlington, Texas - Micro-windmills may hold key for energy future University of Texas at Arlington research associate Smitha Rao and electrical engineering professor J.C. Chiao may have a lightweight solution to the perpetually dying cell phones. Rao and Chiao developed a low-cost micro-windmill under 1.8 mm wide that can produce wind energy. Charging sleeves containing hundreds of the windmills could consequently be developed.
United Kingdom - Massive trench under ice discovered in Antarctica A team of experts from various United Kingdom universities and organizations including the British Antarctic Survey recently discovered the Ellsworth Subglacial Highlands in Antarctica. These highlands appear to be an ancient mountain range hidden beneath the Antarctic ice. Researchers found the deepest trough to be more than 2000 meters below sea level.
Deborah Good Editor-in-Chief Emily McNair Managing Editor Taylor Polodna Design Editor Connor McDonald Webmaster Lucy Orsi Business Manager Arnaud Filliat Copy Editor Katerina Gonzales Content Manager Jared Riemer Content Manager Karen Gilbert Faculty Advisor
Headlines from around the world
James Davis, Staff Writer
17 people died in the Nigerian city of Maiduguri due to a car bomb. The Islamic terrorist group Boko Haram claimed responsibility for the attack. This was one of many attacks in Boko Haram’s terrorist campaign. Military forces claimed to have arrested a suspect. Approximately 1,200 Nigerians have died due to radical Islamic activities since the beginning of this campaign. The UN summoned representatives of the Vatican to answer questions related to the sexual abuse of children by the clergy. As a signatory of the UN Convention to the Rights of the Child, the Holy See is legally bound to protect the rights of children in its jurisdiction. Despite this, the Holy See only recently posted progress reports, following several released Church scandals. Advocates of the victims believe that the Church needs to be completely transparent about all incidents of pedophilia. Last Thursday, smog levels in Beijing reached unprecedented levels. The US embassy in Beijing released online warnings that the air quality level was above 500 on a 300 point scale, being labeled as “Above Hazardous”. At hazardous levels, health officials recommend that people should avoid the outdoors. The local government declared a smog alert until the next day. A similar incident occurred approximately one year ago, causing mass anxiety among the populace. Congress is attempting to limit the amount of drones transferred from the CIA to the American military by the Obama administration. In an annex to the US budget, lawmakers added several key words that increased the difficulty of transferring drone technology. Due to the classification, the full extent of these restrictions is unclear. Violent rainstorms caused mass flooding and power outages in areas of Rio De Janeiro. The city’s ferry system and domestic airport closed temporarily during the worst part of the storm. The 90 minute storm cut power to tens of thousands of residents indefinitely. Similar storms occur in this region every year. Officials report over 80 new wildfires across Australia. Recent high temperatures exceeding 100 degrees Fahrenheit and high winds caused the recent development. One person was reported dead due to fire-related causes. Authorities suspect that additional fires in Victoria were deliberately lit. Victoria’s Fire Commissioner stated that arson detectives have begun investigations.
A Colorado State Patrol Sergeant found over $15,000 when he stopped a vehicle travelling at 95 mph on I-25 near Trinidad. The driver of the vehicle was not the owner and could not explain why he had the vehicle. The police also found a weapon in the vehicle. A judge sentenced Michelle Ann Hebert to five years in prison. Hebert was accused of stealing nearly $600,000 from an elderly couple. She was convicted of two counts of theft form an at-risk adult and eight tax-related charges in December. In Colorado Springs, a man cleaning out his fireplace accidentally set his deck on fire. Embers fell on the deck and started the fire. The man had most of the fire out before firefighters arrived. The 4th Space Control squadron will move from Holloman Air Force Base to Petersen Air Force Base. The move will begin this month and will be completed by the end of the year. The mile marker 420 sign along I-70 has been replaced with a mile marker 419.99. This is the only mile marker 420 sign to be replaced as most highways in Colorado are not long enough to have one. Animals at the Cheyenne Mountain Zoo showed Broncos spirit by painting pictures with orange and blue paint. Penguins, orangutans, and red river hogs, among other animals, participated.
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january 20, 2014
Hope Sisley Staff Writer
Continued from page 1 Nissen used a satellite technology called InSAR to measure the phase shift in the ground caused by a magnitude 6.0 earthquake on Qeshm Island, in the SFB. InSAR, which has centimeter-scale resolution and an error of only a single centimeter, produces a 3D image called an interferogram, showing how the ground has shifted up or down in response to a quake. An interferogram with a bullseye pattern, such as Nissen and his colleagues found on Qeshm, indicates a buried fault. The wavelength of the bullseye rings allows determination of the depth of the fault, and detailed modelling allows the researchers to make a good estimate of the fault’s orientation. Following these analyses, Nissen discovered something unexpected: the underground rupture which cause the Qeshm earthquake was centered much shallower than anticipated, at a depth of about 5-8 km, putting it within the competent group of rocks. From this, he inferred the group must contain a weak unit along which slip could have occurred, such as a marlstone. In order to constrain the depth of the fault, Nissen’s team set up a microseismic measurement network in the area to keep track of aftershocks. They were unable to complete this set-up until about a month after the main quake, so only small aftershocks were registered; the largest ones would have occurred shortly after the original earthquake. The measurement network used the temporal separation between the arrival of the two waves created by each aftershock, P, or pressure waves, which move faster, and S, or shear waves, which move slower, to pinpoint the quake’s source and ultimately create a model of the underground structure of the crust. Because aftershock focii tend to cluster around the original rupture, Nissen was surprised to find the aftershocks measured by his network were concentrated far deeper than the original quake, about 10-20 km depth. The measured slip in the competent group, Nissen reasoned, had been triggered by a much deeper, aseismic crustal rupture. He decided to reexamine his original depth calculations for the main quake to be certain the shallow result was not the product of human error. To do this, he used teleseismic data, or the measurements of the waves produced by the quake as collected from distant seismometers. Using a process called teleseismic body-waveform modelling, he was able to constrain the depth of the Qeshm earthquake to between 6 and 10 km depth, a result that agreed with the InSAR data. Finally, he compared the depths calculated for the main quake and the aftershocks against the single available seismic reflection profile for this region. This placed the aftershocks directly in the midst of the Hormuz salt. Because salt flows in response to pressure, it does not fault, therefore, it could not be the source for an earthquake. Yet the Hormuz contains many large blocks of entrenched Cambrian rocks, and flowing of the salt caused by a large earthquake could break up these kilometerscale inclusions, thus inducing the observed microquakes. Nissen did one final analysis to see if this hypothesis was valid. Generally, the magnitude of an earthquake is directly related to the size of the rupture zone that causes it, though the rupture zone may be smaller than the fault itself. As the measured aftershocks ranged in magnitude from 1.0-4.0, Nissen was able to apply this relationship and derive a maximum rupture size of about 1 kilometer. This matches the observed sizes of entrained rock blocks within the Hormuz, thus supporting Nissen’s hypothesis as to the source of the aftershocks. An earthquake the size of the Qeshm quake, on the other hand, a magnitude 6.0, gives a rupture size of about 10 kilometers. This is smaller than the total thickness of sediments here (~15 kilometers), which means that the seismic portion of the quake did not involve the full thickness of the crust. This suggests that the Hormuz salt serves as a sort of decoupling agent, a fault rupture cannot propagate through the salt, so an earthquake occurs either in the units above or below the salt, but not both. Because the rupture’s size is thus limited, the Hormuz also serves to limit the maximum magnitude of an earthquake in this area. Indeed, when only the rock units above the salt are considered, the area’s seismicity accounts for most of the local crustal shortening. Though the area is seismically active down to 20 kilometers depth, 75% of this activity occurs in the shallow crust (meaning the sub-salt units are not involved) and only two seismic events have been of magnitude greater than 6.0. Both of these large quakes occurred in association with steep, asymmetrical folds, suggesting that the salt has been locally evacuated from the subsurface. Without the salt as a buffer, rupture size is uninhibited, allowing for much larger earthquakes. If the salt distribution throughout Iran can be better mapped, the earthquake risk can be determined with much better resolution.
Spatial models help with geophysical data
Chris Robbins Staff Writer
Can it be possible that there is such a thing as too much data to work with? Sometimes the answer is actually yes. Advancements in data generation and storage capacities have begun to exceed the growth in any given machine’s bandwidth capabilities, causing a bottleneck effect when attempting to move and work with huge amounts of data. What has become particularly troublesome is when one tries to work with multiple massive datasets from more than one source that are stored across more than one location, as is often the case when dealing with satellite or geophysical data. Due to the potential for datasets from this source to reach from thousands to millions of observations each at one time, the cost and difficulty of moving them renders these sets practically immovable. So how, then, can one consolidate all of this distributed data and use it to draw conclusions from the data, especially when inferences are commonly sought over a period time (resulting in even more data points)? Dorit Hammerling of the National Center for Atmospheric Research and her colleagues are working on solving this problem with their ultimate goal being to find a way to make an inference from a massive dataset without having to move substantial amounts of the data. She explained how they have attempted to deal with this issue by using a combination of spatial statistics and Bayesian hierarchical modeling. Hammerling described how this methodology begins with identifying the process of interest to be modeled and stating the spatial domain over which the process occurs. Then, vectors for both the data used in the model and the necessary parameters are set up for eventual use within the model. The types of models used by Hammerling and her colleagues for this approach at a solution were low rank spatial models. This is because these groups of models provide quick, precise inference for large sets of data as well as maintaining a non-stationary covariance function, which she explained is essential to several geophysical processes. In particular, Hammerling’s team chose to work with a spatial random effects model, a branch of low rank spatial models that assumes that elements in the dataset are distributed independently and evenly across the set. To test this newly developed methodology, data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) was used to make an inference on total precipitable water (TPW) in the atmosphere, or more simply put, the amount of water in the atmospheric column. This is because NOAA’s information on the subject had to be put together from three separate collection sources, each contributing huge datasets. These included readings from GPS units (which provided high accuracy data, but only in a limited scope over each unit), geostationary operational environmental satellite (GOES) data, and microwave integrated retrieval system (MIRS) data. The use of low rank spatial models worked as well as Hammerling and her colleagues could have hoped, as the method seemed well suited to deal the massive amounts of spatial data. Quick and accurate inferences made from the dataset were made possible, and in a much simpler and more efficient manner than past methods. The use of this methodology also reduced the computational time and difficulty required for a machine to run the given model, giving one more reason why low rank spatial models could possibly be the future of working with massive spatial datasets.
N e w s
What it is and how to prevent it
Jessica Deters Staff Writer
Scientists, researchers and engineers hold the responsibility to develop science for the benefit of society. However, what happens when that responsibility is abused and academic misconduct yields false results in research? Allan Prochazka, Professor of Medicine at the University of Colorado School of Medicine shared his knowledge and experience regarding academic integrity and misconduct at the Jan. 14 Physics Colloquium. To understand misconduct, the line between error and misconduct must be clearly defined. Error is a staple of science, and, according to Prochazka, if a scientist has yet to make an error, they have not done enough science yet. “We make mistakes due to carelessness; we make mistakes in terms of interpretation; we make mistakes with the technology,” Prochazka said. But, at what point do mistakes become misconduct? The zone between error and misconduct is invariably grey. Prochazka offered ethics as a way to differentiate between the two zones. “People talk about different theories of ethics like virtue ethics or utilitarianism. Virtue ethics do come in to play here in that virtues are developed by education and practice. I think for a lot of us, developing habits and automatic defaults are a good way of keeping things straight.” While ethics can shine a light on the boundary between error and misconduct, examining human tendencies offers one explanation for the motivation behind misconduct. “Humans, by their nature, want to take the easy way out,” Prochazka said. “We don’t want conflict. We want to fit in with the group. We want to ignore difficult issues. What I should do and what I want compete, and to control the wanting self, we have to practice behaviors and have strong societal norms.” When misconduct occurs, for whatever reason, public trust can be greatly impacted. “Public trust is a key aspect in terms of science, and misconduct in any area, erodes confidence all the way around,” Pro-
chazka said. “If there is no trust then self-regulation goes away.” Any research in a field where findings tend to make headlines, such as medicine or environmental science, can easily find itself subject to public scrutiny. Prochazka offered the global warming email scandal of 2009 as an example. “What’s the public perception of climate science? Those emails released five years ago that had climate scientists talking about (climate change) data eroded confidence in the public as to whether there is a global warming issue or not.” Public distrust leads to more stringent regulations. However, those regulations do not necessarily deter misconduct. “The rates of inappropriate behavior are more common than one would wish,” Prochazka said. “Lifetime rates of cheating may be as high as 80 percent.” Ultimately, Prochazka offered a solution to the academic misconduct dilemma. “I think academic integrity and trying to practice responsible conduct in research is the key to trust. If there is no trust, there is going to be no science.”
Continued from Page 2 Madison, Wisconsin The scientists developed the synaptic homeostasis sleep, or “SHY” hypothesis. SHY states that the importance of sleep is in the abilities to save energy by weakening brain cell connections, avoid stress on the cellular level,
and maintain neurons’ ability to respond to stimuli. According to Tononi, sleep is the price the brain pays for learning and memory. “During wake, learning strengthens the synaptic connections throughout the brain, increasing the need for energy and saturating the brain with new information,” Tononi said.
“Sleep allows the brain to reset, helping integrate, newly learned material with consolidated memories, so the brain can begin anew the next day.” United Kingdom The range was discovered by analyzing existing data and by gathering new data via ice-pene-
trating radars. Dr. Neil Ross, lead author of the published findings and professor at Newcastle University, categorized finding the hidden mountain range as “incredibly serendipitous” and an indicator to “how little we still know about the surface of our own planet.” Arlington, Texas
“When the phone is out of battery power, all you need to do is to put on the sleeve, wave the phone in the air for a few minutes and you can use the phone again,” Chiao said. On a large scale, the energy produced by the micro-windmills could generate energy for an entire house or building.
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“Okay Glass, you are more than just okay”
John Bristow Staff Writer
The challenge of being able to give Google Glass a dispassionate and objective review is a Sisyphean task, as soon as analytical descriptions come to mind, they are instantaneously inflated with florid emotions. As the emotion is removed, what makes Google Glass so special is also removed, so the whole cycle starts over again. When Glass was first demoed in 2012, the hype surrounding the upcoming product was nearly fanatical within tech communities. Like all new technology, dreams of upcoming release dates were broken and anticipated costs kept rising to levels above and beyond the typical cost of anything but the most luxurious budget breaking products. With costs soaring to $1500 by the start of the Glass Explorer program’s commencement, it almost appeared as though, what was viewed as a simple Heads Up Display (HUD) may forever be outside the realm of the normal consumer. Since Glass still remains at this absurd cost, the question of whether or not the technology is worth the cost depends highly on “how much do you have to spend?” Enough of history and monetary philosophy though, the true importance of any technology lies in how it actually functions. The short answer is splendidly, the long answer is a tad bit more complicated. The first question that needs answering is usually the first on peoples minds: How does it look and feel? This is best answered through an analogy: imagine you are walking along and need to find out what the weather is going to be like. You tilt your head up for a second and like magic, a television screen appears floating somewhere on the right side of your vision. It is far enough away to not feel crowded by it, but it is near enough to still see it clearly. The screen is mostly translucent so anything behind it can still be seen and the screen can be focused through to focus on what is behind it. In sunny conditions the screen can be a bit wiped out and in the dark it can be slightly overbearing. Still the resolution can be amazing if it is calibrated correctly and the experience of being able to have a simple heads up display is unparalleled for the average human. There is an important addendum to how it looks and feels. For those who are rather shy, Glass can have a very steep learning curve. Most of the basic functions can be used without using voice commands; pictures and videos can be taken with only the slightest touch; messages are visible without any sort of vocal acknowledgement. Beyond that, Glass users have to face the reality that they must talk or only bring out a minor fraction of the power of the device. The difficulty comes in through interfacing with the device seamlessly. It takes more than a few hours of use to understand the touch commands fully and even longer to bring out the full power of the device. The major setbacks facing Glass are tragic in that they are driven by what makes the device most appealing. In exchange for the light weight, batteries have been reduced; during full use Glass has a very brief lifespan. Learning to reduce the use of the device is part of the learning curve. It is almost guaranteed that the battery life will increase as the product approaches full market release. Another huge setback is simply the time it takes to become acclimated to Glass. Most users have recommended limiting use to around an hour a day for the first week or so. Finally, under fairly heavy use the device also heats up a bit, this is not too dramatic, but it can make extended use fairly uncomfortable. So back to the point brought up in the first few sentences of the review. Beyond the objective analysis, lies the emotion of the device. Glass really stands out as a unique technology. Imagine the jump between old fashioned flip phones and modern smartphones. That difference feels the same between smartphones and Glass. The true power of the device is the handsfree nature which it promotes. As this article was written, instead of spending time flipping between websites, some of the research was done by voice commands. It is truly a liberating experience. Experiences like cooking are greatly improved, gone are the days of ruining cookbooks with fairly volatile sauces. In this era of smartphones and tablets, being able to keep your head up is a lost experience as backs are becoming progressively more hunched. When the technology finally becomes available to the mass market, hopefully the price will be much more reasonable. If this proves to be the case, it will be easy to declare that it is worth the funds it would cost. For now though, it is effectively a quasi-mystical technology.
JOHN BRISTOW / OREDIGGER
f e a t u r e s
january 20, 2014
Google Glass opens the window to the next generation of personal wearable smart devices.
“Divergent”a dystopian thrill Don’t dread YA book builds on success of “Hunger Games” Dredmor dungeon
Jessica Deters Staff Writer
At sixteen, Tris along with her brother and all of the other sixteenyear-olds in the small nation find Everyday people make deci- themselves faced with a choice that sions based on core beliefs. Some will determine their futures. Though value honesty and bravery, oth- the teens grow up in the faction ers the pursuit of knowledge, but to which they are born, at sixteen rarely does a person base every each is offered the opportunity to single decision throughout their life remain in the faction they call home on one sole value. Veronica Roth’s or transfer. In order to facilitate this “Divergent” wields a world in which process, the factions administer an children are COURTESY HARPERCOLLINS aptitude test to raised by only each teen. The one virtue—the test consists of a virtue their parsimulation, which ents believe will fabricates various lead to world ethical dilemmas. harmony. The Each dilemma is citizens live in designed to test one of five facthe teen’s core tions in a futurbeliefs, and the istic society, set test ultimately ofwhere modernfers each teen the day Chicago faction in which currently rethey would best sides. Each fit. faction values a Tris, however, different ideal: does not receive a Abnegation, or result. Rather, the selflessness; test reads inconAmenity, peace; clusive, and she Candor, honreceives the most esty; Dauntless, “Divergent” is a good book dreaded of labelsbravery; Erudite, for “Hunger Games” fans. -divergent. Diverknowledge. For gence is viewed example, a child raised in Candor as a threat to the entire faction syswould be taught to be brutally hon- tem. The only hope for a divergent est without regard for anything else, is to hide and remain undetected in including the feelings of others. A whichever faction they choose. child raised in Abnegation would After Tris chooses a faction, she be raised to be completely selfless, discovers a vicious plot by an aualways putting others needs above thoritarian leader of one faction to her own. eliminate all divergents and take over the nation. Tris must fight for survival amidst increasingly turbulent times. “Divergent” emphasizes choosing a way of life—choosing either to live as one was raised or break free of one’s upbringing. “I think the reason so many people have connected with it is because it’s something you can identify with,” Roth said in an interview with Summit Entertainment. At some point in everyone’s life, they must choose to stick to or break with their upbringing. In a way, Roth constructs and explores her version of a utopia in “Divergent”—a land in which each member of society fits a niche of their choosing and lives amongst like-minded citizens. However, an inert fear of anyone not fitting into one of the five predetermined molds—a fear of divergence—permeates throughout the factions, ultimately transforming Roth’s perfect society into a dystopia. Roth’s exploration of this dystopian society proves fascinating, especially for fans of Suzanne Collins’ “The Hunger Games.” Both series explore a futuristic version of what is now the United States, and both feature deep divisions throughout the society whether it be via faction, district, ideals, or social status. However, Roth’s world proves much more egalitarian and much less cruel than Collins as Roth’s factions live symbiotically and offer citizens social mobility. The film version of the novel, also titled “Divergent,” premieres March 21 in theaters.
Ramiro Rodriguez Staff Writer
In the midst of a gaming world full of multiplayer focused, firstperson shooters, foul-mouthed twelve-year-olds, open world role playing games where finding a quest can take hours, and games relying on gimmicks like motion capturing and touch screens instead of gameplay, it can be refreshing to go back to basics. “Dungeons of Dredmor” is exactly that. The game is a fairly straightforward, Roguelike, dungeon crawling role playing game made up of randomized levels with a single semi-customized character and a very uncomplicated quest in mind. This game heavily invokes Nethack by being an incredibly fun, if on occasion frustratingly difficult game that can be played over and over again because of the randomization of the dungeon and the broad range of ways to actually trudge through the game’s ten to fifteen levels. The story is simple enough. There is a lich named Dredmor, he has a dungeon, and you have to go kill him and take his stuff. Instead of the standard class system found in role playing games, the character is made from selecting seven out of twenty-nine skills which vary from the conventional sword using skill to being able to identify and manipulate
the various fungi encountered throughout the game. If the player wants to play a vegan Indiana Jones-esque archaeologist who fights with dual-wielded axes and can throw fireballs that is absolutely possible. The skill system is one of the game’s most enjoyable features because of the shear variety of play styles made through the system. The game’s small but loyal online following is devoted to finding skill combinations to make optimal runs, focus on combat, emulate characters from other fictional worlds, and skills that are useless together for those who want an even greater challenge than already presented. The character will then delve through ten levels of randomized monsters, traps, and treasure making for a unique experience each time the game is played anew. “Dungeons of Dredmor” is a very enjoyable game to just pick up and play a level at a time just because of how different the game can be each time. It is also probably one of the most easily accessible Roguelike games for anyone who has wanted to try the genre out but have been turned off by more difficult ones such as “NetHack” and “Dwarf Fortress.” The game and three DLC extensions are available Steam and Desura with the soundtrack available on Bandcamp.
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january 20, 2014
ever spare time you can find? I have a choice now between “Minecraft,” attempting things I will never finish such as writing JIF in Haskell, or periodically storming the galaxy with some buddies of mine in a “Firefly” RPG. What is your favorite thing about Mines? The consolidation of a group of people that are excited about similar topics. If given the chance, which would you rather explore: the untouched frontier of another planet or the unexplored depths of the ocean? Another planet, easy. If you are under the ocean, you have to be surrounded by water [and] there is a limit to the things you can do. If you are on another planet, there is a chance of air. You might be able to run around and do stuff. And, I’m pretty sure you can’t talk to sea creatures, though Aquaman would contest that. If you could be dropped into any fictional universe, what would it be and why? Traditionally, I would say [the] “Star Wars” [universe because of] the variety of species, the possibilities, and the wealth of technological possibilities. What is your best nerd moment story? One of my earlier nerd moments would have been when me and my friends realized it was 4 A.M. and we had been playing “Minecraft” for way too long. It was a collective realization. What are your greatest accomplishments? I’ve had an internship since after freshman year, I’m on time to graduate, and I’m turning a blind pilot character into a Force-using version of the Doctor [in my RPG]. Which would you rather have: the ability to psychically know test questions in advance or the ability to finish any homework assignment in under an hour? The ability to finish any homework assignment in under an hour because some of my homework assignments are, “make a large program that would normally take a week” and finishing in under an hour would be god-like. Also, it would hopefully bleed out into real-world ability where test questions would only be applicable at school. Do you have any plans for the future? Get Bachelor’s, get Master’s, find a good job at an exciting company. Finding an exciting company is nontransferable. Do you have any advice for fellow geeks and Mines students? Accept failure. There’s a lot you can learn from it, but also don’t look for failure because then you’ll be a failure. And don’t try and un-
f e a t u r e s
...Matt Buland, Senior: Computer Science
derstand Xorg. It’s just not gonna happen. Do you have a favorite quote? “You’re a blind pilot?!?” - The other players in my RPG
JORDAN FRANCIS / OREDIGGER
Jordan Francis Staff Writer
It is a new semester and a new roster in the never-ending parade of geeks here at the Oredigger. This year, the first geek who consented to an interview is a senior in the Computer Science department who goes by many names, though his friends know him by the moniker of Matt Buland. [Oredigger]: Why Computer Science? [Buland]: I chose Computer Science because my dad has had an interest in electronics for a long time and that got imbued into me. [Also,] as seen more prominently now, video games are a part of literally everyone’s lives, so being a game programmer [was] an immediate response. So starting with that, I decided to go into Computer Science where I learned how to not be a game programmer but how to do other, more useful, industrial things. What has been your favorite class and why? Elements of Computing Systems with Yong Bakos. The latter is the most important part. I love Bakos. Are you a geek and why? I’m a geek because I get extremely excited about things I love and the extreme excitement sometimes comes off as crazy. What do you do with what-
Shakespearean “Star Wars” a new perspective
Jordan Francis Staff Writer
This book is exactly what is on the cover: “Star Wars: A New Hope” written in the style of William Shakespeare, and it is a glorious experience. It imitates the Bard’s style quite well, turning the familiar story of “A New Hope” into a worthy Shakespearean play with dialogue written in iambic pentameter, a list of Dramatis Personae at the beginning, lines for a chorus interspersed throughout the production, and a five act structure with stage directions galore. It even goes so far as to direct interested readers to the publisher’s website using a sonnet at the end of the book. There are a few illustrations scattered about the book showcasing the familiar “Star Wars” characters clothed in a mix of their familiar movie costumes and the capes and frills for which Shakespearean plays are known, which are a lot of fun to run into as the reader makes his or her way through the play. The author knows his audience and throws in interesting asides to fans from both sides of the fence. The characters make multiple subtle references to events, people, locations, and species in the outside of the original confines of “A New Hope” that will keep Star Wars fans grinning. The book also makes use of modified and paraphrased quotations to delight fans of Shakespeare’s work with references to many of the Bard’s great works. It seems rather pointless to summarize the book’s plot, as it follows the story of the original movie almost exactly. Instead, it seems far more fitting to question how “Star Wars” could possibly sync up well with the well-known and often-loathed Shakespearean style of writing. As opposing as these two styles might initially seem, Lucas’s masterpiece actually has far more in common with Shakespeare’s plays than most people would think. Star Wars emulates many of the motifs, character archetypes, and complex relationships that are common throughout Shakespeare’s works. It is an epic story seen through the eyes of limited characters, struggling as much through conflicts of good versus evil as they grapple with their consciences in battles against their own selves. The Shakespearean style actually gives the author a chance to elaborate on some of the characters’ internal conflicts and musings. Darth Vader is given a couple of surprisingly poignant introspective monologues and even R2-D2 is given a chance to speak his mind through means other than beeps and whistles, though only in conversation with himself. The additional dialogue actually somewhat improves the story. R2-D2’s speaking parts make him seem even more clever than audiences usually give him credit for and the many soliloquies give the author a chance to better convey to the audience the thoughts and feel-
Matt Buland, senior, plans to continue with a Master’s degree and then on to a career with an exciting company.
ings of several characters, Luke in particular, as the story progresses. This imitation of the Bard’s unique tendencies in writing also lends itself to some excellent dialogue that balances well between wisdom and wit. Of course, no imitation of this sort would be complete without some of the glorious insults that Shakespeare tended to slip into his plays, so there are some really funny reprimands and retorts, including a wonderful moment where C3PO warns R2-D2, “Be thou not technical with me, or else thine input valve may swift receive a hearty helping of my golden foot.” It is, at its core, a re-telling of “A New Hope,” but the style and additions this book makes not only add to the tale without taking anything away, but it also gives the reader a fresh perspective on a story he likely already knows well. The story is similar enough to the kind Shakespeare tended to write that fans of his work should quite enjoy this book. Even people who do not usually like Shakespeare may find themselves pleasantly surprised by how much they might like this work. It functions well as a story in its own right and is not a bad way to teach Star Wars fans how to interpret and understand a Shakespearean story. There is something in this book for everyone to enjoy and a path of literary discovery awaits reader. To quote Ian Doescher, the author of this delightful mash-up, “May the verse be with you.”
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“Injustice: Gods Among Us” a gripping tale
Jordan Francis Staff Writer
“Injustice: Gods Among Us” is a popular fighting game based on the DC universe released last year. The game takes place in a world where Superman killed the Joker after the Clown Prince of Crime managed to kill Jimmy Olsen and trick the Big Blue Boy Scout into killing Lois Lane and all of Metropolis. These events convince Superman once and for all that he has not been doing enough to protect his adopted planet and he successfully takes over all the world’s governments, establishing himself as ruler in order to maintain peace and safety among Earth’s people. Batman establishes a resistance and heroes choose sides. The player enters the story five years after the death of the Joker. However, given that this is a game based on a comic book world, it seems only natural that expansions to the story in the form of comics would exist and indeed, DC began releasing a series of prequel comics a few months before the game came out. Without further ado, it is time to explore the first volume of comics that made the unthinkable a reality. The story begins with Superman waking up in the middle of the night, startled by the sound his super hearing picks up: two heartbeats coming from Lois. She’s pregnant. Shortly after this revelation, Lois gets called out on an anonymous news tip and Superman flies off to help Batman with a mission. Unfortunately, the tip turns out to have been from the Joker, who shoots Jimmy Olsen and kidnaps Lois. Superman finds Jimmy dead and Lois missing several hours later and begs Batman to help him find her. Batman calls in the Justice League to help with the search and they soon establish that Joker is aboard a stolen submarine. Superman tears into the sub with previously unknown fervor and finds Lois strapped to a table with Joker and Harley Quinn standing over her. Before he can free her, Doomsday appears. For those unfamiliar with the Superman mythos, Doomsday is one of Superman’s most powerful enemies, is among the few who can outfight him, and has, in prior continuity, actually managed to kill him. Terrified for the safety of Lois and his unborn child, the Man of Steel attacks Doomsday with everything he has. Meanwhile, the rest of the Justice League continues their investigations and makes their way to the submarine. Between the evidence and Joker’s taunts, Batman realizes what happened a split second before Superman does: Joker combined Kryptonite and fear gas to make Superman see something that scared him out of his mind. Just as Superman manages to fly Doomsday into outer space, Batman’s message reaches him and he is able to see through the illusion: he was never fighting Doomsday in the first place. It was Lois. To make matters worse, the Joker has rigged a nuclear warhead to explode in Metropolis as soon as Lois’s heart stops. At the moment of Superman’s greatest horror, realizing he just killed the love of his life, his city explodes. While some of the other members of the Justice League work on the clean up after the disaster, Superman mourns in Metropolis. In a flurry of emotions, he hands Lois’s body to Wonder Woman for safekeeping and tears off to Gotham reminds the League of the strength or attempting to skim over major Prison. Easily bypassing and dis- of his people by having his people events to try and cover the full range patching members of the League, march on the surface dwellers from of time. This volume contains six of he busts through the walls of Jok- all directions. His attempts to stop the twelve issues of the “Year One” er’s cell and, right in front of Bat- Superman from taking over fail series and with “Year Two” in full man, puts his fist through Joker’s completely though when the Jus- production, this looks to be a long chest. Meanwhile, Harley Quinn tice League pulls Atlantis out of the series indeed. While this could be breaks out of prison, though she ocean and strands it in a desert. turned into a shallow, lazy, moneyis soon captured by Green Arrow. Aquaman surrenders and Super- grabbing opportunity in the future, Arrow takes her to his hideout and man cuts Batman’s access to the it is a good idea as long as the prokeeps her there, saying he does Justice League. duction team continues putting out not believe in executions and that There is a brief interlude where quality work as the transformation he wants to protect Superman from the reader gets to see the Flash of Superman from the ultimate suthe consequences of killing her. confronted with the reality of what per-powered goody two-shoes into They have an oddly touching scene he and the League are doing and an uncompromising dictator takes together before Arrow heads back watch him question whether or time and should not be rushed, lest out to deal with the ongoing chaos. not it is the right thing to do before readers find themselves unable to The scene switches back to Su- Superman announces that he and believe that Superman could ever perman in the Fortress of Solitude, the League will be raiding Arkham sink to such depths. The length listening to news reports about the Asylum and taking its inhabitants could easily be turned into a simple recent destruction. Upon hearing “far away from Gotham” where they cash grab in the future but for now, another report about the ongoing can no longer threaten the people it helps to make an unbelievable violence in another country, he flies of Earth. Batman and Nightwing go premise plausible. over and forcibly strips the foreign to stop them but Robin (currently The art ranges from good to man responsible of his power, then Damian Wayne) refuses to help, mediocre in these issues, though heads off to a United NaCOURTESY DC COMICS the printed collection is a tions press conference. significant improvement At the conference, he on the art from the origicalls for an “immediate nal release of the issues, world-wide ceasefire” which was very obviously and promises to stop anyrushed and sloppy. It’s body who does not comnothing spectacular, but ply. He begins enforcing especially in the printed this order with great efcollection, it is not half fectiveness. As a counbad, especially for a tieter, the U.S. president in series that was somehas Superman’s parents what rushed out the door kidnapped and threatens to meet game release to kill them if Superman date deadlines. does not stop interfering The plotline is believwith world governments. able and decently conThis rallies the majority of structed, ranging from the Justice League becarefully thought out and hind Superman and they logical to moments of quickly locate the people convenience that happen responsible for the kidto fit into what the author napping. Superman is had in mind for the story able to rescue his parents and it draws from age-old and Batman warns the “what if X happened to President how stupid that Y superhero” arguments move was, though he inand new ideas alike. This dicates that he does not is also one of the rare insupport the actions of the stances of “what if” stoMan of Steel. With Superrylines done well, with a man’s parents safe again, compelling and believthe efforts to enforce the able plot that shows the world-wide ceasefire readers how the characcontinue with Wonder ters change, rather than Woman taking on an en- “Injustice” is a gripping breath of fresh air. just starting the story with tire army by herself. Ares, the new perspectives. Greek god of war, appears before siding with Superman’s reasoning However, as with many comics, the her and questions her eager role in in this case. Green Arrow shows up real strength of this story lies in its this conflict, as she usually consid- with Harley Quinn just as the other characters and their interactions ers herself an advocate of peace heroes arrive. Harley Quinn frees with one another as well as their and a diplomat. Wonder Woman herself and breaks out the rest of reactions to the events unfolding realizes that Ares is afraid that this the inmates, making for a ton of around them. quest will succeed and he will be massive and awesome fight scenes Some characters are a bit left a god of war in a world with- as the squabbling heroes fight to sidelined in these issues, such as out conflict. Superman arrives and stay alive, including an excellent Green Lantern, Cyborg, Shazam, punches Ares in the face before fight with Solomon Grundy, whose Raven, and some of the other lessWonder Woman leaves him pinned regenerative powers mean that er known members of the Justice to the ground with his own sword. the heroes don’t have to pull their League and superhero community, Superman arrives at the Bat- punches. In the midst of the fray, though many of them get some cave some time later and chews Robin accidentally kills Nightwing. deeper character exploration in out Batman for not helping to lo- Superman later finds Catwoman later issues. The main characters cate his parents. Batman retorts and asks her to go be with Batman of these issues are the Big Three by berating Superman for allowing after Nightwing’s death. Catwoman (Superman, Batman, and Wonder himself to start down the path of agrees, but asks Superman to re- Woman) and they and the people killing people. Meanwhile, Wonder member that governments are not most closely linked to them get the Woman and some other Justice the only parties responsible for hu- brunt of the character exploration League members approach Aqua- man suffering. She goes to Wayne and interaction, though there are a man, attempting to make peace manor and comforts Alfred and few interludes that revolve around with the Atlanteans. However, due Bruce as best she can. Later, she other side characters. Wonder to some miscommunications, the and Batman are seen recruiting Woman is the only one of the Big talks quickly devolve into conflict. heroes and the comic ends with Three that tends to fall short as Superman starts to leave to go Batman beginning the work of the she is portrayed as more willing to help the League and Batman stops resistance against Superman’s re- initiate and relish combat than her him, saying that he would do the gime. character normally does. The reasame thing in Superman’s position This is a good example of a sons given for this are sometimes but imploring him one last time to tie-in comic well done. Certainly understandable, but often fall short stop anyway because Superman is not perfectly, as there are plenty of really explaining her actions. a better man than him. Superman of easy-to-spot flaws in this series, The interactions between charasks Batman to come with him but overall, this is a convincing and acters is overall top-notch. The and Batman apologetically turns engaging story. For one, it does not relationship between Batman and him down. Superman arrives at the make the mistake of trying to cram Superman is a completely believAtlantean combat where Aquaman too many events into too few pages able one of two good friends who both fully understand each other’s positions but cannot agree with their choices. The conversations between Nightwing and Robin communicate a plausible brotherly relationship. Wonder Woman’s peaceful discussion with other characters, particularly Aquaman, are her best in-character moments for this series. Flash’s introspection as a result of watching the other heroes’ behavior and Aquaman’s move from confidant leader to humbled victim of war are powerful and convincingly human displays of emotion. Every interaction between Green Arrow and Harley Quinn is pure gold and Superman’s actions towards other heroes are always understandable, if occasionally over the top. Even the villains, who are usually only present for a couple of panels, have so much character and personality thrown into their few lines that they instantly feel like a part of the universe and individuals rather than just caricatures. The dialogue is usually pretty solid, though there are moments where it feels juvenile, flippant, and sometimes out of character, but there are also some moments of great humor. Lines like Harley’s suggestion that Green Arrow should change the name of his hideout from “the Arrow Cave” to “the Quiver” and his admission that her idea is better as well as Ares’s surprise at Diana’s sudden bloodlust encapsulated in his question “Did you just headbutt a tank?” make for great laugh-out-loud moments that provide the levity needed to offset the effects of how serious the story can get at times. There are some amazingly powerful lines in this story as well, from Superman’s quiet “No more” when he first resolves to stop world-wide conflict to Batman’s shocked “my son is dead” when Nightwing falls. However, the most powerful scenes in the whole storyline are those of Alfred, despite the fact that he is in the comic for a grand total of five panels: once near the end, where Catwoman finds him neglecting his usual duties in favor of sitting in shock with a bottle of alcohol after Nightwing’s death and once in the middle of the story as Superman is beginning his conquest of the world. As Superman is leaving the Batcave, Alfred carries a tray down and asks, “Not staying for tea, Master Kent?” Superman replies, “I’m afraid not Alfred, and you don’t have to call me ‘Master.’” Alfred, who has no powers, carries no weapons, and almost never picks up any of Batman’s toys looks Superman, one of the most powerful beings on the planet square in the eye and says, “Good. Let’s remember that.” There are plenty of more impressive fight scenes and bigger displays of power throughout the story but that moment is unquestionably the most impressive display of human will in these issues, if not the entire series. There could be many more lists of the good things about this comic, but in the interest of not decimating a rain forest to talk about one comic series, the prattle shall end with this: the first volume of “Injustice: Gods Among Us” is by no means a perfect story but it is a fun and gripping breath of fresh air for both the comics industry at large and the DC universe. It is certainly a dark storyline, but readers who can handle comics that are not all fun and games should definitely check out this series.
f e a t u r e s
january 20, 2014
w w w . O R E D I G G E R . n e t
january 20, 2014
Orediggers stay hot Late 3-point play tops UCCS with win at UCCS
Jared Riemer Content Manager Jared Riemer Content Manager
The No. 13 School of Mines men’s basketball team went on the road Friday night to UCCS and captured the 77-54 victory bringing them to 13-1 on the season (9-1 in the RMAC). The Orediggers used a stifling defense and all five starters in double digits to regroup after their first loss of the season. The Orediggers took the lead at 3-2 less than two minutes into the game and never surrendered it jumping out to a 10 point lead, 199, at the halfway point of the first half. At halftime the Orediggers led 36-29, and never let the Mountain Lions get any closer to winning for the rest of the game. The Orediggers outscored UCCS 24-14 in the first 10 minutes of the second half to lead 60-43, on the way to a 23 point victory. Mines limited the mountain lions to just 25 second half points and held UCCS to a 30.9% shooting percentage and 23.1% from behind the arch while shooting 49.1% themselves from the field, 35.7% from three, and 18-20 from the charity stripe (90%). The Orediggers out-rebounded UCCS 38-33 and had 34 points in the paint, 10 more than the mountain lions. Senior Trevor Wages led the team with 15 points and added three blocks and seven rebounds while Brett Green (senior) chipped in 14 points, two assists, and four rebounds. Senior Luke Meisch had 13 points, four rebounds, three steals, three assists, and one block and juniors Trevor Ritchie and Brian Muller added 12 and 10 points respectively as well as three rebounds and one assists each. Trey Winbush grabbed six rebounds and Will Carr had four rebounds and seven points off the bench for the Orediggers. The Orediggers are home this Friday against Adams State, so come out and support your Orediggers. The Colorado School of Mines women’s basketball team squared off against UCCS on Friday and ended their four game losing streak in exciting fashion. Thanks to a three-point play by senior Allie Grazulis in the waning seconds, Mines pulled off the 55-54 road victory. Mines never trailed by more than two points in the game, and their largest lead was nine points, less than five minutes into the second half (33-24). After a closely contested game throughout, Mines grabbed a four point lead at 52-48 with 1:44 remaining after a three pointer by senior Katie Clements. UCCS responded with six straight points and held a two point advantage, 54-52, with just 24 seconds left on the clock. After a timeout with 18 seconds to go, Grazulis made a contested jumper in the paint and was fouled. Needing the freethrow to take the lead and complete a three-point play, Grazulis sunk the shot to give the Orediggers the lead. With just 11 seconds on the clock, UCCS heaved up desperation three-pointer at the buzzer, missing as time expired to hand Mines the one point road win. Grazulis led the way in scoring for Mines with 22 points, and added seven rebounds and two
s p o r t s
Wrestling home opener
Jared Riemer Content Manager
The Colorado School of Mines wrestling team squared off against New Mexico Highlands on Friday in their home opener and lost 34-12. Mines gained three victories in the contest from Jacob Gerken (forfeit), Paul Wilson and Luis Gurule (decision). It was Gurule’s tenth victory of the season giving him a record of 10-2 on the season and Wilson’s ninth victory (9-3). The first match of the night, 149 pound weight class, started out with a Cowboy forfeit, giving Jacob Gerken and Mines the first win of the duel and a quick six points. The next match at 157 pounds saw Juan Alvarado of NMHU beat Ashton Krajnovich 5-1 giving the Cowboys three points. The next three matches were all won by New Mexico Highlands who won by major decision (four points), pin and forfeit (both six points). After the forfeit at 184 pounds, the Cowboys led the Orediggers 19-6 halfway through the duel. Next up for Mines at 197 pounds was Paul Wilson, beating Justin Rockhill of NMHU 9-5 to give Mines three points and bring
assists. Freshman Laura Tyree added 10 points, three assists, and two rebounds, while Sophomore Courtney Martin and Junior Taylor Helbig chipped in eight each off the bench; Martin added five rebounds and a block as well. Senior Tory Langas led the team with three steals and added two assists and four rebounds. The Orediggers shot 40% as a team from the field, 26.3% from three, and 76.9% from the freethrow line. They held UCCS to just 9.1% from behind the arch and 39.6% overall. UCCS held a 3330 rebounding advantage, but the Orediggers led the way in second chance points with 11 to only 4 by the Mountain Lions.
Potts Indoor Invitational begins 2014
Chris Robbins Staff Writer
CSM’s track and field team kicked off the 2014 portion of their schedule in Boulder this weekend at the Potts Indoor Invitational. The two-day event saw Mines athletes fiercely compete with opponents from CU, Metro State, UCCS, and Denver, and come away with some strong finishes and even a few wins including two provisionals. The weekend’s events saw CSM’s McKenzie Zeman claim both the women’s 200- and 400-meter dash titles, while Abrianna Torres and Amanda Giles finished fourth and seventh respectively in the women’s 60-meter hurdles finals. Billy Helm grabbed fifth in the men’s 200-meter dash finals, and Oredigger runners were able to fill a significant portion of the men’s 400-meter dash lineup, including the winner Ian Rozier. Also in that race were Austin Shaffer (who finished third), Matt Drotar (fourth), Michael Lanahan (fifth), Kendrick Rhea (seventh), and Nicholas Masching (eighth). Orediggers were also able to secure three of the top four positions in the men’s 800-meter run finals with Garrett Hoch emerging victorious, Patrick Weaver finishing second, and Kodi Burns ending in fourth. The Mines men’s relay team prevailed in the 4x400 relay event, and four lady Orediggers made it to the women’s long jump finals
Orediggers outshoot Thunderwolves 91-57
Chris Robbins Staff Writer
Shortly after the Lady Orediggers basketball team pulled the upset over CSU-Pueblo Saturday night, the 13th ranked Oredigger men’s basketball cruised to a 91-57 win of their own over the Thunderwolves. For the first few minutes of the game it seemed as though the Thunderwolves would keep pace with the Orediggers, for after falling behind early, CSU-Pueblo fought back to tie the game at 16 apiece. But midway through the first half, CSM pulled away with an 8-0 run and never looked back. By halftime, Mines had put together a solid 41-28 lead. They kept their momentum going well into the second half, leading by as many as 39 points, and coasted to the 91-57 win. Five Orediggers ended the night in double digits, including Brian Muller who led all scorers with 24 points on 75% shooting to go along with four rebounds and two assists. Trevor Wages notched a double-double, putting up 16 points and 10 rebounds, plus an assist, two steals, and a team high five blocks. Gokul Natesan also had a great night, adding 15 points, 4 rebounds, an assist, and a steal off the bench. CSM owned the advantage on the final stat sheet, outshooting the Thunderwolves from the field (51.5% vs. 30.6%), the three point arc (42.3% vs. 28%), and the foul line (75% vs. 66.7%). The
(Michelle Rigsby finished third, Kayla Johnson fifth, Amanda Giles eighth, and Amber Harley ninth). Johnson, Rigsby, and Harley would later go on to take first, second, and fourth place finishes respectively in the women’s triple jump finals. Cassie Ratzlaff notched a third place finish in the women’s shot put finals, as well as finishing fourth in the women’s weight throw along with Hannah Weidman, who grabbed sixth. Ben Timmer secured the men’s pole vault title for CSM, and the men’s long jump finals saw Mines take fifth (Marc Leachman) and sixth (Kento Okamoto). Leachman went on to finish second in the men’s triple jump final, while the men’s shot put final had Jace Warren take third place and Jacob Hollister eighth. Men’s weight throw finals rounded out the competition’s events, and five Orediggers were able to place in the top ten of the event (Ryan Ewen in third, Nicolo Redfern fourth, Hollister fifth, Warren seventh, and Sam Pauling tenth). Overall, this was a strong showing by both the men’s and women’s teams, and both teams will look to ride the momentum they have gained into next weekend’s invitational at the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs. That three-day event kicks off at 1pm on Thursday, January 23rd, and continues on Friday the 24th at 9am and wraps up on Saturday the 25th beginning at 10am.
CSM ladies upset CSUP
Chris Robbins Staff Writer
After putting a halt to a four game skid in exciting fashion on Friday night at UCCS, the CSM women’s basketball squad traveled up to CSU-Pueblo on Saturday evening in search of their second consecutive victory. Behind a solid night from beyond the three point arc, the Lady Orediggers were able to upend the RMAC’s number two team on the road, 55-47. Both the Orediggers and the Thunderwolves struggled early in this contest. After a quick 3-3 start neither team was able to put any points on the board for almost five minutes. But each team was able to recover from their scoring droughts, albeit at different times, leading to a game full of runs. Mines started things off with a 13-4 run to take a 16-7 lead, but CSUPueblo quickly went on a 7-0 run of their own to cut that lead to 16-14. CSM would then take a 23-17 lead into halftime after ending on a 7-3 streak. The Thunderwolves came out strong in the second half, going on a 18-6 run to grab a sizeable 35-29 lead. Down but not out, the Orediggers were able to fight back with yet
the match to 19-9. New Mexico Highlands took a quick six points with a pin at heavyweight (285 pounds), but in the 125-pound match, Luis Gurule captured the 6-5 hard-fought victory over Erick Rangel giving Mines their final points of the Match, 25-12. The final two bouts at 133 and 141 pounds were won by NMHU by result of pin and major decision respectively to give the Cowboys a 34-12 victory spoiling the injuryridden Orediggers’ home-opener. Next up for the Orediggers (01) are the CSU-Pueblo Thunderwolves, this Wednesday in Pueblo.
another scoring streak of their own earlier would prove to be enough, to tie the game at 38. In the next as they held on for the 55-47 vicfour minutes, the lead changed tory. hands three times until with only Coming off of the bench, Helbig 1:50 left, Mines held a slim 46-43 had a fantastic night, leading all advantage. After a minute filled scorers with 17 points (including 7 with missed shots and timeouts in the last 45 seconds of the game). from both teams, the Orediggers’ Tory Langas also put up double lead was still only three points, and figures with 13 points, as well as the game five ...with 41 seconds left in registering still seemed rebounds and up in the air. the game, Taylor Helbig hit two assists. But with 41 Despite being seconds left a clutch three point jump edged by the in the game, Thunderwolves Taylor Helbig shot to push the lead to in overall shoothit a clutch ing percentage, three point six. Fourteen seconds later, the difference in jump shot this game came Helbig sealed the win for down to Mines to push the lead to six. owning the deMines by hitting two late cisive advanFourteen seconds tages in threefree throws. later, Helbig point shooting sealed the win for Mines by hitting (50% vs. 11.1%) and free throw two late free throws, extending the shooting (91.7% vs. 50%). Oredigger lead to eight and all but After winning consecutive preventing CSU-Pueblo from be- games for the first time all season ing able to mount a comeback. long, the Lady Orediggers will look Though down, the Thunderwolves to extend their season long winnever showed signs of quitting, ning streak to three games next scoring two layups with less than Friday night against Adams State. 15 seconds on the clock and play- Taking place during Alumni Weeking to the very last moment. But end here in Golden, that game tips the lead built up by the Orediggers off at 6pm in Lockridge Arena.
Orediggers also outrebounded CSU-Pueblo 41-37, and committed nine fewer turnovers on the night. Mines will seek their third straight win next Friday night here in Golden against Adams State. That game tips off at 8pm on Friday, January 24 in Lockridge Arena, so come support your Orediggers.
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o p i n i o n
january 20, 2014
What we have here is a failure to communicate
started cross-referencing dark sky maps with cloud cover predictions, and had 30 tabs open on my internet browser with articles on how to best see the Lights, how to photograph them, and the current Kp index as reported by SpaceWeather.com. Kp index measures the level of geomagnetic activity. If the Kp is a 3, latitudes around the poles will only be able to view the aurora such as Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia, etc. Denver lies at a magnetic latitude such that the Kp index would need to be almost 9, maybe less. Space weather scientists were optimistically hoping for a Kp of 7, which would not ensure the lights be seen in central Colorado, but would offer a possibility of seeing them away from the city light pollution. Predicting the weather is no simple task, and space weather is no different. Granted, the amount of time that it takes a CME to travel from the sun to the earth is enough to anticipate aurora about a day in advance, but factors such as speed and direction, as well as other factors that space weather scientists do not yet understand make predicting when, where, and if Northern Lights will appear difficult. Aurora chasers frequently make trips to an area with dark sky and wait for hours and hours in the cold of winter without seeing anything. Residents of the Denver Front Range understood what a rare occurrence seeing the Northern Lights in Colorado is, and the news outlets aptly reported it. However, this incident is a prime example of the disconnect between science and communication to the public, especially once Thursday night rolled around with Golden residents driving up Lookout Mountain in hopes of glimpsing the green curtains of light and only seeing the orange glow of Denver and surrounding suburbs. The major fail to communicate came Thursday afternoon and evening, when the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center had posted a report saying the CME was not traveling as fast as they had predicted, and the Kp index for that night would be much less than originally hoped for. Yet the Denver Post and others continued to update their story streams about the possibility of aurora, although it would take a geomagnetic miracle to see them in the United States at all that evening (the Kp got up to a 3). Viewing conditions were a major factor left out by many articles. Many Denver area residents headed to the suburbs or foothills thinking the sky would be dark enough, but the reality is that light pollution is too much a factor to see them even an hour within the city limits. Also, at this latitude the aurora would appear on the northern part of the sky, so heading to the mountains would have probably blocked the Northern Lights. Aurora occurs in the upper atmosphere, so if the sky is cloudy there will be difficulty viewing them. Thursday night into Friday morning was very cloudy across the United States. Residents who took the short drive up Mount Zion had no chance of seeing any aurora borealis since it was cloudy, too bright from the light pollution of Denver, and the Kp index was so low that even some polar regions did not get any aurora events. In case of another perfect geomagnetic storm, it would be ideal head north or northeast towards Wyoming to get out of the city limits, depending on cloud cover. Check dark sky maps and cloud cover maps used by astronomers to find an ideal viewing place. Of course, perfect storms rarely happen, and as the solar cycle begins to shift, we will not see solar maximum until about 2024 and will not likely get a chance to see them in Colorado any time soon. It would take a much, much longer drive (or plane ride) up north to get ideal conditions for being able to cross off “See the Northern Lights” from a bucket list.
Minds at Mines Winter break
Katerina Gonzales Content Manager
The days following Fall Finals are usually met with many hours of sleep by Mines students in an attempt to make up for the lack of sleep accumulated all year. But, with three and a half weeks of winter break between semesters, students find ways to get out and live their breaks to the fullest. This week, Minds at Mines asked returning students, “What was the best part of your break?”
Katerina Gonzales Content Manager
Hanging out on Mount Zion at night can be fun, but no one wants to sit and wait until 3AM for the Northern Lights when there is not a realistic possibility of seeing them. Earlier this month, many who read news articles and watched the news found themselves staring at the night sky in disappointment. They had been told there would be perfect conditions for a perfect storm to view the Aurora Borealis, but it was not so. What goes into a perfect Solar Storm? The solar cycle has a period of about eleven years, which can be quantified by the number of sunspots visible. Solar maximum is characterized by increased solar activity, including coronal mass ejections (CMEs). When the direction of a CME is towards earth, space weather forecasters predict a good chance of seeing the Aurora Borealis, but for the most part, the amount of geomagnetic activity that is yielded is not enough to see the Northern Lights in the United States at all. But sometimes, if in a period of solar maximum and if a large enough CME is headed towards earth with the perfect velocity, low latitude regions could be able to view the Northern Lights. If the cloud cover cooperates and is sufficiently low, we have a perfect storm on our hands. On Wednesday, January 8, news outlets in the midlatitude states, including Denver, reported that their city would be able to see the Northern Lights that night and the night after. Space weather scientists had observed a large CME capable of producing a large geomagnetic storm in addition to possible aurora in lower latitudes. The media ate it up, along with any citizen who had ever dreamed about seeing the Northern Lights. I found myself among those citizens, and the geonerd in me absolutely had to try and see them. I acquired a tripod in hopes of capturing them on camera,
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