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mitropoliti anania jafariZe

misgan daaxloebiT 70km-iT daSorebuli. andaki Teodosiopolissa da


kars (yarss) Sua iyo, xolo olnuti araqsisa da evfratis saTaveebT-

konstantinopolis sapatriarqos
lazikis eparqia
sad mdebareobda konstantinopolis sapatriarqos lazikis samitropolito?
XX s-is qarTuli istoriografiis mixedviT, es sakiTxi TiTqosda garkveuli iyo, rac asaxulia mraval gamokvlevaSi. aRiarebuli
azriT, is dasavleT saqarTveloSi mdebareobda, magram upirvelesi

an axlos. yvelani isini ganlagebulni iyvnen im qveyanaSi, romelsac


romaelebi ufro metad armenias uwodebdnen, magram iqve, araqsis iqiT
miuTiTebdnen iberiis sazRvars. erTi sityviT, isini mdebareobdnen
vanis tbasa da trapezunts Soris. xom ar iyvnen am regionSi sxva
saepiskoposoebic lazikis eparqiisa?
cxadia, aRniSnuli saepiskoposoebi qalkedonurni iyvnen, amave
dros, armeniad saxelwodebul qveyanaSi mdebareobdnen. amis gamo Cvenma
Ziebam moiTxova gavcnobodiT istoriul somxeTSi qalkedonuri saepiskoposoebis ganlagebas, rac aRmoCnda moskovSi dastambul `pravaslavna-

wyaros, konstantinopolis sapatriarqos saepiskoposoTa nusxebis,

ia enciklopediis~ III tomSi. marTlac, am statiaSi `somexi qalkedo-

e.w. noticiebis monacemebi ar eTanxmeba am Tvalsazriss. kerZod, noticie-

nitebi~ CamoTvlilia konstantinopolis sapatriarqos trapezuntis

bis umravles nusxaSi CamoTvlilia lazikaSi mdebare trapezuntis

samitropolitoSi Semavali eparqiebi, maT Soris aRniSnuli lerion-

samitropolitos Semdegi kaTedrebi: 1. xeriani; 2. xamaZuri (xamu-

isa da sxva kaTedrebi da aRniSnulia, rom isini mdebareobdenen

zuri, xamazri, xamatozuri); 3. xaxei (xali, xaioni, xalxevi); 4.

`somxur miwebze~, aRsaniSnavia, rom konstantinopolis noticiebSi,

paiperti (paiperi); 5. keramevi; 6. lerioni; 7. bizana (bizanti); 8.

anu wyaroebSi, maT uwodebdnen `saepiskoposoebs lazikaSi~, statiaSi

xaviZiti; 9. xanZiorZi; 10. olnuti; 11. fasiani; 12. (to)sermanZi; 13.

ki maT ewodebaT `somxur-qalkedonituri saepiskoposoebi somxur

andaki; 14. zarinaki (georgika, IV, nawili II, 1952, gv. 185).

miwebze~. statias Tan axlavs ruka, romelzec TiTqmis

es sia asaxavs ZiriTadad IX-X ss-Ta viTarebas. maSasadame, miwawyalze, romelsac konstantinopoli uwodebda lazikas, ganlagebuli

yvela im

saepiskoposos mdebareobaa aRniSnuli, romlebic noticiebSi `lazikis


samitropolitoSi~ iyvnen (Prav. ~nc., T. 3, M.2001).

iyo trapezuntis samitropolito Tavisi 14 kaTedriT da Cveni ganx-

rukaze, rogorc iTqva, aRniSnulia konstantinopolis sapatri-

ilvis sagania moviZioT am kaTedrebis geografiuli ganlageba. rogorc

arqos trapezuntis, aseve ekelesenis, xorZenesa da taronis samitro-

cnobilia, bizantiur samyaroSi saepiskoposo centrebi xalxmraval

politoebis, aseve antioqiis sapatriarqos Teodosiopolisis (kari-

qalaqebSi arsdeboda. Sesabamisad, lazikis CamoTvlili kaTedrebi

nis) eparqiis marTlmadidebluri (qalkedonuri) kaTedrebi. rukaze

albaT mniSvnelovan qalaqebSi mdebareobdnen. aRniSnul cxrilebSi

aRniSnulia noticiebSi CamoTvlili lerionis, Sarianis (xerianis),

(noticiebSi) ucvlelad meordeba iseTi kaTedrebis saxelwodebebi,

bizanas, baiberdis (paipertis), olnutis, andakis, xaxis (xaxeis), xan-

rogoricaa lerioni, olnuti, andaki da sxva. am saxelis mqone qalaqebis

ZiorZis (xorZena?) da sxva saepiskoposoebi, da isini ganlagebulni

adgilmdebareoba cnobilia. kerZod, lerioni iyo trapezuntis mTianeTSi,

arian trapezuntidan TiTqmis vanis tbamde.

erTi sityviT, IX-X ss-Si (X s-is dasawyisidan) eklesiuri Tval-

li erTeuli `iberiis Temi~, anu is miwebi, romlebic arabobamde

sazrisiT konstantinopoli lazikas uwodebda vrcel mxares vanis

`armeniad~ iwodeboda, X s-is Semdeg lazikad da iberiad ixsenieba _

tbidan trapezuntamde, sadac aRniSnuli saepiskoposoebi iyvnen gan-

vanis tbidan

trapezunt-taomde.

lagebulni. ismis kiTxva _ ratom unda ewodebina am vrceli teritoriisTvis konstantinopols lazika? (vanis tbis momijnave qveyne-

lazikis geografia

bidan trapezuntis CaTvliT).

zemoT aRniSnuli monacemebidan gamomdinare, konstantinopolis

marTlac, aRniSnul miwa-wyalze mravali marTlmadidebluri

sapatriarqo IX-X ss-Si lazikas uwodebda vrcel mxares trapezun-

saepiskoposo iyo, maT Soris iseTebic, romelnic mcxeTis sapatri-

tidan TiTqmis vanis tbamde, sadac trapezuntis samitropolitos

arqos eqvemdebarebodnen. magaliTad, arc Tu Sors vanis tbidan, iyo

kaTedrebi iyvnen ganlagebulni. am vrceli miwa-wylis SuagulSi saT-

valaSkertis qarTuli saepiskoposo, konstantinopolis sapatriarqoSi

aves iRebs iseTi cnobili mdinareebi, rogorica araqsi da evfrati. es

Semaval andakis kaTedridan arc Tu moSorebiT iyvnen anisisa da

miwa-wyali istoriulad qarTuli tomebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, swored

karis qarTuli saepiskoposoebi.

amis anarekli, anda realuri viTarebis gadmocemis Sedegia is, rom

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom eklesiuri TvalsazrisiT konstantinopo-

konstantinopolis sapatriarqom `lazika~ uwoda aRniSnul miwa-wy-

li `lazikas~ uwodebda vrcel teritorias, romelnic qarTul wyaroeb-

als, amiT xazi gaesva mis mcxovrebTa eTnikur vinaobas. saxelwodebe-

Si moixsenebian viTarca `zemoni qveyanani~.

bi `lazikis eparqia~ da `iberiis Temi~ aRniSnul dros warmoaCens im

qarTul `zemo qveynebsa~ da mimdebare miwa-wyals rom moicavda

realur suraTs, rom bizantiam cno vanis tbidan (CrdiloeTiT) anisamde

konstantinopolis samitropolito lazikaSi, iqidanac Cans, rom aqaa

da (dasavleTiT) trapezuntamde mkvidri mosaxleobis eTnikuri vinao-

ganlagebuli misi saepiskoposoebis mniSvnelovani nawili. magaliTad,

ba _ maTi qarTveloba, radganac iqamde, kerZod ki arabobamde, am miwa-

andakis kaTedra _ mdinare araqsze (mis zemo welSi), manaskertTan

wyals bizantia oficialurad `armenias~ uwodebda. arabTa Semoseve-

axlos, evfratis saTaveSi mdebare olnutis kaTedra. TiTqmis `zemo

bis epoqaSi, roca somxur eklesias unari aRar Seswevda Tavisi

qveynebis~ miwa-wyalze mdebareobdnen bizanasa da xorZenes saepisko-

zewola ganexorcielebina mkvidr qarTvelebze, IX-X ss-Si, gamo-

posoebi, xolo baiberdis, xaxis, kerCanisisa, xerianisa da lerionis

cocxlda iqamde Sesustebuli eTnikuri TviTSemecneba mkvidri

saepiskoposoebi istoriul spersa, WaneTsa da mimdebare miwebze mde-

qarTvelebisa. amitomac arabebisagan gaTavisuflebul miwa-wyalze bi-

bareobdnen. mas Semdeg, rac aRniSnuli `zemo qveynebi~, anu taosa da

zantielebs daxvda sxva suraTi _ mkvidri mosaxleobis mniSvnelovani

vanis tbas Soris moqceuli miwa-wyali bizantiam CamoarTva saqarTve-

nawili, mcxovrebni evfratisa da araqsis saTaveebSi, vidre vanis

los, mefe giorgi I-is dros, iq Camoyalibebul marTlmadideblur

tbamde da anisamde, mkveTrad acxadebda, rom eTnikurad iyvnen ara

samitropolitosTvis `lazikis eparqia~ uwodebiaT. unda aRiniSnos,

somxebi, aramed qarTvelebi. iyo Tu ara amisaTvis safuZveli? saqme

rom mis odnav CrdiloeTiT Camoayalibes bizantiuri administraciu-

isaa, rom aRniSnuli miwa-wyali imTaviTve qarTuli iyo. misi istori-

uli warsulis Sesaxeb wers pavle ingoroyva _ `antikuri xanis

mosaxleobis arcTu umniSvnelo nawilma kidev ufro didxans Seinar-

saistorio wyaroebis mixedviT irkveva, rom antikur xanaSi, vidre II-

Cuna sakuTari erovneba. amas miuiTebs 1. konstantine porfirogenetis

I ss-mde Zv.w.aR-isa, qarTuli tomebiT dasaxlebuli iyo ara mxolod

xazgasmiTi miTiTebani, rom Teodosiopolisis (karinis) mosaxleoba

mtkvrisa da Woroxis xeobebi, aramed qarTvel tomebs eWiraT agreTve

(qalaqi da misi Semogareni) did winaaRmdegobas (TiTqmis naxevari

araqsisa da evfratis xeobaTa zemoweli, saxeldobr, xorZene, pari-

saukune) uwevda bizantiur jarebs, qarTvelebi ki maT icavden, ar

adris mTianeTi (mardaliis zona), basianis mxareni, araqsis saspere-

anebebdnen mkvidri mosaxleobis qalaqebisa (da soflebis) blokadas,

Ti... karini, derWani, akileseni, muZuri (antitavrosis mxare, ix.

roca bizantielebi moiTxovdnen maT faqtiurad SimSiliT amoxocvas

straboni, wigni XI, Tavi XVI, 5, qsenefonte, anabasisi, wigni IV, Tavi

da sxva, romelsac sxva adgilasac vexebiT; 2. aRniSnul miwa-wyalze

VI, 5, VII, 8, 25). ... strabonis cnobiT, umravlesoba am provinciebisa

qarTuli saepiskoposoebis daarseba; 3. am adgilebidan gamosuli qarTve-

saqarTvelom dakarga politikurad II-I ss-Si Zv.w.aR-isa, rodesac

li berebis mudmivi miTiTebebi imis Sesaxeb, rom isini eTnikurad

somxeTma gaavrcela Tavisi gavlena evfratisa da araqsis xeobaTa am

arian qarTvelebi, rom isini ar arian somxebi (magaliTad, giorgi

seqtorebze. Tumca saSualo saukuneTa dasawyisSi (yovel SemTxvevaSi

mTawmidelis epoqaSi antioqiis patriarqs moaxsenes qarTuli monas-

VII s-mde, rogorc es irkveva wyaroebidan), am qveynebs jer kidev

tris berebis Sesaxeb _ `ara vuwyiT qarTvelni arian Tu somexni~); 5.

hqoniaT SerCenili qarTuli saxe. saqarTvelo ar Serigebia am mxare-

qarTuli toponimebisa da hidronimebis bolo dromde arseboba; 6.

Ta dakargvas da saSualo saukuneTa manZilze saqarTvelo cdilobda

aRniSnuli mxareebidan gamosuli qarTvelebis didi Zalisxmeva, rom

SemoeerTebina araqsis da evfratis xeobebSi mdebare es adrindeli

somxuridan redaqtirebis yovelgvari nakvalevi aRmoefxvraT qarTu-

qarTuli mxareebi. es aris swored is `zemoni qveyanani~, romlis

li wmida wignebidan; 7. Zlieri qarTulenovani samrevloebis arsebo-

Semomtkicebasac cdilobda qarTvelTa samefo X-XI ss-Si da romlis

ba. magaliTad, Cven viciT, Tu ra didi gavlena da wona hqonda

gamoc qarTvelTa samefos konfliqti hqonda bizantiis imperiasTan~

valaSkertel episkopos zaqarias, rom is bizantiis samefo karze

(p. ingoroyva, giorgi merCule, 1954, gv. 517).

icavda qarTvelTa uflebebs imiT, rom cdilobda bizantia-saqarTve-

iberiis samefos gaZlierebis epoqaSi, I-II ss-Si, aRniSnuli miwa-

los morigebas. valaSkertis qarTuli mrevli rom ar yofiliyo

wyali (romelzec X s-saTvis ganlagebuli iyo trapezuntis samitro-

mravalricxovani da Zlieri, misi mRvdelmTavaric ar iqneboda iseTi

politos kaTedrebi) _ dasaxlebuli iyo qarTuli tomebiT, marTa-

gavlenis mqone, rogoric iyo zaqaria. anda anisis qarTuli mrevlis

lia, SemdgomSi isini moeqcnen armeniaSi, Sesabamisad, iqauri mkvidri

siZliere. anisSi qarTuli mrevli mravalricxovani rom iyo da moicavda

qarTveloba (igulisxmeba vanis tbidan trapezuntamde mcxovrebi mo-

mosaxleobis dabal fenebsac, Cans am qalaqis eklesiis kedlis warw-

saxleoba), ganicdida erovnul da enobriv Seviwroebas da dawyebula

eridan. qarTlis kaTalikosi ar CaTvlida saWirod umniSvnelo mrev-

kidec maTi armenizacia, magram p. ingoroyvas kvleviT, maT VII s-mde

lisa da misi samRvdeloebis morigebas. amasTan, man am regionSi mrava-

SeunarCunebiaT qarTulenovneba. Cven SegviZlia davamatoT, rom qarTuli

li sxva eklesiaic akurTxa. marTalia, anisi daSorebulia valaSkerts,

magram aq SeiZleba gavixsenoT berZen-romael avtorTa cnobebi, rom

bizantiis administraciuli erTeuli iberiis Temi, anu iberiis

iberielebsa da armenielebs erT dros araqsi hyofdaT, maSasadame,

sakatepano Seiqmna odnav mogvianebiT, XI s-is dasawyisSi taos mefis

araqsis marcxena sanapiroze, maT Soris anisSi, qarTuli mosaxleobis

daviT III kurapalatis gardacvalebis (1001) Semdeg.

cxovreba bunebrivad unda CaiTvalos. albaT amitom Seiyvana bizantiam

CvenTvis saintereso araqs-evfratis auzSi mdebare vrceli terito-

anisi iberiis TemSi, xolo misi samxereTi _ lazikis saeklesio TemSi.


sabWoTa periodSi sxva Tvalsazrisi Camoyalibda. TiTqosda IXX ss-Si moxda qarTizacia _ gaqarTveleba mTeli am mxareebis, klarjeTisa da taosi, (maTi azriT, valaSkertis, yarsisa da anisis mosaxleobisac), aseve mTeli dasavleT saqarTvelosi (imJamindeli afxazeTisa) da hereT-qvemo qarTlisa. ra Zala unda hqonoda arabebis saamiros
sferoSi moqceul Sida qarTls, rom aseTi qarTizaciis procesi
ganexorcielebina masze 10-jer da 20-jer ufro did mxareebSi klarjeTidan _ valaSkert-vanis tbamde, lixidan _ nikofsiamde da bodbedan
_ Samaxamde maSin, roca Sida qarTli arc ki iyo politikuri erTeu-

masSi Sedioda

ria, romelic eTnikurad araerTgvarovani mosaxleobiT iyo dasaxlebuli. iberiis TemSi araqs-evfratis saTaveebis auzis garda Sedioda
imier tao, Crdilo basiani, olTisi, SavSeTi, TorTomi, kola, artaani, iberiis TemSia konstantine X monomaqosis dros (1042-55) _
Siraqis samefo, Tavisi mTavari qalaqiT anisiT. q. anisi iberiis Temis
dedaqalaqad iqca. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, iberiis Temis da lazikis
eparqiis teritoriebi TiTqmis emTxveoda erTmaneTs, magram, cxadia,
es damTxveva zusti ar aris. yovel SemTxvevaSi CvenTvsis saintereso
Woroxisa da evfratis saTaveebis momcveli qveynebi, vidre vanis

li, xolo aRniSnuli mxareebi damoukidebel saxelmwifoebs warmoad-

tbamde, TiTqmis erTsa da imave dros Sedioda rogorc lazikis

gendnen. sinamdvileSi, maT mier damoukideblobis mopovebis wyalobiT

eparqiaSi, ise iberiis TemSi. ratom uwodes mas lazika da iberia

aRorZinda iqamde minavlebuli erovnul-qarTuli TviTSemecnebisa.

erTdroulad? rogorc vTqviT, es gamowvevuli unda yofiliyo qarTuli


eTnikuri TviTSemecnebis gamococxlebiT aRniSnul regionSi _ anisidan

samxreTis iberia da samxreTis lazika

da valaSkertidan vidre andakamde da karinamde (arzrumamde), aseve

konstantinopolis sapatriarqos trapezuntis samitropolito

Woroxisa da evfratis saTaveebSi. am gamococxlebis Sedegi iyo,

`lazika~ Tavis iurisdiqcias axorcielebda SavizRvispireTidan vi-

rogorc iTqva, mcxeTis sapatriarqos qarTuli saepiskoposoebis ar-

dre vanis tbamde, radganac misi umTavresi saepiskoposo kaTedrebi

seboba anissa da karSi (yarsSi), valaSkertsa da baiberdSi (paipert-

lerioni, paiperti (baiberdi), bizana, olnuti, andaki da sxvani aRniS-

Si). iqamde saukuneTa manZilze somxuri eklesiis mier devnili qarTuli

nul teritoriazea. ufro zustad rom vTqvaT, lazikis eparqia X s-

ena ukve aRar idevneboda sayofacxovrebo doneze, anu qarTulenovan

saTvis moicavda Woroxisa da evfratis saTaveebs vanis tbamde. Cveni

glexebsa da aznaurebs mezoblebi veRar ukrZalavdnen mSobliuri

azriT, am samitropolitos miwa-wylisTvis `lazikis~ saxelwodebis


micema gamowveuli unda yofiliyo misi mosaxleobis, anu am samitropolitos mrevlis qarTuli warmomavlobiT. `lazikis samitropolitos~ TiTqmis eTanadeboda `iberiis Temi~.

enis moxmarebas, Tumca maleve konstantinopolisadmi daqvemdebarebuli kaTedrebi berZnulenovanni gaxdnen.


akad. gr. giorgaZe miuTiTebs qarTveluri tomebis uZvelesi kerebis arsebobis Sesaxeb md. Woroxisa da zemo evfratis saTaveebSi, jer kidev qriste-

Sobamde XII s-Si, radganac misi azriT, asuruli wyaroebis muSqaias da daiaenis
(diaoxis) qveynebi iq _ evfrat-Woroxis saTaveebTan arsebobdnen. iq mcxovrebT
berZnuli `mosxois~ saxeliT icnobdnen (v. goilaZe, asurel mamaTa samSoblo
da saqarTvelo, 2002, gv. 20)
v. giolaZe wers _ Zv.w. XII s-Si muSqebis politikuri gavlena evfratis
zemo dinebis aRmosavleTiT (Tanamedrove md. murad sus samxreTiT) gavrcelda.
50 wliT adre maT iq alzisa da furulumzis qveynebi daupyriaT. rogorc i.
diakonovi wers, eseni iyvnen `aRmosavleTis muSqebi~. maTi gansaxlebis ZiriTadi
centri zemo evfratTan md. arcaniis (murad su) SesarTavTan mdebare alzis
samefo iyo. asuruli wyaroebi, dasZens diakonovi _ alzis uwodebdnen agreTve
`muSqTa qveyanas~. i. diakonovis Tanaxmad, Zv.w. X-IX ss-Si aRmosavleTis muSqebi
ufro vrcel teritoriaze, md. tigrosis CrdiloeT Senakadebis saTaveSi mdebare mTebidan zemo evfratis velis dasavleTiT mdebare tavris mTebamde unda
yofiliyvnen gansaxlebulni. gr. giorgaZis Tanaxmad, `muSqTa ZiriTadi teritoria istoriuli samxreT saqarTvelo iyo~ (v. goilaZe, dasax. naSromi, gv. 21).

maSasadame, lazikis eparqia _ istoriul samxreT saqarTveloSi


yofila. Cven qvemoT kidev mravaljer SevexebiT, rom lazikis eparqia

momxdara qarTuli tomebis transformireba armenielebad. Tu etimologiurad `lazika~ - `lazi~ dakavSirebulia `alzTan~, unda vifiqroT, rom gasagebi xdeba, Tu ratom ewoda `alzis qveynis~ momcvel eparqias `lazikisa~. Tumca sxva mosazrebac SeiZleba arsebobdes.
n. adonci korduenas qveyanas akavSirebda qarTvelebTan da akritikebda erT-erTi mecnieris Sexedulebas, romelic korduenas qurTebTan
akavSirebda. es mosazreba ganxilulia Sesabamis adgilas. istoriul
korduenadan Teodosiopolisamde odesRac qarTvelTa sacxovrisi yofila, maTi naSTi kidev mZlavrad arsebobda IX-X ss-Si da qveyanasac
iverais (iberias) uwodebdnen, xolo Teodosiopolisidan trapezuntamde qaldeas qveyana, anu samxreTis lazika (egri) mdebareobda,
CrdiloeTis egrisi ki dasavleT saqarTvelo iyo.
(damateba)

is Camoyalibebis saqmeSi qarTvelebs miuRiaT monawileoba imiT, rom

miwa-wyali lazikis eparqiisa


konstantinopolis sapatriarqos trapezuntis samitropolito lazikeSi,
rogorc gairkva, mdebareobda miwa-wyalze trapezuntidan TiTqmis vanis tbamde,
radganac aq mdebareobdnen misi kaTedrebi andakisa, olnutisa, xorZenasi, bizanasi, paipertisa (baiberdisa), lerionisa da sxva. rogorc TviT samitropolitos saxeli `lazika~ uCvenebs, konstantinopols miaCnda, rom aRniSnuli miwawyali eTnikuri qarTvelebiT iyo dasaxlebuli. ramdenad SesaZlebelia, rom
trapezuntidan vidre vanis tbamde areali qarTvelTa sacxovrisi yofiliyo? p.
ingoroyvas miaCnda, rom `saqarTvelos interesebi am mxareTa mimarT imiT iyo
gamowveuli, rom `aRmosavleTis~ es teritoriebi (`zemoni qveyanani~), mdebare
evfratisa da araqsis xeobaTa zemo nawilebSi (karini-Teopolisis mxare, basiani
da mimdgomi Temebi), antikur xanaSi saqarTvelosTan iyvnen dakavSirebulni,
qarTuli tomebiT iynen dasaxlebulni, qarTveli saxelmwifo moRvaweebi miznad
isaxavdnen saqarTvelos Zveli istoriuli teritoriebis gaerTianebas qarTvelTa
samefos farglebSi~ (p. ingoroyva, g. merCule, 1954, gv. 65).
`aRmosavleTis qveynebze~, anu teritoriebze _ Teodosiopolisidan (arzrumidan) vanis tbamde, bizantia rom aRiarebda qarTvelTa uflebebs, miuTiTebs is xelSekrulebebi, romelic ideboda bizantiasa da saqarTvelos Soris, romlis mixed-

10

moicavda istoriuli alzis miwebs, xolo TviT am eparqiis arsebobis


epoqaSi iq mdebareobda `alznikis~, igive arzanenas olqi, romelic
korduenas (korCaikis) olqs esazRvreboda. SeuZlebelia etimologiurad
erTmaneTTan ar davakavSiroT `alz~ da `laz~. aseve `kordu~ da
`qarTu~. n. adoncis mosazrebiT, armenielebis mosvlamde aRniSnuli
miwa-wyali, korduenadan vidre kavkasiis mTebamde, qarTvelebiT iyo
dasaxlebuli, Semdeg mosul armenielebs es qarTuli mosaxleoba or
nawilad gauyvia _ samxreTisa da CrdiloeTis qarTvelebad, xolo
maT Sua TviT armenielebi dasaxlebulan. marTlac, `korduena~ anu
`kordus qveyana~ _ migvaniSnebs iv. javaxiSvilis Tavdapirvel `qarTu~ - `kardu~ qveyanas, saidanac gamosula yvela qarTuli tomi, maT
Soris megrul-Wanuric. n. adonci dabejiTebiT, ramdenjerme aRniSnavs Tavis naSromSi `armenia iustinianes epoqaSi~, rom somexi xalx-

viTac iberielebs SeeZloT arabebis mier daWerili Teodosiopolisis da `aRmosavleTis~ yvela im qalaqebis daWera, romelTac gaaTavisuflebdnen (iqve, gv. 65).
male qarTulma laSqarma did warmatebas miaRwia, radganac TviT konstantine porfirogenetis sityviT, aRniSnuli miwa-wylis qalaqebisa da soflebis
mosaxleoba qarTul laSqars yovelmxriv exmareboda, xolo es mosaxleoba did
winaaRmdegobas uwevda bizantiur jars. sabolood, bizantiam daadgina sazRvari
saqarTvelosTan konstantine porfirogenetis epoqaSi (X s-is Sua wlebSi). is
gadioda md. araqsze. imperatori TviTonve wers _ `sazRvrad basianis (fasianis)
mxareSi dadgenilia mdinare araqsi anu fasisi; iberielebis samflobelod rCeba
marcxena (CrdiloeTi) nawili, romelic akravs iberias, xolo marjvena nawili
(samxreTi), romelic akravs Teodosiopoliss, Tavisi cixeebiTa da soflebiT
uerTdeba Cvens sabrZanebels (bizantias). ase rom, mdinare dadgenilia sazRvrad
am or samflobelos Soris~ (iqve, gv. 66). magram qarTuli mxare amiT ar dakmayofilda da eZebda saSualebas, raTa vanis tbis mimdebare qveynebic gaeTavisuflebina. es mimarTuleba saocnebo da sanetaro iyo qarTvelebisaTvis, radganac
iqaur mkvidr mosaxleobas gaumZafrda erovnuli TviTSemecneba, maT ukve eZleodaT saSualeba daufaravad ganecxadebinaT, rom eTnikurad da erovnulad
qarTvelebi iyvnen. amitomac, qarTul laSqarsa da qarTul saxelmwifos aq
yvela gza exsneboda mkvidri mosaxleobis mxardaWeris gamo. bizantiamac gadawyvita barda skliarosis ajanyebis CaxSobis Semdeg es mxareebi gadaeca saqarTvelosaTvis. kerZod, ki gadasca daviT did kurapalats _ qarTvelTa mefes. `saxeldobr, saqarTvelos X s-is bolos SemouerTda Semdegi provinciebi: 1. TviT Teodosiopoli anu karini (Tanamedrove arzrumi), Tavisi TemiT, romelic dasavleT
evfratis xeobaSi mdebareobs; 2. cixe xaltoi-ariWi da masTan mdebare klisura
amave dasavleT evfratis xeobaSi; 3. Cormairis Temi _ mdinare Woroxis saTaveebTan; 4. samxreT basianis Temi mdinare araqsis xeobaSi; 5. cixe sevuki Tavisi
TemiT (mardaliis kantoni) mdinare araqsis saTaveebTan; 6. harqisa da 7. apahunis
provnciebi aRmosavleT evfratis (arawanis) xeobaSi (ix. asoRiki, 1883, gv. 192)~.
978-990 wlebSi, Cans, imis gamo, rom valaSkertisa da bagrevandis vinaobagamoRviZebulma qarTvelobam miipatiJa, saqarTvelom SemoierTa aRmosavleT evfratis xeobis miwebi.
990 wels amave xeobaSi qarTvelebma aiRes qalaqi manaskerti da aqedan
musulmanebi gandevnes, qalaqi ara marto somxebiT, aramed, adgilobrivi qarTvelebiTac dausaxlebiaT. taodan, klarjeTidan da, miT umetes, Sida qarTlidan iseT
daSorebul vanis tbasTan mdebare qalaqSi qarTvelebs ver Camoasaxlebdenen,
amitomac asoRikis cnoba, rom qarTvelTa samefom qalaqi manaskerti qarTvelebiT

11

daasaxla, unda mianiSnebdes mimdebare provinciebSi mkvidri qarTvelebis mosaxleobis Sesaxeb, Tumca iqve, valaSkertis qarTuli saepiskoposos arseboba am
faqts adasturebs, miT umetes, rom es saepiskoposo mravali saukune arsebobda,
rac miuTiTebs, rom misi mrevli maxlobel qalaqebsa da soflebSic cxovrobda.
`X s-is 90-ian wlebSi qarTvelTa samefos sazRvrebma vanis tbamde miaRwia. 997 wels qarTvelebma alya Semoartyes vanis tbis napiras mdebare mniSvnelovan qalaq xlaTs, 998 wels qarTvelebma ukuaqcies musulmanTa didi
koalicia da qarTvelTa samefos sazRvari miitanes qalaq arWeSis sanaxebamde
(vanis tbis Crdilo-aRmosavleT sanapiromde) (iqve, gv. 68).
qarTulma jarma X s-Si gmirulad gaaTavisufla dampyroblebisagan erovnuli
teritoriebi vanis tbamde, magram es mouTmeneli aRmoCnda bizantiisaTvis. male,
mefe giorgi I-is dros, man arabebisagan gaTavisuflebuli aRniSnuli miwawyali saqarTvelos CamoarTva da Tavis imperiaSi Seiyvana, ramac asaxva hpova
saeklesio iurisdiqciaSic, kerZod, rogorc aRiniSna, am miwa-wyalze daarsebuli iqna konstantinopolis trapezuntis samitropolitos kaTedrebi (vidre
TiTqmis vanis tbamde). konstantinopolis sapatriarqom rom aRiara am miwawylis mrevlis eTnikuri qarTveloba, iqidan Cans, rom man am eparqias uwoda
`lazika~, anu `trapezuntis samitropolito lazikaSi~.
sabolood unda vTqvaT, rom saxelwodeba `lazika~ miuTiTebs aRniSnuli
regionis mrevlis qarTvelobis Sesaxeb.
ori iurisdiqcia vanis tbamde
berZnuli wyaroebis Tanaxmad, VI s-is dasawyisidan dasavleT saqarTvelo
iyo sparseTis xelSi. Cvens mier garkveulia, rom sparseTis mefe xosros
dasavleT saqarTveloSi ar ulaSqria. is petras miadga ara lixis qedis mxridan, aramed artaani-artanujis gziT, Teodosiopolis-dvinis mxridan. igi miadga
arsianis qeds, romelic gadalaxa artanujis gziT da Semdgom Woroxis gayolebiT miadga petras. es gza umoklesia im mimarTulebiT, sadac idga petras
omis win sparseTis laSqari. (idga q. dvinTan). jarisTvis ara mxolod usargeblo iqneboda Sori lixis qedis da mTeli dasavleT saqarTvelos gavliT
Sesuliyo petraSi, aramed araracionaluric. amas verc aitanda sparsuli laSqari,
Tundac dasavleT saqarTvelos Waobebis cieb-cxelebis gamo. cnobilia, rom
qveyana petrasTan, romelic sparsulma laSqarma gaiara, lazikad iwodeboda.
prokofi kesarielis dabejiTebuli cnobebiT, es iyo kldovani mxare, rogoricaa, marTlac, artaan-artanuj-Woroxis is mxareebi, sadac gaiara, Cveni azriT,
xosrom da swored es mxare iwodeboda lazikad samxreTiT mimdebare (xufaT-

12

rize) mxaresTan erTad. n. adoncisa da p. ingoroyvas kvleviTac, aRniSnuli


mxare (e.i. klarjeTi da e.w. `bolo klarjeTisa zRvispiri~) lazikas ekuTvnoda.
V s-Si vaxtang gorgasalma aRniSnuli artanuj-artaanis gziT isargebla,
X s-Si ki artanuji am gzis wyalobiT, romelic SavizRvispireTs aerTebda
armeniasTan da iberiasTan _ konstantine porfirogenetis cnobiT, did qalaqad
iqca. vaxtang gorgasalis dros sazRvari bizantiasa da saqarTvelos Soris,
xufaTze ido (xofTan), radganac `bolo klarjeTisa zRvispiri~ saqarTveloSi
Semodioda. saqarTvelos meore CrdiloeTis sazRvari ki ido mdinare klisuraze (cxumTan). VI s-Si, roca sparseTma iberia daipyro, mTeli iberia mis
xelSi aRmoCnda aRniSnul sazRvrebamde. iustinianes mefobis dasawyisSi bizantiis sazRvari, n. adoncis cnobiT, gadioda rizes axlos. iustinianes dasWirda
omi da Zalisxmeva, raTa bizantiis sazRvari gadaetana Woroxis SesarTavamde,
sadac man petras cixe aago.
yovelive aRniSnuli gvesaWiroeba lazikis adgilmdebareobis gansazRvrisaTvis. iqamde, anu iustinianes mefobis dasawyisSi, roca imperiis sazRvari
rize iyo, lazika erqva teritorias trapezuntis maRla _ ziganadan rizemde.
es iyo Zveli lazika. magram iustinianes dros gaCnda axali lazika. es iyo
rizedan Woroxamde moqceuli axladdapyrobili teritoria klarjeTis CaTvliT. erTi sityviT, lazika daerqva axal miwebsac petras cixis samxreTiT. es
Cans iustinianes novelidanac, sadac is lazikisa da WaneTis Sesaxeb ambobs.
swori iyo n. adonci, rom `lazikeSi~ fazisis mitropolitis saepiskoposoebi
_ rodopolisis, saisinisa, petrasi da ziganasi mdebareobdnen ara dasavleT
saqarTveloSi, aramed trapezuntis mTianeTSi, cnobil qalaq ziganas regionSi.
am qveyanas erqva kidec imJamad lazika, e.i. mxares ziganas CaTvliT rizes
gaswvriv. xolo mas Semdeg, rac iustinianem rizes CrdiloeTi vidre Woroxamde
miuerTa Tavis imperias _ am axal miwebsac `lazikis~ saxeli miekuTvna (es
mitaceba miwisa sparseTma Tavis winaaRmdeg mimarTul saqmed miiCnia, radganac
iberiis politikuri memkvidreoba dasakuTrebuli hqonda. iberiis sazRvari ki
bizantiasTan, rogorc aRiniSna, xufaTTan (xofTan) gadioda. misi gadalaxva
sparseTis sawinaaRmdego qmedeba iyo. arabebis Semosevis Semdeg bizantiam dakarga teritoriebi e.w. `maRal armeniasa~ da, saerTod, `did armeniaSi~. dasavleT
armeniaSi gaerTianebuli iyo Zveli qarTuli miwebi. arabebisagan gaTavisuflebis Semdeg, vrceli miwa-wyali trapezuntidan vanis tbamde, eklesiuri TvalsazrisiT `lazikad~ iwoda, rac iqidan Cans, rom mitropoliti `trapezuntisa
lazikaSi~ Tavisi kaTedrebiT am vrcel teritoriaze iyo ganfenili (trapezuntidan TiTqmis vanis tbamde). maSasadame, eklesiuri TvalsazrisiT, konstanti-

nopoli lazikas uwodebda vrcel teritorias Woroxis SesarTavidan trapezuntamde da trapezuntidan vanis tbamde. am erTgvari rkalis SigniT moqceuli
iyo saqarTvelos sapatriarqos saepiskoposoebi. maSasadame, aRniSnul teritoriaze, Woroxis SesarTavidan trapezuntamde da trapezuntidan vanis tbamde,
xorcieldeboda ori marTlmadidebluri iurisdiqcia _ konstantinopolisa da
mcxeTisa, antioqiasac, rogorc miiCneva, aq ramdenime eklesia ekuTvnoda.

13

14

lazika _ e.w `somxeTSi~


p. ingoroyvasa da m. CxartiSvils ganxiluli aqvT is areali, sadac
iqadages wmida grigol ganmanaTlebelma da wmida ninom. kerZod, grigolis
cxovrebaSi moxazulia areali, sadac iqadaga wmida grigolma taodan _ kaspiis
karamde, aseve, movses xorenacis mier moxazulia wmida ninos qadagebis areali
_ klarjeTidan masquTebamde, anu kaspiis karamde. es ori areali erTmaneTs ar
kveTs, Tumca erTmaneTs uSualod emijnebian. kerZod, gansazRvrulia wmida
ninos samwyso. esaa klarjeTis CrdiloeTiT, ufro zustad, im xazis CrdiloeTiT moqceuli mxare, romelic iqmneba klarjeTisa da masquTeTis SeerTebiT,
mis samxreTiT mdebare areali, anu taodan igive masquTeTamde, anu kaspiis
karamde _ grigolis arealia. ase rom, gansazRvruli iyo samwyso qarTuli
eklesiisa. amJamad, CvenTvis sainteresoa, rom klarjeTis CrdiloeTiT mdebare
mxare, dasavleT saqarTvelo, visi moqmedebis arealSia, wmida ninosi Tu wmida
grigolisa. am sqemis mixedviT dasavleT saqarTvelo ar SeiZleba iyos wmida
grigolis moqmedebis arealSi, radgan is mdebareobs klarjeTis CrdiloeTiT
(Crdilo-dasavleTiT), e.i. is wmida ninos arealia. cnobilia, rom wmida grigolis cxovrebis mixedviT _ wmida grigolma lazeTSi gaagzavna Tavisi espikoposi, aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, es lazeTi aris ara dasavleT saqarTvelo,
aramed klarjeTis samxreT-dasavleTiT mdebare mxare, anu Wanika-trapezuntis
regioni, marTlac, somxuri wyaroebis egris qveyana mdebareobda ara dasavleT
saqarTveloSi, aramed moicavda trapezuntis mxareebs. imave wyaroebiT egri,
Wanivi, manrili da lazivi _ Teodosiopolis-trapezunts Sua mdebareobda da
ara dasavleT saqarTveloSi. arabebisa da somxuri saeklesio uRlisagan gaTavisuflebis Semdeg, trapezuntidan vanis tbamde ganivrco konstantinopolis
sapatriarqoSi Semavali lazikis samitropolito, romlis mrevli iyvnen eTnikuri qarTvelebi da ara e.w. somexi qalkedonitebi. Sesabamisad, lazikis saepiskoposoebi iyvnen ara somexi qalkedonitebi, aramed qarTvelTa samRvdelTmTavro
kaTedrebi.
11.11.08.