You are on page 1of 16

jhb stjhbf mfhsdtkb [fk[bc xfvj.

fkb,t,bc lhjbc itcf[t,


\\ cfereybc ,jkjc cfmfhsdtkjc cf[tkvobajv nthbnjhbbc vttmdctlb lf ifdb pqdbcgbhtsbc sbsmvbc yf[tdfhb lfrfhuf^ fa[fptsblfy mfhsdtkt,bc ufvjltdybc itvltu ctgfhfnbcnt,b fw[flt,lyty^ hjv vfsvf vwbhthbw[jdfyvf thvf sfdbcb df;rfwj,bsf lf uvbhekb cekbcrdtst,bs cfvij,kjc vbof-o.fkb lfbwdf lf jregfynt,b cfrflhbcfl lffvfhw[f& vfhsfkbf^ xdty dbwbs^ se hf b.j yfvldbkb vbptpb^ vfuhfv lfvfhw[t,fcsfy thsfl dbodybts ufvjltdybc cbhw[dbkbc cbvofht lf mfhsdtksf utyjwblb& rjyrhtnekfl dby lfvfhw[lf^ hjvtkb yfobkb cfpjufljt,bcf( fk,fs .dtkf thsfl& fhvbfv^ vsfdhj,fv^ byntkbutywbfv^ bcnjhbrjct,vf^ cfcekbthj ojlt,fv^ cfpjufljt,bc .dtkf atyfv eylf bndbhsjc obkb lfvfhw[t,bcf& fk,fs f[kf cfzbhjf fhf sfdbc vfhskt,f^ fhfvtl fyfkbpb^ se hf b.j vbptpb fvbcf& ths-thsb vbptpb lfvfhw[t,bcf eylf .jabkb.j vjdktybc fhcib cfpjufljt,bc ufehrdtdkj,f^ fhfbyajhvbht,ekj,f^ hjwf [fk[vf^ vbs evtntc rjyakbmnib eiefkjl vjyfobkt vt,hjkt,vf fh bwjlyty dby b.j vfhsfkb lf dby vn.efyb^ [fk[bcfsdbc ewyj,b b.j ztivfhbnt,f^ cbvfhskt lf cbyfvldbkt& f[kfw rb^ fvltyb e,tleht,bc itvltu^ xdtyb cfpjufljt,f rdkfd ufehrdtdkj,bc ,ehecibf^ ]th rbltd dth ufhrdtekf^ dby fhbfy fa[fpt,b& thsb it[tlekt,bs fa[fpt,b tsybrehfl mfhsdtkt,b fhbfy^ itcf,fvbcfl mfhsdtkt,bc mfhsdtkt,sfy rjyakbmnb^ vbs evtntc jvb ecfvfhskjf^ vtjhtyb fv,j,ty^ hjv fa[fpt,b vfhsfkbf^ fh fhbfy mfhsdtkt,b^ vfuhfv fa[fptsb vfsb cfvij,kj mdt.fyff lf itcf,fvbcfl^ vfsb mvtlt,fyb sfdlfwdbsbf^ vtcfvtyb fv,j,ty^ hjv fa[fpt,b cbyfvldbktib fhbfy xhlbkj rfdrfcbblfy fa[fptsib fhwse lblb [ybc oby xfvjcf[kt,ekb ew[jtkt,b^ hjvtksfw^ fv;fvfl ew[j fkt,bc lf[vfht,bs vrdblhb mfhsdtkt,b ufvjltdytc fa[fptsblfy^ itcf,fvbcfl^ dtkb bcnjhbekb fa[fpt,b fhbfy fhf bcbyb^ fhfvtl mfhsdtkt,b& dbc lfde]thjs(! tct bub^ xdty fhf udfmdc fv ghj,ktvbc vbvfhs xfvj.fkb,t,ekb cbvfhskt^ vfiby hjwf vjobyffqvltubcfsdbc .dtkfathb yfstkbf& fa[fpt,b ittwflyty rbltw vstkb vcjakbjc obyfit sfdbfysb #cbvfhskbc@ ofhvjxtyfc^ ufhrdtekobkfl itktc mfhsdtksfsdbc cf[tkbc ufnt[f lf vbbqtc rbltw itcf,fvbcb ohtt,bcfufy lf[vfht,f^ ufycfresht,bs rb xhlbkjrfdrfcbtkt,bcf lf rfpfrt,bc v[hblfy& #tuht vnhbcf fh vtibybc^ hflufy w[flfl vfo.byfhj,c^ vj.dfhtcf vnthcf deahs[b^ vtvj.dht,f^ vjwbyfhj,c@ _ hecsdtkbc fv cnhjabs bo.t,c lblb bkbf sfdbc #mdfsf qfqflc@ lf ufyfuhj,c cbn.dt,bs^ hjvtkbw lqtcfw vfhst,ekbf% #xdtybcsfyf lf,hb.dt,ekb^ lf,fk qj,tl vbxytekb thb^ xdtybcsfyf cf[tkufnt[bkb ytkfl se c[df vjbgjdt,f ltlfvbobc pehupt& dbyw uyt,fds^ ptl udf,jnt,c fy udmtkfdc lf vbofcsfy udfcojht,c^ kfvbc rfdrfcbbc mtlc fmts xdtyb [ctyt,f uffxfyfujy@& #mdfsf qfqflbc@ lfothblfy ufdblf fc otkpt vtnb& cf,tlybthjl^ vnthvf mfhsdtksf [ctyt,f dth uffxfyfuf rfdrfcbbc mtlc fmts^ vfuhfv lf,t]bst,bs eylf dsmdfs^ fv;fvfl ctgfhfnbcnek bcnjhbjuhfabfib uf,fnjyt,ekb t&o& #mfhsbpfwbbc@^ ufmfhsdtkt,bc stjhbf mfhsdtksf [ctyt,fc fxfyfut,c kfvbc kb[bc mtlbc bmbs^ fqvjcfdkts lf cfv[hts cfmfhsdtkjc lbl yfobkib& ctgfhfnbcnb bltjkjut,b vcjakbjib fdhwtkt,ty vjcfpht,fc^ sbsmjclf hbjybc [tj,f lf vstkb lfcfdktsb cfmfhsdtkj fa[fpt,bc edtktcb cfw[jdhbcbf^ hfw sbsmjclf njgjybvbrbsfw lfcnehlt,f lf mesfbcbw fvbnjv b.j fa[fpsf cfvtajc ltlfmfkfmb^ fa[fpsf fv mdt.fyfib mfhsdtkt,vf ~t&o& mfhst,vf` v[jkjl |+++-\ cfereytt,ib itvjfqobtc^ uf,fnjylyty bm^ sfdbfysb tyf sfdc vjf[dbtc fa[fpsf trktcbfc^ cf,jkjjl rb tsybrehb fa[fpt,b bekt,ekb uf[lyty vbtnjdt,byfs sfdbfysb cfvij,kj ~t&b& lfcfdktsb cfmfhsdtkj` lf vsbfyb htubjybcfsdbc ittafht,byfs sfdb tyuehcf lf rjljhc bmbs^ f[kf rb \\ cfereytib vfs mfhsdtkt,b fmtlfyfw uftdt,fc egbht,ty& cfvoe[fhjl^ tc fhbc bcnjhbjuhfabfib cfrvfjl ufdhwtkt,ekb sdfkcfphbcb^ hjvtkvfw /gjdf rbltdfw itcf,fvbcb 1

fcf[df cfufyut,j kbnthfnehfib& vfufkbsfl^ vjcrjdib f[kf[fyc lfcnfv,ekb #ghfdjckfdyfbf tywbrkjgtlbf@-c + njvib fa[fptsbc vbvfhs ufvjsmvekbf bubdt sdfkcfphbcb _ hjv sbsmjclf fhf,sf vg.hj,tkj,bc lhjc ~buekbc[vt,f |+++-\ cfereytt,b` mfhskbc vjcf[ktj,f vfcbehfl uflfcf[klf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib lf bm reknehbcf lf cftrktcbj cathjib sfylfsfy itbnfyf mfhsekb tyf^ hjvtkbw fm uflfbmwf qdsbcvcf[eht,bcf lf fubjuhfabbc tyfl& itcf,fvbcb ntmcnb fctsbf% . , - , . , . . () , ( , . +. . 2000, . 68). hecek ef[kjtc tywbrkjgtlbfib ufvjsmvekb fv vjcfpht,bc sfyf[vfl^ mfhsekb tyf vbbxytdf fhf cfthsj mfhsekb tsyjcbc tyfl^ fhfvtl v[jkjl fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vjcf[ktj,bc tyfl ~buekbc[vt,f t&o& mfhsbc njvb`^ hjvtkbw sbsmjclf fhf,j,bc lhjc vfcj,hbdfl uflfcf[kt,ekf ~vbuhbht,ekf` lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib lf bm cftrktcbj lf reknehbc cathjib itenfybf sfdbcb cfnjvj tyf^ hjvtkbw fm erdt cftrktcbj tyfl uflfmwtekf& tcff ufvjf[bkb wyj,bkb mfhsbpfwbbc stjhbbcf^ hjvkbc vb[tldbsfw |+++-\ cfereytt,ib vj[lf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc t&o& mfhsbpfwbf^ lf fvbs lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vjcf[ktj,bc mfhsdtkb [fk[bc j]f[ib itvjcdkf^ vfs vbth mfhsekb tybc itsdbct,f^ fvfdt cfereytt,ib sbsmjclf vbvlbyfhtj,lf cfv[hts cfmfhsdtkjc vrdblhb mfkrtljybnb cjv[t,bc ufmfhsdtkt,f lf bmdt vw[jdht,b c[df njvt,bc mfhsbpfwbf^ fctdt vbbxytdf^ hjv sbsmjclf sdbs fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc lbl yfobkibw fynbreh [fyfib w[jdhj,lf /thek-fk,fyehb lf xtxyeh-lfqtcnyehb vrdblhb vjcf[ktj,f lf sbsmjclf mfhst,vf fvfdt tgjmfib vjf[lbytc fv njvt,bc mfhsbpfwbf lf itcf,fvbcfl fv vjcf[ktj,bc mfhsdtkb [fk[bc j]f[ib itvjcdkf& fb^ fct sfylfsfy xfvj.fkb,lf thsbfyb mfhsdtkb [fk[b^ vfuhfv vbcb xfvj.fkb,t,bc eahj cfdfhfelj gthbjlfl vbbxytdty |+-\+ cfereytt,c& tc fhbc mfhsdtkb [fk[bc xfvj.fkb,t,bc itcf[t, ths-thsb stjhbf^ xdty vfc itbkt,f deojljs cf,zjsf stjhbf^ hflufyfw cojhtl cf,zjsf tgjmfib uf,fnjylf rbltw tc stjhbf bnjhbjuhfabfib& xdtyb [fk[bc xfvj.fkb,t,bc itcf[t, cek c[df sdfkcfphbcb b.j dtk mfhsek bcnjhbjuhfabfib^ hjvtkcfw mdtvjs itdt[t,bs& hectsib ufvfh]dt,bcsfyfdt ,jkitdbr-rjveybcnt,vf sfdlfgbhdtkfl bcnjhbf hjujhw vtwybtht,f frhfktc^ vfuhfv vfktdt uflfo.dbntc bc sfdbc cfvcf[ehib xft.tyt,byfs^ itmvytc f[fkb t&o& vfhmcbcnek-ktybyehb fye cf,zjsf bcnjhbjuhfabf& vbcb cf,jkjj vbpfyb b.j bctsbdt^ hjujhw vtatsf lhjbyltkb hectsbc [tkbceakt,bcf _ gfnfhf tht,bc bcnjhbfsf uf.fk,t,f vfsb cohfab fcbvbkfwbf-ufhect,bc vbpybs^ vfuhfv cf,zjehb bcnjhbjuhfabf bybq,t,jlf t&o& vfhmcbpv-ktybybpvbs^ hjvtkbw rfwj,hbj,bc uf,tlybtht,fc bcf[fdlf vbpyfl& xdtyb mfhsekb cf,zjsf tywbrkjgtlbbc sfyf[vfl^ #bcnjhbbc vfnthbfkbcnehb ufut,f vtwybthekb /bgjstpblfy uflfbmwf vrfwh vtwybthek stjhbfl@ ~MCT^ 5^ cnfnbf #bcnjhbjuhfabf@^ ud& 243` lf #uf,fnjyt,ek ,eh;efpbfcsfy ,hjkfib ufydbsfhlf vfhmcbcnekb vbvfhsekt,f bcnjhbjuhfabfib@ ~MCT 5^ 243`& dby b.dyty cfmfhsdtkjib #uf,fnjyt,ekb ,eh;efpbekb bcnjhbjuhfabbc@ ofhvjvflutykt,b^ hjvkt,sfyfw ,hjkfib #ufydbsfhlf vfhmcbcnekb bcnjhbjuhfabf@( tc b.j lblb bkbf zfdzfdft lf vbcb sfyfvjfphtyb _ lblb mfhsdtkb bcnjhbrjct,b^ frfrb othtstkb^ lbvbnhb ,fmhft^ bfrj, ujut,fidbkb lf c[dfyb^ hjvtksfw #bcnjhbrjcbc@ nbnekb w[flbf xfvjfhsdtc cf,zjsf tgjmfib^ [jkj cfyfwdkjl se hjujh vbfybztc #vfhmcbcn-,jkitdbrbc@ cfgfnbj ojlt,f lf itb.dfytc cf,zjsf [tkbceakt,bc itvflutykj,fib ~` #mfhsbpfwbbc@ aetvlt,tkb^ vtwybthb^ hjvtkcfw bkbf t,hjlf^ fvfc mdtvjs itdt[t,bs& 1917 okbc ,jkitdbrehb uflfnhbfkt,bc itvltu #itbmvyf gbhj,t,b bvbcfsdbc^ hjv vfhmcbcnekb vbvlbyfhtj,f bcnjhbjuhfabfib bcnjhbekb vtwybtht,bc bhbsflb vbvfhsekt,f ufvj[lfhb.j vstk cf,zjsf rfdibhib& cf,zjsf bcnjhbekb vtwybtht,f .fkb,lt,jlf ,eh;efpbek-vtvfvekehb lf vtyitdbrehb bcnjhbekb rjywtawbt,bc&&& bcnjhbbc c[df lfvvf[by]t,tksf obyffqvltu vbvfhsek vfah blteh ,hjkfib@ ~MCT^ 5^ ud& 243`& 2

fctdt xfvj.fkb,lf mfhsekb cf,zjsf bcnjhbjuhfabfw^ hjvtkbw uffasht,bs t,hjlf #htfmwbekcf lf bltfkbcneh@ vfvfgfgtek bcnjjhbjuhfabfc vfhmcbcnekb gjpbwbt,blfy@ ~bmdt^ 244`^ hfsf fh vjv[lfhb.j #sfdbcb mdt.ybc hjkbc ufpdbflt,f vcjakbj bcnjhbfib@ ~bmdt^ ud& 244` lhjvjzvek bcnjhbek ofhvjlutyfsf lfktdbc ghjwtcbcfc@ ~bmdt^ ud& 244`& rjveybcnt,vf bcnjhbjuhfabfcsfy thsfl kbyudbcnbrfw sfdbcb bltjkjubbc cfzbhjt,bcfsdbc ufvjb.tytc& .dtkfcfsdbc yfstkbf lf ytkb lfcf]tht,tkbf^ hjv cf,zjsf bcnjhbjuhfabbc evsfdhtcb stjhbt,b lf ljuvt,b cfcfhut,kj b.j cfmfhsdtkjcfsdbc& rthjl^ mfhsdtkb [fk[bc xfvj.fkb,t,bc ghj,ktvfcsfy lfrfdibht,bs cfzjsf bcnjhbjuhfabfv bveifdf hfvltybvt fstekb otkb lf sfdbc evsfdhtc vjyfgjdhfl ufvjfw[flf mfhsbpfwbbc stjhbbc itmvybcfsdbc yf.jabthb itvltub ljuvf% _ #vrdktdfhsf sdfkoby uflfbifkf reknehekb ufydbsfht,bc eo.dtnb ]fzdb^ hfw kbyudbcnehb rdktdf-bt,bc vjyfwtvt,sfy thsfl efh.jac flht ufdhwtkt,ek vjcfpht,t,c rfdrfcbbc vjcf[ktj,bc tsybrehb itvflutykj,bc thsbfyb itwdkbc itcf[t, lf mfhsd& lf c[df rfdrfcbehb njvt,bc edtktc cfvij,kjl rfdrfcbbc vbof-o.fkc udfdfhfelt,byt,c@ ~bmdt^ ud& 245`& rbltd ths[tk eylf dsmdfs^ hjv rjveybcnvf bltjkjut,vf sfdbfyssdbc cfcfhut,kjl vbbxybtc efht.js dtkmfhsek vfnbfytt,cf lf cfbcnjhbj tukt,ib uflvjwtvekb rjywtawbf xdtyb thjdyekb atcdt,bc itcf[t,^ hjv cfmfhsdtkj ~hjujhw lfcfdktsb^ bct fqvjcfdktsb yfobkb` edtktcb [fyblfydt v[jkjl mfhsekb vjcf[ktj,bs b.j lfcf[kt,ekb lf hjv fv fhtfkpt mfhsdtksf ufvjxtybc itvltu c[df ew[j njvt,b fh w[jdhj,lyty& ptvjs fqybiyekb cf,zjsf stjhbf cbyfvldbktib vbvfhsekb fhbc edtktc mfhsek o.fhjt,ib uflvjwtvekb vjcfpht,t,bc obyffqvltu& .jdtk dtk thc^ hjvtkbw ,b,kbehb [fyblfy xylt,f bcnjhbbc fcgfhtppt^ sfdbc edtktc sfdlfgbhdtk cfvij,kjl iefvlbyfhtsb lf vfcsfy vbvlt,fht mdt.yt,b vbfxybf^ cflfw lfbhof frdfyb rfwj,hbj,bcf& fctsbdt b.j dtkmfhsekb sdfkcfphbcb cfmfhsdtkjib cflqfw cfv[htsblfy mfhsdtksf uflvjcf[kt,bc se mfhsekb gjkbnbrehb wtynht,bc uflvjnfybc itcf[t, cfv[htsblfy xhlbkjtsbc vbvfhsekt,bs& vfs fm mhbcntij,fvlt +|-+++ cfereytt,ib itemvybfs thsbfyb cf[tkvobaj mfhskbc cfvtaj^ hjvkbc lfcfdkts cfpqdfhc ofhvjflutylf ifdb pqdf lf vlbyfht tuhbco.fkb ~f[kfyltk fa[fptsib`^ [jkj fqvjcfdktsbs fv cf[tkvobajc cfpqdfhb fqotdlf fk,fyts-cjv[tsfvlt& fv mdt.ybc vjcf[ktj,f b.j thsb [fk[b^ tuhbctkt,b^ vfhudtkt,b^ lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc c[df ]ueat,b^ fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vjcf[ktj,fcsfy thsfl thsb tybc vmjyt [fk[c ofhvjflutylf^ hjvtkvfw itmvyf rbltw tc cf[tkvobaj& #vjmwtdfb mfhskbcfbc@ fv sdfkcfphbcpt lf.hlyj,bs \++ cfereybc vjqdfot fhcty ,thb othlf% #xdty idbkyb dfhs vfs fhbfy mfhskbs ufvjceksfyb lf tyfb vfsb deo.bs@ ~tuk& n& +++^ ud& 47` fye fhcty ,thb uflvjcwtvlf dtk mfhsek sdfkcfphbcc^ hjv tsyjcb^ vw[jdht,b ifdb pqdblfy dblht cjv[ts-fk,fytsfvlt^ thsudfhjdfyb b.j lf fv [fk[bc ltlf tyf b.j mfhsekb tyf^ sevwf fk,fs lbfktmnt,b bv;fvflfw fhct,j,lf^ vfuhfv w[flbf^ fv 2400-2300 okbc oby tc lbfktmnt,b ufwbkt,bs eahj f[kjc bluyty thsvfytssfy lf^ vfifcflfvt^ aet mfhsek^ fye cf[tkvobaj tyfcsfy& fvbnjvfw itkj rbltw fv tybc ufdhwj,f afhyfdfpvf bv;fvbyltk mfhskbc cfvtajib fye #.jdtk mfhskib@^ hjvtkbw afmnbehfl tvs[dtjlf lqtdfyltkb cfmfhsdtkjc vbof-o.fkc lf vfcib fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjcsfy thsfl lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjw itlbjlf& #ufyfdhwj tyf mfhsekb lf fhqfhf bphf[t,jlf c[df tyf mfhskcf ibyf sdbybth mfhsekbcf lf fvfy itmvyf vobuyj,hj,f mfhsekb@ ~#mfhskbc w[jdht,f@^ ud& 26`& #mfhskbc w[jdht,f@ lf,t]bst,bs fvnrbwt,c^ hjv afhyfdfpbc cf[tkvobajib tuhbcb^ cdfytsb lf fhudtsb cfthbcsfdjt,c ofhvjflutylyty c[df cfthbcsfdjt,sfy thsfl& vfifcflfvt^ vstkb fv fhtfkbc vjcf[ktj,bc cf[tkvobaj lf reknehbc tyfc mfhsekb tyf ofhvjflutylf& dtkmfhsekb stjhbbs mfhsekb tyf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib ufdhwtklf fhf |+++-\ cfereytt,ib^ hjujhw vbbxytdc pjubthsb cf,zjsf stjhtnbrjcb^ fhfvtl sfdlfgbhdtkfldt ofhvjflutylf cf[tkvobaj tyfc& fv cfrbs[c mdtvjs eahj ufvjodkbkdbs dt[t,bs& fmdt eylf fqbybiyjc^ hjv xdtyc vfnbfytt,ib ufvjsmvekb rjywtawbbc sfyf[vfl^ gbhdtkb mfhsekb cf[tkvobajc lhjbcfsdbc vstkb cfmfhsdtkjc nthbnjhbf ufovtylbkb b.j bm flht vw[jdht,b fkpt vwbhthbw[jdfyb ew[jnjvtkt,bcfufy& ptvjs fqybiyekb cf,zjehb stjhbbs rb cfmfhsdtkjib mfhsdtkt,sfy thsfl fhfmfhsdtkb rfdrfcbehb njvt,bw w[jdhj,lyty^ hjvtksf mfhsbpfwbf fye ufmfhsdtkt,fw sbsmjclf [lt,jlf dblht \ cfereytvlt&

tuhbcb^ cdfytsb lf fhudtsb ~itvltulhjbyltkb bvthtsb` afhyfdfp vtabc cfvtajib itlbjlf cfthbcsfdjsf cf[bs% afhyfdfpvf #vbcwf me]bc met.fyf _ tuhbco.fkcf lf hbjyc ief &&& hjvtkcf ibyf fhc tuhbcb lf cefytsb lf lffvnrbwf bub thbcsfdfl vey@ ~bmd& ud& 24`& #afhyfdfp vtat bmvyf .jdtkcf mfhskcf lf tuehcf ptlf@ ~bmdt^ ud& 24`& buekbc[vt,f tuhbccf^ cdfytscf lf fhudtsib mfhsekb tyf _ afhyfdfpbc lhjblfydt b.j ufdhwtkt,ekb^ afhyfdfpb dthfdbsfhb bekt,bs itkt,lf fm mfhsekb tybc ufdhwtkt,fc^ tc tyf hjv fh .jabkb.j fm vjcf[ktj,bc vij,kbehb^ ltlf tyf^ eylf dbuekbc[vjs^ hjv vtvfnbfybc lf cfthsjl dtkb mfhsekb bcnjhbjuhfabbc sdfkcfphbcbs bv tgjmfib^ fye mhbcntij,fvlt 400-300 okbs flht t&o& mfhst,c lf vtuhtk-zfyt,c ijhbc tyj,hbdb ufyc[dfdt,f v[jkjl lbfktmneh ljytpt fhct,j,lf^ fye aet mfhsekb tyf ]th cecnfl b.j lbathtywbht,ekb& bv[fyfl t&o& mfhst,bcf lf tuhbctkt,bc rbkjt,b ]th rbltd fh b.dyty tyt,fl uflfmwtekyb lf thsvfytsbc vbvfhs lbfktmnt,c ofhvjflutylyty^ fhct,j,lf pfyeh-mfhsekb tyj,hbdb thsj,f _ ]th rbltd cfthsj^ cf[fk[j^ cfpjuflj tyf& bub ofhvjflutylf mfhskbc cfvtajc .dtkf res[bc tyfc lf vfc eojlt,c vtvfnbfyt _ mfhsek tyfc& fvfdt sdfkcfphbcc eahj lf,t]bst,bs fdbsfht,c \++ c-bc wyj,bkb bcnjhbrjcb fhcty ,thb^ hjvtkcfw ptvjs itdt[ts& f[kf rb ufydfuhjs xdty vtvfnbfytsf vnrbwt,fsf wbnbht,f^ hjv lfcfdktsb cfmfhsdtkj eo.dtnfl itlbjlf thsbfyb mfhsekb cf[tkvobajc _ #mfhskbc cfvtajc@ itvflutykj,fib% lfluf vjwbmeksf tgjmf^ mhbcntij,bc itvltu + cfereytf^ vjwbmekt,vf^ rthjl rb ovblf fylhbf gbhdtkojlt,ekvf vjofatt,bsehs bmflfuf rkfh]tscf lf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib ~tuhbcib`^ fvbc itltufl vrdblhvf vjcf[ktj,fv vbfnjdf dtkb h]ekb^ vtvfnbfyt othc% #dbsfhwf tcvf vtatcf flthrbc vtuhtksfufy h]ekbcf lfntdt,f^ ufyeo.hf lf ofhfdkbyf thbcsfdyb vbcyb lf bekt,bs refkfldt vjfmwbdyf vtuhtkyb lf lfvfkytc [fnyb lf ]efhyb lf ithbc[f vtat flthrbv thbcsfdb rkfh]tsbcf vidblj,bs ufyntdt,bcfsdbc vjwbmekbcf@ ~m&w& +& ud& 42`& w[flbf^ mfhskbc vtat ew[j thbcsfdt,c dth lfc]blf^ cfv[hts lf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkj bv;fvbyltkb cfmfhsdtkjc bhbsflb yfobkt,bf& +-++ cfereytt,bc b,thbbc cfvtajc cblbfltc fqothty bv;fvbyltkb ,thtyb lf kfsbyb bcnjhbrjct,b _ nfwbnecb^ lbjy rfcbecb lf c[dfyb^ b,thbf rfdrfcbbc vfcinf,bs ekbthtc cf[tkvobajl uflfbmwf^ fk,fytsb vbcb ufdktybc cathjib itlbc^ cjv[tsb _ afmnbehfl b,thbbc cf[tkvobajc yfobkflfw rb bmwf _ cjv[tsbc cfvtaj nf[npt vtatt,fl b,thbtk eakbcoekt,c cdfvty^ pju]th cjv[tsbc nf[npt sdbs mfhskbc vtat flbc& hjvbc bvgthfnjht,b b,thbtkb vtatt,bc uekbc vjut,fc wlbkj,ty^ afhcvfy ++ bvgthfnjhvf flhbfytv cnevhfl vbbodbf hjvib^ vfuhfv mfhsdtksf vtatv mtlvfqkehfl efhb ufyfw[flf lf hjvib fh xfdblf^ vjvltdyj bvgthfnjhc rb afhcvfy ++-v gfnbdb cwf lf vteqkbsf lf lblb fvfkbs hjvib uftvupfdhf^ cflfw vfc cfptbvj it[dtlhf vjeo.tc^ bvgthfnjhc rbltd eahj ufeafhsjdt,bf vbcb cfvtajc cfpqdht,b^ itlbjlf se fhf vbc cfvtajib lfcfdktsb cfmfhsdtkj^ xdtyb vtvfnbfybc sfyf[vfl itlbjlf% afhcvfy ++-bc tc fvfpfcgc ufyeluyty rkfh]tsbc lf tuhbcbc thbcsfdt,b^ cgtwbfkehb nthvbybsfw rb vjb[ctybt,lyty vfs _ #lfcfdktsbc thbcsfdt,b@& #ufylutc thbcsfdyb lfcfdktsbcfyb [esyb jhyb thbcsfdyb tuhbcbcfyb^ thsb jhf[bcf^ thsb rkfh]tsbcf lf thsb oeylbc@ ~m&w& +& ud& 57`^ sevwf vfkt vtatc bcbyb itvjehbut,bf& afhcvfy ++-bc cfvtajib hjv itlbjlf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vybidytkjdfyb yfobkb vfbyw^ fvbc itcf[t, wyj,bkb kfsbyb bcnjhbrjcb fhbfytw othc^ hjvtkbw 131 otkc vjupfehj,lf ifdb pqdbc gbhfc& itcf,fvbcfl^ mfhsekb tyf _ lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib afhyfdfpbc lf vjwbmekt,bc lhjblfydt b.j ufdhwtkt,ekb^ ovblf ybyjc lhjcfw lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkj mfhskbc cfvtajib itlbc _ vtat vbhbfyb vtaj,lf _ #mfhskc^ cjv[bsc^ hfyc^ /thtsc^ vjdfrfyc lf tuhc@ ~m&w& +& ud& 65`^ #fmdylf tuhbcbwf^ dblht tuhbco.kfvlt@ ~m&w& +& ud& 70`& fvbnjvfw othc rbltw lf,t]bst,bs hebc-eh,ybcbc rht,f^ hjv ovblf ybyj fhbc fhf v[jkjl fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc^ fhfvtl lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vjcf[ktj,bc ufyvfyfskt,tkb lf othc sfdbc tukbcothfib^ hjvtkbw trktcbbcfsdbc cf[tkvqdfytkj ztivfhbnt,fc ofhvjflutylf% ovblf ybyjv #cfhoveyjt,bcf vbvfhs sdbcbcf vbbpblf .jdtkb cfdct,f .jdkbcf mfhsdtksf yfstcfdbcf@ ~lblb c]ekbc rfyjyb^ 1975^ ud& 546`* fctdt^ hebc-eh,ybcbc rht,bc ufycfpqdht,bs^ eahj flht^ fylhbf gbhdtkojlt,ekvf ufyfyfskf fhf v[jkjl lfcfdktsb cfmfhsdtkj^ fhfvtl fqvjcfdktsbw& #gbhdtkojlt,ekb fylhbf^ vfb sfdbcf vjwbmeksfbcf gtnhtcb dblht xetyfvlt vjbobf lf mflfuf mflfut,fb cf[fht,bcfb .jdtkcf mdt.fyfcf cfmfhsdtkjbcfcf@ ~bmdt^ ud& 545`* vfifcflfvt^ fylhbfv #.jdtkcf mdt.fyfcf cfmfhsdtkjbcfcf@ bmflfuf^ hjujh( cfmvt bcff^ hjv fv rht,bc sfyf[vfl mdt.fyf vskbfyb^ thsbfyb b.j^ thsb [fk[bs lfcf[kt,ekb^ fvbnjvfw ov& vjwbmekbc lfcfdkts 4

cfmfhsdtkjib mflfut,f _ erdt vstk cfmfhsdtkjib^ vstk mdt.fyfib mflfut,fc uekbc[vj,lf lf fctdt^ hflufyfw ovblf ybyjc lhjc mdt.fyf^ thb^ thsbfyb b.j^ ovblf ybyjw #.jdtksf mfhsdtksf ufyvfyfskt,tkbf@^ cflfw fh eylf tmflfuf vfc^ fv mdt.ybc ibuybs& fvbnjvfw othc vtvfnbfyt _ hjv ovblf ybyjc lf ovblf vbhbfybc [tkmdti ~[tkcf metit vfscf` _ #yfstkc bqt,lf .jdtkb mfhskb@ ~m&w& +& ud& 115`* .jdtkb mfhskb _ tc tuhbcb^ fhudtsb^ cdfytsb lf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc c[df res[tt,bf fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjcsfy thsfl& vbhbfybc vtvrdblhbc dfhfp ,fmfhbc lhjcfw tuhbcb _ .jdtkb mfhskbc yfobkbf^ vfc itvltu hfw^ vfc ,thyt,vf rkfh]tsb offhsdtc #lfhxf dfhfp ,fmfhc sdbybth rkfh]tsbcf /thtsb lf tuhbcb@ ~bmdt^ ud& 137`* df[nfyu ujhufckbc cb.hvbc lhjc ,thyt,vf vbbnfwtc #.jdtkb mfhskbc@ yfobkb lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib vlbyfht tuhbco.kblfy dblht wb[t-uj]fvlt _ #ufvjdbltc ,thtyyb fa[fptsbs^ hfvtse ,thtysf /mjylf tuhbco.fkc metvjsb .jdtkb lf lfbg.htc ,thtysf tuhbco.kblfy wb[t-uj]fvlt^ vfiby bmvyf ukjdf lf oe[bkb .jdtksf mfhsdtksf ptlf@ ~m&w& +& ud& 146`* bv ;fvbc ltdbpb .jabkf #dt,yts cfpqdfhb mfhskbcf ,thtysfufy@ ~m&w& +& ud& 146` _ fye cfpqdfhb tuhbco.fkpt& vtvfnbfybcfsdbc tuhbctkt,b _ mfhsdtkt,bf lf bcbyb oe[fy sfdbfysb mdt.ybc yfobkbc lfg.hj,fc& itvlujv df[nfyu ujhufcfkb ufkbthlf^ wjkfl vjb.dfyf ,thtysf bvgthfnjhbc mfkb^ hjvtkcfw vfvfv vpbsdfl ufvjfnfyf nthbnjhbf vl& tuhbco.kblfy vl& rkbcehfvlt^ tc nthbnjhbf ittvfnf #.jdtk mfhskbc cfvtajc ~bmd& ud& 177`& lfxb vtabc cfvtajc cfpqdfhb vl& rkbcehfpt uflbc ~bmdt^ ud& 205`& mfhskbc cfvtajc cfpqdfhvf tuhbco.kblfy rkbcehfpt uflfbyfwdkf& |++ c& 20-bfyb okt,blfy ,thyt,vf rdkfd it,qfktc mfhskbc cfvtajc cfpqdfhb pqdbc gbhpt _ vfs^ rthjl rb /thfrkt rtbcfhvf vbbnfwf mfhskbc cfvtajc pqdbcgbhf yfobkb _ #vfiby ofhbqtc ,thtysf cfpqdfhb mfhskbcf^ cgthb lf ,jkj rkfh]tsbcf^ pqdbcgbhb@ ~m&w& +^ ud& 226`& fv lhjc /thfrkt rtbcfhc vbenfwybf pqdbcgbhf nthbnjhbf vl& rkbcehblfy _ rkfh]tsbc ,jkjvlt^ mdt.ybc lfyfhxtyb nthbnjhbf _ #c[df .jdtkb mfhskb lfbg.hf flfhyfct ,frehbc tvfy@ ~bmdt^ ud& 226`& vfuhfv xdtyb o.fhjc sfyf[vfl^ .jdtkb mfhskbc nthbnjhbf vlbyfht rkbcehfvlt ,bpfynbbc bvgthfnjhvf fhf,sf itvjctdt,bc itvltu erfydt lfe,heyf mfhskbc vtatt,c& fvbc itcf[t, cfufyut,j ,hfyt,f ufeupfdyf bv;fvfl bvgthbbc cfpqdht,ib itvfdfk fa[fptsbc thbcsfdc% #.jdkfldt cfpqdfhsf mfhskbcfsf xdtyufy mvybk fhc dyt,f&&& fhfvtl rtsbkfl gfnbdc wtvlb vtatsf lf thsf vfufs mfhskbcfsf lf fvbthbsufy yehqfhf [tkvtobat,bc dyt,fsf vfslf lf cfpqdfhsf vfssf tuhbcfsf@& vfifcflfvt^ ,bpfynbbc bvgthfnjhbc ,hfyt,f fa[fpsf thbcsfdbc vbvfhs fctsbf% gfnbdb dwts lf yeqfh lfdfhqdtds mfhskbc cfvtajc cfpqdht,c tuhbcib^ vlbyfht rkbcehfpt& bv;fvfl fa[fptsb thmdf nthbnjhbfc vlbyfht rkbcehblfy vlbyfht .e,fyfvlt ~#vwbht [fpfhtsbc@ vlbyfhtvlt` lf bub itlbjlf bvgthbfib& [jkj lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc c[df lfyfhxtyb evtntcb yfobkb _ #tuhbcb^ cefytsb^ sfrethb^ fhuetsb lf uehbf@ itlbjlf mfhskbc cfvtajc itvflutykj,fib& fvbnjvfw vtat cntafyjpvf lf vbcvf idbkt,vf vbhvf lf fhxbkvf vehdfy .hec lhjc sfdb itfafhtc sfdbcb mdt.ybc fv itlfht,bs lfwek yfobkc& vfuhfv vehdfy .hew uflfdblf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib lf lffvfhw[f mfhsdtkb vtatt,b^ knjkdbkt,vf sfdb itfafhtc ,bpfynbbc bvgthbfc^ rthjl^ uflfkf[tc mfhskbc cfcfpqdhj vlbyfht rkbcehf lf itdblyty fa[fptsib^ ,bpfynbbc [tklt,ek mdt.fyfib _ #vtatyb ofhdbltc tuhbcfl lf veybs refkfl vbbwdfkytc fa[fptsfl& ~vehdfyb` iteluf rdfkcf vfscf &&& itdkj pqelt bub cfpqdfhb rkbcehbcf^ hjvtkb b.j cfpqdfhb cf,thytsbcf lf cfmfhsdtkjcf lf itvechf mfkfmb faibktsbcf w[evb lf vjfluf wb[tcf fyfrjabbcfcf& vey ibyf b.dytc vfiby vtatyb mfhskbcfyb vbh lf fhxbk@ ~m&w& +& ud& 256`& cf,tlybthjl^ qdsbc itotdybs^ fhf,sf ]fhb lfvfhw[lf lf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkj fhf,t,vf vbfnjdtc& fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib^ s,bkbcib vfs vrdblhfl lfbltc ,byf^ fvbnjvfw mfhsdtkvf vtatt,vf cntafyjpvf^ vbhvf lf fhxbkvf |++ c-bc ,jkjcf lf |+++ cfereytib uflfo.dbntc sfdbcb cfvtajc lfcfdkts yfobkib mesfbcib uflvjtnfyfs ltlfmfkfmb& wb[t-uj]bw ths-ths cfnf[njl b.j vjfpht,ekb& fvbc ybiyfl cntafyjpbc ufhlfwdfkt,bc itvltu vtat vbhb e,hfyt,c sfdbc vfc^ fhxbkc^ hjv vtat cntafyjpbc ytinb lfrhfkjc mesfbcib _ #hfsf bgjdjc bub ~t&b& m& mesfbcb` cfofvt,tkfl cfvrdblhjcf xdtybcf@ ~m&w& +& ud& 241`& fvfdt vjcfpht,bs ,hfyt,c itvlujv vtat fhxbkb #eo.btc ityt,f flubksf xdtysf rkbcehbsufy fqvfhs lf lfdtityt,b wb[t-uj]cf lf mesfbcc@ ~m&w& +& ud& 242`& itcf,fvbcfl^ mfhskbc cfvtajc f[fk wtynht,ib^ wb[t-uj]cf lf mesfbcib lffcdtytc mfhsdtk vtatsf cfvtaj ybiyt,b^ vtat df[nfyu ujhufckbcf lf vtat vbhbfybc cfvtaj udbhudbyt,b ~bmdt^ ud& 255`& hjujhw wyj,bkb fhbc^ fhf,t,vf vjcgtc df[nfyu ujhufckbc isfvjvfdfksf dtkb cfvtaj lbyfcnbf^ fofvtc ovblf vtat fhxbkb^ mfhskbc vtat vbhc rb t^ df;bidbkb fh /.fdlf& fvbnjvfw vfy uflfo.dbnf sfdbcb mfkbidbkt,b vbts[jdt,byf mfhskbc thbcsfdt,bcfsdbc lf 5

vfssdbc uflftwf cfvtaj eakt,t,b& vtvfnbfybc vb[tldbs cbtt,vf vbbqtc cfvtaj vtvrdblhtj,f lf bojlyty vtabc tt,fl lf vt,fl& fv mfhskbc thbcsfdsf hbw[dc itethslf fa[fpsf thbcsfdb ktjy +^ vfy itbhsj vbh vtabc mfkbidbkb uehfyle[nb^ fvbs bc bojlf mfhskbc vtatsf tl lf vfl uehfyle[nbcfufy rb vbbqj bmfvlt mfhskbc vtatsf cfvtvrdblhtj vbofo.fkb^ #tuhbcb^ cdfytsb^ sfrdthb^ fhudtsb lf uehbf@& ktjycdt^ dbsfhwf mfhskbc vtatsf ktubnbvbeh vtvrdblhtc^ uehfyle[nbc mvfhc^ uflftwf cbvfvhbc^ vbh mfhskbc vtabc cfvtaj udbhudbyb& fct xfvj.fkb,lf fa[fpsf cfvtaj dbsfhwf mfhskbc cfvtajc ktubnbvbehb cfvtvrdblhtj lf itbmvyf f[fkb cf[tkvobajt,hbdb thstekb^ hjvtkbw ofhvjflutylf ufuhtkt,fc lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib mfhskbc cfvtaj vtvrdblhtj,bcf& fvbnjvfw w[flbf^ fm ,eyt,hbdfl cf[tkvobaj tyf b.j mfhsekb tyf lf w[flbf^ fctdt reknehbcf lf qdsbcvcf[eht,bc tyfcfw mfhsekb tyf ofhvjflutylf& tsybrehfl lfcfdkts lf fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vjcf[ktj,f b.j thsb [fk[b thsb cf[tkvobaj tybsf lf thsb reknehbc tybs& fa[fpsf cfvtajc fqybiyekb ibyfufyb sdbct,t,bc ufvj evfkdt fa[fpsf vtatt,vf ptlbptl uffemvtc ,thyektyjdfyb cftgbcrjgjcjt,b lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib lf vfs yfwdkfl rb fqflubytc bm mfhsektyjdfyb qdsbcvcf[eht,f&

hjujhw d[tlfds^ mfhsekb o.fhjt,bc lf,t]bst,ekb vnrbwt,bs lfcfdktsb cfmfhsdtkj vtat afhyfdfpbc lhjblfy fa[fpsf cfvtajc ofhvjmvyfvlt mfhskbc cfvtajc ewbkj,tk itvflutytk yfobkc ofhvjflutylf^ bm vw[jdht, vjcf[ktj,fc ,bpfynbbc bvgthfnjhb mfhsekb o.fhjt,bc sfyf[vfl^ #mfhskbc thc@ eojlt,c ~m&w& +^ ud& 226`^ [jkj fv cfvtajc cfpqdfhc vl& tuhbco.fkcf lf rkbcehfpt _ eojlt,c #mfhskbc cfpqdfhc tuhbcib@ ~bmdt^ ud& 226`& mfhskc ew[jtkt,b b,thbfc eojlt,lyty^ fvbnjvfw ew[jeh o.fhjsf vnrbwt,bs lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc _ #mdtvj b,thbf@ tojlt,jlf dtksfufydt ~fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc rb #ptvj b,thbf@`& tsybrehb sdfkcfphbcbs lfcfdkts lf fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vjcf[ktj,fw thsb tsyjcbf^ thsb [fk[bf^ ]th rbltd /trfnjc vbktntkvf^ mhbcntij,fvlt 600 okbs flht vbfmwbf bv vjdktyfc .ehflqt,f^ hjv vbcb lhjbc rjk[t,b lf fhfyfrkt, cf[tkjdfyb #vjc[t,b@ thsb tsyjcb^ thsb njvb^ vfifcflfvt^ thsb tybc vfnfht,tkb vjcf[ktj,f b.j _ #vjc[t,c d&o& |+ c& ,thtyb fdnjhb /trfnjc vbktntkb #rjk[eh njvc@ tf[bc@ ~yfhrd& +& ud& 395`& se rb mhbcntij,fvlt 600 okbs flht rjk[t,b lf vjc[t,b thsb njvb^ vfifcflfvt^ thsb tybc vfnfht,tkb [fk[b b.j^ vbs evtntc eahj flht dtkb rjk[tsbc cfvtajc kbtht,bc lhjc^ rbvthbtkt,bc itvjctdfvlt^ t&b& d&o& \+-|+++ cc-ib rjk[ehb reknehf w[flbf _ thsbfyb mfhsekb reknehf b.j lf fhf hjvtkbvt wfkrt mfhsekb njvbc reknehf& ubjhub vtkbmbidbkb [fpufcvbs vbesbst,lf fvbc itcf[t, sfdbc yfihjvt,ib _ #fv lhjc mfhst,cf lf vtuhtk-zfyt,c ijhbc tyj,hbdb ufyc[dfdt,f sbsmvbc fh b.j^ v[jkjl cdfyehb hfvltyflvt lfijht,ekb b.j cfthsj mfhsdtkehc^ sevwf #rjk[ehb reknehf@ lf dtkb rjk[tsbc cfvtaj vfsfw vjbwfdlf ~yfhrd& +& ud& 389`& itcf,fvbcfl fcrdyblf rbltw vtwybthb _ fvbnjvfw vjc[t,bc #rjk[eh njvfl@ vj[ctyt,f /trfnjc vbktntksfy^ cfthsjl vfs mfhsdtkj,fpt vbesbst,c lf vtuhek zfyeh ofhvjvfdkj,fpt fhfathc kfgfhfrj,c@ ~bmdt^ ud& 395`& rjk[ehb reknehbc vfnfht,tkb [fk[bc tyfc u& vtkbmbidbkb mfhsb-pfyehc eojlt,c fye tcff #aet tyfcsfy@ f[kjc vlujvb cfthsj mfhsekb tyf^ hjvtkbw cfthsj tyf b.j hjujhw vjc[t,bcfsdbc ~t&o& mfhst,bcfsdbc`^ fctdt bv;fvbyltkb pfyt,bcfsdbcfw& hjujhw xfyc^ frfl& u& vtkbmbidbkbc fv vjcfpht,fc fh bpbfht,c pjubthsb f[fkb bcnjhbrjcb^ vfufkbsfl^ f[kf[fy ufvjwtvek obuyibf% #rjk[tsbc cf[tkvobajc itvmvytkt,b b.dyty lfcfdkeh mfhsekb reknehbc vfnfht,tkb pfyehb ~vtuhek-zfyehb` njvt,b& hfw itt[t,f b,thbfc ~mfhskc`^ fqvjcfdkeh mfhsekvf njvt,vf b,tht,vf ~mfhst,vf` itmvytc d&o& |+-+++ cc& vb]yfpt@ ~h& sjaxbidbkb^ #mfhsdtksf tsybrehb bcnjhbf^ 2002^ ud& 5`& xdty^ w[flbf^ dtsfy[vt,bs /trfnjc vbktntkcf lf c[df fdnjht,bc ufvjodkbkdbsb fyfkbpbc itltufl vbqt,ek u& vtkbmbidbkbc lfcrdyfc^ vbs eahj^ hjv vstkb dtkb mfhsekb bcnjhbjuhfabf bvfcdt fvnrbwt,c^ hjv edtktcb lhjblfy lfcfdkts lf fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vjcf[ktj,f thsb tsyjcb^ thsb [fk[b^ thsb tybc vmjyt tsyjcb b.j& vbcb tyf fhbc cojhtl bc tyf^ hjvtkcfw^ hjujhw bsmdf^ dtk cfmfhsdtkjib #mfhsekc@ eojlt,lyty& /trfnjc vbktntkblfy cek jhb-cfvb cfereybs lfijht,ekb fv,t,bc fqothbcfc xdtyb 6

vtvfnbfytw fvfdt sdfkcfphbcc fdbsfht,c^ hjv mhbcntij,fvlt 400-300 okbs flht gbhdtkb thsbfyb lfcfdkts lf fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vjvwdtkb thsbfyb mfhskbc fye cfmfhsdtkjc cf[tkvobajc thbc tyf fhbc mfhsekb tyf lf fv tybc ufhlf fv cfvtajib c[df tyt,b fh #bphf[t,bfy@& tc tyf afhyfdfpvf ufvjfw[flf rbltw cf[tkvobaj tyfl& rjk[t,b lf vjc[t,b ~t&o& mfhst,b` hjv thsb [fk[bf^ tc c[df dtk fdnjhsf vfcfkblfy lf fctdt njgjybvbrblfyfw xfyc& fvbnjvfwff^ hjv lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib pfyt,sfy thsfl vtc[ehb lf cdfyehb njvt,b w[jdhj,ty^ ths nthbnjhbfpt lf bcbyb fhf vfhnj vsbfy^ fhfvtl ,fhbc nthbnjhbfptw xfyfy ufdhwtkt,ekyb& kfyx[esb^ ajsb lf cj[evb cdfyehb njgjybvt,bf c& ]fyfibfc vb[tldbs ~yfhr& +& ud& 341`& vtc[t,b lf vtuhtk-zfyt,b thsb tybc vfnfht,tkb njvb hjv b.j ths lhjc^ tc bvbs xfyc^ hjv t&o& #pfybpvt,b@ ~pfyehb njgjybvt,b` efvhfdbf vtc[tscf lf cfthsjl fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib^ hfw eylf vbdbxybjs t&o& mfhsbpfyehb ]th rbltd fhflbathtywbht,ekb tybc njgjybveh yfisfl lf fhf vnrbwt pfybpvfl& vtjht v[hbd^ dtkb fdnjht,bc lf,t]bst,ekb vnrbwt,bs^ b,tht,b ifdb pqdbc gbhfc vjcf[ktj,ty^ gkbybecbc vb[tldbs^ fb^ fm^ ifdb pqdbc gbhfc^ #vst,c bmbs fhbc b,thbf@^ fhbfytc vb[tldbs rb ifdbpqdbcgbhf pjkpt lfcf[kt,ekb fhbc blhbnt,bc b,thsf vtabc mdtitdhljvb njvb& ghjrjab rtcfhbtkbc vb[tldbs^ lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib lfcf[kt,ekb fhbfy dtksfufydt b,thsf mdtitdhljvb vtc[t,b& sfdbc v[hbd cnhf,jyc #rjk[tsbc fqothbkj,fib yfsmdfvb fmdc^ hjv fm #vjc[t,bc mdt.fyfib vlt,fhtj,c ktdrjsbfc cfvkjwdtkj^ ahbmctc vbth fut,ekb vbcb cfvbcyj@ ~yfhr& +& ud& 584`^ ahbmct rb^ hjujhw wyj,bkb fhbc^ rjk[tsib lftidf lf fmdt b.j ktdrjsbfc nffhb^ tc rb vjc[t,bc mdt.fyf .jabkf& njgjybvb #vtc[tsb@# f[kfw rb fhbc fv htubjyib^ f[kjc fqvjxylf rbltw dtkb rjk[ehb cfvkjwdtkjt,b ~buekbc[vt,f dfybc fhmtjkjubehb ufs[ht,b`& fhw bc eylf lfdbdbo.js^ hjv cnhf,jybc vb[tldbs #cdfyt,c pjubthst,b b,thbek njvfl vbbxytdty@ (. , , #vfwyt@^ bcnjhbbc cthbf^ 1986^ =3^ ud& 64`& w[flbf^ fctsb njvj,hbdb bubdtj,f tuhbctkt,cf lf vtc[t,c^ t&o& #mfhst,c@ ijhbc hjujhw vfs ew[jtkb fdnjht,b fbubdt,ty& fhff itvs[dtdbsb^ fvbnjvfw othty ew[jtkb bcnjhbrjct,b^ hjv #kfpt,b _ #b,thbekb njvbf@ ~cfmfhsdtkjc cfvjwbmekj trktcbbc bcnjhbf^ 1995^ n& +& ud& 30-60`& sdbs dtkb rjk[ehb reknehbc fhtfkb^ sfdbc v[hbd^ fh itvjbafhukt,jlf v[jkjl cfmfhsdtkjc lfcfdktsbs^ gbhbmbs^ bub sbsmvbc afhfdlf sfyfvtlhjdt cfmfhsdtkjc lf cwbklt,jlf rbltw vbc cfpqdht,c^ rthjl fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc wtynhfkeh hfbjyt,sfy thsfl rjk[ehb reknehf vjbwfdlf xhlbkj rfdrfcbbc wtynhfkeh htubjyc lf fvfcsfyfdt cfv[htsbs fqotdlf sfyfvtlhjdt xhlbkj cjv[tsbc erblehtc othnbkfvlt _ ctdfybc n,fvlt& dtkb mfhsekb o.fhjt,bc lf,t]bst,ekb vnrbwt,fc^ hjv lfcfdkts-fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vjcf[ktj,f thsb tybc vfnfht,tk tsyjcc ofhvjflutylf^ tsfyflt,f cjv[ehb edtktcb o.fhjt,b& bcbyb fctdt lf,t]bst,bs fvnrbwt,ty^ hjv mfhsdtkb [fk[bc sfdlfgbhdtkb cfw[jdhbcb rfdrfcbfib fhbc lfcfdktsb cfmfhsdtkj& dtk cjvt[ bcnjhbrjcsf lf,t]bst,ekb vnrbwt,bs lfcfdktsb cfmfhsdtkj^ vbofo.fkb^ cflfw itvlujv fa[fpsf cfvtaj ofhvjbmvyf^ mfhsdtksf edtktcb cfw[jdhbcbf bcnjhbbc ufhb;hf;blfydt& vjdctc [jhtyfwbcf lf e[nfytcbc vbth vjs[hj,bk fv,fdib ,f,bkjybc vtat yf,emjljyjcjhbc ~d&o& |+ c&` vbth cfv[htsblfy ifdbpqdbcgbhtsib mfhsdtksf uflvjcf[kt,bc itcf[t, sfdbcsfdfl buekbc[vt,f ovblf othbkib ~,b,kbfib` vjwtvekb wyj,f bvbcf^ hjv xhlbkjtsbc [fk[t,b d&o& |+++_|++ cc-ib ]th cfv[htsib uflfcf[klyty^ itvlujv rb bcbyb erfydt lf,heylyty& mhbcntij,fvlt +\-|+++ cfereytt,ib rjk[tsc xhlbkjtsblfy itvjtcbdyty rbvthbekb njvt,b^ tc b.j ekbthtcb [fk[b ~mfhsdtkt,c vfsufy itvjhxtybfs cbn.df uvbhb`^ hjvtkbw rjk[tsbc cf[tkvobajt,hbj,bc vjcgj,bc itvltu ittcbf fpbbc [vtksfiefpqdbcgbhtsbc mdt.yt,c^ bkfimhf bchftkfvltw rb& fv lbl kfimhj,fc itbkt,f deojljs xhlbkjtsbc [fk[sf lblb uflfcf[kt,f^ bvltyfl vybidytkjdfyb b.j tc vjdktyf^ hjv ovblf othbkibw fbcf[f& #f/f^ vjde[vj, xhlbkjtsbc .dtkf njvc^ fv,j,c eafkb^ lf fdfv[tlht, fv mdt.fyfpt^ vbc vw[jdht,kt,pt lf bhudkbd .dtkf [fk[t,pt@ ~bthtvbf^ 25^ 9`& 7

xhlbkjtsbc [fk[t,bc lblb kfimhj,f bchftkib^ tc eakbc yt,f .jabkf& fv [fk[sf ijhbc^ ,b,kbbc rjvtynfnjht,bc ufyvfhnt,bs^ b.dyty #vjcj[bcf lf se,fkbc@ [fk[t,b ~mfhsdtkt,b`^ hjvtkybw sehvt fbekf ujubc ~rbvthbtksf` [fk[vf vfssfy thsfl tkfimhfs cfv[htsib& bchftkbc vst,fvltw rb vbeqotdbfs vfs lf^ hjujhw xfyc^ vjcj[t,c ufevfh]dybfs lf bm uf,fnjyt,ekfy rbltw^ hfw acfkveyibw fcf[ekf _ #dfbvt [bpfyb dfh vtitmbcf^ d,byflhj, rtlfhbc rfhdt,sfy@ ~acfkv& 119 ~120`^ 5^ ov& ,b,kbf^ cfmfhsdtkjc cfgfnhbfhmjc ufvjwtvf^ 1989 o&`& dby b.dyty vtitmt,b ~vjcj[t,b`^ hjvtksf [bpyfl uflfmwtekf ovblf vbobc xhlbkjtsbs vlt,fht mdt.yt,b( bv tgjmbcfdt^ mhbcntij,fvlt |+ cfereybc fdnjhb /trfnjc vbktntkb^ hjujhw bsmdf^ udfktdc wyj,t,c vfs itcf[t,% #vjcj[b _ rjk[ehb njvbf@^ vfifcflfvt^ vtitmt,b fye vjcj[t,b _ bc rjk[t,b fhbfy^ hjvtksfw rbvthbtksf bekt,bs xhlbkjtsblfy cfv[htsib bkfimhtc^ fye uflfcf[klyty^ hflufyfw tc kfimhj,f ths fy jh okbfyb fh b.j^ tc b.j cfereyjdfyb ghjwtcb& #f/f^ vjubctd [fk[c ijhblfy^ bchftkbc cf[kj^ fv,j,c eafkb^ vfuhfv dtkbcdtk [fk[c^ hjvkbc tyf fh utwjlbyt,f lf dth ufbut,^ hfc kfgfhfrj,c^ kbthb df;rfwt,b fhbfy .dtkfyb@ ~bthtvbf^ 5%5-16`& eakbc yt,bs bchftkbc cf[kc^ hjujhw dsmdbs^ vjcj[t,b itctdbfy ujubc ~rbvthbtksf` bekt,bs^ vjcj[t,b rb rjk[ehb njvb b.j^ hjvkbc tyf bchftkib fh cwjlybfs& vfsb ~rjk[t,bc tyf` u& vtkbmbidbkbc ufvjrdktdbc sfyf[vfl^ bv[fyfl mhbcntij,fvlt +\-|+++ cc-ib .jabkf ]th rbltd fhflbathtywbht,ekb cfthsj mfhsekb t&o& mfhsb-pfyehb tyf^ fv tybc lbathtywbfwbf f[fkb lfo.t,ekb .jabkf^ lf ]th rbltd fhct,j,lf tyj,hbdb thsj,f& sevwf eahj cfdfhfeljf^ hjv lbathtywbbc tc ghjwtcb ufwbkt,bs udbfy^ mhbcntij,bc itvltu lfbo.j& hjujhw bsmdf^ lfvfhw[t,ekb rjk[tsblfy mfhsdtkt,b uflfcf[kt,ekfy cfv[htsbc mdt.yt,ib^ vfuhfv vfktdt eafkc eyt,t,bf^ sfyf[vfl ovblf othbkbcf^ hjv bcbyb erfydt lf,heyt,ekb.dyty _ tptrbtkb f[ctyt,c rbltw cbn.dt,c #ufuf,heyt,@^ t&b& erfy lfuf,heyt,^ xhlbkjtsib^ cfblfyfw vj[dtlbs% #f/f^ itypt dfh uju^ hjibc^ veitmbc lf se,fkbc vsfdfhj^ ufuf,heyt,&&& sjhujvbc cf[kc^ xhlbkjtsbc rbltt,blfy vstkb sfdbcb ehljsb^ ehbw[db [fk[bsehs itysfy thsfl@ ~tptrbtkb^ 32%26`& vfifcflfvt^ cfv[htsib kfimhj,lyty [fk[sf ehljt,b^ ehbw[db hfjltyj,f^ vfs ijhbc sjhujvbc cf[kib itvfdfkb [fk[t,b^ vjcj[t,b^ se,fkt,b^ vfsb vsfdfhb b.j ujubc [fk[b^ .dtkfyb bcbyb erfydt^ sfdbc cfvij,kjib eylf lf,heyt,ekb.dyty& tc b.j obyfcofhvtn.dtkt,f tptrbtkbcf^ hjvtkbw^ w[flbf^ fqcheklf rbltw& ovblf othbkib fcf[ekbf utuvf^ se hbcsdbc byt,f eafkvf xhlbkjtsbc [fk[t,bc kfimhj,f bchftkib lf itvltu rb vfsb erfy lf,heyt,f ufhrdtekb cfc]tkbc cf[bs _ eafkc yt,fdlf^ hjv xhlbkjtsbc ofhvfhs [fk[t,c twyjs ztivfhbnb qvthsb^ eafkc yt,fdlf fhf [fk[t,bc cbrdlbkb lf ufmhj,f^ fhfvtl ufodhsyf% #vb[dlt,bfy [fk[t,b^ hjv vt eafkb dfh^ hjv ovblf dfh bchftkib@ ~tptr& 39%7`& #ofvjub.dfy xtvb [fk[bc obyffqvltu^ hjv vbwyjy [fk[t,vf^ hjwf dfxty xtvc cbovbltc ityib^ uju vfs sdfkoby@ ~tptr& 38%16`& f[kf^ eafkvf byt,f^ mfhsdtkt,b erfydt^ sfdbc cfvij,kjib lft,heyt,byf^ fctdt ufcfodhsytkfl& tc vjv[lfhf ,f,bkjybc vtat yf,emjljyjcjhbc [tkbs& tptrbtkbc fqybiyek ve[kc ufyvfhnfdty ,b,kbbc lblb rjvtynfnjht,b^ vfs ijhbc trktcbbc bcnjhbbc vfvfl ojlt,ekb tdctdb rtcfhbtkb lf ovblf bjfyt jmhjgbhbc cfertstcj vjofat tgbcrjgjcb stjljhbnt rdbhtkb& tc erfyfcrytkb othc% #uju lf vfuju crdbsehb njvt,bf^ [jkj vjcj[^ fv,j,ty rf,fljrbtkt,b fhbfyj^ sj,tk rb b,tht,bj&&& cf[kb sjujhvbcf ~sjhujvfcb` ahbubtkt,b fhbfyj &&& ahbubtkt,b lf ufkfnt,b lf b,tht,b &&& fv,j,c obyfcofhvtn.dtkb crdbst,sfy thsfl kfimhj,lyty &&& bekt,ekb uf[fltc vjyfobktj,f vbtqjs kfimhj,fib@ ~utjhubrf^ +^ ud& 223`& hjujhw bsmdf^ tptrbtkbc obyfcofhvtn.dtkt,f f[lf^ mfhsekb njvt,bc lblb yfobkb^ erfydt^ cfvij,kjib lff,heytc lff[kjt,bs rjk[tspt rbvthbtkt,bc itctdblfy 200-300 okbc itvltu& tc fct vjv[lfhf tdctdb rtcfhbtkbc ufyvfhnt,bs% #yf,emjljyjcjhvf^ hjvtkbw /thfrktpt eahj kbthb b.j^ vbc itvltu hfw cfjvfhb ]fhb itrhb,f^ vbfqobf kb,btksf mdt.fyfib lf b,thsf mdt.fyfib^ f]j,f vfs^ uffwfvndthf lf lfbvjhxbkf^ vfsufy thsb yfobkb uflffcf[kf vfy gjynjc pqdbc vfh]dtyf v[fhtpt lf bm lffcf[kf@ ~utjhubrf^ +^ 1961^ ud&30`& 8

bvfdtc othc stjljhbnt lf c[df efvhfdb dtkb fdnjhb& ufhrdtekbf^ hjv tdctdb rtcfhbtkb b.tyt,lf mhbcntij,fvlt +|-+++ cfereytt,ib vw[jdht,b bcnjhbrjcbc vtufcstytc wyj,fc& vfifcflfvt^ bthtvbf^ tptrbtkb^ /trfnjc vbktntkb^ vtufcstyt^ tdctdb rtcfhbtkb lf c[dfyb thscf lf bvfdt fv,fdc vjudbs[hj,ty _ mfhsdtkt,b d&o& |+++ c-lfy uflfcf[klyty cfv[htsib^ cfv[htsblfy vfsb thsb yfobkb |+ c-ib erfydt lff,heytc cfvij,kjib^ rthjl cfl( _ #gjynjc ~ifdb` pqdbc fqvjcfdkts v[fhtpt@ _ se rthjl^ hjvtkb b.j tc v[fht^ othty vjdctc [jhtyfwb lf e[nfytcb& #[jkj gjynjc yfgbhpt hjv lf,byfdlf^ bc njvb fqjhbylf^ ufvhfdklf pqdbc gbhfc fmts-bmbs^ vjtlj bv v[fhtc lf ufdhwtklf cjvt[sf lf fk,fysf cfpqdhfvlt itbmvyf ahbfl vhfdfkb [fk[b lf bv mdt.fyfc fa[fptsb tojlt,f@ ~e[nfytcb^ ufy.jabcfsdbc cjvt[sf lf mfhsdtksf^ ud& 67`& fb^ hjvtk mdt.fyfc tojlt,f fa[fptsb lf dby fhbfy fa[fpt,b! tctyb fhbfy bc b,tht,b^ hjvtkybw mhbcntij,fvlt 600 okbs flht lf,heylyty ifdb pqdbcgbhfc lf ufvhfdklyty^ vfs mdt.fyfc rb \ c-ib fa[fptsb tojlt,f^ tcff \ c& fdnjhbc wyj,f& tcff gfce[b bv rbs[dfpt^ hjvtkbw othbkbc lfcfo.bcib b.j lfcvekb _ dby fhbfy fa[fpt,b( \ cfereyt fa[fpsf cfvtajc elbltcb kbtht,bc lhj b.j& nfj-rkfh]tsbc cfvtajcsfy bc ]th rbltd fh b.j ufthsbfyt,ekb& fv lhjc vjqdfotj,lf e[nfytcb^ cfertstcj vwjlyt bv;fvfl mfhsdtkt,bc mdt.ybcf lf vbcb trktcbbcf^ fvbnjvfw vbfyltc rbltw itcf,fvbcb bcnjhbbc lfothf& bv;fvfl cjv[ehb bcnjhbjuhfabf bv lblb vfhw[bc ufvj^ hfw cjv[ehvf trktcbfv ufybwflf rbhbjy rfsfkbrjcsfy gftmhj,bcfc^ fkpt rhbnbrekfl lf vnhekflfw rb b.j ufyo.j,bkb mfhsdtksf vbvfhs^ fvbnjvfw e[nfytcb^ w[flbf^ vbtv[hj,jlf fa[fpt,c^ bcbyb mfhsdtkt,b hjv fh .jabkb.dyty lf vfs cfcfhut,kjl ofhvjfxtylf bcnjhbfc^ vfuhfv e[nfytcc fphflfw rb fh vjclbc fa[fpt,bc c[df [fk[fl ufvjw[flt,f^ vbcsdbc vfhskf fhct,j,c fa[fptsb _ dbsfhwf mdt.fyf^ vfuhfv vbcb vw[jdht,yb _ v[jkjl lf v[jkjl mfhsdtkt,b fhbfy^ vw[jdht,yb gjynjc pqdblfy cjv[ts-fk,fytsbc cfpqdhfvlt^ _ #bstcktc lf ufvhfdklyty ~gjynjc pqdbc gbhfc` lf uf[lf njvb^ hjvtkcfw sfdbc gbhdtk mdt.fyfib bdthbfc eojlt,lyty^ fm rb mfhsdtkyb tojlfs@ ~e[nfytcb^ ufy.jabcfsdbc&&&^ ud& 67`& bvfdtc eahj flht othlf vjdctc [jhtyfwb ~b[& cfmfhsdtkjc cfvjwbmekj trktcbbc bcnjhbf^ n& +^ ud& 107`& lfcfdktk mfhsdtkyb^ rthjl rb tuhbctkyb vfssdbc egbhdtktcb mfhsdtkt,bf^ fye bcbyb^ hjvtkybw ufvhfdklyty pqdbc gbhfc lf ffdctc dhwtkb mdt.fyf _ lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjlfy ueufhfmbc xfsdkbs ~tuehb _ ueufhmb`& #vjmwtdfb mfhskbcfbw @ _ edtktcb mfhsekb o.fhj fvfdt fv,fdc uflvjudwtvc _ cflqfw cfv[htsib b.j mfhsdtksf dtkb mdt.fyf _ #fhbfy-mfhskb@& fmtlfy bcbyb uflvjcf[klyty rfdrfcbfib lf lftcf[kyty ifdb pqdbcgbhtsblfy cjv[ts-fk,fytsfvlt^ fktmcfylht vfrtljytkvf vfs itemvyf cf[tkvobaj^ hjvkbc xhlbkj lfcfdktsb cfpqdfhb b.j vl& tuhbco.fkb^ lfcfdktsbs ifdb pqdf^ cfv[hts-fqvjcfdktsbs rb _ whjkbc vsf& ~vjmwtdfb mfhskbcfb^ dtkb mfhsekb fubjuhfabekb kbn& tukt,b^ +^ 1964^ ud& 81`&

|+++-\ cc-ib mfhsbc njvb fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjlfy lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib hjv uflfcf[kt,ekb.j lf bm fvbc itltufl ufdhwtkt,ekb.j mfhsekb tyf^ hjujhw othc ef[ktcb hecekb tywbrkjgtlbf^ tc twjlbyt,jlf fvfdt tgjmbc vjqdfotc e[nfytccf lf eahj flhbyltkb s[pekt,bc #vjmwtdfb mfhskbcfbc@ fdnjhc^ vfuhfv tc fv,fdb fhw ufeujybfs& #mfhskbc w[jdht,bc@ vb[tldbs thsbfyb mfhsekb cf[tkvobajt,hbj,bc xfvj.fkb,t,bc lhjc fktmcfylht vfrtljytkbc tgjmfib cfmfhsdtkjc vbof-o.fkpt ew[jtkt,b^ fhw rfdrfcbehb njvt,b w[jdhj,lyty mfhsdtksf ufhlf _ #lfbg.hf fktmcfylht .jdtkb mfhskb lf vjchf .jdtkb bub yfstcfdyb fqhtekyb mfhskc v.jayb lf ew[jyb bub yfstcfdyb vjchyf lf lffn.dtdyf lf ltlfyb .hvfyb ewt,yb^ s[esvtnbcf okbcf evwhjcyb lf lfentdyf yfstcfdyb mfhskjcbfyb@ ~m&w& +& ud& 18`& #mfhskbc w[jdht,bc@ vb[tldbs mfhskjcb _ mfhsdtksf tsyfhmb cfv[htsbc mdt.yblfy xfvjcf[klf mfhskib _ #mfhskjc vjdblf gbhdtkfl flubkcf vfc^ cflf itthsdbc fhfudb vnrdfhcf@ ~m&w& +& ud& 8`& 9

#vjmwtdfb mfhskbcfbc@ wyj,f mfhsdtksf cfv[htsblfy xfvjcf[kt,bc itcf[t,^ eahj f[kjf ptvjfqybiyek ew[jtk fdnjhsf sdfkcfphbcsfy^ fv edtktcb mfhsekb o.fhjc vb[tldbsfw mfhsdtksf cfvjcf[kj fhtfkib fhw thsb rfdrfcbehb njvb fh w[jdhj,lf mfhsdtksf ufhlf _ fktmcfylhtv bcbyb ufyltdyf _ #/jysf lfcwf vf[dbkb@ ~tuk& +& 1964^ ud& 81`^ mfhsdtkt,b lfc[lyty itvltu cfpqdht,ib% #sfyf /.dfylf fktmcfylhtc^ vtatcf fpjbcfb ^ t fhbfy mfhskbcf vtabcfb lf vbe,jf vw[tsf cf]ljvfl lf cfpqdfhb lfeldf vfc /thtsb lf tuhbc o.fkb lf cjv[bsb lf vsf whjkbcfb @ ~bmdt^ 81`& vfifcflfvt^ hjujhw vhfdfk]th fqbybiyf^ #vjmwtdfb mfhskbcfbc@ sfyf[vfl mhbcntij,fvlt itmvybkb gbhdtkb mfhsekb cf[tkvobajc cfpqdfhb lfcfdktsbs ifdb pqdf^ xhlbkj-lfcfdktsb vlbyfht tuhbco.fkb^ lfcfdktsb cfmfhsdtkjc ufhlf vfcib vstkb fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkj itlbc^ tcff thsb cf[tkvobaj^ lfcf[kt,ekb thsb mfhsdtkb [fk[bs^ vbc ufhlf fhwthsb c[df rfdrfcbehb njvb fm fh w[jdhj,c _ sfdbcsfdfl tuhbctkt,b^ cdfyt,b^ vfhudtkt,b lf f&i& mfhsdtkt,b fhbfy& tcff bc edtktcb stjhbf mfhsdtksf ofhvjij,bc itcf[t,^ hjvtkbw vskbfyfl ufyc[dfdlt,f y& vfhbc lf vbcb crjkbc vbth itmvybkb t&o& #mfhsbpfwbbc@ stjhbbcfufy^ hjvtkbw cf,zjsf bcnjhbjuhfabfv fbnfwf lf uff,fnjyf& fv stjhbbc vb[tldbs cfmfhsdtkjib mfhsdtksf ufhlf c[df rfdrfcbtk [fk[t,cfw dtksfufydt ew[jdhbfs^ hjvtkybw ufmfhst,ekfy _ bkbf zfdzfdft fvbnjvfw othlf% #fv weqkeneh vtwybthj,bs coflbfs mdt.fyf lff]thjy dbsjvw bcnjhbekb eakt,f vbeqdbs fv flubkt,ib ,bybc lflt,bcf@ ~b& zfdzfdft^ hxtekb^ n& 5& 1987^ ud& 32`& fv #weqken vtwybthsf@ vtsfehb \+\ cfereytib gtnhjuhflbc eybdthcbntnbc ghjatcjhb gfnrfyjdb .jabkf^ bkbf othlf #mfhsdtk yfstcfj,fc czthbf vstkb cbdhwt qfkbcbc vlbyfhbsufy vwbht fpbfib _ ifdb pqdbc gbhfvlt lf vstkb fqvjcfdktsb v[fht fv pqdbcf^ fuhtsdt bc flubkt,b hjvtkybw vnrdfhcf lf fhfmcc ief vlt,fhtj,ty^ firfhff^ hjv dbcfw fv flubkt,bc lfxtvt,f eylf fy mfhsdtkbc resdybkt,bc ufemvt,f _ vjeylt,f lffvnrbwjc^ hjv ptvj lfcf[tkt,ekyb thyb mfhsdtksf yfstcfj,bcf fhw b.dyty lf fhw fhbfy& cojhtl fct vjbmwf xdtyb uekflb ghjatcjhb ~gfnrfyjdb` lf udtabwt,f hjv vjc[t,b lf rjk[t,b mfhsdtkbc yfstcfj,bcfyb fh fhbfyj@ ~bmdt^ ud& 40`& fb^ cfblfy bqt,c @ufmfhst,f@ _ ufmfhsdtkt,bc vjcfpht,f cfaedtkc^ hjvtkbw yfvldbk stjhbfl erdt y& vfhvf uflffmwbf^ bkbf vfcpt othlf _ #vt gfnrfyjdbc itubhlb dfhj^ bf[bc sfdvjojyt,bs ,fnjyb vfhb^ cjv[t,bc ghjatcjhc gtnth,ehubc eybdthcbntnib@ ~bmdt^ ud& 43`& #vfhb bct bh]t,f^ sbsmjc xdtypt uekvjcekbf lf ]fdhc b.hbc &&& hjv /kfvbc [tkblfv ufvjudfwfkjc xdty xdtyb cfey]t@ ~bmdt^ ud& 46^ 47`& \+\ c& ,jkjcf lf \\ c& lfcfo.bcib vstkb hectsbc bvgthbbc ghtcfib vbvlbyfhtj,lf uffasht,ekb rfvgfybf mfhsekb trktcbbc obyffqvltu^ fdnjrtafkbbc vjs[jdyfv bvltyfl uffqbpbfyf cfvsfdhj,j ohtt,b^ hjv ghtcf mfhsek trktcbfc cf[fdlf #vnfwt,tk trktcbfl^ hjvtkcfw vstkb rfdrfcbbc lfg.hj,f cehc@& tc b.j cbwhet^ ufvjf[bkb bvbcf^ hjv vfhsfkbf^ [tkbceakt,fv s,bkbcbc trktcbt,bc evhfdktcj,fib frhfkf mfhsektyjdfyb obhdf kjwdf^ vfuhfv lblb vwltkj,bc vbe[tlfdfl^ tc dth itkj res[tt,ib^ ufycfresht,bs rb cfvtuhtkjib^ cfvtuhtkjc vjcf[ktj,f lf cfvqdltkjt,f ptlbptl ufvjsmdfvlyty ervf.jabkt,fc^ bodtdlyty rht,t,c^ cflfw rfntujhbekfl vjbs[jdlyty cfvtuhtkjib ewdktkfl lfhxtybkb.j vfvfgfgtekb mfhsekb qdsbcvcf[eht,f^ fvbc cfyfwdkjl^ bvgthbekvf lf vfs ijhbc hectsbc cfvtwybthj ohtt,vf vbpyfl lfbcf[tc^ hjujhvt xfvjtijht,byfs cfvtuhtkj lf vstkb lfcfdktsb cfmfhsdtkj mfhsdtkb [fk[bc j]f[blfy^ fvbcfsdbc gbhdtk hbuib tcfzbhjt,jlfs vnrbwt,f bvbcf^ hjv vtuhekb tyf cbyfvldbktib mfhsekb tybc lbfktmnb rb fh b.j^ hjujhw bmfvlt vbbxytdlyty cfmfhsdtkjib^ fhfvtl lfvjerblt,tkb tyf& vfhskfw^ tc vfs #vtwybthekfl@ lffvnrbwtc^ itvltu rb vfc #mfhsbpfwbbc@ stjhbfw fvje.tytc udthlbs^ fv erfyfcrytkvf rb fhf v[jkjl lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkj^ fhfvtl erdt cfv[hts cfmfhsdtkjcf lf fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc lbl yfobkptw mfhsdtkb [fk[bc eakt,t,b vrdtshfl itfvwbhf& tc stjhbf cf,zjsf bcnjhbjuhfabfvfw ufbpbfhf& ybrj vfhb sfyf[vfl bdfyt ]fdf[bidbkbcf^ fhf se fapf[t,c^ cdfyt,cf lf vtuhtkt,cfw rb fhfmfhsdtkt,fl vbbxytdlf& lblb bdfyt othlf - #frfl& y& vfhb vbcf.dtleht,c^ hjv vtuhtkt,c^ cdfyt,c lf fa[fpt,c vt mfhsdtkt,c deojlt, lf gjynjcf lf ahbubbc tht,b sbsmjc mfhsdtkt,flfw rb vbmwtdbf& fa[fpt,c vt mfhsdtksf vjyfstcfdtl dsdkb^ vfuhfv mfhsdtkt,c 10

fh deojlt,^ hfw itt[t,f vtuhtkt,c lf cdfyt,c lf lfdevfnt, zfyt,cfw^ vfs vfhskfw mfhsdtk njvt,fl dsdkb lf deojlt,&&&@ ~bd& ]fdf[bidbkb^ n& +^ ud& 152`& cdfyehbc yfhtdj,bc stjhbf y& vfhbc itmvybkbf^ hjvkbc itcf[t, f& jybfyb othc _ #cdfyehbc yfhtdj,bc vwlfhb stpbcb fa[fpb vjcf[ktj,bc cfmfhsdtkjc vbof-o.fkpt ~cdfytsbc vtpj,kfl` #fsfcokteksf ufyvfdkj,fib@ w[jdht,bc cf,esfl uflfbmwf& fct fmwbf y& vfhvf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc mfhsdtkt,b fhfmfhsdtkt,fl^ vfuhfv vbcb .ehflqt,f fhw fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc fcwlf& vbcb stjhbbc sfyf[vfl^ aifd-[tdceht,b xtxyehb njvt,b .jabkfy itvltu ufmfhsdtkt,ekyb& fv stjhbfc pjubthsb mfhsdtkb vrdktdfhb fhf mfhsek^ fhfvtl hecek tyfpt lf,tzlbk obuyt,ib fvhfdkt,c^ vfufkbsfl^ 1983 otkc p& fyxf,bbc htlfmnjhj,bs lf,tzlbk obuyib # @ yfsmdfvbf y& vfhbv itcf[t, - , : , , , ~ud& 33`& y& vfhc c[df ihjvfibw fctsbdt fphb ufvjesmdfvc^ hjv aifd-[tdceht,b xtxtyb [fk[bc njvt,b fhbfy - . - , , , ~bmdt^ ud& 82`& y& vfhbc fphbs^ v[jkjl \ cfereybc itvltu ufmfhsdtkt,ekf xtxyt,bc thsb yfobkb ~aifd-[tdceht,b vbcb fphbs`^ [jkj vtjht yfobkb rb xhlbkj rfdrfcbfib uflfcekf ~b[& p& lblt,ekbbc lfcf[& yfih& ud& 34`& vfhbc tc stjhbf wyj,bkb vtwybtht,bc v[fhlfzthbs cfhut,kj,c& hf itltub itbkt,f vj/.dtc fctsb f,cehlekb stjhbbc erhbnbrjl vbqt,fc lf ufqhvfdt,fc^ ufycfresht,bs hecekfl ufvjwtvek obuyib( cfdfkfkj! se hfbvt lblb gjkbnbrehb rfnfcnhjabc ufvj xhlbkj rfdrfcbblfy xtxyt,bc njvb cfmfhsdtkjib uflvjcf[klf ~f[kfw w[jdhj,c f[vtnbc hfbjyib^ mbcnt,bc thsb ]ueab`& bcbyb y& vfhbc stjhbfpt lf.hlyj,bs fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vsbfytsc sfdbc bcnjhbek cfvij,kjl ufvjfw[flt,ty& ufyf evfufkbsjf fctsb dfhfelb( fctdt fh bmwtdbfy facet,b lf c[dfyb( tc rbs[df xdty lfdcdbs ghtcfib ]th rbltd fa[fptsbc jvbc oby ~b[& ufp& cf[fk[j ufyfskt,f^ 17&| 1990 o&`& f[kf dyf[js hfc othlf y& vfhb cfv[hts cfmfhsdtkjc vjcf[ktj,bc itcf[t, - #y& vfhbc lfcrdybs^ sevwf^ rkfh]tsb^ nfjcsfy thsfl itvjthst,ek bmyfk cfmfhsdtkjcsfy vt-8-9 cfereytt,ib^ vfuhfv vjcf[ktj,bc itvflutykj,bs bub^ dbsjvw^ fvbc itvltufw cjv[ehb lfhxf& rkfh]tsb^ bct hjujhw nfj^ lfcf[kt,ekb b.jj cjv[t,bs^ hjvkt,bw cfhoveyjt,bs mfkrtljybnt,b ~t& b& vfhskvflblt,kt,b`b.dytyj& fvhbufl^ y& vfhbc vnrbwt,bs^ rkfh]tsbc lf nfjc vjcf[ktj,f sdbs itvlujv [fyfibw rb^ tc b.dyty fhf mfhsdtkt,b^ fhfvtl bhbsflib ufmfhsdtkt,ekb cjv[t,b@ ~g& byujhj.df^ ubjhub vthxekt^ 1954^ ud& 404`& itltub cfv[hts cfmfhsdtkjc #vrdblhb@ cjv[t,bc ufmfhsdtkt,bc stjhbbcf( c[df thc ~bctdt hjujhw facet,c` exylt,f ghtntypbt,b mfhsek reknehfpt^ cfv[hts cfmfhsdtkjc vfnthbfkeh se cekbth tukt,pt^ vbof-o.fkpt& cfmvt bmfvltw vblbc^ hjv fhfse gtnhbojybc vfityt,tkb vt,b ,frehbfybctyb ufvjfw[fltc cjv[t,fl^ fhfvtl fsjybc bdthsf vjyfcnhbc ,tht,bw rb^ lf rbltd eahj efhtcbf vjcfkjlytkb^ hfvtse cjv[sf #ufmfkrtljybnt,bc@ fye #ufmfhsdtkt,bc@ stjhbfc xdtyc #cf,zjsf@ bcnjhbjuhfabfib v.fhb atcdt,b f,dc ufluvekb& rbltd eahj vtnbw^ sehvt ye bn.dbs^ lf rf[ts-/thtsbw ufmfhsdtkt,ekb ~!` v[fhtt,b .jabkf - #fv fsbjlt lqbc obyfs^ hecek tyfpt ufvjdblf rbltd thsb obuyb #fpth,fb]fybc bcnjhbekb utjuhfabf@^ hjvtkcfw 1987 o& sfhbqb epbc&&& fv obuyib ufnfht,ekbf fphb^ hjv fk,fytkt,b fpth,fb]fytksf eiefkj obyfght,b fhbfy^ [jkj byubkjt,b - ufmfhsdtkt,ekb fk,fytkt,b&&& fctdt #ufmfhsdtkt,ekbf@ rf[tsbc lblb yfobkb^ /thtsb lf f& i& [jv [tlfds^ cflfvlbc vblbc cfmvt(@ ~h& vbvbyjidbkb^ #lqtc fy fhfcjltc@^ #kbn& cfm&@ 24& |+& 1988`& cfwf cfvfhsfkbf^ eylf bsmdfc^ hjv bcnjhbekb utjuhfabf^ hjujhw cfvtwybthj lfhub^ fpth,fb]fyib f[fkat[fluvekbf lf fqybiyekb obuyb gbhdtkb yf,b]bf^ fvbnjvfw fpth,fb]fytkvf bcnjhbrjct,vf /thtsbc ufmfhsdtkt,bc stjhbf cf,zjsf mfhsdtkb 11

bcnjhbrjct,bcfufy uflfbqtc& xdtyb vtwybtht,b^ itbkt,f bsmdfc^ byntycbehfl othty /thtsbcf lf fk,fytsbc thsb yfobkbc #ufmfhsdtkjt,bc@ itcf[t,& #/thtsb tsybrehbcnjhbekb vybidytkj,bs vjbwfdlf udbfyb [fybc ibuybs rf[tscf lf ufqvfv[hbc nthbnjhbfc ~vl& fkfpybc dtkb`^ cfbyubkjc xfsdkbs@ ~mct^ n& ++^ ud& 628`^ fvbnjvfw /thtsb se #ufmfhsdtklf@^ rf[tscfw tc cfmvt lfvfhsybf lf hfqfc dthxbs fpth,fb]fytk vtwybtht,c^ hjvkt,vfw xdtyb bcnjhbrjct,bcfufy uflfbqtc sfdbfysb fphb( hjujhw d[tlfds^ sehvt ye bn.dbs lf #ufmfhsdtkt,ekf@ lfcfdktsb cfmfhsdtkj^ fqvjcfdktsbc vsf-,fhb^ cfv[htsb cfmfhsdtkj^ vfi^ cflqf b.j cfmfhsdtkj^ cfl w[jdhj,lf mfhsdtkb [fk[b( xdtyb vtwybthb f& f,lfkftw fv rbs[dfc cdfvc cjv[eh tywbrkjgtlbfib lf,tzlbk h& [jytkbfc cnfnbbc ufy[bkdbc itvlujv& vfbyw dby vjbabmhf tc ewyfehb ufmfhsdtkt,bc stjhbf ~vjlb lf fvbc itvltu ufubrdbhltc cfmfhsdtkjcfsdbc #bvgthbbc@ ojlt,f`( fv stjhbfc cfaedtkb lfelj y& vfhvf lf vbcvf vbvltdht,vf uffqhvfdtc% #mhbcnbfyj,bc ufdhwtkt,f fqv& cfmfhsdtkjc vsbfytsib vfs mfhsbpfwbfc ufyfgbhj,t,lf^ hfw itt[t,f lfc& cfmfhsdtkjc&&& lfc& cfmfhsdtkjib uf,fnjylf mfhsekb trktcbf lf vqdltkvcf[eht,fw mfhsek tyfpt cheklt,jlf^ hfvfw lblfl iteo.j [tkb lfc& cfmfhsdtkjc mfhsbpfwbbc ghjwtcc@^- othc xdtyb tywbrkjgtlbf ~b[& MCT^ n& #cfm& cch@^ ud& 61`& vfhbcfufy vjvlbyfhtj,c bltf fqv& cfmfhsdtkjc vsbfytsbc^ /thtsbc^ lfcfdkts lf cfv[hts cfmfhsdtkjc vjcf[ktj,bc #mfhsbpfwbbc@ fye ufmfhsdtkt,bc itcf[t,& [tkjdyehbf nthvbyb lf bltfw fctsbdtf& cbyfvldbktib rb dtkb mfhsekb o.fhjt,bc sfyf[vfl^ vsbfytsbc^rf[ts-/thtsbc^ lfcfdkts lf cfv[hts cfmfhsdtkjc vjcf[ktj,fc #mfhsbpfwbf@ fh tcfzbhjt,jklf^ hflufyfw dtksfufydt ~lf afhyfdfp vtabc lhjcfw` fqybiyek res[tsf vw[jdht,yb^ hjujhw vsbtkt,b^ bct tuhbctkt,b ~vtc[t,cf lf /thrf[tkt,pt hjv fhfathb dsmds` mfhsdtkb [fk[bc bhbsfl yfobkfl ufyb[bkt,jlyty& tc fct tcvbc #mfhsdkbc w[jdht,fc@^ dtk mhjybrt,cf lf dtk fdnjht,c& mfhsekb tyf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib #mfhsekb trktcbbc uf,fnjyt,bc@ ufvj rb fh #ufdhwtklf@ lf fvbc ufvj^ vfsb #mfhsbpfwbf@ rb fh vj[lf^ hjujhw othc xdtyb mfhsekb cf,zjsf tywbrkjgtlbf^ fhfvtl ]th rbltd mhbcnbfyj,fvlt^ ofhvfhsj,bc lhjc reknvcf[eht,bc tyf mfhsekb b.j& lblvf bdfyt ]fdf[bidbkvf ufvjbrdkbf^ hjv mhbcnbfyj,fvlt .dtkf mfhsek njvsfsdbc ~cfvtuhtkjcf lf cdfytsibw` reknvcf[eht,bc tyf b.j mfhsekb tyf lf fhct,j,lf vstkb mfhsdtkb [fk[bc vjvwdtkb cfthsj cfhoveyjt,f^ ofhvfhsekb`& #w[flb [lt,f^ hjv fhfvwse cfpjufljl .dtkf mfhsdtk njvsfsdbc^ vfs ijhbc^ vtuhtksf lf cdfysfsdbc^ cfthsj ofhvfhsj,f fhct,j,lf^ fhfvtl^ ofhvfhsj,bc cfthsj nthvbyjkjubfw^ cfthsj tyfw mfhsekb /mjylf@ ~#cfm& bcnjhbbc yfhrdtdt,b@& n& +& ud& 662`& hjujhw bsmdf^ mhbcntij,fvlt lblb [ybs flht^ tc .dtkf njvsfsdbc cfthsj mfhsekb tyf^ vtat afhyfdfpvf lffabmcbhf chekbfl cfmfhsdtkjib^ hjujhw thsflthsb cfdfklt,ekj cf[tkvobaj tyf^ lf cfthsjl^ gbhdtkb thsbfyb mfhsekb cf[tkvobaj ofhvjbmvyf aet mfhsekb ~fye cfthsj mfhsekb` tybc c[dflfc[df lbfktmnt,fl lfikbc lfo.t,blfy cek hfqfw 300-400 okbc itvltu - #mfhsek-pfyehb tyj,hbdb thsj,bc lfikbc lfcfo.bcb d& o& |+++ cfereybs eylf lfsfhbqltc@ ~bmdt^ ud& 338`^ [jkj +|-+++ cfereytt,ib erdt itbmvyf thsbfyb mfhsekb cf[tkvobaj cfdfklt,ekj mfhsekb tybs& fv lhjc vtuhekb lf mfhsekb tyt,b kbth f[kjc bluyty thsvfytssfy lf thsvfytsbc vbvfhs lbfktmnt,c ofhvjflutylyty^ fye cf[tkvobaj mfhsekb tyf chekbfl ufcfut,b b.j tuhbcbc vjcf[ktj,bcfsdbc^ bc vbc ltlftyfc ofhvjflutylf^ sevwf rb^ sfylfsfy .fkb,lt,jlf lf dbsfhlt,jlf f[fkb lbfktmnb^ #hf smvf eylf^ tyj,hbdb lf c[df cf[bc ufyc[dfdt,f fv lhjc ,tdhfl yfrkt,b eylf .jabkb.j^ dblht itvltuib@ ~bmdt^ ud& 442`& tc bvfc ybiyfdc^ hjv afhyfdfpvf .dtkf mfhsek njvsfsdbc ufcfut,b tyf ufvjfw[flf cf[tkvobaj tyfl& tc tyf mhbcnbfyj,bc itvjcdkbcsfyfdt bmwf mfhsek njvsfsdbc thsflths cfvothkj,j^ reknehbc tyfl^ hjvkbc itmvyf-itveifdt,fibw vtuhtkt,cf lf cdfyt,cfw sfdbfysb odkbkb fmds itnfybkb - othc bdfyt ]fdf[bidbkb& #mfhsdtk thc sfdbcb vhfdfkcfereyjdfyb cf[tkvobajt,hbdb lf cfvothkj tyfw /mjylf lf f,flbf t[kfw^ hjvtkbw^ hjujhw tc sdbs frfl& y& vfhcfw rfhufl vjt[ctyt,f^ lf sdbsjyfw fhf ths[tk lfelfcneht,bf^ vtuhtkt,bcf lf cdfyt,bcsdbcfw thsfltshb cfvothkj lf reknehbc tyf b.j lf fhbc t[kfw^ hjvkbc itmvyf-itveifdt,fibw vtuhtkt,cfw lf cdfyt,cfw sfdbfysb odkbkb fmds itnfybkb@ ~bd& ]fdf[bidbkb^ n& +^ ud& 154`& 12

tc bc mfhsekb tyff^ hjvtkbw fhf se mhbcnbfyj,bc lhjc^ fhfvtl ofhvfhsj,bc lhjcfw cfthsj tyfc ofhvjflutylf .dtkf mfhsekb njvbcfsdbc^ lf cfthsj ofhvfhsek reknvcf[eht,fcfw fv tyfpt fqfchekt,lyty ~b[& bmdt`& serb tc fctf^ vfiby fhff cojhb xdtyb tywbrkjgtlbf^ hjvtkbw^ hjujhw fqbybiyf^ othc^ hjv #lfc& cfmfhsdtkjib uf,fnjylf mfhsekb trktcbf lf vqdltkvcf[eht,fw mfhsek tyfpt cheklt,jlf^ hfvfw lblfl iteo.j [tkb lfc& cfmfhsdtkjc mfhsbpfwbbc ghjwtcc@ ~MCT^ n& #cfm& cch@^ ud& 61`& ]th thsb^ mfhsekb trktcbf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib fh #uf,fnjyt,ekf@^ fhfvtl lfcfdkts lf fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjv thslhjekfl vbbqj mhbcnbfyj,f +-+| cfereytt,ib^ hfcfw lf,t]bst,bs vbesbst,ty dtkmfhsekb o.fhjt,b lf lfflfcnehf fhmtjkjubfv ~b[& g& pfmfhbfc #yjmfkfmtdb-fhmtjgjkbcb@`& vtjhtw^ mfhsekb tyf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib mhbcnbfyj,bc lhjc rb fh ufdhwtklf^ fhfvtl ]th rbltd ofhvfhsekb qdbc vcf[eht,f fm mfhsekfl fqtchekt,jlf mhbcnbfyj,bc ufdhwtkt,fvlt^ eahj vtnbw^ kbnthfnehekb fye cftrktcbj tybc itmvyf-itveifdt,fib sdbsdt /mjylfs vtuhtkt,cf lf cdfyt,c eiefkj vjyfobktj,f vbqt,ekb - sfyf[vfl b& ]fdf[bidbkbcf^ vfifcflfvt^ fhfdbsfhb #mfhsbpfwbf@ fv njvt,c fh tcfzbhjt,jlfs^ #vtuhtkt,cf lf cdfyt,c lf lfdevfnt, zfyt,cfw^ vfs vfhskfw mfhsdtk njvt,fl dsdkb lf deojlt,@ othlf bd& ]fdf[bidbkb _ #mfhsdtkeh njvt,c@ rb fh eojlt,lf^ fhfvtl #mfhsekc@& fv;fvfl fhct,ekb sdfkcfphbcb mfhsdtkb [fk[bc xfvj.fkb,t,bc lhjbc itcf[t, afmnbehfl y& vfhbc #ufmfhsdtkt,bc@ stjhbfc taeyt,f^ hjvtkbw lff[kjt,bs fctsbf - thsbfyb mfhsdtkb [fk[b^ hjujhw tsybrehb thsj,f^ v[jkjl +\-\ cfereytt,bc itvltu xfvj.fkb,lf^ hflufyfw fv cfereytt,ib #mfhst,bc@ njvvf uffdhwtkf mfhsektyjdfyb vqdltkvcf[ehj,f /thtscf^ vtc[tscf lf lfc& cfmfhsdtkjib^ vsbfytsib^ hbc itvltufw ufmfhslyty fqybiyek res[tsf vw[jdht,yb - xfvj.fkb,lfmfhsdtkb [fk[b& fvbnjvfw cfmfhsdtkj^ hjujhw reknehek-tsybrehb vskbfyj,f v[jkjl \+ cfereybcfsdbc xfvj.fkb,lf& tc stjhbf f,cjkenehfl tobyffqvltut,f b& zfdzfdfbc lf ~y& vfhfvltkb` mfhsekb bcnjhbjuhfabbc it[tlekt,fc mfhsdtkb thbc xfvj.fkb,t,bc lhjbc itcf[t,& lblb bkbf vfhsfkb othlf% #xdtyc thc fsfcb otkboflb ew[jdhbf bcnjhbekbc w[jdht,bs@ ~#thb lf bcnjhbf@`& bkbf [ibhfl othlf jhbfsfcokjdfyb thsbfyb mfhsdtkb thbc itcf[t,& fctsbdt sdfkcfphbcb uffxybfs bkbfc ufhitvj itvjrht,bk lblt,ek bcnjhbrjct,c& vfhsfkbf^ dtksfufydt fhct,j,lf mfhsdtkb [fk[bc c[dflfc[df tsyj]ueat,b^ vfuhfv bkbfc smvbs^ bcbyb ofhvjmvybkfy thsbfyb mfhsdtkb [fk[bc obfqib cfereytsf vfybkpt - #bc itvrht,kj,bsb^ lblt,ekb^ thsbfyb fphb^ hjvtkcfw .jdtkb xdtyufyb mfhsdtkj,fib eylf [tlfdltc^ bc cf[tkb^ hjvtkbw .dtkfc udthmdf^ lfbhqdf^ xdtybc ujyt,blfv fvjihf^ lf mfhsdtkb t[kf thsbc reyzekbc vw[jdht,sf cfresfhb cf[tkb^ rthjj,bsb cf[tkbqf uf[lf lf fhf cfthsj^ cf.jdtksfj vstkbc bv [fk[bcf^ hjvtkbw thsfl nfy]ekf&&& mfhsdtkb xdtybc njvbc cfthsj cf[tkb fqfh fhbc fqfhw ufhts^ fhw vf[kj,kbcfsdbc lf fqfhw ew[jcfsdbc^ bvthtkb - bvthtkbf^ vtuhtkb - vtuhtkbf^ mfhsktkb - mfhsktkbf lf cek .dtkfyb rb thsfl mfhsdtkt,b fh fhbfy&&& hfrb bc lblt,ekb mfhsdtkj,bc fphb^ bc cf.jdtksfj cf[tkb ujyt,blfy ufvjudtwfkf^ xdtyb ujyt,f lfbae.f^ cekbs lf [jhwbs lfdreovfolbs&&&@ ~b& zfdzfdft^ n& +++^ ud& 77`^ sevwf^ rb #etzdtkbf^ hjv xdty [fk[c jhb fsfcb otkboflb ew[jdhbf sfdbcb w[jdht,bsf lf sdbsvjmvtlt,bsf@ ~n& +|^ ud& 176`& vfifcflfvt^ jhbfsfcokjdfyb mfhsdtkb thb itvlujvib #lfreovfolf@ c[dflfc[df tsybreh ]ueat,fl ~t& o& mfhsdtkeh njvt,fl lf lbfktmnvfnfht,kt,fl`^ hjvtksf rdkfd thsbfy thfl itrfdibht,bcfsdbc bqodjlf bkbf& vbcb hovtybs^ thsbfyb mfhsdtkb [fk[b erdt xfvj.fkb,t,ekb b.j mhbcnbfyj,fvlt lblb [ybs flht& vbc obfqib fhct,ekb c[dflfc[df tsyj]ueat,bc fhct,j,f itltubf thsbfyb thbc yfobkj,hbdb lfikbcf^ hflufyfw .jdtkb thb lfg.hj,bcf lf sfdbceakt,bc lfrfhudbc lhjc ufybwlbc ltyfwbjyfkbpfwbfc^ [jkj [tkcf.htkb vjvtynbc lflujvbcsfyfdt rb rjycjkblfwbfc ~ufycfresht,bs sfdbceakt,bc fqlutybc itvltu`& bkbfv bv lhjbcfsdbc itcfkt,kj,bc afhukt,ib ufhrdtekobkfl itfuyt,byf ;fvsf dbsfht,bc ufvj #lfreovfot,ek@ mfhsdtkj,fc rjycjkblfwbbc fewbkt,kj,f& dtkmfhsek bcnjhbjuhfabfc mfhsdtkb lf cjvt[b [fk[t,b ths lhjc xfvj.fkb,t,ekfl vbfxybf ~mfhskjcbcf lf /fjcbc vj,f`& xdtyb tywbrkjgtlbf othc - #cjvt[b [fk[bc xfvj.fkb,t,bc ,jkj tnfgb sfy[dlt,f d& o& |+ c-ib cjv[tsbc cf[tkvobajc itmvyfc& vfy 13

ehfhnec cf[tkvobaj lfbrfdf@ ~mct^ n& 9^ ud& 463`& fctsbdt fphbcff # @^ hjvtkbw othc% # . + . . . . . @ ~ud& 78`& f[kf dyf[js^ hfc othc bubdt tywbrkjgtlbf mfhsdtkb [fk[bc xfvj.fkb,t,bc itcf[t, - tc vjv[lfhf cjvt[b [fk[bc xfvj.fkb,t,blfy sbsmvbc 1500 okbc itvltu - # VI-X . . . @ ~bmdt^ ud& 349`& f[kf rb dyf[js bvfdt obuybc fphb fa[fpb [fk[bc xfvj.fkb,t,bc lhjbc itcf[t,% # VIII . . @ ~bmdt^ , 1980^ ud& 11`& vfc ,fyc fktdc xdtyb tywbrkjgtlbf #&&&|+++ c-sdbc bhbsflfl lfcheklf fa[fpb [fk[bc xfvj.fkb,t,f@ ~mct^ n& 2^ ud& 29`& hf ufvjlbc( mfhsdtkb [fk[bc xfvj.fkb,t,f lfchekt,ekf \-\+ cfereytt,bcfsdbc fa[fpb [fk[bc xfvj.fkb,t,blfy 2-3 cfereybc itvltu! hf ghfmnbrekb itltub itbkt,f vj/.dtc fvudfh stjhbfc^ vbs evtntc^ hjv fhct,j,c itv[dtlhb stjhbf +\-\ cfereytt,ib lfc& cfmfhsdtkjc #ufmfhst,bcf@( - fb^ fcts #frfltvbeh@ lf vtwybthek sdfkcfphbcc taeyt,f ]& /bebnbcf lf ctgfhfnbcnsf hb[b& y& vfhbc bltt,b cf.jdtksfjl lfvrdblhlf^ hflufyfw^ vbcb rhbnbrf cfcnbrfl b.j frhfkekb cf,zjsf [ekbceakt,bc vbth& fb^ hfc udbfv,j,c fa[fpjkjub^ wyj,bkb vtwybthb frfltvbrjcb mtstdfy kjvsfsbt - #vt hjv dcofdkj,lb^ sfdblfy .dtkfathb hbubfyfl vblbjlf^ vfuhfv jwlffsbfy okt,ib byntktutywbbc lfh,tdf lfbo.j&&& db]tmb felbnjhbfib lf vtcvjlf% #uftshbjc tc ghjatcjhb@ &&& fhf^ dth utn.dbs^ dth fqdoth bv cwtyt,c& fcgbhfynehfib db.fdb lf hbw[fdlyty bvfs^ dbyw ybrj vfhbc stjhbt,c fh bpbfht,lf^ vjv[htt,c cfmvt rfhufl vbclbjlfs^ ytkfl uflfdehxb fv gthbjlc@ ~ufp& #f[fku& rjv&@ = 124^ 15&\&1988`& y& vfhbc vjobyffqvltut bcnjhbrjc tyfs-vtwybtht,b ufftdtc^ [jkj vjv[htt,vf fqpfhltc f[fkb sfj,f y& vfhbc stjhbt,bc thsuekyb^ w[flbf^ vfs g& byujhj.dfc stjhbt,b fhfvtwybthekfl vbbqtc& hjujhw fqbybiyf^ y& vfhbc #ufmfhsdtkt,bc@ stjhbbc fqbfht,fv afmnbehfl xb[ib itb.dfyf mfhsekb bcnjhbjuhfabf& fv stjhbbc uf,fnjyt,fc [tkb iteo.j bvfy^ hjv htdjkewbfvlt cfmfhsdtkjib fh fhct,j,lf mfhsdtksf bcnjhbbc itvcofdktkb fhw thsb cfvtwybthj wtynhb ~eybdthcbntnb^ bycnbnenb`& xdtyb eybdthcbntnbc lfaeyt,bc itvltu^ vjcfkjlytkb b.j^ hjv xdtyb vtwybtht,b efh.jalyty t& o& #ufmfhsdtkt,bc@ ~ufmfhst,bc` stjhbfc^ vfuhfv vj[lf chekt,bs vjekjlytkb hfv - y& vfhbc stjhbt,bc rhbnbrf cfcnbrfl fbrhfkf& y& vfhbc stjhbt,bc e,hfkj rhbnbrbcsdbcfw rb fhf vfhnj ftdt,lyty eybdthcbntnblfy lf c[df lfotct,ekt,t,blfy^ fhfvtl c]blyty lf fcf[kt,lyty rbltw& fv lhjbcfsdbc y& vfhvf t&o& vfhmcbcnek tyfsvtwybtht,fc lfelj cfaedtkb^ bc uf[lf vsfdhj,bcf lf gfhnbbc evfqktcb jhufyjt,bc otdhb& # , . 1930 . XVI () . . ( ), . 1931 , , , , ( ) (. , , , 25 1988 . 21, . 12`& fv cnfnbfib yfsmdfvbf^ hjv hjujhw jvfvlt^ bct jvbc itvltu^ vhfdfkb ztivfhbnb^ lblb vtwybthbc cbwjw[kt itbobhf #vfhbpvvf@ - fct eojlt,c fdnjhb y& vfhbc cfvtwybthj vbvlbyfhtj,fc lf vbc crjkfc&

14

ovblf bkbfc ufycfpqdht,bs^ y& vfhbc vfcofdkt,tkcf lf vjqdfhc gfnrfyjdc ~gfnrfybfyc`^ wyj,bk vtwybthcf lf rfdrfcbjkjuc gtnth,ehuib cehlf sfdbcb thbcfsdbc lftvrdblht,byf cfv[hts cfmfhsdtkj^ fvbnjvfw othlf bkbf vfcpt% #&&& [tkc bodlbc nfjcrfhpt^ t[kfyltk zjhj[bc [tj,fpt@ ~bmdt^ ud& 734`& gfnrfyjdbc fqphlbk y& vfhc^ vfhsfkbf #mdfsf qfqflbc@ lfothbc lhjc gfnrfyjdbcfvt,h #jbyt,ib ]th sfdb fh txbyf@^ vfuhfv vfkt^ vfyfw #[tkb ufbojlf@ lf sfdb ufvjbxbyf& #y& vfhbc lfcrdybs^ sevwf rkfh]tsb^ nfjcsfy thsfl itvjthst,ek bmyfj cfmfhsdtkjcsfy vt-8-9 cfereytt,ib^ vfuhfv vjcf[ktj,bc itvflutykj,bs bub dbsjvw^ fvbc itvltu cjv[ehb lfhxf@ - othlf bkbfc ztivfhbnb itubhlb g& byujhj.df& cfthsjl^ eylf bsmdfc^ hjv vfhbc ~lf vfsb vjqdht,bc` fynbmfhsekb thjdyekb bltt,b ufycfpqdhekb b.j fhf vfhnj gbhflb cbvgfsbf-fynbgfsbt,bs^ fhfvtl hecekb bvgthbekb gjkbnbrbs ~wfhbpvbw fctdt bmwtjlf` #&&& hecbabrfnjhekb gjkbnbrf cfufyut,jl bsdfkbcobyt,lf hectsbc ufyfgbhf v[fhtt,bc thjdyek-eakt,hbdb bynthtct,bc itlf[dfc^ fsfyf,ht,lf tsyjuhfabek lf thjdyek ybiyt,c lf fv upbs wlbkj,lf lftyfotdht,byf thsbfyb thjdyekb c[tekb^ .jdtkv[hbd ittath[t,byf thbc rjycjkblfwbf@ ~d& ]fjidbkb #cfmfhsdtkjc vjcf[ktj,f&&&@^ 1984^ ud& 111`& w[flbf^ bvgthbf v[fhc ezthlf .dtkf stjhbfc^ hjvtkbw mfhsdtkb thbc rjycjkblfwbfc fath[t,lf& cojhtl fctsb b.j vfhbc #ufmfhsdtkt,bc@ stjhbf& hjujhw bsmdf^ cf,zjsf [tkbceakt,bc lhjc^ y& vfhbc stjhbt,bc rhbnbrf cfcnbrfl fbrhfkf^ itbkt,jlf v[jkjl lf v[jkjl ufqhvfdt,f fv stjhbt,bcf^ vfufkbsfl^ 1937 otkc b& f,ekftv cf]fhj c[ljvfpt ofbrbs[f vj[ctyt,f^ hjvtkibw uffqhvfdf fqybiyekb it[tlekt,fyb - sbsmjclf mfhsekb trktcbf itbzhf cjv[eh vbof-o.fkpt nfj-rkfh]tsib lf bm cjv[ehb trktcbt,bc yuhtdbs^ ]dfhsf lfodbs vbfqobf cfofltkc - #uffmfhsdtkf@ tc v[fht - #trktcbfsf yuhtdf lf ]dfhsf odf rbltd bvfc eylf vjfcofdt,ltc^ hjv thsb trktcbf bzht,f vtjhtib lf vfs udthlbs lf vfs yffvfufhpt sfdbcfc faeyt,c& tctw fhff ew[j fv,fdb bv lhjbcfsdbc& cjv[tsbc vbof-o.fkpt fhf thsb lf jhb #mfhsdtksf@ cfdfyt b[ctyt,f fv lhjc& nthvbyb #mfhsdtkb@^ hjujhw frfl& y& vfhvf lffvnrbwf^ lbjabpbnehc ybiyfdc fv lhjbcfsdbc lf bmvyt,f bub vfhnjlty mfhsdksf lf cjvt[sf tktvtynt,bcfufy@ ~b& f,ekft^ ihjvt,b^ +|^ 1985^ ud& 10`& tc b& f,ekftv cf]fhjl ofhvjsmdf 1937 okbc 17 ltrtv,thc& vfy^ w[flbf fv okbc vofht ufrdtsbkbs bwjlf hbcb smvf itbkt,jlf fv lhjc lf hbcb fhf& smdf bc^ hfw vjcfojyb b.j bv lhjbcfsdbc^ rthjl^ uffqhvfdf y& vfhbc stjhbf& nfj-rkfh]tsb #cjv[tsbc vbof-o.kfl@ ufvjfw[flf^ [jkj sehvt ye bn.dbs lf^ #mfhsdtkb tsybrehfl mfhsdtkc rb fh ybiyfdc^ fhfvtl bcts vjcf[ktj,fc^ hjtkbw #mfhsdtksf lf cjvt[sf tktvtynt,bcfufy itlut,f@& cbyfvldbktib fhfdbsfhb cjv[t,bc #ufmfhsdtkt,f@ fh [lt,jlf nfj-rkfh]tsib^ tc v[fht mhbcntij,fvltw mfhsdtkt,bs b.j lfcf[kt,ekb^ vfuhfv |+-|++ cfereytt,ib^ gjkbnbrehb vbptpt,bc ufvj^ vjtmwf cjv[ehb trktcbbc behbclbmwbbc cathjib^ hfvfw fm [tkb iteo.j cftrktcbj cjv[ehtyjdfyb obhdf-kjwdbc lfythudfc^ vfuhfv |+++ cfereybc itvltu nfj-rkfh]tsb rdkfd ltlf mfhsekb trktcbbc obfqib lf,heylf^ fvbnjvfw^ w[flbf^ trktcbt,ib rdkfdbylt,ehfl fqcluf mfhsektyjdfyb vcf[eht,f& tcff lf tc& fm vj[lf fhf #cjv[t,bc ufmfkrtljybnt,f@^ fhfvtl mfhsdtkb vjcf[ktj,f lfe,heylf ltlf trktcbfc& rbhbjy +-cfw sehvt mdtvj mfhskib mfhsektyjdfyb obhdf-kjwdbc fqlutyf #fhfmfhsekb vjcf[ktj,bc ufcfmfhsdtktj,kfl@ cehlf ~cfmfhsdtkjc rfsjkbrjc-gfnhbfhmt,b^ 2000^ ud& 28`^ tc vjcfpht,f fhftrktcbehb lf fhfcojhbf^ hflufyfw^ hjujhw xdty ufvjrdktekb udfmdc^ mfhsekb trktcbf bekt,bs fh fmtkrtljybnt,lf fhfmfhsek vjcf[ktj,fc lf vfs fvbs fh fmfhsdtkt,lf^ hjujhw tc vbfxybfs mfhsbpfwbbc stjhtnbrjct,c& fctdt bsmvbc lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc itcf[t,fw& fmfw mfhsekb vjcf[ktj,bc thsb yfobkb^ cojhtl fqybiyek lhjc ~bhbsflfl |++ c& 20-bfyb okt,blfy^ thtrkt rtbchbc kfimhj,bc itvltu` vjtmwf ,thyek cftrktcbj cathjib lf tc v[fhtw sfylfsfy |+++-+\ cfereytt,ib lfe,heylf ltlf mfhsek trktcbfc^ hjvkbc obfqibw bc itlbjlf +| cfereyblfydt^ hfcfw mfhsekb o.fhjt,b vbesbst,ty& tc vjcfpht,f^ hjujhw bsmdf^ sbsmvbc 10 okbc ufvjmdt.ylf ghtcfib^ hfw cfo.tyfl vbbxybf ths-thsvf gfnbdwtvekvf vjcofdktv ybrj vfhbcf& vt vfc degfce[t^ hjv cfmvt cbyfvldbktib itt[t,jlf cfmfhsdtkjc vskbfyj,bc cfrbs[c& cfvoe[fhjl^ vfc itvltu cfmfhsdtkjv lfrfhuf fa[fptsb lf cfvfxf,kj^ tcff qbf zhbkj,f thjdyek c[tekpt^ lblb thjdyekb vfhw[b^ 15

hjvkbc ufvjcfcojht,kflfw bcnjhbrjct,vf eylf smdfy f[fkb cbn.df^ bc cbn.df^ hjvkbc smvfw vfs fh ittkjs rjveybcneh-hecekb lbmnfnehbc lhjc^ bc stjhbf^ hjvtkbw [tkc iteo.j,c cfmfhsdtkjc ufthsbfyt,fc lf fhf vbc lfikfc^ tc xtvb fphbs fhbc dtkmfhsekb stjhbf mfhsdtkb [fk[bc xfvj.fkb,t,bc itcf[t,^ hjvtkcfw bkbf zfdzfdft lf vbcb gktflf ezthlf v[fhc lf fhf #ufmfhsdtkt,f_mfhsbpfwbbc@ stjhbf^ hjvtkbw itveifdlf hectsbc bvgthbbc obfqib lf sfdbc fgjutfc vbfqobf cf,zjsf tgjmfib^ stjhbf^ hjvtkbw fath[t,c mfhsdtkb thbc rjycjkblfwbfc lf cfmfhsdtkjc lfikf-lfyfotdht,fc fcf,est,c& #smdty velfv fv,j,lbs xtvsfy cfe,fhib^ hjv fh umjylfs chekb cbvfhskbc smvbc eakt,f lf cfiefkt,f cf,zjsf ht;bvbc lhjc _ f[kf smdbs!@ vbvfhsf chekbfl cfmfhsdtkjc rfsjkbrjc gfnhbfhmvf eovbltcvf lf eytnfhtcvf bkbf ++-v mfhsdtk bcnjhbrjct,c 2003 okbc vfbcbc sdtib cfgfnhbfhmjib ufvfhsekb #fa[fptsbcflvb@ vbqdybkb rjyathtywbbc lhjc^ lbf[^ f[kf lfluf cbvfhskbc smvbc lhj _ cfmfhsdtkjc cf[tkvobajt,hbj,f fqcluf lf thb sfdbceafkbf^ #f[fkb qdbyj f[fk nbrt,ib eylf xfbc[fc@^ ,hfyt,c ovblf othbkb^ f[fk sfdbceafk cf[tkvobajc f[fkb ufvfthsbfyt,tkb stjhbf tcfzbhjt,f^ hjujhw fv,j,ty^ #f[fkb c[df fhfathbf^ se fhf rfhufl lfdbo.t,ekb dtkb@& cf,jkjjl fk,fs eylf bsmdfc itvltub% hjv fhf lblb bdfyt ]fdf[bidbkb^ c& rfrf,ft^ y& ,thtybidbkb^ c& ]fyfibf^ g& byujhj.df^ v& kjhsmbafybt lf c[df vhfdfkb lblb vtwybthb^ fk,fs cf,zjehb bcnjhbjuhfabf vskbfyfl lfikblf lf lffyfotdht,lf xdtyc thjdyek c[tekc& bcbyb bluyty dbsfhwf lblb lfvwfdb rtltkb epfhvfpfhb jrtfybc obyffqvltu^ vfuhfv vfs w[flbf^ fh ittkjs vbcb lfvfyuhtdtkb fkbc itxtht,f^ f[kf vflkj,f eylf deqdyfs eafk qvthsc .dtkfahbcfsdbc lf ufydfuhjs xdtyb thjdyekb c[tekbc vityt,kj,f^ hjvtkbw ito.dbnf hectsbc lfvg.hj,tkvf bvgthbfv \+\ c& lfcfo.bcib 1801 okbc cfmfhsdtkjc jregfwbffytmcbbc itvltu& cf,jkjjl eylf lfdfcrdyfs^ hjv mfhsdtkb [fk[bc xfvj.fkb,t,bc lhjbc itcf[t, fhct,j,c jhb stjhbf^ gbhdtkbc^ dtkmfhsekbc vb[tldbs^ mfhsdtkb [fk[b erdt xfvj.fkb,t,ekb b.j mhbcntij,fvlt +|-+++ cfereytt,ib lf fv lhjbcfsdbc bub ufycf[kt,ekb b.j hjujhw lfcfdkts^ bct fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib^ uffxylf thsbfyb cf[tkvobaj ~afhyfdfpbc vbth lffhct,ekb` lf thsbfyb tyf^ tuhbctkt,b^ cdfyt,b^ vfhudtkt,b lf c[df lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc ]ueat,b fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vjcf[ktj,fcsfy thsfl ths tsybreh thsj,fc ~[fk[c` ofhvjflutylf^ fvbnjvfw itkj vfy thsbfyb^ vstkb mdt.ybc vjvwdtkb cf[tkvobajc lffhct,f^ [jkj vtjht stjhbf xfvj.fkb,lf \+\ c& ,jkjcf lf \\ c& lfcfo.bcib^ hecekb bvgthbekb ohtt,bc lfrdtsbs^ fv stjhbbc vb[tldbs fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib w[jdhj,lf hfqfw /bgjstnehb @mfhsbc@ njvb^ hjvtkvfw|+-\ cfereytt,ib itkj mfhsekb trktcbbc lf[vfht,bs vjt[lbyf fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vrdblhb fhfmfhsdtkb [fk[t,bc /th-fk,fytkt,bcf lf xtxty-xhlbkjrfdrfcbtkt,bc #mfhsbpfwbf@ ~bcbyb sbsmjc sfyfvtlhjdt rf[tscf^ mdtvj mfhskcf lf fqv& cfm& vsbfytsib w[jdhj,lyty`^ itvlujv sbsmjc fv mfhst,bc njvvf +\-\ cfereytt,ib itkj fctdt mfhsekb trktcbbc lf[vfht,bs nfj-rkfh]tsbc vrdblhb mfkrtljybnb cjv[t,bcf lf c[df flubkj,hbd njvsf ufmfhsdtkt,f-mfhsbpfwbf^ fctdt fvfdt cfereytt,ib sbsmjclf vj[lf fuhtsdt mfhsbpfwbf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vjcf[ktj,bcf^ hfvfw |+-\ cfereytt,ib cfaedtkb xfe.fhf mfhsdtkb [fk[bc xfvj.fkb,t,fc& tc stjhbf thsflths uf,fnjyt,ek stjhbfl bmwf cf,zjsf cfmfhsdtkjib^ fv;fvfl sfdbceakt,bc fqlutybc itvltu fk,fs mfhsekb bcnjhbjuhfabf vjdfktf rhbnbrekfl uflf[tljc fv hecek bvgthbek stjhbfc mfhsdtkb [fk[bc xfvj.fkb,t,bc lhjbc itcf[t, lf fqflubyjc gbhdtkb stjhbf^ hjvtkbw xfvj.fkb,t,ekbf mfhsek vfnbfytt,cf lf dtk othbkj,bs o.fhjt,ib&

16