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under the foregoing Analysis. and Southern Asia. Reasons against the Belief tliat Food. with each. This Proposition supported Europe considered as a Zoological Province. perate. EUROPE. — Arctic Regions - CHAP.— The Peculiarities and Animals of General Remarks upon the Climate and Soil of Brazil. PART I. and Southern Europe — — — — CHAP. American Genera of reference to the Distribution of its Animals. ON THE AMERICAN PROVINCE. General Remarks. — Theories upon Animal Geography. and others. — Fabricius. — Prichard. — The Peculiarities of each. ASIA. . Temperature.— Preponderance of its generic Results of the Types. Central. n. as shown in 43 their peculiar Animals. — Asiatic Genera of Quadrupeds and Birds Asiatic Province. Range of Animals which yet possess great Locomotive Powers. Tem— and Equinoctial America. Central. — Linnseus. Various — — Opinions on the primary Distribution of Animals. I. — Propositions on this Subject stated. — Divided into Arctic. and other inferior Limited Agents. CHAP. are the primary Causes of the Variation of Man.56 Quadrupeds and Birds — . 18 Three Heads of Arctic. — Northern. Its Zoology considered more in detail. — Its Zoological Features. by an analytical Survey of its Ornithology. IV.CONTENTS. The — Its general Character and Divisions. Its Analogy to the Caucasian Type of Man. Prichard. . — Geographic DistriPage 1 bution of Man. ' III. — LatreiUe. - CHAP. ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS.

On the African Province.Page 91 —Madagascar. — Lamarck's System of the Invertebrated Animals. On natural Systems. Methods. — Fries in Botany Alterations in MacLeay's System. — Septenary and other Theories. AFRICA. — Preliminary System. The first I. ON THE FIRST PRINCIPLES OP NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. De Geer. Genera of Quadrupeds and Birds belonging thereto 114 — — PART II. — Observations. Quadrupeds. Partial Systems. and the Theory of Representation - -224 . and Southern. — Hermann's. Temminck. — — — — — CHAP. Systems 132 CHAP.— On Binary. . with critical Remarks. Linnaus. III. — Divided into Northern. Its VI. — — — — and Leach. and Animals of each. or Dichotomous.yi CONTENTS. the numerical Division. . — System of MacLeay in Entomology. Connection with that of Asia. the first Three of which are here discussed viz. Aristotle. New Holland. — Remarks thereon.— African Genera of Quadrupeds and Birds Equinoctial.. in Entomology. Exposition. and on the Necessity of proving that Groups are circular - Observations Definition of a natural - 196 PART III. the Circularity. V. Illiger.— Requisites of a natural System 122 Artificial Systems. Willughby. CHAP. L Alleged Difference between Systems and Preliminary Observations. CHAP. Cuvier. CHAP. LatreiUe.— Its Three chief Divisions— New Guinea. Principles of the natural System briefly stated as Five Propositions.—Distinguishing Features Birds. II. Vieillot. and the Pacific Islands. Natural and Diversity of Systems. Objections thereto. Clairville. on the principal artificial Systems. ON THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. — Its general Nature. Mixed Systems. — General Remarks on numerical Theories. in Ornithology. ON THE AUSTRALIAN PROVINCE. Peculiarities — The CHAP.

— Of Species and Varieties or Groups. for — the Verification of Groups. circular The Fifth Proposition considered. PerObservation Memory. the Means thus offered by the Laws of natural Arrangement. CHAP. — On the relative Rank of the different On Groups in the Animal Kingdom. Classification here — Familiar Illustration of the Principles of developed. Rank and Names of the Natural Divisions. The Circular Theory.— Opinions thereon. — The primary Types of Nature Page 241 III.— Questions on analogical Comparisons 265 PART IV. in the - - 341 . 317 Tests which every Circle must undergo. and the different Creation. The Fourth Proposition considered. XL 300 Reasons for supposing a Plan in Importance of acquiring first Principles. explained and illustrated — — CHAP. Animal Kingdom. A FAMILIAR EXPLANATION OF THE FIRST PRINCIPLES OF PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY.— On Species and Varieties. VU CHAP. On the III. CHAP. L Preliminary Remarks turalists.— Evils of indiscriminate - — - — Plans for collecting recommended CHAP.CONTENTS. WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR A PLAN OF STUDYING THE DETAILS OF EACH DEPARTMENT. Distinction between practical and scientific Na- Qualifications for both — as Accuracy of severance—Concentration of Study— collecting. II.

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LINNAEUS. CHAPTER I. VARIOUS OPINIONS ON THE PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS. we find that its surface divided between land and each. Two questions then occur to the mind. water. TEMPERATURE. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF MAN. placed under different temperatures. PRICHARD. REASONS AGAINST THE BELIEF THAT FOOD. THEORIES UPON ANIMAL GEOGRAPHY. LIMITED RANGE OF ANIMALS WHICH YET POSSESS GREAT LOCOMOTIVE POWERS. ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. PART I.ON THE GEOGRAPHY AND CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS. continents and oceans thrown together into vast masses. PROPOSITIONS ON THIS SUBJECT STATED. for the most part. peopled by different races of men. FABRICIUS. ARE THE PRIMARY CAUSES OF THE VARIATION OF MAN. PRICHARD. and inhabited by peculiar sorts of animals. of the world we inhabit. AND OTHERS. INFERIOR AGENTS. AND OTHER. (!•) On looking at a map is . ARCTIC REGIONS. What are the causes that . LATREILLE.

the Dutch boors of Southern the descendants of the whites who first settled Africa. this have produced secondly. food. should at once have diswriters. Again. to traverse vast oceans. clothing. does an African diet. (2. is dissimilarity all this of creatures ? and. Upon such a subject the modest and ingenuous mind may in- served pure. their nose flattened. begin to assume any of the characteristics of the races that surround them } do their lips gradually become thick. by the peculiarity of his constitution.) Man. and. tacitly reply to these questions. there method in is Each of mands a these questions amazing diversity ? highly interesting. and their complexion black ? Assuredly not . although naturally formed to inhabit but one element. born under a scorching sun. in the lapse of a century. is yet enabled. and de- separate consideration. above all. A " fair-haired " native of Europe migrates with his family. so long as their race Let the Spaniards. were the chief causes of that extraordinary variation in the aspect of the human species which the different nations of the earth exhibit. in short. — — — to — we repeat. or their mental perceptions ? are their national characteristics. have indulged in that temperature. he is among the least qualified of living beings for making rapid transitions from one part of the earth to another. . and settles among the woolly-haired and swarthy inhabitants of Africa. tered " among every nation under heaven:" let these. Such living and some of' testimonies. . in any degree lost.2 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. and which. and yet he has peopled its entire surface. or a change of costume. by art. so long as each race is preis unchanging and unchangeable. Do his descendants. now scatin the West Indies. known all. create any change in their form. pelled the illusion able which many them ones. natural state. and other secondary influences. to In his live in all climates which produce vegetation. the supposition is refuted by actual experience to the contrary. the Jews. settled for more is preserved pure } than two centuries among the copper-coloured Indians of Mexico and New Spain.

any one of which. These deductions. — in short. the earth. and pretend to trace the first causes of such things. is " by whom all things were made that are made. that they would spread their races in every region of the earth where food could be procured. Now the theoretical conclusion we should make. He alone. in either country warmth congenial to its nature . or swiftly flies from one continent to another. whether to the right or to the left. darting like an arrow through the air at the rate of sixty miles an hour. are diametrically opposed and contradicted by The swallow and of England might reach America it would travel would find food and or China in as short a space of time as to Africa." secret.) Let us now look may see thousands of beings. mounts on the breaking surge. that animals. but when we attempt to penetrate the darkness of primitive ages. Here we endowed with powers of locomotion which have been utterly denied to man. theoretically. would be. This is only one out of a thousand instances. it never deviates. to prove that the limits of every animal have been fixed by an Almighty further. swallow. three elements. that great First Cause. would be the occupation of a year. alone master to the of this impenetrable animal world. so peculiarly gifted with the powers of locomotion. thus traversing. the air. but no Man may much with B 2 those animals which . to us. and from that course. on considering these facts. Thousands. we wander in regions from which human knowledge is excluded. cannot be deemed otherwise than just. every spring and autumn. (3. and the sea. would use it to wander in every clime. with perfect ease. or where they could enjoy a fit temperature. the The curlew runs rapidly on the ground.INTRODUCTORY OBSERVATIONS. of little tiny birds perform journies. 3 dulge conjecture . Yet they facts." fiat — " Hither do shalt thou come. seems to mock the comparatively snail-like pace of our swiftest vessels . but it has been appointed to pursue a certain course.

Within the limits of the range of every animal there are. at first . have been appointed for domestication . while food and temperature will have their accidental or local effects but these causes. may appear to be to the Mosaic account of the deluge. all races of animals. no less than of plants. however. in what way can we account for the remote and partial locations of innumerable families. originated in one com- from which they were gradually dispersed over those portions of the earth which they now inhabit. sink into insignificance . spots which are not congenial to its nature . and then notice the different theories that have arisen on animal geography. when viewed in reference to the great harmonies of the animal world. and can never. for a moment. cut off by deserts and oceans from those regions in the tribes of terrestrial animals. upon so important a question. like islands in the ocean. it would appear presumptuous to controvert this belief. in the first place. appear to undervalue the opinions of those wlio have already given to the world the results of their investigations. therefore.) It subject. was the opinion of Linnaeus that spot . . than we should say that the sun was not a luminous body. descended from a stock preserved in the ark. because its entire surface is not equally bright. in reference to the general interpretation of the deluge. lay before the reader a condensed statement of what has been published upon the (5. as sight. which all the events of Scripture history took place these facts. If all central mon now in existence. were not the inference here deduced from the ]\Iosaic narrative contradicted by innumerable and undeniable facts. This opinion appears to receive full confirmation from the sacred writings . be justly made to interpret the causes of animal distribution.-' 'Contradictory. and. come into play : think of making these spots so many characteristics of geographic zoology.: 4 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OP ANIMALS. (4. but we should no more just alluded to. and here the secondary causes. and subse•quently liberated. we shall.) That we may not.

to have had the origin of their existence. and seem. with a variety of considerations. B 3 . the kol aerets. on a closer view. as our author very candidly admits. they must all supposition which have been congregated in one spot . vol. nevertheless. 81. rather tend to explain and to this illustrate the sacred records. and other regions. I p. is marked by great intelligence. " is direcdy opposed to geological phenomena . or habitable world . might be only all the oly. " all It above seems difficult to maintain. a can hardly be reconciled with the But. in distant regions. might be supposed to have escaped . and in refutation of the opinion. dispose us more and more to adopt." continues our author. in that case. which said to have been submerged. as Austraha and South America. which. in the strict sense of the word."* " The deluge recorded in Genesis. of which every expression has received a divine sanction. and who can prove that the various nations of animals which have the centre of their abode.avu. with their peculiar organised creations. It is nono necessity of assuming any such position. " was. (6. not universal." But this supposition. Prichard relative important question. with Linnoeus. is The whole earth. every day discovered. as it is now unaerstood. there is results of zoological researches.HYPOTHESIS ON ANIMAL GEOGBAPHT. render it more probable that this deluge was strictly universal. where asserted in the Mosaic history . It is incontestable hypothesis * Hilt of Uankind. that the tribes of land animals now existing descended from a stock that was preserved in Noah's ark. survived ? This. it might only extend to the utmost limits of the human race . 5 the results furnished by zoological science will. and the species of animals that were their companions. indeed. perhaps. because. which the human race. were not created since the era of that deluge.) The hypothesis of Dr. seems to be the conclusion which facts.h-t). be maintained without doing any violence to the sacred text. perhaps. perhaps. and this might.

it when new regions emerged from the ocean. have so far lost sight of the original question. are in inhabitants. climate of each district. (7-) Other writers. in respect to be of little consequence. man. all probability the native After the deluge. every where disto races different from t!iose wliich now exist . not in the scriptural history. by circumscribing their views to the local distribution of a few native animals. spread themselves in a later time. is probable they were sup- plied with organised inhabitants suited to the soil and Among these new races. but. as to suppose that " the geographic distribution of each species may be represented by a circle. to such facts. and of which they. and the proof of such position must be sought. This must be granted. restraints multiply. The silence of the Scriptures. and of the facts with which man is concerned and it was of no importance for man to effect : be informed at what era Australia began to contain kangaroos. towards the centre of which may be comfortably maintained . Mankind escaped by the means recorded in the sacred. It is not to be presumed that these sacred books contain a narrative of all that it has pleased Divine Providence to seems in the physical creation. and which were his companions. or the woods of Paraguay ant-eaters and armadilloes. but only of His dispensations to mankind. before the flood. and in many profane. these were probably exterminated in the great catastrophe. but in external partial creation down phenomena.. as we approach the circumference. chiefly belong mesticated animals. and the tribes which had survived with him. such as a subsequent to the deluge. O that ihe ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS." it Some per- sons will object to this hypothesis that sitions not laid assumes po- in the sacred narrative. fossil remains of animals. and most of the early docoverable. The facts scripture liistory may thus be reconciled with the established by zoological research. histories and with them were saved the stock of animals peculiar to the region in which. and existence . they had their dwelling.

life 7 been furgeo- becomes impracticable. Europe. ation. of Zool vol.SPECULATIVE THEORIES. to the idea of animals enjoying a circular range. to name them : but. when applied to animals generally. have great • Phil.) : therefore. but is destroyed by the very admission that local circumstances exercise a primary influence on the The peregrine falcon is found in range of animals. is totally insufficient to account for the phenomena of animal geography. may it possibly be dif- would be perhaps. and might. The great bustard of : Europe is is another fa- it is example its . food. either singly or We know. situ- and foes." * ther added. p. but it is totally unknown throughout the whole continent of Africa. and the latter throughout a circle which would then comprise the whole of northern and southern Europe. situation. i. these causes. This hypothesis pretends not to account for the total difference in the genera and species of animals in two countries. food. hardly deserve attention in an enquiry directed principally to primary causes. an immense region thus intervening between two of its habitats. and foes. true in some few instances. and Australia. and to the confines of Asia. (8. 8. although ficult. the first of these birds should be found in Africa. according Europe. found in the centre of England. and furnished with the same means of supporting and enjoying life it leaves this question where it was. which are yet under the same parallels of latitude. B 4 .. America. miliar distribution latitudinal (9. it is not only opposed by facts innumerable. The theory of a cir- cular range being enjoyed by species. through the heart of Now. and Barbary. that the conditions which at last It has reg-ulate the graphic distribution of species appear to be limited to circumstances connected with temperature. of the same degree of temperature.) The opinion that those conditions which regulate the geographic distribution of species are limited to circumstances connected with temperature. indeed. that collectively.

But how are we to account for two species of these gold-crested warblers being common in North America. to have been at the period of their first existence locally diffused in countries widely distant. that closet theories must be tried at the same time.'ngale be made out. can have no influence . that nearly every country in the old world has a particular breed or race of the horse. since insects and their larvae. be said. Hence it is. are terrr> ^d the original breed of the particular countries wherein they are found. are found in all these localities for : the thickets of Scot- land are . and dog . in precisely the same latitudes. in common language. also. of the same species. indeed. no reason can possibly be devised. as favourable breeding in as those of Sweden and in regard to foes. In what way. all of which.) Another theory supposes that the same species of animal or plant has been originally placed in many different regions : in other words. ox.'' Again.: 8 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. Little need . is we will say. neither can food. properly so called.'' It by such questions. that the absence of the nightNorthumberland and Scotland is to be attributed to the greater coldness of those parts. (10. influence on local distribution. we will allow that fire these causes are sufficient to account for the -crested warbler (^Sylvia ignicapilla) being found in the Parisian gardens. can the circular range of the nigli. while it is a stranger to England. they will at once point out the very distinct nature of local dispersion from that : of geographic distribution. The difference of temperature. yet trtally distinct is from those of Europe. of which every class of animals will furnish innumerable examples. but they have nothing to do with the geographic distribution of animals indigenous to large continents: nor will they even explain the local distribution of some of the commonest birds. sheep. compared It may ingale in with the milder air of southern England. But how are we to account for this bird being common in the more northern kingdoms of Sweden and Germany ? Climate. is the reason England colder than France. in this case.

ig in nature but the more We : we investigate. and with those unknown laws. in attempting to explain the causes of animal distribution. (11. as are the fields and the pastures of Europe. are as perfectly adapted for the comfortable existence of the horse or the ox. the geographic distribution of his creatures." (12. that we shall give it nearly own words. " It appears that the various tribes of organised beings were originally placed by the Creator in certain regions. must be for ever hid from human research.) Some other writers might be mentioned. and their progeny left to disperse themselves to as great a distance from the original centre of their existence as was compatible with its physical capabilities. may. . the stronger will be our conviction in the : following deduction — That the primary causes which have led being peopled by different races of animals. indeed. less new worlds no than those of Australia. as Linnaius supposed. drawn from the facts we an inference jo well expressed by a very in his intelligent writer. for which they are by their nature Each species may have had only one beginning in a single stock probably a single pair. This conclusion is strengthened to different regions of the earth by the inference which shall subsequently state will be . and the laws by which their dispersion is regulated. build a theory upon every ti . still now be The distinguished from the variis the whole tenor of zoological facts plains of the totally against this belief. and denied them to the other. was first called into being. for although it is utterly impossible to trace the origin of our domestic breeds to one or more original stocks. yet nature has placed these animals in one hemisphere. who. have either been but little acquainted with well known zoological facts.SPECULATIVE THEORIES ANSWERED. or the grassy deserts of Asia . strate the on the causes of animal dis- . by which the Creator has regulated peculiarly adapted. or have been led into theories too wild and fanciful to deserve notice. since even the species cannot eties. 9 be said to prove the fallacy of this hypothesis .) We insufficiency of all theories have now endeavoured to demo.

the northern parts of Europe . must be obvious to every one at all acquainted with the subject). Latreille. Northern. the coldest regions of northern Asia . and. it is not at the correct as to temperature. 5. 3. 2. seems to have subsequently abandoned them altogether. (14. 4. the animals. by not attempting to demonstrate the correctness of any one of his divisions. Egyptian. enquire facts. the countries bordering the Mediterranean. 6. We are now to enquire. notice the dif- ferent theories that have been formed upon these points. in the first instance. Japan.) turalist Fabricius appears to have been the first na- who ventured on any to actual definitions of he conceived be natural climates or what provinces. far they are in accordance with observed this inter- and then explain our own views upon esting subject. the southern . that the divisions are too vague. the northern re- gions immediately adjoining . Occidental. Oriental. since no one. This learned entomologist further observes (what.10 persion. Alpine. and 8. the seventh includes North America. the fourth. as urged M. 7. we may add. by and same time too arbitrary . Southern. (13. He considers that there are eight of these divisions. and China .) The objections to this theory. indeed. . totally different. which he has named the Indian. the sufliciently insects. and yet experience teaches of the earth are us. the Old and the The first comprehends the tropics of New World . all those mountains whose summits are clothed in perpetual snow. the sixth. Mediterranean. divisions ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. that certain characterised by peculiar animals. and his views are confined alone to the insect world. are. in general. the fifth. that in places where the temperature is the same. and that if heat is to be considered as of such primary importance. the second. the third. it may be fairly presumed. what are these divisions? ? how they are to be defined and what are their pecu- liarities ? We how shall. that Fabricius. and part of Asia Minor . are The fact is. and the eighth.

He sub. and a western. terminating with Persia. materially differ from those of Fabricius he divides the globe into climates. 485. as no land has been discovered below 60° south latitude. he proposes. for example. 11 was more (15. and subdividing the former into two great portions . tropical. in • Kirby. (15." * In in this opinion we perfectly coincide. which he thinks may be made to agree with our present state of knowledge. entomologist. Int. sub-polar. he subiUvides the whole into twelve climates. supra-tropical. and frittered away. M.) qualified than himself to discover the artificial nature of his theory. Latreille's theory. by which its author has lost sight of. Beginning at 84° N. The first defect which immediately strikes the mind. beginning with the equatorial and ending with the superior. and be even applicable to future discoveries. vol. . by a celebrated entomologist. to Entom. in reference to the geography of insects. the be considered as having 24<° of longitude as well as 12° of latitude. and equatorial . His primary divisions are arctic and antarctic climates. beginning with India .THEORIES ON GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS. an eastern. The views of M. that " any division of the globe into cUmates. of ordinary talent. and What immediately recognised by every naturalist. p. iv. does not. Finally. however. is its complicated minuteness.) To these views it has already been objected. rather than of one according to nature. he has seven arctic ones. by means of equivalent parallels and meridians. but his antarctic climates. superior. that each climate should rating. : Latreille.climates. those grand divisions of animal geography pointed out by nature. according as they are situated above or below the equinoctial line . and taking twelve degrees of latitude for each climate. do not. intermediate. wears the appearance of an artificial and arbitrary system. thus. which he names polar. amount only to five. by proposes further to divide his climates into means of certain meridian lines sepa: Old World from the New.

which both Fabricius and Latreille have lost sight of from a wish of attaining precision. KirL^ joins in : believing. not. it appears. that the geographic distribution of insects is regulated by other laws than those which affect animals in general . would seem to be butterflies of Africa ornithologist : fully lations.) There yet remains to be noticed another hypomore recently proposed. Latreille. voi iv. (17. indeed. and to : may be fix their natural provinces or climates by degrees of longitude or latitude. in the actual state of our knowledge. M'Leay and Mr. have different animals. eighteen instances out of twenty^ instantly recognise the from those of America? or what would now confound the flycatchers or the warblers of the Old with those of the New World ? These are all indications of those primary and comprehensive divisions. is of the highest value. . consequently. thesis. is entertained both by M. Prichard 484 the first who • Int to Entom. that as places where the temperature is the same. since aware of the slender foundation of all such specuhe remarks. p. indeed. rather than as regulated by isothermal lines. and whose therefore. upon a solid This opinion. Dr. produced theories substantially built upon climate and temperature. M. to fix these distinctions of climates basis. merit every attention. although each may possess some few peculiarities in their minor details the above objections. '"that the real insect climates. and of entering upon details they have. therefore. but by one whose physiological researches are opinions. or those in certain groups or species appear. by a naturalist. which regarded as fixed by the will of the Creator. it is impossible. with great truth.12 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. are no less applicable to all others. Humboldt and Mr. intending to trace the phenomena of animal geography to temperature." * It cannot for a moment be supposed. although more especially urged against the two entomological theories we have here noticed.

Prichard's Researches. 53. the islands of New Guinea.* (18. N. but they have each a vast number of peculiar genera common to all three. 2. and New Ireland. lastly. the equatorial or tropical 4. vol. his zoological divisions are formed with much greater attention nature than any of his predecessors.t DR. and so * Dr. made to include the temperate regions of three continents Certainly not. the arctic the primary divisions he has proposed: — . This intelligent writer has looked more to the configuration of the earth. 1. then it is a perfectly natural one . and in very many instances the same species . Europe^ particularly And we may illustrate and Asia. few are the species perhaps The genera. regions of perate islands . the 3. p. The following are 1. 214. with but very few . as more understood by modern naturalists. f Pre'.'' We respective groups of animals. and those more remote in the Pacific Ocean . New Britain. between their veral instances. i. that the proportion is not greater than as 1 to 50. and. but even the same species. 13 attempted a more natural theory of animal distribution. The arctic regions of America. the southern extremities of America and Africa. the temIndian 5. for not only are the same groups. H.) The objections that maybe stated against these divisions chiefly arise from the author not having kept in view the difference between affinity and analogy. and to the natural connection its or separation of parts by intervening islands or oceans. indeed. Acto cordingly. analogies without end. find. this position by looking more attentively to the animals of two or three of these provinces. . in se- common to both. the New and the Old World . than to absolute limits of longitude or latitude. indisputably possess the same genera. . and if it should subsequently appear that these regions are sufficiently important in themselves to constitute a zoological province. pbichabd's theory. from this very circumstance. But can this be said of the second of these provinces. 6.^is. . Australia proper . p.

but are represented by analogous genera. has the great merit of having made the nearest approach to such a theory of animal distribution as is suggested by the natural arrangement. Prichard. are likewise inhabited by different races of animals. regulated the disof animals upon the same plan : These questions lead us to the following propositions 1. when there are not three land or rather perching birds common to both ? and when more than two thirds of the genera found in America are totally unknown in Europe or in Asia ? Look to the bears in the the temperate regions of the three continents those of America and Europe are similarly constructed.: 14 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. since others. from their peculiar studies. are formed upon a totally different model. as we are compelled to do in threading the maze of Dr. again. nor need we wonder that he has failed in the application. it remains to be considered whether the geWhether neral distribution of both are not in unison ? their Divine Creator has not. of of Asia. exceptionsj are peculiar. blending into each other at their confines. who. as We we conceive. have erred from the very foundation. incomprehensible to tribution of human man and understanding. and each continent is distinctly separated in its animal productions by indications as certain and as indubitable as those tive inhabitants. all tending. while those. . but the species are difiPerent. by certain laws. then. That the countries peopled by the five recorded varieties of the — ? human species. (19-) Since. might fiU pages with similar facts. which distinguish their respec- Can we include temperate America same zoological province with the parallel regions of Europe. however. there is as marked a distinction between the animals of the great continents as there is between the races of mankind by whom they are inhabited. natural geography of the earth . might be supposed more com- petent to the task. to exemplify the necessity of preserving these relations as distinct in our views of animal geography.

That this progression of animal forms is in unison with the first great law of natural arrangement. we consider the number to be five. the 5. These liarities territories by the pecuso of their but are strongly marked by the hand of nature. Cuvier. The European . with M. between forms and states the most opposite. and the precise countries inhabited by the typical races of each. or Caucasian. portant indications. all physiologists agree in these distinctions are not only indicated inhabitants. . Australian Ethiopian or or Malay. viz. the material or the immaterial. 3. 4. thus raising the two latter to the rank of primary divisions. the African and. looking merely to and boundaries. 1. the Asiatic or Mon- golian precise 3. The past. as the chief seats of the five leading races of mankind. let it animal kingdom as sions of the earth us respectively contemplate the appears in the following divi- .) Whether we view the varieties of the human species. all her operations and all her changes are gradually progressive. American the . The first great law of nature is harmonious combination. of the five No axiom is more important. 2.GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF MAN. or whether. sition in their configuration. The zoological provinces here assumed. of which the Ethiopian is to comprehend the Malay and the American. following Blumenbach. by all physiologists. the gradual amalgamation of the parts. is of no conIt is enough that sequence to our present enquiry. considered. will not admit of accurate definition. by these imwell-known names. Whether in the moral or the physical world. as first resolvable into three. Changes. are effected by transitions so gradual as often to elude limits definition. therefore. the present. are continuous. have long recognised them by Assisted. . and the future. for the na- . 15 That these regions are the true zoological divi- sions of the earth. and the circularity of the whole. their natural po- that geographers. (20. 2.

this region or province comprehends the whole of the New World . how- be regarded as some approximation to the truth. and is again connected with Eui'ope. in fact. and are blended with those of Asia and America to the north. 1. 3.l6 turalist ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. properly so called. The following. where the zoological character of the Australian region begins to be apparent. to be borne in mind than this. : by the arctic regions of the three continents . its western confines blend into the European towards Persia. to give a more accurate definition to the foregoing divisions. fill we are com- up the outline. at the best with diffidence. a natural and well-defined barrier between. Nature. it is united to the African range among the provinces of Asia Minor . or every effort to define the precise limits of natural groups or zoological regions. and disappear on the west of the Caucasian chain . and also with America. but into which it blends at the other ex_ . finally. and the shores of the Mediterranean in : may Northern Africa the zoological peculiarities of this re- gion begin to disappear . its most southern limits are marked by the islands of Java and Sumatra. more especially. (21. into the Mongolian ? Such are the difficulties that "will for ever baffle all attempts at unexceptionable definition. with part of Asia Minor. for centuries. United to Europe and Asia at its northern limits. seems to abhor those arbitrary rules. they are lost to the eastward of the Caucasian mountains. The chief seat of this zoological region is probably in central Asia . The Asiatic range comprehending the whole of Asia east of the Ural mountains. by conjecture. therefore. 2. have shackled the progress of zoological knowledge. The American range. with which man has invested her operations . pelled to ever. and. the two continents. The European or Caucasian range includes the whole of Europe. in some cases.) In attempting. What beings can be more dissimilar than an African negro and a Greek Caucasian ? Yet who has ventured to pronounce in what regions the Ethiopian form actually blends into that of the Caucasian ? or this. and which. again.

and the presence of genera peculiar to New Holland and the extreme point of Southern Africa. The next includes the whole : of Africa south of the Great Desert a decided affinity to the a part. it will be perceived. but its connection with Africa and Asia has been already intimated. Can we. by many exclusive genera. They are consequently excluded from the rank of a distinct zoological province. and about a dozen other animals. most of which. Not one genus of vertebrated animals c is peculiar. or but very few species. Asia. terrestrial and aquatic. 5. The number of birds. wherein the three great Faunas of Europe. and it spreads over the whole of the numerous islands of the Pacific Ocean : whether this province blends with that of America or of Europe. and are united together. while the absence of large animals in Madagascar. during the greater part of the year. at least. (22. we form such a conclusion.THE FIVE CHIEF ZOOLOGICAI. lead us to the hfth or the Australian range. are contemplated as a common bond of union. 4. The Polar bear. and very many extend their range to tlie lakes and swamps of Mexico. are found in the northern seas of Britain and America. PROVINCES. tremity is 17 uncertain. and by numerous forms of species ? Certainly not. of animals not found in the temcharacters. which occur within the Arctic circle. as of that they are characterised all the preceding provinces. If we look more particularly shall to the ornithology of these to regions. neighbouring islands mark its limits in that direction . and to its perate latitudes of the other continents. remains for future discovery . therefore. because they do not contain either genera. say be still more inclined of the Arctic regions. To this region nature has given peculiar both in regard to its geographic situation New Guinea and the animal productions. of the countries bordering on the Mediterranean exhibit European range . and America meet. unless such may . are surely insufficient to constitute one of the primary zoological divisions of the earth.) In this distribution. the Arctic fox. the Arctic regions. Australia Proper is its chief seat. amounts only to twentytwo .

Fully im- also peculiarly difficult to characterise. II. to be the most objectionable. We have to furnish satisfactory results. MORE IN DETAIL. POSITION SUPPORTED BY AN ANALYTICAL SURVEY OF ITS PREPONDERANCE OP ITS GENERIC TYPES. but. on the connumerous. has been hitherto neglected. to the Arctic solitudes. The insects. UNDER THE THREE HEADS OF ARCTIC. be found among the marine tribes . CENTRAL.)The last first of the zoological provinces intimated in the chapter appears. EUROPE. CH\P. (23. but even these would enjoy a much wider range. and restricted their limits. AND SOUTHERN EUROPE. ITS ZOOLOGY CONSIDERED OF THE FOREGOING ANALYSIS. trary. ORNITHOLOGY.18 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. and the reptiles too insignificant. Europe are too few. peculiarly difficult under the most favourable circumstances. RESULTS ITS ANALOGY TO THE CAUCASIAN TYPE OF JIAN. had not the persecutior and the increased population driven them. are too . pressed with this difficulty. while the distribution of the marine animals. it is For not only has it never been viewed in from its close connection to that of Asia. THIS PROEUROPE CONSIDERED AS A ZOOLOGICAL PROVINCE. this light. for our purpose . we considered it essential to the clear elucidation of our present theory. on a cursory view. and their original distribution have been too much altered by the progress of civilisation. to institute a minute enquiry into those facts upon which alone aU The quadrupeds of such theories can be supported.

that no very certain results can attend the study of their distribution. be received with great caution. enquiry surrounded. that the same a results would attend an equally . that a division of the earth. any definite notions on animal distribution can be derived from such volatile beings. with reference to the geographic range of the genera and species. but of genera and families. are now known to depend. however. by a hasty application of wellthe most acknowledged truths Nor can r the facts collected in the compilations oi more scientific writers be always 1 . some of in animal geography. and other animals by (24. must be. one plan. that we shall be fully authorised in supposing^ by analogy. to a certain extent. of all animals. indeed. it will vestigate. a natural division and. Certain. travellers. the most widely dispersed. secondly. before the reader. and shall now proceed to lay these facts^ and the inferences. far this How may be true. these writers peronly the petually contradict. been objected to this class of animals. be our object to inthat if. It has. the results will go very far to strengthen our views upon two material points first. and consequently the least calculated to assist such an enquiry. we must is advert to the difficulties by which the The accounts and relations of themselves naturalists. 19 consequently selected from the department of ornithology those facts which appeared to authorise us in considering Europe as one of the primary zoological divisions of the earth . on which not separation of species. must. . and by their migratory nature per- petually wandering into distant countries. close investigation of other animals since it cannot for moment be supposed to that man and all birds are distri- buted according another.THE EUROPEAN PROVINCE. they would seem. Pos- sessing the powers of locomotion in a higher degree than any others. under such disadvantages. it is. not in Unacquainted with those nice distinctions. upon this and every other occasion. : characterised by strong peculiarities in its ornithology.) Before illustrating the ornithology of Europe. known names.



depended upon numerous instances might be mentionedj where not only species, but genera^ are said to inhabit countries, where, in fact, they are totally unknown, and to which their geographic range has manifestly

been prohibited.

It is the

misfortune of those

who complain

of the present refinement in zoological

ledge of these interesting facts

nomenclature, that they debar themselves from a knowand, by keeping up old ; names, contribute, unintentionally, to the continuance
of error.
It is necessary to state thus


that the

who maybe disposed to go over the same ground with us, may be warned of the nature of the road he is
to travel.



however, be materially assisted in

his researches

by the valuable Manuels of M. Temminck,

Ooniitliology of Wilson, the admirable Prince Ch. Bonaparte, and the Northern Much, however, of what Zoology of Dr. Richardson. we are now to state, has resulted from personal know-








has enabled us to reject, as spurious,


of the locahties assigned to species in the general

histories of birds.

(25.) Commencing with the Arctic regions, we must again impress on the reader the small number of birds

any considerable portion of the most northern extremities of Europe and its These do not exceed, both in the terfrozen islands. restrial and aquatic orders, the number of twenty-two ; the larger proportion of which are also found, during


are natives, during

year, of the

the greater part of the year, in the northern parts of
Britain, America, region,

and probably

in Asia



this latter



possess but slender information.


foregoing species are chiefly composed of the nata-

torial or



— of


others, perhaps, the

most extensively dispersed: the total number of this order, hitherto discovered on the shores of Europe and Northern Africa, independent of such as are more peculiar to the Arctic circle, is sixty. Of these, two alone have been discovered in the four quarters of the globe ; three are common to Europe, Asia, and America ; one



Europe, Asia, and Southern Africa


and twentyyet,

seven to Europe and North America

standing these deductions, there


notwithremain twenty-

seven natatorial species (or nearly one half of the total number found in Europe), as peculiar alone to the

European range.

Among the

Grallatores, or

wading birds, we find


species so widely dispersed, as to

the range of this order

make us believe even wider than that of the

be the











described as

natives of Europe, thirteen only occur in America,

but two


be denominated Arctic birds, although

others occasionally frequent those regions


remainder, four occur in Asia

two in Asia and


four in Asia and America; seven in Asia, Africa,

and America
is said to

and the whimbrel {Numenius PhcRopus)

be the same in



divisions of the





the wading birds

that we find those whose range is most extensive ; yet, on a general calculation, the number of species peculiar to Europe is considerably greater than those of the

nearly as one to four.

Natatores, the former being as one to two, the latter This result is highly curious

and important, since it at once proves that, even among birds of the most vagrant habits, the ornithology of the European range is characterised by a decided superiority, in the

number of



peculiar species, over

those which equally inhabit other countries.


(27.) The rapacious order, next to the aquatic tribes, of all others inhabiting the land, the most widely

among the nocremarkable that, of thirteen different owls inhabiting Europe, six only are peculiar,



particularly the case

turnal [species.


and two of these more particularly inhabit the Arctic Of the rest, four occur in America, two in Southern Africa, and one in both Asia and America,


FalconidcE, or diurnal birds of prey, in regard to




have a more restricted distrihution than yet, of these, the eagles enjoy no incon. siderable range of four discovered in Europe, one is more properly Arctic, three have been found in several parts of Africa, and one occurs in America, leaving It is singular that those rapathree only to Europe. cious birds which, from the peculiar structure of their wings, have been supposed to enjoy the greatest power of flight among their congeners, should nevertheless This is proved by the have a much more limited range. fact, that,, of eight genuine falcons inhabiting Europe and Northern Africa, two only have been discovered in America. It has, however, recently been stated, that
their species,

the nocturnal



the peregrine falcon of Australia
as that


absolutely the


of Europe.


the numerous species of

falcon in Southern Africa,

not one occurs in Europe:

the European kestril, long confounded with the montagnard of Le Vaillant, being a decidedly distinct


the whole, the distribution of the forty:

four European birds of prey appears to be thus regulated

more properly Arctic ; eleven are found also in America, two in Asia and Africa, and one in Asia and America ; leaving twenty-seven, or more than one half, as characteristic of European ornithology. Their wide (28.) The gallinaceous genera are few.
three are



decidedly against the theory, that

all birds^

with heavy bodies and short wings, are more Mmited in their geographic range than other terrestrial tribes. This argument has been ingeniously made use of, to account for the very restricted Umits nature has imposed upon the greater number of Indian parrots ; many species, as it is stated, being confined to particular We must not, however, expect to find a reason islands. in the present instance, the above confor every thing

clusion is particularly erroneous.

Ornithologists, indeed,

wings of nearly the whole of the parrot family are peculiarly adapted for strong and vigorous flight; whUe those who have contemplated
need not be
told, that the




these birds in their native regions, cannot fail to have remarked that their flight is particularly rapid : nearly

a hawk.

the genera pass through the air with the celerity of The long-winged macaws and parrakeets of


"W^orld are particularly graceful

on the wing.

The wide

dispersion of the

and powerful European

The range of birds is very evident. the great bustard {Otis tarda L.) extends from the western extremity of temperate Europe to the confines
and the quail, remarkable for its heavy body ; and short wings, performs long and regular annual migrations, from and to Northern Africa, over the We do greatest part of Europe and Western Asia. not consider any of the European grouse as strictly Arctic ; excepting, perhaps, the ptarmigan ; the rest appear to occur as plentifully beyond those regions, as within them. Many of the meridional European birds, as the hoopoe, oriole, roller, &c., might with equal justice be classed as tropical birds, since they are found as often in tropical Africa as on the shores of the Mediof Asia


colder countries,

of course,



but even in more pecuhar habitations of the grouse this family we meet with an insuperable objection against
If we exclude these the idea of an Arctic province. birds from the fauna of temperate Europe, do we find the same species in the northern latitudes of America ?

it is


we admit

the existence of an Arctic province,

Certwo continents represent each other ; but out of thirteen inhabiting America, only two (T. saliciti and Lagopus) have been found in Europe with these exceptions, they are totally distinct On there is a beautiful analogy, but no similarity. looking to the whole number of our Gallinacea, we find twenty-seven species, fourteen of which have their metropolis in Europe the remainder are thus dispersed five extend to Western Asia, five to the confines of the great African desert, two are dispersed over Central
tainly not.

natural to suppose they would be also found.


species of the







Asia and Africa ; while two only^ as before mentioned, occur in North America. (29-) The swallow-Hke birds {Fi.isirostres) are well known by capturing their food on the wing, and by their migratory habits ; only one, the common or European kingfisher, being stationary. Hence it is, that most of the European species occur in other regions the proportion of those which appear confined to Northern Africa is as one to three. (30.) The finch family, comprising the small seed-eating birds, not only contains numerous species, but these reckon forty-one to be are very abundant in number. natives of Europe; two of which are common in all the northern latitudes, and, at certain seasons, frequent the polar regions in large flocks: seven also inhabit North America; and three extend their range to Asia and Africa. With these deductions, we find no less than


thirty species restricted to the

European province.



scansorial or climbing birds are few, not


more than

fifteen species

yet eight, or one

half of this number, are


in other countries.

(32.) It is among the insectivorous or soft-billed birds that the principal ornithological features of any extensive region will

be traced.

The very

extensive genus of

titmice warblers {SylvicolcB Sis.), or the family of


ming-birds, would of themselves be sufficient to place

America in a

distinct province.

to be attributed, that birds,

To what cause it is by no means defective in the

power of


should yet be so strictly confined within

geographic limits, has not been explained.


eighty-five species belonging to the thrushes, warblers,

and flycatchers, eighty-two have not been disbeyond the limits assigned to the European range. In this number we, of course, include such as migrate to Northern Africa and Western Asia ; these
countries being within the province









we deduct

those which have actually

been detected beyond the shores of the jMediterranean




and Western Asia, they will amount only to ten ; leaving seventy-two as a marked and very prominent characteristic of European ornithology. In further illustration
of the very limited range of these families,
that three




of eighty-five, equally inhabit


and that even the identity of one of these (Parus atricapUlus L.) with a European species {P.palustris L.) is more than questionable. {33.) The large omnivorous birds of Europe, comprising the crow and starling families {Corvidcp, Sturnidce), appear widely dispersed. Yet, upon the whole, several species, and even peculiar genera, are left to characterise
this portion of the world.



state their



twenty-one; thirteen of which, or more than one half, habitually reside in Europe; four occur in Northern and Central Africa; one the beautiful rose-coloured starling {Pastor roseus T.) inhabits likewise the table land of Asia, and the deserts of Africa ; while three are found in America.

— —

(.84.) These details, of the greatest importance to our present enquiry, yet tedious, perhaps, to the general reader, it becomes necessary to dwell upon, before a competent opinion can be formed on European ornithology. The facts exhibited have never before been stated ; and they appear sufficiently strong to justify our looking to Europe as the principal seat of a peculiar geographic division of animals. In this difficult

and somewhat laborious investigation, we have been assisted by the writings of Wilson, Temminck, and Le Vaillant; but more particularly by that liberality which throws the magnificent Museum of the French nation open to the use of all scientific enquirers. Yet, with all these sources of information, and perhaps greater, had such existed, it cannot be supposed that inaccuracies may not occur. Such calculations, in short, from their very nature, cannot be perfect for they are founded upon a state of knowledge which


is is


as near


we can

do, in such





truth as


and, having done this, the result ; be entitled to proportionate confidence. (35.) As a general recapitulation of the foregoing de-

circumstances admit



we may estimate

the total number of European species


388, excluding a few, which only appear,


intervals, as stragglers

of these, thirty-one are


peculiar to the Arctic regions of Europe, America, and

probably of Asia




being as

one to

Such as occur, also, in temperate Asia and America amount to sixty-eight ; forty of which are


nine are dispersed over four divisions of the none of which can they be particularly ap;




these deductions, the

while one or two extend also to Australia. number will be reduced

If from these we abstract such as have 278. a range beyond the European hmits, the number may be further reduced to about 250 so that nearly two thirds of the total number of birds found in Europe, Northern Africa, and Western Asia, are zoologically chato about

racterised as peculiar to these countries.

(36.) Another remarkable fact in European ornithology, which deserves attention, is the great number of generic types it contains, when viewed with reference to the number of species. These genera may be calculated at 108, omitting some which have not been generally adopted, and others which may more correctly be termed sections. The proportion which these genera bear to the species (estimated before at 388) amounts to more than two to seven ; or, in other words, does not give seven birds to two genera. It is further remarkable, that most of these genera are typical of their respective families. True it is, that such genera are usually very widely dispersed ; but in no division of the globe do they appear so much concentrated, or so numerous in proportion to the species, as in Europe. This remark

not only applies to the typical genera, but
applicable to the



number of

species they respectively


instance will illustrate our meaning.

noble falcons, or those to which the generic

The name of

and the various races of mankind inhabiting the European. 27 Falco is now : restricted. (37. the proportion which the genera bear to the species is no more than as one to three. if we merely look to these respective numbers. the great proportion of these eminently typical species in Europe is particularly striking. in point of extent. are taken into the account. three inhabit the whole of the New Le Vaillant discovered five World. these. whlie. Le Vaillant enumerates the same number from Southern and Central Africa. from- having their chief metropolis in the heart of Europe. but as several of these genera comprise others not yet characterised. are the most typical group of their family of these the kestrel. have European province. and probably . since it has been asserted that the Museum of Berlin alone contains that number. strictly typical of its own family. province. The genus Lanius is In Europe we have while only certainly five. or rather the Caucasian. Now. and five others. Africa. A modern writer of no mean authority. if the ornithology of the European range is alone considered. species. The manifest preponderance of genera in the European range is further illustrated by the following fact : — The total number of species among birds. and to whom the above facts were entirely unknown^ when speaking of the . cannot be considered as characteristic of the former continent. and their chief metropolis in the : Australia. Those of Asia Proper are not known J but only two are furnished by the vast regions of Australia. to These have been referred about 380 genera .GENERAL RESULTS ON EUROPEAN ORNITHOLOGY. the difference is sufficiently disproportionate but when the great inferiority of the European province. we will estimate the number at 400 : this would leave 1 5 species to each generic group . may be safely estimated at 6OOO. The whole of North America has hitherto produced hut four. six.) The above facts serve to illustrate a remarkable analogy between the distribution of the feathered tribes. to those of America. exist- ing in collections. but two of In Africa.

pre-eminently typical. The ornithology of Europe is better known than that of any other continent. which do not occur within the European province. or the races of birds. which are the most that division typical of all the scansorial birds. which is not European. that " the tribes among .28 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIBIALS." * Whether we look to the Caucasian man. there is not one. or America. or the individuals in each. its or inseets. the only exception that can be parrots. that we make no apology for having so long dwelt upon them. these facts are is still races of more curious. Africa.) That there are instances of typical forms of higher groups than genjra. consequently. which is cer- tainly not typical: but this. are so important to our present enquiry. 442. although we have no It is we possess many woodpeckers. so far as tribes are concerned.). furnished us with facts more unexceptionable and more perfect than could have been drawn from quadrupeds. p.). he again repeats. or of any other class of animals distributed in the same regions . named . as if impressed with the singularity of the circumstance. bodily dif- ferences are much more numerous in the highly civilised Caucasian variety. is the European hoopoe is {Upupa Epops L. since this division so disproportionately small in comparison to either Asia. than in either of the other divisions of mankind. How far this view of European zoology would be strengthened by a similar • Lawrence. If we descend to the families of the Tnsessores (the most perfect of the feathered tribe). it has. " Whether we consider the varieties of the Caucasians are several nations." more numerous than in any other and. furnished by facts which are incontestable. does not materially diminish the general strength of this analogy. observes. since. . (38. fish. Thus the only bird we possess belonging to the tenuirostral or suctorial tribe. (39-) These results. mankind. curious that the above exception should be found in alone which comprises the smallest and weakest of birds {TrochilidcB Sw. 475.

we have selected that department of nature which has left us unshackled by geological controversy. and the races of others are fast disappearing we know not. take a rapid survey of its more particular Our observations will be arranged under the features. 1. we shall now. the original and natural dispersion of these animals. upon : First.) Having so far pointed out those peculiarities which entitle Europe to be considered one of the chief zoological divisions of the world. that these analogies are so remarkable. proclaims how few species must have been extirpated. or by other changes calculated to modify their original dispersion. seem to have been the least affected by the Deluge. in tracing the distribution of the feathered creation.: ARCTIC EUROPE. and that which is best from possessing the most authentic materials fitted to illustrate our subject. for. in fact. the . review of the foregoing statements. dispersed over Europe. and so we must conclude that the same Almighty Power has distributed both upon one uniform and harmonious plan. Conclusions. (41. It naturally follows. are these that the European province is strikingly characterised by its pecuUar animals. it 29 : is impossible to judge even did our present very confined limits permit the enquiry. investigation of other classes. that it occupies those countries which are the chief seat of the Caucasian race. have already become extinct as natives. drawn from such as are in a fossil state. Geographic ornithology : nearly exempt from both these objections since the paucity of fossil re- mains referred to this class. is now only known would be still more vague. we should have to rely more upon theory Many of the quadrupeds originally than upon facts. viewing it in that light. with which its orni- thology presents manifest. Thirdly. more than any other vertebrated animals. and sufficiently so to constitute it one — a Seof the primary zoological divisions of the world. that. namely. Birds. three divisions it naturally presents. condly. that many singular and undeniable analogies.) The conclusions which we must arrive at. — — (40.

made in favour of the marine tribes ofMollusca. I. being highly unfavourable to animal life. species. . 2. Nevertheless.). wolves. including occasional visiters to Greenland. and. and the shores of the Mediterranean. There must be an exception. malia as natives of Greenland. (42. with the exception of the ptarmigan (Lagopus rnutus). the former class supplying food to the latter. among which. the Southern. nine of which are seals and walruses . thus leaving but eight species of terrestrial quadrupeds. The chief however. Lapland. and a considerable part of Norway. are fifty-two . the islands of Spitzbergen and Iceland. ox THE GEOGRAPHY OP ANIMALS. belong to the wading and swimming orders. the remainder.) Arctic Europe comprehends Greenland. Northern Asia. Otho Fabricius mentions thirty-two species of Mam. The number of birds. Among the quadrupeds. renders the species very few. the Central. latitude. in fact. . The intense cold of these regions. and Northern Russia. the Arctic foxes. are well-known inhabitants. the largest proportion of these birds occur : antly in southern latitudes. Those which are con- fined to the Arctic circle. to whose nourishment and increase the Arctic solitudes are highly favourable. seals.30 Arctic seat. and fifteen belong to the whale class . fig. and Polar bears. bird The most of Arctic characteristic Europe is the great snowy owl {Strix Nyctea L. seven are rapacious. and only five belong to the warblers and finches. many extend even to abundand Mexico. and of the aquatic birds vast multitudes of both are regular visitants to these inhospitable shores . however. 3. of this zoological province is between the 40th and 50th degrees of N. are remarkably few. which extends its range over all the regions bordering upon the north pole. Sweden.

where a sensible change in the number and in the species of animals may be perceived. the celebrated Danish naturalist.) 31 The first indications of the zoology of Central Europe may be said to commence towards the 60th degree of north latitude. Sweden. this increase becomes more apparent. while the aquatic tribes diminish in numbers. seventeen only are marine. so perfectly naturalised our climate.malia. this being accounted for by the circumstances above mentioned. As we approach farther south. however. Even among the domesticated animals. with a considerate regard to the wants of all her creatures. occur in the northern parts of Scotland. ) It appears. are reared and preserved with great difficulty towards the north of Scotland. and Denmark. the land birds increase. latter and a fact large addition to the terrestrial birds. Several species of the polar regions. (4-1. exhibits a much greater number of . common to the north of Scotland. and owls. (43. are unknown in the west of England . On comparing this statement with that already cited of the animals of Greenland. that the southern part of Central Europe is the re- . turkey. and in Norway. a greater developement is apparent in the horse. we ob- serve a considerable diminution of the marine 31am. while the land birds amount to eighty-seven. from the foregoing observ- ations. than in those of Scotland . This accession of fertihty in the vegetable kingdom is accompanied by an accession of animals .CENTRAL EUROPE. which that case kingdom does not possess this is particularly the among the insects of the two countries. and can be traced even within the limits of our own islands. and the ox of England. nevertheless. the sheep. as natives of his own country: among the former. which. others. while the pea- of size cock. although not in species. no less than for become the prey of the latter: thus the supplies of nature are accurately balanced. exclusive of twenty-six eagles. birds. Most of the Arctic birds. while the former Vegetation supplies food for insects. falcons. therefore. enumerates fifty-seven quadrupeds and 131 birds. MuUer. in and Guinea-fowl.

Islanilicus. the banks of some of the AYelsh rivers. Land LemGeorychus terrestris. squirrel. and two. also. may be mentioned the Mouse.^ Arvicola amphibius. Setnic Mouse. few years. graminivorous quadrupeds. seven of which are also found in Britain. that. Iceland Mouse. The — . Arvicola argentoratensis. entiredisappear It from Europe. veral distinct genera. while two species alone appear jto inhabit the cold country of Denmark. but has long been extirpated from and in a ly these will. Mus Field Mouse. House Mouse. Georychus Korvegicus. ' Mus campestris. Small Mouse. The beaver (fig. may be that se- observed. Mus . at one time. Mouse. now arranged under : form an important feature in following are their names European zoology. The common brown bear takes the place of the Polar species in the central parts of Europe. sylvaticus. ming. Arvicola fulvus. Party-coloured Mus dichrurus. Mus messarius. and seven species of mice. wild quadrupeds. Harvest Mouse. we may remark. doubtless. if not three.. ties. Water Rat. Shrew. Mus minutus. are distributed over this region also where find the wild cat . Mus agrarius. where. lesser ferocious quadrupeds are more numerous for no less than eight species of the Under the head of weasel family inhabit Europe. Strasburg Mouse. there are thirteen described as natives of France and the adjacent kingdoms. The wolf and we the fox. The . gion best calculated for studying the peculiarities of this Confining ourselves to the existing zoological province. the black bear was once common. under different varie. Plain Mouse. Yellowish Mouse.32 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. or such as live more or less upon seeds as well as upon flesh. Arvicola arvalis. The Lemming. although now nearly extinct.2. "Mus soricinus.) is recorded to have inhabited. species of lynx. here the different species of mice. islands. Field Arvieole. or perhaps species. Mus musculus.

33 (45. The musmon is another of the wild Europein the roebuck the central parts an animals. one species is chiefly found in Siberia . are found all the four species of European vultures. the stag.) Of the hamsters. Two species of marmots (^Arctomys Marmotta and Bobac). notwithstanding the daring intrepidity of their hunters. formerly wild in Scotland. as infesting the forests which then surrounded London The white ox.fulvus L. we find the elk and the reindeer of the northern latitudes giving place to the fallow deer. is now only known from the breed having been preserved in one or two of the parks of our nobility. BIRDS. : from being the origin of all our domesticated sheep said. The lofty and inaccessible precipices of the Alps and Pyrenees still aflEbrd shelter to the chamois. and of Europe. remarkable for their cheek pouches. there ornithology of Central Europe has many On the highest summits of the Alps. the fulvous vulture (V.) appears to enjoy a range further north .! CENTRAL EUROPE. even by our own historians. Four species of hare and rabbit complete the list of the European Glires. Hungary and the Tyrol. and the Spermophilus citillus. or Soulisk of the Germans. and in the large and elevated forests which still remain in (47. and they are mentioned. and although now extirpated from the continent. Only one of three. still to exist in a state of nature among the high mountains of Corsica and Sardinia . although not by any recent authority. occur in this region. possessing much interest. but another (^Cricetus vulgaris) is distributed over Central and Northern Europe. wild oxen were common in most parts of temperate Europe . and two are even found on the northermost limits of Africa and Western Asia.) The pecuharities. yet all extend their peregrinations as far as Italy. and the ibex. (46. The great-eared owl (SMjt .) On turning to the ruminating order of quadrupeds. In the early ages. the yzard. it is is good reason for beheving that it formerly existed on the mountains of Spain.

two of part- and one of the quail. : 1 . this all the other woodpeckers. which country also produces another species.) represents. and over the northern regions of Africa. The wide. in Central Europe. five in number. but is well the of known in Germany under name of the Falco caudicans authors. in their ridges. namely. Four of the most beautiful of European birds. and the golden oriole. are found in the forests and woods of Central Europe. although very rare in England. common German and Hungarian forests. nor are we aware of any one species found in France and Germany. the hoopoe. once an inhabitant of the Scottish forests . jig. 3. The Iceland falcon is not. the bee-eater. with the exception of the grouse. ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. (48. as it name would imply. how- do not extend beyond Central Europe . which is found in no other part of the world. which does not occur doms. The grouse seem to occupy an intermediate station between the centre of Europe and the confines of its polar extremity the largest is the famous cock of the woods. the red game of the sportsman. small insectivorous birds would far exceed the limits of this sketch. the roller. With the exception of the three-toed species. conthe fined to that frigid country.34 bubo L.)j enables us to account for the dispersion of the remaining European falcons over all the temperate and southern parts of continent. their northernmost limits.. in the greater number of instances.) To detail the varied distribution of the warblers and the ever. It is the in snowy species of the Arctic regions. in the southern king- The few gallinaceous birds. are chiefly found in similar temperatures : they consist of three species of bustards.geo- graphic range of the class of rapacious birds already noticed (27.

exist on the shores of the Mediterranean . truly belongs to this region. follow the migratory flocks of land birds in their annual flights across the Mediterranean from Africa. probably the /allow deer. annual migrations from Africa. and Turkey. The gigantic owls of the northern regions are here unknown . &c.) The ornithology of the Mediterranean shores We presents many interesting facts.. as our materials are There is no evidence that the large rumibut scanty. On the quadrupeds of these countries little can be said. there is the porcupine. while the golden eagle is more restricted to the colder latitudes. D 2 . stag. they are no longer to be met with. In the exte.). but two or three horned species. still found wild . occur more frequently as the climate becomes warmer . and are occasionally carried. as if in its native country. the whole of Spain. by accidental causes. although a small species. bordering on Northern Africa and Asia Minor. but as we advance northward. 35 cen- visit nearly all the of the Continent. reindeer.SOUTHERN EUROPE. on the other hand. together with the coasts and islands of the Mediterranean Sea. to these islands. But. and in the vestiges of those which once spread over the mountains of Sicily.Qsive family of warblers {SylviadcB Sw. although now only seen in a domesticated state. of diminutive size. whence they extend their range on one side to Asia Minor. Italy. such as the elk. and on the other to Northern Africa. besides those of Central Europe. tral parts — BIRDS. and of the higher mountains of Spain and Greece .) European province. The vultures. roebuck. comprising the south of France. now come to the third portion of the (49. which are seldom found northward of the Alps. and the musmon sheep. already mentioned. an undoubted native of Italy. The imperial eagle {Aquila imperialis Sw.) is chiefly found in Southern Europe. (50. they appear to follow the course of the Apennines in Italy. is still to be met with in some of the extensive forests of Calabria. The buffalo lives in Greece and Italy. nating animals.

{Dtis Tetrao and Houhara).S6 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. is confined to the southern extremity of the Alps. the roller. during the spring and autumnal migrations. perhaps. say. African. and brought to Malta ahve. also. creeper (^Tichodroma phcenicoptera Tem. several of •which were captured in the small island of Lampidosa in 1812. which belong more especially to Southern Europe. is and Sardinia. but its place is filled by another Sturnus unicolorT. (51. starling are several others. The pelican. where the Otis tarda is unknown. while large flocks of the bee-eater {Merops apiaster L. hitherto found more parThere are two species of bustard ticularly in Sardinia. The rocky and uncultivated wastes of Spain. our limits will not permit us to dilate. the common known . are stiU to be less met with in these countries..) On the insects and other annulose animals. and the flamingo. Here. are inhabited by two species of rock grouse (Pferoc/e*). altogether peculiar to Italy. and we have frequently seen them exposed for sale. these classes supply more interest to the philosophic bare enumeration of the naturaUst than any other. although attraction now plentiful. is further proved by the wading and aquatic tribes. or coronated crane. Sicily. although. and the rocks of Spain and Italy . with rare in Central Europe in the many other birds The union poulterers' shops of Messina and Palermo. in the Ardea pavonia L. and Asia Minor. Our researches in these countries have enabled us to contribute a noble addition to the birds of Europe.). that the entomology of Southern Europe is emi- A . and Asiatic ornithology on the shores of the Mediterranean. Turkey. the spoonbill. of a genus different from those scarcely species. with its bright rosy wings.) skim over the gardens and olive plantations of Southern Italy and Sicily. in every direction. are no less common. from the great which their large size possesses for the sportsman. Suffice it to genera alone would almost fill a volume. The golden oriole. the The beautiful wall belonging to northern latitudes.. at such seasons. — — of the European. Spain. and the hoopoe.

'while the rapacious family of CarahidcE does not exhibit one fifth of the number of species which inhabit Britain alone. The Eurymus edusa of Britain is liicefk%/^ -^''< ^*<^> wise common . are frequently met with in the houses of Sicily . and numerous species . seems to be rare even in the south of Italy . and cne or two others of our rarest butterflies. we captured only two specimens. Anthrax. as in become the universal scavengers. Scarites F.SOUTHERN EUROPE.. as also are of the Pieris Daplicide. or white ants.. The same may be said of the Staphylinidce and the Silphidce. Bembex. On the other hand. intermixed with others of Central Europe. A. and we were D 3 . 37 nently distinct from that of tlie central and northern latitudes. Rhamni . and other insects which delight in a sandy soil similar to that of Africa. tropical countries. INSECTS. and with two or three of those found in Northern Africa. Osmia. but all our clear-winged Sesice seem to be almost unknown in Italy. The Gonepteryx tria takes Cleopa- the place of our G. &c. one species is found in the south of France. we find many genera which have their chief metropolis in Asia and Northern Africa . which are happily strangers with us. hitherto considered as almost restricted to tropical latitudes. while of the Termites.. hymenopterous. The Lepidoptera are less peculiar. during many years. Scorpions. begin to show themselves > as the genera Scarabaus M'L. all those coleopterous. As we approach the provinces of Spain^ Southern Italy.. the Papilio Jasius of the old authors. Ants. where. the most striking and beautiful is the Jasia Europcea Sw. Trox. and we have discovered another in Sicily. Sphex. Nomada. Chrysis. Among these. Pimela ¥. however.Lathonia. This noble butterfly. and the Peloponnesus. One half of the British diurnal species are found in Sicily.

we can only give a copy of the original drawing. tortoises. for flavour fully equal to that of the green turtle the flesh of the logger-head. The viper is the only venomous serpent here found. Of those inhais biting the seas of Spain and Portugal.). but we can vouch its : for the excellency of this species is when dressed. are frequently seen. and. or house lizards. (52. but upon entering the Mediterranean. in support of this opinion. and in Greece. upon a gloomy day.). abound in the south of Italy. are very important — annually employing in their capture and preparation a great number of men. once fortunate in discovering one of these disgusting inhaving lost sects crawling under the pillow of the hed the specimen. where the gecko. Li- zards.) The European reptiles are fortunately few. very little known .5. The . The enorshoals of anchovies {fig. 6.38 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OP ANIMALS. so rarely seen in the temperate latitudes of Europe. and there freshwater the other are some few others scattered in the different temperate latitudes. (53. running along the ceiling of old dwelling-rooms. a large accession mous of peculiar and very beautiful species appear. Unfortunately. in an economic point of view. they quote the figure given by Gottwold {fg.). The silkworm of the south of Europe is too well known to re: quire further notice. The on hand. where they are scarce. 4. exhibiting the natural size (^fig. is described as quite unpalatable. are only to be found in the south of Italy. on the contrary.) The fish of Southern Europe form one of its most characteristic zoological distinctions. The species of turtle found is in the Mediterranean that which is usually described by authors as the logger-head of the West Indies . we neglected to investigate this question on the spot. where we observed them very common. and still more so in Sicily and Malta.

i. feet.SOUTHERN EUROPE. hitherto much neglected. caves. and submerged rocks. stud the bottoms of the deep caves . minutely examined by us on the coasts of Sicily. K5. The herring and the pilchard. *. has long been celebrated for the abundance of the true red coral. are more abundant in the Bay of Naples eight or ten . The coast of Nice has been ably investigated. on the other hand. 39 but in a of the tunny fisheries of Sicily. pi. MARINE ANIMALS. n 4 . that all these may be seen with perfect clearness at a depth of The tubular and cellular polypes. This fish is highly prized for its delicious species. offers a most interesting field for those naturalists who Along the rocky can study them in their native seas. and its productions described fish Of more than 150 species of by Risso. a local but found in such vast shoals. stillness and the transparency of the water are such. less degree. lines. with the coasts of Sicily. the have yet described is we species new these only one of Ammodytes Siciilus Sw. or Sicilian sandlance . but especially those of Malta. shores of Sicily. we belie'se that not more than one third belong also to The the ichthyology of Britain and Northern Europe. many species of sea anemone. whose habitations are commonly called corals and coralwhich.) The coasts are very numerous. and contribute to their rapid increase. flavour. and other animal flowers. {54!. afford them protection. particular seasons. as to supply. Their investigation. while the purple Echini The occur in great profusion in similar situations. sheltered from those violent commotions which agitate the Atlantic Ocean. are scarcely known. at all the inhabitants of Messina with a plentiful meal. • Zoological ni. radiated Mollusca {Radiata) of these The many harbours. same may be said.

or great pinna. and cockle are almost unknown . Murex brandanus {fig. some shells — . he will observe noble speci- mens of the following large and handexposed for sale only to be eaten! Area pilosa. The Lithodomus dactylus Cuv.). natural to the substance. 8. The Pinna nohilis L. whelk. is made into gloves and in lieu of these. is an abundance of other species.') ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. either dark cinnamon. The British oyster.)j {fig. as may be supposed. we believe. is not very extensive. The testaceous Mollusca. than by us. or date muscle. is found in 7. after undergoing a preparatory process. or golden yellow. food. or tuft of silky hairs by which the animal adheres to the rocks this. which we do not possess. chiefly found in the kingdom of Naples while we could add about thirty or forty more peculiar to Sicily. which it perforates as smoothly as if the holes were made by an auger. Cardium spinosum and aculeatum. or shellfish. colour. was beautiful and glossy. there : . peculiar to these seas. but the manufacture. grows to the extraordinary length of two feet. but. which stockings we have and the is seen. The texture of some of these articles. C. Ulysses.. and are as an article of muscle. that its fisheries are under the immediate re- gulations of the governor. Tarento is so singularly rich in shells. 40 {55. legist If the conchovisit who may be in Naples the fish-market. who has given any connected view of the conchology of the Italian seas. the only writer. Solen strigellatus. inclining to brown. and is much sought after by the people of Tarento on account of its byssus. with the exception of Poll. are in great variety. abundance in the rocks of Malta. Pecten maximus.. enumerates 180 species. much more prized by the catholics.

sess. 9-). and probably several other shells . which we do not posThese are the Unio lit (oralis {fig. and which appear so congenial to these ani- mals. a). Chama gryphoides. are found. The land shells. and in certain situations.) The fluvlatile shells of Europe are chiefly Those little sheltered confined to its central latitudes. Cyprcea mus. In the deeper rivers however. monachus. Byssoarca Noce Sw. 41 M. London. 1793. Oliva (one species). . 10. the latter being a new species sent to us from Gibraltar. where the surface is rocky. indications of the conchology dium of the Asiatic region are found in such shells as Carcardissa. and many other smaller species. C. pools. Con us Virgo. and the Unio intermedins (c. and brooks. are very rarely seen in the warm countries of the Mediterranean.SOUTHERN EUROPE. of France and of Italy. the first remarkable that. batava (h). some species of Unio. trunculm (fig. SHELLS.* (56. are more numerous in Italy than in England . • Travels in the Kingdom of Naplee. on the other hand. 8vo. the U. several species are found in the or freshwater muscle. Isocardia Cor. in these seas. which are so abundant in this island. streams. c). the above being inserted in the list of Ulysses.. which woxild It is also deserve a place in cabinets. where the fervour of a summer sun would soon render them dry.

of the Sepia : — Rinolphus Plecotus C. whose chief e European prometropolis. Falco L. Sciurus L.: 42 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS.Sitta L. Cuckoo. Redstart. Lynx. Pastor Tern. Bat. Cuculus L.) The genera and subgenera of the quadrupeds now inhabiting the European range are as follows cuttle fish. Lanius i. Titlark. Squirrel. Yunx . »Bubo B. Elaphus Ant. Castor L. is in vinces. *Erythaica Sw. Taurus Aut. Sylvia L. Trichecus L. Fox. Buzzard. Lynx Ant. Buteo Eriy. Tnie Vultures. Desman. Chatterer. Badger. Hedgehog. L. Roebuck. Antelope. Eagle. Aspalax. Mus Bat. Anthus B. Pika Hare. Strix L. Ouzel. Aquila Ant. Starling. Robin. x. Porcupine. Jay. Vulpes /. Nutcracker. Beaver. Lutra L. Picus L. Mole. Parus L. Garrulus Ray. Shrike. Erinaceus L. Pyrrocorax C. and frequently grow to an enormous size. Talpa L. Field Mouse. Arctomys C. Rupicapra Sm. Accentor B. Vespertilio L. Milvus Rat/. Corvus h. Accipiter Ray. Bat. Falcon. Phoca L. Bombycilla B. Pouch Marmot." *Nucefraga B. (57. Martes L. Warbler. Sorex L. Seal. Cat. Sheep. Meles L. Hare. Mygale C. Wagtail. Felis L. Neophron Sav. Marten. Motacilla L. greatest profusion. Rock Crow. Whitetail.) The genera and subgenera of birds. Goat. Owl. The cephalopodous MoUusca. Sm Mvoxus C. are sometimes found in great numbers. Ibex. C. Nightingale. are the following : those mar d (*) are ascer- tained to be subgenera Vultur L. Sheep-bird. Bear. Hamster. Antelope Sm. Capra Sm.. for the most part. Terbil. Kite. Stonechat. Sturnus L. i . Thrush. Philomela Sw. Marmot. Cricetus C. Otter. Saxieola B. Reed Warbler. Hystrix L. (58. Cinclus L. tures. Mouse. Arvicola Walrus. Bearded VulGrypaetos Storr. Spermophilus. Crow. Shrew. Oves Aut. Flying Squirrel. *Budytes B. Lepus L. C. Gerbillus C. Ursus L. Hawk. Wryneck. Spalax. Merula Ray. Dormouse. Nuthatch. Capriolus Stag. or and Loligo genera. Titmouse. Woodpecker. although not of many species. L. Finch Warbler. Lagomys Geoff. Phsenicura Sw. Pteromys C. Curruca Sw. Horned Owl.

Godwit. Nightjar. Puffin. Lark. Larus L. Sandpiper. being separated from the European range by the lofty chain Assimilating in its productions of the Ural mountains. Partridge. Grosbeak. Duck. its demarcation to the west is no less natural. Certhia L. Charadrius L. (59-) The second great zoological province of the globe comprehends the entire continent of Asia. Hirundo L. this vast more particularly blended with those of Europe and Africa through the medium of Persia on one side. Wren. upon which it thus borders. Merops I. Heron. Plover. ASIA. Pigeon. Aleedo L. NORTHERN. Tringa L. and of Asia Minor on the other. eastern. Troglodytes Cuv. Pyrrhula B. likewise. Alauda L.catcher. Phasianus I. AS SHOWN IN THEIR PECULIAR ANIMALS. Hoopoe. Fringilla h. where it also forms a junction with Arctic to those countries zoological region is . It unites. Cypselus Hemipodius h. Kingfisher. with the American range at its northern extremity. and southern confines. Otis L.ASIA GENERALLY. Pratincole. Crossbill. Bee-eater. and the Bounded by the greater part of its numerous islands. Emberyza h. Caprimulgus h. Ardea L. Swallow. Turnix. Sturna i. III... CENTRAL. Bullfinch. L Swift. LoxiaZ. Oyster. Limosa L. 43 Grouse. PECULIARITIES OF EACH. Coccothraustes B. Ciconia L. ocean on its northern. Totanus L. Tern. Coluraba. Ferdix L. Pheasant. Hsematopus L. Creeper.. ITS GENERAL CHARACTER AND DIVITHE ASIATIC PROVINCE. Glareola i. Bunting. AND SOUTHERN ASIA. GulL Anas L. Stork. Upupa L. CHAP. •Tichodroma ///. Alca L. THE SIONS. . Tetrao L. Wall Creeper. Finch. ASIATIC GENERA OP QUADRUPEDS AND BIRDS. . Bustard. Sand-runner.

or abridge the labours. and so diversified in its temperature and productions. Europe . If. as it has been termed. the Tartarian provinces bordering Persia. indicated both by their geographic peculiarities. while to the south it is connected to the AustraUan division hy the islands of Papua or New Guinea. of the Mongolian race.) The Asiatic range may be divided into three sections. which is likewise the native region of the peacock. necessary to our present purpose. however. may naturally he supposed to he extremely difficult to he characterised. with Thibet. It will be a sufficient sanction to the justness of considering it as a peculiar division of zoological geography. and New Ireland. any particular feature in Asiatic zoology be selected as peculiarly striking. where there does not appear to have been other species equally destined to supply the wants. the lofty Altain chain the cradle. indeed. (60. we must admit the justness of the above remark.) Aregion sovast in extent. it would undoubtedly be the number and importance of those domestic animals which it has furnished to the civilised world . : the south. but even more so to those of America and Austra lia. or sub-provinces. if. as a whole. of civilised man. When it is considered that the horse is generally supposed to have originally been a native of the Tartarian deserts . (61. and includes the whole of Asiatic Russia its natural boundaries to the west are the Ural mountains . with precision: nor is this. and which are not only useful and necessary to the inhabitants of the older continents. by the Caucasian nations . that the domestication of oxen is conjectured first to have taken place in Western Asia. upon attentively comparing its animals with those of Europe and Africa. that all the breeds of our domestic fowl have unquestionably sprung from southern Asia. — . and the nature of their respective e The first commences from the polar regions. 44 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. we discover differences so strongly marked as to separate i\ from both. and to animals. The second includes the little known empires of China and Japan. New Caledonia..

seeds. most part. thus concentrating much of the typical chaThe same observation.) The first. are ail proofs to this effect. have a very Africa.NORTHERN and the southj ASIA. 45 -eastern shores of the Caspian while to the the stupendous Himalayan mountains seem to form a natural boundary to this intermediate region. and America. and such islands as lie to the westward of New Guinea. their food. are restricted to the cold or temperate latiThe field mice tudes of Europe. for the hamsters {Cricetus). because they exhibit a zoology of no determinate character. and of green or fresh vegetables in summer . but there the African forms almost entirely disappear. We thus exclude the whole of Asia Minor. are nearly all referred to the field mice {Arrats vicola). (^Arvicold) and the true mice {Mus) occur also in These gnawing animals. The third division comprehends the remaining portion of the continent^ together with Java^ Sumatra. and leave only the European and the Asiatic preponderating. in a more racters of the whole. but are sufficient to support many of the Glires family hence the chief quadrupeds enumerated by travellers as natives. assimilate to those of Europe and the North Pole. may be extended to Persia . however. wide distribution. The instinct by which they are impelled to hoard up large quantities of provisions against the season of scarcity . of dried grass. and have obviously been intended by : . — the latter evidently (62. further than as they present a union of the European. We accordingly . lemmings (^Georynchus^ {Mus). or nuts. Asiatic^ and African . the length. exhibits the genera of quadrupeds. intricacy. and the regions immediately around Caucasus. in winter. Asia. SiC. and These generic groups. and warmth of their subterraneous abodes . but few of the species occur on the western side of the Ural mountains. The sandy and desert steppes of Siberia afford but little nourishment to large animals. : or northern Asiatic range. . for the few peculiarities most part. limited sense. nature to inhabit climates subject to the severities of winter. QUADRUPEDS.

The famous dzeggtai. We may sup- therefore. but has never been found in the it is New World. 46 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. The beautiful rose-coloured starling " i^^Ht^ " (^Pastor roseus Tern. whose southern range extends to the mountains of Bhotan. and probably the Arnee buffalo. where represented only by that of Meriones . The birds. in these characteristics. that the other animals. still how many also. Many of the aquatic species are also similar to those of l^s j^^mUj^^ MMBI^^ <^^>^^||^_ -jfT^ ^^^^^^ America . that we begin to see those larger and more bulky quadrupeds which are excluded from the frozen regions of Siberia. the Tartaric or Yak ox {Bos Poephagus H.^. i^'i. '). of the first magnitude in their respective families. latitudes of Siberia this Asia genus ex- Egypt. pose. or Mongolian horse {Eqiitis Heniionus Pallas). may be instanced as To these we may add characteristic of central Asia.). inhabit these central regions. where alone it has been hitherto seen. The elegant little jumping jerboas : belong more properly to to the central parts of and the warmer tends {in. If so many quadrupeds. so rare in IBft^ Europe {fig. but Palenumerates a long list of species unknown to either of s-^^^^^^T"" "_' "^'^-'iK^^^^^-^ would agree these continents. to science.) The animals of the second Asiatic region are very imperfectly known . The en- tomology of these northern latitudes is scarcely known. the wild Asiatic sheep {Ovis Ammon. where these instincts would be superfluous. others of a smaller size must remain unknown {Dip^ts). appear to be of the same genera as those of Europe and many species are common to both regions. however. so far as is yet known. II. is one V!^*P% j^jJBMi'Jj of the most common birds of temperate Asia.).. little all find these industrious and provident creatures do not inhabit tropical countries. it is here. were they better understood. Smith).

CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN (64. in short. to form our judgment of them more from the paintings executed by the Chinese.) and silver pheasants {Nye. are particularly exact in their delineations of the common sorts . since even those species more geries. It is here.) The third division comprehends Southern Asia.) ASIA.12. the variety and beauty of its gallinaceous birds. totally distinct from those of Southern Asia. It is probable that the golden (^Nycthemerus pictus Sw. particularly pheasants. still 47 perfectly more imare compelledj in fact. argentatus Sw. than from any Central Asia are the quadrupeds. however. originally came from the interior of China. are stated only to inhabit the hilly and elevated districts of India. and we may. that .). Our knowledge of the peculiar to India are seldom or low provinces. therefore. The birds of known than We specimens that have hitherto reached Europe. From these drawings it becomes evident that there exists in Central Asia several large and beautiful gallinaceous birds. JMany others wiU doubtless be discovered on the elevated table land of Asia.). — met with in the maritime Impeyan pheasant {Lophophorus refulgcns T. (65. Many of these native painters. The splendid entomology of this region is chiefly confined to China. we first detect the chief ornithological feature of Asia namely.) of our mena- the latter one of the most chastely elegant birds of Asia (^^. and presents a zoological region of uncommon interest . and the other species of the same natural group. place a certain degree of confidence in such as have not been actually seen by Europeans.

considered by Linnaeus as a wild man. while the oran-outangs appear more especially to be natives of the great islands. which has already furnished twenty-three species of these apes and The analogy between the animals of Equibaboons. are always highly interesting. is and baboons of the The apes here very strikingly illustrated. as the same genera. and those under the same latitudes in Africa. belong to Yet. even at the most remote period.) Commencing with the quadrupeds. and great magnificence. . and to its lux- the latter always accompanied : hy a corresponding exuberance of animal forms and both It is. being found at Moco. latter continent occur under similar degrees of latitude. in several instances. and in Arabia . progressively diminish towards the poles. urious developeraent. consequently. whose geographic range is also removed from the equator . that only one species has yet been discovered as a native inhabitant of both . These parallel analogies. so is As heat and moisture princi- pally tend to the increase of vegetation. and Simnopithecus are peculiar to this hemisphere. noctial India. a proof vinces. countries lying on the confines of the two continents. and. how truly distinct we may remark. this is the grey baboon. but the number is greater. Presbytis. as are the two zoological proa singular fact. {66. Nasalis. both are in their highest developement in equinoctial latitudes. the Persian Gulf. and stiU affirmed.48 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. there is numerous of whose ex- These satyr-like creatures not the slightest record. to congregate as we advance to the equinoctial the long armed gibbons being principally found line seem : on the isthmus of Malacca. pified Thus we find the Indian oran-outang. or mutual representations. istence in Europe. in the we find a striking characteristic of this region. but disgusting race of apes and baboons . tyon the African continent by the Chimpanzee. The subgenera Hylobates. in the southern provinces of India that all the features of Asiatic zoology are most con- spicuous.

appear to be almost unknown in the southern regions. by possessing the orangs and apes. &c.). Ursus labiatus. that it is not surprising some authors should have deemed them affinities. country. remarkable for its mildness and docility. in all probability. as the marmots. and Thibetanus. in the interior of India. by the negroes of the Gold Coast. is remarkable for the shortness of its nane. so abundantly spread over Northern Asia.. was only a varie- from Northern Africa (Leo Africanus Sw. which is so essential in guiding our judgment in these matters. Malayanus. (67. Asiatic elephant is The again represented by that of Africa so closely. to 49 walk erect. The zoology of Southern Asia is further distinguished from that of the central regions. 13. indeed. : so striking. a circumstance which might is . The to be lion of Asia {Leo Asiaticus thought ty of that Sw. has been brought ahve to this Asia. occur only in cold. climates . three distinct and peculiar species. These resemblances may be traced in innumerable instances they are.) The bears found in other parts of the world. belonging more to the fauna of Central than of Southern . indeed. or at least temperate. lemmings. but there have recently been discovered.. Trans.). the Malaybear(/^. that it was only of late years ascertained to be quite a different species. Another species recently described in the Zoo/. SOUTHERN ASIA. all inijabitants of the mountainous districts and. from viewing the subject without that extensive reference to the other parts of creation. while the numerous mouse-like animals. but a pair of fine living now in the Surrey Zoological Gardens has enabled us to ascertain tliat it specimens a very distinct species from either of those found in Northern or Southern Africa.). One of these. therefore.

there is a marked similarity between the groups of Tropical Asia and those of Equinoctial Africa while in others the differences are very great. generallythe same. 14. are the Drongo shrikes (Edolius Cuv. fig. The Asiatic tiger-cats appear restricted to the larger islands none of the species occur in Africa. under the form of other species. Yet. suggested a less barbarous designation than " Felis Leo Goojratensis. while the true The species of Rhinoceros known to be distinct .). are much as regards species. their numerical amount is unquestionably much greater. tigers. the beautiful parrot-plumaged barbuts .-«if5s u on the high mountains of Persia. This comparison will tend much to illustrate this part of our subject. from being found _ . and those islands immediately adIn joining the southern extremity of the continent. the true flycatchers with long tails. but which appear also. The Once (Felis undo). more particularly in Malacca.) The ornithological peculiarities of the Asiatic range are fully developed in Southern India. some typically represented by the paradise flycatcher {Mus- cicupu paradisea).: . instances. (69-) Among those families of birds concentrated in Southern Asia. is probably more characteristic of Central Asia . tiger {Felis Tiis gris. yet the denominated tinent.) of Hindostan. to be distributed in Africa. less abundant on this conthan either in Africa or America. so have ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANISIALS. unfortunately." jackal of Southern of these continents are India and of Africa seem to be The more ferocious quadrupeds. (68.). the caterpillar-catchers {Cebkpyres Cuv. and the humid forests most abundant in the low jungles of Sumatra.

much less in Siberia or Europe. or grosbeaks {Amadina Sw.). the singular nightfeeders (Nyctiornis Sw.). All these groups extend to the several are not warm latitudes of Africa. (70. 15.).) On turning to the ornithological groups which nature has exclusively restricted to Southern Asia.) the fork-tailed wagtails {Enicurus Tem.). with their re- presentatives the green bulbuls (Chloropsis Jard.).).). the singular short-legged thrushes (Brachypus Sw. one of the largest and scarcest ^iW its family.). The rhi- noceros hornbill (fig. and unknown in the Australian range. 51 (Bucco L.). the short-billed weavers. the superb Jdra or black and azure oriole (lora Horsf. the long-legged or aquatic thrushes {Crateropiis Sw.SOUTHERN ASIA.). the bullfinch larks (Mirafra Horsf. — BIRDS. yet in Asia they seem confined to the southern region. But perhaps the most striking birds.). of which no species are to be found in other parts of the world.). are all prominent examples of Indian ornithology. we find this region stamped by very distinct pecuharities.). is among the most remarkable birds of India. the broad-tailed thrushes (Timalia H. and the splendid httle sun-birds (Cinnyris Cuv.).coloureci ant-thrushes (Pitta). the shining black-coloured grakles {Lamprotornis Tem. the true grakles {Gracula L. since no examples have occurred either in Persia or Asia Minor. and lastly. to the general observer E 2 . the elegant little finches {Estrelda Sw. The vivid.

and Gallus. Polyplectron. Buchanan Hamilton.) On the remaining vertebrated animals. The numerous species. and gallinaceous tribes. Equinoctial Africa is very poor. The suctorial cockatoos {Microglossum Geoff. and the crimsoncoloured lories of the islands. peculiar to can be said. since their geographic distribution has received little or no attention. however. and that she has given to India a vast number of genera which do not occur in other countries. need hardly be reminded that the immense number of species belonging to the genera Conus. Lastly must be enumerated the splen- did peacocks of the continent. must be perpetually carrying on. reptiles. not hitherto noticed. Lophyrus. altogether peculiar.). a destructive warfare against the weaker animals of their own class. as embracing the more popular study of conchology .) Of the invertebrated animals we must confine ourselves to the Testacea. the Indian seas. The . are those belonging to the parrot In the former. and the wild cocks of the islands. more than any other part of the world. both of genera and species. are appropriated solely to these regions. his coiichologist. and serpents. (71. in Asia. like the ferocious tigers of the continent. abound with the greatest va- and exhibit a remarkable conof species found under the parallel latitudes of Africa and America. that have been made known by the researches of Dr. and General Hardwicke. not one of which has yet occurred beyond the limits of the Asiatic range. Dr. Argus.52 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. Lophophorus. prove that in these classes nature is equally prolific. but the same latitudes. who looks beyond the empty shell in museum. the elegant ringnecked parrakeets of the continent. that nearly three fourths of . trast to the paucity fact. (72. forming the genera Pavo. these shells belong to animals entirely carnivorous to support life. comprefishes. It is also a singular riety of shell-fish. furnish us with numerous and splendid examples. Oliva. Roxburgh. little hending the these regions. who. the large white cockatoos of Malacca.

while from North America alone we are acquainted with more than 150 the genera are mostly the same. Turbinella. while the union of Asiatic conchology with that of Australia. but none that we remember are common both to India and Africa . inferior only to those of the New World. as may be expected from the situation of the two countries. and the Australian or Pacific Ocean. is The dismuch less marked . or wing-shells.) The paucity of fluviatile shells is truly surprising. inhabited by carnivorous and that most of these genera have Indian Ocean. and the Stromhi. India.). The cowries {Cyprcea). yet scarcely more than ten are found beyond the Indian Ocean : Lamarck enume- rates sixty -two olives. yet five only belong to other seas. the oysters hammer the Ethiopian and other crowned volutes ( Valuta Ethiopica). The rivers. principal metropolis in the great Of the beautiful group of Cones. tribution of the Acephala. appear almost destitute of shellfish . for they have hitherto not given more than six or seven species to our cabinets. or bivalve shells. are distributed much in the same proportion. SHELLS. all Dolium. (73. but the genus E 3 . but the subgenus Dipsus (Leach) has hitherto only been brought from China. ASIA. and constitutes a singular character in the conchology of Asia. Cassis. are Testacea. Mitra. 53 Cypreea. and Harpa. The famous {Scalaria wentletrap (fig.). their Strombus. are nearly divided between Africa. nearly 200 species have been named. however. Terrestrial shells appear to be still more rare . are good illustrations of Oriental conchology. l6. the spindle shells {Rostellaria Lam. takes place towards New Guinea and the adjacent islands. for instance. (Malleus Lam.: SOUTHERN Valuta.) pretiosa Lam.). The volutes.

Eurymus Edusa Sw. That rare and lovely butterfly. among sects. the lepidopterous in- which are precisely the same as those of tropical America. or at least bordering upon. however. of — from — which might more properly be considered the peculiarity Asia.54. Scarabus of tacea. The Papilio Podaliriush. after all. than the continent. and the veral latter contains separticularly genera. Cynthia Cardui. are . (75. It be sufficient to mention. appear richer 18 in insects. and Vanessa Atalanta. that the entomology of Southern Asia presents us with some few of the most common butterflies dispersed over Europe. appears to characterise this part of the world. {Jig. will is altogether impossible. ON THK GEOGRAPHY OF ANIUAIiS. are but rare and nearly so- litary exceptions to the very general dissimilarity between the insects of the two continents.) To enumerate the tribes of insects. within the limits of. the De Montfort . lands^ The Indian to is- but more especially Amboyna. has only been received from Amboyna. have been sent from the mountains of Nepal.. or shelless Tes- genus Onchidium. 17-)j vfith its velvet- Uke wings of intense black and rich green. a region. (74. Central But these. is restricted to certain of the Asiatic islands while among the slugs. as defined by Dr. its productions.) Most of the marine Crustacea. Buchanan. Africa assimilates closely to The entomology of much more that of India. and of the other annulose animals.. if . the Amphrisius Priamus Sw. or crabs.s?g^ ^5=^^ we may judge from such as be have been sent to Europe.

Bats. Tailed Gibbon.) divisions. Neel-ghau. - 1 Nyctinomus G.. TupaiaBuff Tupay. Sm. • .. Geoff Bats. the Ixa canaliculata Dr. Roebuck. Capra Auct. C.. Camelus L.) {fig. Pig. - 3 3 i 3 Ichneumon. Capriolus H. The genera of quadrupeds. which seems confined to the Indian Ocean . Vespertilio L.. Axis H. Stag. Ccrcopithecus III. Manis. Paradoxurus C. - . - - 8 1 . 55 peculiar to these seas. . Stylocerus. Bats. Presbytes Es. Bats. Elephant.. . Bison H. . Pteromys. . Musk. . . Genett. - Genetta. .. Bats. of 18. Leach* deserves being mentioned. Sm. Lasiopyga III. Raphicerus H. - 3 2 - Gazella H. . Equus L. - .ASIATIC GENERA OF QUADRUPEDS. . Gazelle.. Another species. - 9 2 1 Shrew. Buffalo. . The most valuable pearls in the world are produced from a species of pearl oyster {Margarita Sinensis Leach). Misc. Sm. Antelope. Horse. - Megadenna Tarsier. (76. Ovis Auct. Ijea inermis. Marsupiata. Camel. - - Aigocerus. Pteropus B. Guenon. and their minor which more particularly characterise the Asiatic province. . Bison. those of the American seas being of a totally under its shell.. - - - Rinolphus Geqff Bats. C. Sm. Manis.. - - 6 Elaphus Ant. Sorex L.. . Prionodon. Antelope. Sm. Sm. Cuv. an estimate of 129. Orang Otangs. pL B 4 . Sm. - H (77. Cephalotes C. Mangusta . Loris. thological nomenclature renders iii. TetraceAs Nsemorhedus H. Hylobates III. Cheiromeles Hortf. Georychus. Elephas. Goat. Ursus L. Plecotus Geoff Bats. . Sm. Bats. . - - . are the following note the species already described Simla L. Portax H. Nycteris Geoff Bats. 5 2 1 Stenops ///. Phalangista. Dipus. - 3 2 1 Sus. Nasalis Geoff- : — : the numbers de- 2 5 1 1 1 Felis. when its limbs are drawn grotesque forms : might easily be mistaken for a piece of coral. ETC. Moschus H.) The birds peculiar to the Asiatic range belong to the following geographic groups. different species. Cochin (VIonkey. . although several of the European The present confusion in orniforms extend to Asia. Fallow Deer. . Nycticebus Tarsius HI. - 3 1 - . . - - Nose Monkey.. . and many appear under the most among these. Antelope. Gibbons.Bubalus H. not one of which occurs in Europe. . Sm. . - - Lemur. . Phalanger. . Sm. Sheep. - . Bear. - Semnopithecus Cuv. the * Zool.

(a. ITS ZOOLOGICAL FEATURES DIVIDED INTO ARCTIC. Satin Crow. Whiskered Swifts. impossible. Redbird. Wren Warbler. Cockatoo. Thickleg.) Vieil. h. Grakle. Argus Tem. Lories. — THE PECULIARITIES AND ANIMALS OF EACH. GENERAL REMARKS UPON THE CLIMATE AND SOIL OF BRAZIL. Lark.). Paradise Birds. Vinago V.56 species ON THE GEOGBAPHV OF ANIMALS. PuSback. (h. Lophophorus Tem. Whitebill.^. Estrelda Sw. Picumnus Tern. f78. Green Pigeons. many links in the chain of connection. (a. Some of these genera occur Africa (a. Jayshrike Irena Horsf. Looseweb. (a. Crypserina Vieil. (a. Ploceus Cuv.) Amadina Grosbeaks. in fact. Bengal.) Vidua Cuv. Argus Pheasant. (a. Pomatorhinus Horsf. GENERA OF QUADRUPEDS AND BIRDS. Weaver.) Gracula L.tail Warbler. Lamprotornis Tern. Cinnyris Cuv. which may. Pavo L. lOra Horsf. Analcipus Sw. Phoenicophaus Redhead.) Mirafra Horsf. Epimachus Cuv. Pheasant. Siv.) Crateropus Svu. Prinea Horsf. (a.). True Grakle. (a h.) Gryllivora Sui. Microglossum Geoff Cockatoo. Sun-bird. Broadbill.) Lophyrus V.) — AMERICAN WITH province compreIt has been stated in the last chapter. REFERENCE TO THE DISTRIBUTION OF ITS ANIMALS. Lorius Bris. Pyrrhulauda Sw. (a. Weakfoot Ocypterus Cuv. Shortwing. Locust-eater. Little Fiet'l. Plyctolophus Hoopoe. Firecock. IV ON THE AMERICAN PROVINCE. GEXERAL REMARKS.) Enicurus Horsf. Paradisea L. Palffioriiis Fig. Ring Parrakeets.) Ptilonopus Sw. Fairy Bird. Thrush. Fork. be considered as so zoological The third great hends the whole of the New World. Macropteryx Sw. and others in Nyctiomis Sw.) CHAP. New Holland (h.) Calyptomina iJojf: Green-crest. (h. Widows. Timalia Horsf. (a. Eurylaimus Horsf. TEMPERATE.) Platylophus Sui. Pheasant. (i. Peacock. that the animals of Asia insensibly unite with those of Australasia in the islands of the Indian Ocean. (a. AND EQUINOCTIAL AMERICA. Bullfinch. h. (a. Green Pigeons.. This transition . BarbuL Brachypterix Horsf. Polyplectron Tem. Night-feeder. Phcenicornis Sw.

that each of these zoological provinces are connected with the rest at more than one and it point. upon the American continent. provided we preserve that uniformity of plan so desirable in expositions of this nature. is not SO complete. them for extreme and advance to the more genial latitudes of these continents. as before remarked. Several of the northern quadrupeds of Asia range over the Arctic snows of Europe. appear more up the developement of this change hy immediately entering upon the zoology of Australasia . although not. at many points. perfectly similar. and there are very few in one continent. The aquatic birds are more generally dispersed . incontestably prove the union of the Asiatic with the Australian range. is 57 might. (79-) The Arctic regions. in similar latitudes. shall we discover a corre- sponding developement of their true zoological features. numerous cases. New Ireland. and America. perhaps. but this transition. in Arctic Asia. these frozen latitudes.THE AMERICAN PROVINCE. also. and New Caledonia. therefore. in at these extreme limits. while the islands of Papua the African range through the : medium and Arabia nor will it or New Guinea. belong nevertheless to the same natural groups. that it natural to have followed more conspicuous than that which may be traced from It must he rethe zoology of Asia to that of America. that have not been detected in another. . can only be considered as equally belonging to the three great zoological provinces of Europe. Asia. its The Asiatic blends into the European. so United. as we leave common to animals whose nature cold. membered. fits In proportion. striking as it is. when we look to the productions of Kamtschatka. it becomes perfectly immaterial from which we depart. remain within what may be termed their original boundaries. Their productions. and commence a further investigation. therefore. and again occur. and the opposite shores of California. is again united to of Asia Minor be found less harmonised with the zoology of the New World. as we have already urged. however. Many. both at northern and at it western confines .

its northern limits. since the pro- ductions of Western and Southern Australia. as more calculated to convey distinct ideas of the productions of such an immense and the diversified region. that. we find that several of these land . whatever zoological peculiarities belonged to Arctic America. and by the more recent researches of Dr. at . (81. and beyond the northern countries annually visited by the migratory or summer birds of the United States. they would be developed within that range. is a question on which we would not even hazard conjectures . There is also a curious analogical resemblance between these two insular continents. deserving notice. in their typical exani]>leSj are as distinct from those of the Old. The . and the . zoological productions of the (80. the temperate or interthird. for we are yet without that precise information which will point out the southern limits of the more northern quadrupeds. Many of these are well known to breed in Canada . may almost be considered unknown. first may be denominated Arctic or northern the second.) The Arctic or northern division includes those icy regions commencing at the shores of the Frozen Ocean. the to : mediate . This demarcation. and extending between the 50th and 60th degrees of north latitude. in higher latitudes. as the animals of Australia are from those of Africa or of Asia. For it is natural to conclude. of Tierra del Fuego. however. and of the Pacific Islands. is more conjectural than positive.) We shall consider the zoology of the New World under three heads. The northern latitudes of America present us with European and Asiatic animals and we can trace in the zoology of Australia.58 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OP ANIMALS. (82. a manifest productions of Southern Africa. approximation to the But to what zoological province those of America and of Australia are united at their southern extremities. Richardson. fourth might be Cape Horn Southern or tropical a embrace the regions towards but of the productions of these un- made frequented parts we are at present almost ignorant.) The when viewed New World.

) The fur-bearing animals. however. mixed. although its fur does not appear much in demand.. indeed. . 4s Europe. birds extend their migrations 59 beyond the 60th degree of north latitude. the wellknown Polar or white bear. so it may be presumed that its zoology might more correctly be treated of in the same way. concentrated in the direction of the " barren grounds" and the extensive " Arctic navigators. the river St. are the common weasel {Mustela vulgaris). for arriving at a cor- judgment on these questions. prairies" of the in fact. to many. the ermine {M. ARCTIC AMERICA. Our materials. be the chief metropolis of the many pecuhar kinds of grouse. are principally confined to this part of America . the pine marten (Mustela martes). But the list of truly American species is much more considerable . Among would. it may be said. as we might expect rect and after in regions of almost perpetual snow. erminea). are very defective all. that the zoological peculiarities of Arctic America are confined to much narrower limits than those here specified It is and are. that. bearing no pro. suggest a natural division of Northern America into two portions. probably. appear almost incredible. therefore highly probable. and the traffic for their skins is so important to commerce. (83. and the number of skins they annually import from their different stations. and the Arctic fox ( Vulpps lagopus) and we may add. that mer- cantile associations for this express object. such species as are known to inhabit the same latitudes in Europe and Asia. Lawrence and the vast lakes which it connects. the wolverine (Gulo luscus). which seem to with some few species equally common to Northern On the other hand. have been formed by the Europeans The Hudson's Bay Company of England is the best known. it must be remembered. that where nature has made no absolute hne of distinction. . these grassy plains. it is impossible to be drawn by man. It is. and of large quadrupeds which belong to this portion of the New World.

the black. are the only species found telope. We among these northern quadrupeds. the American beaver {Castor Americanus). portion to those which are eq^ually natives of Europe. Canadensis). the wild goat {Capra Americana R. belonging to the genera Cerxms. Virginianus). are Arctic animals while the wapiti (C. 60 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. the long-tailed deer (C ci/er). and the grisly*. and the reindeer. the American {Lep. An- and Bos. are exclusive natives of Northern America. we find the facts afforded by their distri- bution equally tending to the same results. Americanus).). and the sheep {Ovis montana * North. in fact. are also. the musquash (Fiber Zibethicus). marmots.). The large animals. the prairie {Lep. numerous varieties of species of wolves and foxes. the Arctic regions as constituting. both. The Polar hare {Lepus glacialis) occurs on both continents . while in it forbids us to consider itself. macrotis R. vo! L . Zoo!.tailed deer (C. The existence of so many quadrupeds. here known by the name of caribou {Cervus tarandus). at once vince. but three others. The elk. which no other part of the world (84.) On turning to the ruminating or herbivorous quadrupeds. (Procyon lotor). two races of the black. in other continents . the American badger (^Meks Lahradoria). occurring also in that part of the continent where its zoological features are blended with New those of Europe.). and squirrels. called in America the moose (Cervus alces). strongyloceros). whose geographic limits are confined to the the more northern latitudes of World.. and the prong-horned antelope {A. with no less than thirty species of lemmings. of a zoological pro- stamps a character on that of America participates. Three distinct bears. the the raccoon barren ground. the Canada otter (Lutra Canadensis). as will be seen from the following list. leucurus). and the little chief hare (Lagomys prin- ceps Rich. furmay include known only in America. present us with nearly a dozen similar instances. the vison or minx (Putorius vison). the Pekan (P.

The Merlin. Strix nyctia. Buteo Lagopus. Falco jEsalon. swimming Uniting our labours with those of Dr.19.Ame- crowned Falcon. zard. (85. detected by that adventurous traveller in Arctic and British America son. Pigeon Aceipiter Pennsylvanicus. Falco columbariua. Strix Otis. Strix Tengmalmi. . hawk. Falco peregrinus. White-headed or Sea Eagle.) is truly an Arctic quadruped. Strix Virginiana. Cali. Strix arctica. have thus fourteen species inhabiting the northern regions of the two continents. in the ornithological logy.. American horned Little . Strix brachyotos. . ARCTIC AJUERiCA. Common Buzzard. 61 of the Rocky Mountains. Long-eared Owl. Hawk. The 0?prey. particularly in reference to the rapacious families.) The geographic distribution of the northern birds is much more general. Aceipiter palumbarius. while the following belong exclusively to America : We — Sarcoramphus Californianus.^^s*^ is and the range of the American bison in latitudes but little more south.\quila Haliasetus. ? The Golden Buteo vulgaris. Buteo Strix borealis. Aquila leurocephala. Falco Islandicus. Peregrine Falcon. Cathartes atratus. 11. Tengmalm's Owl. Short-eared Owl. yet is unknown '5 ft. Richard- volume of the Northern Zoothe following Euro ean birds of prey. Strix funerea. Jer Falcon. Great snowy Owl.-. colourcd Hawk.. Rough-legged Bui. The musk-ox (_/?(7.**?L'i. Owl. fornian Vulture. since their existence in the southern been part of as- the chain has not clearly certained. The Gos- Buteo cyaneus ? Hen Harrier. and the wading and orders. Hawk Owl. Little rustyFalco sparverius. Turkey Vulture. Black Vulture. Strix Acadica rican Owl. Slaic- Owl.). Red-tailed Buzzard Great cinereous Cathartes Aura.-'«- both in chief Asia and Europe •— ^^'_. Arctic horned Owl. cinerea. Ifilson. we have enumerated : — Aquila chrysattos Eagle.

since the researches of Dr. The commonest of these is the Tetrao Canadensis L.) The ducksj and other swimming famiheSj are nearly the same in hoth continents . are not yet before the public . whose valuable remarks have furnished the materials of the foregoing results. 20. Richardson in the hands of Mr.. perhaps. the northern expeditions. Few naturalists have done as much. and. have been placed by Dr. towards elucidating the : zoological distribution of animals of this country. Kirby. of the north-west coast . still more distinct only one.) The second or temperate region of the American province comprehends the whole of the United States. fortunately for science. which heretofore have been our only guides. and little reliance can be placed on the erroneous compilations and crude theories regarding American zoology. having been found in Europe and America. (86. than his simple and unthe diligent observer above named pretending narrative has cleared from our systems a mass of " learned error " and unintelligible nomenclature. inhabiting the parallels of latitude. )j about the size of the red game. but with the throat and breast glossy black. who has now been engaged some years in preparing this volume for the press (88. or at most two. Richardson. which will sink our former authorities upon Arctic The entomological collections of zoology into oblivion. or Canadian grouse {fig. while its termination (much better understood than its northern limits) is marked by the Gulf of . but very few of the American waders resemble those of Europe. none have done more. probably. (87..) Respecting the other animals of this part of America nothing can yet be stated. 62 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. with a considerable portion. The same are grouse of the two continents.

. as usual. either as permanent residents. American Horned Owl. . . complete the of North American rapacious (90. Richardson. . Mexico. . Turkey Vulture. range to is 63 Our information on particularly the quadrupeds of this : defective a circumstance more be regretted. .TEMPERATE AMERICA. unknown in the temperate latitudes of the Old World. . and Aquatic orders.. . or even New. Buteo borealis Red-tailed Buzzard. Little American Owl. we meet with numerous land-birds belonging to species. . Accipiter Pennsylvanicus Slate-coloured Hawk. Hence we find that few species occur in the warmer provinces of America which do not inhabit. which comprises such species of the vulture and falcon family ( Fulturidce. Strix Virginiana . (89-) The ornithology of temperate America posAfter passing the confines of sesses many peculiarities. columbarius . and even to genera. Numerous families of insectivorous birds. Falco sparverius . Little Rusty-crowned Falcon. These. wiU be apparent by the following list. . the more northern regions. from the accurate information we have been able to give on the northern animals. . with about birds.. This the Arctic latitudes visited by Dr. pecuUar to the New IVorld. Perching.. is much more limited. five additional species of falcons (^Fallist conida). Gallinaceous. Black Vulture. spread in the equinoctial regions of the themselves over the fruitful portions of the Union. . The Rapacious birds of all countries enjoy the widest range of those inhabiting the land. . selected from the last. .) The distribution of the perchers. FalconidcB) as are spread over the greater part of Catbartes Aura. either permanently or occasionally. or as annual migrators from the more genial shores of the Mexican . Strix Acadica Wilson . Our observations upon these tribes will be arranged under the heads of the Rapacious. atratus North America. Pigeon Hawk.

the red- headed. Gulf. Two species of grouse occur on the genial Many of . Towards the commencement of May. or retires into fall to it the earth concealment . return once more to the . hangnests (^Icterus 1). . and many to the adjacent coast of Mexico . (91-) The gallinaceffij or birds of game. these have been traced to the islands. enlivening the forests by their varied plumage. where the greater number pass the winter.). the fruits the of the orchard. and goldenshafted woodpeckers (^fig. in due course. 21. but scarcely more than two or three species have yet been detected on the terra firma of equinoctial America. nula Sw. innumerable flocks of warblers {Sylvicola Sw. are remarkably few. the fruits of decay. woodpeckers {Picus L. yet Providence has ordained that a proall. autumn is at hand the insect world dies. thrushes {Merula.).).). or the corn of field. provide an ample repast of wild berries. portionate supply of food should be provided for These upon birds insects : generally feed the while for pigeons. blue-birds. and such others as partake also of fruits and grain. Orpheus Sw.). Then that the parents and in their offspring are taught to seek their own food other climates : and. when the insect world has just assumed life or activity.). The arrival of these strangers occasions a prodigious increase in the number of the feathered inhabitants. the seasons. or are gathered by the husbandis man. When the process is ''' the of incubation finished. make their first appearance in the United States. and other families. they accordingly depart and ever verdant forests of the Western Indies. either congregating into flocks or journeying singly. and delighting man by their melodious song. maizebirds {Agelaius v. flycatchers (Tyran.). Carolina. and young fully fledged.64^ ON THE GEOGRAPHY OP ANIMALS.

with the curlews. and was met with other by Dr. cowardly. and in a few other states. a bird so truly valuable. "a lazy.TEMPERATE AMERICA. grouse 22. is The the Tetrao Cupido.) The aquatic orders.). resembling the wings of a flated is little Cupid. called There a small-sized partridge. that. which cover a naked hke a ball in- during the season of courtship. Franklin well observes. so called two tufts of pointed feathers from on the side of the neck. Richardson. and in a few other : one of these is the Tetrao unihellus. living . The American flamingo {fig. together with the coot and the water-hen. a very different disposition. 23. and even the snipe and wood- The golden plover is the cock are distinct from ours. BIRDS. equal impropriety. but very few have been found to the south of the line. as Dr. while the . show Few of the wading birds resemble those of Europe. fully as taU as the European." However this may be. same are not only peculiar to America. the Americans can boast of the native wild turkey. . and have driven the wild turkeys from many of their former haunts . or ruffled grouse. most of the sandpipers. To by the natives. but all the rest. among themselves. in the back settlements of Louisiana. and skin. It has an extensive northerly range. calledj in Americaj the pheasant. 65 " districts barren grounds" of Kentucky. or pinnated {fig. is of a much more beautiful and intense scarlet . in large flocks. it would have been a much fitter emblem of their country than the white-headed eagle bird. (92. for this deficiency of feathered game. yet they are still to be found. with compensate. a quail. the turkey is entitled to the nobihty of the farm-yard. tyrannical on the honest labours of others. however.) . Cultivation and population have had their usual eflect on large animals. and more suited to represent an imperial despotic government than the republic of America.

) is chiefly found in temperate rica. to procure sustenance. and both for the same purposes. fig. namely. ducks and other swimming tribes. only two or three to being restricted the warmer shores of provinces. The magni- ficent scarlet ibis. The famous fishing-banks for cod. Ameprized and is as a delicious food. yet none appear to resemble those of Europe. lina and Florida are numerous. also. (93. in form at least.. to represent the glossy ibis. and comprise several large and beautiful species. wood seems ibis. which they quit for the United States during severe winters. there is a general simi- larity in the species to those of Arctic America. and to rear their young. and return to breed in the spring. like Europe. ^^g Nearly all the rest of the duck tribe occur in the northern regions. is there not uncommon these elegant yet few of wading birds ex: tend to the northern parts of Among the the United States. thus pre.. to avoid cold. Vallisneria 'Ron. 24. so common in the south of The herons of CaroEurope. sents us with a double migration. and the other great rivers. both in number and in species . on the coast of New- . called there the summer or tree duck of The canvass-backed duck {Fuligula South CaroUna. America. is the southern The chief of these the splendid Dendronessa sponsa Sw.66 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS.) The fish of the Ohio. are stated to be peculiarly abundant.

however. Indica). strangers to this region. There are several are numerous. Harlan. Some . 25.). it is now. with one exception. are of vast importance to commerce. The serpents venomous. of North America are of a different species to that found in Brazil. are. from the Gulf of Mexico to the extremity of Paraguay. The reptiles oiFer nothing definite in regard to their distribution. an able and zealous naturahst of America. The immense Boa constrictor. however. or the elephant tortoise other writers : him have more recently considered it a variety of the Indian tortoise ( T. F 2 tionable. although we have nothing to guide our judgment as to the transition which nature may here effect into the Fauna of some other region. — FISH. The but those . ETC. but. some thinking it a tadpole or imperfect frog . a cluster of islands which come within the range of latitude assigned to this zoological region. but this appears very ques- curious salamanders have been recently and the celebrated Siren is an inhabitant of the muddy lakes of Georgia and Carolina this singular reptile had long perplexed naturalists. This is a gigantic species. first made us acquainted with or this gigantic creature. Dr. beyond which latitude lie regions whose animals are little known. and will be noticed elsewhere. and the equally gigantic species with which it has been confounded. fully ascertained to be an adult animal. named by Testudo elephantopus {fg. they are all of a moderate size. no reason to exclude those countries from our survey of this portion of America.TEMPERATE AMERICA. There is. discovered : .) The third great division of American zoology comprises the whole of the southern peninsula. fortunately. (94. inhabiting the Gallipagos. 67 foundland. and many are believed rattlesnakes are peculiar to the New "World land tortoises.

our information. in whatever light her operations are studied. The short and vague notices indeed. Ward He quadrupeds. who distinguishes them only by the unutterable names of the Indians. See Ward's Mexico. to our present purpose. in short. vols. formed by the peasants.— 68 (95.) On the quadrupeds of Mexico. The more particularly the islands dispersed in the great gulf. Mr. frequently in one season. each other. for they can never be found . to be met * Mexico. (96. we consider the as the southern confines of temtable view it as the northern limits of its America. or perate As a combination of circumstances tropical portion. Nevertheless. at what degree of longitude or of latitude we draw an imaginary line of separation whether. 2 X p. . unfortunately for science. imperceptibly and meet. her laws are yet the that intermediate region — same. J .) ON THE GEOGRAPHY OP ANIMALS. therefore. a more detailed notice on such of its animal pro: land of Mexico ductions as have yet reached us. but Isthmus of Mexico^ constitute that " land debateable" two great divisions of the in which the Faunas of blend into. ii. ever varying. that the hunting : parties. by G.P. is but scanty. H. 262. native alludes to some of the occasionally mentions herds of between fifty and sixty deer. has drawn our attention to this hitherto unknown region. as abound- — — ing on the plains of the table-land t he alludes to wolves being caught by the lasso . immaterial.|: kill great numbers " The wild animals Esq. affords no clue by which we can comprehend their real nature . given by Hernandez. Ward. which is found in such numbers. M. America Such are the harmonious transitions of nature through all her works. and to a kind of fox or wild dog. the most intelligent and accomone who has plished of our modern travellers in Mexico supplied us with a fund of most important and sterhad no ling information on nearly every other topic * knowledge of natural history. To look for absolute divisions were a fruitless and a hopeless task. may prove interesting. f Vol. and. and they Ii is appear totally repugnant to the laws of creation. 8vo 2ded.

but show blood .TROPICAL AMERICA. that not more than one new genus {Ptiliogonys Swains. they are apt to rejoin their wild brethren. known in England as the bonassus. f- ( Tyrannina). have peopled the rich plains of Texas with droves innumerable. nor are we specifically acquainted with any determinate species of antelopes or deer peculiar to Mexico. although. are natives of Mexico and of South America. in one class only. ii. Of ] 14 species t of land results are highly interesting. antelope. formed by our countrymen now resident on the table land. that so large a proportion of animals. deer. leopard. our knowledge.) On the ornithology of Mexico. be urged. during the winter. For it is a singular fact. are very docile . bear. have been transmitted to this The country. are the buffalo. the panther. p.) is to be found in the entire number of 114< species. or bison. in vast herds. that this peculiarity extends only to species. and. birds whose characters we have thus had the means of ascertaining. 435. This is one of the most interesting genera recently discovered." since these names strictly belong to African quadrupeds . with that of the vol. and thirty- found both in Mexico and the United States. and which enters Texas from the north. 13S3. being found on the American isthmus." * is impossible to ascertain what animals are here called " panthers and leopards. if caught young. and forwarded for our examination. have racoon. graphy. lections of birds. (97. six are It may is surely sufficient to constitute : it a distinct zoological province but it must be remembered. black fox. otter. Eleven never been discovered in any other country. 69 with in the province of Texas. &c. These wild horses are often large or heavy. Several colcomparatively. SIEXICO. The horses. or more than one half. These species are enumerated in Murray's Encyclopjedia of Geop. being that by which nature has connected the family of tyrant shrikes * Mexico. is much more advanced. F 3 . sixty-seven. beaver. descended from the Spanish Arabians. whenever an opportunity It offers.

(Ceblepyrinte) : caterpillar-catchers two species have been detected. Macrocercus Fieil. Creepers. Wagtail Warblers. more popular form. therefore. are unknown in South America. are the following : — Setophaga Sw Fantailed Warblers. with few exceptions (marked *). Xiphorhynchus Stir. restricted to the American following table of the genera of birds hitherto discovered in Mexico. Titmice Warblers. Harpya Cuv. Crescent Starling. but which. eating (100. There is no distinction between the geographic groups of Mexico. Psittacus i. Crotophaga L. found also in Mexico. but either unknown. Polyborus Vieil. Tanagra Sw. and exhibited in the form of species. (99-) The genera more peculiar to North America. Worm . ing-Birds. Trogon L.70 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. Crestfinches. are as follows Prionites III. Cassicus D. Sialia Sw. as is the ornithology of Mexico. Mackaws. 2. mi ng. : — Motmot.Birds. the peculiarity consists in finding these genera intermixed in one and the same spot . Seiurus Sw.) The genera of birds characteristic of South America. Sandfinch. Harpy Eagles. Stumella Fieil. Cynanthus Sw. Hangnest. Trogon. True Parrots. (98. Pipilo J'ieil. or only represented by one species (*) in North America. .) To state the result in a • See ZooL lUus. in demonstrating the transition from the zoological tribes of Northern America to those of the Southern. 102. in both of which the males rially differ matefrom the females. will better illustrate appear. • Psittacarus Sw. paused on her route. and those of the countries to which it is united the genera are common to both. pL 62. Pyranga neil. Sw. which she has withheld from the adjoining. Colaptes Sw. as it were. Fork-tailed Hum. Stv. Carracara Eagles. for the isthmus. and given animal forms to this region.* Interesting. Ammodramus Vermivora Warblers. Ano-birA Tiaris Stv. Even -tailed Hum. The our meaning. found in Mexico. Lampomis Sw. nature has not. Ground Woodpecker. Red Tanagers. Groundfinch. * Sylvicola Sw. True Tanagers. Blue Robins. Parrakeets. which : most part.

we only discovered two new bit- Mexican and the lineated species . however. Ward's Mexico. and the vegetables of every region intended to represent the climate^ the animals. the rest were of ducks and waders. and is much esteemed * as an article of food. at present. in fact. to the burning sands of Vera Cruz. no less than of the insectivorous summer visiters of the United States . Some few of the small sandpipers may. well known in the United It States. travellers agree in stating. F 4 . — Both may be traced the astonishing variety of climates . (101. as if nature. unacquainted with a single instance of a natatorial bird of North America having been detected on the Terra Firma. MEXICO. and many hundreds are brought down at a single discharge. (the Axolotl of Humboldt). that the lakes on the fowl. that Mexico ex- hibits nearly as great a variety in her animal produc- tions as she does in her vegetable. in the New World. and nearly all inhabiting the Arctic regions. England. the would thus appear that the freshwater lakes of the isthmus form the southern barrier of all these migratory tribes. Mexico. to the same cause.) Aquatic birds are generally more numerous in cold than in warm latitudes . that they are killed by batteries placed in a double file. 71 we may gather from the above facts.) lar The is only Mexican reptile deserving particu- the Phyllhydrus pisciformis Br. Between these two extremes of heat and cold are stupendous ridges or platforms. in the space of three days. since we are. at different elevations. table lands . yet Mexico All is a remarkable and almost a solitary exception. and marshes by innumerable waterare so immense.* Yet among all those which have been sent to terns. table land are frequented their numbers.TROPICAL AMERICA. where the traveller can from the regions of perpetual snow. occasionally pass to the south of the equinoctial line. within a single degree of lati- tude. allied to the Siren of Carolina. It seems to abound in the lakes near the city of notice. (102. of concentrated in this isthmus pass.

is perfectly manifest. must be ch'eflydrawnfrom the immense collections that have been made of late years in different parts of Brazil .water which flow northwards from the Terra del Fuego towards . that. to common observers. That the former is more essential to this fecundity than We the latter. and that many other parts of this vast and fertile continent have hitherto been but superficially examined. situated under degrees of But is the America of the the so much that causes generally assigned for this excessive exuberance? This question has been so well replied to world. The causes of the general fertility of Ame- and more particularly of the southern division. the equinoctial provinces. deserts of latitude. traveller. and vegetables rapidly increase in number and variety.) rica. Our materials. Humboldt. and from a few other authentic have before remarked. coasts winds blow . the flatness of the the currents of cold sea. from our own personal researches in that vast empire. " The narrowassigned by M. The into the third great division of the zoology of Mexico conducts us at once American province.72 (103. : its great the wide ocean over which the eastern tropical .) ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. that both animals sources. upon looking similar to the Africa. the nearer we approach the equinoctial line. have never been fully explored by modern naturalists . his other pursuits left him little or no time to collect or to investigate their animal productions . where the humidity of the atmosphere is more remarkable. than any extraordinary degree of heat. notwithstanding the celebrated Humboldt traversed the whole of Chili and Peru. therefore. forming the modern republics of Guatemala and Colombia. of whose zoological features we shall now proceed to It must first be premised that give a rapid sketch. of animals in tropical greater than in any other part we naturally enquire what are variety by a celebrated observations. are these : — of this variously indented extension towards the icy pole ness continent. that we shall here insert his (104.

some modifications — and particular exceptions must be niade and this we are enabled to do from personal observation. always seek the remotest coast . in the interior of the country. either a black vegetable mould. by its moisture and coolness. deserts without sand. however. Vegetation. running parallel %vith the and forming a magnificent belt of verdure between that and the interior in these parts the soil is amazingly rich. BRAZIL. possesses very . than he meets with a totally different country. exhale immense masses of imbibed or self-producing water. but in very different degrees. therefore the less heated . tation attains its It is in these situations that vege: highest luxuriance nearly all the large timber trees are found only in the virgin forests and the groundj when cleared for cultivation. which nearly absorbs one third of the whole continent of South America. which these causes To forms nent. The Sertum districts then commence . : or a fat red loam. that exuberant foliage. on his way into the interior. whose snow-clad summits tower above the the abundance of large streams. an empire. after many windings. But no sooner does the traveller penetrate beyond this natural belt. must be ascribed that extraordinary luxuriance of vegetation. to the other . All these circumstances give to the flat portion of America a climate which. gives an astonishing produce. indeed. the sources of count- less springs. clouds . which. may A stupendous range of virgin be said to extend from one extremity of the eastern coast shore. a name applied generally to all inland parts situated beyond the virgin forests.) In applying these observations to Brazil. and which." the peculiar characteristic of the New Conti- (105. and with some re. covers nearly every part of this immense region. which cover the well-watered plains near the equator. The Sertam country. 73 the number of mountains. impenetrable forests. TROPICAL AMERICA Peru . where the mountains and the water are most remote. markable forests peculiarities. — forms a surprising contrast with that of Africa.— .

The Campos are vast plains similar to those on the banks of the great Rio St. to be a continuation of the Pampas of Paraguay and the Rio de la Plata. to our to present subject. is equally and in dry seasons. . excepting in the great rivers. such tracts are termed Tabuthey are almost always raised a few hundred feet above the level of the sea. and which the by appropriate names. wherein the trees become higher. the coarse and scanty herbage clear of generally intermixed with as in a park : stunted trees. The Campos appear. apparently foreign are that. or since : Brazilians. in fact. during the rainy season. the larger trees. are frequently elevated but in such is situations. Bromelice. covered with coarse grass. splendid plants. and are analogous to the interior deserts of different features in different localities. or root round spring from the stems. They are scorched during summer. Brazilians distinguish Africa scarce rish. and other parasitic few of which are yet known to botanists. the plants have almost always a parched. These dreary plains . as before observed. is more or less sandy . and although never destitute of vegetation. or gentle hollows. growing at short intervals. without them. and open table-lands. the bark. and it is here that the numerous and family of Epidendrum. underwood. and other spinous plants. Francisco. would be impossible . thus forming woods . nevertheless so closely connected it with it. of soil. : water. intermixed with thickets of coarse-leaved flowering shrubs. and present little other vegetation during the rainy season. as to be almost impassable to any but the hunter these are the Catinga woods of the laras. all The general character of the in the localities here described.7^ ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. to the route of the tra- veller in every direction. stunted. and destitute of trees. except. These observations. and acquire a more flourishing growth. Lands of this description are frequently broken by narrow valleys. yet they are so matted together by a thick underwood of Cacti. and withered appearance. hundreds of cattle peand whole villages migrate.

for their life is spent. It is in these thick and umbrageous retreats that the numerous tribes of monkeys are alone found . leaping from branch to branch. while the insects. from the time consumed in securing his game. more especially characteristic of the American monkeys. As is vegetation is the coast. trogons {T'7-ogonida' thiadce). and passing from one lofty tree to another by amazing springs. in the more open that the entomologist is frequently unable to capture one half of those that come within his reach. On turning to the birds. therefore. jacamars {Galbula). but in wandering through the boughs of interminable forests. Cer- and several other groups. tree creepers {Dendrocolaptes. of such strength and construction. the naturalist finds himself in a new zoological region . and must. of course.) On passing from the deep forests. comprehend the mining provinces of Brazil in they are more particularly mountainthe above sketch ous .) The dispersion of animals is affected. (107. so the number and most luxuriant towards variety of animals. are found in such incredible numbers. in a surprising degree. BRAZIL. (106. on the borders or in the recesses of the virgin forests. by the above variations in the face of the country.TROPICAL AMERICA. imposing from their size or dazzling from their brilliancy. much greater than in the interior. which we shall now proceed to notice. be looked upon as an excep: tion to the general features of the whole. No such additional power for climbing has been given to the monkeys of India. we find the toucans (^Ramjihastidce). or so strongly characterised by lofty forests. are more particularly inhabitants of the virgin forests . manakins {Pipra). parts. or the more open inland tracts. and entering upon the Tabu/aras. in neither of which is this family so numerous in species or individuals. We do not. 75 account for the singular inequality of animal dispersion. Sw. we find the greater part are furnished with' a prehensile tail. In conformity with these habits.). not on the ground. as to fulfil the office of a fifth hand. motmots (Prionites). much less to those of Africa .

. or inland country. are never seen in the recesses of forests on they principally vegetable juices. (Jig. particularly the tahulas. as more open tracts and the thickets of the Catinga woods. The low trees and scanty thickets produce a variety of small berries.) is. Few of splendid birds (of which the blue-collared Ampelis Catinga L. again. live The humming-birds. The more numerous than on the Tahularas but they are small. the most magnificent) are (108. cavies. seem to prefer these lesser insects are The bush-shrikes philus) ( Thanino- and the ant-thrushes also are (Drymophila Sw. Vegetation has lost its luxuriance. small but The The animals principally found here are the sloths. affording nourishment to the hard-biUed tanagers and finches. perhaps. The Sertem. are the chosen haunts of nearly the parrakeets here they are seen. armadillos. are still more thinly . Catingas. they naturally frequent the for. while a few of the smaller monkeys woods to the forests. 26.) ^ ^WUHW nearly peculiar to the Catingas '° AIE^SIl which many of the certain fruit- eaters at (^Ampelidee Sw. are the favourite food of the larger parrots and mackaws. while the harder nuts of the different palms so frequently met with in all : the interior. have their peculiar inhabitants. also.. 76 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. to devour these the berrries.) resort.) found near the coast. The Campos. and squirrels . : Few insects appear and he may frequently ride for hours without meeting with a single lepidopterous insect worth preserving. seasons. living upon the berries . or plains. . and with it the power of nourishing those innumerable insects which feed on the tender and juicy leaves of plants flowering in a rich and humid soil. few of which are met with in the forests of the coast. and only interesting to the naturalist from their locality. in flocks innumerable. abounding in odoriferous flowers.

live in the deep virgin forests. so culiarities. Asia.) The carnivorous quadrupeds. living among high grass. QUADRUPEDS. while others. again. to suck the blood of both. we cannot detail (^Crypturus 111. TROPICAL AMERICA. are generally too weak to be used in work for several days this we have frequently experienced. (110. or beasts of prey. (109. we see the wise provision of nature in adjusting the balance between the insect world and those animals which draw their support from it. or Europe.. live also upon fruit . like the large vampires of the East.) pical Among the quadrupeds. always walking or perching upon the ground. but are without cheek pouches or naked callosities on their hinder parts. we have already in tro- stated that the great variety of monkeys found America are essentially different from those of Africa and Asia. \'ery few of the bats above mentioned occur to the north of the line. Such appears to be the local distribution of the vast variety of animals beprincipally — longing to this magnificent portion of the New World.) are found in arid plains. more inoffensive. and bear little or no analogy to the satyr-like apes and disgusting baboons of the Old World they : have all tails. however.) their pe- The tinnamous baker-birds are the partridges of America. inhabited . such tremendous and frightful howls. from which they send forth. and even the dwellings of man. : : . The howling monkeys {Mycetes 111. as to impress the listener with the apprehension of some gigantic ferocious animal being very near. we avoided these districts. The bats are more numerous than in any part of the world here. enter the cattle sheds.. morning and evening. and none either in Africa. while the rufous {Opetiorhi/nchus Tern. Horses and mules are constantly attacked in this manner during the night and although never killed. generally prehensile . Many. They are much smaller. It now only remains for us to take a hasty glance at the general zoology of the whole southern continent. as 77 unin- but as viting to the naturalist. No less than sixty-five species of this family have been described as natives of South America.

are here utterly unknown. 78 ON THE GEOGKAPHY OF AXIMAIiS. that formidable. Travellers mention sniall deer. the ant-eaters. the latter alone being truly formidable. and the whole of ferocious quadrupeds so common Old World. beautifully marked and spotted. but the species have not yet been well ascertained. hyaena.fig. and the other wool-bearing animals of that description. Towards evening he is astonished by dreadful bowlings. of which met with in the virgin forests. list panther. The tapirs. jackal. leopard. The in the tiger. of which two species are known. and the (111. they appear to be few in numerical amount. and proceeding. 27. The largest are the puma and the jaguar . The lama. are of a small size. with but two exceptions. voice it is so be They live only heard for miles. The scale-covered manis represents this group in Africa. however. possessing to neither size nor ferocity make them really The compass of their astonishingly great.) Brazil is celebrated for large troops are frequently : foliage. very tameable. springing from bough to bough with astonishing celerity from the quickness of their motions. coming from the depths of the forests. The sloths. the rest are principally small tiger-cats of of several lion. thickness of the as he imagines. These alarming sounds. and are fearful of man. proceed only from the howling monkeys {Mycetes ursinus. and the armadillos are intertropical regions of the peculiarly Brazilian tures. are the largest quadrupeds yet met with in South America. the traveller is only able to catch a partial glimpse of them as they cross his path. its monkeys . : the latter are harmless little crea- and are frequently kept as pets in the houses.. appear more peculiar plains on the to the elevated Andes of Peru and Chili. species. perched upon the summit of may . from some formidable beasts of prey. and although many species. in the most impenetrable recesses where.)j pecuUar to tropical America.

is cha- once of their affinity. : . glossy.TROPICAL AMERICA. forming the genus Manis. and seldom goes abroad during the day for although it swims well. There and delicate species. again. The disgusting baboons of Africa. so that it dives or swims with perfect ease . 79 some lofty hideous little tree^ they make is the forests resound with their a very beautiful cries. and of a bright golden or chestnut orange. This animal. and the large apes of Asia. It is timorous. on land it often sits on its hind feet. but the fur is monkey {M. olive only in tropical America : there are three species. the lion monkey. but seldom survives during the winter. and wher. The real leoninus) is also found in brown. but which the silky monkey of Pen- The hair is long. and the peculiar has given them.armour. but is greatly superior in size. and we can bear testimony to the delicacy of their flesh. like the squirrel. QUADRUPEDS. is in this country. are found leonine Brazil. are entirely excluded from the New World.). whereas those of India. On rivers the are of the found the capibaras (^Hydioccerus Capybara. generally called. of which the great or maned ant-eater {^Myrmecophaga All the species are clothed with jubata) is the largest. on the other hand. are covered with horny scales. The true ant-eaters. and the face black. in 28. The armadillos. : . which has all the whiteracteristic at defence which nature ness and the savour of young sides pork. are only to be found on this continent . Jig. very much resembles the Guinea-pig. it runs badly they are said shape. thick but cool hair'. soft. measuring about three feet in total length the feet are palmated or webbed. nant (^Midas rosalia). and their vulgar name of hog-in. This elegant little creature is sometimes brought alive to England. The Brazilians are particularly fond of these animals. which they hunt for food .

sitting on trees by the way side. Sw. shy in manners. while. as regards the pro- number fifth of species. and new ones are conti- nually sent by travelling collectors to Europe. (113.). or agoutis. and feed entirely upon vegetables . has been explored . Not more than one of the Brazilian empire. and range over the Campos and Pampas of the interior. are of the Whether same these vultures species as the . 30. (ll^. Sheep are very scarce. perfectly tame. 6. ii. fig. and ready to devour ofFal..) The cavies. and in many provinces almost unknown. 29. by which the list is increased. fully equal N. this region may safely be nounced the richest in the world. Z. for instance. in some measure.) they have no tails. by the fact that fruits and insects constitute the chief nourishment of this class and that both are peculiarly abundant in countries where vegetation is particularly luxuriant. p. so to live in ON THE GEOGRAPHY OP ANIMALS.) The general ornithological features of Brazil have already been dwelt upon ..fig.. yet it has already furnished upwards of 500 difierent kinds of birds.) The large rapacious birds are very peculiar {Cathartes vultures black : atratus. or any animal substance deprived of life. are the hares of Brazil {Dasyprocta 111. and : swift of foot. they live only in the forests woods. (112. are every where seen. as they are sometimes called. ac- We count for this abundance. in size to our turkeys. families^ and seldom to quit the vicinity of the place where they were born. into the The and Catinga cattle and introduced by the multiplied horses were early Spanish into first New World now invaders. but they have immense herds. may.

was. inferior Pernambuco. (] 15. or in the less elevated provinces on the eastern side of the Cordilleras. but has not yet been met with in Brazil. and per- on the watch for insects. the destroying eagle {Aquila destructor. In these flatter tricts. and tearing them in pieces with its enormous talons. are of a small size cies and one spesize. in the gardens of The . or in the world. and Brazil. While the condor forests of the coast. owls. The different Caracaras. unlike those of the North. and more wooded disthe place of the condor is filled by a bird but little infe- rior in size. although naked. this tribe head and neck. pursuing them with velocity.-^ BIRDS. is the famous condor of the Andes. papa L.) The chief famiUes of perching birds . 81 black and turkey buzzards of North America. and preys only upon deer. are also Para. already enumerated for their beauty or but many others their singularity. all we have may be noticed The numerous tyrant flycatchers are seen in petually the open tracts and gardens.). is still The king vulture ( F. much more in its cruel and destructive habits. beautifully coloured. and the larger quadrupeds .) is a matter of doubt. more resembUng eagles than kites. sloths. monkeys. perched on the surrounding branches. The water-chats . this formidable bird ranges over the and particularly those of Demerara. on this account. 31. It flies with majestic rapidity. peculiar to this part of the world. Jig. is restricted to the highest mountains. and its It appears to extend its range over a long extent of those immense mountains. in to the thrush.TROPICAL AMERICA. named. also large . are But the most remarkable bird of in South America.

).82 ON THE GEOGRAI'HV OF ANIMALS. wherever a tree blossom. extending for hundreds of miles. 32.). run along the sides of the rivers and lagoons. our ground doves (ChcB. his Majesty's consul-general at the city of Para. are filled with innumerable flocks of aquatic and wading birds. darting about among splendid butter- and blue-winged bees. or water-hen. and probably these haunts. and ^ and g has received this name from carrying its broad compressed tail erect. are frequented by nearly all the aquatic tribes of South Ame- swamps and savannahs Gallinule (fig. as the creation. 8° and 23° S.). nearly as big as them- selves. Hesketh.) Water-birds are very local with them in any abundance. sheltered as old. called "little is Azara. are nevertheless to be seen. {FluvicolincB Sw. the interior. in that range of coast we traversed between lat. imthe greatest abundance passable to human feet. that the swamps : on the borders of the great river Maraiion. but we are informed by Mr.). The beautiful little mepelia Sw. same cock" by found in the situation. . of Brazil is . and perpetually same wagging their tails: the very singular genus Alec- turus the {fig. analogous to our wagtails. and are common even in the gardens and suburbs of the towns . while the humming-birds. we did not meet (116. probably. In nearly all the found the Martinico 31. frequent all the open tracts. although more numerous in is in full flies. whose dark purple rica. Here the splendid scarlet curlews are found in . like that of domestic fowl. directly under the line. bent on the pursuit. among in- terminable forests of reeds.

and more anxious to escape from man than to call forth his prowess.. and the sides are variegated with orange : over each eye is a short a 2 . until able to shift for themselves. REPTIIiES. and crimson frontlet. and the exThe fish generally obtreme shortness of the other. are very amusing . (118. gar-fish is much smaller than ours. the horned toad {Ceratophrys dorsata Max. and not generally interesting. while the beautiful chaetodons. 83 plumage. and relieve the soUtude of such dreary tracts. timid. renders it one of the most elegant of aquatic birds. among the Cayenne crocodiles of Demerara. nor tlid we taste any that could be compared to the cod. disgusting and hideous in appearance.) is one of the most singular reptiles of Brazil. (117. yellow bill. The genus Anableps has been named the doubleeyed loach. The species materially differ from those of similar lati- tudes in the Old World . walking on the broad leaves of aquatic plants. and are carried The someabout. turbot. fig.) The most is extraordinary reptile of South the Surinam toad. : rivers served by us in the markets of Pernarabuco and Bahia were small . The spurwinged water-hens {Parra). within which the young retreat. but interesting from ihe manner in which Nature has provided for the safety of its young . in the ichthyology which form such a prominent feature of India. are but sparingly distributed in the American seas.) Our information on the fish peculiar to these seas is very defective. what marvellous adventures of a recent author. or salmon of our own seas. the America back of the mother being excavated into httle hollow cells. and is distinguished by the excessive length of the lower jaw.TROPICAL AMERICA. appear as if they trod upon the surface of the water. Si. Another reptile. but we cannot tell of such " moving accidents : " those we observed in Brazil were small. with stripes of deep black. the back being bright green. from what appears to be the real eye being covered with an elevated membrane it is found in the The Brazihan and fresh waters of Surinam. Its colours are beautiful. FISH.

and. generally about two feet long. and elegantly banded with black and crimson. crabs. however. poisonous. indeed. a species in the Mediterranean which appeared to us equally good. These monsters are never seen of a large in cultivated districts . by strangling them in the enormous folds of their body. The rattlesnake of North America is here unknown. size are every where common in the swamps . and very delicate. — . giving to this really harmless animal a formidable and re- pulsive appearance. but nearly the wilds of the interior. &c. are common.) Immense serpents. both on the West India islands and on the continent . by the inhabitants generally. they belong to the genus Boa. are kill the young oxen. indeed. but horn-like protuberance. as spiders. The natives assert that they frequently from found in principally near the banks of the as formidable iheir size. known as inhabitants of tliese seas.) The wingless insects. Turtles are well is firm. (120. The species named Boa constrictor has been often described. which here represents that of Python. while the most beautiful are the coral snakes. but probably two or three are still Frogs of a monstrous confounded under that name. called guanas. great rivers. their usual attendants. but mussize quitoes. eating.: 84 ON THE GKOGBAPHV OF ANIMALS. sent to Europe and dressed at our feasts: there is. white. in BrazU appear to us to have been much over-rated although constantly in situations where they might be supposed to abound. belonging to the Old World. are much less numerous The number of serpents than in the north of Europe. The large lizards. particularly the green sort. not. but its place is supplied by another species . (119. we met with very few. are considered very delicious a fact we can ourselves testify: the flesh.

we Many of the fresh. in her Surinam plates of insects. the most beautiful of all the pictorial reds. but America possesses the cochineal insect. and. is Madame the largest of this family yet discovered. at least. or. Marian. TROPICAL AMERICA. Europe. (121. been clearly ascertained. it sides its use in dyeing. They seem to abound more particularly in the West India islands . represents it as feeding upon the humming-bird . cultivated . INSECTS. since they live but a part of the year in water. either wild or its nature. but we never found and suspect this habit is entirely contrary to The silkworm is unknown. and resort. at other times. and very curious .. to the woods and forests. beHeve. but whether they are of the same species as those found in Western Africa has not. not much larger than the species found in the south of The venomous centipedes of Africa and Asia are strangers to this continent. water crawfish are nearly as big as young lobsters. excepting those of Surinam. Mygale avicularia (fig 35. of nearly as much importance to commerce . it has been hitherto confined to the repubUc of Mexico . are so rare The bird-catching spider that we never met with one. The scorpions are small. furnishes the rich colour called carmine. and. —The land crabs are numerous.) To enumerate the tribes of winged insects peculiar ^ to South America is altogether impossible yet we cannot pass over this lovely portion of creation o 3 .).[ as it is improperly called. beon trees. 85 may be briefly noticed.

in silence.




American continent, more than any
trees, so


abounds in forests of timber

do we find

that the

number of

coleopterous insects, which feed, in

within the substance of wood, are numerous ; the comparative relations between those of Europe and of Brazil alone being prolarva state,


bably as one to nine while of such Colcoptern as devour decayed animal substances (here removed entirely by

ants), the

ratio may be inverted. To the abundant supply of soft and nutritious vegetable food, we may, in


manner, attribute the amazing number of lepidopterous









colouring, they are certainly unrivalled

by any in the world.

Of the diurnal butterflies, we bebetween six and seven hundred species alone inhabit Brazil. One of these, the Prolieve that

tesilaus Leilus {fy. 36.^* is a

beautiful representation of the




of the lesser species are more beautifully marked than those of larger size and more dazzling colours. The

genuine Papilionidep, without any very palpable generic distinction from those of Africa and Asia, possess a certain aspect, or habit (as it is usually termed), which immediately betrays their country to the eye of the experienced entomologist. The family of Coliadtp, com. prehending those simply coloured, yet beautiful, yellow and orange butterflies, so frequently seen in collections,

numerous both in species and individuals. hair-streaks (Theclida) is another family so abundant, that we possess near 120 species from Brazil; but the HesperidcB, or skippers, are in still greater profusion, since more than 200 diflferent sorts were captured by us

are particularly


in Brazil, nearly the whole of

which are

restricted to the

• Zool. la


virgin forests of the coast:



very few of the genera comprised in this family are known in other countries. (122.) Ants are as numerous as in Western Africa, but they all appear to belong to different species. The red
ants of Brazil are so destructive, and at the same time of so prolific, that they frequently dispute possession the ground with the husbandman, defy all his skill to
extirpate their colonies,



compel him

to leave

his fields uncultivated. The Termites, or white ants, are principally confined to the woods they are of different species ; some building great nests in trees, while others

are subterraneous; but there is no evidence to prove them the same as those of Western Africa. Locusts of a beautiful green, with wings resembUng the leaves of

are not




uncommon; but they there, we believe, any

never become


record of their associating in flocks, and devastating the
those of the

They are, in fact, all Old World. The

specifically distinct

a peculiarity in American entomology, markably few, but it is sinfor which we know not how to account upon especially more prey which spiders, that gular,

dipterous insects are re-

this order, are still





never, in fact,


with more than two or three species which spun webs

which wanupon the deficient however Yet, species. 100 than spot, more South America may be in Diptera, there are some belonging to the AselidcB, of dimensions far exceeding any Few persons would beUeve in the existin the world. ence of a real fly measuring full two inches long ; yet
yet of the
little Saltici,



der about in quest of their prey,



several of these are in our

museum. or shells, are comparailfoZ/wsca, testaceous The (123.)

tively very few, particularly on the eastern coasts, yet those of Chili and Panama have furnished our cabinets with many beautiful species : from the latter is brought the lovely Murex regius Sw., the Murex radix L., with


others of less note.

o 4

Chili and

Peru we


derive the singular





which resembles a limpet; and also a considerable number of chitons. The marine shells of Brazil are comparatively few, and offer a
singular contrast to the prolific

shores of intertropical


and even

to those of

ber of fluviatile shells

Western Africa. The numbears no comparison with those of

North America
nature, or that

but whether this

truly the case in


from the

rivers of the


not having been sufficiently explored,


The genus Hyria Lam.
latitudes, as Iridina


as peculiar to these


appears to be

Africa; while








gigantic river shell hitherto discovered.


{Ampullaria L.) abound in the swamps and lesser rivers, and exhibit numerous species, none of

which appear


The The


have been found north of the line. land shells, although not many, are very large Bulimus ovatus is common on the while another species {B. hcBmastomus) apto

pears more frequent in the islands. The Achatina melanastoma Swains, is particularly rare, and none of the
species from the continent of tropical America may be termed common. Jamaica, and several of the neighbouring islands, are much richer in these productions. (125.) The quadrupeds of the American continent chiefly belong to the following genera and subgenera


Atel.s Geqff:

Didelphus L.
Cheiroaectes Cuv. Castur L. Echymys Cuv.


Lagothrix Humi. Mycetes ///. Cebus Cuv.

Myopolomus Desm. Arctomyi Cuv.
Spermophilus Cuv. Pteromys Cuv. Spigurus Cuv. Erethizon Cuv. HydrochcErus Ei. Aperea Marcg. Dasyprocta III.
Coelogeiius Cuv.




lil. I//.



Phyllostoma Cuv.

Vampjrus Spu.
Giossophaga Geoff. Artibius Leach. Monophyilus Leach.

Bradypus L. Dasypus L.

Mormoops Leach.

Dicotyles Cuv.


Noctilio Geojf.l Proboscidea Spir.





Molossus Geoff.


Ursus L. ProcyoQ Cuv. Nasua Desm. Cercoleptes Desm. Meles L.

Alee Ham. Smith. Rangifer Ham. Smith.

Ham. Mazama Ham.




Subulo Ham. Smith. Dicranocerus Ham. Smith, Aplocerus Ham. Smith.


The American genera and

families of birds

are particularly numerous ; and in several instances are Where^ therefore, a restricted to the New ^Vorld.

family group



and exclusively American, the
contains will not be

genera and subgenera



Those marked
Rapacious Birds.

(s.) are


Vultur L. Vulture. ; Polyborus Vieil. Caracara. (s.) Harpyia Cuv. Eagle, (s.)

Trochilidae Sw.




Morphnus Cuv.
Cymindis Cuv. Elan us



Climbing Birds.


Falco (Harpagus) Vigors.

Perching Birds.
Prionites HI.



Trogon. Jacamar. Monassa Fieil. Hermit-bird, Tamatia Marcg. PuBfbird. Cbsetuia Stev. SpinetaiL

Trogon L.

Galbula L.


Creeper. Xiphorhynchus Sw. Creeper, (s.), Dendroplex Sui. Creeper, (s.) Anabates Tem. Creeper. Synallaxis ('ieil. Thorntail. Zeiiops III. Turnbill. Sittasomus Sw. Creeper, (s.) Lochmias Sw. Creeper, (s.) Sclerurus Sw. Creeper, (s.) Troglodytes (Thriothorus Vieil.)


Oxyrhyiichus Tem.




f!tu. Woodpecker. Malacolophus Sw. Woodpecker. Asthenurus Siv. Woodpecker, (s.) Macrocercus Viet/. Mackaw. Saurathera rieil. Rainbird. Crotophaga L. Ani. Ramphastos L. Toucan.

Cyclaris Sw.


Bush Shrike.


Sub-fam. Tyranninae Sw. Tyrants. Ptiliogonys CaterpillarSiv.

Fluvicola Sw.




Nengetus Sw.
Aiecturus Water-chat,



Icterina; Siv.



SturneHa riei/. Starling, (s.) Agelaius T'l'e/lMaizeliird. Fam. Tanagrinfe .Viir. Tanagers. Guiraca Sw. Finch, (s.)



Redcrest. Sw. Sandfinch.

Tody, (s.) /.. Platyrhynchus Desm. Tody, (s.) Psaris Ciiv. Blackhead. Pachyrhynchus Sw. Thickbill. Querula Vieil. Fruit-eater.
Chatterers, or Fruit-eaters.



Phytotoma Mol.

Pipra L.

Manakins. Ampelis L. Chatterers.


Procnias Hojf. Chatterers. Phibalura J'ieil. Chatterers.

Culicivora Sw. Gnatsnapper. Sialia Sw. Bluebird. Opaeteorhynchus Tern. Bakerbird. Seiurus Sw, Watertit. (s.) Triclias .5iy. Yellowthroat.

Casmorhynchus Tern.


Rupicola Vieil. Manakin. Vireo Vieil. Greenbird.
Gallinaceous Birds.

Setophaga Sw. Mothcatcher. Sylvicola Sw. Warbler. Vermivora Sw. Wormeatcr.
Mniotilta Viefl. Zosterops Vig.







Turkey. Odontophagus Vieil. Ortyx Stev. Tree Quail, (s.) Crypturus ///. Tinnamou. Rhea B. American Ostrich.
Meleagris L.

Parus L. Titmouse. Hylophilus Tern. Titmouse, (s.) jEgithina Vieil. Titmouse, (s.)

Ourax Cuv. Orax-bird. Crax L. Curassow-bird.
Penelope Mer. Penelope. Ortalida Mer. Phosphia L. Trumpeter.' Opisthocomus H^fr. Serpent-eater. Chaemepelia Sw. Ground Doves. (s.)

Donacobius Sw.
Icteria Vieil.




Mocking-bird. Ant-thrush, (s.) Myothera III. Ant-thrush. Formicivora Sw. Ant-wren, (s.) Drymophila Sw. Ant-thrush, (s.) Urotomus Sw. Ant-thrush, (s.) r>asicepha1a Sw. Bristle-head.
Grallaria Vieil.

Orpheus Sw.





Cancroma L. Boatblll. Mycteria L. Jabiru. Ereunetes III.
Eurypyga III. Snipe. Palamedia L. Screamer.









appear to be subgenera, and several even be of a lower denomination.
as such,








many respects

zoology of this vast peninsula assimilates in a circumstance to that of Western Asia,

naturally to be expected
direction, of these

from the junction, in


two great divisions of the earth while its northern limits, in like manner, present; us with no inconsiderable number of the animals of Europe. As we recede, however, from these points, the peculiarities of the African Fauna become more apparent and soon convince us of the necessity of considering it as a distinct zoological region. That Nature has been f r less lavish, both in the number and variety of her forms, on this continent, than on any other of similar extent, may be readily inferred from its peculiar formation. Vast deserts of naked sand, equal in extent to the entire dominions of European sovereigns, are scattered

continent in




" green herb or limpid stream," or even the most scanty means for supporting life. These deserts, in fact, are uninhabitable to civilised man, and are only traversed by wandering savages or migratory quaneither

The fecundity of animal and of vegetable life always influenced by the same causes hence, on the western and southern coasts, where the soil is rich and


nature teems with


Quadrupeds of the

the forests echo with the notes of birds ; and innumerable insects are supported by a luxuriant vegetation.
largest dimensions are stationary





taking a rapid survey of the productions of are naturally led to arrange our observations


under three heads. First, as relates to that portion of the continent situated nortli of the Great Desert, and bounded by the Mediterranean on one hand and the

Our second division will comand the more equinoctial regions ; while the third embraces Southern Africa and the Island of Madagascar. (129.) The zoology of Northern Africa is no further

Red Sea on

the other.

prise "Western Africa,

interesting, than as


presents us with the



cations of a great change in animal distribution.


Mediterranean forms a natural boundary to the northern range of many quadrupeds, unknown to, or long ago extirpated from, the shores of Europe. The lion is occasionally seen, and hyenas are not uncommon; but the
jackal, long supposed a universal inhabitant of these




— according


Mr. Ruppel


either in Egypt, Nubia, or the adjacent kingdoms.


range over the arid tracts of Barbary, and are probably peculiar to this side of the Great Desert: with these, also, are intermixed several
species of antelopes

quadrupeds of Western Asia.

The camel


here the

chief beast of burthen, and the horses of Arabia are well known. It has been generally asserted, that this noble



truly a native of this part of Africa,

and that


exists in its original wild state; but recent travellers

contradict this statement, and point to AV^estern Asia and the regions of Caucasus as the original metropoUs of the horse. The bats are small, and confined to five species ;

but in Lower Egypt are found several foxes and wild dogs of pecuhar habits. The elegant little gerbells, or jerboas, are chiefly inhabitants of the deserts; while the Felis maniculata of Mr. Ruppel, or the Egyptian wild cat, appears, on the testimony of this traveller, to be the original species from which all our domestic breeds have sprung ; the intermediate gradation being marked by the tame cats of the modern Egyptians.

9S (ISO. and is of a small size . or Pharaoh's vulture (fig.NORTHERN AFRICA. But as the heat of Africa is so much greater.). Illustrations. ii.) The birds of Northern Africa. is now asThe Arabian certained to be unknown beyond Egypt. 71. supposed that the greater part of our summer migratory birds retire to ^\'estern Asia and Northern Africa at the approach of winter . bustard differs from that of Europe (O. also interesting. whose over spread vultures and of cranes rewarded by the care or and appreciated services are : 39 -^P>. long confounded with some European birds of the same family. these. . • Zool. Among Neophron the percnopterus of Savigny. pi. as showing us The the most northern range of this African genus. considerable beauty is the Barbary shrike {Malaconotus barbarusSiW. sacred ibis of the ancients. the only bird of remarkably slender. that no great difference exists between the ornithology of the two shores of the Mediterranean. whose sustenance is drawn from It is generally the insect and the vegetable kingdoms. SQ-). is one of the most com- mon.*) . so do we find an increase in the number of those birds whose province hence the number of it is to remove putrid matter this country. It is rather larger than a crowj with a white plumage and black wings . the arid present but a barren field to the ornithologist soil and treeless deserts sufficiently account for the : paucity of these beings. the biU is For the rest. ^ veneration of the inhabitants. but the quail is of the same species as that which annually visits the south of Europe in such immense flocks. ta7-da L. and hence it may be naturally inferred. taken collectively.

to the Benin.94 (131. Colohus. are almost exclusively characteristic of equinoctial Africa.) ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. hence we find extensive geographic range than others the lions. This. and other ferocious genera of this continent. all animals of rapine have a more Senegal. a material On productions of Senegal. but deadly to the constitution of Hence our knowledge is Umited to civilised beings. four-handed the region of the African animals. and the whole range of thickly wooded coasts which begins to appear towards Guinea and The pestilential nature of the cUmate. atmosphere of this no one will be more deeply regretted. madillo of Brazil different from those of Northern Africa. than the late Mr. the few gleanings made near Sierra Leone. in short. and to the this continent. of creation. rich in every production of nature. and correspond to other tribes restricted to In the more inland parts we India and America. wandering nearly from one extremity to the : : . The maned and the different baboons and monkeys forming the genera Papio. the hyaenas. for no one was more qualified to reap the harvest of unknown forms which lie hid in the forests of Western Africa. which. form a natural separation between the northern and the tropical Fauna . have the scale-covered manis.). particularly by the naturaUst. &c. Bowdich.. inhabit the more inland open country on the banks of the river In general. European traveller. approaching the equinoctial regions cf change is seen in the disThe Great Desert seems to tribution of its animals. apes. representing the arwhile herds of small antelopes. or is Quadrumana. fated travellers Of all those ardent but iUwho have sunk beneath the poisonous country. and which here represents the oran-outang of the Indian Islands. Senegal. opposes an insurmountable barrier to the investigation of these countries. that satyr-like ape. although we must include in the latter division. Cyanocephalus. Cercocehus. niger Geof. In these imall penetrable recesses lives the chimpanzee (^Troglodytes animals in makes the nearest approach to the human form.

or the northern giraffe. while the Camelojmrdalis antiquorum Sw.). rectly to Northern Africa.) The ornithological pecuharities of tropical Africa are very striking. a wise dispensation of Providence they Umited to more circumscribed boundsj the animals upon which they feed would soon be exterminated. . Ruppel . (132. be strictly defined. ancients (^Leo Africanus Sw. and those — kingdoms which border upon Central and Northern Africa. on the whole. the removal of putrid matter is more expeditiously performed by the hysenas. Other 95 since. the elephant and the rhinoceros are not uncommon. Vultures seem to be rare . or rather foxes. but exhibit many remarkable and peculiar genera. and more beautiful. has recently been detected by Mr. habited by any of the quadrupeds of the western coast. who also describes four pecuhar kinds of wild dogs. australis Sw. in the present state of knowledge. The quadrupeds of Nubia. part of this division of the continent. there is a noble bird.— EQUINOCTIAL AFRICA. The birds are not only more numerous. Ruppelj whose elaborate observations have enabled us to characterise it as a distinct species from the giraffe The Hon of the of Southern Africa (C. we may here observe. yet they are more allied to those of Egypt than to the species of Four sorts of antelopes are enumerSouthern Africa. particularly among the perching tribes.) If we are to consider Central Africa as forming — which cannot. since.. when compared with those of the northern parts.). is a species (133. On the coast of Guinea. also comprehended in this division . as natives of the These countries seem not to be inKordofan deserts. in all probability. were . (134. The rapacious birds do not appear so numerous as under the corresponding latitudes of America. from the proxi- may be mity of that kingdom to the more equinoctial latitudes.) pecuUar to these regions. ated by Mr. while as sinia : many are common to to Egypt and Abysbelong more cor- it appears. in Hke manner. that in Abyssinia.

(135. representing. scarcely inferior in brilliancy of plumage. been little de- scribed a proof how we are acquainted with the ornitho- logy of Western Africa. while from the same locality we derive the richly genus Prionops.) are Among the perching order of birds. there numerous other entirely or rather unknown in Northern Africa. under the same degrees Three of latitude. region as is This further characterised the chief metropolis of the coloured bush-shrikes {3Ia'aconotus Sw. being sent from Senegal in considerable numbers . have genera. 40. while several others. have been received from the western coast. fig. the olive.) are not uncommon towards Sierra Leone. it seeks its food upon the it is : ground. intertropical families. yet discovered of this peculiar form. the black.). Five other peculiar to that colony recently have hut . The {Edolms Cuv. the Senegal.) like all other shrikes. the humming-birds of America. The richly coloured rollers of these countries have no . {Cinnyris Cuv. Drongo shrikes here find the beautiful sun-bird been discovered. andj which would seem dest)-ticfor to typify the AquUa of tropical America.). where also the caterpillar-catchers {Ceblepyris Cuv. the species called the Barbary. and several others. falcons.) . or ground-shrike.96 ON THE GKOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. the only example and it represents unthe American bristle-heads (Dasycephala Sw. and more particularly the bristlenecked thrushes of the genus Brachypns Sw..collared. as the Senegal fishing eagle re- presents our Osprey. of the falcon race.). the long-tailed. called the African crowned eagle (Aquila coroiiatiis. and birds of gi-eat beauty We — the chalybeate sun-birds — are particularly common'.

glossed with purple.) The only birds common to the whole extent of the African continent. but those with a {Collar is Cuv. and whose migrations are even extended to the middle of Europe.EQUINOCTIAL AFRICA. It is sufficient that any particular geographic range is found to contain peculiar genera or forms of animals. representatives in tropical BIRDS. (137. are found but sparingly on the African continent. But the glory of A^'^estern Africa is the the magnificent plantain-eater (Musophaga violacea). or it more lives only in the on sandy plains. Three or four others. is well known : these birds. as deserts. 97 short bill New America . belonging to the same natural family. the common roller. and by which it is stamped with a tangible character. Western Africa is peculiarly rich . Most of the partridges are small . would far exceed our hmits. associate in flocks of two or three hundred. are the European bee-eater. and many belong more correctly to the genus Pterocles. with wings of the most lovely crimson. and even in America. by which it may be recognised. It has not been detected on the western coast. (136. in a state of nature. or the sand-grouse. so numerous towards the equinoctial line in India. : the most common of these spein long domesticated Europe. This rare bird seems only to have been met with in the interior of Guinea. are exclusive natives of these regions. which may characterise certain countries. and the European species. The ostrich is well known to be the largest giraffe. The goatsuckers are well H . In the elegant family of bee-eaters {Merops). To enumerate the peculiar however. as . and chiefly frequent the marshes and morasses which stretch along the banks of the western rivers. and probably should be ranked with the characteristic of Central Africa.) The gallinaceous order of birds. the golden oriole. more than two thirds of the species already known having come from thence. nearly size of a crow.) have likewise been found in Holland. roller. where the largest birds of this order are the Guinea fowls cies.

but from each wing projects a feather nearly twenty inches in length. particularly as they are contained in the (139. the serpents. Mr. 3 vols. attack the spiders . fig. the long-shafted goatsucker to {Macrodipteryx Africanus Sw.) coasts The rivers and fish. who lived many years on these coasts. an extraordinary species. the lizards. with the shaft naked except at the tip : it has hitherto been found only at Sierra Leone. that the Smeathman convey such a lively picture of African zoology. likely to be 4ta . and nutritious and the food different Many of snakes and reptiles. Snieathman. where they are not Diury's Exotic Insects. the entomology we may observe. two latter particularly destructive.) On notes of Mr. : abound with as beautiful in their colours while the swarms of alligators. 41. again.98 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OK ANIMALS. preface to a work*. need not be dwelt upon. are not only harmless. (138. and the The patient negroes are not without consolation amidst this heterogeneous crowd of inmates. known nearly every country be dispersed over but . but highly beneficial. and these latter not unfrequently fall a prey to the fowls. the former being very harmless.. however. that we shall repeat it nearly in his own words. may be named as one of the most curious birds of Western Africa : it is not bigger than a thrush . as the rats do to the snakes. observes that the snakes get into the thatch of the houses in pursuit of the rats and cockroaches . They see the spiders always upon the watch for wasps and cockroaches .).

are the Termites. Smeathman affirms to be rich and delicate eating . food. numbers of locusts mentioned in history. did he but know where to seek it. if not a The larvae. they appear altogether innumerable. except where the sandy plains are too unsettled to afford a proper Whenever a plantation is to be footing for vegetation. have principally taken flight from this that those prodigious * Sraeatliman. skipping or flitting sizes. that in the second and third year these cleared lands become impassable the to human feet. or caterpillars. Smeathman. " is one immense forest. before they It is these spots (called recent get another crop. and so enclosed in a bag as to resemble part of the roe of a large fish ." observes for. but in the sandy plains. but palatable to beetles The native children.EQUINOCTIAL AFRICA. but suffer the trees to grow again for two or three years by way of fallow. 99 " The whole of tropical Africa. Mr. so that every forest affords the traveller plenty of wholesome nourishOf this kind ment. the trees ground (a practice common throughout South The people never sow two years together America)." these countries. yet so rapid is vegetation. which is then full of eggs. are always busily employed in digging out of the ground many. in general. we may observe. generally. delicious. at the proper season. at every step of the traveller. these. on the same spot . Mr. thinly covered with grass. of all those which feed upon decayed wood. and their chirping is In such situations they are seen of almost deafening. when The great numroasted. are considered delicate food. afford such an amazing variety of which plantations) insects . are not only wholesome. about in all directions. the females ber of locusts and cicadas is particularly remarkable . of a particular sort of cricket. There are several edible insects in which supply a wholesome. sought INSECTS. H a .* this While upon subject. and colours. various kinds. down and burned to fertilise cut are made. which have astonished and afflicted mankind at remote intervals. and even the locusts. or white ants .

ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. and cover every glass that has had wine or punch left in it. j-ol. " are of numerous species. are frequently obliged to abandon their dwellings. which seems at times to have no fixed habitation. as formidable. Mr. Some and. they can attack whatever animal impedes their progress . inasmuch as. each possessing peculiar habits. sandy plains. and wait until the ants have passed. . and carry them away. where the hot^ dry. in spite of in. sparing neither magnitude nor One species.varm in Western Africa.100 continent . beauty. but all seem intent on removing from the face of nature every animal or vegetable substance no longer necessary or useful. taking with them their children. than in tropical America. locusts nearly from whence have issued forth armies of (140. Some assail the sideboard. Others attack all sorts of victuals. Nay. and there is no escape but by imThe mediate flight. no these countries.. to Drury's Insects. very strong jaws." * attach the most implicit confidence. as IVIr. of different and colours. innumerable multitudes frequently ascend the table. Similar deserts occur in Asia. and drown themselves in the very bowls and vessels before To this animated entomological picture we you. attack the collections of the botanist. nearly sizes twenty other species are known. Smeathman has had four large sugar dishes emptied in one night. Smeathman assures us he has himself vi'itnessed. whenever the least opening has been left or made. &c.) The myriads less of ants." inhabitants of the negro villages. Like the destroying angel. they walk steadily forward in the path ordained them. or instant retreat to the water. Besides these ants. iii. so con- genial to the habits of these insects. had • Pref. get cut the leaves and flovvers to pieces. can scarcely he conceived by those who have never visited " Those of Africa. neither the living nor the dead. occupy such a large portion of the surface." Mr. weights laid upon his books of dried plants. By being furnished with ranges about in vast armies. which s. Smeathman continues.

that nearly all the species. (143. we never found plains.EQUINOCTIAL AFRICA. its habits are altogether it so- at least. however. although there is one particular ant in Brazil of a gigantic size.) On the Mollusca. in describing the ravages of the ants of Western Africa. as we take care of fowls. or shell-fish. are totally — unknown in such parts of the continent as border upon Asia or the Mediterranean may . otherwise than singly. since. which they keep in fenced yards. and even domesticate. with ease. and many of the genera. Smeathman. wandering about sandy (141. cannot apply to the wandering species he first describes. and are so constructed. The natives appear to prize. while not even one be safely affirmed to inhabit the opposite coast of America. to Senegal and this part of Africa feature in its singular »2 'r'!^^ „«v A scenery: they rise — ap- up from the plains in the shape of sugar-loaves (fg. their nests Other races (like some in South America) build on trees. and surrounded by a prominent terrace. The scorpions and other noxious insects are of a terrific size. This observation. litary .) The nests of the white ants — peculiar. 101 Mr. and of a most poisonous nature. the land crabs. written his account for those of tropical America.). but of such a height as to appear hke the vilJages of the natives . of an oval form . the top terminated by a round vaulted dome.) Without entering farther into the details of African entomology. he could not have more accurately or more forcibly depicted their habits. we have been furnished with some valuable information by a [i . (142. form a parently. nearly three feet high. ANTS. the whole not unlike the shape of a young mushroom. 42. it will be sufficient to observe.arrfo)are cylindrical. firmly that they bear. the weight of three or four men. while those of another species (r.

are carnivo- and they are themselves eaten by the natives. the — are closely allied in affinity and both receive . instance.) : is of the cowries both these genera. the Harpa sanguinea. sought having been duly Some very large 30. porcina. proboscidalis. do not materially ditfer from such as are common to the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.) The largest land shells hitherto discovered are exclusive natives of these countries. and lead us be particuto consider equinoctial Africa as the metropolis of this group.43. * Swainson. appear to larly plentiful. as unknown the in the Asiatic seas little such. Adanson^ who minutely examined and described those of the coast round Senegal. the conchology is richer than that of Eastern America. as the Achatina marginata (fig. are predacious.102 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. the genera. as Valuta Olla cymbium. and generally tinged with a beautiful rose colour It is round their mouth. 44.) *. inhabiting animals. elegant Marginellas . {fig. and considered nutritive and wholerous some. : feeding solely upon other shell-fish.. or blood-spotted harp the Carduum costatum. eight inches species this The fluviatile appear to be few. full Some of these snails are long. or rather species. but may originate from their not after. and belong to the genus Achatina. highly probable that the of . &c. mostly striped with dark brown on a lighter ground. . . pi. or sharp-ribbed cockle. lUust. Zool.). (144. however. but cannot be compared with that of Asia . On the whole. as India {Ct/prcea L. i. There are several varieties. like the large slugs Britain. in fact. &c. The typical volutes. Africa From many for western coasts of we also other shells.

and others. like those of tropical America. logical region are altogether obscure. however. a gigantic belt of verdure between the arid deserts of the interior and the more feitile borders of the coast. by as inhabiting u 4 . (145. The chief seat. of this zooare still without We information on those animals of Southern which may inhabit the north-western sides Gariep . These forests. In no region of the globe does there appear so great a variety of quadrupeds. beyond. or those deserts which terminate the northern extent of the colony. so dant in the rivers of tropical is well known is as a substitute for coin : baric nations of the species this Western Africa same as the shell. to lat. precisely the among the barwe know not whether called by (146. and do not appear worthy of commercial speculation . described Southern Africa. SHELLS. deserts. of the River. name. or money cowry. by that accomplished traveller Burchell . while the borders of the Great Fish forming the boundaries of the Cape Colony. therefore. . We shall now briefly notice the most remarkable of eighty naturalists quadrupeds. that the animals he observed in these inland regions do not materially differ from such as frequent the Great Karoos. not yet The interior been explored by the scientific naturalist. QUADRUPEDS. 26° S. but the small Cyprcea moneta. so abundant in the Indian seas. indeed. have been penetiafed. have much Africa. and from him we learn. of South African zoology must lie towards that immense line of forests stretching along the coast from Bosjeveld to the banks of the Great Fish River. 103 tuberculated Melanice occur in the allied to the genus Cerithium. comprehending the remainder of the continent south of Angola. in the salt- common but water marshes towards Sierra Leone we have no abunAmerica.. in all probability. extend to a vast distance forming.) Let us now piss to the third great division of African zoology. numerous fluviatile bivalves. The limits. are indication of those Gambia .) The pearl oysters {Margarita Leach) are small. and of such large dimensions.KQUINOCTIAL AFRICA.

the zorilla. the other the red. Among the ferocious or carnivorous species.faced baboon {Cyanocephalus porcarius). which very pro- name in common elephant is here by no means language. that we have now nearly passed the limits of the monkey tribe one of these is the pig. to the herbivorous orders. The and two smaller species of tiger{F. . and rock hare {fig. and inferior animals of this tribe. of The two-horned course. which is frequently met with. from those of Northern Africa . equally perly bears his large.sus Burch. The existence of only two species of apes exemplifies the fact. is the rare black-maned lion (ieo me/aceps Sw. and another (C. are likewise peculiar species."^^^—^ ^' ^ "" '"'^'^T' little "^ i. if not three. are among the best known . The African uncommon. The . peculiar to the Cape. The polecats. the the red-naped. Burchell discover a second {Rh. kinds of hysenas.' jerboas of Northern give place and Central Africa dormouse {Myoxis) . The largest quadrupeds belong. to "^^ S:- three elegant kinds of rhinoceros is well known for as peculiar to Southern Africa.) one of the most remarkable. and is irame- . niesomalis).) living only most inaccesretreats.) seems to extend its range through the centre of the continent. capensis and nigricans). there are two.) ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS.vented monkey {Cercocebus pygerythrcBus. are not numerous: the ratel. to but it was reserved Mr. sinu. the latter in the sible 45. while the hunting hyaena of Burchell {Hyana renatica Burch. and the true American ant-eaters appear represented by that called the Cape ant-eater {Orycteropus Capensis). and three kinds of ichneumon. Of the genus Lepus differing — there are three species the African.). not to mention the common jackal (C. besides these. The hares and other kindred families furnish us with many novelties.:: 104 (147. being quite distinct from the common cats serval {Felis Servo). aureus).

) But the innumerable herds of antelopes constitute the chief peculiarity in South African zoology. of which three species are now Southern Africa recognised. Forst. from the size of a goat to that of a horse: the gradation. the peculiar distribution of animals belonging to the southern extremity of this continent . 105 diately recognised by the superior size of to these When the we add the hippopotamus. Euchore. or blue antelope.and they appear occasionally in such vast herds that their numbers aie almost incredible. geographically. The springbok {Ant. by which nature passes from the of species is delicate and graceful springer. belong more to the plains of . its ears. 46. the name of springing antelope has been given to them.SOUTHERN AFRICA. in particular. and naturalists already enumerate nearly thirty different sorts. often congregates in troops of between ^000 and 3000 .fg. we comprehend largest quadrupeds (148.). and thus illustrate. The variety no less remarkable . to the heavy and unwieldy ox and buffalo. in fact. Several of these. clearing at a single bound ten or twelve feet of ground. or on the borders of. QUADRUPEDS. in the creation. range over the uninterrupted line of sandy deserts bordering upon the equator. while. no doubt. (149-) The zebras. may almost be traced among the animals of Southern Africa alone. the Cape Colony. from their habit of springing over bushes and rocks which impede their running . in the most forcible manner. and this they often do to the height of four or five feet. . on comparing these antelopes with the species of Northern Africa. may be viewed as animals equally inhabiting the two more southern districts of African zoology but by far the largest number have only been . not one has hitherto been found common to both regions. detected within. and.

such. which. It. as the more southern latitudes . many others would be found restricted to those regions. some few genera may be named as . The longtailed honey-sucker (Melliphaga Cafer Sw. excepting. or by the native hunters. » 50.. are mentioned by Le Vaillant. and nearly all are peculiar to this part of the continent.) The ornithology of the more southern latitudes does not exhibit those strong peculiarities which we have ( 1 seen among the quadrupeds. nevertheless. (151. the ground-shrikes (Prionops).s). its more elegant brethren. or serpent-feater. are in such abundance. in fact. The vultures. plantain-eaters • which may more properly be considered a#general inhabitant of interior Africa. . were we better acquainted with the birds of Western Africa. ostrich. in those latitudes. prey only upon the remnants left by the hons and jack- which is the nearest to als. and it is a remarkable : — fact.) Vultures and eagles are numerous. 106 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. offers some interesting features tlie to our notice since it is entirely destitute of large gallinaceous birds. as might be expected in a country where quadrupeds. of both families. the bristle-necked thrushes. Several very large species. tlie greater number of its genera being also found in Western Africa. is only an unstriped zebra. their natural food. that it should occur precisely in that part of Africa New Holland. and some few other equinoctial forms.) is confined to the most southern portion of Africa this bird is the only instance of the genus Melliphaga being found beyond the Australian range . than to the central parts while the domestic ass. a bird whose whole conformation and habits are adapted for preying upon the reptiles of the deserts. On the other hand. whose range extends through the whole continent. and is only terminated to the north by the mountains of Central Europe. This is likewise the most southern point reached by the slender-billed vulture {Cuthartes percnopteru. may represent. The (Musophaga). indeed. do not extend to the Cape territories and in all probability. if it really exist in a wild state north of the equator. {Trichophorus). however. limited to the stance. for in- Gypogeranus. .

peculiar vulture.4S. and has been likewise named as Southern Africa^ in short. and the scops. able species of this part of Africa is the chou-cou of the Strix Africana of authors comes nearerinits general form. as all existing in South- ern Africa. still fewer inhabit Europe . the long-eared gular mixture of local and European ornithology. for it the common barn owl yet.). living upon the lesser animals and insects. very reits markable ears from having furnished externally with The a pendulous wattle. and it is supposed not one it is. reminds us of the American Aquila destructor: however.SOUTHEKN AFRICA.). basha. occurs in Australia. in colours. we have received from (_%. occipital 107 vulture (F. its brighter. to the falcons. one of the most Imposing very rare. presents us alone with nearly twice the number of vultures found throughout the whole continents of America or of Asia . owl. than even the hawk-owl of Hudson's Bay. The Orican is a Ruppel. the same . ^^r. to all Cape of Good Hope the of Europe . a native of India. is though it has been likewise observed in Nubia by Mr.) On The common European buzzard is figured by Le Vaillant. BIRDS. On the other hand. The occipitalis Burch. who also notices the great horned owl. alspecies. we trace a sin- (152. and long tail. 47. appearance. or great crested eagle. The most remarkLe Vaillant. smaller .. turning to the smaller rapacious birds. indeed. or little owl.

52. from their feeding almost entirely on those soft insects.10<S ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANTMALS. in their genera. Devil. while the more chaste but elegant green and silky plumage of the couracco pi. as the Paradise. and certainly the most elegant. from their black colour. sive range.) renders these Zool. It species as the British.). (154. is precisely the : same as ours . and one {Ed. not only over (153. The Drongo shrikes. The fly: catchers of genera .) of the rival those of India and Gambia in the briUiancy of their colours. in reality distinct. we have . since their chief metropolis is the opposite land of Australia typical of this genus. are of precisely the same species as those of India.birds. {Corythaij.) (^fig- ^P-)) is nearly the smallest. but another (^Lanius equinoctialis Sw. il . Illustrations. The South African sun-birds {Cinnyris Cuv. differ not from those generally dispersed to the south of the line one of the shrikes. how- these nocturnal birds have a most exten- Europe and Asia.) birds is auitrulis peculiar to New Holland. as already mentioned. but the kindred genus Phcenicornis* appears to be their representatives towards the equinoctial line. no examples have yet reached us from Sierra Leone. all these latitudes are not only of the same but some. ever. The curious called caterpillar-catchers (Cehlepyrinte Sw. or long-tailed fly- catcher.) Many of the perching birds are of beautiful plumage and others are no less remarkable for their wonderful instinct. The crested kingfisher (Alcedo anstata L. called by the Dutch Africa colonists. lUig.) The insectivorous birds. that all must be remembered. occur very sparingly . but some have been recently detected in Northern America. while several others are unknown out of South Africa. Sw.). is confounded by authors with the red-backed shrike. are found also in Western other species occur in India . the wood-chat. of its congeners.

: SOUTHERN AFRICA. to those of Western Africa. are stated to be in great variety. the Gariep silurus (S. On the water birds our information very defective . at this moment. famous for habits in and building communities. : 109 ror those glory of African must the honey-guides {Indicator) be omitted extraordinary guides to man in the discovery of the The numerous grosbeaks nests of the African bees. beautiful species of Amadina in large in New its Holland.) and weavers (^Ploceus Cuv. lovely birds the — FISHES. has been so totally neglected. The reptiles of Southern Africa are. however.) Regarding the ichthyology. that neither on this or any other occasion can we collect any thing satisfactory on the natural distribution of the groups. Garie- 50. servation of Mr. and no doubt through the whole extent of that coast. — INSECTS. and few species among the Lejndojjtera . "Eels." observes this scientific " are only found in those rivers which lie east- ward of the Cape. but we do not. ornithology . both in number and beauty. if possible. traveller.) The insects of the virgin forests towards western side. however. and there is a . since indicates a marked difference in the distribution of certain freshwater species. They yield. still more imperfectly known than the fish. however. recollect any genus which exclusively belongs to the southern coast. Burchell it (155. (156. the following obis pecuHarly valuable. while the former appear more numerous in the Cape territories both genera.) form a gay and interesting part of this order the latter being chiefly found towards the equinoctial line.) is equally restricted to those 50 on the This department of zoology. extend to India . (^Amadina Sw. belongs also is to this genus." Algoa Bay. social The republican living grosbeak. while pinuSj fig.

yet present us with the many carnivorous beetles of a large size. . as.) The testaceous ilfo//M*ca. although its geographic polatter does ficult to say. The wrinkled ear-shell {Haliotis MidtJB L. at least. and differs more from that of Southern Africa than the yet this It is diffrom the equinoctial countries. (157.). or shells. to the great increase. are common on Algoensis the rocks of False is Bay . co- more with those of Asia than of Europe or America. The great Achatina Zebra is the largest land shell of this part of Africa but notwithstanding the numerous rivers to the westward and eastward.: 1 10 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. in ge- neralj the forms. such is the inference that may . with limpets of a very large size. or even to New Holland at least. and the nature of the coast. are common to both. noble island possesses many very peculiar features. in short. under which of the three great zoological provinces in this hemisphere Madagascar should be included . particularly genus Manticora of Oliver. The terrestrial Neuroiptera. that of the Asiatic its zoology is much more akin to . have no particular interest . of these animals. and a few of the incide species. while the Cyprcea Gray a very local species. (158.) The great island of Madagascar may here be noticed. The more sandy plains of the interior furnish but few butterflies. since. appearing unfavourable to the propagation.) : {fig. or. is found at Cape but. from its vicinity to the African continent. islands. are every where abundant while the widely spread European the Eurymus edum Sw. including the locust tribe. the continual agitation of the sea. 51. its productions might be supposed in some degree similar : The zoology of this is not strictly the case. sition places it nearest to Africa. very few fluviatile shells have yet been sent to England.

and it is. of this country. yet it is singular that two.. forming the genus Otolic. in that direction. SOUTHERN AFUICA. the as- sumption difference is altogether gratuitous. It is. of which two species inhabit Amboyna and Borneo the characteristic .). is very questionable since. have been found and. if not three. these being represented : by the family of lemurs. that neverof are. &c. MADAGASCAR. islands as lie and such nearest. after all. hyaena. of the not one that serted. at present.. that we have not found any very striking between the ornithology of the Cape terri- . indeed. further. of which no less than sevenThese cuteen species have already been discovered. rious monkey-like animals are almost unknown in Africa nor have they been discovered in New Holland . it may really possess. Ill be drawn from the very imperfect information we yet It is generally aspossess regarding its productions. that the country is within Madagascar out apes or monkeys of any sort. the Galago lemurs. the chief seat of South African zoology appears to lie at the southern extremity of the continent . and still more from the western coast. the third. It deserves also to be remembered. species inhabit Ceylon. large African quadrupeds. quite impossible to say what may be the zoological character or peculiarities of countries so remote from those of the Cape. is divided between this island and Western Africa. as we can at present judge. however. elephant. while two other species are peculiar to Madagascar. together with that singular animal Aye-aye (^Cheiromys Cuv. but this. until we are better informed on the productions entirely of those countries lying nearest to Madagascar.. highly than probable the zoology this island assumes. So far. to the The dispersion of northern extremity of Madagascar. such as the lion. nus. We as unacquainted with the animals of that immense line of coast occupying the eastern shores of Africa . Another point of connection with the Indian islands is presented by the genus Tarsius. a more peculiarly isolated character yet. therefore. being theless. three out of the five being natives of Guinea and Senegal.

for its paucity. Isle of France is is as remarkable for its profusion.112 tories ON THE GEOGRAPHY OP ANIMALS.) (i. as certainly belonging to the zoology of these regions.) . Apes and ilonkeys. we may instance that most exMadagascar. yet characterised as such). the cowries. under the following genera and sub-genera .^^. traordinary and extinct bird the Dodo (the rasorial type we yet of the vulture fami]y).) extend to Asiatic India. we need only turn to the family of shrikes. indeed. To illustrate this idea. and that of Western Africa . are larger and more splendid than even those of the Indian seas. The and the harps. whereas the little know of the birds of Madagascar leads us to suspect. although it has only been recorded by the early voyagers as a native of the adjacent group of islands. as the Cape olives. as there is between the quadrupeds of those two countries. where we shall find two or three distinct genera (not. or those more especially characteristic of this province. Troglodytes Geoff.) are confined to gascar.5'2. Mada- Cercopithecus III. that as great a difference may exist between them and the birds of the Cape.) Bri'ss. of shells. have been arranged. which are only known to inhabit Again. by the (159-) The scientific naturalist. even in the most superficial manner.) The African quadrupeds. Colobus III. by modern systematists. (1. while others (m. and unexplored. Let the naturalist but glance his eye on the map. (160. Circocebus Geoff Cyanoceiihaliis (i. and he will then see how incompe- tent we now are to form any correct ideas on the zoo- logy of these regions. Papio Cull. unknown as they are to the geographer. some groups (i.














Pteropus Briss.



Hyrax. Cheiromys Cuv.


Rhinolophus Geoffi Taphozous Geqffl





Macroscelides Sm. •Ratellus Cuv. (i.) Mangusta Cuv. (i.)



Proteles Is. Gecff. Myxna.' Auct.

Ham. Smith. Oryx Ham. Smith. Gasella Ham. Smith. (l.) Antelope Ham. Smith, (i.) Redunca Ham. Smith. Trasulus Ham. Smith. Cephalophus Ham. Smith. Neotragus Ham. Smith. Tragelaphus Ham. Smith.

Capra Antiq.
Ovis Antiq.

Otaria Peron. Arvicola Auct.


Damalis Ham. Smith.




Bos Antiq.



ornithological genera

and sub-genera of

which Africa appears

be the chief

or at least

within their geographic range, are as follows. A few of these extend to India (i.), Europe (e.), and Australia
Halcyon Sw. Crab eater, (i. a.) Muscipeta Cuv. Flycatcher, (i. Edolius Cuv. Drongo. (i. a.) Trichophorus Tern. Hairneck.
Colius L.




Bucco L.

Barbut. (i.) Geocolaptes Burch. Ground


JIalaconotus Sw. Bush Shrike. Prionops Vieil. Ground Shrike. Ceblepyris Cuv. Caterpillar-catcher.



Drjmoica Sw. Macronyx Svu.

Warbler. Lark.
Creeper. lark. Short-claw.

Centropus Corythaix

Honey Guide Lark Cuckoo, (i.)


Buceros L.


Plantain.eater. Hornbill. (i.)

Brachonyx Sw. Ploceus Cuv. Weaver.
Euplectes Sw.

Cinnyris Cuv.




Promerops Briss. Hoopoe. Vinago Cuv. Pigeon. {!.)



Bengaly. (i. Finch, (i. a.)



Estrelda Sw.

Numida L. Ortygis III. Struthio L.
Ibis Antiq.

Crane. Quail.






Laiuprotornis Tem. Grakle. Buphaga L. Beefeater.









(162.) The extent and limits of the last zoological province have been already intimated. In naming


Australian, we not only include the


island of
ing, as

New Holland, and those immediately adjoinNew Guinea, New Zealand, and Van Diemen's
what manner

Land, but likewise the whole of the oceanic clusters forming the Polynesian division of some geographers.



object will be, to




our next will be, to detail its most striking peculiarities, or those prominent features presented in its animal forms,
extensive zoological range

connected with others

by which



manifestly separated from




have already



indication of Australian zoology ap-

pears to take place in some of the Asiatic islands, to the

north-west of





it is

there that the Mel-

liphagous family, or honey-sucking birds, appear under
the forms of the genera

Diceum wnA Arachnotheres ; both

Unfortunately, we cannot of which occur in Java. trace the progressive developement of this change, since
the animals of

Timor and

the string of smaller islands

intervening between Java and

New Guinea have not been sufficiently investigated. It is, however, worthy of remark, that, among the few quadrupeds of Timor discovered by the French voyagers, there is not one of so that this island may be supposed to he a large size




beyond the geographic limits of the monkey tribe. The same paucity of quadrupeds has been remarked in New Guinea ; for although no correct inferences can be drawn from the partial gleanings yet made on the coast, yet, if the interior was inhabited by quadrupeds of any size, it is natural to suppose they would have been mentioned, or alluded to, by the natives, in some way or other but neither rumour nor tradition assigns any remarkable quadrupeds to New Guinea ; while the largest, mentioned in the recent French discoveries, is a peculiar sort of

So far, therefore, we observe a strong indication of the chief peculiarity in Australian zoology ; namely, the total absence of large quadrupeds so that to place


Sumatra and Java, two islands abounding in apes, elephants, and all the large ferine inhabitants of India, would


in the


zoological group with

be manifestly erroneous.
trate this disposition


shall subsequently illus-

by proofs drawn from the orni-

thology of these islands.

(164.) That the southern extremity of Africa contains some animals approximating to those of New Holland has

been already mentioned







more remarkable,

since the

distance between the two

nearest points of these continents

very great.


what manner theAustrahan fauna may disappear through

means of judging.

we have no present Whether, therefore, it unites again with the European, or, what is more probable, with the American range, by means of the small islands approximating to California, are questions for future naturahsts
the islands of the Pacific Ocean,

to determine.

(l6"5.) The most distinguishing pecuharities of the Australian province are now to be considered. The greatest, undoubtedly, is the total absence of large quadrupeds,

and the paucity of the smaller


these latter, also, are so

remarkable in their structure, as to appear almost anomalous. Australia has been termed the land of contrarieties

as if nature, in creating the

for this region,

forms intended had departed altogether from those rules I 2



which she had otherwise so universally adheredThat particular form, for instance, which, in other parts

of the world, she has given to the smallest race of qua-

drupeds, she here bestows the rats and dormice, upon the kangaroos, the largest animals throughout the Yet still the analogy, although whole of Australia unquestionable, is apparently reversed, and most artfully



for these wonderful




fabricating, like their representatives,

warm and


beneath the earth, for the protection of their young, are provided with a natural nest in the folds of The marsupial pouch is expressly their own skin. adapted to this purpose ; and within this warm maternal
nest are the

young protected

until they can provide for



great kangaroo

{Halmaturus giganteus
111., fig. 53.), the largest qua-

druped of the Australian range ; and although a few other


occur beyond these

Australia belong to
roos belong to



quadrupeds of Whether the kangathe

Linnsean order of Glires, or to another adjoining group, has not yet, indeed, been satisfactorily determined ; but we feel persuaded, from analysis, that the celebrated Ornithorhynchus peculiar to these regions, is the link of connection between quadrupeds and birds, and that this passage is effected, not by means of the Glires, but by the most aberrant groups of the ungulated quadrupeds. Two thirds of the Australian quadrupeds, in fact, are marsupial, and make their way with more rapidity by springing in the air than by walking. The kangaroos, when using any degree of speed, proceed by prodigious leaps ; while the flying phalangers (G. Petam-uta), of which six species are described, are even more remarkable for this habit



might, than the flying squirrels of North America. if there that believe, to tempted indeed, almost be than the bird-like more even animal an really exists ornithorhynchus, whose structure would indisputably connect the two principal divisions of the vertebrata, such an animal might hereafter quadrupeds and birds, be discovered in the southern hemisphere.


chief distinctions of this region, furis in the vast proportion of principal its suctorial birds, or of such as derive their This pesupport from sucking the nectar of flowers. and India, Africa, culiar organisation, restricted, in


nished by


to the smallest birds in creation, is here degenerally, and is given to species fully as very veloped large as any of our thrushes. The melliphagous genera may probably be estimated to comprise nearly one fourth of the total number of New Holland perchers ; for not only does this character belong to the honey-suckers,


properly so called {Meliphagidce Sw.), but it seems to The be possessed by a great number of the parrots. whole of the little green lories {Trichoglossus H. and V.),
are said to possess brush- like tongues, and to lick or suck their food, rather than to masticate it by their there bills. Independent of these two geographic groups, of the whole The celebrated. more still is a third,
paradise birds (ParadisidcB Sw.), being natives of New Guinea, belong to this zoological province : these, also, although their economy is not very well known, contain certain species

whose tongues have been described

The Australian proas formed upon vince being thus characterised, it is only necessary to notice such particular portions as exhibit local peculiarities ; hence we may divide the whole region into
a similar model.

The first may comprehend three subordinate districts. the second, Ausislands adjacent New Guinea and its


properly so called, with

Van Diemen's Land, and

New Zealand ; and the third, the numerous groups of smaller islands clustered in the great Pacific Ocean.


first division,










Caledonia, and the
the remote



surrounding them, constitutes



region of the paradise birds.


of these

magnificent creatures have been actually detected beyond
the shores of


Guinea, although

it is

generally be-

lieved that they annually migrate for a few



Notwithstanding the proximity of the Asiatic islands, they have not as yet furnished any species intimately related to the paradise birds ; yet in the New Holland genus Ptiloris, we have
the small islands adjoining.
a bird so closely related
to this family, that

not whether, in

fact, it does not belong to it. phalangers of Australasia seem to be represented in

we know The flying



Guinea by the genus Cuscus of M. Lesson. The between the zoology of the two countries is


in various ways. The great crab-eaters {Dacelo Leach), the bald-faced honey-suckers (Philedon Cuv.), the helmet-crows {^Barrita Cuv.), and the Vanga


{Vanga Tem.),

are so


indications of


tralian ornithology.


carinated flycatchers (^Mon-

archa H. and V.) again, no less than all the preceding groups, occur both in New Guinea and in New Holland, but are unknown in any other country. The splendid promerops (Epimachus Cuv.), the paradise birds, and the king oriole (^Sericulus chrysocephalus Sw.)
are peculiar to this first division.


great island of


Holland, or rather

be looked upon as the centre of Australian zoology, since the geographic range of its animals is circumscribed even more strictly than those
Australia Proper,



New Guinea. The kangaroos and the duckbills (Ornithorhynchus), for instance, are only found here and in Van Diemen's Land : the ground parrakeets

the lyre-tail


Sw.), the typi-






H. and

V.), the superb warblers



several others


the perching birds, might be in-

stanced as purely Australian groups.

The genus Pa-

chycephaln Sw., or great-headed chatterers, are entirely




confined to Australia, and of which the P. gutturalis
{fig. 54.),



species, is

the most beautiful:

the body

yellow, the throat

white, and the breast crossed by Yet, in other a black crescent.




the distant


which connect

province both with Africa and

and {Amadina and Estrelda Sw.), the Drongo and the stonechats {Campicola Cuv.), (Edolius shrikes Sw.), are groups belonging Ukewise to the two adjacent
with Asia.
the long- tailed finches



while of


ental ant. thrushes {Pitta

have been found in New the Indian genus Ocypteryx, or the swallow shrikes,

genus comprising the OriTem.), two most lovely species Holland here, also, we find
ostrich of Africa.

and the cassowary, representing the
(169.) The conchology



Ireland and




so similar, that one half of the species found by Lesson on the coasts of the former island are no less

abundant in

New South Wales ; while a great proporOn occur in the Indian Ocean. remainder tion of the the coasts of New Holland are found many of the most beautiful and rare volute shells known to our cabinets ; the snow- spotted volute {Cymbiola nivosa Sw.) * is one of the it has two rarest {fig. 55.)

dark bands upon a flesh-coloured ground, and the surface is entirely covered with white dots. (170.) The nature of the third division is but obscurely known, for the Pacific Islands have never been visited, since the voyages of the celebrated Banks, by The quadrupeds are so few that scientific naturalists.
Exotic Conchology, plate


this division although. and little better known. The lories are — abundant in New Holland. therefore. any distinct genus peculiar to . The birds of that particular section named Trichoglossus. future dis- may bring some to light. among coveries the land birds. they hardly deserved notice nor do any of the islands seem are to possess a single species of kangaroo. and the number of species described in each Vulpes ? : — Fox-dog . common to we cannot name. As yet. (171.) The paucity of quadrupeds in the AustraUan region will be further apparent from the following hst of the genera and sub-genera.120 ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANIMALS. . while the honey-suckers are but sUght deviations from those forms Australia Proper. in all probability. a group dispersed over the whole Oceanic Islands. or parrakeet lories.

Ptilinopus Sw. Tern. Menura. Helmet Goose. We have seen. to be comprehended and defined and. Menura Shaw. That animals its . Honey. Myctcria? Lin. Jabiru.) In concluding this part of our volume. Sheath. sufficiently obvious in leading outlines.bill. Megapodius Tern. Nuthatch. consider that the facts to establish we now stated are sufficiently strong the propositions with which this investi- gation was commenced. Dromiceius Vieit. 121 Orthonyx Sitella Sw. Greatfoot. Rifle Bird. 1. with that circular disposition which is the first law of natural classification. in many remarkable ways. 2. Chionis Forst. PECULIAR GENERA. That this plan is found to harmonise. (173. Green Dove. Melliphaga Lewin. Ptiloris Sw. Dicieum Cuv.eater. Ceriopsis Lath. Creeper. are distributed upon a plan. Climasteris JVm. Honey-sucker.AUSTRALIA. . Straight-claw.

if all these names were entered indiscriminately. while by system he understands their classification and . as in a dictionary.) Between a system and a method. Kirby and Spence express themselves on this subject in the following words " Thus we hear of a natural method.) The scale or table of their arrangement of objects^ according to a supposed relations or qualities. MIXED SYSTEMS. we are able to gain not only a more ready acquaintance with an individual species. (175. there would be system and order in such a plan.122 PART II. and is therefore essential to its ac quirement. and have used the two words ia totally different senses. DIVERSITY OF SYSTEMS. a shall consider these method^ or a classification. ON THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. but also general ideas on the larger groups of disjointed. ALLEGED DIFFERENCE BE- TWEEN SYSTEMS AND METHODS. System condenses and faknowledge. many writers have drawn a distinction. without which all knowledge is vague and By system. We words as synonymouSj and as implying ORDER. REQUISITES OF A NATURAL SYSTEM. OBJECTIONS THERETO. forms but a part. CHAPTER PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. is called a systesi. NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL SYSTEMS. therefore. Linne seems to have regarded the former of these terms as re: — presenting the actual disposition of objects in nature. Even if the names of all natural objects were arranged alphabetically. Whereas. (174. I. the student would be at a loss at what page to find the particvdar name for which he it which cilitates • was searching. for research would be facilitated. and a natural system.

a natural system may contain many artificial principles. however excellent in theory. * Int.) The diversity of systems. yet parts thereof may be very natural . 356." which Such being the case. and artificial Such are the distinctions systems as given to the latter. Some of these systems will exhibit much more harmoAnimals. should signify an artificial. while in another they are dissevered. is this. cannot be applied in practice. have aimed at giving a natural arrangement. may be infinite.OF SYSTE3IS AND METHODS. confessedly artificial. from charac- nature. An artificial system may be based upon erroneous and may present many unnatural assemblages. Hence has originated the term of natural systems as applied to the former. though with various success . be as well to call every arrangement whose object is confessedly artificial. on the other hand. that arrangements. ters or pecuharities belonging to the objects themselves. it might. are sometimes much more natural (that is to say. allied in habits and appearance." * ever. Yet a little reflection will convince us that they are equally vague with that just noticed. while we are not without — instances of others. V. (176. because there is no end to the different modes by which we may arrange natural objects. will be kept together in one system. systematists. and that which aims at The objection. to this attempt to distinguish systems from methods. a method. and we are thus compelled to use the two words as synonymous. howthe plan of nature. perhaps. or " arranged according are eminently artificial. however. therefore. and none having a perfect conception of it. obviously nious combinations than others. . 123 But^ if we consider their arrangement by naturalists. to Ent. and meaning method real a As many a system a natural arrangement of objects. . professing to aim at the plan of to organisation. the distinction here proposed. containing more natural combinations) than those which are here denominated systems. which most zoologists have made between these two modes of arrangement. a system. and placed wide apart.

MacLeay. only one. He asks " Pray let me know where I shall find one of these natural systems. Bicheno * on systems and methods. and. vol iv. and must be. Journ. We must search. . p. Some maintain. which we would term natural in one state of the science. groups (that is to say. both might be called natural. they argue. therefore. it would inevitably follow. '410. and that degree would rest upon individual opinion. for a two modes of arrangement. groups which the judgment immediately pronounces as not to be those of nature). artificial. and have failed to reconcile and explain all the intricacies of the natural series. Mr. been involved. would be artificial in another . therefore. and both artificial . as all systems hitherto promulgated are more or less defective. while. it may preserve the natural series.124' ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. they have not as yet been able to attain it ? "t What : : * Zool. 409. in his controversy with Mr. the difference would only be in degree. all systems are. + Ibid. that our application of these terms to any given system would be subject to change. A system. therefore. and a more harmonious combination of objects. (177-) clearer definition of these Much metaphysical discussion has arisen on nearly in the same un- the difference between natural and artificial systems. confined as their aim is. we should have a difference without a distinction . because. there could be no unanimity of opinion." Again one natural system. and I shall be con" Naturalists have been looking for tent. which has decided left the subject pretty while some of these discussions have rather increased than dissipated the obscurity in which it has state. in other respects. and his opinion has been more recently taken up by one of his disciples. p. where there are no fixed principles by which the judgment in such matters is to be regulated. Besides. If. that. we were to rest content with this difference between a natural and an artificial system. evidently embraces this view of the subject. so soon as it was supplanted by more recent discoveries.

The one Ul. pass over the confused and unintel- We ligible doctrines tains. existed since the creation. 125 we to understand from this question and remark. Now. one of whom maina natural genus. both these definitions are unquestionably true. inconsistency that what artificialf any natural system. that " division and separation is the end of the artificial sys- tem. in the estimation of our author. Bicheno." obviously meaning. although unquestionably nearest to nature than any other. For. Mr. when prosecuting this search after the natural system. in fact. The same writer remarks. vol. contends. that the chief object which the naturalist should keep in view. in the most perfect human exposition of the laws of creation.) What. by any possibility. then. " that in artificial of other writers. his is. or system. should be to trace and " establish those agreements" which. is clear that our author understood that difference between an artificial and a natural system. as it appears to us. stops. and the system will thus become artificial. the latter. * Philosophy of Zoology. for the elucidation of those resemblances which such species bear to others. and maintaining the ridiculous is natural may be at the same cial (178. P- . like all others. artificial ? According to this view. that." or. for the ready dis- crimination of the species . ii. but own system. have. is the difference between an artifiand a natural system ? The first is. that " to establish differences is the end of the natural system. the natural system can never. in order to facilitate the more ready discovery of the species. there are combinations . in all their varied and complex relations. although unexplained. is that object which the framer of such a system should keep in view. a " remnant of unknown things" will always remain. be discovered: since. in other words. on the other hand. however objectionable the precise words it may be in which they have been expressed. which we shall presently investigate. as his opponent truly observes.NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL are SYSTEMS."* thus denying that there is.

: 120 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. consists in the clearness and precision of subdivisions. where the other begins. yet it is by no means necessary to its Natural affinities may be overlooked. We make use of an artificial system to become acquainted with the name of a species and to learn all that has been written upon its peculiar turn to the natural system^ to know the structure. which. Such are the uses of the two methods we have been speaking. A good artificial system there- some respects. this the same rules as those by which we should decide on the merits of a copious index to a voluminous publicaboth are tion. for the purposes of both are the same equally useful. fection of an artificial system. and it is. Many natural assemblages are preserved. much more The most adapted for general use than any other. and such the theoretic distinctions by which they are sepaBetween them. we turn to the natural system. invention. an artificial system to come to the knowledge of a matter of fact . is a third sort of rated. artificial system good is to be judged by a respect. and to know how this fact bears upon other facts. not upon which he is. as We we have it frequently inits timated. system. only a useful. This is always a great recommendation to an artificial system. is that denominated the Sexual System of Plants.. from combining artificial division with of classification upon which . the latter primary. and the facilities which affi^rds to de- In termine the name of the object we are in search of. in admirable classification of this sort ever invented. ever they interfere with precision of arrangement We open the first are secondary. and the merit of both lies in clearly : directing the reader to the precise point desires information. requiring^. by Linnaeus. a valuable. fore. perhaps. however. much more skill than is generally supposed . without any great violation of the principles on which he set out. wherformation. but even. probable station of this species in the scale of beings the affinities it possesses to others. and the analogies Hence the perby which it is related and represented. but if we wish to proceed farther.

replete. (179-) Of these mixed methods. 12? some regard to natural affinities. teaches the student to believe that nature. for all practical purposes. The licgne Animal. Linnaeus. These mixed been objected to . it has been said. and no one would hesitate to give it more comprehensible than the preference. methods are. places and . that of Cuvier. and thus to qualify those who came after him upon Nature's combinations. to whales." in other words. who have never considered in what the latter truly consists. or half-artificial systems. they do not even answer the humble purposes of a catalogue. and opossums after seals and not the author. The consethat his classification. that. while others (and generally among this number are the authors themselves) have pronounced them natural arrangements. " while they are at utter variance with natural this censure has affinities. and let their contents be arranged under artificial but definite sections. or Half-artificial methods. perhaps. speculate is. conclude as we ." is. as a whole. the natural system.NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL SYSTEMS. as the latter unquestionably are. are generally termed Mixed Systems. termed an arrangement of animals "according to their oryanisation. " distributed according to its organisation. one of the most striking exemplifications of a semi-natural classification that has' ever been published. is quence much Let but the genera of the Systema Naturce be looked upon as families. according to their natural aflSnities. with a mass of new and invaluable materials for the real developement of that with which the learned author was totally unacdite but quainted." The severity of think there is but we must still some truth in the remark. the learned Swede contented himself with framing such an artificial system as would lead to an immediate knowledge of species. in his Systema NaturcE. called the natural system. over the eru- cumbrous volumes of the Rtgne Animal. therefore. by those. in fact. makes no such pretensions . We very first principles of the must. — namely. on the other hand. By assuming it that the series there eagles next to this is exhibited is natural.

since we now know that such is not the natural series. by the intervention of an infinity of intermediate forms. were questions which long engaged the attention of philosophers. The discoveries. from the most celebrated of their advocates. given an instance. of this century have at length set this question also at rest. which. but whether this series was simple. thus producing that uniformity of plan which every principle of sound reasoning convinces us must belong to the system of the creation. and are finally so united that we know not where to draw the line of demarcation. consequently. and decided that the natural series is complex. .) It is essential to a natural system that it be based on certain fundamental principles.* It follows. or whether. the most objectionable. we shall now proceed to inves- tigate the essential requisites which must belong to the (180. p. known for centuries . 207. we have. it branched off into other ramifications. in fact. gradually blend into each other. forming in its progress certain deviations which resemble a series of circles. and became complex. and dwelt more especially on the merits which should be apparent in the former. they are. that they are at "utter variance with natural affinities.128 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. are found to be general throughout all her productions . whatever excellencies respects. so they do not answer the humble purposes of a catalogue or index . in its progress. can be it may possess in other founded on nature. however.) A system can only claim to be natural when * The circularity of natural groups has been already dwelt upon in our Preliminary Discourse. Having stated the theoretical distinction between an artificial and a natural system. latter. that no system which represents the natural series as simple. Every one sees that there is a scale in nature: that animals and plants. therefore. that as these mired methods of classification do not set out with aiming at that which alone bestows value upon an artificial system." Of all systems. (181. This is an acknowledged truth. began. so far as the laws of nature are known.

habits. of possessing clear perceptions of these two sorts of relations . as these varied relations or resemblances are so universal throughout first nature. has evidently another to the bats. must • Preliminary Discourse on Nat Hist.REQUISITES OF A it NATURAL SYSTEM. p. The first relation is in- Hence arises the necessity. a writer who makes no effort to explain them. and of becoming well acquainted with the imposed upon difierence between affinity and analogy. and by feeding in the same manner. and another which is remote. The goatsucker and the swallow exemplify the first of these relations. by flying at the same hour of the day. first is exemplified by the swallow and goatsucker the latter by the goatsucker and the Now. attempts to explain the analogies or resemblances between the individuals or divisions of one circular series. ]29. so much at Any system. both fly nearly in the same manner. therefore. and economy . besides this relation. when they are compared with those of another series. or to draw a just distinction between such as are immediate and such as are remote. It is evident that all natural objects possess two different sorts of relationship one which is immediate.* bat. all who wish to develope the natural system. and both live upon insects. for that carries with it no results the accuracy of his series must depend upon being able to prove that all these resemblances follow each other in a uniform pro: gression : because it has been repeatedly demonstrated that the contents of one circular group represent the contents of another circular group . The . and this principle of the natural system has been now a doubt can remain of its developed. K . captured in the same way : but the : — timate — the goatsucker. that they have been perceived since science dawned upon man. 182.. it is obvious that. These genera are intimately connected by structure. Nor is a bare mention of such relations the only notice which is required . latter remote. which aims being natural. neglects one of the most striking and wonderful peculiarities of the natural system. that not prevalence throughout nature.

Discourie. p. indeed. upon partial : : what general principle is this variation regulated .) This brings us.'' do we observe. as its comprehension is permitted to finite beings. so far. of these variations ? and how far is it applicable * See Freliminar. thirdly^ to the principle of variation. and have tempted others to pronounce it hopeless but we are yet to learn the limits which have been assigned to the human understanding in matters of physical research . therefore. for that is to communicate nothing more than a mere matter of fact the question is. that no system can be natural which does not aim at the It is obvious. The immense difficulties of attaining such an insight have induced many of the most profound philosophers to relinquish the search in despair. (182. as emamust have been produced upon some one uniform plan. and another furnished with long tails ? * What is the principle. developement of this plan. we may feel assured that law forms part of the system of nature. and if the is done can be reduced to one simple and universal law. It is not enough to tell us in what manner such and such animals vary from each other . for instance. when those which regulate the motion of the heavenly bodies have been detected. in short. Why I .130 offer ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. and which exist. 255. that one peculiar division of every natural group is aquatic. The variety If we only contemplate appears infinite. that a divine Creator. nating from these. which has long since been pronounced an imtheory by which this in nature portant characteristic of the natural system. nor are there valid grounds for supposing that the discovery of those laws which regulate the variation of animals is unattainable. Hence it follows. we cannot fail to be struck with that divine skiU which could imagine and produce such an extraordinary diversity of forms under which Hving beings should mination. those beings which have passed under our own exaeverywhere surround us. an explanation of these resemblances .

or which have been admitted as highly probable by Others. On the other hand. looking beyond the individual. declared their inability to reconcile them with observed facts. consequently. be the nearest approach to that which must ever distinguish the natural system. and which will. and which disregard analogies and affinities.) cannot. which professes to be according to nature. which exhibit the animal series without plan or harmonious connection. science it results which cannot possibly be the result of human ingenuity. (183. and reduce the eleto their most simple definitions. so do we approach the developement of the natural system. In order. but it is one only which makes the nearest approach to nature. strictly speaking. there as we have already seen. that. be more than one. we shall consider those as natural systems which involve any one or more of these considerations. therefore. we must term all other systems artificial. nevertheless. Such are the obvious considerations by which we are to be guided in judging the merits of any classification. attempt to ascertain its station in the scale of Of natural systems. and which. In describing theoretically what should constitute the developement of the natural system. by pointing out the various relations which respectively holds with other objects. two descriptions of arrangements. ii From this view K 2 . and thus confound. from these considerations that a theory which embraces them all will exhibit a unity of plan ments of Finally. under one name. and which gives the fullest explanation of the phenomena she exhibits. to mark their distinction with still greater precision. we have only alluded to those circumstances which have already been partially developed. if we confine this title to that — — being. which are grounded on totally different principles. equally clear.PRINCIPLE OF VARIATION. who have. 131 In proportion as we can deto all known animals? monstrate the extent of the theory by which we propose to answer these questions. we shall consider all those systems to be artificial which are not grounded on any universal principles of arrangement.

one half of those which have been already pub- lished. which a very slight acquaintance with nature will enable every student to invent. or most extensively adopted. and several combinations detected_. As artificial systems are capable of endless diversity. a comprenatural series. * Preliminary Discourse.). CHAP. SYSTEMS. mthin reasonable limits. One advantage has certainly attended that deference and respect with which particularly in this country — — the writings of the great . results that there are many natural systems^ or rather. since many properties of natural groups have been since discovered.) The advantages and the disadvantages of artisystems have been already touched upon (178. we should be compelled to consider the system of Mr. iii. because. 188. . ARISTOTLE. IN ENTOMOLOGY ON BINARY. WILLUGHBY. LINN^US. so it would be impossible to enumerate. LATREILLE. TEMMINCK. NITHOLOGY DE GEER. VIEILLOT. which were quite unknown when that system was given to the world. Swede have always been treated for although an implicit deference to the c. therefore. setting aside others. IN ORPARTIAL SYSTEMS. OR DICHOTOMOUS. ILLIGER. AND LEACH. SYSTEMS. Mac Leay artificial. p. WITH REMARKS ON THE PRINCIPAL ARTIFICIAI. ficial (184. EXPOSITION. it remains.- li}2 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. that there are many attempts to ex- plain those complicated relations which belong to the prefer. CLAIRVILLE. We hensive definition to a metaphysical one . were we to adopt the latter. it of the subject. to give the reader a general idea of those systems which have been most celebrated. CUVIEB. and their use explained * . in this instance. II.

lUiger. Were we. which he published two years after. we should weary the reader with interminable columns of names. who might otherwise have struck out new paths of enquiry. on the systematic views of such men as Aristotle. few attempts have been classification of made to set aside the to Lamarck.ushas prevented our shelves from being burdened. it is to be feared. its admirers and its advocates. while the former is properly confined to the arrangement feel embarrassed. has been a fruitful motherof systems. written in 1828. We : numerous others which relate only to partiwhich (like those which have gone before. nearly all of which have been proposed by eminent naturahsts." and endure for a season. at of these discoveries. will continue to impede the advance of true science. Linnaeus. independently of those the difficulty of selection systems which embrace the whole animal kingdom. whose K 3 . which is. nevertheless. and Lamarck. or are quoted as synonymes. ''have their day. M. and occupy space which might be more pro- On the other hand. in short. and our attention distracted. stifled the investigations. very different from another. the latter exhibiting the progress of discovery. to omit all details fitably filled. however. and have passed into oblivion) has. Lesson has been at some pains to perpetuate the memory of no less than fourteen systems of ornithology. Every year. Latreille.) The history and exposition of zoological systems must not be confounded with the history of the science. and he has added the projet of his own. however. although. each of chology. and in ornithology alone we Entomology could almost double the above number. until the natural classification shall be developed. 133 and Systema Naturts may have cramped of those the energies. this deference to Linna. by the innumerable artificial systems which have inundated the Continent.SYSTEMS IN GENERAL. ven- ture upon a general specification of all these systems. Cuvier. in conthere are cular classes. and which. (185. for. so long as such inventions are looked upon as authorities. at this These also will time. increases the number of these systems .

and whose opinions^ if not followed. by one whose labours in the same field renders his name worthy of being associated with that of the renowned philosopher of Stagyra : We — . is amply compensated by the vast acces- of valuable facts which each has contributed to These systems. writings will always possess some authority. inasmuch as they represent the scale of being as simple. would be an unpardonable omission. no one can hope to extend the boundaries of science . translated from that given in the Linnsean Transactions (vol. 24. celebrated work which treats of the vertebrated animals will be best understood by the following table. and confound analogy with affinity. xvi. incident to sion all. Without some acquaintance with the labours of these princes of the zoological world. however.). whose comprehensive views of nature first laid the foundation of all that That part of his has been done by his successors.) the great father of natural history. with the excepour science. tion of that of Lamarck. (186. nor will their reputation suffer by the occasional fallacy of their opinions . should always be consulted.134 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. p. commence with the system of Aristotle. for that defect. are artificial.

'K~ . 135 o o n hi a -<! o P H n . «^ ^ Sol Si H a Si f:.SYSTEM OP ARISTOTLE. ^ ?i>.^5^ «^ . a « z S *! > Hi O S ^ SsS£-i a = u p p c ^<: - a 'g.'t '«/7 fa ^< -tonv i^^cn-'S vnvKKvm VHVdiMjv W THVdIAO J:^ g vin/.^ snoHvaiAiA snoHVdiAO g | " . S i^ tg-^^s •< « a -. 6.^ g 3 ^ e s. - « ~ g^s a 5 = £> ~ -8 H c~^ 5 3 «&?• 3 S'5 «' ' g S B = 3 H O - El Qa xoo j-Hao.

Psychas = Lepidoptera. of the animal kingdom. Pterota simul f Myrmix = Formica L. is as follows : — INSECTA -i It fPTiLOTA -{ -J fCoIeoptera. the wading. perceive that the rapacious. ITetraptera t Opisthocentra =Lat.) these arrangements of the two most important divisions On looking to the first table. the gallinaceous. still more must we extol these just conceptions. r Minora = < Emprosthrocentra banus. and some of the most defective in that of Linnseus. that he actually places them together. but that Aristotle shoidd have seen that the Climbers formed only a division of the Perchers (^Insessores). or the clawed and the We hoofed quadrupeds . &c. The system of Aristotle in regard to insects. which . Hymenoptera. shall now offer a few observations on (188. Orthop. given to the world by a Grecian philosopher centuries ago. His disposition of the oviparous birds is still more admirable. or Bats. Astomata = Hemiptera Lat. But if this disposition of the vertebrated classes claim our admiration. Pedetica — Orthoptera Saltatoria Lat. has been collected and digested by It a commentator eminently qualified for such a task.) ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. Ta- LAptera. tera cursoria rMajora = NeuropteraZ. LDiptera Musca. we might appeal to the views of Aristotle. that the Cheiroptera. are the representatives of the Glires in the circle of the Quadrumana. we are surprised at the accuracy with which this great philosopher has perceived the distinction between the Unguiculata and the Ungulata. Tipulae. If we wished to cite authority in support of our opinion. et Aptera I Pygolampis = Lampyris. and the swimming birds. and were not to be elevated to the rank of a primary division. &c. to There requires no great talent. is most surprising. who considered the two groups so similar. a distinction which laid the foundation for one of the best divisions of Willughby's system. =: Culex. or annulose animals. constitute so many orders or primary divisions . it is true.136 (187. and annuls all the modern claims that have been set up for priority in proclaiming a truth.

in our opinion. at a time the bases of such enlarged conceptions. Mr. entertained by Aristotle. that this wonderful man " had no contemptible notion of the majority of the orders of insects as now admitted.. . resembling the proboscis of the Diptera. and Diptera are His idea of the Hemiptera seems taken from the Cicada or TetvLv . being but one of the primary divisions of the Hemiptera. will not evantuaUy be found correct . is one of the most common. and when the only materials which furnished Aristotle." * question. proves that he regarded it as the type of a distinct group. for instance. therefore. in the natural series. as having no mouth. Since he considers the saltatorious orthoptera as forming such a group. whether these views. were known to when natural science may be said to have scarcely existed. although we are fully persuaded that. His division Tetraptera is in one respect objectionable. afterwards correctly defined by Linnaeus. Psychee. 137 may more mological system. that our philosopher should have selected it as a sort of type for his Astomata (or Hemiptera L. but the manner in which he expresses himself concerning it. solely We : * Int. be discerned in the general outlines of his entoEvery one of the orders. but furnished instead with a linguiform organ.). His Coleoptera. iv. that this mistake would not be wonderful. in a wa^ura/ classification. the Neuroptera will be found to blend into the Hymenoptera while the Orthoptera. however. to EnL vol. considered by the modems as a disevidently such. Kirby has not failed to remark. it is probable that he included thecursorious ones with the Neuroptera in his Alajora section of Tetraptera . from the scanty gleanings of a small kingdom. the " mistakes" lying with those who have followed him. as Linnaeus long afterwards perceived. it truly belongs . were in bability a all pro- few Grecian insects. and certainly the most noisy insect of Greece it is not surprising. when collections were perhaps unknown. and the resemblance of many of the MantidcB to the Neuroptera is so great. 424 . to which order. the modern Homoptera. p. SYSTEM OP ARISTOTLE. The Cicada.

xvi. time only will discover. . have been surprising. talent. but this is a very minor conand detracts nothing from his astonishing : in thus anticipating. from the site degree of attention. a part only of the Neu- This will be apparent to any one who analyses and studies these groups in detail. above table. greatly erred in the application of his theory : seeing that in almost every family group there are representations of the apterous classes sideration. nearest to that of Nature. tions of Ray. Kirby t. are. vol.* The arrangement of the birds. namely. and here presented to the reader. although we are by no means disposed to unite in the high encomiums which have lately been bestowed upon it. tinct order. and with the requiIt is clear. with the few dozen of insects which in all probability formed the scanty materials that guided his judgment. indeed. in our eighteen centuries.138 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. or nawhile that of insects. Trans. also. the discoveries of It must ever redound to the fame of Linnaeus. has no very high extural . Both too exclusively : — * Linn. and the Aptera. the Ptilota. and the following artificial arrangement was the result cellency. and. It would. unless it be the true character of the Glires. is this and Swammerdam's are founded upon metamorphoses .) The zoological system of WiUughby. and by this unfortunate bias entomology made a retrograde movement. 25. if. The primary groups of Aristotle were broken up. that Aristotle perceived. or mouse-hke quadrupeds. that he followed so closely the footsteps of the Grecian sage . (I89. comes nearest to that of Aristotle. cannot be passed over in this place. unquestionably. or winged group. In the of the Mammalia we trace nothing of primary importance which had escaped the penetration classification of Aristotle. the two great divisions of Insecta. he had not Toptera. p. estimation. as given by Ray. theoretically. as exhibited by Mr. above aU others. definite. in part. Whether we are right in this opinion. for his entomological system. viewed in connection with the injudicious addi- any thing but clear. or wingless insects.


or red-blooded . The views of natural groups which it unfolded. that our great countrymen followed Svvammerdam in the unnatural separation of those diptera whose metamorphosis is coarctate from the rest . Mammalia. Philanthus.) In further reference to this table. with a long ovipositor. &c. (190. Kirby justly observes. . Bombus. (m) Apis. (c) various Aptera. shall first lay before our readers We the contents of each of the great classes into which the illustrious Swede divides the animal kingdom. and in associating with them the Jchneumones minuti. give Mr. Sic. &c. in conjunction with that of Aristotle. {/) and mites . were. Nomada. and then subjoin to each such observations as are suggested their merits or defects. may be said to have indicated the large masses of which the true temple of nature is composed. ? Ichneumon. by simplicity sede for nearly a century others. bed bug . (jb) Crabro. (e) Scorpio . Into this error both were led by system. is the thirteenth. . {g) lulus .)The system of Linnaeus will demandamuchmore ample exposition than any of those coming within oar present notice . . (/) Lepidoptera .) The primary divisions of the Linnsean arrangement of animals are six. (0) Andrena. . Cerceris. or rather by founding their system upon one conphalangers. edition of the : The . (l91. (rf) Nymphon : Fab. namely 1. Mr. (9) Tenthredo L. but it developed a and a grandeur of generalisation which was admirably suited to the existing state of science. {K) Scolopendra (A:) This section is divided by the author {%) Annelida into thirteen tribes . 140 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. are allAn7ielida. (*) Pimpla manifestator. sideration. for not only did the classification of the this illustrious philosopher. Kirby's elucidation of we may many of the groups. to the exclusion of others. and other Ichneumonidce." (192. 17t)7.. . The Apoda terrestria (a) worms (6) are larvce . whose metamorphosis is really different. (w) Vespidce . by Systema NaturcB. " Vindobonae. (r) Trichoptera K. which we shall select for our guide on this occasion. and. in most cases. superior to those of all others . &c. and the Spiders. superall animal kingdom. Halictus.

or birds. and the author has obviously made the : class Vermes a general receptacle for all those invertebrated animals which could not be classed with any other class. reasoning analogically. have so many external points of general similitude. Be- must be confessed that the Linnsean Vermes. Acr. or fish 5. which from the same causes his predecessors^even Aristotle himself. therefore. Heart with o'!e auricle and^^ungs one ventricle . and Radiata form a their own. the ready determination of The whole is confessedly an the name of a species. lb. • . Mollusca. lb. 2. at all improbable that they For if. . like Linnaeus we express surprise that a genius could have brought together animals so totally different in their nervous system. Fishes. Birds. as there is good reason to supactually are so. following manner — r These he distinguishes in Cuv.LINN^AN SYSTEM. and their external organisation. gills.ta. then . . notwithstanding our increased knowledge of their true nature. blood cold. i External red - voluntary. warm. Insecta. Heart with auricles) Viviparous. lb.) Considering the period when this scheme was drawn up. ] white i - • L tentacula. or reptiles 6. equally glaring. that we can feel no surprise at the whole being considered as one group: nor is it. no antennie with f Worms. lb. I. and two ventricles j bluod J Oviparous. . 4. Kadiata. M'Leay. quadrupeds. red (. Amphibia. or 141 3. we must allow it the credit of being much more definite and practically useful than any of those which it supplanted we allude more especially to the two latter divisions. lb. \^^^l^^_ lb. (193. their internal anatomy. and the mistakes. in reference to the object which our author had in view. artificial system . it pose. the state of knowledge at the time. . or insects and the Vermes. namely. have equally committed. J Mcllusca. member the remoteness of the period at which he wrote. Aves. Pisces. [ lb. we must re- When. Amphibia. or worms. two Mammalia. the modern circle of classes o{ Acrita. - - C I"- t "Irrtenn^"'"'^"»'='«Heart with one auricle and^ Furnished with i ventncle sanies cold. . sides. in fact. .

Two cutting fore teeth in each jaw . will stand any test . the most defective point in The heart is fixed upon as the corner the scheme. . like nails teeth wanting. feet with claws. vegetables^ &c. teats two. nails. we But let us glance at the principles on which the whole animal kingdom is first divided into three primary groups . III. and this error.) The primary divisions and character o{ Mammalia are as follows : — I. which have two or three tusks. and the Annelides. feed on other ani- IV.142 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. which are subulate mals. and prevent him from seizing the much more obvious and natural divisions of Vertehrata and Invertebrata as the groundwork of his Be this. Fore teeth cutting. rallel. tusks none ing : . two are hands . which they gnaw. for it is. a natural group system. nearly the whole of the Linnaean Vermes. Glires. feet with strong hoofmotion slow mostly feed on masticated : vegetables. as it may. of the feet. and giving it a paramount importance over all others. stone of the system . that. one on each side in each jaw. the only exceptions being the aberrant or imperfectly organised Insecta . formed for running and leapfeed on bark. feet with claws. Bruta. Fore . : II. they are for the most part truly natural. that is. the intestinal worms. (194. except a few which use animal food. in a single group. Primates. such as the Cirripedes. shall comprehend. tusks longer. oval feed on fruits. .. and hence we find. usually six in each jaw grinders with conic projections : . Fer^e. Fore teeth conic. perhaps. however. although the true character of some of these orders were not perceived. solitary . usually flattened. the upper four paexcept in some species of bats. pectoral. contributed perhaps more than any thing else to blind our author. of adopting one exclusive character. shall now proceed to investigate each of these classes in We detail.

in fact. the QUADRUPEDS. \ Quadnimana. } Cetacea. feet. and the arrangement pursued in this work : LinncBan orders. hoofed . a retrograde. ( 1 96. Cete. Ciivier. (195. moreover. } Pachydermata Carnivorae. stomachs four. many. for his Bruta. by Willughby. no claws or hair feed upon marine animals . Cab. and Belluai are only detached portions of the order Ungulata. Ferae. Ghres. motion. that Linn seus. Pecora. Ferae. Cuvier did not fail to perceive this and. But as the Primates. Belluse. who had. Quadrumana. of the whole. Primates. obtuse . Bruta. This is proved. V. r Bimana. Rodentia. Fins instead of feet. by the name of Ungulata: he lost sight. . Fore ting. and chew the cud. teeth. perhaps. the merit of preserving the Ungulata entire. Ungulata. feet hoofed. rather than an advanced movement.— LINNiEAN SYSTEM. and better defined. ) 1 1 has been well observed. With this exception. and Glires had all been indicated by the philosopher of Stagyra. followed Aristotle rather than . M. Pecora. Cuvier. Cyclop.) The following table will explain how far these divisions correspond with those of M. heavy feed on vegetables. taken with reference to their typical examples. tail horizontal. Cete. VII. not only from theory. the remaining orders of the Linnaean arrangement are Ferce. Fore teeth. which they pluck. strictly natural groups. but from minute analysis. by some unaccountable oversight. the lower cutfeed on herbs. cloven : VI. Ungulata. : inhabit the ocean. 143 upper none. Pecora. had been made by the learned Swede. Cete. Glires. Bellul^. with great propriety. Cetacea. in the contemplation of its parts . which they pluck : like the last. Ruminantia Solipeda. flattened . broke up into distinct orders the group kept together by Aristotle.

Talpa. Polecat. we perceive that the groups denomi- . Hedgehog. ' 1 rf '^^^r {Rodentia C. LBoi Sheep. Ursus. Viverra. Antelope. Pig. Sperm Whale. Dormouse. Mam's. I I Eleplias. ITI. by themthough he also has erred in giving to their subdivisions a higher rank than they really possess. . however objection- able are the orders. Manis. Mole. Camel. Goat. Hare. J Triciiechus. Lemur. Antelope. Belluji. Marmot. Didelphis. Erinaceus. Hyrax. Equus. Lion. Stag.) I j Camelopardalis. Capra. Bruta. Myoxus. The genera characterised by Linnseus under these orders are Linnaeus. I I Ant-eater. Primates. Ferjj. Canis. Porcupine. Dog. Castor. '"ippopotamus. Dipus. Balana.) On glancing over this list. in keeping the ungulated quadrupeds selves. f Rhinoceros. Cavy. 1 Lemur. Monkey. Cavia. (Ruminantia C. Seal. Sukotyro. Man. Bat. River Horse. Moschus.144 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. > Physeter. Bradypus. (197. Sloth. {Solipedes Cl']'^'' •"'(Su Sus. Tapir. Walrus. ' Hystrlx. Musk. Squirrel. Ox. Tiger. Caj Ov ')vis. Lepus. ( Vespertilio. P ' • Mus. Horse. IchneuTuon. Bear. &c. Shrew. Mouse. Elephartt. as follows : — I. C1 ^0 Sea Unicorn. Felis. J Arctomys. (Cetaren (tetacea rMonodon. Opossum. C Homo. (ueiphinus. J Simia.) Sciurus. Mustela. ^ VI. n. Dolphin. Beaver. Cervus. ) VIL Cete. Whale. Hyrax. (_Dasypus. fE< apir. 1 Myrmecophaga. Armadillo. fPhoca. Giraffe. Jerboa. Sorex. (Camelus.

Cycl. of Ray. Gallinaceous. With . the internal contents of each order are natural assemblages situation of several fective. are for the most part natural for they contain assemblages of animals which. Galling. Rasores ///. of the although the construction and orders themselves are de- and of course artificial. for the sake of convenience. It is clear. Glires. and Cete. Birds of Prey. have been preserved in more recent systems. VI. but that our author aimed at accomplishing an easy artificial system. Passeres. Palmipedes.) The ornithological system of Linna. although under higher denominations. and Bellua. Pic\*L Raptores Perching Birds.E. Grall£. excepting that each has been more subdivided but the Bruta. but the modern names are added Cumer. Wading Birds. 1 AcciPiTRES. the UngulatcB. is the division of the land or perching birds {Insessores) into two orders. 145 nated by Linnaeus ^renera. IV.. V. IL III. each ' : — Cab. BIRDS. that this series was never intended to exhibit the progress of nature. suited. Anseres. the names of which to to are as follows. that we must even this solitary exception. or Swimming. to the then state of science. is itself Bruta which will claim our attention. Gralls. now (198. LINN^AN SYSTEM. Gallin. sacrifice to his object that keen perception of natural affinities which he most undoubtedly possessed in a very high degree. as before intimated. in most cases. The whole class of birds he divides into six orders. Insessores fig. Natatores (part) Grallatores III. We consider it unnecessary give the characters in detail. Aquatic. and the sea-horse between the elephant and the sloth. Illiger. Passeres. This is apparent by his placing the rhinoceros after the bat. J |*^^|^^|g (199-) The first violation of natural order which the eye seizes upon in this table. and split into minor divisions. Perching and Climbing. . ? Insessores. These monstrous combinations all occur in the order such a strange and inconsistent feel surprise that Linnseus could. FercB. moreover. placed L . or Fowls. Pecora. in fact. are but parts of one order. The Primates. are almost precisely what they remain now.

and place the climbers in another :^this would have been more easy of comprehension either in a natural or an artificial the : system. rejected into — protested against thisviolation of nature. the remaining of the Linnsean orders are similar to those long before understood by Aristotle . one would have artificial arrangement thought. Strix. by attempting arrangements of the great AriIn this respect his system is certainly inferior to stotle. naked. ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. was too large for but in that case. that of WiUughby. he would have done as M. and it. Upper mandible with an angular projection. Bill hooked. that is. although natural. with a frontlet of Vultur. indeed. however. Bill hooked. Bill hooked. with a retrograde making in science. now (200. Falco. however obscure and confused in other respects. and. covered bris- Xianius. as so that our author commenced in this he had already done in the Mammalia. and the introduction of the aquatic orders : into the gap class. Hawk. which. tles. Birds of Prey. Cuvier afterwards did . that it would have been surprising had they escaped notice. we can only account for it by supposing that Linneeus thought the order itself.&c. . so obvious to every one. preserved a clear distinction between Even the most devoted the land and the water birds. Shrike. As to the division of the perching birds two orders. as Pennant. of this oversight. Bill straightish. perhaps. notched.146 wide apart. Latham. covered at the base with a cere. racterised. I. Nothing. With the exception. wiU show more forcibly the admirable clearness and precision with which this extraordinary sential or man perceived and defined the esmost striking character of his groups.) The genera arranged under these orders wiU be enumerated. Owl. of PiceB and Passeres. keep the perching birds in one order. than the short synopsis by which each of these genera are chaAcciPiiREs. followers of the Systema NaturcB to annul the previous movement — Shaw. Vtdtur.

Corvus. Pelicanus. tongue fleshy. Anas. Phaiton. LtNNJEAN SYSTEM. front bony. Wryneck. BIRDS. Bill bent Bill Upupa. Hombill. Bill with transverse lateral grooves. ' 147 PicjE. Bucco. Humminfi Creeper. C. Bill somewhat sharp edged Paradise Bird. Bill straight. Feet formed Trochilus. Grebe. Bill wrinkled.^ . Swimming Birds. Mergus. Bill with the lower mandibles gibbous. convex. Bill linear. Bill compressed. Crow. Bill smooth . compressed. subulate. Toucan. pressed. for perching. Oriole. Bill subulate. Diomedia. Parrot. Nostrils forming a long tube. membranaceous. serrate. Bill toothed. Sterna. tongue feathered. Kingjisher. A. Bird. Bill sharp edged. straight. bent down. quadrangular. Bee-eater. Hoopoe. Skimmer. Buphaga.' Tody. Crotophaga. Bill serrate Bill bent . Oriolus.] Bill bent Bill straight. Bill girded . Paradisea. tongue tubul. Trogon. Galbula. Bill Psittacus. Bill smooth. Coracias. Trogon. wedged at the top. somewhat obtuse. Pelican. Larus.? Boiler. Cnckoiu. Feet formed for walking. Bill sharp edged . Tropic Bird. Plotus. Certhia. chin pouched. III. Alca. Alcedo. Barbut. part) Ramphastos. compressed at the point. Bill with the lower mandible truncate. hooked at the point. B. notched. very sharp pointed. {Katatores Illiger. a compressed. Gracula. the points bent dowr. tongue worm-shaped. Woodpecker. Bill toothed. the sides a little com- L 2 . Anseres. Todos. Bill sharp edged. . Beef-eater. tongue worm-shaped. Colymbus. Merops. frontlet reversed. down . Cuculus. Pious. equal. Bill with a nail at the tip teeth subulate.'r.) . Bill hooked. Albatross. Procellaria. conic. Khynchops. Feet formed for climbing (Scansores. Bill angular . Gull. sharp pointed. serrate. triangular. Bill quadrangular. Bill subulate. Diver. nostrils margined. very sharp pointed. Tern. Petril. Buceros. depressed. Nuthatch. down. II. naked at base. little Bill straight. Crakle. Bill serrate serrate. Bill smooth . Bill straight. . Bill sharp edged. Sitta. face naked . Anoo. with a nail at the tip teeth Duck. Bill with the upper mandible shorter. down. Awk. Merganser. Yunx. Jacamar. angular at the edges. frontlet velvetty. hooked.

GRALLiE. Psophia. wings not formed for flight. Struthio. bristled Hirundo. Auoset. Bill straight. . Cheeks naked. Bill at the root and front bare. Finch. Dodo. round. Bill depressed. oval. Recurvirostra. (JRassores Illiger. Sandpiper. Bill a. little arched . pointed. Swallow. {Insessores Vig. ob- V. sharp pointed. OtfSter-catclier. Crax. and wrinkled . smooth. Bill sharp. Bill keeled above. Jucana. Phasianus. Platalea. Trumpeter. hooked at the end. Curlew. row.) Xioxia. bill roundish. Manakia. Meleagris. Bill somewhat keeled . . face Bill convex . blunt. tip bent. Perching Birds. Jabiru. Tringa. Parra. Bill bending down . wattles. Grosbeak. tongue notched. body compressed. back. Numidia. Face and neck covered with naked Turkey. widened at the end.) Bustard. feet three-toed. Tetrao. Kallus. nostrils tubular. Water Hen. Bill depressed. Pipra. A VI. Feet three-toed . Bill conic . Ostrich. Passeres. Bill conic. Bill thick. 148 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. Tantalus. Bill with wattles at the base. Bill compressed. GALLiNiE. mandible thickest. bent in on the point. conic. Emberiza. Caprimulgus.^ Gallinaceous Birds. naked coloured skin above the eye. Bill subulate. tuse. the tip Haematopus. back toe raised. Bill blunt . Partridge. Bill straight in middle. nostrils in a furCancroraa. Bill at the base and front warted. nostrils oval. Fringilla. sharp. Ibis. Bill straight. Scolopax. feathers of the crown turned Peacock. bent as if broken. Mycteria. Pavo. Globe-crest. turned up. Pheasant. ^ Screamer. conic. Bill bending upwards. Margins of the bill inflexed. sharp pointed. Pulica. Flamingo. Bill covered at the base with a cere. Heron. Bill toothed. Ardea. Spoonbill.) Phoenicopterus. IV. Boat-bill. Didus. lowei Bill small. long. Wading Birds. Rail.. Goatsucker. Palamedia. {Gratlatores Illiger. Plover. naked. chin with a pouch. Bill naked . Guinea Hen. Bunting. Otis. Bill thick. depressed. wedged Charadrius. Bill subulate.

cutter. Coly.) Turdus. in external structure. (201. Bill tongue jagged cleft . Latham and a few of his other disciples have the credit of defining the following.Dr. 3 : . hind claw long. Cryptura.) Such are the only genera of birds instituted by Linnteus. Phytotoma. or rather in general appearance. Vaginalis. Bill subulate. (Deniiroslres Sw. or Guan. simple. Warbler. . Starling. in truth. possessed such characters in common. . and where his vast superiority over all who had preceded him is most conspicuous. Cursorius. covered with a Bill subulate. as we We have already seen. Penguin. Bill subulate Sternus. Colius. Sheathbill. Bill subulate. Bill subulate. Lark. are to judge of these groups.) regards their combination into orders (for that. j Motmot. Bill subarched tumid membrane. > Channel-bill. bis him to give to each a short and clear defiHaving attained this. ' REMARKS. truncate. is in many respects highly objection- able). conic at the base. Alauda. which our author terms genera. front Motacilla. depressed at the base. Aptenodyta. Flycatcher. Courier. hind claw moderate. compressed at the base. Prionites. Glareola. Ampelis. lies the great and striking merits of the ornithological labours of Linnaeus. Thrush. Secretary. Pigeon. subulate tongue . ** Parus. Chatterer. Bill straight. Titmouse. depressed at the point. Pratincole. Muscicapa. reversed. Umber. as enabled nition. tongue . Glaucopis. Tanager. Tinaumu. He placed together a number of objects which.LINN^AN SYSTEM. but as assemblages of species. which are incorporated in the edition of the Systema Naturce edited by Gmelin some of these we have designated by the more classic names since bestowed upon them : : — Grypogeranus. amounting only to 79. the artificial object of system required him to look no further he was I. Bill subulate. Wattle-bird. Penelope. Penelope. 149 * Upper mandible notched at the end. Plant. Scopus. Bill subulate. Here. tapering. Scythrops. nostrils Columba. fringed at the base. Tanagra. not as (202.

minutely described the modifications of their structure. critical investigation not called upon for himself to those of organs. capable of being conveyed in an intelligible form. indeed. that the very deficiency which has been so strongly urged against our author. for it was. and have justly reproached our author with mystifying information. therefore.have turned with disgust from such tedious details . He framed his system for the practical. Had he dwelt upon all those minute circumstances which are now known to determine the natural station of a bird. he was addressing who had merely a bird before them. is. but rather allow that both these works eminently advanced the progress of science. a term which he applied gists — . are natural assemblages. were termed by our author genera. that those who detract from the merits of the Systema Nafact. to us. and the when it appeared. had he. Who that compares the Synopsis Methodica Avium with the system of Linnaeus.150 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY.'' who succeeded him. The Systema Naturae was to be an " Every -day Book. No one knew better that his system was artificial . and who desired to know in what manner its name could be ascertained. That the genera of Linnaeus. with but few exceptions. but it would have become perfectly useless to all but a very few deep thinkers. in a genus which then consisted of five species. but which now comprises thirty-five. These groups. institute invidious comparisons. or of their generic peculiarities." not a sealed volume. his system might certainly have been more philosophical. It seems. The truth is. may be seen by the great number which have been kept entire by the most eminent ornitholo. but must be struck with the vast superiority of the latter Let us not. and he built the foundation of his system accordingly. however. turee forget the object for state of science which it was written. in the chief merit for which he should have been extolled. Nor would this have been the only objection: general readers would . in fact. or nice distinctions of habits or economy. intended to be so. and possibly more natural. not the philosophic naturalist.

however. and. The class of reptiles does. 4 . have been preserved entire. surprising that Linnoeus should have fallen into this mistake. imitated his example in improving his system. that our author had very definite notions on this class. pass into that of fish. 1 Reptiles. they — would have preserved his name in its original splendour. destitute of feet. It does not appear. many of which. under subordinate divisions. indeed. It is. Of the latter it is unquesand by thoroughly understanding its principles. the series of genera within those orders finities as show that Linnseus consulted natural af- much as the artificial plan of his of. Notwithstanding this. to the lowest assemblages. the student will gain a general acquaintance with forms. as will appear from the three subdivisions under which the whole are arranged. after Artedi had pointed out the true situation of these ani- — . He any was obviously ignorant definite groups. 151 formed from species. and a conviction how utterly useless all isolated arrangements now are. families . viz. still they remain groups. And although the orders are objectionable. instead of being indolently content with treading in the footsteps of their master. and breathing by lateral openings. mals. but the third are true fishes.LINNiEAN SYSTEM. that there were in nature The Linnsean genera. The first and second comprise the modern classes of Reptilia and Amphibia. therefore. for the most part. are found to be. and the sharks j I. furnished with fins. indeed. Nantes. as his materials increased.) The reptiles. (203. when we have to deal with such enormous multitudes of species. we strongly recommend to every student a careful perusal of the Systema NaturcE. 2. by means of the ichthyosaurus. however. as essential to an acquaintance with modern and existing arrangements. whether natural or tionably the best . artificial. and as fresh light broke in upon his subject. furnished with feet . 3. had they done this. and their own' from obUvion. arrangement would possibly allow Had his disciples. Serpentes. under the name of Amphibia. were placed by Linnseus after the birds. REPTILES. ETC.

vol. With feet. Provided with fins instead of feet.. AmphisbjEua. quadrifid. only a peculiar modification of gills. Ray. placed on the sides. fishes among the reptiles. tail. covered with a shell. Squalus. Anguis. Zool. As above Coluber. tailed. Testudo. tail . Spiracles seven. Body generally four-footed. naked. scales on the Scales on the belly and tail. breathe by spiracles. and winged. Spiracles five.* The genera of the Amphibia are perception of their union. of Carolina. Boa. BlindxMrm. Frog. III. ventral fins two. and naked. or giUs. Crotalus. this when he placed the cartilaginous may have had some indistinct It has. . iv. naked. Spiracle solitary. Plates on the belly . Body four-footed. as he conceived. Chimera. ventral fins two. Siren. tailed. has been shown by later physiologists to have been not strictly correct. Draco. Petromyzon. Lacerta. II. tailed. and internal lungs. or Thornhack. Acipenser. Body with naked lateral wrinkles. an idea which seemed confirmed by the observations of Dr. Viper. Linnaeus. Plates on the belly and with a rattle. Feet none. examined the organs of the genus Diodon. Tortoise. and found. Raj?. Lophius. Rana. Body four-footed. Spiracles many. Sebpentes. however. Body four-footed. Body two-footed. five on each side. p. Shark. marked. 13. Spiracle solitary . Lizard. possibly. mouth without * Gen. however.152 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. Sea Monster. Sturgeon. placed beneath. the supposed lungs being. like feet. This idea. Snake-worm. Spiracle solitary. who. teeth. : — Reptiles. Garden. both external bronchiae. Lamprey. and. Rattlesnake. Soa. tailless. . Cecilia. Rings on the belly and tail. been rearrangemont was made on the supposition of their being furnished both with lungs and gills. at the request of Linnaeus. but without a rattle. Nantes. Fishing Frog. Dragon. Snake. that thus characterised I. in reality. Siren.

Pristis. Fegasus. Allied to the saw-fish. so far from wishing the Systema Natures to be thought the natural system. (205. with spines. Spiracle solitary . belly prickly. Cyclopterus. intended it should be essentially artificial. — none. that we find the strongest proof that Linnaeus. In that volume. the learned Swede^ world in the admirable volume he edited of the works of Artedi . Ventral fins be- hind the pectoral. Spiracle solitary. Tortoise-fish. no ventral fins . no ventral fins Tetraodon.. His primary divisions being : number Apodal. characterised as follows — Ventral fins before the pectoral. Centriscus.) The class of fish {Pisces). snout ciliate-toothed. The connecting link between Verlebrata and Annulosa. belonging to the order Nantes. Ventral — III. LINN^AN SYSTEM. Thoracic. Sea-horse. keel-shaped. of whom we shall hereafter speak. as may be supposed^ was placed by LinniEUs immediately after his last order {N^antes) of reptiles. Hag-fish. more than in any other. Spatularia. Spiracle solitary ventral fins Spiracle solitary . Spiracle solitary.) The following genera. have been added by the disciples of Linnseus. Square-Jish. Spiracle solitary . likewise. Porcupine-fish. Gastrobranchus. Syngnathus. body mailed. Diodon. fins four. we find the Nantes occupying their proper station among the true the class were undoubtedly for he gave The two great known to typical divisions of them to the . and incorporated in their editions of his Systema NaturcB : — Separated from the sharks by Shaw. FUe-Jish. in I. Snout-fish. body crusted. — Jugular.) It is in the arrangement of this class. San'-fish. 153 Spiracle solitary. snout long. united into a funnel. —FISH. Balistes. long. under the pectoral. IV. (204. ventral fins united. body covered . ventral fins two . Ventral II. no ventrai fins Ostracion. ventral fins solitary. Lump-fish. Spoon-fish. fins Abdominal. Spiracle solitary . (206. Fipe-fiih.

thorax. at the first glance. Wolf-fish. Linnseus perceived this. Ventral fins of two united rays. I. II. Sword-fish. Zeus. Pleuronectes. or rUot. Eyes both on one side of the head. Star-gazer. Gadus. Head narrower than the body. therefore. Stromat. Gymnotus. Caudal fin none . Cottus. Head broader than the body. Flotfish. Chstodon. and forming the orders Branchiosteges and Chon. Labrus. Teeth strong. Head sloping suddenly downwards. Aperture of the gills on the side of the Order Avodes Sw. Teeth setaceous. although natural. Scorpaena. III. Scorpion-fish. Xiphias. flexile. transversely furrowed. Head large. Labbe. Cod. Having no ventral fins. Dolphin. Jugular Fishes. lip double. Ventral before the pectoral. Hull-head. Echineis. could determine where he was to search for a particular species. Ventral fins underthe pectoral. Dorsal rays. obtuse . breast simple. OK SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. crowded. Head armed with prickles. Snout ensiform. Body oval. he had recourse to the position of the ventral fins as the : basis of his primary divisions by attention to which. Sparus. intent upon his primary object of producing a simple and definite artificial arrangement. with a slender skin beyond. Callyonimus. rough. Gobius. naked. Trichiurus. Sand-lance.154 fishes. Blennius. Gobi/.] Ophidium. Blenny. Vent near the breast. Remora. and. Anarhichas. scaly fins .) The genera composing these orders wiU be mentioned : very few of them have yet received glish names. Ventral fins united into an oval fin. Ribbon-fish. Ammodytes. dropteriges but this too philosophic for general use. Dorsal fin none. Aperture of the gills on the nape. Gilthead. body ensiform. Body ensiforra. Coryphffina. Uranoscopus. Apodal Fishes. Band-fish. . Trachinus. * Thoracic Fishes. Teeth rounded. J . was arrangement. Stromateus. Body ensiform. Upper lip arched by a transverse memSUverfish. Naked-hack. now En- PISCES. brane. every one. Eel. Cepola. Crown flat. (207. depressed. Murjena. Pectoral fins tapering to a point.

body oval. Tail carinate at the sides. Argentina. Scare. Belly carinate. toohied. FISH. with a cover at the end. the other six unarmed.) The additional genera included in the subsequent editions of the Systema Natures are the following: they were chiefly defined by Bloch : — Gymnothorax. Herring. I/INN^AN SYSTEM. Snout cylindrical. Ventral fins none . serrate. Teuthis. less. Atherina. eyes placed on a short peduncle. Salmon. Body and gill covers with large lax scales. (208. fins as long as the body. ' IV. Gasterosteus. Caudal fin lanceolate. Naked-breast. Vent near the tail. Cyprinus. naked Great-eye. Stickleback. Thoracic. Spine-throat. Mormyrus. {Shaw. Mugil. Body hardly decreasing towards the tail. jaws crenate at the Thoracic. Lonchius. Mullet. thin. by a membrane. much breast folded. Mullet. Loach. Amia. Salmo. Leptocephalus. the upper serrate. 1 55 Head and gill covers with fixed scales. Pike. bony. Fistularia. Pectoral Clupea. Tunny. . tral fins connected. spinous. Head naked. Distinct appendages near the pectoral fins. . Exocoetus. Sea-perch. Scomber. First ray of the dorsal or pectoral fins Silurus. body Sternoptyx. Alherine. several sputhe dorsal fin and tail. Ventral fins behind the pectoral. Distinct appendages near the pectoral fins. LoriCaria. ~ Teeth notched Flying-fish. edges. the first four rays Mullus. Hindermost dorsal fin fleshy. Tail carinate at the sides . Argentines Body with a lateral silvery stripe. Lower jaw carinate inwards. Sciaena. Gill membrane three-rayed. Ventral and pectoral fins none. the outer Branchiostegous. Gill covers three-leaved.. Perca. Body mailed with a bony coat. Abdominal Fishes. Polynemus. Perch. Ventral fins none . venCentrogaster. Scarus. Head truncate on the fore part. Long-eye. . compressed. body eel-shaped. Cobites. Ventral and pectoral fins none . scales imbricate. Stylephorus. Carp. H (rious fins betvfeen Tail rarinate at the sides . Cat-Jish. Trachychthys. Membrane double. Upper jaw much shorter than the lower. rough. Morris. Slops. Gurnard. ) Belly armed with large carinate scales. Teeth none . Trigla. Esox.

to be sure. of nature than any of the modern methods. upon the whole. But the cloud which has long obscured the transcendent merits of these philosophers. has already begun to break. even so far as affects the pri- mary groups the next : we must. as we have already intimated. and a ray of light has penetrated before our eyes through the gorgeous drapery which has been spread the time will soon arrive. although in some respects faulty. many. but it makes a much nearer approach to the arrangement It must. for it not only surpasses in and perspicuity all that had been done before. but hitherto no effort has been made to determine the truly : natural or circular series. it is. forms by far the most valuable part of his zoological labours simplicity . which of course have now been subdivided to a considerable extent by M. Impressed with this conviction. all armed on covered with hair . and movable antennae or horns. breathing through lateral spiracles. (210.) Insects. be remembered that the superstructure of this system is built upon the foundation originally laid by It has been the custom of late the immortal Aristotle. therefore. These groups^ like those of the Linnaean ornithology. however. are smaU animals. years. in the arrangement of the annulose animals. furnished with many_/eei . in while the to name reject of its founder views. and rejecting those which are old. Linnseus. which project from the head. Cuvier and others . is stiU held they so reverence. infinitely more just and enlarged than any which have since been drawn up.156 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. as given by This definiiion we wish to perpetuate . or sides with a bony .) The entomological system of Linnaeus. at once proceed to class. when we shall wonder at our own credulity in so readily adopting new theories. (209. these because are totally at variance with the notions recently taken up on the same subject. are are. in our opinion. for. for the most part. as Linnseus defines them. and are the probable inskin. we shall transcribe for the : reader the definition of the class Insecta. natural families.

sometimes two or 4. effected by casting ofi" the different coats or coveris ings in which the perfect insect inveloped.) The changes. The stemmaia transverse. The egg . of what Most Linnaeus considered insects. 1 57 They are destitute of external nosMls and though some of them evidently enjoy 1. mouth is generally placed beneath the head. 3. or six joints. and consist of two. or breathing holes. behind which is the scutel. usually two. 6. the thighs. placed on the head. and in a few is wanting 5. divisions. The eyes are the senses of hearing and smell. and is terminated by the tail. are thus spoken of of them undergo a triple metamorphosis or transform: — ation. with the hack above and the helLy beneath .LINN^AN SYSTEM. 10. perforated at the sides with five spiracles. struments of sensation. generally four. 8. probably that of are sensorial. and convey an unknown sensation. or two or four the upper ones are often crustaceous shells. shanks. The six. sometimes the jaws are in the breast. The are three shining spots placed on the crown. and movable laterally. The antenncB are placed on a movable peduncle. INSECTS. with the thorax above. without eyelids^ and rarely 2. sometimes semi-crustaceous wingcases. and terminated by nails some have a hand. 9- The legs consist of three tarsi. affixed to a small pedicle. (211. or of a substance between the membranaceous wings ears. covering the lower . with a movable thumb. or metamorphoses. So far for the parts of insects. and the sternum and breast beneath. viz. supported by the feet. or such as have but two wings. four.The abdomen is usually annulate. The wings are 0. they two. : : : and crustaceous distinct shells. usually before the eyes are composed of an indefinite number of articulations. with five segments . and placed under the wings of the dipterous order. The poisers are composed of a head. trunk is placed between the head and abdomen. The feelers affixed to the mouth. 7. movable. and : which are articulated. which is sometimes armed with a sting. or chelate kind of claw. or escutcheon. the touch. sometimes more.

naked or enclosed in a web . Aptera. tail un—{ Dermoptera. often without a mouth . Lepidoptera. furnished with antennae.7 Hemiptera.Strepseptera. sometimes without feet : escaping from this last confinement. confined in a narrow compass. taceous and incumbent.Orthoptera. . . and contains the insect from the egg is produced the larva. without wings.^^_ j Hymenoptera. which is drier and harder than the last. excluded by the female.. The first regards the separation of the Hymenoptera from the Neuroptera. Arachnoida Leach. or nymph. naeeous and reticulate .>. _ Coleoptera. ["^rngs two.. " *" HemiDtera. Neuroptera.o„„«t„. fNeuroptera? four. Thysanura Leach. Acari Leach. Diptera. 7. Aptera Lat. ^ f (_ i •< "^ings four . (212. and very voracious of its proper food from this state it passes into that of the pupa.o. C r Wings i. the upper crustace. often with numerous feet. Such is the general definition given by the illustrious Swede of the class Insecta. f Wings four. &c.„ 6. | J' •' i | (.) On those of Aristotle. with a straight suture. sometimes with none. chrysalis.^^^ ^ ^^. I I (213. j pj^^^^^ f them membra-lTj „„^ t„. sterile. &c. grub. Orders. all of them membraJ 3. slow in motion . of a moist soft substance.) The first divisions of the class are into seven in its smallest state: : orders. ous. it becomes the perfect insect. < C s 5. with a poiser under - Classes. comparing these primary divisions with we observe a marked improvement in two essential points. the upper semi-crus.J v-v/ ^.^ ^^^^ ^. ^ „^^^^^^ '^^.. But we shall gain a better insight into his views by looking to the construction of his primary groups. Crustacea Lat. armed. Ametabolia Leach.. and sometimes with. as follows: — Modern 1. or caterpillar.^ ' 158 is first ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGr. Trichoptera. ''Vitjgs none in either sex. J Homoptera. both which .„ Hymenoptera. naeeous and imbricate with line > Lepidoptera. scales. all of .^i. ^ I I Myriapoda Leach. u Suctoria ia<. all of them membra. w„«. '^ f Wings four r Wings J four. j coleoptera.

it would be endless to enumerate the host of objections that have been raised against it by almost every modern entomologist. the facilities which were possessed by the learned Swede. 1 59 were considered by the Stagyrite as forming parts only of his order Tetraptera. wiU constitute the natural sub-typical class of the annulose circle. we feel disposed at present to say but little. These errors were perceived by Linnaeus. let him to what others have ex- pressed on the Linnaean arrangement of insects. There is consequently good reason to suppose that. upon such natural principles as to satisfy any other entomologist than himself. with ten — — times the materials and. as much investigation. INSECTS. each having proposed a classification. the reproach that Linnaeus failed in Ms arrangement. which. But as we wish us refer not that the reader should be]in possession of our opinion alone. on a matter of so much importance. that the greatest part of the Linnaean Aptera form the principal portion of a truly natural group . in fact. plied to the determination of the natural groups of the Annulosa. further than to intimate. . some great error has been committed. unfortunately. The second is the abolition of the " Pterota simul et Aptera. when united to one of his orders (whose affinities to it he himself perceived). and the views of MM. is equally one appUcable to all those who have succeeded him. A wellknown countryman of our own. and from each if it be other. Nor is it too much to suppose that some important principle of the natural system has never been correctly aphowever. Kirby and Macleay are totally different from these. and duly rectified. In regard to the Linnsan order Aptera. sees and admits that this order required much subdivision . has himself published two or three different theories on the arrangement of the Aptera . In such a state of things. consequently. in all these arrangements. the result of On this subject. Dr." under which the Grecian philosopher placed the ants and the apterous glowworms. no one has been hitherto successful in doing this. but. Leach.LINN^AN SYSTEM. which has been set asideby the next writer who foUowed. Every one.

p. Silpha. observe ing founded upon the absence or presence and character of : the organs of flight. Dermestes. and concerning the fourth no satisfactory conclusion the Aristotelian. since by this plan . in which he has followed the path first trodden by Aristotle. 438.— 160 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. orders. speaking of this part of " His system^ bethe Linnaean arrangement. Hister. head inflexed under the thorax. . clavate. is in some degree a republication of In considering this table of orders. plared on a horny rostrum or beak. that. Gyrinus. characterised by Linnaeus. . and the last require further subdivision. Byrrhus. Antenna." * (215. and in enumerate he will he rendered familiar with the types of what are now. Club perfoliate . indeed.) The genera of insects. KirbyandSpence. thickest at the tip. to Ent vol. Club of antenna obtuse . The second. it must strike every one acquainted with the subject. Club lamellate. palpi with a truncated club. to the series of his Linne has the advan- predecessors in giving clearer definitions their nomenclature. Curculio. it is mostly tage of all his With regard artificial. can scarcely be expected to lead to one perfectly natural. Club solid. Club solid head retractile within the thorax. Stagbeetle. although the assumption of a single set of organs. anterior thighs toothed. Antennse rigid eyes four. (214. shall here the early periods of his study. deserve to be remembered. As the student will find an acquaintance with them of great advantage in to his orders.) MM. iv. has yet been drawn. Club compressed. * Antenna: Searabaeus. CoLEOPTERA. the sides more widely cleft. or attenuated at the base. examples of families or very large divisions. I. Head Coccinella. "whereon to build a system. ovate. Attelabus. pedunculated. . Thorax and elytra niarginated. yet that the majority of groups here given as orders merit that character. Beetle. Lucanus. we their characters. • Int. for the most part.

covering the wings . warty. Cicindela. Elytra shortened . Snout inflexed hind legs formed for leaping. above Staphylinus. Thorax with hard spines on the sides. II. flat. Mantis. body terminated by two bristles. Hemiptera. A Posterior feet fringed. joint lengthened. Blatta. Nepa. head gibbous. Elytra short. Thorax surrounding and conElytra flexible. pectoral spine. I6l ** Antenna JUiform. Thorax receiving the head. approximate. tail forcipated. Thorax somewhat heart-shaped . head inflexed. Body ovate. ^iitgjifiee setaceous. Ptinus. wings coriaceous. Elytra with the tips narrowed. INSECTS. head exserted . Elytra semi-crustaceous. Thorax roundish. **» Cerambyx. hind legs fringed. fuciform. flated. Thorax margined . formed in- Fulgora. Cassida. Buprestis. Eyes prominent. wings covered. cealing the head. inflexed. : legs formed for running. Mouth furnished with jaws. thickened at the end. Aphis. posterior feet the claw single. furnished with jaws. Antennae porrect. Meloe. Jaws projecting. Thorax roundish. sides of the body plaited and Cantharis. Elater. Elytra flexible. Hispa. Lampyris. Forficula. Snout inflexed fore legs cheliform. Abdomen with plates at its base . Elytra very small. body oblong. Necydalis. Tenebrio. Bruchus. the tail two exsertile vesicles. elytra margined. toothed. springing from an abdominal pore. Antennae Body filiform. M . Mordella. Antennae with the last Chrysomela. longer than the thorax. Antennae Snout inflexed legs formed for running. truncated behind. for leaping. Snout inflexed . . Dytiscus. . Carabus. for swimming. Rostrum or snout . Cicada. and formed for swimming. immarginate. and capitate. wings naked. Snout inflexed . Head partly retracted within the thorax. Mouth Anterior feet serrated.IINNjEAN system. ovate. Cimex. Leptura. Mouth furnished with jaws Gryllus. head covered by a shield. inflexed. and formed Notonecta. front projecting.

Fapilio. in the males. Wings reticulated. Tenthredo. body. Myrmelion. ending in bristles. . Hymenopteba. Vespa. Snout pectoral . Coccus. Formica. Sphex. wings LibeUula. mouth with an extended snout Panorpa. ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. Sting serrate . Raphidia. Sting pungent . Tail ending in a single thread . Lepidomera. wings incumbent on the abdomen. Sting obsolete. wings de- Tail chelate . eyes terminal (defined after- . two-valved. Antennae thickest towards the base. l62 Chermes. superior wings plaited or folded. tongue inflexed. mouth without teeth . IV. with a proboscis . Ephemera. mouth two-toothed . Diptera. * With and Head iwo-horned Diopsis. Snout pectoral . Sting serrate. Tail with two or three bristles. dilated. mouth two-toothed wings deflexed. Neuroptera. Phryganea. Sting spiral. the tip nearly entire. Sting exserted or projecting . Sphinx. Cynips. Body armed with a sting. V. Chrysis. Antennae with the Wings tip imbricate with scales. Sting pungent. wards). . Sting pungent wings smooth . Tail forcipated j mouth with many jaws . Thrips. III. Phalaena. hind legs formed for leaping. a poiser under each. expanded. Neuters without wings. . Neuters without wings. flexed. sucker. Antenna thickest in the middle. wings deflected. mouth without teeth. Sting pungent . VI. which is reflexile. wings erect. Wings two. . triple. club-shaped wings erect when at rest. Sires. Snout obsolete . Body without a sting. Tail forcipated Tail simple. wings incumbent. Apis. body arched beneath.. projecting from a spine Under the ab- domen. Sting pungent . tongue flat. Ichneumon. Mutilla.

flexile. . ten of them chelate. * Feet six . feelers clavate. Body linear. eight to fourteen . while the necessity for a much larger number has been so obvious. Eyes two legs eight . legs eight . two-valved. Body subcylindrical. legs twelve. head Scolopendra. straight. ** With a (Estrus. Tabanus. Sucker without a sheath. head distinct fiom the thorax. Sucker short. inflected.) Such are the only entomological genera founded by Linnseus. Pediculus. armed with a sting feet formed for . Empis. body with textorial papilla. straight. lips. Iwo-valved. Proboscis inflexed. Aranea. Tipula. Conops. No wings. Eyes eight . Eyes four . furnished with bristles. . leaping. Phalangium. . *** Legs numerous . but no jrroboscis. Musea. Eyes two. as new discoveries have been made^ that even the dissi 2 . . Mouth armed with an exsertile sting. Monoculus. Tail ending in setaceous bristles. setaceous. Sucker retracted within the perforated Sucker straight. Lepisma. Eyes two . Cancer. feelers two. legs fourteen. the first pair chelate. feelers compressed. Asilus. Podura. feelers chelate. In Gmelin's edition of the Systema Naturce are incorporated all those subsequently defined by Fabricius up to the period of its publication . Apiera. furnished with bristles. cylindrical. Bombylius. Sheath exserted. distinct from the thonax. sucker. Mouth with two jaws lip horny. Scorpio. with five bristles. . subulate. Proboscis projecting. Sucker very long. Tail forked. (216. Oniscus.LINN^AN SYSTEM. head and thorax united. lulus. ** Legs from Acarus. Sucker without a sheath filiform. legs eight . iGS projecting. Snout inflected. . Eyes two legs eight. four-cleft. Eyes eight legs eight feelers chelate. Termes. INSECTS. Pulex. Stemmata none. valved. Sucker with a single-valved sheath. . Hippobosca. geniculate. VII. Culex. elastic.

in general. vol. therefore. and we accordingly find the genera following each other in On this point Mr. so a classi- founded chiefly upon those organs among beetles would offer the greatest facilities to the ready deterIn judging. where our judged. Ent.* has justly observed. Swede have relaxed.) The Vermes consiitute the last class of the are Systema Natura. or Necydelis after Carahus . in this infrom their accustomed dread of innovation. in order In his that they might more easily be determined. iv. As it is curious to perceive how Linnaeus contrived to bring * Except in Hemiptera. or Elater and Cicindela. The combination of these groups. since it cannot for a moment be supposed that such a writer as Linnjeus. under which comprehended all animals whose bodies are not furnished with limbs. still less that he could have fancied any natural affinity between Silpha and Cocci" The Coleoptera. f !"'• 'o . that as the differences in the antennse furnished one of the most obvious distinctions fication among insects. would have placed Buprestis after Cicindela. if he had not this object in view. other orders these subdivisions were not necessary. that. in nella. (217-) Looking to this list. of the mination of the genera. in to many instances are obviously intended be artificial : this is most conspicuous in the order illustrious author truly Coleoptera. 440. however. their master. p. tem it. that in seems almost to have been intuitive. entomological system before us. is nearly the only order where he found it necessary to group his genera into purely artificial sections. we perceive that the sysis not only more natural than any which preceded but that nearly all the great families made by more recent entomologists are named and characterised under the denomination of genera. fact. him it (218.+ l64 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. we should bear this in mind. Kirby a much more natural series. by making several genera not to be found in the works of ciples of the learned stance. Linnseus had such a tact for discovering natural groups.

ZooPHYTA {Coralline Wo7-ms) are composite animals. these some are soft and naked. and zoophytes are. MoLLuscA. for the most part inhabitants of the sea. form and colours exhibit splendid examples of the Almighty Artificer. and in the transformation of their animated blossoms or polypes which are endowed with spontaneous motion. as it were. holding a medium between animals and vegetables. Intestinal Worms are of a formation I. in like manner the Teredo penetrates wood. Intestine. and by their phosphorous quality illuminate the dark abyss of waters. m'3 . Shell-fish. resemble zoophytes. furnished with tentacula or arms. but furnished with Of sensation and the organs of spontaneous motion. Most of them take root and grow up into stems. These are naked. is above. 160 immense assemblage of which he arranged animals^ we subjoin the characters he gives to the five principal divisions or orders under the whole. some in water. the most simple. earth. reflecting their light thus what is beneath the water corto the firmament : responds with that which III. to effect their dissolution. multiplying hfe in their branches and deciduous buds. The Gordius (hair-worm) perforates clay to give a passage to springs and water the Lumbricus (or earth-worm) pierces the . they are multiplied into a vast number of species and varieties. and live. These are Mollusca co- vered with calcareous habitations or shells. II. Pulpy Worms. scientifically. that it may be exposed to the action of the air and moisture . but are destitute of animation and the power of locomotion . which they carry about with them.lilNN^AN SYSTEM. and a few in the earth. IV. therefore. themselves producing and often penetrating calcareous bodies : like insects. into an intelligible shape this VERMES. Testacea. and the Pholas and Mytilus rocks. and both in Plants. some within other animals. However faulty they may now be thought. we cannot but admire the ray of genius which he has cast over them. and are called Zoophytes . plants.

Body round head with a narrow . MoLLUSCA. Feelers two. after becoming dry. . Lumbricus. a lateral perfo- Limax. placed before. Myxine. Body with two small pores on the left side. with fleshy wings. Siphunculus. (219. furnished with a ventral pore. . Feelers four. Ascaris. cylindrical proboscis. Feelers four. Destitute of a lateral pore. Mouth and body dorsal. Gordius. . as in Limax. Aperture double one terminal. Infusoria {Animalcules^. Body round both extremities attenuated. Body depressed . capable of dilation. Body truncated at each extremity Iiead and tail Hirudo. II. Mouth placed above. Mouth furnished with feelers. and. Ascidia. Others are covered with a hard shell. surrounded with fleshy but the fetlers capillary.. Tethys. Body with Vent united with Aplysia. and are denominated Lithophytes. Mouth and body as in Limax. destitute of tentacula or feelers. Mouth and body as in Limax. Body round. Vent Vent dorsal.166 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. . posterior. Terebella. Fasciolaria. these orders are thus defined: Intestines. do not revive upon being replaced : in moisture. Holothuria. Doris. surrounded with fleshy tentacula. b. V. Mouth above. Body carinated.) The genera of I. Body entirely filiform. — a. posterior. or feelers. Actinia. Perforated with a lateral pore. dilated when in motion. Mouth placed before. These are extremely minute animals. Aperture single . Mouth ration. and generally not visible to the naked eye they are mostly found in infusions of various vegetable substances. the lateral pore. the other beneath. Mouth placed tentacula or feelers . before.

Mouth and body as in Triton. * Multwalve Chiton. Cardinal teeth triangular. prickly. central. Cardinal teeth two. with accessory pieces at the posterior ** Mya. pointed. Triton. LINNJEAN SYSTEM. 12. with two oblique. Shell bivalve. Arms membra. Nereis. not let into the Donair. Teeth none the rim with a linear depression Chama. Sepia. Mouth and body as in Triton. spined. central. each pair or with feet ovate . and slender. divided. III» Testacea. Hinge with remote. Cardium. Clio. Scyllsea. claws. witli suckers. mouth unarmed. Area. Echinus. M 4) . . furnished with teeth. Hinge in one valve. separated by a small hollow. other valve. composed of several transverse plates. Aphrodita. Shell thick tooth. Lepas. Hinge with three approximate. Mouth elongated . Bivalve shells. remote from the cardinal teeth. Body coriaceous. Body pedunculated. gelatinous. Lernaa. Ostrea. central. end. Spondylus. Hinge with a broad posite valve. of ttva valves only. Mouth inferior. Arms beset some chelate. Shell shells. Valves sessile. Mouth and body in Triton. Mactra. 2 . Body crustaceous. Solen. ar- ranged on the back. Body smooth. but with an ovate hollow. valves unequal. Hinge with a remote lateral tooth. divaricating cardinal Venus. not entering the oplateral teeth open at each end. Hinge without teeth. at feet. or with mouth with Asteria. Mouth before. teeth. 16? JMouth before. Arms 2-3 Arms round 6 . Hinge with numerous acute teeth. naceous. of different Pholas. complicated. Body furnished with arms. Hinge with the lateral teeth of one valve not let into the other. Anemia. a distance. with many valves. Mouth inferior. Mouth and body as in Triton. and body pedunculated. sizes. VERJIES. INIouth inferior. as Arms 8-10. lateral teeth. the interstices hollow. obtuse teeth.. . Medusa. Tellina. dilated like wings.

with cylindrical tubes. a softer stem. Nautilus. Sabella. IV. Shell with many cells. Millepora. Trochus. subulate. Shell tubular. filiform. Flustra. Dentalium. and semi-orbicular. Serpula. Aperture contracted. spire regular. Aperture contracted. valves united at one end. Animal inhabiting a coral. i Shell conic. " Cellipora. Teeth none . Animal inhabiting a coral with concave stars. Aperture contracted and orbicular. Stem horny. Cyprsea. Shell slender. Animal inhabiting a coral with subulate pores. . lunate on the inner side. Madrepora.168 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOQY. Conus. Haliotis. Fixed. Murex. Aperture effuse. toothed each side. communicating with each other by a siphon. longitudinal. Animal inhabiting a coral. pierced into wood. Aperture with a small canal leaning to the left. Spongia. Argonauta. with hollow round cells. Stem stringy. mostly serpentine. Helix. Alcyonium. but without a spire. Shell composed of agglutinated grains of sand. and somewhat square. Fixed. hinge with a pointed depression. *** Univalves. Fixed. Mytilus. Aperture effuse. Voluta. * With a hurd calcareous stem. the aperture widening like a bason. Univalve shells. Piuna. longitudinal. Shell with one cell . and placed obliquely. Tubipora. Teredo. open at the other. the pillar plaited. Stem tubular. Fixed. Aperture contracted. Turbo. Aperture with a small canal leaning to the right. Tubularia. Shell with a row of orifices along the surface. Stem corky. Aperture with a small straight canal. Shell thin. open at both ends. adhering to other bodies. Fixed. -Buccinum. spire involute. ** IHth Gorgonia. Stem covered with minute cellular pores. Strombus. absorbent. ZOOPHYTA. Teeth none . Aperture eflfuse . linear. Aperture a little contracted. Bulla. Shell fixed by a byssus. without teeth. Nerita. flexile. ^ ] **** Patella.

LINN^AN SYSTEM. l69 Stem with filiform calcareous joints. even here. Furia. in some many seems highly probable that his views. Taenia. Sertularia. Stem medullous. resembling a quill. Free. Fixed. Body linear. in the most objectionable part of our author's system. that. therefore. no disparagement to Linnaeus that the labours of his successors have obliterated this portion of his system from the pages of modern science . Chaos. it respects. Stem coriaceous. ficial . so that. Volvex. Fixed. are On the whole. this group. and that the benefits he bestowed upon our favourite science are as multifarious as they are By the unrivalled simplicity of his artisystem. and consider that the labours of this wonderful man were spread over the whole of organised matter. upon him we shall only for negbe astonished that his errors were not greater. Hydra. here placed in the class Vermes. Pennatula. naked. we must express our convic- tion that the name of Linnaeus must ever remain as that of the great father of natural history since the revival of learning . as the three aberrant divisions of the animal kingdom {Acrita. bear in mind the state of zoological science system was formed. Free. yet it must be remembered. Stem with fibrous gelatinous joints.) The most objectionable part of the Linnaean system is unquestionably the arrangement of the soft invertebrated animals. he enticed votaries and students to the incalculable. Free. Free. Stem with filiform fibrous joints. Vorticella. VERMES. Fixed. therefore. Free. or that he was able to contemplate them at all. It is. with but very few exceptions. Body roundish or spherical. so far from joining in the But if we when this ill-judged censure that has been cast lecting the lower animals. Stem or body moniliform. more conformable to nature than of those which have recently been promulgated. Corallina. Radiata. and the admirable precision of his nomenclature. Free. mere point. and ciliate on each Body a side with re- flected prickles. and MoUusca) form a natural group by themselves. will comprise the whole of the Linnaean class of Vermes. articulated. (220.

has been eminently unsuccessful. but. which every one can see. The attempt. and equally embraced the whole animal kingdom. or Quadrupeds.170 investigation ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. (223. founded exclusively upon the organisation of animals. And. and which had been so happily employed by Linnaeus. Thus Quadrupeds. and makes the differences between these groups to depend stances upon circumwhich no one but an anatomist can understand. The principal groups into which each of these classes are next divided will be seen : — by the following tables. 3. Soft or molluscous animals {Animalia mollusca). Vertebrated animals (Animalia vertehrata). 1. or vertebrated class. however grand. II. Like all those which have been built on one set of characters. the system of M. (221. These animals in themselves are abundantly different in their external form. Reptilia. are also divided into four groups. Radiated animals (^Animalia radiata). this illustrious anatomist conceived the idea of a natural system. and gifted with talents of no common order. Articulated animals (Animalia articulata). But as we shall have frequent occasion to illustrate this opinion. Cuvier has eventually become most palpably artificial. IV. as our author's system professes to be founded on anatomical structure only. Mammalia. Patronised by his government.) I. lastly.) In the Cuvierian system all animals are arranged \mder four principal divisions I. The Vertebrata. and. and a general revision of aU the groups. Pisces. or Birds . III. or Fishes. we proceed at once to give a general outline of the great divisions of the animal kingdom as proposed in the Regne Animal. The immense increase that had been now made to our knowledge of natural productions called for the institution of new genera and subdivisions.) The system of Cuvier succeeded that of LinnsEUs. namely. of nature/ who would otherwise have shrunk from those obstacles which he removed. or Mammalia. he rejects the more plain and obvious characters. 4. or Reptiles. (222. 2. Aves. are to be known by .

the sub-genera and smaller omitted. I. the is an essentially of which implies that Man animal. possess the lightness to support whose respiration is greater. tory process simple. 171 " their double circulation. is. Fishes. but eminently calculated as the event. them in their airy flight. are doomed to creep upon and many of them pass more or less of their kind of stupor. are formed for walking and running. ." principles — This extract will sufficiently explain the nature of the upon which this system is constructed principles.) The Mammalia are arranged in orders. and strength of muscles necessary which respire the earth. IV. This is obvious from the folloTfing passage.CUVIERIAN SYSTEM. more freely. and their predominant charac: — teristic is vigour. Finally. which appears intended to give the essential distinction of these four primary divisions " From all this result four different kinds of motion. of the utmost value. Birds. the world can see and understand. are enabled to execute their peculiar motions by an arrangement altogether different from the rest. and combined with other considerations. and by having the respiraperformed by the lungs The that of reptiles lating organ. — (224. Quadrupeds. when properly used. quantity of their respiration is superior to by reason of the form of their circu- and to that of fishes by the surrounding The primary groups of element which they respire. has proved to substitute complex definitions for others which aU. in fact. Reptiles." this anatomical system of Cuvier are. the external forms of the creatures themselves not entering in the least degree into his consideration. III. The following table will show the ranks of the first — — chief groups or famihes as they are given in the Regne Animal. divisions being . in the present case. founded upon motion and respiration. indeed. that alone. GENERAL DIVISIONS. fluid almost as specifically allotted period in a which move in a heavy as themselves. for which the four classes of vertebrated animals are severally and exclusively designed. II. in which the quantity of respiration is moderate.

Dolphins. Man. Martes. Antilope. Elephas. Echimys. Lepus. Shrew Mice.) The above sketch will give the reader a ge- neral idea of the method employed by our author in the arrangement of the Mammalia. Cetacea. I. Camelus. Lemmings. Echidna. Anteater. Galeopithecus. Civets. Ornithorhynchus. Hedgehogs. Dipus. Sus. Myrmecophaga. Hippopotamus. 3i Horse. Kodentia. Brushtails. ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. Edentata. Lemur. Camels. 4. Camelopardalis. Order Castor. Tapirus. Amphibia. as tending to point out dif- . Viverra. Lamas. Rock Cats. Anchenia. American mar- II. Capra. Trichechus. Harpales. Dicotyles. all of which. Antelopes. Talpa. Moles. Hystrix. Marmots. Kangaroos. Echidna. Unguiata. Flying quadrupeds. Simla. Arvicola. We observe a vast addition to the materials possessed by Linnaeus. Cervus. Opossums. Apes and monkeys of the Old World. Ursus. Rhinoceros. III. Arctomys. Oxen. Equus. Rhinoceros. Bos. Whales.172 Order Order Simia. Bats. mots. Spermophilus. Bimana. Hares. Solipedes. Order VIL Lamantins. Insect Feeders. Sciurus. 1. Dormice. Walrus. Giraffes. Manis. Apes and monkeys. Hyrax. Canis. Sorex. Seals. Carnivora. Jerboa. Armadillo. Manis. Mus. Goats. Didelphis. Cheiroptera. Felis. Dasyurus. Martens. Order 1. rabbit. Marsupiati. Stags. IV. Erinaceus. Phalangista. 3. Pteromys. Porcupines. Carnivora. Tapir. Flying Squirrels. 5. Ruminantia. Mouse. Order V. Sloths. Apes and monkeys of America. Bears. Insectivora. and a corresponding increase in the number of divisions and subdivisions . River-horse. Phoca. Phalangers. Quadrumana. 2. Pecary. Sow. Elephant. Dogs. Monotrema.. Bradypus. Sheep. Halmaturus. Squirrels. Lemurs. Beavers. Flying lemurs. 2. Vespertilio. Order VL Pachydermata. Dasypus. (225. Ovis.

Morphnus Cuv. tions. in arranging these into a comprehensive form. Circxtus P'ieil. the Raptores. Aquila . as rich as it is inexhaustible." (226. except to The utility of his system. Harpyia Cuv. five of which are natural. brace them On the other hand. are the anatomist. Order Vultur. and not the external. These difBculties are further increased by the want of those synoptical tables. are highly valuable. Perchers. arranged with the Passeres or. has been justly designated a " mine of wealth.) Ulula Cuv. the Insessores. I. where the essenat a single glance. as — BIRDS. Strix Sav. structure of an animal alone decides its place in nature. Vulture Family. Haliiectus Sav. can characters of each group are clearly and luminously stated. Falcon Family. Astur Cuv. emwe cannot but admire the precision with which the anatomical distinctions of many of the minor groups are made out. the Grallatores. and the vast additions which this celebrated writer has made to the other details of zoology. with all its imperfections of arrangement. namely. and it gives the student an impression (certainly an erroneous one) that the internal. however good. Gypaetos. ferences. so admirably constructed tial by Linnaeus. Percnopterus. his illustrious predecessor. for general consequently much diminished. the sixth being composed of the climbing birds (Scansores). the Rasores. which Linnaeus. FaUo L. more correctly. Otas (Asio Antiq. use.) The class of birds is arranged in the following method . Gypogeranus Uliger Cat'. Catliartes. His work. all.-tuct. the whole being divided into six great orders. Milvus Bech. 173 But. Cymindis Cuu. Buteo Bech. . and where the eye. is not' always comprehensible. AccipitresX. and the Natatores of this work . Circus Beck. Pandion Sav. Syniium Sav.CUVIERIAN SYSTEM. our author falls far short of He has rested his distinc- we have already seen. Hierofaico Owl Family. upon characters which.

Crow Family. Muscicapa L. Teisina Vieil. Manaldn Family. Sylvia Anct. Cypselus ///. Tanager Family. Myothera III. Calyptomina Raffles. ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOIiOGY. Thrush Family. Colius. Starling Family. Edolius Cuv. Pipra L. Manorhina. Orinlus. Buphaga Briss. Vanga Buff". Caprimulgus. Pitylus Cuv. Budytes Cuv. Psaris Cuv. Corvus L. Gymnocephalus Geoff. Ploceus Cuv. Lark Family. Turdus i. Siv. Fringilla L. Flycatcher Family. Warbler Fajnily. Pyrrhocorax. Bombycilla Briss. Alauda. Gymnoderus Geoff. Cephalopterus Geoff. Phibalura Vieil. Curruca Bech. Eurylaimus Horsf. Parus L. Gracula L. Coccothraustes Briss. DENTIB0STRE3. Emberiza L. FiSSIROSTRES. . Order 1. 3. Pica Briss. Pyrrhula Cuv. Ampelis L. Bethylus Cuv. '] Loxia Briss. Philedon Cuv. Motacilla L. Podargus Cuv. Vidua Cuv. Pyrgita Antiq. II. Tanager L. Eulabes Cuv. Conic-billed Groups. Xanthornus. Swallow Family. Gymnops. Shrike Family. Anthus Bech. Oxyrhynchus Dacnis Cuv. Scops Sav. Troglodytes Ray. CONIROSTKES. Chatterer Family. Ocypterus Cuv. Regulus Ray. Euphonia Vieil. Sturnus. Chalybseus Cuv. . Hirundo L.'' Garxulus Briss. Graculus Cuv. Procnias Haff. Muscipeta Cuv. Lanius L. Menura. Carduelis Briss. Barita Cuv. 2. Ceblepyris Cuv. Tyranrius Briss. Icterus Dand. Corythus. Pardalotus Vieil. Cassicus Cuv. Saxicola B. Rupicola Briss.174 Bubo Cuv. Falcunculus Vieil. Cinclus. Passeres L. Noctua Sav. Motacilla L. Ortlionyx.

Turacco Family. Scythrops Lath. Phainicophaus Pigeon Family. Fregilus Cic. BIRDS. Trochilus /. Pheasant Family. Merops L. Arachnothera Tem. Alcedo L. Orthorhynchus Lacep. 175 Glaucopis Forst. Cuculus L. Order Piciis L. Upupa L. J'ieil. Tem. Dendrocolaptes Herm. Partridge Family. Ortalida Merr. Todus L. Pezoporus III. Faradisea L. Curassow Family. Tragopan Cuv. Tichodroma III. Nectarinia III. III. Tenuirosteeb. Coracias L. Coturntx Auct. Opisihocomus Hoff. Syri haptes ///. Taraatia Marc. Roller Family. Yunx L. Pteroglossus III. Ourax Cuv. Hoopoe Family. Order IV. Conurus Kuhl. 4. Bucco L. Musophaga Isert. Sittai. Caryocatactes Cuv.. Anabates Tem. Epimachus Cuv.CUVIEBIAN SYSTEM. Cuckovj Family. Syndactyle Family. Crypsirina f'ieil. Leptosomus Vieil. Crotophaga L.. Scansores. Colaris Cuv. Saurothera J'ieil. ///. Penelope Merr. Pavo L. Perdix Bris. Parrot Family. Le Vail. SynaUaxis Vieil. Promerops Briss. Cryptonyx. Ortygis III. Psittacus L. Lagnpus Bay. Corythaix III. Pterocles Galbula L. Prionites ///. DiCEeum Cuv. Certhia L. Meliihreptes Vieil. Humming-Bird Family. Gallus L. Columba L. Numida L. Ramphastos L. Centropus ///. Gallina L. Alector Merrevi. Trogon L. Lophophorus Tem. Moiiassa J'ieil. Peacock Family. Phasianus L. Buccros L. Pogonias III. Xenops Ara Kuhl. Crax L. Crypturus III. Indicator Hemipodius Tem. . Meleagris L. Tetrao L. Cinnyris Cuv. Ceyx Lacep.

Falcinella Cuv. Fulica L. Scopus L. Fuligula Bay. Halodroma Pachyptila III. FamUy. Pelidna Cuv. Psophia L. Cereopsis Lath. Colymbus L. Numenius Cuv. Eurinorhynchus Wilson. III. Palmipedes. Uria Briss. Order VI. ' Tetanus Cuv. Phaleris Tetn. Strepsiias III. Anser Ant. Lobipes Cuv. Gull Family. Ciconia Briss. Rhynchops L. Rallus L.. Machetes Cuv. Palamedia L. Porphyrlo Briss. Catarthactes Briss. Tadorna Leach. Gallinula Briss. Squatarola C. Anas L. Bail Family. Grebe Family. . Briss. Megapodius Dup. Grus Antiq. Tachypetes Vieil. Puffinus Ray. Chionis Forster. Anastomus III. Sterna /. Ostrich Order V. Charadrius i. ' ON SYSTJEMATIC ZCOLOGY. Grm-l^L.176 Lophyrus Vieil. Puffin Family. Dicholophus IlL Alca L. \ Heron Family. Duck Family. Dromas Pay. Hsematopus L. Plotus L. Plover Family. Vanellus Bech. . Phalaropus Briss. Parra L. Podoa III. Larus L. Pelican or fVeb-footed Family. Ardea L. Cygnus Ant. Diomedia L. Ibis Antiq. Procellaria L. Scolopax L. Cancroma L. Spheniscus Briss. Limosa Bech. Platalea L. Carbo Meyer. Eudytes III. Snipe Family. Lestris Tem. Struthio L. Tachydromus III. Otis L. Phffiton h. Clangula Leach. Arenaria Bech. Podiceps Lath. . Phcenicopterus L. Peleeanus L. Tantalus L. Rhynchaspis Leach. Casuarius Briss. Mergus L. Scolopax L. Tringa L. Aptenodytes Forster. Eurypyga ///. Somateria Leach. Rhynchffia Cuv. Glareola Gm. CEdicnemus Tem. Mycteria L. Dysporus III. Hemantopus Recurvirostra L. Yinago Cuv.

do not appear to us to have effected either the establishment of an artificial system. is the formation of families. of which most of the materials. This truth has been so often repeated. as to the grand the unaccountable error of LinKiEus. by some unaccountable mistake of the architect. Here. The whole is like a building. from a matter of no moment in an artificial system. are good . or groups intermediate in rank between orders and genera. do not. but rather an advantage . hold. in short. Another great advantage apparent in this system. are preserved. For although the w-hole is interspersed with original and valuable anatomical remarks. and elevated to a rank they This departure. the merits of the system before us terminates. divisions of the class . the birds then known were so few that these intervening divisions were not necessary. in themselves. in the views of Linnaeusj is additions to correct nomenclature. In the days of Linnaeus. ance with the plan of the work \ . recognised in the natural system. and the five leading groups.) with that of Linnteiis. and they were consequently omitted. however. namely. since it tends to bring this remarkable group more immediately under the eye of the general reader. are combined in such a way as to produce any thing but that beauty and order which might have been expected. the fitting in of the genera (if we may be allowed the expression) is not only unnatural. The ornithological labours of M. however. that of an arrangement founded upon natural organisation. or the advancement of the natural system. but which. 177 On comparing this ornithological system (227. however. Unfortunately. even by those who have done ample justice to his high and distinguished merits as a comparative anatomist. is avoided. but at vari. Cuvier. in separating the aquatic orders by the intervention of the land birds. the climbing families have been detached from the Tnsessores.CUVIERIAN SYSTEM BIRDS. First. and reality. there are several features which require separate consideration.' and consequently erroneous.

or bivalve shell-fish . form the second of his great divisions of the animal kingdom . of whose system we shall subsequently speak. With the class of insects M.) II. indeed. Gasteropoda. Cymbulia. Pteropoda. Acephala. M. Belemnites. will give a good idea of the system pursued : — Ordeb I. we deem it unnecessary to cite particular inThe best. except in the primary divisions. Brachiopoda. which the experienced orni- thologist can possibly have. The and. The MoLLuscA. that we feel assured the student will be desirous of seeing them noticed somewhat more in detail.) The Cuvierian arrangement of the Reptiles and Fishes need not be here enlarged upon . Cuvier. Nautilus Lam. Sepia L. lastly. fish. for. and with reference to the materials possessed by each. stances. 3. is inferior to that of Linnteus. Cuvier had no acquaintance. is the preceding table of the series of genera. Cephalopoda. (228. or following table. . that having been entirely written by the celebrated Latreille. Nummulites. or . or wingof Vermes. II. 2. and he divides them into the six following classes 1. Loligo Lam. univalve 5. (229. which enu- merates most of the family groups. shell- 4. or cuttle-fish. pendent of the space which the details of these divisions would occupy. inde. 6. Cephalopoda. placed class by Linnaeus in the Here his discoveries and observations are so original and valuable. the Cirripeda. with M. Cuttle- Anjmonites. or parasitic shell-fish barnacle sheU-fish. : — footed Mollusca . OXDER Clio.178 that ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. containing a full exposition of the ornithological system of the Regne Animal. our own arrangement of these classes will be nearly the same as that of the Regne Animal. which. fish . Cuvier's great merit lies in the anatomical investiga- tion of those soft animals. ItEBOPODA.

Ac'ephala testacea. Siliquaria. Mactra. Area. Diadema. Gasteropoda. Fissurella. Crania. Aplisia. Trochoides. Alya. Spherulites. Heteropoda Lam. Parmophorus. Glaucus. Shells. Cikrifeda. Vermetus. Teredo. Botryllus. Thecidea. Pholas. Magiles. Akera. Pterotrachia. Buccinoides. Pecten L. Ostrea.. Notarchus. Polyclinum. Pyrosoma. Venus. Onchidium. Phyllidia. Tectibranchia. Solen. Order V. Lima Brug. Cleodora. Helix. Tubulibranchia. Clavigella. PoUicipes. Radiolites. -SIOLLUSCA. Unio. Lingula. Limnea. Inferobranchia. Haliotis. Pleurobranchus. Limax. Polycera. Bulla. Balanus. Otion. Chiton. Emarginula. Patella. Dolabella. Cyclobranchia. Nudibrnnchia. Cardium. Scuiibranchia. Chama. Ascidia. Tethjs. Bar- nacles. Acephala nuda. Tetralasmis. Order Acephjla. Bhanchiopoda. Spirifer. Tritonia. N 2 . Order IIL Pulmobranchia. Firola Peron. Perna L. Terebratula. Carina ria. IV. Cineras. Ostraceee. Salpa. Mytilus. Scyllsea. Orbicula. CUVIERIAN SYSTEM. Doris. 179 Bivalve Pneumodcrmon. Order VL Anatifera. Spnndylus L. Pectinibranc/iia. Djphyllidia.

— 1. and evinces that intimate acquaintance with the details of these animals which laid the foundation for the brilliant career of this incomparable anatoUnder these circumstances we feel compelled mist. or Zoophytes (^Animalia radiata) . divided into four great sections: or red-blooded 3. Latreille. (232. Astcrias and Echinus of Linnaeus. or the star-fish and sea eggs. intestinal 4. or It is in this part of his laborious work that insects. so totally different. 5. medusas. ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. One .) III. that we cannot but feel surprise they should have been assoconstitute the ciated together. The group. (231. The Acalephce. in fact. 2. are divided in the . or spiders . highly valuable. to be more particular on this class than the last. The Crustacea.180 (230. 1 The EchinoCuvier into five large groups. or crabs Arachnides. comprises two classes of animals. following Each of manner : — these. from whose pen the whole of the third and fourth volume has proceeded. has found it necessary to call in the assistauthor our The ance of M. who have attributed to one by what belongs to the other. forming the genera : — . again_. The Polypi. We advert to this fact.) IV. The Insecta. And. worms.) The class of Zoophytes is divided by M. 3. Cuvier is composed of the articulated animals. 4. 2. of which Insects The whole group is present the typical perfection. although the term belongs but to a small part of those he has placed under this denomination. The third great division of M. The Annelides. viz. and. as the circumstance has been overlooked some modern writers. The Infusoria. . or polypes the other the true Radiata of this In other respects the arrangement before us is work. worms . derma. or animalcules. The fourth and last division of our author comprises what he terms the radiated animals. of these groups Acrita. The or Intestina. or polypes.

Taenia i. Polypes a polypiers. Echinus L. Holothuria L. 1. Pertastoma Rud. Order HI. Urceolaria. II. N S . Cuv. Vaginicola. Polypes Ge'lalineux. Monas. Physalia Lam. Flustra L. Ligula Bloch. Volvox. Echinocyamus Lcsk. Porpita Lam. Alcyonium Spongia i. Thalassema Cuv. Intestina. Prionoderma Rud. Eniozoa Nemato'idea Rudolphi. Cassidulus Lairu Physsophora Hippopus. Capillaria Bud. CucuUanus. Rotifene. Filaria L. Hsruca Gm. Rotifera. Tubipora L. Order 1. Pedicellaria MUll. L Antipathes Z. Cercaria. I. Oxyuris Rud. 2. Echiurus Cuv. Tubicolaria. L Animal- Physaloptera Rud. Medusa L. Diphyes. Sertularia L. Nemeries Cuv. Minyas Cuv. Beroe Mull. &c. Lucernaria MUll.. Spiroptera Eiid. Fasciola L. Cellularia L. Echinanthus Kl.CUVIERIAN SYSTEM. Ascaris L. Strongylus MUll. Medusa L. Gorgonia L. Les Parenchi/viateux. IV. Chondracanthus. Sternaspis Otto. Vorticella. Leorhynchus Rud. Lithoderma Cuv Siponculus Gm. Star-Jish Asterias L. - Millepora L. Pennatula L. Alecto Leach. Acalepb^. 2. 2. Scolex Mdll. Echinorhynchus. F. Polypi. Lernsea L. Brachionus. Isis L. Polypes charnus. Vibrio. Conulus A7. Tubularia L. . 3. Obdeb ^. Spatangus Lesk. Encrinus M. Molpadia Cuv. Trichoda. Bonellia Bol. Pinnella Ok. MadrepoiaX. Lam. cules. Cristate! la C. Hydra L. Order Asterias. Cidaris Kl. ZOOPHYTES. Veletta Lam. Ophiostoma. Priapulus Actinea L. Corallina Trichocephalus Rud. Proteus. 181 Echinoderma. Clavella Ok. Ikfusoria. Infusoria hmnogenea. Order 1.

scientific. of Illiger is confined to quadrupeds and birds . but they are rather compiled than original schemes . others. .182 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. Many of these are desigpages of the Regne Animal. They are the only two which have embraced the whole of the animal kingdom. have been given to the world . Fabricius. but equally furnished materials of such value. without any reference to its analogies or representations The partial system in the general scheme of nature. from not carrying with them internal evidence of adequate knowledge. and. Latreille. be passed over in relating But there are silence. a practice highly detrimental to that clearness and perspicuity of nomenclature which should be preserved in works of science : and thiSj added to the want of synoptical tables through- reference. therefore. so as having emanated from De Geer. however^ enumerated the leading We and these will sufficiently explain to the stu- dent the nature of the whole. nated only by their French names . have received neither support from the These may. and guide search after the lesser divisions. out the work. only to particular classes of animals. materially diminishes its utility for facile have. (233. the classifications we are now to notice come also under the head of artificial systems. from the higher groups down to' the lowest. indeed. while those of ViPillot and Temminck are restricted to the Those most celebrated in entomology have latter only. him in his (234. because they merely tend to illustrate the peculiarities of the individual when viewed by itself. nor popularity from the public. Like those celebrated works. namely. Several others. from which are not only highly important as emanating men justly celebrated in the ranks of science. that without them even the Systema Naturce.) We have now given an exposition of the two most celebrated systems of modern times . or the Regne Animal could never have been given to the world.) Notwithstanding the length of the above we have found it impracticable to insert the whole of the divisions and sub-genera which crowd the table. gi-oups . Leach. those of Linnaeus and of Cuvier.

: under the classical and appropriate names bestowed upon them in the Prodromus Systematis Mammalium of this accomplished zoologist. are divided under which are arranged the genera. into at the outset. (235. These orders he arranges under two great or primary divisions : the first containing the true quadrupeds. the for the to which they truly belong genera are all good. from the rest. These genera are all incorporated in the present work. Vieillot is chiefly remarkable for the incorporation of the scansorial birds with the perchers. . and Clairville. somewhat more successful in his is higher combinations. or ostrich family. although the series in which they are placed evinces that the author had no idea of the difference between analogy and affinity. again. The former he divides into fourteen orders. for the first time in modern systems. the second the aquatic or cetaceous Mammalia. so that we find. considering the Scanscres. he He makes seven orders of the whole sessores).) The ornithological system of M. Sylvicolce. likewise. our author has been inferior to . of each. a retrograde movement from natural arrangement. As the groundwork of this system is eminently artificial. there is no occasion to enter upon further particulars. These orders. families. the natural series of the five orders of birds. as distinct from the perching birds {In- which he terms Amhulatores Rasore. In arranging the class of birds. 183 Following the order of these names. and the seals thus to give a slight sketch : we proceed making. or climbers. while he se- parates. M. in like manner. (236. the Cursores.) Illiger published his classification of quadrupeds and birds in 1811. from characters taken from the feet. although Aristotle. Vieillot's system et Avium N 4 .PARTIAL SYSTEMS. here. and as the genera (excellent in themselves) have been all incorporated in the Regne Animal. both forming a part of our author's second order.i. in regard to the ostrich family. This arrangement is not far from natural . which he makes the first group among the waders. He likewise rectified the error of Illiger.

nearly all of which. the primary divisions. The priority of the nomenclature. be unnecessary to give further details of this system . in finities.) The system of M. or. excellent. M. Of all those which have been framed without a reference to the general laws of the natural system. . but he seems. This may appear unmerited praise. since. further remarkable for the number of new types or sub-genera it contains . and. for the genera are so loosely defined that they can be only understood by a reference to the type (generally a well- known bird) which the author quotes. — are very it clear. when we perceive that the very foundation. in other words. M. with great care. and the author is evidently unacquainted with — any other. and others have spoken of them in terms of severe censure. is detail . Temminck has publicly protested against these plagiarisms. are few. are forced and unnatural. (237. and the separation of his genera. he has evidently not been influenced by the example of his more learned predecessor. Cuvier. when viewed in reference to artificial arrangement. consequently. has availed himself largely of the valuable labours of Illiger. is Our justly censured for doing this without any acknowledg- ment of the aid he thus received . however. indeed. new names have been given to groups previously defined and named by Illiger. however ill-definedj are natural. Temminck loses sight of the groups of Aristotle. and others. is not to be relied upon . and combined together with an evident perception. These. of natural aftrue. all of which are made to appear as emanating from the author himself. and has been authoi*. and subdivides the leading orders of the class into no less than sixteen divisions. it is decidedly the best. but. true. unfortunately for his is The genera. in the formation of his groups. also.184 is ON SYSTEJIATIC ZOOLOGY. nevertheless. many it instances. Temminck deserves much more attention. It will. but they are defined and evince an acquaintance with this class of zoology far superior to that possessed by any of the moderns. hke that of Illiger. Our author's forte. in many cases.

Accentor Bech. Glaucopis Forster. Anthus Bech.ORNITHOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. and His even omits some of those defined by M. he assuredly ranks. next to whom. Vieil. Phibalura Vieil. Vanga Vieil. Ceblepyris Cuv. Pyrrhocorax Cuv. Sparactes Illig. Opisthocomus Buceros L. Sternus /. Platyrhynchus Des. Pastor Tern. Muscicapa i. Buphaga L. Sylvia Lath. to have imbibed the ancient notion that no genus is to be retained. Paradisea L. if the links by which it is conHence he adopts nected to another are discovered. Ptilonorhynchus KuM.. in the arrangement of his generic groups. as an ornithologist. however. The experienced ornithologist will perceive the artificial nature of the following orders. Psaris Cuv. Order Omnitora. Order Cinclus III. but the natural connection of a number of the genera they contain : — Order I. Catharces lUig. Illig. Procnias Hoff. Casmarhynchus Tem. BecK . Illig. Saxicola Bech. Bombycilla Briss. Barita Cuv. Ampelis X. Lanius L. Malurus Vieil. Vieillot. Parus L. Menura Shaw. Coracina Vieil. Insectitora. TEMMINCK. Prionites Ilitg. Order IV. MotariUa L. Lamprotornis Tern. and the high finish he has bestowed upon them. Nucifraga Briss. merits. Tod us L. Strix L. Tliamnophilus Gypogeranus Falco L. Pardalotis Vieil. have given to his system a prevalence and popularity above all others which have appeared since the days of Linnseus . Rupicola Cuv. very few of the genera intimated by M. Oriolus L. Turdus L. Gyphcetus Slorr. Icterus Dandin. Emberiza L. Raptores. Pipra L. 185 own fame. Gracula L. Granivora. Corvus I. Pitta Vieil. Coracias L.. II. Colaris Cuv. Cuvier. Vultur img. Alauda Z. Edolius Cuv. Myothora Ulig. Ocypterus Cuv.

Order Zygodactyli. Crotophaga L. Trochilus L. Hemantopus Briss. Order VII. Tinamus Lath. Ploceus Cuv. ffidicnemus Tevi. Syrrhaptes Illig. Psophia L. Tetrao L. (Ourax Cuv. Pogonias Itlig. Galbu'a L. Cursorius Lath.186 Tanagra i. Meleagris L. Order VI. Pteroglossus lUig. Meliphaga Lewin. Czereba Briss. Hemipodius Tern. Colius Lat/:. (Tamatia Cuv. Penelope Merr. Phoenicophaus Vieil. Chelidoni. Khea Briss. Ardea L.' Phytotoma Mo/l.) Crax L. Order XII. Capito Vieil. Ijeptosoraus Vieil. Argus Tern. Haematopus L. Trogon L. Psittacus i. Order XIII. Order V. Certhia L. Sythrops Latham. Calidris Illig. Alcyoni. Tichodroma Illig. ANisoDACTVLr. Order IX. Vanellus Briss. Anabates Tern. Dicholophus Glareola L. Grallatores. .) Bucco L. Grus Pallas. Dendrocolaptes Herman. Pavo L. Numida L. Centropus I/lig. X. A ramus Vieil. Yunx L. Drepanis Tern. Alectorides. Cryptonyx Tern. Musophaga Indicator Isert. Perdix Lath. Pterocles Tern. Xenops Illig. Charadrius L. ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. Illig. Le Vail. Pyrrhula Ciw. Order XI. Picus L. Climacteris Tern. Fringilla L. Galling. Epimachus Cuv. Ciconia Briss. Upupa L. Cuculus L. Otis L. Callus L. Polyplectron Tern. Alcedo i. Lophophorus Tern. Columba L. Columb£. Ramphastos L. Nectarinia Illig. Casuarius Briss. Cacelo Leach. Struthio L. Oxyruncus Tern. Cursores. Opetiorhynchus Tern. Strepsilus Iliig. Phasianus L. Cypselus Illig. Orthonyx Tern. Loxia Sriss. Merops L. Psittirostra Tern. Hirundo L. Coccyzus Vieil. Pauxi Tfm. Chauna Illig. Falcinellus Cuv. Order VIII.

Numenius Briss. Anas L' Mergus L. JUig. Aptenodytes Forst. Didus L. Pachyptila liiig. De Geer must its be first men- not only because of priority. Pelecanus L. and we know not how many have been lately drawn up by the writers of Germany. Vieil Eurjpyga IlUg. Porphyrio Briss.ENTOMOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. Uria Briss. Carbo ileyer. DE GEEB. accordingly.) We must here : enumeration of or- nithological systems very many others are enumerated by M. Spheniscus Briss.) tioned it Of partial systems. Lestris Illig. The prince of Musignano has more recently given the outlines of another. Tringa L. (239. Phffiton L. Scopus Byiss. Rallus L. Limosa Briss. (238. Podoa I/iig. close our Inertes. Ibis Aniiq. Phalaris Tern. Alca L. Rynchasa Ctiv. that of the celebrated baron . Gallinula Briss. restricted to entomology. Parra L. Obdek XIV. Apteryx Shaw. Larus L. sets out with di- viding the whole into two primary groups Ibok to the annexed table for the details : — : but let us . Lesson. who is himself the author of two. Order XV. Sterna L. Tach ypetes Sula Briss. and he. Diomedia L. Mormon Pinnatipedes. Anastomus Illig. Fulica L. Cancroma Platalea i. Totanus Bech. but because most nearly to that of Aristotle and modern times. De Geer at once perceived the approaches Linnffius of any in typical peculiarity of the class Insecta to consist in their being winged . Cereopsis Lath. Rocurvirostra L. 187 Chionis Forst. Tantalus L. The following exposition of the orders will show how nearly the views of this great man coincided with those of his two illustrious predecessors. Podiceps Lath. L. Palmipedes. Scolopax L. Procellaria L. Order XVI. Phoenicopterus L. Halodroma I/lig. Rhynchops L. Plotus L. Phalaropus Briss.

CoLEOPTERA. {Orthoptera Lat.) Elytra half membranaceous. Fe. mouth with a proboscis. (Hemiptera i. Wings covered with Wings scales.) Lepidoptera. feet six .) . mouth with a tongue. vol iv. Neuroptera. witli a sting. mouth furnished with teeth. or semi-crustaceous.) teeth none.* nevertheless. I. tongue 2.) two._ more . Div. feet fourteen or. 11. Gressoria. AL4TA. Four wings. Proboscidea.) male II. 5. A pair of membranous wings. (Diptera i. mouth furnished with teeth. mouth with teeth. Male without either poisers. basis than following too strictly the by mere classification. poisers two . Elytra coriaceous. Wings two. (Aptera i. tongue bent under the breast. 7. a pair of membranous wings. IL IV. (Neuroptera L. tongue and (Trichoptera K. Wings none feet six head and thorax {Hexapod Aptera. teeth. wings. Hemiptera. (240. distinct. . Undergoing a metamorphosis. to have been convinced of the He appears. Arachnids. Psocus. but without (Hemiptera DlPTERA. Elinguia. Two Dermaptera. Crustacea. Wing* none. 188 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. 9.) Wings i. r 1I. SiPHoNATA. (Hemiptera L. I teeth. mem- branaceous. Crustacea. Wings membranaceous. unequal .) Gymnoptera. 3. feet six or more head 13. . membrana- III. AiiCENATA. nervures mostly longitudinal. . or Female apterous. 10. {Potypod Aptera. covered by wingtwo cases. mouth with teeth. crossed.) this great naturalist. lated i. with a 8. Wings none {Pulex L. 12.. propriety of Aristotle's primary divisions of winged and which ought not • Int to Ent. p. united with the trunk.) Wings hard and crustaceous. (Ptilota Aristotle. Undergoing no metamorphosis. 6. Vermes. Hymenoptera. number and substance of the — has been led to place in different classes to have been so separated.) It has been well observed on this system. Wings membranaceous. four.) Wings membranaceous . Vaginata. equal reticu. Halterata. witliout wing' cases. heart separated from the thorax. Aptera. tongue bent under the breast. (Octopod Aptera. Crustacea. pair of membranous wings beneath .) Saltatoria.) 14. . Two wings uncovered. . aliform. Atraohelia. 443. tongue.) Wings none . that whose merits repose on a much — more permanent organs of insects flight. {Homopetra Leach. V. half coriaceous. with a tongue in the breast Div. SucTORiA. spiral. ceous .

{Neuroptera L. and De Geer : — 1. are here subjoined . Palpi mostly six. {Orthn2>ierous Neuroptera 1j. be extolled as the commencementof all the good that has been since matured . which now began to arise among the continental naturalists. Maxilla corneous. {Hi/inenoptera Li. Exochnata. Linnaeus.ENTOMOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. like him. placed within the labium.) Maxilla naked. Decapod Crustacea of Lat. by others. but his classification. the latter. {Myriapoda Leach. Mitosata. {Neuroptera L.) Maxilla corneous. Kirby and Spence. closing the mouth. . Unogata.) Fabricius was the great systematist of his day . armed with a claw.) Maxilla geniculated at the and connate with the labrum. {Macrourus. he had a most imperfect conception of the latter group. and the other in 1798. His departure from the orders established by Linnaeus will. Kleistognatha. ('241. {Coleoptera L. Eleutherata. vaulted. Decapod Crustacea LiaX. 2. base.) maxillae many. 5. by an obtuse 3. in commencement of those erroneous theories modern times. Polygonata. palpi two. He published two systems . 189 . (Isopod and Branchiopod Crustacea Lat. Ulonata. have led us astray from nature. it will be designated as the iirst which. palpigerous. chiefly for the purpose of showing the passion for new names. toothed. has long been abandoned. while. Odonata.) palpi none. {Brachiurus.) Maxilla corneous. without the labium covered by palpi. once so prevalent. as drawn up by Messrs. one in The primary groups of 1775. 8.) Maxillae many.) lobe.) Maxilla corneous. often elongate. wingless insects FABRICITJS. compressed. by many. free. PiEZATA. [Pulmonary Arachnida Lat. 9. and to illustrate the different conceptions of entomological groups entertained by our author from those of Aristotle. Maxilla covered 4. 6. but. • » 7. 10. Syristata.) Many maxillae without the labium.

that it retarded. species. and the most discouraging and repulsive to the student. p.190 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. there is great truth in the opinion generally en- tertained of his system namely. viz. joints. a. the most artificial. Rfegne Animal. Glossata. : — Crustacea.) recent loss The system of the celebrated Latreille. d. his system. Brachyura. So that whatever merits belong to Fabricius in other respects. according to the statement of its author. Malacostraca. " that. and Whatever were the intentions of the author. founded in all its parts upon the minute organs of the mouth. Anojilura. of advanced. vol. f . Decapoda. of all others. iv. Crustacea. Antliata. J.) 11. it was intended to be partly artificial and partly natural . 2djed. 452. Leach. To show in what manner this principle is applied^ we shall copy his distribution of insects. Mouth with a rostrum having 12. Ryngata. in theory.(e. 1. is. soon superseded that of Fabricius. Unipeltata. It possesses the advantage of being founded on a consideration of the entire structure of these animals . of the natural principle of classification. (Lepidoptera Jj. (242.) Mouth with a spiral tongue between reflected palpi. and Insectaj each of which is again subdivided as follows I. and hence gives us the first example. Tmchean Mouth with an haustellum without Arachnid. Macraura. 13. ArachnidcB. whose we so much deplore. the progress of entomological science. the most difficult. [Diptera L. cj-c. Amphipoda. c. Lsmodipoda." * as to its genera. (243.f The first divisions of the whole class are three . Stomapoda. • Int to Ent.) " In estimating the value of the ahove system^ we must bear in mind^" observe Kirby and Spence. that is. given in his last work. but natural varieties. instead . Bipeltata. {Hemiptera'L. artificial as to its classes and orders.) a jointed sheath.

) The system of Clairville is chiefly remarkable for having given rise to the theory of dividing perfect insects into the two great typical groups. it : — Clairville. or red-blooded worms. Neuroptera. Myriapoda. although this forms part of the Rcgne Animal. Orthoptera. Insect A. which. LATREILLE. Eljrtroptera. Podurce. Coleoptera. Aptera. h. III. Diptera.) is It must be remembered system by Latreille. 191 Isopoda. Arachnids. Phleboptera. Orthoptera. Holetra. Pycnogonides. Trilobites. following table explains his primary divisions: (S'i'i. Trachea rise. Hemiptera. WngVess. Pediculus. Araneides. thus making the primary divisions four. in the same class as insects. Bhipiptera. Lepi»mid£e. II. We regret our space will not permit a fuller elucidation of this system. Pulmonariae. however defective in its primary groups. Acarides. 3. Mandibulata. Chilopoda. Thysanura. that. Siphonostoma. Lepidoptera. Poecilopoda. Hemimeroptera. . i Mandibulata. lulus. Entomoslraca. as they are The thought to be. (245. Rophoteira. Lepidfiptera. Winged 2. Deratoptera. €. Dictyoptera. Coleoptera. Xyphosura. of Haustellata and Mandihulata. as we have already seen^ places the Annelides. Hymenoptera. 2. 4. { Haustellata. Neuroptera Hyraenoptera. Pterophora. Pedipalpi. Scolopendra. Fododunera. Phalangium. 9. Hemiptera. Branchiopoda. lAnruEtis. Pseudo-Scorpiones. and apparently stands under the name of Cuvier the latter. Parasita (Anoplura Leach). g. Chilognatha. Diptera. 8. Siphonaptera.ENTOMOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. Pulex. Lepidoptera. ( Haustellata. 1. is the most elaborate and the most perfect in its details that has yet been given to the world. 2. Halteriptera. /.

13. 11. but which exercise very little influence on the present state of the science. appears. 6. Metamorphosis triple. pursued. 3. "Body without bristles. arrange the annulose types under five leading classes . and then dismiss. 2. - 8. . Hymenoptera. Legs Sac for respiration. Omaloptera. Diptera. 2. No metamorphosis. 7 c Tv„eota ^"secta. ation of artificial systems. Sub-class. i^- (248. or that of Inhave been thus registered in the third volume of his " Zoological Miscellany " secta. 10. ( No . . 7. but no abdominal. Leach. as it now is. Body ending in bristles. II. Coleoptera. another mode ductive philosophy. Aptera. 3. 12.) Dr. Antennae none. Dictuoptera. into two groups or sub-classes. antenna. Tracker for) 1. which comes under this chapter. Trichoptera. Metabolia.) It has been said " that the principal merit of system is the division of insects. Hemiptera.192 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. 2. 4.' Dermaptera. however. AcAiii. of arrangement. : — I. Ametabolia. 1. „ T. which we shall now shortly explain. Anoplura. 16. respiration. Lepidoptera. - Six thoracic legs. then they will form two circular groups exclusive of the Aptera. Orthoptera. Arachnoidea. Rhipiptera. ^ Two antenna. CrUISTACEA." If by this it is meant that these two sub-classes are natural. accordingto Samouelle. (249-) We may now be allowed to close this enumer- which serve to mark the rise and progress of systematic arrangement. 1.5. Myriapoda. 14. (247. 12. £/a^<aL. which they do not. Homoptera. Antennse 2 or 4. 16. 0. (246. Six thoracic legs. Thysanura. whose labours are so well known to entomologists.) His divisions of the last class. upon principles of inThere is. tacitly pointed out by Fabricius. 3 4. thus : this — Legs Gills for respiration. ' 15. from the mode in which they take their food. even according to the circular theory which has been founded upon them. Neuroptera.

therefore. may insects undergo this transformation. provided he closely attends to. Now this mode of arrangement is. into such as A third.nd negative characters. it As for preserving the natural affinities of groups. binary system of his own. This great upon which the advocates of such tables insist. the earliest in use. 1Q3 (250. the most simple. is cessary to the systems in question that by no means neany regard should .s their advocates profess not to pursue any one principle in the selection of their characters. such as have none. as affirm. that they may be multiplied ad libitum. positive and negative characters . and " possesses distinct conceptions on. and was. for instance. name of a species. but each different from the entomologist may choose to divide all insuch as have wings. . are among the most artificial arrangements that have been ever invented. and. and such as Hence. secondly. for this its advocates mode of arrangement." the only requisite. each good in its way. birds with imperfect wings . for he has merely to see what particular character his specimen has.A. and. his object is either to ascertain the it recorded useful. and the most easy of comprehension. may make his two groups depend upon one having jaws. it follows. of any that has been devised . he will often find this sort of catalogue But the misfortune of is the binary methods of arrangement this. Another. It likewise seems to offer a ready clue to the discovery of any particular species or genus. or whether be described or undescribed. other. that every one may form a do not. and so on. simply consists in arranging animals according to their positive a.) Binary or clichotomous systems^ although regulated by a principle. looking to the manner of feeding. birds with perfect wings. One sects into the other none. perhaps. and what it has not. as. it follows that we may have a hundred different binary systems. secondly. considering metamorphosis divide all as the corner-stone of his system. because the student has no occasion to look beyond thetable before him he need not trouble himself about affinities or analogies.BINARY SYSTEMS. principle : When. therefore.

nor do what way nature gradually That the reader." * Dr. "^ only by feathers. and formed for swimming. at the largest. I.Order II. it we can judge how far it agreeable with our ordinary conceptions of nature. and subj . [. for it is difficult to name any two families of birds more unlike each other than the pigeons {ColumbadcB) and the eagles {Accipitres). Palmipedes.Sect. arched covering. to such be paid ciously. which are here brought together. and when. passes from one group to another. (. far and how ment. table. Land Eirds. or hid . nearly straight. base. f°"S"^ PassIrVs. we believe. (251. Teurestres. antially. 1. Waders. Toes free.194t ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. and formed for grasping 'Sect. Fleming's Philosophy rf Zoology and Brilish Animals. -{-! II. feathered. Nostrils exposed. and fitted for climbing trees.Tribe 2. lower end of the tibial joint and tarsus naked. by following lowest details. . both with reference to its natural order. ulate towards the extremity. matters insist .) The when we bring it down to its is value of a theory can only be determined it into practice. their advocates. (. and to the help it gives for the determination of a species. the only advocate of dichothey attempt to point out in tomy * "Order 'Tribe : — 1.E. answers the purposes of arrange- With this view let us examine the foregoing which we must presume has been drawn up by distinct conceptions one having " on positive and negaand let us do this. however. and fitted I. may he better able to judge for himself on the merits of a binary or dichotomous arrangement. Water Birds. limbs strong. Fissipedes. we here present him with a table of the class of birds. Bill nearly straight gape. 'GALLiNAn«. no cere. Ambulatores. Toes webbed to their extremity. Three toes directed for walliing or grasping.r base eggs numerons. very judi- do not on such considerations. or walking. We need not be long detained on the first. Two toes directed antially. 2. Bill arched from the Nostrils hid under an . Females emarginate. strongly hooked. Bill and claws AcciPiVRES. Males I Scansores. Tibial joint. A greater violation of nature was tive characters . wingsK C(iLUMB4i). Bill swollen at the short. Grallje. as given by one who is.

test is it by this prin- aware that the feet of the kingfishers {Halcyonidce) . as it were. while it makes pretension to placing those groups together which every one sees that nature has united.) It is quite unnecessary to particularise the difsince we. knowing this. containing nearly 100 species. that a dichotomous or binary system will not even answer the purpose of an index to the genera or species. Here. in this dichotomous system. on the upright trunks of trees . are only able to sit still upon a branch. but that these families. are eminently scansorial. therefore. upon in any system and this alone is sufficient to take from the whole scheme pretensions to the claim of a natural series. and wishing to find their station among the " Scansores. o 2 . recognised by all modern writers out which. ventured 1Q5 . which have been published by no less than our readers. and watch for their prey. might each different from the other. well exemplified both by our common creeper and nuthatch. with all its defects. (252. then. never. perhaps. The Linnoean arrangement of birds. have two toes before and two behind." may search in vain either for one genus To multiply further instances will be or the other- needless. bee-eaters {Meropida). but the student. and live. has no place whatever assigned to it. and more easy of compre- hension.niCHOTOMOUS SYSTEM EXAMINED. It appears. We will. and the T^nW-hirAs^TamatiiKp). like Every ornithologist the Scan^ores. therefore. is more natural. the family of tree creepers {Certhidce). which they take upon the wing after the manner of swallows. draw up fifty others. it may he urged. ferent binary systems various hands . and each as worthless for use. Again. by which a student can at once determine tlie division to which a genus or a species belongs. is an entire natural division. ciple. lies in tlie strength of its absolute characters. so far from climbing. any But the merit of Dichotomy.

Lamarck's system op the invertebrated ATIONS. while the faculties of the . then the natural system is a pinnacle of knowledge to which finite beings can obviously never reach. be clearly understood upon this point. the functions they are intended to perform . ' ALTERATIONS IN MACLEAy's SYSTEM. HERMANN'S. the principles upon which their forms have been regulated . therefore. But this. (253. been to others. that. though a just . we imply that there may be several. strictly speaking. — TRIES'S IN BOTANY. and their innumerable analogies to all others.196 ON SYSTEMATfc ZOOLOGY. PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. GENERAL REMARKS ON NUMERICAL THEORIES.) We distinctions have already touched upon the essential between an artificial and a natural system . so it follows that there cannot. SEPTENARY AND OTHER THEORIES. be objected to us. we are to understand a complete developement of all the properties and relations of animated beings . As every principle of analogical reasoning. therefore. by speaking of nait has already Let tural systems. REMARKS THEREON. leads to the conclusion that there is a unity of plan throughout that part of creation which embraces the animal world. us. CHAP. If. but the latter will now claim more of our attention. ANIMALS. their indisputable affinities among themselves. OBSERVriNITION OF A NATURAL SYSTEM. is too theo- retical for practical use seeing that human knowledge must be for ever imperfect. be more than one naIt may. BKON NATURAL STSTEMS. III. as tural system. at the commencement. SYSTEM OF MACLEAY IN ENTOMOLOGY. AND ON THE NECESSITY OF PROVING THAT GROUPS ARE CIRCULAR. definition. by the natural system. and every result of minute investigation.

and that. we find the relations of our animals multiply they seem. then. " the only one of nature. actual state of things. therefore. leads us to believe that the natural series is much more simple and easy of detection than we at first imagined . and to — which are we to give the preference } Our answer will o 3 . but all doing so on a different theory. whereby they typify distinct or represent other objects. indeed. and the regular gradation which we are able to trace from one form to another. to the we shall consider that to be a natural system which endeavours to explain the multifarious relations which one object bears to another. and it is here that the study of the natural system commences. in the creation of attempts at the partial discovery of that one This. Hence it that there may be many natural systems. as we advance. our difficulties begin . are we to decide on their respective merits. the true object of a natural classification . great diversity of opinions may arise. can claim the title of a natural system. on a subject so intricate. therefore. but in their more remote are limited. by follows. and none which professes not to set out with this aim. by which they follow each other like the links of a vast chain. or. but. not simply in their direct affinity. How. then. far hand and to removed from that with which we first commenced our enquiries. professing to expound the produce several same thing. relations . but to : branch off in various directions the left. certain general laws. and does not keep it in vie%v as the goal to be arrived at. in reality. Here. to preserve their line of affinity. while all such naturalists are striving at the discovery of one system." that they may.ON NATURAL SYSTEMS. 197 mind In adapting our terms. to the right until they blend into other races. It may well be supposed that. rather. all. and with more or less success. is which Almighty Wisdom pursued irrational beings. indeed. Our first attempts at such a mode of studying nature are comparatively easy we begin from a given : point. totally in structure and organisation from themselves. it may be asked.

we may probably regard Hermann as the first who. and many valuable observations. natural. yet others. But the materials he has thus brought together do not appear to have been applied to any definite or general result . contains numerous comparisons. of natural classification into the narrowest comis that which obviously makes the nearest approach to nature. if we may so term pass. Many of the groups of Aristotle are. undoubtedly. Now. which developes principles of the widest apand brings the elements. — The merits of a natural system are in prothe facts portion to the therefore. like most others who had gone before him.198 be this: it ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. and will stand as such. in the same system. p. and. deserves to be distinguished. although. Trans. in opposition to the neglect they received from subsequent zoologists . which The system. &C. excellence. are in the highest degree artificial. entitled Tabula Affinitatum Animalium.) From this definition of a natural system. as this latter train of enquiry is that more especially in which the essence of the natural system consists. as opposed to one that is artificial. vol. . par (254. in regard to animals. entered into any details on this interesting subject. that Hermann seemed to have no clear perception of the difference between analogy and affinity. he did not confound them when treating of very remote • Linn. xvi. The same may be said both in regard to the systems of Willughby and of Linnseus . His work. on the resemblances which different animals bear to each other. therefore. them. as the natural system. without any reference to their remote relations. it becomes extremely difficult to name that naturalist who deserves to be placed first on our present list. number and universality of can explain by certain general laws. printed in 1783. yet both these are more properly artificial systems. and it has been justly observed*. for they merely attempt to combine the groups in detached portions of a simple series. plication. IS.

and leading by means of the mollusca to the cuttlefish {^Cephalopoda). to use his own words. and leading to insects.' * (255. be said to have been long superseded. t Nat. is so rare in having in vain endeavoured to procure a copy. 456. 11. he acknowledges that the idea of a simple series constituting the whole of the animal kingdom does not agree with the evident order of nature. who.torin. HisL des Anim. as be expected. is any thing but a diagram it is more confused than the Mappa Geographica of Linmcus." which was more clearly and fully developed by his successors in this intricate field of enquiry. Trans. that animals offer two separate subramose series. by his unrivalled " obtained an indistinct view of that circular arrangement. " Now. : • Linn. one commencing with the Infn.— NATURAL SYSTEMS. Now. From these notices. both of which have expressed analogies as if they had been affinities. unfortunately. sans note. This has been most fully and most honourably admitted by Mr. : LAMARCK. He then presumes. we can only form our opinion of it from Mr.) The system of Lamarck. xvi.arck t. Vert. this notion could only have gained a place in the mind of Lamarck from a conviction by experience of its being an incontrovertible truth. since he was unquestionably the perception of natural first affinities. but replete with comparisons hitherto scarcely noticed. "for his table. this order is far from simple it is branched. p. it certainly appears that our author laid the first foundation of a natural system rude. in regard to the soft or — may invertebrated animals. MacLeay's paper in the Linn. vol. 199 this country. o 4 . Hermann's system may. vol. that. and is at the same time composed of several distinct series. His work. IMacLeay in the following " In the first volume of his (Lamarck's) celepassage: brated work. therefore. resemblances. indeed. i. p." After enumerating the series thus indicated by Lam. our author adds. as given at the end of his work. deserves particular attention. and the other commencing with the intestinal worms. Trans. because.

Radiata. Epizoaria.) Lamarck is chiefly known in this country by his admirable arrangement of the testaceous mollusea or shells. termed. here subjoin the table in question: able but fanciful zoologist — we Series of Inariiculaied Animals. Reptilia. Mollusea. and that we may justify our opinion that the system of this was eminenfly natural. (256. a department in which he created so great a reformation * Hor. I Series of Articulated Animals. . as We as any is alteration. 213. and the Annalides to fishes. assumed the disposition of a circle. Mammalia. That this fact may be more apparent to our readers. becomes precisely the same mine. however. that the first perception of that cir- cular series of affinity which pervades the animal king- gained by Lamarck in the year 1815. His studies. but he had an intuitive perception of natural affinities . Arachnidse. without. ^^ I Polypi. Ent p. coincides with the tabular view which I have Jaid before the pubhc* have only to join the Radiata to the Cirripeda. it is or subramose. Infusoria. I Cirripeda. that the circularity of natural groups was the first principle of natural arrangement. Pisces. with scarcely this table of affinities. and by follow- dom was ing these he traced the natural perceiving that it series.200 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. I I Crustacea. I I I I i Tunicata. Annelides. however confused it may appear. Acephala. I Vermes. on his part. Aves. did not extend to vertebrated animals . Insecta." It therefore clear. But this was done without the least suspicion arising. in fact. and Lamarck's table of affinities. which the vertebrated animals would render complete.

by those who come All must admire the acumen. have be noticed. was not unlike an architectural drawing. judgment. (257-) The circular system of is MacLeay. world plained by the artist upon their true principle. unluckily for students. had His no true perceptions of the course it was taking. had not only poto now We sitively declared his conviction that the natural series was neither simple nor linear. his own words. (258. and which are too ridiculous even to be we must — repeated. seen that Lamarck. Here. table. is one of the chief merits of the system of Lamarck.) The Horee Entomologicce. and which shines forth in the admirable manner in which he grouped those Yet. having been drawn merely by the help of a remarkably accurate eye. since the results and observations are explained in different parts. are rather indicated than defined. SIACLEAY. but that he had given a table all the large divisions of the animal but this. is what professes to be. then. but which rules could not be ex- indicating a union of . we do justice to his memory in this respect.NATURAL SYSTEMS. where the great rules of perspective had been pretty well adhered to. as following in the order of succession. 201 little to be done^ as regards the definition of natural genera. more a . was but the first glimpse of these important discoveries regarding the fundamental principles of the natural system which were first made known by the Horce Entomologicce. while objects which were his pecu- liar study. the style is somewhat it desultory. can only be thoroughly understood by the adept. after all. although he partially traced the animal circle. Lamarck. in short. so far back as 1815. a system which must certainly be considered as the first promulgation of any universal law in natural classification. for the most part. The whole. reprobate those atheistical theories. which he has introduced theories which are inconsistent with in his writings. and the groups. no less impious than absurd. and extensive knowledge which this celebrated man possessed. that he has left comparatively after him. likewise. in fact.

again to the point from which we started. rough sketch of the leading peculiarities of the great divisions of animals. " bears a resemblance to all the rest. and being intermediate between the former which they serve to connect. 3. the result of his remarks. upon any one given point. Condensing. we shall be imperceptibly led."f These are the chief and leading principles which Mr. That there is a tendency in such groups as are placed at the opposite points of a circle of affinity " to meet each other. as we have already remarked."* 5. More than this. That the primary divisions of every large group are ten. more strictly speaking. That one of the five larger groups into which every natural at : commencing circle is divided. or a demonstration of their real affinities. or show an evident tendency to exhibit. and the herculean difficulties which the author had to surmount. perhaps. MacLeay considers * Hor. forming. as it were. we shall state them as resolvable into the following propositions 1. 4. . so that. 2. than an accurate determination of the groups themselves. The work in question has now become exceedingly scarce. Ent. and thence tracing all the modifications of structure. could not have been expected. : — tinuous. for he has not. and five of smaller these latter being termed osculant. 518. and this will be an additional reason with us for communicating occasional extracts from it to the Mr. consists of types which repre- sent those of each of the four other groups. That no groups are natural which do not exhibit. a circle . That the series of natural animals is conreader. 319. or. together with a type peculiar to itself. after passing through numerous forms. MacLeay's theory will be best understood by consulting his diagrams . t Ibid. however. defined any of the vertebrated groups. five of which are composed of comparatively large circles.202 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. and the manner in which they are probably connected. considering the then state of science. such a circular series.

by means of groups of animals. but . in forming so many connecting or osculant circles. or shell-fish AcRiTA. with this help. to explain the system more in detail. 203 shall the natural system. The number. as many erroneously suppose. look to the (259-) above tabular disposition of all animals. indeed. or star-fish . or insects . therefore. as belonging to MACLEAY. We to find it. or vertebrated animals . This is quite obvious five other their extent. which circle touches or blends into another. exhibit five . and then endeavour. each passing or blending into each other. must. NATURAL SYSTEMS. in the first instance. great circles. Radiata." the " least organised beings of the vegetable Next we are to look to the larger component parts of this great circular assemblage. or table of the animal kingdom. or polypes . but ten. composed of the Mollusca. by We means of kingdom. as forming themselves collectively into one great circle. composed of plants. is not five. and Vkrtebbata. We now copy his diagram. in accordance with the third proposition. Annulosa. much smaller.- .

in fact. This is an instance where the circular series can be traced. is the third general principle of Mr. it to conclude that * Hor. 318." every natural group is a circle. as it is equally certain that this group of animals at present. forms any exception to the rule: it would even seem unquestionable that the Gasteropoda of Cuvier retiirn into themselves. p. still. now turn to one where the We I series is imperfect. this point is and our opinion on confirmed by the author himself. but they are sufficient to prove that there are five great circular groups in the animal kingdom.204 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. Ent. Vertkbrata because it is : Let us take one of these groups. remarks upon the whole: I — "The foregoing observations^ when alluding to his am well aware. compose the whole province these smaller osculant groups are of zoology. which possess each a peculiar structure : and that these. these again into the quadrupeds (^Mammalia). but where there this is is a decided tend- ency to a circle : group our author says. but whether the Acephala form is as yet the least known. have by no means determined the the circular disposition to hold good among the Mol- lusca . when connected by means of five smaller osculant groups. the does that form a circle of itself? Yesj intimated that the reptiles {Reptilia^ pass fishes (Pisces^. are far from accurate. quadrupeds unite with the bring us back again to the reptiles. MacLeay's system. and he has exemplified his meaning of a natural group in the above diagram. these latter with the amphibious reptiles. more This. as "' it is elsewhere stated^ or less complete. for. in the following passage. . where all animals are arranged under five large groups or circles. and the frogs the point from whence we is started. " Upon this Mollusca. Thus the series of the vertebrated group marked out and shown to be circular . into the birds (^Aves). so as to form a circular group ." * Now to be viewed as circles. and five smaller ones. therefore it is a natural group. it may be improper.

relations . in general. wading birds (Grallatores). is by no means accurately ascertained. Trans. in all these divisions blending into each other at their confines. the species.) sions of — but all regulated by that the circu- Wemust return. or circle*. because on this point he appears not strictly ^Ve have seen. Thus there are circles an infinite within circles. that the first division of the animal king- dom and are resolved into ten circles or groups. "wheels within wheels" this class being a natural — is. and the proof of group is. and descending to the lower. Ent. p. 205 one or two such. is first divided into rapacious birds (Kaptores). forming a circle of its own. yet evinces a disposition to do so . perching birds (Insessores'). MACLEAY. every group. until at length we descend to genera. and swimming birds (Natatores) . for example. and reach. gallinaceous birds {liasores). without actually forming a circle. Mr. therefore. This. properly so called. MacLeay seems to and reckons the larger • Hor. Vigors. our author considers as one of those groups which. as we see by the diagram.NATURAL SYSTEMS. In the following passage. to * a circular disposition than the four other great groups. and it is therefore presumed to be a natural group. let us return to the circle of VerteBRATA. 322. regulated precisely in the same way. But. ing diagram. each of which is again resolvable into five others. one simple and uniform principle. t First pointed out by Mr. however. when speaking of lose sight of these lesser circles. to illustrate this principle farther. though enough is known of the Mollusca to incline us to suspect that they are no less subjected. whether large or small. and forming In this manner we proceed. in the foregoconsistent with himself. contains five minor groups. . number of complicated larity of every group. however. Linn.t the higher groups. beginning with a circle. at last. five large five small." This. The class Aves. this diagram. to the number of divi- which our author considers every natural group is composed . (260.

But on this intricate subject we will take his own words. Yet I must acknowledge that it appears to me. viz. that : — » Hor. as of any other cause whatsoever. can be more reluctant than I am to make any conclusion on this subject precipitately and. sometimes there are five large groups and five smaller ones. in future. nature. that here is a tendency in such groups as are placed at the opposite points of a natural circle to unite.. what is the same thing. (261. pointed out by our author." * the whole. " Indeed^ when it is consionly. therefore. we are justified in concluding that our author believes some groups to be composed of ten absurd to • and others of five. therefore. 322. to demonstrate natural affinities . I would only have this opinion accounted an hypothesis. in saying that there is a general tendency. to be so far established.206 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY.) We now come to the fourth principle of natural arrangement. that. however. even by what we have already seen. while he peruses attentively the " On the examination of this following passage circles. as to a map. and in doing this I have fallen on a distribution into five groups. . or. that where there seems to be an exception to the rule. For this purpose let the reader refer to the diagram of the animal kingdom. so uniformly. and sometimes five only. it appears to be as much the consequence of our little acquaintance with the manifold productions of No person. Ent p. which are hut five : dered that there were so many affinities to be reconciled Avitli this — constant use of the number five. and his own illustrations of their meaning. where great chasms occur in smaller groups. it is clearly imagine that I would have hampered myself My sole object has been needlessly with such a rule. to be subdivided into five others. which is not entirely destitute of arguments wherewith we may support its truth. I shall consider myself entitled to suppose that these proceed from Upon our ignorance of the productions of nature. in every natural group of animals.

which could not otherwise have avoided. and yet Dumeril may. to unite." observes our author. for convenience only. I — am still unable to state whether this be and that the opposite points of the curve. possibly. — * Hor. according to some naturalists. indeed. MACLEAY. so the dis- covery of it served to prevent I my falling into several mistakes. and the Annelides. as they exist in the more general groups. and of fishes on the other . which. that as this peculiarity of natural distribution former part of was detected by anawork. 207 sketch. Mollusca. as appears to be the case in nature."* That the meaning of this passage may be rendered more clear to the student. is prefollowing diagram." that is. '' we are at first struck with the analogy which opposite points of tlie same circle strong that an analogy sometimes so bear to one another. Thus the resemblance which the intestinal Acrita (^Intestina) or Monogena of Latreille bear to the Nematoidea of Rudolphi. we have considered as circular. not be far wrong in urging that the paradoxical o/7uthorhynckus bears a nearer relation to reptiles than to But my province more particularly is entomobirds. in deciding between relations of analogy and affinity. will serve to make the hexapod Acaridce approach to the Anoplura of Leach. but those groups. 319. not now alluded to. do not meet each other. not the fact. are omitted. if I may so express myself. we must beg his attention to the which.NATURAL SYSTEMS. cisely the same as the former. nor the affinity which the Cirripeda. while those which are supposed to " meet each other. in this way. and this property of a distribution. The quadruped reptiles may. lysis in the It will be sufficient to this state. need not be descanted on. logy . . appear to have with the branchiopod and. p. in its outlines. are indicated by dotted hues. Ent. be separated from the Mammalia by the intervention of birds on one hand. it has been mistaken for a relation of affinity. and the use to be made of it was visible among the Petalocera.

by the union of the intescircle of tinal Acrita with the Annelida. appears to be. if correct. by Ornithorhynchus uniting the reptiles with the quadrupeds {Mammalia). entirely theory on the animal kingdom being first resolvable into five large and five smaller circles or it would show that circles of affinity could be ex- of affinity for either overturn his own pressed in more ways than one. when he supposes that " opposite points of a circle may possibly meet each other. were true. if this. however.. while others are . Branchiopoda /O^ReptUia \ ACRITA ntestina ) T' '. Now. was more than one natural system. therefore.) This diagram fully explains our author's meaning in the foregoing passage. one great tehrata circle of their would form own. MOLLUSCA A. while the Ver- would be divisible in the first instance into two. VERfEBRATAJ V m^ i-'-'o/ \ Mammalia y / / > (262. which would result to his own by admitting the possibility of such a principle : it would. there — in other words. that The truth. the inevitable consequence would be." and consequently unite. the Mollusca. that some of the foregoing resemblances are relations of affinity. y08 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. and the Vertehrata. that our acute author did not perceive the inevitable consequences theory. that the Acrita. and in the instances here stated. in the sense here taken. It is somewhat surprising.

appears to be a want of that symmetry in this circle (the Acrita).: NATURAL of strong analogy. but we think this very doubtful while the analogy between the reptiles and Ornithorhynchus is neither direct nor natural. that we shall venture now to express our opinions upon them. MacLeay had merely said that the opposite points of a circle always evince a strong analogy to each other. — proposition of our author. Vertebrata. " there itself. MACLEAy's. he would only have illustrated one of his own propositions . bi STEMS. but rather represent that class among the Annulosa. (263. which enter also among the Annulosa. may possibly represent the Branchiopod Mollusca. The intestinal worms (Intestina) do not appear to enter into the circle of the Acrita. The fifth which he considers is this. where they followj in close affinity. If. and he proceeds to explain how this group contains types of all the others. An instance of this will best explain to the reader his full Mr. 209 The groups in question have so long engaged our attention. and V . MacLeay considers that the polypes form one of the five great classes or groups of the animal circle . whereas here we see nature choosing every possible type of form. (^Acrita) peculiar to " At first sight. as also have the Annulosa. and Mollusca . the Annelida or red-blooded worms. so observable in the others which compose the great divisions of the animal kingdom . as a matter of course^ if the contents of one circle show parallel relations of analogy to the contents of another circle. seeing that it is by this latter form that the Mammalia are connected in the most satisfactory manner to birds.) groups. If any naturalist should be inclined to doubt this latter theory. together with one meaning. and one of the characteristics of natiu-al that one of the five larger groups in as every circle contains representations of all the others. however. for this resemblance follows. he will be fully convinced of its accuracy by analysing the class of Mammalia to which it belongs. The Cirrvpeda." he observes. Mr. for the Radiata (or star-fish) have all a classical type to which their several structures may be referred.

of the Polypi vaginati. Flagellatus .). it were. more strictly speaking. is the consequence of a too rapid But this. brated animal. In speaking of this. given the outline of the Mollusca. Asureus 5. remind us of the Radiata. has. we trace the form of the Annulosa J while the radiated forms of the Rotifera. In almost every group which has been set before the reader. author's we see a complete exemplification of our meaning in one of the primary groups of the We shall now cite another instance animal kingdom. with every thing hke regularity. as referable to one or other of forms which may be expressed by the five '" — I following species: Ccerulescens . I . Miliaris. that really a natural group. is therefore. into which it is resolvable. together with a type pecuhar to itself. as ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. more or less articulated. the typical group of the genus Scarahceusi^Gymnopleiirus. apprehend. 4. in these imperfect commencement of her work. but the proper method of considering them all is. sluggish Intesanimal kingdom. the divisions of the * Hor. axis of the Polypi natantes. 2. may. so far from forgetting order. the Acrita. mucous. she has sketched a verteIn the crustaceous covering of the and the structure. rest or. and the simple structure of the Polypi rudes. she has fleshy living mass which surrounds the tony and hollow animals. given by him in one of the smallest groups. . This is visible in the composition of the Acrita ^ among 223. namely. living mass. our author thus expresses 111. given us a sketch of the five different forms which she intended afterwards to adopt for the whole In the soft. 3. and allowing the analogies for the sake of explaining the principle. as here defined.210 sporting. in general. consists of types which . In the tina." * Assuming. himself: for the natural groups have thus attempted to find characters which appear on disposing the Gymnopleuri according to their affinities . glance at the since nature. Ent . represent those of each of the four other groups. bears a resemblance to all the Kcenigii . — 1. he must have perceived that one of the five minor groups.

we trace tlie first perception of that system of representation which we have elsewhere enlarged upon +. from the publication of the Horce Entomologicip. sembling all the other types. that is. which he supposed to elucidate. date the first partial : » Hor. it is true. which has a form peculiar to this fifth type. without knowing that he had done so while Mr. and belonging equaUy to the other four. which can on examining the genus type of which contains insects re- a disposition. carnifex. First. Ent. but this princijile pervades every natural group. in that of the Ametahola among the classes of A nn idosu. on many important accounts. we must deveiopement of natural arrangement. t Northern Zoology p 2 . have been induced to devote more space to (265. the discovery of Mr. Giimnopleurus is to the genus ScaraheFus .) the deveiopement of the leading principles of this system. 518.) In the foregoing extracts. The principle is. it contains insects varying in the structure of those parts which remain constant in the other sub-genera. whether large or small. and had he prosecuted his researches. and which there is every presumptive evidence to believe exists throughout nature. traced theouthnes of the circle. Not only does one of the five groups contain types of all the rest. so that. and of the Coleoptera among the orders of MandihiiUttd. while it has a form peculiar to itself in G. confined to one only out of the five groups we have found to be universal. P. JJagellntus."* (2()4. together with a form peculiar to itself. than we should otherwise have done. 211 animal kingdom . MacLeay . What this fifth type is to Phanceus. to be partial that is. would have been left us This representation. undoubtedly.NATURAL SYSTEJIS. strictly speaking. MacLeay. and followed the clue thus afforded him^ very little. MACLEAY S. on this subject. together with. Lamarck. It is scarcely have escaped our notice Fhanceiis. because it is unquestionably the first which clearly defined any one philosophic prin- — — We ciple of classification . the fifth also.

being. of the principles of natural arrangement developed by our author. were unknown to him. in fact.212 by ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. it would have been strange indeed. therefore. that he discovered properties. On a careful consideration. 3. if Our subsequent researches had not detected errors. This last ^w. and. but that it should develope so much The endure so long as science is cultivated. therefore. when reading the commentaries of his disciples . as he himself repeatedly declares. for it has unfortunately happened in this. of universal prevalence in natural groups. in their variation. one of the tests or proofs to that is to . The theory of analogy and affinity comes also under this latter head . arrived a totally different . on the part of the master. but with this difference. by some definite number . and many properties of natural groups. The component parts of every group being regulated. that the reputation of this eminent naturaUst has suffered much more from the zeal of his admirers than from the hostility of his adversaries. although. which belonged to this series. : — . but merely confined to one in every fifth group. was not suspected to be universal . indeed. process of investigation. The demonstration of the circular nature of affinities in natural groups . The system of representation. we may presume. at the same general result — surprise. 2. not that this theory should be partially defective. and converted that which hitherto had been a science of observation In such a new and into one of the deepest philosophy. system of Mr. is. These discoveries let in a flood of light on the study of nature. untrodden field. by which the contents of one natural group are represented analogically by the contents of other groups. This admission. should be borne in mind. MacLeay is eminently natural . a process of induction which heretofore had never been dreamed of. and he determined several of those laws which regulated the variation of animals . they may be all comprised under one or other of the following 1. it does not claim to be the natural system meaning thereby. that many principles of that system. as in other instances.

is always divisible into two series (*frf centrum abit semper in duas series) . they differ in the determinate number of their groups . ference^ therefore. ten (or. MACLEAy's. however. were p 3 also discovered by M. or typical group of the German botanist. Fries's groups. but five. every section. Fries is the next in order although it was applied by this distinguished botanist only to a natural group in the vegetable kingdom. of M. Yet. much more fully. (266. of itself. It seems. is forms. and should have illustrated them. account. Fries. although these naturalists agree in considering the circularity of groups to be the first principle of the natural system. be applied. this. should have detected the same principles of circular affinities therein developed. five) . to be equally deserving the attention of the zoologist.) The system . totally ignorant of the previous publication of the HorcB Entomologicce. Hence follows. as one of M. according to his subsequent belief. a circle. ac- cording to his own is always divisible into two. led him clearly to understand and to define the difi^erence between analogy and the affinity. 213 Such are the fundamental principles of classification contained in the Hora EntomologiccB . that the three great principles of natural arrangement given to the public in first instance by Mr. by which the contents of one circle typified the contents of a neighbouring circle. by analyses. the modifications which they subsequently received from its author. Fries at the same time detected the theory of representation. that the centrum. in contradistinction . It is plain. and that each of his series or groups is a circle. that this consummate botanist. It is very remarkable. and those of M.— NATURAL SYSTEMS. those of Mr. between this theory and the last is total number rather nominal than real : for as M. wiU be presently stated. series. that. Fries four. in fact. its principles are too important not of succession for. Omnis sectio appears evident from the following words: naturalis circulum per se clausum exhibet. thus their The difnot four. it or group. that is. MacLeay. therefore. of course. we say discovered. jMacLeay being.

that these deviations from the principles advocated in the Horce Entomologicce were not more clearly stated . But. Mandihulata. vol. however. therefore. or subdivisions. with the object of placing the whole in an intelligible light before the student. . 4fi. that our author was totally ignorant of the previous publication of a tlieory perfectly resembling that worked out by himself. Fries any new principle or property was made known by the Systema Mycologicum. Trans. every great circle was connected to tliat of the same rank which followed it by a smaller circle. p. that we venture to follow up this task. in his subsequent paper J. soon after the publication of M. the same principle v/as also stated in regard to the groups are not five.214 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. X See Hor. either from the valuable paper on this to adopted . and solely resulting from the profound study he had devoted to the plants whose natural arrangement he wished to understand. have seen that. because We MacLeay *. where the but ten. MacLeay. essential to the first theory of Mr. since this circumstance has produced much misapprehension on the part of his disciples. which differs from the several important particulars made known in the writings of its author. were much more fuUy illustrated than in the Horce Entomologicce.f These five smaU or ( lb. It is. or from the work of M. Those. and has obscured rather than illustrated the theory wliich was to be demonstrated. it is not to be doubted. according to our author's first theory. that itself. Ent. p. MacLeay 's second first in or quinary theory. which had been previously made known. osculant groups are. unaided and unassisted. 42. . so that the animal kingdom was represented by We five large and five smaller circles . Fries's work. 43S. p. xiv. indeed. • Linn. Fries appUed his theory to the full investigation of the whole class of Fu7igi. It is much to be regretted. consequently. cannot trace. through all its minor groups subject by Mr. (267. where two genera only are thoroughly analysed .) We must now advert to Mr. whereas M.

Trans. upon so important a change. to be but one . not so much as to the effect it has upon the groups themselves. " Centrum abit semper in duas series j " yet. does not sufficiently appear certain it is. * Linn. This alteration. most materially differ from that of M. MacLeay in his more recent essays on the quinarian theory. and in the Annulosa Javanica. and im- is said. in regard to the number of types in every natural group. or winged insects. hasbeen another distinction introduced by Mr. per definitions. Fries's own definition. 215 written for the purpose of showing the identity of his theory with that of M. but likewise alters every diagram of the annulose groups given in the Horce Entomologicce : for if the principles laid down in this latter work are adhered to. or whether he had already discovered that these small circles were. the naturalist will mediately perceive. given. xiv. but as There is having given rise to erroneous impressions mary divisions. that we very much rere-modelling. however. while. 67. . according to M. Fries . but part and parcel of the larger ones. we do not discover any allusion to these osculant groups. '^^hether this omission originated in a desire to show that. so far as we can trace. as in the subsequent table given by Mr. gret no explanation. Fries. vol. in the main. 203. his views were essentially the same as those of jM. Fries considering his centrum.). this group is composed of two. p. that this part of his former theory is passed over. Five is nothing now declared to be the definite number . if we are to exclude osculant groups. Fries. MACLEAy's. in fact. which also merits attention . not only affects the details of the whole tlieory on the animal circle already exhibited (p. of the five small esculent groups. p 4 .NATURAL SYSTEMS. because. or typical group. then our author's views. on their priand apparently contradicting the former Our author has very clearly shown the impropriety of M. both in the paper here alluded to. MacLeay of the Ptilofa*. then the whole of the diagrams given in the Horce Entomologicce require This is so obvious.

cannot be natural. more or less complete. Fries. A countenance has been thus given to the binary method. it contains two series. it mode of division are has conveyed the impression to others. apply this rule to . this normal group corresponds to the centrum of M. and the Now. Of this.: 216 him ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. Fries. in ihe first place. M. prolix and perhaps tedious as it necessarily has been. It is to be hoped this elucidation of Mr. The : disadvantages of this is. Does this form a circle If not. as we have already seen. may. this group. division. then. in the second. quinary. any more than the centrum of M. and not one. several first. and another as denoting a natural. which superficial writers have adroitly used. unless they form circles Let us. while others insist that there must be always " a great typical group resolvable into two. MacLeay's theory. that Mr. in speaking of the central group of M. MacLeay is perfectly aware . Mr. as perfectly applicable to his own binary division of a typical " In the first place. for he obviously merely uses this term to assimilate his normal group with the centrum of Fries." We hke manner. and joinis ing in maintaining that no group natural which does not form a circle. what he terms his central group. Fries lays it or normal group. and therefore a circular. by first dividing his group into two divisions. contains the two most typical groups of every in circle. MacLeay's system and.'' not be natural. according to his own definition. We may here repeat our author's words. down as a rule that he admits no groups whatever to be other aberrant. MacLeay subsequently adopts the plan of M. that is." It likewise gives to the term group two distinct meanings one as used to denote an artificial division (every nagroup being a circle) . Mr. the group cannatural. one of which he terms normal. which. Fries. by appealing to this constant and primanj use of the number two. Fries . will not tural . ceiving this error of the German cryptogamist. 6Mi«r«/. indeed. and which he makes always to consist of two. apply to that which he calls his normal group ? If not. Does our author's admission that every group is a circle. enquire.

Ent. in the eager and natural desire to make good his circle of the Annulosa. that few can hope have also felt to consult its philosophic pages. of course. while the Chilognathiform. p. MacLeay's discoveries and clearly to explain those fundamental principles of the natural system which he has the high and undoubted honour of having discovered. that this oversight has not only assigned by Mr. 390. assured it will be acceptable . and the Horce Entomologicce is now so scarce. In some of the diagrams he has given to explain the affinities of the annulose animals. which regards the principles of natural the results of their application. placed at p. . he overlooked this transportation of his groups. is made aberrant in another. as aberrant. however. Certain. MACLEAy's. : — * Hor. on turning to the diagram of the Annulosa* . is stated in explanation of these contradictory denominations of the same groups. the very same group which is called typical in one. as they are not considered by him in the same uniform light.390. We desirous to place the value of in their true light. not only in the smaller circle which contains these types. Mr. the denomination and situation of the Thysamiriform type are changed . or that. either by supposing Mr. brings with it a complete change. classification. was also external in another. but aberrant. so far as we can discover. but in the situation of every other in these two diagrams. As nothing. MacLeay not to have then discovered that the same group which was external or typical in one circle. it is. we find that the Chilopoda and Thysanura are typical groups but in the diagram of the Mandibulata. we can only account for it. not (268.: NATURAL SYSTEMS.) In connection with the denomination or rank MacLeay to some of his groups. it is no longer typical. belongs not to our present enquiry. How far he may have been successful in the application of these principles. is now made typical this. since no one has yet attempted to place the subject in a clear light . Thus. 217 To the student we feel be uninteresting to science. a few remarks are necessary.

the other . p. that is to say. for if otherwise. that fact. that talented author had not ascertained the is always definite . that of Nymphales. Mandibulata* must be reconstructed for the Thysaniiriform type cannot be at . while that of Papilio becomes aberrant. that if. this nor can the Chilognathi- forni Ametahola be aberrant. must be a typical group . 390. leading directly out of the circle It is clear. then that of the . the parallel between the two would fail. but alters the position of every group in the diagram. therefore. . has not only proved the artificial nature of the amethis fact was. in fact. Every entomologist must perceive that the two typical (or external) divisions of the diurnal butterflies. and the Chilognathiform We are convinced. then this theory must be altogether abandoned. Ent. the first being the Chilopodiform stirps of Dr. he did not believe that this property was univer- and the latter the Chilognathiform the Ametahola is to ! * Hor. as many passages in his work indicate. : but if the series of be adhered to. as corresponding to the Thysanura. but has been no small source of em- barrassment to the attempt of arranging the order Lepidoptera in conformity therewith. p. If^ on the other hand.. This oversight. Ent. thrown great uncertainty on his circles of Ametahola and Crustacea. it is either always typical or always aberrant he justly supposes that the contents of one natural group represent the contents of another natural group. once both typical and aberrant Coleoptera typical. our learned author entertained a suspicion that the rank of his groups was definite. therefore. but he did not perceive that one of the consequences of the denomination of a group which were typical in one would be typical in another. that the divisions tabolous circle. as given in Hor. Horsfield.: 218 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. the genus Morpho. we are to believe that the positions of these groups in the annulose dia- gram is correct. 439. as Shrank and the authors of the Vienna Catalogue long ago intimated. are represented by the genera Nymphales and Papilio.

the other six being much more attempt to revive .NATURAL SYSTEMS. are enteied into. professing at the same time to be " convinced that natural objects cannot be arranged agreeably to their affinities. throughout nature. however. by which he intended to the show the natural distribution of the Annulosa." adopting a favourite notion of an eminent entomologist whose writings we have frequently may — quoted. being those. wherein he advocates the circular theory of Mr. be briefly glanced at." and three others of different groups of the Lepidop~ tera. continues " sceptical as to the quinary versal lief of arrangement being uniIn pursuance of his bein the circular system. without. however. MacLeay. These divisions he arranges. A system has been recently made by the ingenious author of Sphinx Vespifonnig. sal. As no details. as Mr. otherwise than by a series of circles. the reader is left to make out these affinities as he best can. much less of establishing any new principle of natural arrangement. so that one. The laborious author of the " Systematic Catalogue of British Insects. MacLeay expresses it. our author. as having been intimated or projected by subsequent writers. and sum and substance of his entire theory on this class of animals. he has given a table the supposed affinities of the order Coleoptera. the assumed pre-eminent type. — thinks that seven is the definite number em- ployed by nature in the construction of her groups. 219 or he would not have abandoned this principle of the natural system in the two most important diagrams of his essay . occupies the centre of a diagram . and therefore divides all insects into seven orders . (269. but maintains that the number of divisions throughout nature are seven. nevertheless. into themselves. in fact." Admitting this as an undoubted truth. returning. claiming to be natural. and the tables themselves (possibly by the mode in which they are printed) appear to us not well calculated to elucidate able the notions of the this author. exhibiting any attempt at demonstration. MACLEAY's.) A few other systems.

glance at his table of the classes of Insecta will enable the ex- A perienced entomologist to decide at once has been successful in this his central circle. so that Mantispa is connected to Psyche to Cloeon Psocus Psocus to Psyche Cloeon to Termes and by what link of affinity we are again to reach Mantispa. of course. how far he The Neuroptera is genera: — 1. after leaving Termes. 4. then. for instance.— 220 show ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY.) The Neuroptera are defined in these words all : " Class 7. Lepidoptera Psyche Tinea. we can pass from the Lepidoptera to the Diptera. Psyche. and so on ? The diagTam of the subclasses of Lepidoptera is a little more filled up. 4. how. Termes Hymenoptera Coleoptera Formica. our author restricts the class of Insecta. is not mentioned. partaking of the characters of the In what manner these insects form a circle of their own. Newman seems to have in view. or. S. 1. Psociis 3. are neuropterous genera let us now see how they are supposed to be connected with the other orders . Diptera Chironomus. however. and to the same number. Leach. the classes of insects. or in the division of Annulosa . The union of Papilio with the Bomhyces is others. but that there are seven the order of Lepidoptera is selected as more especially containing seven groups . Fab. 5. ( Urania.Central. Cloeon .5.) and Ouroptcryx. These. he states as unknown. it. unknown. the author has not explained. Hemiptera Aphis. Cloeon . Sw. Tertnes . which he places in the centre.[mode in which the external orders or classes are connected. 6. effort. 2. Psocus . as they are termed. disposed around No attempt. : round which he places the following Mantispa . (270." (p. is that of connecting the six minor divisions with the seventh or typical one. and the 6. Here we find Papilio p assing on one side into Geometra by means of Leilas. The chief object which Mr. 27-) — — — — . [ Mantispa passes into the Orthoptera by Mantis. 2. is made to primary divisions in the animal kingdom. The.

five. . to recall the to the essence of those appears exthe naturalist mind of more remarks which have been given and which are applicable alike to all theories which set out with the admission of the first law of natural classification the circularity of groups. upon any definite number. — — — would injure science. which. hope this will soon appear If he is successful in establishing a more harmonious theory than that which is already known. or whatever other denomination he affixes to his groups. is the annulose kingdom.) Without entering more into the details of it the various hypotheses last mentioned^ pedient. The first of these is a demonstration of the theoretic principle upon which the author builds his system. but he is to prove. fully in another place*. are each of them circles of affinity. and quadrupeds (probably) upon a third. in the creation beyond its circles. 225. fixes An author who by despising inductive reasoning. therefore. already (1832) in a state of forwardness. birds upon a second. thought to 221 butterfly) be effected by Barhicornes (an Erycinian and Lasiocampa. It is really most disheartening to find naturalists (especially exhibit insects as created • Preliminary Discourse on Nat. and. must be complied with. we shall be the first to We proclaim the fact. seven. also resolvable into seven circles. but for its inconstancy." there are certain peremptory concUtions. is childish. or any other given number . promises to do •fthis in a separate essay. four.OTHER NATURAL SYSTEMS. that his " natural" orders. to divide a group into three. The ingenious author of Sphinx Vespifortnis^ however. in this place. but before such a division can be called " natural. in : primary divisions. Hist. (271. so must be the vertebrated kingdom otherwise we upon one plan. in the present state of science. for it requires no great ingenuity. He is not merely to assert. should first prove that the same number and other zoological circles t. It is evidently easy. for the also exists in the ornithological division of an entomological group. and yet set at nought its practical exemphfication. p. To profess a behef in the circular system. otherwise he tacitly admits the monstrous and exploded supposition that all there is no uniformity of plan If.

let it be made out analytically and analogically in any two groups out of the many which have been assumed as " natural. another five. scarcely it is obvious that two persons will agree in the number they eventually fix upon one may make three. But then comes the first test of accu: . and yet so unconsciously regardless of those principles which must establish this theory in the minds of acute reasoners. and they may possibly be circular. and therefore natural . and cautious induction more valuable than hypothesis. without re- ference to any other considerations.222 ON SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. in its con- tents intimately and regularly corresponding in analogy with the contents of a neighbouring circle. as laid down by its discoverer. The proof of a circle of affinity. entomologists) so confident in their conviction of the truth of circular affinities. as to consider facts more weighty than assertions. Now. for what we know. that in most cases the number of divisions in a natural group is five. (272. but that in many instances there appear to be as many as seven. Although somewhat backward in viewing zoology as but a branch of physical science. we are happily so far advanced in its philosophy. or according to those marks or . upon its complete analysis and. and very erroneous in another. ten. rests. we must ever withhold our belief in such divisions. twenty. We offer these observations generally. in the first instance. this may be very true in one sense. may characters which he thinks most important. or fifty natural orders. until they rest upon a more solid foundation than arbitrary opinion. the number seven is to be substituted for that of five. 1 If a circular group is to be divided merely according to the fancy of the divider. in reference to the quinary theory. and another seven. but with the above conditions of a circle before us.) It has been said. then." and we will venture to predict that the learned author of the Horce Entomologicce would be one of the first who would proclaim the truth of the demonstration. There may be seven. secondly. If. and as equally applicable to any determinate number which be thought the true one of nature. .

to imagine the prevalence of a number. difficulties also. how many apparent divi- sions can be made? but does each group ? division. before he allows either a preconceived opinion. for obvious reasons. The idea of this number is. they cannot be natural. that every natural group is a circle. ) Linn. 33. or any analogy not founded on organic structure. xiv." t might * MacLeay's Letter to Dr. were it allowable in natural history to ground any reasoning except upon facts of organisation. indeed. p. note. Trans. therefore. to have an influence on his favourite science.) Mr. racy. however. The naturalist. vol. and its illustration by facts. He requires its application to nature. on endeavouring to discover seven primary divisions of equal degree in the animal kingdom. 57. " they would not so often flounder about in all the which necessarily attend the supposition of two determinate numbers. and they are equally applicable to any determinate number which spe" The number seven culative ideas may give rise to. . form a circular If not. 223 The question is not. MacLeay makes the following sound observations regarding septenary theories . Fleming. requires something more than the statement of a number." * (273. immediately laid aside. by itself. It is easy. p.SEPTENARY AND OTHER SYSTEMS. the difficulty is to prove it. occurtothemind. If such writers would only recollect the admission which they set out with. perhaps.

p. as heretofore *.. III. series of beings. THE CIRCULARITY. . which. it seems the most simple and preferable method to state them. strucand economy. The primary circular divisions of every group are three actually. VIZ. ^S. in the form of distinct propositions. That every natural from a given point. pref. * See Fauna Boreali-Americana (Northern Zoology). AND THE THEORY OF REPRESENTATION. for 274. vol. ON THE FIRST PRINCIPLKS OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. IV. FIRST PRINCIPLES OF THE NATURAL SYSTEM BRIEFLT STATED IN FIVE PROPOSITIONS. The contents of such a circular group are symbol- ically (or analogically) represented all by the contents of other circles in the animal kingdom. CHAPTER THE I. which we shall endeavour to substantiate by subsequent details. under diversified modifications. That these primary divisions of every group are by definite peculiarities of form. thereby II.224 PART III.) Tn submitting to the zoological world he first time in a connected form the result of our researches on the first principles of the natural system. ii. or five apparently. THE FIRST THREE OF WHICH ARE HERE DISCUSSED. or evinces a tendency to return. characterised ture. forming a circle. in its progress either actually returns. THE NUMEKICAL DIVISION. are uniform throughout the animal kingdom. — — I. again to that point.

to adduce. of course. in detail. gives us the figure of a circle. it proposition on the seems needless to repeat what has already been said both in this and in a preceding volume. a greater or lesser number of modifications of form. by beginning at some one point of the series. each being involved within the other. • Preliminary Discourse on Nat. will occur. Between the two points. are secondary. whose affinities When such a series is so grahave been so made out. we of animals This is are imperceptibly conducted to that point again. in all cases. In regard to the first circularity of natural groups. Such a circle is one way or other — — the word group being emcalled a natural group ployed. liowever. without further comment. (276. series. and this union. The two extremities of the series will thus obviously be united . That the different ranks or degrees of circular groups exhibited in the animal kingdom are nine in number. . the reasons upon which these opinions are grounded. ail hereafter shown). to designate.THE PRIMARY DIVISIONS OP GROUPS. are however (as will be upon a uniform plan . dually developed that no link in the chain of continuity appears wanting. in the intervening animals. 225 and are therefore to be regarded as the primary TYPES OF NATURE. if it is circular.) We shall now proceed.) I. indiscriminately. and state these reasons as simply and as concisely as their nature will admit of. Hist. which they all retain.* For the sake. a popular explanation may The progi-ession of aiRnity in not be misany assemblage is known to be natural. These deviations. depending entirely on the greater or lesser extent of the circle we are tracing. thus blending into each other. (275. . : every series or assemblage of beings. or inferior. shown when. it is then termed a perfect group. on this occasion. to the in leading characters of the whole assemblage. and. besides. V. and following closely the line of affinity. of exhibiting collectively the first truths of the natural system in a connected placed.

(that is. whose affinities are also circular. question which suggests itself is. the two ends of the series meet . Every group. as to sanction the belief that it is universal ? The answer is in the affirmative. but more especially in ornithoIf the reader wishes to see this theory made logy. a natural group. according to magnitude. three other primary groups. arrive once more among the polypes. system . We may refer him. : Now from two causes either these absent links have not yet been discovered. and the other part presents the idea of a chain where several of the But when a links are wanting. and to the sub-family Piciance. as examples of perfect groups .) As it is manifest that every group. animal kingdom (p. according to our theory. the other the suh. viz. Our course has thus been circular . 203. finally. One of these is called the typical. we must refer him to the Horce Entomologicce and to the Northern Zoology. part of the series is perfect. and five apparently. and we have. and to the family Picidce (of the same The circle of the volume) for one that is imperfect. (277-) II. whatever may be its rank or value.typical. and. in all such groups as have been properly investigated. to the genus Picus. its size or its denomination. we pass on to the Mollusca. theoretically.) contains. thence to insects and radiated animals . and the third the aberrant group. This . it is that upon which all others repose. We now pass to our second proposition . then the group this imperfection arises !s called imperfect.226 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. The primary its (278. will exhibit more or less variety in its conthe first tents. and which has been already demonstrated in almost every department of zoology. good in the animal world.) is also a familiar illustration upon a large scale. from these we are led to vertebrated animals . circular divisions of every such group are three actually. in the last-mentioned work. Are these variations regulated is by any definite number ? And that number so constant. Commencing with the Polypes. or they have been destroyed in the revolutions which have agitated This is the first great law of the natural our globe.

that the first test of a natural made We group is its circular chain of affinities. latter is 227 so much more diversified in its contents (for reasons hereafter to be stated) than the other twOj that many naturahsts reckon ^w groups in all . other hand. the three divisions of Mr. every consequently. x)ne of which (the aberrant) divided into 3 Aberrant A secondary circles. however.' in natural group. therefore. MacLeay's theory. If. have seen. we adopt Mr. thus making the primary divisions of every circle three. independent of as one only.) Let us illustrate this first division of a natural group by an instance drawn from the animal kingdom. then we may express them in this manner : — (279. good idea of this disposition may be gained by the anIf. that every group is first divided into five circles (the three aberrant not being united into one). instead of considering it as only one. on the nexed diagram. MacLeay's aberrant group can be shown to form a circle of their the other two. have. Q 2 . We.THE PRIMARY DIVISIONS OF GROUPS. then we must reckon them own. the number Jive being out by dividing the aberrant group into three. is three primary three circles.

are the These are no less obvious. if each of these latter classes of found to be of the same rank as quadrupeds or birds. so many analytical details have been gone into *. it should here be observed. or typical. the se- cond. In reference. however. until we come to a genus. birds. that the absolute union of the reptiles.'' the first. Quadrupeds. reducing every group to a smaller one. a high degree of probability attached to such a supposition. and thus we go on. What. moreover. three primary circles of vertebrated animals divisions. reptiles. and fishes. in fact. comprising the quadrupeds. there will be three secondary circles united into one . Every one knows that vertebrated animals^ above all others. That there is. will be apparent. consisting of the birds. There is. — • See Northern Zoology. one of these larger divisions is strated. or sub-typical. then. to the above exemplification. On the animals is other hand. or aberrant. however. and the third. demonstrated to be a circular group. are the most distinctly marked by possessing an internal skeleton. again.: 228 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. good reason to believe that the last three of these types form a circle of their own . are acknowledged to be so many types of the vertebrated circle. the same results foUow. in which case. In ornithology. then the number of primary divisions will be five. in comparison to their affinity with birds and quadrupeds. that we consider this proposition to be fully demonIf. There are also similar reasons for believing in this union of the aberrant groups in all the other divisions of the animal kingdom not yet analysed. amphibia. into one circle of their own. and how well are they all three characterised by their cold blood. How closely the water serpents and the eels approach each other. including the reptiles. when we consider how much nearer they are allied to each other. while that of birds and quadrupeds is warm. They have been. however. analysed. amphibia. nevertheless. . has not yet been demonstrated. we should have. and fishes. and fishes. where again we find three groups of sub-genera. amphibia.

in groups termed imperfect. in the least. namely. of evidence. since without it we should be unable to substantiate that uniformity of plan which embraces every natural group. the class of birds contains three primary groups . this property consisting of uniting into a circle among themselves. discovery of the union of Mr. to support the theory of perfect uniformity in creation. not only in generals but particulars. to divide it into three . a distinction to be kept in mind. however. on the other hand. (281. and conclusion sideration. is and in their inferior groups. known by and this._are obviously the typical and the sub-typical groups. coincides vegetables.. the Grallatores. ON THE PRIMARY DIVISIONS OF CIRCLES. however. does not. itself. that is yet . (280. that. The rant groups into a circle of their own. MacLeay's three aberis the addition only of a property superadded to that which they were known to possess . the aberrant one always being so it 229 much diversified^ that making the Thus. for the sake of perspicuity. the Rasores. and The renders them but types of higher assemblages. number This. conclusive against five or seven in others. that we are accustomed.) It has been observed.) The difference of considering a natural group wears the appearance of being five. instead of five. first divisions of matter. — animals. or natural bodies. then. three. three. is analysis confirms this theoretical independent of any other conthe idea that there should be only three primary circles in some groups. affect the natural series by which they are united. but the aberrant one is so large and varied. some of the links of connection are Q S . as well as passing into It is. every natural group resolvable into_^«e. with that and minerals. there are five primary divisions we must show that of natural bodies a division which no one has ventured to point out. for instance. was first strong presumptive and analogical If. number as divisible into three. and this found in the primary all divisions of animals. The plan of nature implies perfect harmony and All uniformity. and the Natatores.

shall thus have two very different relations. from one species to the other." and such " resemblances. that every created being has different degrees of relationship or of resemblance to others. which are termed analogy and affinity. than the fact of one of those critics.— S30 FIRST pniNCIPLES OF ! NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. that the general conformation of the animals in each series passes so gradually. it is a relation of analogy. are to be ridiculed . The contents of every circular group are wanting. Hist. the corresponding points of in some one or two remarkable particulars of structure. in a more scientific point of view. (282. being totally unacquainted with the difference between analogy and aMnily! To him. on the other hand. — symbolically or analogically represented by the contents of every other circle in the animal kingdom. t There cannot be a better proof of the low ebb to which the higher departments of zoology have sunk. both of which are now to be explained." forsooth. also.) The most ordinary observer perceives. that it is only in all consequence of our wish to exhibit in a connected series the laws of natural arrangement yet discovered. (283. Suppose. as to render any interruption of their transition almost imperceptible. and the ignorance of those persons who are engaged to write reviews of scientific works for the daily press. in nature. which must which agree We » Preliminary Discourse on Nat. the substance of what has already been stated. two sorts of resemblances.) We are thus conducted to our third proposition. and to the developement of another law of nature. We have so fully explained these relations in our preliminary volume *. Where this is immediate. it seems. who undertook to censure our former volume. has been meaning thus stated by the naturalist who first gave a definite " Suppose the existence of two to the terms: parallel series of animals. that we now repeat. it is remote. where. they are only synonymous with "resemblances. in some measure. There are.^ (284. seeing that their circularity cannot be traced ? This leads us to consider the diflferent relations which belong to every organised being. The question then arises^ upon what grounds do we contend that such are natural groups.) The theoretic distinction between affinity and analogy. it is termed an affinity .

however." it will be found that the corresponding points of each agree in some one or two remarkable pecuharities of structure or of habits. but of different ranks. Dentirostres. we will take two groups of birds. the corresponding points in these two series agree in some one or two remarkable circumstances. or properties. and other subdivisions. . indeed. 231 have required an almost infinite degree of design before they could have been made exactly to harmonise with each other. Sub-typical Gbodp.) To illustrate by an example the above definition. by Lamarck. 3. These relations. By placing these in " parallel series. . Fissirostres. . in other words. Raptores fNalatores -! . ^ Tribes of Perchers. the second. . EnL The first p. whose relations are unquestionable. or. in nature. Grallatores . It is quite inconceivable that the utmost human ingenuity could make these two kinds of relation tally with each other. Aberrant Group. in a correspondence Relations of analogy consist between certain insulated parts. The first shall be the primary orders of the class . . Tenuirostres. to have each their general change of form gradual. Scansores. moreover. Conirostres. had they not been so — designed in the creation. . all zoologists. and. When. Q 4 . • Hor. 2. sections. seem to have been confounded.* (285. of the organisation of two animals which differ in their general structure. .ANALOGY AND AFFINITy ILLUSTRATED. their relations of affinity uninterrupted by any thing known when. Here we have two series of natural groups arranged parallel to each other. immediately depend. [_ Rasores . the primary tribes of the perching order. therefore. there is every probability of our arrangement being correct. . two such parallel series can be shown. Orders of Birds. . Insessores. TvpicAL Group. 363. . with those upon which orders. 1. families.

and by possessing the greatest powers of flight. then. the second. namely. cular group : for in We series analogically agree in the details of their cor- responding points. der. analogical demonstration that this arrangement is natural. then. shall now show in what way each of these parallel Insessores. in like manner. and have a short thick bill. and long soft bills. exhibits the orders or first divisions of birds. the dift'erence between affinity and analogy is exemplified. is their analogy. the Each of these is a cirone column we find the Rasores pass into the Insessores on one side^ and into the Grallatores on the other. Analogies wiU be more or less apparent. are remarkable for the comparative smallness of the notch or tooth of their bill here. besides being the most perfectly organised in their respective groups. The Grallatores tesevable the Tenuirostres in having very small mouths. The Natatores and Fissirostres again preserve the same chain of analogy by the smallness and slight developement of their feet. blend into the Conirostres. and are remote. the tribes of one of these orders. there . in some one or more remarkable peculiarities of structure. the Scansores and the Rasores are the most intelligent and docile of all birds. a peculiarity which belongs to these alone. Now as these re- semblances of analogy are totally independent of the affinity between the groups in each of these two columns. and as they follow each other precisely in the same oris. while in the other column the Scansores. The Insessores and the Conirostres. Finally. In the Raptores and the Denfirostres. the notch is so large as to assume the shape of a tooth. On the other hand. and approximate to each other in the general system. we must always take into consideration the nature of the groups compared. In speaking generally of affinity and analogy.: 232 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. or perching birds. as the groups diflfer in value. although connected also with the Tenuirostres. so far. and difiicult to be traced. according as the groups compared are of equal value. they will be more or less faint. Here. generally entire at the tip.

We must now proceed to a more detailed explanation of the relations of affinity than has hitherto been given. by which it is united and a third. is intermediate between it the fox and the wolf. the group. (287. and Each of these is a circular the thrushes {Meruladce). inasmuch as no quadruped yet discovered shows such a decided tendency to conThe foregoing obnect these two classes of animals. except in those aberrant groups which connect two different circles . an- which follows it some other object That these may placed out of its own proper circle. the resemblance is an affinity. their subdivisions perfectly representing each . series be represented as simply linear. peculiar to the latter The dog. be expressed with precision. this third sort of affinity did not exist. But in groups which are unusually abundant in species and in slight modifications of form. connection of two families. lations of affinity (286.) External affinities are not always so obvious as the former. we term the first two simple or internal affinities. the shrikes (^Laniadw). consequently. because between the two there is a vast number of intervening groups. two direct (288. affinities. as we see they do in nature. The annexed diagram explains the instance of this.) Every object in nature has three distinct reone. and the latter external. therefore. butj if we compare the Ornithorhynchus with a bird.) Simple or internal affinities must exist under any system which notices the progression of nature.. for instance. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL AFFINITIES. servations may be considered as a recapitulation only of what has already been stated of these relations generally. or they are not. by which it is connected with : that object which precedes it in the scale of being . to that it to whether the circular : theory. there is reason to believe that these external affinities will be To give an found both in typical and aberrant circles. for it is manifest that if two circles would not blend into each other. has. ThuSj if 235 a bird J we spoke of the relation which the hat has to we should term it an analogy . which connects other.

Thamnophililiie Myotlierina 'liniaVii '^\ta Meruliii LANIAD^E ^. of the external affinities of typical groups demands much abstruse investigation.—-q:-~-~^MERULADai 'Ceblepyrinte / ^-^ ..* It will be seen that these two circles touch. but then there exists. the resemblance between them is not so strong. that we believe the relation is one of affinity . by means of the Edolince (a) in one circle. and this affinity. in North. internal affinities of the Thamnuphilince are two . and the student will do well to pass it over. tliis group. affinities. The subject. p. In ordinary cases. In the present instance these are the Laniance and ThamnophilincB in one. 164-. are now and the Meruladce and Myotherinee in another. until he is fully master of such principles blend into * See the demonstration of Zool. The one to three the LaniancB. but sometimes. or blend into each a). where groups so situated are not very rich in species. all groups being parts of the same circle . at the same time. __\^OrKi]inae „ • . . This is the usual and most obvious point where circular groups respectively meet but the sort of affinity of which we : speaking also regards the union of the typical groups in two distinct circles. and the Brachypodince (a) in the other. before the theory can be placed beyond doubt .. TyranniDBe^ ^ ^ ^ Gjternpodinae Other in other (a many points of strong analogy. we term external. we believe that analogies and that the two circles are actually united at more points than one. and of all its divisions. &c. however. and is then termed an analogy . such an intimate resemblance also between the ThamnophilineB and the Myotherinee. vol ii.234 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. the other to the Edoliance . being out of the circle. as in the present instance.

) From the above theory on external afiinities would result another principle of natural arrangement. in between the external or typical divisions vanish. for the present. in the year 1824-. an direct is. the evident and universally acknowledged affinity between the ThammphUincE and the Myotherina . and more especially between the typical Setophagcs and the typical Sylvicolts. it seems to be impossible to arrive at any other At the conclusion. I must confess demonstrated my utter inabiUty to reconcile. and. thing Hke this first occurred to me when studying the This affinities of the Laniadee. I should rather. was first in(i!89. since pre-eminently are as such in has only been detected abundant in species. the more dissimilar are the typical groups in approxi- A looking to a diagram of the vertebrated animals. in North. not only does all appearance of affinity mating circles. until. f Swainson. but it becomes even difficult. it .* it property. and requires such nicety of investigation. perhaps."t (290. superadded to those we have already explained as belonging to natural groups. vague suspicion of somethose which are aberrant. it as a query. by any other theory. ZooL vol. Journ. however. On this principle we li. to trace their The theory of external affinities. which I have fully detailed. in some instances. and are not of a higher rank than Beyond such groups. Unless tliese affinities. "02. than consider it as a same time. i. that. between the Merulince and the Philome/ince. belongs to a question so abstruse. 235 demonof the natural system as have been extensively strated. however. shall not.) The nature of external affinities :— " I must now advert timated in the foUowing passage unquestionable to another. pref. p.ON EXTERNAL AFFINITIES. put fact. vol. belongs to very few groups. in my estimation. analogy. the this principle of natural arrangement: of intervention the without union of typical groups. can be disproved or explained by some other mode of reasoning. the higher we ascend famihes. • See Zool.

more abundant in forms and species than that of the class Aves. formed either on Mr. It was perceived in theory. It must.2S6 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. leads me strongly to stated elsewhere. MacLeay's plan of five circles. . but it was only partially employed as a verification of the groups therein mentioned. however. This property of natural groups was first intimated in {he Horce Entomologies. be premised that this principle cannot be clearly traced in ornithology. and it is there. another the fissirostral and scansorial. the analogical or symbolical representation of the contents of one circle with those of the contents of all circles in the animal kingdom. nor was it at all suspected to hold good throughout nature. and a third the typical and sub-typical. suspect the existence of another property in natural groupsj which. The whole would thus be represented by three great circles. namely. liowever^ at present dilate^ but merely call the attention of the philosophic enquirer to what we have already " Recent investigations in another department of zoology. in a diagram of the order Insessores. It is the union of the most aberrant group in one circle with the most aberrant in the next . because the Tenuirostral or grallatorial groups are remarkably deficient in their numerical contents. I shall merely state as an hypothesis. but. that this abstruse property of the natural system may hereafter be more especially detected. so that. In entomology the very reverse of this appears to be the case . at present. if my suspicions are well founded.) Having now sufficiently explained the various relations of affinity which animals bear to each other. one within the other. This may be distinguished as the law of representation. and this without the least derangement of the series here exhibited. the laws by which it was regulated not being then * North. preface."* (291. or of mine upon three. the reader will be better prepared to understand the principle of the proposition more immediately before him. Zool. one circle would unite all the Tenuirostral types.

) The class of Birds. discovered. sent. The up this law will be given. We could even cite many instances where. in fact. in truth. but even to genera and sub-genera. or denomination. is." This will be evident when we exemplify the theory by a reference to acknowledged facts. (293. and families. by the help of much analogy between ingenuity. So numerous are the resemblances between objects. voL xvi. if a it may sub-genus is sufficiently numerous in species. when. by analogy. the whole theory has been misapplied. as we have seen (285. tribes. Every natural group. (292. superadded to these. It extends not only to orders. as a third our groups. and. that. Now this principle pervades every natural group. contains re- presentations of the divisions composing a neighbouring group. of representation of the remaining sub-genera composing the entire genus. 45.THEORY OF REPRESENTATION. in truth. it 237 result of our researches in following was often most erroneously applied. parallel relations of artificial groups have been made out. and where. p. Trans. whatever be its value. But when. consequently. of every natural division in the whole class of will contain ti/pes * North. the in a the tribes of the order Rasores t repretribes of the order Insessores . as we have elsewhere demonstrated*. we apply the test to the accuracy of theory of representation in all its bearings. . it is next to impossible that we should err or violate the series of nature.).) No law of the natural system is more calculated to keep in check the ardour of imagination than this. without a better guide than the return of a series now into itself. It is. Thus tribes. Zool. represent the primary these orders of birds. we may form circles ad infinitum under the idea that they are natural. they are artificial. as being that which of all others in the animal kingdom has been most analysed. '• the only certain test of a natural group. So that. f See Linn. and similar way. best calculated for our present purpose. or size. in consequence.

that. we should expect . economy. that if the types of a genus of birds represent the primary divisions of the feathered creation. and have shown its prevalence in others. so also must they represent the primary groups in the circle of quadrupeds. there- group is compared with one that is imthat is. determining the nature of the missing types. the more is this theory confirmed by analysis. But the operation of the law does not stop here known conspires to prove that^ in the The classes of animal creation at least. FiaST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. Nor is this principle of the natural system circumscribed to the animal world . this theory in so many groups. in this place. theoretically. and which belong only to them.: 238 Birds. acevery thing yet cordingly. ii. the more we study nature. and know. would be superfluous. although so httle attention has been bestowed on the natural groups of plants. we are materially assisted in broken and interrupted. with one whose aflSnities appear perfect. as yet. hence it follows. The principle which regulates one extends to all. and either of structure or of the groups by which they are represented. or there would be no uniformity of plan or harmony of parts. and facts are explained which by no other theory can be explained. by which they can be distinguished. i . ZooL vol. the true station — — North. circle represent those of all others. (294. This result. in the class of Birds. a perfect If. and to the determination of such chasms as If the divisions of one occur in imperfect groups. it is universal. fore. with almost mathematical certainty. Birds and of Quadrupeds are each circular groups : their minor divisions are^ consequently. it follows that each of these divisions must have certain definite peculiarities. analogical. that to go into further details. or arguing upon abstract reasoning. The Bird*. the primary groups only of the vegetable kingdom have been We have elsewhere * illustrated recently pointed out.) One of the most important results of the law of representation is the clue that it affords to the location of types. and. of different denominations.

from inattention to. Trans. undiscovered. or ignorance of. because the rapacious order is imperfect. but. or us illustrate this by an example.) on the present occasion. the raptorial order. flight rapid. circle. to conclude that the imperfection of the raptorial circle consists in the tenuirostral type : being unknown. Fissirostres. because the Dodo was. in fact. in our opinion. xvl p. is the Raptores. in its application. soft. and not two. Rasores. known. which great mistakes have arisen*. by of the tenuirostral structure analogy of reasoning. or.'4& . Analogical characters. Notch of the bill obsolete. Let The perching. when we conmost imperfect. Didiadae. as it should represent the gaUinaceous birds in some one respect. * As in Linn. order of birds. vol. and is never found in those hence we are led. Bill long. one of the best to illustrate which could be an imperfect (296. is a perfect insessorial. Perfect circle. as a group. conspicuous. we consequently find it possessed of very short wings. at least.TRUE AND FALSE ANALOGIES. Notch very- Dentirostres. Wings very Structure of the short. RiPTOHES. the rasorial type of By comparing these two series. Conirostres. because one of its primary divisions is extinct. as is generally thought. Falconidaf. The sider its rank. I NSESSORES. 239 which they would occupy in our imperfect group. therefore. This is one of the peculiarities of all rasorial types. Tenuirostres. is (295. but all are divisions primary its group. say one. The theory of symbohcal types involves.) The Dodo essentially that of a large vulture. collectively. Strigida Head very large. another principle. whole class of birds. cited. i Vulluridae. and are In tracing the analogy between two still likely to arise. Imperfect circle. in the It is. we shall at once see which is the missing type in that We of the Raptores.

This rule. The Ferce and the Ungulata are two natural orders . When. and both are inferior to that form which is pre-eminent in each genus . and these are represented by the typical and aberrant forms in an: perfect group. But when. This analogical resemblance does not consist merely in the remarkable similarity of stripes on the two animals. because both of these groups are pre-eminently typical in their respective circles although unequal in their rank or extent. and the other aberrant yet as each of these are circular.: . the analogy or represent- other ation is false . To vary our examples. which is a typical form in the Ungulata. on the other hand. we shall take an instance from two famihar animals in the class of quadrupeds. Every perfect group has its own typical and aberrant forms . however. we can never compare in one circle with an aberrant group in another these groups. but one is typical. so these types should justly represent each other. 240 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. then the analogy : : . as a whole. they are equal in their denomination. for would destroy at the very outset the harmony of the comparison it would render the law in question indeterminate. wild. the toucans {RamphastideB). therefore. but actually extends to their moral character both are vicious. therefore. series of animals. namely. and we see how beautifully it corresponds to the zebra. a typical group . so their respective typical and aberrant groups may justly be compared as representing each other and this they accordingly do. for as each have types of perfection. and the horse in the sores. by no means affects the comparison of the contents of a typical with those of an aberrant group . because the Ramphastidce are admitted by all to be an aberrant family in the scansorial circle and the Conirostres are likewise admitted to be the typical group of another circle. being of different denominations. the lion in one. no law. are made to represent the entire group of Conirostres. and. I . the Conirostres are stated to represent the Insesis true. The tiger is one of the typical forms of Ferae. and untameable.

as the next stage of induction. (298. THE PRIJIART TVPES (297') In the last chapter we endeavoured to elucidate the truth of the three first laws. upon which the System of Nature. and economy . But. to he regarded as the pkimary TYPES OP NATURE. and. the few eminent naturalists who have prosecuted these higher objects of the science have limited their studies. II. therefore. natural classificanow come to our fourth proposition. can he traced throughout the animal kingdom. from these circumstances. of a general definition. AN]) FALSE ANALOGIES. that this representation necessarily involves the prevalence of certain definite forms. We which maintains that the primary divisions of every circular group are characterised by definite peculiarities of form. in other words. which to admire most. and are. after gaining the law of representation. or the simplicity of regulated.TRUE Other. for the R . 241 This instance of analogy^ which must come the comprehension of the most unpractised naturalist. down to the series in which innot. is framed. may be cited as one of the innumerable proofs home to of the universality of symbolical representation. unfortunately. in dividual species follow one another. since we are not aware of its having hitherto been hinted at. tion. CHAP. OF NATURE. THE FOURTH PROPOSITION CONSIDERED. structure. Upou tliis generalisation we have not been enabled to receive any assistance from the labours of our predecessors. following each other in a uniform series. capable. it is — the We vast know and unlimited extension of the principal those laws by which itself. under diversified modifications. a principle which extends from the very highest groups of ponderable fact. which. therefore. matter.) It would seem to follow. or.

and these. and have. and the aberrant by these names we express their denomi' nation. (300.) As every natural group is first divided into three circles. been unprepared state in what manner the forms therein contained re-appear. in other words. In the typical circle. The first distinction of typical groups is The animals they conimplied by the name they bear. totally different from which has been the object of their peculiar study. so to speak. however. so it follows that there are three primary denominations of groups . or whether this perfection is deteriorated. (301. the functions which peculiarly characterise is their respective circles. in a remarkable degree. whether exhibits the greatest perfection of any particular structure. and : : capable of performing. This universal in all typical groups but there first is a marked difference between the types of a and the types of an aberrant one. as it were. or very sUght developement. but solely in reference to its typical or it aberrant nature. to one NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. we ations of groups. (299-) Before proceeding. without any one of these preponderating. the sub-typical.) I. a few observations become necessary on the characteristic properties of the different denominIn using the term denomination. are tain are the most perfectly organised endowed with the greatest number of perfections.) Let us exempHfy this proposition by fami- . (302. one faculty is developed in the highest degree. as if to compensate for the total absence. over the others . to the main object before us. are called the typical. as we have already explained. we find a combination of properties concentrated. under an almost infinite variety of modifications. to the greatest extent. by the admixture of other characters belonging to a neighbouring group. to therefore. and we shall now treat of each in detail. .242 most FIRST PRINCIPLES OF part. apply it not to the rank or station of a group among visions of the animal that its congeners. department of zoology. in certain individuals. of others. as it were. that is to say. whereas in the second it is quite the reverse : in these last. in other di- kingdom.

which Here. Lastly. pre-eminent type. bination of diversified characters. in any other genus of birds . and perfect facility in walking. while its habit of devouring putrid substances. (303. is borrowed from the vultures. in itself. while in its own or- by giving der — that of the Insessores. It consequently unites. been justly called. for it is the preeminent type of the climbing birds (^Scansores). instead of finding a comis an uherrunt tribe. vol. for the purpose of exhibiting in what manner they could be combined. individually. and powers of imitation. a greater number of properties than are to be found. it had taken from aU the other orders a portion of their peculiar qualities. p. by giving to it great powers of flight. even to counterfeiting the human voice. The woodpecker is of this description. tion. and furnishes it with great cunning.t In this wonderful manner do we find the crow partially invested with the united properties of aU other birds. the aquatic birds contribute their por- this terrestrial bird the power of feeding not only upon fish. which are their peculiar food. is an example of the characteristic properties of the type of a typical circle. such being among the chief attributes of the grallatorial order. and picking out the eyes of young animals. xiv.TYPES OF ABERRANT CIRCLES. sagacity.) Let us now look to the type of an aberrant circle. B 2 . and of seizing upon living birds like the hawks. article. 445 + Wilson's American Ornithology. then. and discovering its food when hidden from the eye. similar to those be* Linn Trans. takes the power of soaring in the air. liar 243 instances. Next come the order of waders. From the rapacious birds this " type of types/' as the crow has in fact. it is also the type of a typical circle. while the parrot family gives it the taste for vegetable food. From the scansorial or climbing order it takes the faculty of pecking the ground. The crow has been most truly considered the pre-eminent type of all birds*. as if. Fishing Crow. but actually of occasionally catching it. who impart their quota to the perfection of the crow. or perchers — it stands the Here.

Every part of the structure of a woodpecker. is seen in the mammalia among vertebrated animals . for there its food does not exist of its legs. sary. for striking blows fection. and no other. that one being the characteristic of its whole tribe. is found to be in a subordinate state of developement. to the production of that form most adapted for one especial purpose. which may be heard half a mile . exhibits the scansorial structure. . armed with strong claws for grasping the bark. and. but what is this to a bird which usually sits in a perpendicular position ? Its food is almost entirely restricted to particular insects and to procure these it is gifted with powers which are It is the type of the withheld from all other birds. distinctions of the family inferior to the — these are the typical before us. however its perfections. the usual character of types of typical groups while the highest developement of some one property is the distinguishing mark of types belonging to aberIn the formei this perfection of structure rant groups. The energies of nature are concentrated. which. consequently. formed on the model of a perfect wedge . not immediately essential to its peculiar habits. crow in the number of far exceeds it in one. in the testaceous shell-fish . — for the best of is unnecesmerely journeys from tree to tree even in its migrations the feet almost incapacitate the bird from moving upon the the position ground. as it were. in the winged insects. acting as a buttress to the body when the bird is at labour . for it : : reasons. a strong rigid tail. 244 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATIOK. a bill as hard as ivory. and a long spear-shaped tongue for inserting within its clefts. in the sub-kingdom Annulosa . in the highest degree of perGreat muscular strength. . therefore. because their greater developement climbing race. Its flight is comparatively feeble. The union of many properties is.. short robust feet. longing to the crow^ the whole structure becomes adapted that of climbing trees^ and for one particular purpose — extracting from them the allotted food. gives it an awkward appearance on an even surface . placed very far back. or the Ptilota of Aristotle.

(301. in short. (305. Sylvicola.) II. and In in the Medusa there is in the circle of radiated animals. are all remarkably abundant in individuals. short.) Perfection in the number of species or of forms a remarkable and very general character of preeminently typical groups. and subsist on the blood of other animals. either for inflicting injury on their own class. dispositions are often sanguinary . 245 among the MoUusca. symbolically the types of evil. infusorial animalcula are. as the scribed. This is not. this peculiarity in the lower divisions we see it very prevalent.CHARACTERS OF THE SUB-TYPICAL FORM. and in looking to natural genera we find birds. apparent in the mammalia which stands at the head of the vertebrated circle. no end to the proofs which illustrate both these principles. since the forms most conspicuous among them Uve by rapine. indeed. Sylvia. however. when compared with the This remaining contents of their respective circles. for exciting terror proTheir ducing injury. or winged insects. which is the same in we have the largest groups in their respective circles. because in very many instances nature seems The to make up by number what she withholds in size. also. by any means universal. and in the Insessores. are a degree lower in organisation than those last de- and thus exhibit an intermediate character They do not between typical and aberrant divisions. and that of the restricted sub-genus Scarabceus (MacLeay) among insects. are probably ten times more numerous In tracing than all other annulose groups put together. but always those which are the most powerfully armed. name impUes. They are. the Ptilota. the most numerous of all organised beings. and in such an extraordinary way is this principle modified in the smaller groupsj B 3 . numerical preponderancy is not. Among the Annulosa. therefore. which is the pre-eminent type of is also quadrupeds. comprise the largest individuals in bulk. but in the order Qaadrumana. or creating annoyance to man. and several others among birds. that the genus Picus. and the reasons are obvious . Sub-typical groups.

we find. and yet no two we now in species of the . to follow it down into the lowest form of anawill The see in what manner it is exemphfied same genus. whose very aspect sessed but that of is forbidding. by feeding upon insects. is that even among insects. which are themselves typical. Let us first look to that of Bos. will be which so found group which represents them in the entire order of perchers. warblers. this extraordinary characteristic is manifested. the different race of scorpions. the Ceand that many prowl about to destroy life birds. among the one hundred. of nature upon vegetable diet alone. this principle of evil is developed in the highest degree. and we accordingly find. where no other power pos- causing annoyance or temporary pain. Acari. we look to the sub-typical groups of quadrupeds and of birds. and all those repulsive insects. unsocial. again. placed more remote from the end of the upper manEven in the smaller dible than it is in all other types.246 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. both are armed with powerful talons. and untameable. strikingly distinguishes rapacious birds. the peculiar character of which consists in a conspicuous tooth or notch.) which belong to the typical order of Quadrumanes . where we have the ox and the bison actually foDowiiig each other in close affinity. the American group of monkeys (Cebidce Sw. both live on slaughtered victims. and even small (306. in the sub-typical order of the Annulosa {Aptera Lin. sub -typical groups of larger circles. that while the family of true apes {^Simiadce) live in a state bidce are partially carnivorous. in every The formidable toothed bill. and both are gloomy. of that circle it is the sub-typical group. Take. If. and whose bite or sting is often capable of inflicting serious bodily injury.) this law in larger groups is theory lysis. above are sufficient demonstrations of but as the best test of a . for instance. spiders. the although in a much slighter degree. and these groups amount to more than Even in the genus Sylvicola.). bill of the sub-typical group represents in miniature that of the rapacious order.

can be the one is F0R3I. and fecundity is well known to be much greater among The the smaller quadrupeds than with the Ferte. that feed. were they equal in number to the peaceful inhabitants of the plains. is this repulsive property shown among the true butterflies (Pupilionides Sw. were they as and others upon which they ordained. revengeful. docile. it may be asked. singular threatening aspect which the caterpillars of the sphinx moths assume. . In the genus Eqiitis.: CHARACTERS OF THE SUB-TYPICAL animals^ in their moral character. — — the Lepidopterous order is precisely of this denomination. while the same result would be accomplished by the rapacious birds upon the rest of the feathered creation nor would the insect world brute creation : : : preserve its nicely adjusted balance : the carnivorous spi- ders and scorpions. would soon destroy aU It is therefore wisely the tribes of herbivorous insects.typical groups . How then. and the reason is manifest were it otherwise. they are almost universally less than those which" are typical. slow. and tameable of the the other wild.'' The which are the pre-eminent types of the order Fapilionides are a circular group . upon all sub. on being disturbed. and that their increase should be animals Eagles and hawks rarely lay more than two eggs. is a remarkable modification of the terrific or evil nature which is palpable or reimpressed. the horse being the typical. would in process of time eSect their entire destruction . we should have the carnivorous tribes extirpating those which had not their ferocious dispositions the wild beasts of the forests. numerous as the flies. while the zebra is the sub-typical form of the genus. example of the genus .) In regard to the numerical contents of these groups. 247 more opposite the most useful. and showing . under one form or other. the same beautiful and wonderful prevalence of this universal law of nature is manifested . 240.). The ox is the typical an innate detestation of man. consequently they R 4 . as already intimated (p. the belonging to sub-typical groups (especially such as are pre-eminently so) should be comparatively few.). for this division of mote. the bison is the sub-typical. (307.

as if it looked to the pure regions of heaven for the enjoyment it is to receive in its last and final state of perfection . would appear is incredible. this peculiarity is modified is so wonderful. is suspended with the head downwards to the earth. but for unquestionable facts. neither of these celebrated men suspected the absolute fact. where punishment awaits the wicked at their last great : change. Thus. like other circles. or in the dark hollows of the earth. but the chrysalis of the brushfooted butterflies (^Nymphalides Sw. a sub-typical division of their These are distinguished by their caterpillars being armed with formidable spines or prickles^ which in general are possessed of some highly acrimonious or own. when a celebrated entomologist denounced as " impure " the black and lurid beetles forming the Saprophagous Petalocera of Mr. as.). forming the typical group of the same division. Oa the other hand. elicited from our analysis of this group. the infinite variety of ways by which them. have. whose caterpillars are stinging.248 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF all NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. The suspension of the chrysalis another intimation of the butterfly. is fixed with its head upwards. poisonous quality capable of injuring those who touch In short. the Thalerophagous Petalocera. nature had : intended that they should be types or emblems of hundreds of other groups. That of the pre-eminent type of annulose animals. the same symbolical character. thus pointing to the world as the only habitation where its innumerable types of evil are permitted to reside or to that dark and bottomless region. distinguished by pecuharities equally indicative of evil. that this very tribe constituted the sub-typical group of one of the primary divisions of coleopterous insects nor had they any suspicion that by the filthy habits. and repulsive forms of these beetles. MacLeay^ a tribe living only upon putrid vegetable matter. we can venture to believe they are so universal as to deserve being ranked primary laws. present us with all the perfections . It is only when extensive researches bring to that hght a uniformity of as results. and hiding themselves in their disgusting food.

we shall term them the Aquatic. : 249 These families of they are diurnal. as the name implies. We As to structure. are too varied to admit of general application. be necessary to consider aberrant groups as naturally divided into three distinct types. are more especially inhabitants of the waters. I. beetles live only on fresh vegetables in the glare of day. we shall suggest more comprehensive and appropriate names. on the other hand. and exemplify our remarks by some familiar instances. the only division of zoology wherein they have been accurately — may be objected to this plan. perhaps. and beautiful in their colours.THE NATATORIAL OR AQUATIC FORM. therefore. represented by the natatorial order of birds. are found to common. " pure " elegant in their shapes. further than that they depart much more from those which belong to pre-eminent types than these latter do from the subIt will. types. the Suctorial. The characters belonging to aberrant groups. indeed. throughout all natural groups than any of those belonging to other types. and the Rasorial : these. But. when the subject has undergone deeper investigation. aud the absence or very sUght developement for their . collectively. therefore. They possess many and striking peculiarities. For the present. typical. when viewed as a whole. in the most astonishing manner. for the present. form the aberrant circle of every group in the animal kingdom. as these is term as that which throughout the animal kingdom. in their food. and habits belonging and sport (SOS. shall consider these characters under the heads of structure and economy. for reasons already given. It these by the names which we have assigned to them in ornithology. present certain characters in (309. the advantages of designating them by common names are abundantly obvious. that to desig- nate a type of quadrupeds or of insects by the same appropriated to birds will lead to a confusion of ideas.) to their kind. — aquatic types are chiefly remarkable enormous bulk. distinguish traced.) The NATATORiALor AQUATIC typcs. III. We shall. Hereafter. modified. the disproportionate size of their head. but more conspicuous.

furnished with jaws capable of great expansion. do not possess all the characters of the natatorial type . in fact. the aquatic Mollusca. either among the vertebrated or inver- and. NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. thick. This structure implies the pecuhar power of seizing their food by the mouth alone. and thus unite three of the great characteristics of the aquatic natatorial type . indeed. in the manner of the cuttlefish (^Cephalopoda). without the assistance of . namely. These latter are the largest of all invertebrated animals. the animal world. they are not the largest animals. It may be urged. but those which they do possess are more developed in them than in any other of the chief divisions of animals. although fishes and medusae are aquatic. Thus. the only class wherein the unless in feet. destitute of any organs analogous to feet. that a natural group rests not upon any one single and exclusive character. not merely in one but in three of the chief divisions of the animal world. although they do not possess all. we find that the radiated mollusca (^Radinta^ are pre-eminently aquatic. the individuals. As we approach the more perfect animals. while every one is aware that no fish can exist On taking a wider survey of its own element. we begin feature . and terminated by a blunt or truncated muzzle or snout. seeing it that these organs are wanting. and move without feet. therefore. that the absence of feet cannot be looked upon as a pecuHar mark of the natatorial structure. If we look to the primary divisions of the vertebrated animals. and obtuse head. enormous size. but must be remembered. a very large. they which characters are not found in any other of those which we term primary types. and a large disproportionate head. types of the testaceous which are.250 of the very FIRST PRINCIPLES OF feet. or of the classes of the tebrated. of the characters of their type. but often swimming with their arms. strongly we all see one of these peculiarities in marked in the fishes. but upon a combination of several. are entirely wanting. exhibit some. an aquatic nature. vertebrata: hence. to see the developement of another singular namely. feet or claws and as this power would only be necessary .

as we have abeady seen. precisely of the in the circle of Ptilota. the owls among the Raptores. The Pteropoda. and or fin-footed reptiles Analogies.) absence or slight developement of which. other groups demonstrate this. that the food from the natatorial (which always follow them) is captured by the aid of the claws. the cuttlefish. in natatorial forms. are general structure.THE NATATORIAL FORM. (311. as were. are natatorial types . swimming order ! of birds. they are true. insects. How the this exemplified in the whales and porpoises (forming the natatorial order of quadrupeds). being analogous to the Crustacea. while the order Neuroptera. the (310. As to the economy of the aquatic types. As Fishes constitute the pre-eminent natatorial type of vertebrated animals. the Elaniosauri. the Cephalopoda. and the Fissirostres in the circle of the perchers (Insessores). we accordingly : find that nearly all natatorial types are carnivorous the medusa'. for instance. The apodal larviE. above all others in their respective circles. or crabs. and thus we find the same under different modifications. of all the Ptilota or winged prising modifications. the same general structure. and the most adapted for inhabiting a watery element. — a habit which naturally to be expected . and the Crustacea. and innumerable but none more perfectly than the order Natatores among birds. under new and sur- universal : can be distinctly traced. whereas in the types we are now speaking of the mouth differ is the instrument of capture. is almost universal. to such animals as lived 251 upon others. are the most expert swimmers. are pre-eminently carnivorous. is same de- scription. but they in this. Sub-typical forms. Even when we descend to more minute groups. employ the same organs for swimming these animals. so we alone We find that those groups which represent them beautifully is in other of it the vertebrated circles have the feet transformed. or crabs. is we have already premised that they are almost entirely carnivorous. are thus led to the feet of this type. the whales. if .) II. into fins. both in the Mollusca and in the Annulosa.

and although a quadruped. snout is so obtuse ofi". and all others whose body is fixed. (312. show us the same aspect so . that they seem absolutely incapable of their last or moving from the spot where they complete final The Hesperian butterflies (Heschange of form. We have seen that the feet all. are all well known instances of this habit. not to mention the whole tribe of Fissirostres among perching birds. as if incapacitated to rove about in its search. the mouth is of vast size. : 252 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. belong to this type of form. and immediately blended into. like other animals. of all true insects. principle developed under a different for here the habits of the animal at all times are sedentary. or without feet. that the extremity appears to these gigantic animals the hippo- as if cut Next . The Cirripedes. Every natural group. First we have the whales. whether all : internal feeders are of the natatorial (or apod) type. in their own respective circles. before whose stupendous size even the elephant shrinks into moderate dimensions the head is nearly as large as the whole body. for they fabricate and live in a little cell.) Let us now look for verifications of the foregoing theory among some of the best known animals all of which. and often not at isation which joined. by the imperfection of their feet: the kingfishers. it is apodal. flycatchers. and hence it might theoretically be concluded that the feet are never used in the pursuit or capture of Now this is truly the case in numerous their prey. and innumerable other groups. in short. and the and blunt. are slightly. instances : natatorial types seize their food all by the mouth such as do not swim. contains some one representation of this type we have not yet determined. however. in their larva state. developed: an incapacity for quick motion is the natural result of such an organ. the leviathans of creation. dart upon it from a fixed station. peridee) are the most sedentary. or pursue their prey by their wings. It lives in the waters.. the herons. in any group the sub-typical (304. and of the Annulosa). or barnacles (the natatorial type alone .). formed by a leaf rolled into a cylinder.

Glires.THE NATATORIAL FORM. and obtuse. are almost useless. as feet are among quadrupeds. but are actually supported by analysis. we find the gigantic Neuroptera. Amphibia. preserving. Fishes. would vie in bulk with the elephant this also is a natatorial type. Reptiles. or river horse. and in many is so confounded with the thorax that the two parts appear but one. and which we We consider as constituting the natatorial type of the all Reptilia. If we pursue the analogy to the winged orders {Ptilota). out the probable station of those stupendous fossil reptiles. . short and imperfect feet. depressed. 253 potamus.). : : and aquatic torial. Celacea. even in their fossil remains. leave the analogy indisputable.. Series of the Ptilota. properties of such types. and the genus Mantis far surpassing all other shall hereafter endeavour to point insects in bulk. living the greater part of their hves in water. Hymenoptera. Series of Verte. Guan. plesiosaurus. Hippopotamus. Seriesofthe Seriesoftfre Pachydermata. : The ostrich is the largest bird in existence it is not nata- because it belongs to a different order . Hyrax. Coleoplera. Oslrich. Megatheriuin. all wingless insects for in that division were they placed : by is Linnaeus. Rasores. thick and blunt snout. we shall place before the reader a table of the aberrant types of some of the groups we have here intimated : to Now. at the head of which stand the dragon-flies. Pigeon. the prove that these examples are not taken at random. : the largest and the most aquatic of (^Aptera L. but nature has contrived that all the other indications of its type should be preserved the bill (corresponding to the snout of quadrupeds) is broad. and to that they truly belong the head enormous. &c. and the wings (the chief organs of motion among birds. Ungulata. — Aberrant Group of the Series of Quadrupeds. but for the extreme shortness of its legs. the ichthyosaurus. under new modifications a large head.) are so short as to be Crabs. Neuroptera. brata. habits. among annulose animals. and we find it possessed of all the leading characters.

because it is more generally applicable to the habits of the animals here alluded to than to any other. stands in direct opposition to the natatorial In such as belong to the vertebrated circle. but arise. not of a studied adaptit were incidentally. the hippopotamus. that each of these columns {313. and the oniscishall.) Let us for the present suppose. the the organs of mastication. from following closely the line of affinity in each column . theoretically. form is also widely different from the natatorial in other respects . for these animals are peculiarly active. and the Neuropterous dragon-flies. therefore. (314. of course. there is a great length or attenuation of the body. the gliriform among quadrupeds. By this series we know. type. the results in the present instance completely confirm what has just been advanced we find the cetacea. generally prolonged into a pointed snout. and the analogies hori- zontally. One of the tests. a mode of nourishment which is. however. the feet are always fully developed . repre: senting the fishes. is a circular group. the head is always very small.) We are now to consider the suctorial type of form : this corresponds with the tenuirostral type among perching birds. that the food is imbibed by suction . is uncommonly small : in some few in- . hence. to demonstration. The suctorial the power of running and of leaping. and the most defective in In aU these characters. or whales. that the analogies are coration. One of the chief peculiarities of this type is. the affinities being expressed perpendicularly. the These most feeble and defenceless suctorial in structure. that it finds its contents represented in all others . the grallatorial in the orders of that class. and enjoy. the ostrich. rect.254 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. in a remarkable degree. accompanied by many remarkable We deviations from the structure of all other types. and the mouth. designate all these under the common name of suctorial. forni and vermiform in the class of insects. as because they are the result. are always the smallest in point of size. as adapted for sucking. therefore. of such a group is.

. the most of : defenceless of animals muddy bottoms Uke the worms. like unserviceable appendages. In — the vertebrated circle. (315. whether by absorbing the fluid in which they live. which entirely envelopes their body. as if to screen them from their enemies. has endowed them with great caution. When compared to the pre-eminent examples of their respective circles. mere particles of matter. and evince little or no propensity to become domesticated. All animals belonging to tliis type are shy. indeed. out teeth. comprehending the most perfect all animals. and the most dissimilar from all others. with. in fact. and whose feet are so inefficient as to appear In the great division of annulose animals we have all these types represented by the intestinal worms . apparent. uncommon vitality. destitute almost of eyes. — is immaterial to our present purpose. in the of ponds. stances 255 it is not. but nature. and give us the most perfect . living. and in many cases has protected them either with a hard skin or a coating of bony armour. so simple in their structure as often to be without limbs. and these. In what manner they are nourished. Of these the siren of Linnaeus is probably the type it is. and repels all injui-y.) Let us now see in what manner this type is developed in the more comprehensive divisions of the animal world. Thousands are invisible to the naked eye . perfectly jointed. that in whose structure. appear but as grains of sand. perhaps. is so imsome of the modern systems : we find them referred to the Acrita or polypes they are nevertheless truly annulose. the suctorial type may be viewed as the most imperfect that is. and only recognised as animals from being endowed with voluntary motion. The polypes and the animalcula {Acrita) are the smallest of aU living beings. They are without offensive protection . the most simple in its organisation.THE SUCTORIAL FORM. this type of imperfection is confined to a very small number. or by sucking the juices of other beings still more imperceptible than themselves. even when viewed under the microscope. as both are obvious modifications of the suctorial process.

must strike every one . that throughout these groups the mouth is particularly small. and the whole family of mice. Lepidoptera.256 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. the pigs. in the remoter instances of the Coleoptera The singular resemblance forming the order BrancMosteges. although are the swiftest runners of the feathered the jerboa . the armadillos. or red-blooded worms. The known and familiar example among insects. represents the suctorial Vermes in the circle of the Annelides. That well-known animal. As we proceed more to trace these characters in the groups of perfectly constructed animals. and are remarkable both for the great length and slenderness of their biU. and in very the among among the Ptilota. Now. we find in the tortoises the faintest develope- while the singular . the ant-eaters. said that they exhibit amazing powers of leaping . the quadrupeds contain those which have the jaws or muzzle produced traordinary length to an ex- witness the moles. The all suc- types among . which the chelonian many torial instances entirely destitute of teeth. a well we have noticed. live entirely (3 16. and the extreme narrowness of their gape. . have the longest biUs and the smallest mouths of any in the whole class . as circle of quadrupeds not saltatorial. while the humming-birds (by which the waders are represented in the great order of Insessores) by suction. this is precisely the structure of all the types of the suctorial birds : for the Grallntoresj or waders. and it is worthy of notice. idea of the suctorial structure. is again produced in the more immediate groups of Dasypus and the vertebrated structure ment of Manis (the armadillo and scaly ant-eaters) among quadrupeds. but this does not appear to be a character of such we have universality as many of those flea is. defence with which nature has provided them. and brings before us some of the most striking the common properties of this type. medicinal leech. nevertheless.) In regard to the motion of suctorial types. bear to the tortoises and turtles. and the kangaroo in the while the wading birds. and the larva of the Ericinidce fishes.

are a few out of the multitude of examples which can be proved. although occasionally found in other types. and these generally accompanied with great agility. be termed parasitic. being inferior only to the natatorial. This perfection. tyj)es. They are. like 257 In no one instance do we find that suctorial the natatorial. and of those appendages. and whose structure at the same time is very simple. by analysis. the gold wasps (Chrysis). is of a very peculiar kind . The intestinal worms. the toes of which.CHARACTERS OP THE RASORIAL FORM. the common Cimex. among its chief characters. to one particular spot : free powers of locomotion. this peculiarity in the among fishes. Pedicuhts. From these they are further to be dis- tinguished by the strength and perfection of their feet . are so very frequent and remarkable in this. and the cow-pen bunting of America (^Molothrus pecoris : Sw. First.) The BAsoBiAL type.strohranclius. so termed in ornithology. or harvest bugs^ and the Cocci. or cochineal insects. This is the type so remarkable for the greatest developement of tail . in vertebrated animals. Among quadrupeds. for it comprises almost every animal which usually bears that name. These scansorial powers. from imbibing their nourishment by sucking the juices of others. in fact. or of climbing among tress. illustrates most striking manner. that both approximate in their general characters. and Pulex. that it may be considered one of the peculiarities of the rasorial structure. from this fact. for ornament or defence. are. Nearly all the animals which. are fixed. s . are never united so as to be used for swimming. is the third and last which enters into the aberrant circle which circle is always closed by the union of this type with the natatorial . creation. since it is confined to the powers of walking on dry land. however. as to the form and stnacture of rasorial types. the Acari. hence it follows. but every one knows the parasitic nature of the cuckovr. to be modifications of this primary type. (317. are of this type it might.)j while the Ga. as are the Polypes and the barnacles. in — general. this latter character is not strongly developed. remarkable for their size . consequently.

are bestowed upon the ruminants. the •which decorate the head. in its full developement.Apto the head. or fleshy protuberances. while she withholds a third. seems to be one of the principles by which Creative Wisdom has produced such infinite variety in His works . we should. one of general principles. its singularity. and selected those^ beginning with the peacock. we scarcely now before us. wherein the tail was most conspicuous. for the head is without either horns or protuberances these. fix upon those birds which analysis has already demonstrated to be raThe same result would attend a similar sorial types. — . But seldom happens that both these peculiarities are united Nature will sometimes indicate her in the same group. in order to bestow it. which. are destitute of the flowing tail of the Solipedes. for if. belong to the same order. the types of the rasorial order of ungulated quadrupeds {Ungulata). All these. either for its size. and of winged insects. are no less a prevalent character of the type indeed. We thus see how two of the typical characters of the raso- between two groups*. we went through of birds. in reference to the horse and rial structure is distributed nevertheless. in fact. or for the beauty of whole class its colours.: 258 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL If CLASSIFICATION.. would furnish many hundred proofs by pendages which the uniformity of this type is preserved. crests. however. unknowingly. belonging to the same circle. upon another group modified upon the same Thus we see that the horse. Among birds. collectively. types by two only of its leading characters. on the other hand. This. collectively * This is still more strongly exemplified in the two primary groups of the Scansores the Psittacidce and the Picidce. selection of quadrupeds. whether in the shape of horns. who. is superior to all the Mammalia in the beauty and elegance of its tail : but then this noble animal is destitute of another indication of its type. which do not appear to be it and this very circumstance is sufficient to raise a douSt on their real denomination. groups furnished with rasorial types . know of more than two or three crests.

and the latter a flow- ing tailj how closely would they resemble each other such principles. for strictly ter- not. when the first has wings. deserving our deepest attention. in fact. (318. sition restrial The economy we know and the best known. be understood to speak more particularly of Xke rasorial types of quadrupeds and of birds . when many of the animals you bring forward in support of your theory are actually without some of these characters ? Such reasoner* appear to forget. animals. that we must. 259 OX. of vertebrated of this type is in direct oppoit is to that : of the natatorial . which constitutes one of the most remarkable ! On in the creation.THE RASORIAL FORM IN QUADRUPEDS. So little. that if a mouse had wings. the second none. This propensity to live removed from that element does not. and if each type were to exhibit all the properties or pecuharities theoretically belonging to it. from being very remote. a single instance where belonging to it frequent water or its vicinity. however. but must be traced through a number of intermediate analogical forms. confine these animals to the the individuals bare ground . are continually splitting. however. that beautiful and astonishing variety. must not be made an immediate object of comparison. while the analogy of these quadrupeds to a wading bird. This is the rock upon which many naturalists. is known of such invertebrated animals as come under this denomination. thus selecting our illustrations from the most per- features : — — fectly organised. and the third has but two long legs ? or. we should have but five unvaried forms of living beings. who have not sufficiently reflected on the subject. the former were to have horns. how can you draw up a set of characters purporting to belong to the rasorial type. They argue after this fashion How can you maintain that a bat represents a mouse or a wading bird. would be destroyed . for they either s walk upon the surface with 2 .) The economy and instinctive dispositions of the rasorial type are stamped with many remarkable circumstances. in the following observations. it would be no longer a mouse it would be a bat .

whose size way adapted to answer the end This principle of nature was partially per- . The habits of the ruminants are those of the gallinaceous order of birds. again. that there should be one type. comprehending the parrots and woodpeckers. These fanever found in the same individuals . : position is observed among the rasorial groups of qua- drupeds. or rasorial tribe of the perchers. are This is manifestly the case in the rasorial order of birds.260 FIRST PRINCIPLES OP NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. while those of the sloths are precisely similar to the chmbing habits of the wood- peckers. ease. they never perch upon trees but to roost whilst the Scanaores. and which should evince an aptitude and a disposition to submit to his to dominion. for natatorial groups are almost always purely carnivorous . : (319-) But what more especially distinguishes the type we are now describing. one of the strong points of opposition between this and the last type . whose powers were to be more especially devoted to Man. formed vertebrated animals. with singular facility. above all others. and the Scansores. that we find species that live both upon animals and vegetables the trogons iyTrogonida) and the toucans {Rampha^tidcB^ are striking examples of this union of different foods. reverse the picture. is The food. ungulated quadrupeds seek their food from the vegetable world. and show us the chmbing property The same disof the type in its greatest perfection. by Almighty Wisdom. and the parrots live entirely upon fruits. in conformity to their dispositions. or climb trees culties. but are distributed on the same principle as that illustrated by the instance of the horse and the ox. nevertheless. This is. far above all other created things. It seems have been ordained. The first never climb. is the superior degree of intelligence and docility that runs through all the gToups of vertebrated animals belonging to it. and it is only among such forms as serve to connect the two. but seem to delight in dry soils . The peaceful order of almost always vegetable. all This is the grand characteristic of rasorial types among the more perfectly or structure are in any proposed.

ceived by Linnaeus. she seems to have invited and encouraged our further research into the more complicated parts of her system. these landmarks. the ox. although a natatorial bird. FORM IN BIRDS. (320. the sheep. therefore. The burthen or of food are taken from the Ungulata.THE RASORIAI. * Journal of the Royal Institution.) Let us now look to the feathered creation. It has been our especial series. requires more than ordinary proofs of demonstration . and by giving us. Nature seems to have intended that a few of her analogies should be stamped by such striking and indisputable resemblances. in- deed^ so apparent to the commonest observer. much more by those who are naturalists. and. quadrupeds to the gaUinaceous birds the ruminating an analogy. 3 . There is no our suspicion of its correctness. 11. iv. or stations. are surrounded with proofs of this. is calculated to excite onr caution in its adoption. which sets out with denying what the rest of mankind have long perceived. exclusively to the rasorial type common duck. for even the The varied contents of our farmyards belong solely and . to depart from. Any theory. But this is not all. as it were. new S No. while the dog is a rasoyial type meet us of the Ferce. that the most ordinary capacities should acknowledge them . at best. one truth in natural arrangement capable of such varied and overwhelming demonstration as that upon which reposes the analogy of the ungulated quadrupeds (Ungulata) to the rasorial order of birds . p. that we can only feel surprise at its ever having been questioned by any one. both of which if not show the highest intelligence. which We All our quadrupeds of in every direction. and the goat are in our meadows and pastures . the greatest docihty. can be established the accuracy of the original opinion entertained by Linnseus regarding the Ruminantia and the Rasores. and the most cheerful contentment under the domestication of man. 261 when he compared . horse. is yet the rasorial type of its own family: this we have elsewhere proved by strict analysis * and on the same conclusive evidence .

object. vol. and circle. In proportion as we recede from those animals whose size. however universal. in many|of those belonging to the Annulosa. in Africa. or winged insects. in fact of sorial another work*. this analogy. But it is not among birds only that the sociality and docility of the rasorial type is manifest: the same is apparent through all the chief groups of quadrupeds . and structure renders them fit companions or assistants to man. their services are simply con- power of supplying us with a wholesome and nutritious food for it is remarkable. with equal clearness. Thus. The hymenopterous order of the Ptilota. and we thus find that the ants and the bees the most useful insects to man. as the rasorial division of the animal kingdom. in the domestic fowls. ii. This property. and the Echini. while. that nearly the whole of these animals are edible. class. for these quadrupeds actually labour in our service.262 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. the elephant. to demonstrate the particular which we have just spoken. . It is seen in its greatest developement in the ox. is nevertheless modified in an infinity of ways. and the horse . In the dog it is manifested by affectionate attachment . the star-fish. the honey-guide {Indicator^. by perfect contentment in a state of partial confinement. intelligence. in the natatorial division of the Radiata. a rasorial — — advance towards the invertebrated groups. by tracing the ra- type through the vast order of perching or land and had our limits there permitted. of course. and the most inteUigent and social of annulose animals are actual representatives of the ruminating quadrupeds and the gallinaceous birds. by assisting him to discover what. The Birds. becomes fainter and fainter.. we should have continued the demonstration. while it can be traced. by giving the result of a similar analysis of all the orders in the feathered birds . The Robin shows his attachment to man by living near his dwelling . scarcely one species is used as food by the most uncivilised people. is an imfined to the : • Northern Zoology. in its own type . on looking to the testaceous Mollusca. is. where we have the Medusa.

through the natural history of the animals themselves. MacLeay and of others. indeed. by preference. he would not have asked why constant referencewas made to that volume rather than to Wilson's American Ornithology the first containing all those demonstration. 8 4 . while the latter. or to our own in the work so often quoted. and not one group of animals has yet been analysed in these volumes. To those who. iii. vol.. accompanies him in his woodland rambles. 234. indicating the developement of each of those rasorial characters which have already been explained. Results of previous analysis. because such proof depends upon analysis. we shall now bring before the reader a more condensed enumeration of the chief types in which they are conspicuous . not one demonstration in these volumes has yet been given. 485. that we are perpetually talking of demonstration. 41. and this is so strong. of the ornithological groups to which we have appealed . Yet not one of the natatorial types can he domesticated. we have referred and well-known labours of Mr. we shall here. the supposed errors of the • Oiscaux d'Afrique. + Had one of our reviewers known any thing of the Fauna BoreaiiAmericana^ beyond the title-page. These rasorial types are arranged in columns. in a good or in a captious spirit. as every one knows. 263 while the bird called by Le .) That the characters of the rasorial type may be rendered more apparent. that it is sometimes extended to the indirect : repre- sentations of rasorial types in other groups find hence we that the swallows. have objected. or in the Preliminary Dis- course. in the vicinity of human habitations . or was intended to be. address a few when words. p. the degree of analogy they respectively possess. as at p. always build. : is a mere history of species. although a natatorial type.* All these instincts are evident modifications of one and the same principle . Zoo!. Wherever in this.nt the Importan. N. When. nor is there one in this.CHARACTERS OP THE RASORIAL TYPE.t JVo demonstration is. (321. once for all. leaving him to investigate. given in that volume . Andropadus viridis Sw. therefore. have been often quoted. such an appeal has been to the previous made. there being a parallel analogy between this family and the rasorial parrots {PsittacidcB). portant article of food Vail\a.

in ways. 9. Attachment man other to .

it is one of the rasorial examples of that we find it the most intelligent and docile of all its congeners. and. a scansorial type. accordingly. therefore. is. the difficulty of definition becomes vastly increased. is the aquatic (or fissirostral) type of the sub-family of woodpeckers {PicianeB Sw. among birds. If the order Fera had no rasorial types. Melanerpes Sw. therefore. from not being circular. in our definitions . but as it is a natural group. We have. arising may out of the assertion .) . that the dog be this : — The dog belongs is a rasorial type and it would to the carnivorous order of does . it is." We would even wish. (323. how. it contains. order . as aU its to suspect it was not a natural one. facts Q63 upon which these it results are founded^ be pointed enough to talk of " want of demonstration. as a whole. consult.CHARACTERS OF THE RASORIAL TYPE. and from such only as have been submitted to analysis. and so.) In substantiating the proposition with which we commenced we have endeavoured to and examples. drawn our explanations and illustrations chiefly from the best known vertebrated groups. then. there might be reason But. that every thing that has been hitherto said upon the natural system were considered as an hypothesis. a raHence. although this animal belongs to sorial division. which remained to be proved in those volumes where the details of each class out.) There is one question which the reader possibly wish answered. brevity and perspicuity. but this chapter. reposing on the same grounds . divisions assimilate to the other types here defined. FercB the FercB. (322. that where the modifications of a particular form pervade the whole animal creation. It is obvious. So in like manner. presumed to be both natural and perfect. A far greater number might have been adduced from the annidose kingdom. of which it forms a part. The not this imply a contradiction ? FercE. is a sub-typical group (305. can it be of a different type ? By no means. then it would be an imperfect group. as a whole.) . just made. will then be time of animals are to be entered upon. although this group. within itself.

CHAP. enter upon demonstration. When each class of animals. already before the public. would have extended our remarks to a volume. and then only. . THE FIFTH PROPOSITION III. and inand which have remained unquestioned. each being involved within the other. FAMILIAR ILLUSTRAFOR THE VERIFICATION OF GROUPS. VELOPED. and have so embarrassed our definitions. is — That the different ranks or degrees of circular groups in the animal kingdom are nine. observations. CONSIDERED. although the adept could have understood them. that. the student would have been perplexed. therefore. which. comes to be treated of separately. THUS OFFERED EV THE LAWS OF NATURAL ARRANGEMENT. only offer presumptive evidence on rent accuracy. The full demonstration of this law would obviously require an analytical exposition of the whole number of circles here mentioned . to do tho- roughly.266 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAIi CLASSIFICATION. we their introduction in this place shall then.) The fifth and last proposition with which as follows : we commenced this part of our volume. we shall conclude claim our attention this division of our volume with a brief enumeration and a familiar application of those laws by which natural groups are to be verified. TION OF THE PRINCIPLES OP CLASSIFICATION HERE DEQUESTIONS ON ANALOGICAL COMPARISONS. : Species and varieties will next and.) is We have seen that the whole animal kingdom touching composed of an infinite number of circles. finally. ON THE RELATIVE BANK OP THE DIFFERENT CIRCULAR GROUPS IN THE ANIMAL ON THE MEANS KINGDOM. (324. in the succeeding volumes of this series. would in itself require a volume. (325. ferences We its can. ON SPECIES AND VARIETIES. appa- drawn from facts.

is definite. therefore. we find they form a little circle of themselves it : several of these little circles . which leaves us in doubt what to term them . and is again involved in a larger one . Thus. Species are as much connected among themselves. in most cases. follows.. as are assertion genera . be relinquished. " another and another yet succeed. therefore. at least.until she finally combines them composed of the whole animal kingdom. occur between two supposed species. and unite into a larger one this circle in its turn unites to others. because it not only shows a circular series of affinities. being as gradual in one as in the other." . (326. congregate. so far as to form a pretty accurate opinion whether it stands within the range of one circle. Every natural group. that the only absolute divisions in nature were species . or more decidedly marked. And thus does nature proceed every combination being all greater than the last : small circles are absorbed in into one. but also a series of types or representations. an assertion which must now. becomes necessary to designate these by particular names. even of late years..) It was long a favourite and an unqualified It consequently different groups among naturalists. The intervals between one species and another is not wider. and that they may become eflScient instruments for reasoning. whereas we seldom find that one genus blends into another so completely as to render it impossible to say to which of them a particular species belongs. that although all natural groups are circles yet are these circles of difitrent sizes. as they are called. that their comparative value may be understood. and representing each other by innumerable analogies. in many cases.: DIFFERENT BANK OP GROUPS. when perfect. however. 26? and blending into each other at different points of contact . If we begin with species. the progression of affinity. Nature's groups are. and value. than that between two kindred genera for it frequently happens that varieties. strate the precise station of an . It larger. or enters the confines of another immediately contiguous. as were. we can demon- animal . ranks.

composed of the Carahidce and Harpalidee of authors.) The animal kingdom. in speaking of the rank of the genus accustomed to SearabcBus. more of conjecture than It is.. Sub1. probably. in themselves. distinct circles. have received the following names. really be. Order. in such cases. 9. and in the typical divisions of the order Lepidoptera among insects. but upon demonstrative analysis. there must be some prevalent number of these ranks. because it seems to be a law of nature to carry this principle into her lowest assem- We blages . This latter Sub-family . and it must consequently follow. the lowest description of circular group hitherto detheir relative value: 4. Genus . but this opinion is the result. Family. Kingdom. seems to think that there are eight different descriptions of circular groups . — 3. the number Now.268 more FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. differing in value each from the other. (328. although all naturalists have long been use different names to denote the relative value of their divisions. then. in the family of Carahidce Sw. Class. and terThese groups minating with the lowest assemblages. highest number of circular groups. Mr. This fact. be circular . they may be detected. 8. 6. Tribe. which may not. for if he had been aware that sub-genera are likewise circular. sub-genera. rests not upon theoretical supposition. in both instances. which at once indicate kingdom. in themselves. . as they are of dififerent ranks. MacLeay. 5. as he himself premises. that can be traced in ornithology. that. Sub-genus. may be presumed to contain nine different ranks or gradations of circular groups. much nearer the truth than could have been supposed. ibut hitherto we have not clearly detected any Should the divisions of sub-genus of this description. 7. definite than her species. commencing with the highest. looking to annulose animals alone. of analysis.) Upon this abstruse question little has been said or written. this is precisely the very "would have been nine. (327. is 2. nevertheless. mean not to assert that there can be no divisions of sub-genera.

But no faith can be placed in such tables or is all This very well. and call writers to throw several genera into a that group a family. for vol. Nor tribe can we tell. tlie — the * Sucl). if it be consibut a temporary expedient. as vie have just observed. and pointing out to the reader the most probable station of the group or species under his consideration. until their circular arrangements and analogies have been made out by analysis. will be very different from either. are totally different from those which characterise a family in the next. as kingdoms of nature. > . truly is. and a family or whether between a any particular form is the representation of a genus or a sub-genus. But mode of investigation not only laborious. and the more extensively its these enquiries are carried into the neighbouring groups. no instance has yet been pointed out. while such as are exhibited in a third. but it too difficult to be extensively prosecuted. We shall now proceed to make some general remarks upon these groups. ci'J'j. or a sub-family. p. a mode of abridging labour. yet. when a sub-genus is verysometimes contains the five types of form common to all circular groups . iv. nor can their value be known by any other rules than those resulting from analysis and comparison. and really useful. by assuming what has not been proved. it BANK OF GROUPS. tected The true rank of a natural group. The characters which belong to a family in one tribe.30. the more hkely are as this we to understand is true rank. dered. can only be de- by analysis and analogy . in short.DIFFEREN'T tected in nature perfect. 269 : for although. the difference .) The common consent of mankind has sanc- tioned tlie belief in the three instance. (3. at first sight. as it — scales of gradation*. that in Introduction to Entomology. (329-) It is clearly impossible to define any of these groups by characters which are applicable to all such as hold the same rank . is the cus- tom with most group. wherein each of these types is also circular.

belongs . or sub-genus.. to refer it to the family of warblers. perfect. &c. the vegetable. reptiles. in the other. another. as we have already proper. of which description are quadrupeds. therefore. birds. which contains the most typical examples. . fishes. from this circumstance.genus. we may start. sions are palpable . into sub-kingdoms. or running upon the ground : we consequently conclude that it perches. and by this means arrive at its Its perfect and well-proportioned feet guide us tribe to the particular guished by these characters of Insessores which is distinand we then proceed. These are next divided naturally into classes. or insects. when . . if we wish to pursue the synthetic mode of investigation. : 270 FIHST PKINCIPLES OF NATUKAL CLASSIFICATION. . Every one sees that this is a bird not formed either for swimming. as from an incontrovertible truth. Insessores . contains in its own little circle. subkingdom. order. ii. * Northern Zoology. and the mineral. wading. So far we can have no doubt as to the kingdom. as representing the natatorial or aquatic type. a representation of all the types of nature and thus the bird before us. animal. show that it belongs to the genus of Parus and to that little group. 203. and winged insects. Vertebrated animals form one of these sub-kingdoms and annulose animals. vol. These is divi- and our belief in them not to be disturbed by the subtleties of philosophy or the arguments of metaphysicians. seen. by . generally speaking. or class to which an animal. The animal kingdom is admitted to be a circular group its first divisions are. or Pari But even a sub. and Amphibia in one insects. and to the sub-family of titmice The sharp conic bill. therefore. p. inhabits the marshy borders of lakes and rivers. and other minute (Pariancp)* peculiarities of structure. whose rank we wish to ascertain. and refer it at once to the division of birds named. still further examining its structure. From this point. apter- ous barnacles {Cir/ipeda). and we will suppose this to be the common-bearded titmouse (Parus biarmicus).

judging from analogy.).* Each circle. Papilio. (^Podalirius Machaon both enquiries together three. we have every reason to conclude. Tribe. I. kingdom. But this. Sui-genus. already remarked. comprised twenty or thirty species. Sub-genus. £00. Aves. i. no • Northern Zoology. Kingdom. before we arrive at that which brings us directly to the bird before us. . Tribe. Papilion£e. Order. It would. 9. Annulosa. Order. Parianae. Podaliru's MACUAOhf. 2. contain a new set of representdivision ations of the usual types. and thus get the following scale of rank in the groups we have progressively passed through. voL ii.) There are several deductions of the highest importance to be made from this table. Lepidoptera. and lives only in 271 such situations. Podalirius. Vertebrata. 5. Class. Insessores. Papilionida. Genus. Parus. Sub. Ptilota. Kingdom. Tarus proper. Sylviadee. Uiurnes. 8. does not occur in the class of birds although it may possibly be found among insects. Family. already demonstrated as such by rigorous analysis. 3. consequently. Animalia. 1. as we have . 7. Sub kingdom. 4. 5. 6.RANK OF GROUPS EXEMPLIFIED. As after the station of the the same results would attend our search common swallow-tailed butterfly Sw. Dentirostres. instead of merely containing this one bird. embraces all those that are beneath it.. are be inferred from the fact that they are each circidar groups. in fact. &c. We therefore terminate our series of circles with the subgenus Parus proper . Sub-Jamily. Family. (331. That these. Genus. but at present we must view it only with reference to the value of the groups in the first columns. one within the other. Now. 8. 3. p. and would. We traverse. according to its superior rank. 2. is to the same principles. 6. Animalia. — the we shall give the results of number being three times Paris biarmicus. Class. eight circles. and these is concerned. 7. if this aquatic of the sub-genus Parus.Su/j-family. 9. so far as the bird in question natural. the test or proofs of the accuracy of each reposing on precisely only. that it would of itself form a little circle .

genus . if mere division were the object. be easy to divide the family of warblers in twenty different ways.272 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. and to which nature so tenaciously adheres. "(332. (333. in short. both as regards their number and their rank. . the Harpula Vexillum Swains. as we have already explained. although the truth of one must at present be assumed. while Podalirius llachaon. as capable of being defined. is utterly impossible . always present us with representations of those primary types of form already defined. or fishes from insects. exist as truly and their relative and are quadrupeds are from birds. at a more convenient season. has been made and as the results have been procured by the same means. The student must not. value. we shall now produce two other series one of which is selected from the class of Mollusca. for the purpose of ascertaining the rank of that lovely shell. is an aquatic or fissirostral type. as : and We : : . when they are numerous. and therefore cannot.) Although we have not yet been able to detect any circular groups below the rank of sub-genera. however. that these groups. see an example of this in the bearded titmouse. This analysis. be analogous. the species composing these little assemblages. look to these two series with any expectation of tracing transverse analogies for although the two orders of Insessores and Lepidoptera really happen to represent each other. doubt. and thus to increase or diminish the number of the groups but : do this in more ways than one. and are typical orders. taken from two different classes . to exhibit an analysis of the second column. so that each division shall be a circular group. we could not withhold from our readers so interesting a coincidence of the definite number and rank of natural groups. and the other from the sub-kingdom as absolutely in nature. in like manner. It will be our object.) In further proof of the universality of these groups. the other groups are of different denominations . which is the natatorial or aquatic type of a sub. and it to therefore follows.

Mollusca L. Kingdoyn.2. The demonstration of all these groups cannot. in their proper place. (Petalocera Sw. as. (ScarabaeideB Scarabs na? Sw. Hist p. Scarab. entire families are extinct. Uadiala. Harpula Sw. 77. Family. Coleoptera Lin. if not two.^ Although we have not yet detected in the scheme of nature more than nine gradations of circles. 273 of insects {Annulosti). ScarabiEUs MacL. Zool. 4. 2.* the order Rapfores-. it by no means follows that all these are constantly to be met with in every circle of superior magnitude. Order. as in already been fully accounted for. Scarabjeid'ae 6. Tribe. 7. Zoophaga. Gasteropoda Cuv. Class. 1. Saprophaga MacL. Sub~kingdum. (Mollusca 3. This. 5. Annulosa. Sub-kingdom. Genus. pi.sus Sacer MacL. of course.) 7. Heliocantharus Auct. 9. now be entered upon.231- . the primary groups do not ajjpear of a higher rank than the families of the Inaessore-s . {Molliisca. are the results . than such as are typical. will be only represented by a single individual. 4. the determinate number of graduated ranks of circles in the animal kingdom.) Family. manner. Aberrant groups are almost always fewer. (Scarabteus proper. Kingdotn.NUMBER AXD BANK OF GROUPS. This inequality in the contents of two groups of the same analogical rank has Sometimes.) Order. Class. so as to contain its own types of form. in the most intelligible • See Preliminary Discourse on Nat. Testacca. and illustrate. MacL. 5. however. 2. one. 9. S. and even of these. Volutidae. MacLA 3.Ill. pointing out the probable station of the Scarab(Eus Sacer of Mac Leay.) 8. in classes or orders. Siib.. Ptilota Arist. Genus. although full details will be given These. ' Animalia. Sub-family. 6. Chilognathiform (MacL.) Sub-genus. Harpula /i)-o/7fr. Sub-genus. both in j^oint of numbers and of divisions. instead of having many species. H\BPL'L\ Vexilu'm. and sometimes an aberrant genus. Animalia. Acrita. Tribe. {So"^. for instance. 1. VolutinEP.

being. however. .) fined as A species. p. that species are the only absolute divisions of nature. we must revert to a subject intim. may be de- "a natural object. and. or by the extinction of those animals which would render such groups perfect. in short. p. mean species and varieties — which ations. and of which they are^ in fact. Stephens's Catalogue of British Insects. constitute the assemblages in question.'3. even now com- mon among the fact. most nearly related as far as observation has * See Preliminary Discourse on Nat.274 as FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. borne out by the sentiments of one whose peculiar line of study renders him. Hist. -( J. on this subject. 21. where the discrimination of species from varieties is impossible.ately connected with the definite character of natural groups. tion being reversed in other words. they are to be found in the different gradations of groups and types here pointed out. which generally constitute a species and we it do this fully. in introductory works. to human apprehension. naturalists. the most indeterminate This opinion is of all the links in the chain of being. which merits. f those exceptions which give rise to these opinions. culiarities we shall now proceed we think to describe those pe. {336. from such being we believe that the truth consists in this posi. in popular language. either by our imperfect acquaintance with the productions of nature. composed . in short. species. preface. whose differences from those to it are. we those individuals. however. that if there are any absolute natural divisions. So far. authorities in this country. one of the highest Setting aside. because the subject has not re- ceived that attention. we have before explained *. may be accounted for in two ways.) Having now laid before the reader a few of those facts which serve to verify the general truth of the five propositions with which this division of our volume commenced. all and whose variation leads to a knowledge of higher combin- We alluded to a theoretic belief. {335. xvi. but that in numberless cases it is utterly impossible to discriminate species from varieties . F.

and the In regard to the first of these. that is. if ever. if this were correct. such variations are seldom. the richness or their size will also be affected poorness. but the latter specimens are nearly one third less than the European examples. {337. again. perhaps. animal is as much distinctive of the group it belongs to. or shape. seems to be precisely the same in India as in Australia. in a state of nature. the size of all animals will vary according to the scarcity or abundance. but so infinitely may the same general form be modified. thus showing size or hulk. But. by the temperature of the particular cHmate they have lived in. 275 and are therefore presumed to . either in the shape or : the proportion of the whole. Europe. to lay down any general rules for the positive discrimination of species but we may suggest to the student a few of those distinctions which are most absolute these chiefly The form of an relate to form. extended. we should others contend not have some naturalists calling that a species. Animals which are found to be most abundant in cold or temperate regions.) . of no two species is the same. that. Under the general term of form. by which natural assemblages are regulated. of their food by their locality . permanent very generally considered the only distinct or definite divisions in nature. and markings . the form. colour. become smaller than their brethren who had not quitted the central region asThe convolvulus sphinx of signed to the species. in proportion as they extend their range to others much warmer. have had their origin when it came from the hands of its Creator. as of its specific character . rigorously speaking. It is difficult. Species are perpetuated through many generations. if not impossible. will.CHARACTERS OF • SPECIES. : . but. contour. clearly proves that groups are more definite than species. in form. sculpture. which is a variety. we comprehend proportion of the parts to each other. judging from the perfect insect. and colour." Domestication and other causes will often produce some variation of these characters . or of its parts. The theory of variation.

size will often occur in individuals This variation in found in the same just as country. that. p!. and many other peculiarities which will readily suggest themselves . different degrees of height and of robustness. such different modifications of their usual characters. . &c. in the shape of the antennae.^ Shape. affinis.276 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAt that a CLASSIFICATION. luemorrhous and Ornithological Drawings. possessing a peculiarity of shape. they would be viewed as species of birds. or of the bill in birds . in almost all insects . and beetles . + Cass. Ornithological Drawings. to authorise our specific difference. not only vary in size in a most remarkable manner. in a state of domestication. but more especially those of the genus Cassicus the largest of which. warm the same effect as cold does temperature. may not make known peculiarities of habits and of manners. varies almost distinct species. are not distinct species from their congeners. is the second property there are scarcely any instances in which of form animals. but assume. the only ground of there must be something more than a mere difference in size. is more among quadrupeds. the elegant crested cassican*. were we to discover them in a wild state. 2. we observe. in the direction of the horns of oxen. pi. 1. however slight it may be. while somewhat rare. however. because well known that the several breeds of horses. The most variable regard to their size. A peculiarity in the shape of the wingfeathers. are the — in every district ful and yet it is stiU doubtit inhabits whether a better acquaintance with some of these supposed varieties. fowls. 32. produces upon others. however. pigs. upon some animals. in hangnests of America . making it {338. We do not here include insects than it is domesticated races as examples. which may justify us in considering them distinct species. among a family of children. antelopes. Generally speaking. observable in birds among it is This variation. cattle. or contour. or of its joints. whose natural in metropolis is warm latitudes. or even on the same spot . particularly those of the red-ruraped : species t. may all be taken as good and : * Cassicus cristaiiis.

The young hornbills have seldom any of those protuberances on their bill.* The possession of horns. than the relative shape of the wings of birds. The spines upon the different rock shells (^Murex). vary in like manner . in which these marks are known to vary no better or more tangible character. such circumstance cannot constitute a species. for examples of this.. while others are These are the most remarkable excepnearly smooth. When.and the Cerambijcidce among insects. and even then they increase in size. if not of four. in the last. Let us look. in almost every individual . unto advanced age from ignorance of this fact. It would be curious to ascertain whether this difference results likewise from age. which. former writers were very apt to describe the young and the adult bird as two different species. the Scarahceida. &c. indeed.CHARACTERS OF SPECIES. protuberances^ enlargements.) of America. are mostly characters of types. but their particular shape is a sure indication of species. the shape and direction are the same. and the Muricidce among shells. We recollect no instances among wild animals. 277 insects sound distinctions for species.). : : • See Northern Zoology. in their length. in cases where the size and colour of two or more species are perfectly the same. so that in some they are very prominent. and on the coronated volutes (^Cymhiola Sw. where the different shape of the wings constitutes the only specific distinction of three. An analogous case to this is met with among the saprophagous beetles (particularly in the group of bulky Dynastidee MacL. can be named. some specimens having acute and prominent spines. which they acquire with maturity. vary. species. however. and in the genus Phcenius of the same author) the hornlike protuberances. distinguishes the male sex. while in others they are merely like short tubercles. A striking — — : instance of this may be seen in the greenlets {Vireo V. without altering much in form. but there is merely a difference of size or developement. to the hornbills (^Bucerido!^ among birds . or at most among for permanent or sexual differences. T 3 .

unless when species domesticated. the structure of these latter members afford distinctions and these latter modifications give us a cerindex for the determination of species. is (with the exceptions last mentioned) usually a sign that it is a distinct species. that he may be in doubt as to their specific difference the greater enlargement of the thorax. but nearly the whole of the saprophagous beetles are of the same sombre hue.278 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. clothed in the garb of their mother and that among the . seldom vary in individuals of the same .) portions. are excellent specific distinctions : the antennae of insects do not supply. the sexes of the same species the same uncertainty attends the employment of specific characters drawn : from their legs. in (339. however.) The most general distinction of species is manifested by their colours among these. tions to the foregoing rule that at present occur to us .ays . among quadrupeds.) and sub. both as to structure and length. when arrived at maturity. Colours. The entomologist should pay particular attention to the proportions of two insects. The comparative length of the tail in quadrupeds and birds. we must not include black . for not only are nearly all the : species of entire families (as the Harpa lid en MacL.) of this colour. however. but pecuUarities drawn from the latter circumstance are much more to be depended upon than those of the former. that young birds are almost alv. tain : indicate a real difference. It in the feathered creation. however. in all cases. the wings. may frequently for groups. the feet. In birds and quadrupeds. or even of the antennae. which come so close to each other. should be remembered. (340. when compared to another which it closely resembles. A form is modified by difference in its proHencej the comparative shortness or longness of an animal. or of its parts. so good a criterion . and of the wings in birds and insects.families {EdolincB Sw. for they often vary considerably. they relate almost as much to the size as to the shape of an object . and still more rarely among birds.

where the ground tint and the pattern are almost invariable in the individuals of one species. of the sexes are rarely different although there are some remarkable exceptions to this rule among the exotic In the. also. species of bee will appear very different upon first emerging from the pupa. but vary in : individuals of the same sex the beautiful green. for terflies. they afford obvious distinctions. are devoid of those richly coloured plumes which they acquire in the second. generally changes. spots. although the pattern of the wings wiU be. three. Let the young entomologist. prevalent among the locusts. so the under wings. and when his short career is drawing to a close the delicately coloured hairs. in mature the colours of birds are their best and most Among insects. capture some of those end of July. ornithologist These instances are upon his guard sufficient to . considerable help. gulls. Hymenoptern. and then renew his captures. Colours. are very evanescent. 279 species of vultures. ako. and the dark colour of the abdomen. the colours spects. set the young life. the adult plumage is not put on until after two. in other re- In this order. splendid coloured congeners. : if he wish to ascertain this fact. or Humming-birds. Those which ornament the bodies of not only fade after death. will frequently vary as to their size and number. in all probability he will meet with the same species. with which his body was at first defended. but apparently clothed in difspecies he will find on the at the wing ferent hues. instance. and yet. during the first year. will give the whole insect a different aspect to that which it had in youth. in the same locality. the same diurnal tribes. and nearly all their even four years. appearing beneath. will be partly worn off'. although there may be some trifling variation in the latter. and a few others. especially in the Lepidoptera . . the dragon flies. in the month of September . in the neuropterous order.COLOUR IN SPECIES. precisely the same. in the : preserved specimen. to a light brown T 4 . in our well The ocellated known meadow but- forming the groups of Hipparchia and Pohjom- metus. hawks.

if not the only. upon the whole. pi. Passing from these few exceptions. The pattern. ( Tellincp^ we specify the chief. also. the cowries may be cited as a group of shells remarkable for the specific uniformity of their colours indeed. these parts appear of a light ochre or dull yellow colour. however. When we except two or three species of olives {Olira Lam. that there are many species which we should find : distinguish in any other way. In numerous species of the Chrysomelidce. (341. of the angular zigzag markings. which often cross the whorls both of the land and the marine genera these. It must be understood.) retain . Most of all. The brilliant American Euviolpi frequently exhibit these variations. Zool.) There are other remarkable ways in which colours vary among insects. golden green is the prevalent hue yet varieties of each it difficult to . . the saltatorial gold Galleruci of tropical America. and as they are seen in cabinets. when alive. or of a greenish colour. that no dependence can bivalves be placed upon the presence or the number of bands.: 280 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. of the grasshoppers {Gryllinee Sw. The colour and patterns of shells. and the tellin . however. of which the student should be apprised. exceptions to the universality of this observation. set. Some of the small light-coloured CassidcB of the same region are still more 111. seen on the bat volutes * and other coronated species forming the genus Cymbiola. of which the common garden snail is a noted example. 83. although the general style of these markings will be precisely the same. among individuals obviously of the same species. and they never vary in the same species. and the precise pattern of the markings. a few land shells. ii.). but for this. are scarcely alike in two individuals out of twenty. aiFord very good specific their colours very well distinctions for. are often found of a rich green blue. they seldom vary to any great extent. will often vary in the same species . so slight are their modifications of form. particularly those of the marine tribes. yet when they die. * See Cymbiola J'csperiilio. have a large proportion of pure white about them .

colour. but unfortunately they are more evanescent than those of any other insects. fowls. especially of the spiders. for preserving them. and they look like drops of burnished gold yet let look at them in cabinets. of the scales on the feet. The bodies of quadrupeds and birds. 281 see tliem alive. — SCULPTURE. well some faint indication of their original hues.) Sculpture is the last distinction of species shall here enumerate. applies to a large proif portion of the crabs although they will exhibit. the elytrse or ex- which we ternal wings reptiles and other parts of insects. and they appear like different insects. however. restricted to Sculpture. will be effected . reluctantly. These latter . and aged females of the gallinaceous order are known to assume the plumage and colours of the male bird. as if by magic. same species of by extreme age the green plumage of parrots changes to yellow . in birds. We therefore to obliged. being covered either with hair or feathers. the scales of and of fish. We know not whether this circumstance has been observed in wild birds but many instances of this change are upon record in the cases of pheasants. their rich metallic hues will revive. nor has any method been yet are discovered the species. as shown in the rings and nodules upon them is these are greatly diversified. present us with different kinds of surfaces. . and. would enable us to discriminate the species with much precision . and the hard or testaceous covering of molluscous animals. in individuals of the : Changes of birds. grooves upon the bill of certain species of hornbills and toucans . show very little of this peculiarity the horns of the ruminating : animals. while the moisture continues. to seek for other means define The same remark . entirely of a dull yellowish colour: these very specimens be plunged in all warm water. CHARACTERS OF deceptive : SPECIES. and other domesticated species. (342. and almost invariably indicate a difference in species. This term comprehends all those various modes hy which nature has diversified the naked parts of birds. and mode of division. The colours of many of the apterous insects.. and to the form. preserved.

under this head. found so uniformly prevalent through the species of a natural group. simple lines. are the scales of reptiles and of fish. otherwise naked. shrike. and they are then termed cancellated. afford excellent specific distinctions. as. cannot possibly be obtained and they accordingly writers. of different degrees of density and length. and consists of downy hairs. Sometimes the wing-cases . are used for The same diversity may be purpose by the best observed both among . that they are mostly employed in defining genera and sub-genera : slight alterations from such standards nevertheless occur in species . for species than these. On proceeding to insects. So. and of the spines upon the different sea eggs {Echini). spread either wholly or partially over their body. likewise. ridges. a crow. find this character rising in importance. tubercles. but it is very prevalent among beetles. — according the surface of species to the lines — which either with nodules. The highest developement of this is seen in the field bees {Bombus) . size. for example. . chatterer. spined. which is termed pubescence. wrinkles. Lastly. this Better distinctions . and he will at once perceive characters^ however. we may notice. are punctured. and flycatcher . are how we in singularly they are diversified. and may always be so employed. or tuberculated : and each of these are again diversified in " an almost infinity of ways. This pubescence either or . grooves. is the order of partial Hymenoptera. the univalve and the bivalve shells are diversified spines. That he may be convinced of this. ribbed. wrinkled. particularly such as represent. and they consequently claim the especial attention of the ornithologist. and manner of disposition of the scales upon the feet of a few different groups . that partial clothing on the surface of many animals. particularly the coleopterous order.282 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. either irregularly or in lines in others. The sculpture of corals. let him compare the form. This is chiefly confined to insects . they are either grooved. or punctured and sometimes these lines cross each other like the fabric of a basket. in their different circles.

are quite suf- moreover. radiating in bottle-brush : all directions. may frequently individuals a well-grounded suspicion that two very closely resembling each other. pubescence shows itself under "the form of a very fine powder.^ It is unnecessary to expatiate further upon the diversified appearances in the external covering of whether that covering be hard or soft. Few of the true Cicades. 283 sometimes covering the body and limbs. the relative proportions of surface. and they may be used. while it is restricted to only one of these parts. possess more than a slight pubescence .) Difference of country. Many of the African BuprestideB and the Sicilian Cetoniadre are so ornamented.) have their antenna ornamented by elegant circular tufts other species of hairs. that they are discern- able in all the individuals that have been seen or collected. (3-14. Lastly. either by a very slight difference animals . as distinguishing characters. although much more rarely. are of . in other species. provided they permanent . is distinguished from others with which it is immediately connected. be.CHARACTERS OF general in . Sometimes. but several of those of tropical America and India have long tufts. or singing Hemiptera. either white or coloured. and many other modifications. that is to say. with confidence. surface always possesses in its form. the hinder legs are tufted. its some characteristic. {S4tS. Many of the Capricorn tribe (Capricoi-nes Sw. resembling the finest cotton. for. SPECIES. from whence they seem to spring. should be noted in the comparison of species . while we have a pretty vernal bee having these ornaments upon its middle legs. its colour. like the bristles of a these tufts. therefore. as in many of the Cocci. as in some Capricorn beetles . its these characters. projecting from the end of their bodies. or of geographic dis- tribution. All these. or its sculpture : its parts. A species. are scattered at regular intervals over the elytroe and thorax. when coupled with excite other considerations. again. LOCALITY. or plant lice. however refined they are may ficient to point out a specific difference.

it was customary varieties.) . legs however. is peculiar to Asia its arrival. will turn out to be. The hare of Europe. that there are no than five." but no allusion is made to the previous examination and name 1 had given it. and that. which up to this day. to the ancients the Surry Zoo- logical Gardens. Before naturalists had discovered the to which is now so esdepend more upon the general aspect of an animal. See Introductory Discourse. One inhabits the north of is Africa. enjoyed by so very few. seems to be a while very different species from the hare of Nepaul many of the lepidopterous insects of North America.) another. we may cite the lions . than upon its minute details of structure .284 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. has now taught us that the productions of every quarter of the globe have a marked and peculiar character . until their larvae were made known by Abbot and Smith tj : "were considered identical with those of Europe. and that species best : i^Leo Africanus Sw. have viewed as constituting but one species. distinct species. 66. . .) is quite distinct from that of the southern part of the same continent (Cam. some species of birds or insects common alike to the Old and the New World. • The fact. Experience. although there are. again. Burchell (ieo melaceps Sw. known now in . and the fourth is the lion of Southern Africa (ieo Australia Sw. The Lepidopterous Insects of Georgia. mentioned by Mr. too much stress must not be laid even " * The description and name of this species were communicated from these gardens to the editor of the " Naturalist's Library. and which. and in this way it not unfrequently happened that a host of true species were classed as necessity of that nice examination sential. Avstralis Sw. •f on Nat. according to Mr.). for instance.). p. In like manner. upon was examined and designated by me as the Leo Asiaticus* : the third is the black-maned lion. yet that this wide geographic range is that they became rare exceptions prevalent laws of nature this. On the other hand. however. Hist. we have ascertained that the giraffe of Northern Africa (^Cmielopardali's Antiquorum Sw. if not six. Gray. to one of the most As a striking instance of naturalists.

and turkey. affect its colour. climate. In nearly all cases. among which. the — — local or influential causes being removed.) species of Helix. (345. are sometimes very inconstant in their colours in : strong instances of this are seen many (JiG. than any other. and of Southern Africa^ cannot be discriminated from those found in this country. and both these. The radiated animals are much more con- . as already intimated. and of Tellina. LOCALITY. goose. in a state of nature. This is observable in the spots upon the wings of the Satyridce. Insects of the lepidopterous and the neuropterous orders are more prone to these variations from their original type. the generation which succeeds assumes all the genuine lineaments of the race from whence it originally sprang. in a domesticated state. The size of an animal is greatly influenced both by the quantity and quality of its food. and in the colours of tlie genus Agrion. become smaller when they extend their limits into a warmer region. although. These deviations from the ordinary characteristics of their race originate from a variety of causes . is more rarely observed than in birds . standard. The testaceous shellfish.) Individuals of a species which show any deviation from the usual characters by which that species is discriminated. 285 upon the most remote differences of locality.CHARACTERS OF SPECIES. no less than by its location . or Argus butterflies. of Oliva. That pretty yellow butterfly. however. whose chief metropolis is in a temperate climate. dog. Animals. and even occur in New Holland. Variation in the colour of quadrupeds. a variety is not permanent . for. the Eiirymus Electra of the south of Europe. The ox. the former seem most disposed to deviation from the natural again. and cat are familiar instances of where the diversities of colour are much more remarkable than in the fowl. however. this fact . and vice verau. are called varieties. food. duck. and domestication are the most influential. The Sphinx convolvuli and the Cynthia cardui both wellknown British insects are likewise found in different parts of Asia.

nevertheless. since well known that the greatest variation structure. indeed. and with great truth." But the test itself must first of all be proved genuine.are of equal value : also by the law of variation and succession of the pri- .286 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. that " a natural arrangement will stand any test. finding that both have parallel analogies. It is not a sufficient test of our groups. is sometimes necessary variety : discriminate a species from a in general. It has frequently been observed. we may combine them falsely. did no Neither is a other test exist. because hundreds of such circles can be made out. must also be of a definite character. colour. stant j but the corallines assume an endless diversity of form. and even of produced by all long domestication. may be led to fancy that both groups. whose peculiarities are not per7 petuated in the next generation. but if we merely confine our analysis to these. but both. as all contain the same denomination of types.) Having as yet acquainted. (347. or the imagination may be led astray: hence the necessity of verifying every group. now sufficiently- developed those principles of the system of nature with which we are it follows that no arrangement of her groups yet discovered can be natural. and. may possibly be natural. It must be again mentioned. therefore. we may happen to compare a family with a genus. however. to Much experience. because. a variety may be defined as local or accidental. without investigating others which are conterminous. not only by the system of representation. have been of form. can never be discovered. unless they exhibit these principles in their details. that the individuals composing them are placed in a circular series . and thus Parallel relations throw a whole order into confusion. the fallacy of which. and which cannot be traced in more than a few individuals. that these observations are applied only to animals in a state of nature it is . although the general structure of the species is essentially the same. group sufficiently verified by making out its parallel relations of analogy with another group.

it in a zoological group be natural. or those which follow them. 287 If. (348. parallel rela3. The contents . he will have no definite ideas on the probable demarcation of his first circle. and by no means confined to those which precede. but will give and receive a flood of hght to and from all with which it is compared. more and connected manner. Chrysoptihts Sw.. for instance. When we consider. that the relations of objects are complicated. there will be an evident tendency to a this and tendency will be more or proportion to the series. is natural. in fact. (349. at those points where it touches. as now constituted. he was investigating the genus Picus Sw. and Melanerpes. The and. namely. 2. he should proceed to investigate the two others which more immediately join it . VERIFICATION OF GROUPS. Hist. after simply tracing the circular affinities of this group. will not only bear a comparison with every other in the same class. and then testing the result.) It follows. On some is of these points we have expatiated * but this definite^ clear. independent of analysis. mary short. Before the naturalist proceeds to these.) There are no absolute rules. in group circle . We must begin. tions of its parts to other groups bolical representation The sym. number of objects which enter into the however. to by arranging the objects with the nicest attention their apparent affinities. If. If these affinities are real. of the primary types of nature. from the preceding remarks. that the verifications of a natural group are three circular series of its : 1 . which can be laid the proper place for treating the subject in a down for the discovery of a zoological circle. and the less strong.. it is obvious that false circles may be made and that their fallacy can only be discovered by further tests. in the series of affinity. and pauses * Preliminary Discourse on Nat. . Unless this were done. . of universal application. to it is absolutely necessary that he endeavours make out the two immediate circles which pass into that with which he has first begun. types explained in the preceding pages.

is absolutely necessary for testing the contents of that circle more immediately under be laid will may investigation. It is an easy matter to place a series of animals in a circle. to encounter all the comparisons which we can institute. indeed. and thus proceeding to the . or connected to. dissipate many illusions. for instance. We should not. moreover. two adjoining ones. It may. This plan. the sible to discover a circular helps . be posgroup witliout such collateral but the discovery is highly improbable.288 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATIOX. circumstances there will be so strong a resemblance between the two. that we may begin to hope our arrangement of both is correct. while in the group with which it is compared they are jjresent. those which he is investigating. and imposes a check upon the fancy which will near to the first. we should compare it with the sub-families of its own circle. those relations which its contents bear to the neighbouring circles. thus far safe. rest content with one or two tests of this sort^ but bring our group. and to all others in its own class or order. in all other parts. of these circles tally with each other is a very different matter. and call it a natural group. and then with the families of the Scansores. we shall find parallel relations of analogy will result from these and all other comparisons we make. indeed. in the two neighbouring genera. If our arrangement is natural. in other words. repeat the same operation with such others as come but to make the contents. after tracing its subgenera. and to circle . two of its subdivisions are wanting. of making out the circular series of contiguous groups. however. The second test to which our supposed must be brought. No circle whose contents It will not bear such a comparison can be natural. or divisions. happen. is that of analogy. (350. yet even under these that one or even may.) II. and it down as a rule that his first arrangement be more or less natural in proportion as he is acquainted with the objects immediately surrounding. or divisions. Should it be. the genus Picas. into.

) III. : . to estabhsh the parallel and he must wander in all the uncertainties Hence it becomes necessary to compare his divisions with the characters of the types in the animal kingdom." The five. requires something more to guide him in correctly dividing his group. The system of representation. of conjecture. in many cases. whether in their structure. tribes 289 and ordprs of the whole class^ we bring forth new and unexpected proofs of the harmonious simplicity of nature. he will be unable. discovered. and this obliges us to test our group by determining its types.) But theory without analysis is like precept without example we shall choose. and if they follow each other in the same progression. from analogy. chiefly because we have felt much interested in the delightful history which has been given of it by the amiable and analogies. For this purpose we select one of the best known of our native birds. he His group is one of has no need of looking farther. however remote. (351. not only as to the number of its divisions. or habits. for the propriety (they not being circular) naturahst." (352. therefore. the probable extent of the gaps that may occur in a natural series. whether our group is perfect or imperfect . It is by this that we can judge. but existing " from the beginning. into three. If these exhibit a conformity. it may be. four^ divisions of these cannot be controverted by the answer that has been given. to estabUsh analogies. Nature's . and demonstrate our group by a mass of evi- dence perfectly unanswerable. by himself.). is the third and last test. an illustration to show the full force of these remarks. and by this we can calculate.VERIFICATION OF GROUPS. but. therefore. but as to the structure or peculiarities which each should possess. It is easy to divide the smallest circular groups. nature. Without this guide. by which the types or divisions of a natural group are determined. or seven divisions. the hedge-sparrow {Accentor modularis Cuv. we must not be left to vague suppositions or fanciful conceits. of "putting them to the test of returning into themselves.

and seeks retirement again. for it appears always to live in pairs. remarkably sober and grave . no less than on the shelf of every As it is important that the philosophic zoologist. In the earliest spring it our most domestic bird. and that peculiar shake of the wing which at all times marks this bird. before proceeding to what follows. casualties to their tameness. some cottage garden. Unobtrusive. it lives in our homesteads and our orchards through all the year. household or domestic bird. intimates to us by a low and plaintive chirp. or morsels poorest dweUing in the village. reader should have this history before him. and the blue eggs of the hedge-sparrow are always found in such numbers on his string. nest . intellectual author of that charming volume " The Journal of a Naturalist . especially when we consider the many from from which the old birds are obnoxious and the young that are hatched The plumage of this Motacilla is their situation.290 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. utters its brief modulation. feeding and moving in company with It is nearly the first bird that forms a each other. fluenced by season or caprice to desert us. that it is surprising how any of the race are remaining. (353. and all its actions are Its song is quiet and conformable to its appearance. it redbreast. or near society with man. we shall transcribe the whole passage.). but picks minute insects does not enter our dwellings like the from the edges of drains and ditches. Its chief habitation is some hedge in the rickyard. or shuffle-wing {MotaNot incilla modidaris Lin. and that. but generally the bird perches on the summit of some bush. short. is a prime favourite. sweet. generally becomes the booty of every prying boy . with little art displayed in its concealment. and gentle. and this being placed in an almost leafless hedge. Sometimes it is prolonged . the approach of the breeding season .) " The hedge-sparrow. from the door of the As an example of a none can be found with ." a book which should be in the hands of every lover of nature. he should duly consider every part. but then is particularly observable.

as far as we : can perceive. (354. in the * Journal of a Naturalist. and nothing besides. 2." * gather the following facts 1. towards its own species. obtain much of their support in the winter and spring seasons. That its nest is built with little art. 291 better pretensions to such a character than the hedgeI have often thought that this bird. The object of the existence of many of these lowly plants has been considered as obscure. particularly Bryum suhulatum {T>\\\enms) . the and some others. feeding and building near his habitation. That the hedge-sparrow " is a most domestic bird . and that it seeks its food upon the ground . because . especially when the ground is covered with snow. through every department of creation chain." evincing an innate and peculiar attachment to the haunts of man.THE ACCENTOR MODULARIS. and their profusion a general subject of admiration. affords us another instance of the benevolence of their Creator. living as much upon seeds as upon insects. 4. chaffinch. and by its familiarity perceive the termination. 148—150. nor it is of infinite durabut to attest any perception of wisdom and of goodness is a laudable and a just homage of the From this account we creature who observes it. having frequently noticed them pecking and masticating something upon the walls and in such places where these plants abound. by feeding upon the capsules or fertile heads of various mosses. that they afford nutriment to it these poor httle creatures in a season of destitution. : — social That its disposition is 3. and in what manner they are in unison with the station occupied by this bird. That its plumage is plain. that could afford subsistence to any animated creature. If this conjecture is correct. found. OR HEDGE-SPARROW. extending. is sparingly sparrow. p. and these races perfect their capsules principally during those periods in which other matter. because tion we cannot trace this we are ignorant of consequences. courting his protection. which could afford them sustenance. V 2 .) Let us now enquire how far these peculiarities can be explained.

>Te.~iTissinosTTiES Natatores. Zool. titmice generally. of a family in the tribe of Dentirostres. Bill more lengthened and slen-f der. into all neces- details respecting the family to which merely Syl- belongSj in another we shall at present recapitulate the resvdts thereby obtained.nuiro3tre3. and representing. proceeding to analyse the contents of every minor division. Feet more especially adapted lSet()phaga. tvalking. Aberrant group. and to name the precise rank of the genus Parus. as a whole. the characters and analogies of which have been thus stated + : — Sub-Family Analogical Characters. Genera. 1. own circle.") Thus it is shown that although the PariancB. entire.292 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. Dentirostres. 2. form a circle of their own. Bill short. Raptohes. which and in the same as the Scansorial among the Perchers. climbing Rasores. Sub-typical group. trees like the climb among Still more than any other warblers. Cuvier has long + Id. are a circular group. represent the scansorial and rasorial division of the warblers. PARIANS. we wished it to be more particular. we consequently titmice. U. {SBS. or titmice. in its say that is the typical genus. Parus. ^Trichas. we spoke of the should consequently term them If . stiU that this division contains within itself representations of all the other types. conic. ibid. j 3. and are again divided into genera. Typical group. sary proofs and it Having already gone work *. or tooth-billed This family is again divided into sub-families corresponding to. : bill various. we M. p. strong. the tip. Titmice. holding the rank birds. either for perching. system of nature. one is it of those types find is the Rasorial. or warblers. we have shown that the PariancB. 1> . ComkO!>tres. or J Accentor. slightly notched sotne. . Grallatores. and thus aptly represent the Scansorial parrots and woodpeckers. Insessobes. j Scansores. vol . 203. The viadce. the primary types of nature. all those warblers which. Analogies. * North.V Sylvicola. vihat remotely from. Now. we the scansorial division or type of the warblers if but. and is there- fore a perfect and circular group.

are the most famihar. it pecks about our window with a certain degree of humble confidence and trusting security which is seen in no other of its family . Natatores Setophaga All these relations of analogy will be found substan- merely by external structure. the most domestic.ANALOGIES OF THE HEDGE-SPARROW. sores. is found to occupy a station in its own circle precisely corresponding to that of the rasorial type of birds. of all birds.^ But as a diagram will bring these comparisons more immediately before the eye of the reader. not habits and economy. Iiisessorefi Parus BIRDS PARIANS \ I /AcCCQtOf -b '*»«'«• "i- Sylricola ^^P'"^^ Grallatores ' ° ] I Xxricba. we subjoin the following : the dotted lines showing the mutual analogy of the respective groups. is entirely confined to the demonstration of the latter. and the most fearless of man : this is their chief characteristic . and simply as regards the fact of the analogy between the hedge-sparrow and the rasorial type of the class of birds. in short. 293 ago placed the hedge-sparrow in the genus Accentor. however. (357.) The rasorial races. Bearing in mind. . or the gallinaceous order of birds. and this is equally true of the hedge-sparrow of aU our warblers (with the exception of the robin. also a rasorial type). tiated. the Ha. therefore. {356. u 3 it is . it is. the most familiar . and followed by Parus. in which he has been followed by all succeeding ornithologists : this genus. so that the hedge-sparrow should represent.)j ^^^ ^^ i^^w trace in what way nature has exhibited them in this instance . the characters already given to this type (317. preceded by Trichas. which it therefore represents. symboUcally. but by natural Our present enquiry.

the only native bird. for such a in their legs. long after the season of incubation. and a strong entire bill. in a variety of ways. if a cat or other voracious animal should come near the nest. . so does the hedge-sparrow place hers but a short distance above it. who was aware of this the hedge-sparrow. and bustards . either one or both it is the parents will entice those their nest or infant brood. that. is Bewick. on close inspection. that it might One of the great be compared to that of a finch. 223.294 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAli CLASSIFICATION. are gifted with unusual strength Rasorial birds are well known to have short convex wings. while the bill of the type of its genus. so also has the hedge-sparrow. yet the general effect is " remarkably sober and grave. which is so well known in the partridge . vol. partridges. are prettily varied. that will do this. for " it appears always to live in pairs." Next. as our observing naturalist truly remarks^ " a most domestic little bird. " during the time of sitting. witness the whole of the grouse. Now. for : concealment. p. but our when most little other birds hedge-sparrow possessess the constancy of its type. their nests for the most part upon the ground. and separate and disperse. life. observes. whom they fear away from by feigning lameness. the Accentor alpinus. in the whole of this division of warblers. typical divisions of the gallinaceous order is remarkable for the variegated yet plain and homely colours of their plumage . among the Rasores we see that peculiar intelligence of parent birds in the preservation of their young.* Both live and seek their chief supply of food upon the earth.. so also is that of the hedge-sparrow ." Finally. in construction both." or. so also is that of the hedge-sparrow. is so thick. i. as to its nest the loose slovenly way in which their habitation is fabricated by the Rasores is well known . feeding and moving in each other's company. pecking about for seeds. and it " has little art its displayed in its paratively. fact. its colours." The Rasores are conspicuous for a permanent attachment between the sexes. comand as rasorial birds build . * Bewick. however small .

for. The true-sparrow {Pyr~ C. in one sense. the mother endeavours to divert to that 295 it by a stratagem. these two groups stand in opposite or parallel relations hence the general similarity of their colours. u 4) .) and the genus Accentor. But numerous others could have been cited. however trivial or apparently unimportant. thus appUed : to a natural group. It seems impossible to conceive that the ingenuity of man can invent those innumerable proofs. therefore. we may feel the assurance that demonstration can give. and by such means allures her enemy to a safe distance. p. it can be shown. i. f See various other examples in Northern Zoology. We have selected for our purpose a faithful narrative of a familiar bird. upon it. in addition to those whose affinities have been already explained upon the same principlesf in a • Bewick's Birda. and the third of representation illustrated and down to the lowest we cannot conceive under what form fur- ther demonstrative evidence can be produced. yet that this name has been. vol. 222. by comparing the circles to which they respectively belong (as we have just done with the hedgesparrow). are rasorial types.) When. the next of analogy.ANALOGIES OF THE HEDGE-SPARROW. similar by which the partridge misleads the dog . and much which we have said of one belongs likewise to the . flutters from spot to spot. Both. mutually represent each other . mode of other." * Finally. The now first test is that of affinity. in short. as in the present instance. that although this bird is no sparrow. vol. rightly bestowed gita. and the common and hence the name of hedgespari-ow. : their familiarity. these having been stage of analysis. that has yet transpired on the structure or habits of an animal can be accounted for by the all application of a few general laws. their nature of their food feeding. and complicated verifications. that our arrangement is that of Nature. ii. it may be incontestably proved. she springs up. and which has been drawn up by one who could have had no idea of the use that would subsequently be made of his remarks. (358. that every fact.

analysis and must walk hand in hand. A knowledge of particulars as well as of generals. but incalculably more remains for future discovery . to speak technically. Let not the student. nor inscribed with a ne plus ultra. or. ii. nevertheless. and many of the stumbling-blocks. as we have be reduced to the most simple and universal principles. way . can only be detected when the typical division of one is placed opposite to the typical * Journal of the Royal Institution. + North. in conclusion. are removed. new series. vol. will consider thisj it We too abstruse for general applications for although the arrangeseen. was most imperfectly developed . that the doctrine of analogical representation. (360. be discouraged . Zool. new and untrodden synthesis regions lie before him : their investigation let him become qualified for remembering that the boundaries of : science are nowhere fixed. his path. No. has been smoothed. we shall now. can only result from study and experience. address a few remarks on questions of a somewhat intricate nature. however.296 FIRST PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL similar CLASSIFICATION. p. p. must be granted. for although there is no royal road to this or to any other science. iv.) Our exposition of the natural system must have endeavoured to treat the subject with that simplicity and clearness suited to an elementary work of this nature. particularly the American redstart {SctO' domestic duck. at that period. can indeed. subsequent attention. We have elsewhere expressed an opinion f. Much has been done. when compared with the higher assemblages of which it forms a part. . ment of nature. II. upon We now believe that the true analogies of a group. 199. like the piUars of Hercules. the right application of these principles. amid the infinite diversity of her productions. but we foresee that many here terminate. has thrown much light this subject. which heretofore impeded his way.) To those who are already distinguished as profound observers of nature. he is in possession of that knowledge which has been the progressive growth of ages. is equally essential to the discovery of a natural assem- blage of beings. * phaga riiticilla) and the common (^35Q. we trust.

Thus. division of another. natural^ all 297 If the group under comparison be to test the tribe of the other analogies of the types will be apif parent. the three series would stand thus : . we wished Te- nuirostres with the order of the Insessores.— ANALOGIES OF GROUPS. and the orders of the class Aves.

even the most remote. Natatores. and even these violate — — many by other conclusions of a more certain nature. (363.-™_™.298 FIRST PRINCIPLES OP NATURAL CLASSIFICATION. Circle of the Insessores. Conirostres. Circles. 2. Paradisidffi. Tenuirostres. Promeropidce. True Circle of the Insessores. so far : from being diminished. Raptores. Trochilidffi. : — Transposed Circle of fheTrochilids. between the Tenuirostres and the climbing birds. in the first place. or point of connection. the Paradisidce and the Conirostres . Insessores. < Paradisidse. we make absolute purpose of preserving an appearance of regularity in our analogical series. Scatisores. because they form the immediate passage. in the higher which they belong ? Let us first try to verify the former supposition. True Circle of the Orders. and see what results would attend such a disposition of the analogies. Cinnyridffi. Insessores. Rasores. The Melliphagidce. by preserving the natural series of the insessorial and the primary circles. (362. Natatores. thus /^v. Scansores. for it can affinity subordinate to the . can be found between the CinnyridcB and the Fissirostres. the Promeropidce and the Dentirostres. Trochilida. Aberrant r Promeropidte. Sub-typicaL Conirostres. viz. Dentirostres. this transportation occasioned by our ignorance of some unknown law circles to of variation in analogies. But here our are increased difficulties. Primary 1. Gballatobes. Grallatores. Rasores.. 3. D«. Circle of the Class Aves. for instance. we must give up the whole theory of stating analogies on these principles . but when we proceeded to the others. Fissirostres. Meliphagida. for only three out of five wear the least appearance of truth. Tenuirostres. Fissirostres. Dentirostres. C Meliphagidae. and endeavoured to make out what possible resemblance. are related to the Scansores affinity and not by analogy. but transposing that of the Trochilidce.) Nor shall we get over this difficulty by stating the question under another form. Cinnyridee.^.. the Meliphagidce and the Scansores. resulting from the peculiar situation of the groups compared. Circle of the Tenuirostres.) It might be perfectly easy to show analogies (whether true or false is not now the question) between the Trochilidce and the Tenuirostres. Raptohes. Typical..

as it may. that these ques- which regards the denomination of groups. the between Promeropidce and the MeliphagidcB : it seems. {365. then these different types fall into their natural series.). that. • See ZooL Journal. . are rendered completely erroneous. whe- ther this partial transportation of the series does not depend upon mathematical principles of variation. of a general nature. however. I regret not being able to answer it more fully does it not. As an instance of this. would destroy the union of the three aberrant groups into one. 167. we must account for this per- plexing disturbance of such series on some other prin{SG'^. resulting from the different position which the groups on one side of a circle occupy to those upon the other. again. vol. of the two groups we have been comparing. vol. and vice versa. that ciple. however. Zool." where all the diagrams of the these transportations occur in the situation of the groups.ANALOGIES OF GROUPS. it must be remembered. I have uniformly observed : that similar transportations occur when typical are compared with aberrant groups. and not the Pi-omeropida. therefore.^ This brings us to the second question. *. the other is a ty- the subject. p. p. ii.. i. The naturalist will readily perceive. "' Horse Entomologica. as. It is one of the primary laws of nature that a typical group can never become an aberrant one. however. 299 be indisputably proved by analysis.) This principle of definite denomination is most important. After much consideration on this abstruse question. whether they are typical or aberrant. that the MeliphagidcB follow the Cinnyrid<e. deserves attention than I have yet been able to give tions are totally unconnected with that definite much more to it. a fact which the is all but esta- blished by the Ptiloris paradiseus Sw. belong more to the mathematician ? Be this. j also North. but when all the groups compared are typical. in fact. This disposition. independent of many other mutual resemblances. already noticed (268. 479. from not having been then discovered. one pical order : is an aberrant tribe.

PLANS FOR COLLECTING RECOMMENDED. But as much greater number of our readers will be students. for it is desirable that the rudiments of simplified. all sciences should be condensed and There is. OF THE FIRST PRINCIPLES OF PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOCy.) To those naturalists who have already acquired a knowledge of the actual state of our science^ and to those few who are competent to extend its limits.the beginner. indeed. BOTH SCIENTIFIC NATURALISTS. any more than to other branches of sound knowbut its first principles may be explained in simple language. NATE COLLECTINO. CONPERSEVERANCE AS ACCURACY OP OBSERVATION EVILS OF INDISCRIMICENTRATION OF STUDY MEMORY. we feel that our labours may be a usefully directed to this object . occasionally adopt a style more colloquial than didactic. anxious to see the first principles of zoology explained in famihar language. WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR A PLAN OF STUDYING THE DETAILS OP EACH DEPARTMENT. 300 PART A FAMILIAR EXPLANATION IV. DISTINCTION BETWEEN PRACTICAL QUALIFICATIONS FOR.. CHAPTER PRELIMINARY I. technicalities. and thus become fixed upon the memory. and endeavour to smooth that path of instruction which every student must tread . and illustrated by familiar examples its difficulties may be smoothed by avoiding unnecessary ledge . and words and expressions. no " royal road" to zoo- logy. we shall converse rather than compose. AND ' REMARKS. — (366. therefore. in the following pages. we have devoted a large proportion of this volume. which may We perplex . shall. may be rendered intelligible as they occur.

their periodical arrivals and departures. The fields wanders abroad. INTRODUCTORY OBSERVATIONS. He place book. And when he has thoroughly imbibed and completely understands all that we can teach him. no less than their necessary quahfications. Let him receive what instruction we can give him in the belief that it is sound. . he rests not until he traces the aggressor through all its series of depredations . Their more immediate pursuits. he studies the construction of their nests. elsewhere alluded to. and.— . ascend the stall of the critic before he has quitted the form of the scholar. but cares Httle for dead ones . may all be classed under two distinct divisions the practical and the scientific. If he discovers that his crops or his fruit are injured by insects.) Naturalists. and that he will not consider it necessary that those difficulties and objections. he is dissatisfied until he is acquainted with the note of every bird familiar to his neighbourhood . he may then fairly investigate true. are very dissimilar. or of plumage . in the general acceptation of the word. of colour. their lives. but he only who unites them all is the true naturalist. instincts. before he is at all qualified to venture an opinion even upon the least of them. the results of the experience gained by his instructor . for himself whether such things are really (367. and the woods are He contemplates living objects. if 301 he is rect ideas of the desirous of acquiring solid information or corworks of nature. habits . he busies himself with watching the times and seasons when certain animals make their appearance . their loves. He must not. in short. The practical naturalist and observes individuals. and watches their several changes of form. that the student is willing to he taught than to cavil . that he will be content to receive. In prosecuting this object more we shall assume it as granted. his museum and hbrary. he traces how these circumstances are modified and influenced by the seasons and he makes special notes of these things in his commontheir deaths. he strives to know their food. are to be submitted to his fiat. as presumed truths.

or. and as for systems. the best qualified to write the natural history of species. if not his only interest is in the life of an animal. past this hue of enquiry. Such are the general characteristics of a prache is now usually termed. or number the rays of a fish's fin.) to mind for systems and their authors. " he cannot away with them. and technical terms. all of whom. it is sufficient for him that it gives to the insect an appellation. as gathered from the sentiments conveyed by this class of observers in our natural-history periodicals. or looking after a bird. he is out in the woods. Every thing. capturing an insect. reckon the grinders of a quadruped. D'Azara. studied nature upon this plan. He has. While others are poring over ponderous tomes of cramp technicalities. As for its scientific name. as such pursuits. no thought . They were essentially field naturalists. There is not only much to commend in tical. and presume not to entertain the preposterous idea that theirs the only department of . measure the quill-feathers of a bird. being armed with a knowledge of its secret modes of doing injury. that gives him he cares not whether the name be old or new . as regards their effect upon the individual^ but the facts which they bring to light form a very material part of the history of nature. They took to themselves that depart- ment of research which called them into the open air and they are." He wonders how people can count the joints of an antenna of an insect. in fine. of all others. either disregard or a thorough contempt construction of his and leaves (36'8. This is apparent from the writings of White of Selborne. them to give what names they please to — — according a general to the his discoveries. He will walk through a magnificent museum with no more curiosity than is felt by an ordinary person . and Wilson .: 302 PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOIiOGY. he is the best man for applying a successful remedy. His chief. however. is beyond their province. is candidly confess this. Those who have been really eminent as original observers. Le Vaillant. with little deviation. a field naturalist. of the present day.

to be subsequently worked up into general results and large generalisations set of naturalists. And as the business of the field naturalist requires Httle or no exercise of the higher powers of the mind. so we find that the generality of these observers are too prone to fancy that their pursuits alone lead to the only information on natural history that is really worth acquiring. and unmeasured abuse of of ignorance and conceit. or the colour chievous effect that such notions young of a sparrow's egg. those acquirements of which they are ignorant. be conscious himself that the praise is un- deserved. We must inform such sanguine beginners. were minds of not for the mis- may have upon the student. and only pity the contracted it who gave currency. or to treat with affected contempt. if he has good sense and will tell to you sure you that "a real talent. by another who take a different department in the extension of knowledge. natural history which deserves cultivation. from their tendency to repress all mental exertion. that men of all ranks are too apt to undervalue. before he will earn the reputation of being " a very good naturalist . (36'9.PURSUITS OP A SYSTEMATIC NATURALIST. and all aspirations after any higher knowledge than the composition of a dabchick's nest." This royal road to science is no doubt very enticing to the young student." and that. Inflated ideas of our own pursuits. We might be tempted merely to it to smile at such those folly. They throw aside books and systems. that not only many walks must be taken. are the natural results The commences where business of the systematic or closet nathat of the practical observer . It unfortunately happens. particularly if it is promulgated from the chair of a professor . he will then. but may be pursued by any one possessing a tact for observation. and asfew walks in the fields" are sufficient to make " a very good naturalist. however.) turalist others. when this title has been acquired. but many years consumed. but absurdities like this are unworthy of refutation. satisfied 303 are They with having gathered a stock of entertaining and instructive materials.

the other combines. and thus ascertains its true characters. he is enabled to trace the most beautiful and unexpected . he next com- pares these assemblages with others. as occasion serves. and ascending higher and higher in his generalisations. Conversant with the different relations which one group of beings bears to another. which are congregations of species . and studies their several degrees of relationship. spread into an octavo volume of zoological anecdotes and "field" remarks. but with groups. He observes all those external pecuHarities of shape. and days is ahnost extinct. He detects natural groups. or of markings. he refers to his collections. or a denames a race of worthies which in — he treasures all the communicated by his brethren of the field. While the one collects. to compares search after and obtain general results from a multiplicity of isolated facts. PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. within the compass of a few pages. and is thus enabled to trace the par- ticular adaptation of this structure for those functions which the field naturaUst has witnessed during its life . he ascertains which of the facts are really new. and which have been previously observed and re- corded : he combines the scientific tory of an animal. which distinguish the object him it before as a species. in other words. by the way. of colour.304 ceases. which the latter. with others. to their ultimate use. cannot enjoy. his business is not only with species. — applies them. Proceeding in this manner. he gives to them a stamp of importance which even their authors never imagined they possessed. But all this is but preliminary to other investigations . By means of his library. if he disregards such minutiae. he has to condense particulars into generals . And while he thus makes use of the diffuse and disconnected observations of the field naturaUst. he concentrates the facts. an intellectual gratification. and distinguishes them by characters applicable to the indi- viduals which respectively compose them . If he is votee to systematic these facts not a mere catalogue-maker. He examines its with the natural hisstructure in every performing all minute particular.

in moderation. He may observe in the fields. however. accustomed. 305 analogies throughout the animal kingdom. must nevertheless be acquired by both these classes of observers. may confine their researches to what they can learn in the open air . are brought before the reader. indeed. yet even these would find a far superior delight in their favourite pursuit. A quick and discerning eye. The most perfect acquaintance with ventedj and with all the systems that were ever in- the theories that have ever been pro- X .) There are certain qualifications.PRELIMINARY QUALIFICATIONS. without the smallest detriment either to one or the other. until he at length gains a full conviction of the paucity and simplicity of nature's laws. if not already possessed. and study in his closet . by practice. (371. and make up his mind. (372. not for the purpose of vaunting the superiority of one over the other. to distinguish differences which an ordinary observer would overlook. than he did when he merely viewed it as an ingenious assemblage of wheels and : springs. by viewing it in a more intellectual and philosophic spirit just as a person who understands the mechanism of a watch derives much more pleasure from knowing the relations of its parts. But. and then proceed to speak of others more particularly applicable to these separate paths of enquiry. is absolutely all essential.) The two departments of study here sketched. which. at the outset.) Accuracy of observation is one of the first qualifications which the student should acquire. and this is usually done by all the rising naturalists of the present day. (370. as pursued by the practical and the scientific naturalist. These we shall now briefly touch upon. which path of enquiry he will pursue. if he be not frightened by the difficulties attending an enlarged knowledge of the science^ he may combine both these trains of enquiry. Those who are satisfied with being mere amateurs. but that he should clearly understand their nature. amidst the countless variety of her forms and modifications.

or horns (as they are vulgarly called). we hear the names dissimilarity of manners. could give no satisfactory answer. of butterfly or moth used indiscriminately. as no science requires was natural to more observation. point. raulgated^ will never compensate for the want of this primary requisite. A boy. might immediately answer by pointing to the antenna. that a terial difference. be acquired . of the insect. is to be acquired by practice . are were before their eyes. long pointed wings. while in the generality of moths they terminate in a fine This tact for observation. This keenness of perception can. than natural history. even if the two birds Their colours. not the same . for instance. and fly and feed in the same manner.S06 PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. as those com- . Such persons will always make the best naturalists. were they asked why. like every other habit. or greater nicety of discrimination. it is true. and. A glance. for instance. the faculty them. the more acute it becomes. at their feet shows a maThis difference is so great. and the more it is exercised. In ordinary life^ we see some people who have an instinctive perception of differences to a much greater degree than others : as if^ in short. but both have little. so. from placing before him ten or a dozen species of insects very closely resembling each other : such.. doubtless. acuteness and life. since it will be thus qualified to apply that judgment upon greater things. it is the very best pursuit that can engage the youthful mind . young naturalist would immediately be convinced they could not belong to the same genus . be utterly at a loss to discover the difference of structure between a swift and a swallow. and stating. in this respect. would just discrimination. who merely knew the first elements of entomology. that in a butterfly these members end in a thickened knob. in afterwhich may call for the exercise of sound reason and ]\Iany people. however. short bills. triangular. because these opposite structures of the feet indicated a corresponding Again. upon this account only. who. The student would derive much advantage. even by wellinformed people .

(373. we are. is the Perseverance. and then endeavouring to find out. in what terised. in the economy of animals which have been described by fifty authors.OBSERVATION AND PERSEVERANCE. he in finds not unfrequently. yet so contrary is this from the real fact. zeal : those that truly belong to the habitual economy of the Perseverance is a very different quality from for the one implies patient investigation. even when employed suggest themselves he generally away of one. in a great measure. not only reknowledge of object. manner each species may be characOccasional exercises of this sort will soon give a keenness of perception. ardour. that almost every monthly number of our natural-history periodicals brings to light some new feature. as far as possible. Strange as it may appear.) Perseverance is another quality. — a quality not easily attained amid the objects — many new mind. or some hitherto unobserved circumstance. from animal. 307 posing the genus Harpaliis (beetles of easy acquisition. before half the attention himself. In regard to insects. we may cite even the robin as a bird whose habits have been treated of most partially and imperfectly. This deficiency of information originates. from want of perseverance in establishing facts by repeated observation. but its quisite for acquiring. ralist. he has given In this way. Amateur naturalists are too apt to believe that the his- tories of our native animals are complete. other. in general. and a tact in discriminat- which he will be long in acquiring by other means. seeing that they have been so repeatedly described . or enthusiasm. him ing. most deplorably ignorant. and thus distinguishing such as are casual and incidental. there are so many investigations elucidation that is led from to it that which he should it finish. so to his boundless variety of nature. to a natu. for. requires. a every thing already also in discovering known upon any given new or unrecorded facts in history. involved several X 2 . even on the history of such as annually inflict no small injury on the crops of the agriculturist. — upon the which court his attention. and which any entomological friend will point out to him). and to define in writing.

are yet looked upon with the same suspicion as those who have acted precisely the reverse. 308 PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. they are usually published in periodical numbers but it now so frequently happens that the major part of these works are discontinued after a few numbers have appeared. on former occasions. the naturaHst should particularly guard himself. that. but the evil effects fall both upon the innocent and the guilty.) Perseverance in discovering new objects. if he really wishes to make his labours honourable to himself. how much have the interests both of science and the public suffered from its peculiar prevalence among zoological writers We may venture to affirm. it is here that he should call up a spirit of determined perseverance. being drawn away to new investigations. arising knowledge. No branch of human knowledge is more open to such discoveries than zoology whether we look to the chance of finding new species. From the great expense attending zoological illustrative works. within the last few years. set their faces against all such publications . Let not the syren Procrastination lure him into the belief that he will return again to that which he postpones. have faithfully performed their engagements. before he commences a new subject. (S?^. which have probably grown out of the one he originally commenced. before he has completed that upon which he first began.. or new facts. or beneficial to others. which afreet the individuals themselves. with renewed ardour or increased Setting aside those minor evils. seldom discriminating. distinct trains of enquiry. but which he Against this fascination of has not yet completed. science suffer from this infirmity of purpose in men who have the ability to do her good service. not one half have Not only does the cause of been fairly completed. or of bringing to light something in the ! : i . from a want of perseverance. that the public. It is here that. of all the works upon natural history which have been either announced or commenced in this country. is likewise to be recommended. and steadfastly resolve to finish what he has begun. and those who.

since the knowledge of the system of nature must be mainly supported by such facts. ten thousand species of insects inhabiting Britain as every year brings with it . It is a misfortune resulting all from the passion for collecting. if he pursues his researches in foreign climes. brought together.) habits The observation of facts. Let not the young naturalist.OBSERVANCE OF FACTS. 309 Structure. has published the names of more than spheres. : servation lies open. than on studying the economy of those living objects which are naturalists are perpetually crossing their path. It is not only the most pleasing. will peruse with pleasure a well-written account of an animal. manners. almost daily before our eyes. Stephens. because it may be prosecuted without the aid of scienAlmost every one. If we merely wide desire the acquisition of field new objects. but one of the most essential departments of zoology . (375. or history of such as are already described. taste for natural history. manners. fresh discoveries. as already intimated. nor can its importance be too strongly impressed on the mind of the young student. these are to cease ? native seas lectors is still furnishing " while hundreds of the " soft creeping things of the ocean. An equally boundless field for obfore. whose habits. having the least tific acquirements. It is also the most popular. one of the most persevering of our entomologists. of strange forms or minute dimensions. X 3 . should therefore be a primary object with all naturalists. particularly in the warmer regions of both hemiMr. yet. even within the range The conch ology of our new species to our col- of our own coasts. and modes of living are not generally known. may be unknown and unrecorded. there is a in every quarter of the globe. who can say when . that nearly more bent upon increasing the contents of their cabinets. thereimagine that he can discover nothing new even aC home while. in the manners and habits of well-known species. and applied to illustrate general truths. connected with the and economy of living animals. he may discover much more than he will ever be able to investigate.

and then ask himself if he could not add much more from his own observation ? What do we know. and he requires more boxes or cabinets than the house can hold. or a concentration of study. He wants more room. inferior. if he has good sense. he begins to find he cannot go on in this way. If his new pursuit is intended merely as an amusement to fiU up small intervals of leisure. may have no found recorded by any writer. or to give some interest to a country life. In proof of this. The " Journal is of a Naturalist. he begins insects. for instance. pebbles — nothing comes amiss — plants. and both are fit companions volume of Izaak Walton. to possess White's " Natural History of Selborne" (a book which we were the first to bring We under the notice of the present generation)." more recently published. are hoarded. however. By degrees. to by no means the charming (376. for . and he wiU there find incitements held out to a constant watchful- ness of the animals living in his own neighbourhood he will see what interest may be given to his walks. all collecting every thing fossils. he may possibly resolve to circumscribe his collections. and equally prized. which are not to be tory as a science. although they idea of studying natural hisIn like manner we may bring to light innumerable interesting traits^ regarding some of the most familiarly known animals. When first a person is a passion natural history. and he will learn with astonishment that some of the most important truths of ornithological science are mainly supported by the simple. and apparently trivial facts detailed in this interesting book. 310 PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. shells. and content himself with possessing the natural . let any experienced observer read the best accounts we have of some of the commonest animals. or of a country life.. mosses.) A fixed plan. is greatly to be seized with recommended. of the different modes by which the various species of the British warblers capture their insect prey ? or what is the vegetable food they are respectively fond of? should recommend every lover of nature.

of course. than formerly. to do that first. that his love for natural eaily choice Let the country naturalist. 311 productions found in his immediate neighbourhood^ or in his own parish. But let him not aim at more than one department. British entomology alone. Hence it has become much more common. if he wishes to understand them. is the study of a life. The learned and venerable father of entomology in this coimtry. The mere collector heaps together materials which he neither understands nor knows how to use the very extent of his possessions. and thus he to that plan with which. ultimately engenders discontent.) A retentive memory z 4 is a desirable. and he will then find it expedient still farther to restrict his acquisitions. and even important discoveries. but these. will dissipate his mind over every branch of zoology. and they lie before him. among our young naturalists.JUDGMENT IN COLLECTING MEMORY. He must confine himself to one department of his favourite pursuit. which generally will be done must ultimately be brought collector. must have devoted several years to the study of the Hymenoptera. the more are we likely and the more interested shall we ourselves feel in the pursuit. or the conchology of his native country have each their charms. therefore. last . before he could have written his valuable history continues. as a he should have begun. to be well understood. The more. If he confines his attention to any one of these branches. to confine the attention even to one particular order of insects. the entomology. he will not only feel more interest in its undivided pursuit. therefore. supposing. to restrict If the student resolved himself to either of the orders of Coleoptera Lepidoptera or Diptera. Mr. in short. he would find that any one of these would give him full occupation for several years. make an : descriptions of the British bees. or pecuhar to the county. It is better. although . Kirby. and not unfrequently terminates in disgust. unnamed and unarranged. the ornithology. but he will understand it better. centrated to make discoveries. that our study of nature is con- upon a given object. : (377. and he may ultimately make useful.

in any department of zoology. raUst attempts to learn belong to the particular group he ing. that tific is^ in remembering scien- names. that a general know- ledge should also be gained of the greater divisions the orders. every thing was thought to At present. which have been accomplished. be frightened by the formidable lists of those now in use. for mere private collections.312 PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. The systematic student will be materially assisted task in this by the plan of affixing labels to his specimens. is not called for. his The former facts. short synoptical tables may be copied into bis common-place book. He must not. but from their tendency to distract the attention of the student from those subjects he is more particularly desirous of under- . even were it possible. while. with rote : learning the names and characters of every genus of birds or of insects then established . in process of time.) Collecting specimens. however. indeed. may be actually study- It is expedient. and the space they require. immediately upon ascertaining their names. relies upon common-place book for and troubles himself very little about names. (378. But the scientific student has great need of a good memory^ and should not only be well versed in the terminology of his science^ but also in its nomenclature. as they appear marshalled in an index. to impress upon his memory the essential characters of the larger groups. and if. nevertheless. commenced. not a very essential acquirement . families. should be conducted upon some fixed plan . nor must he suppose that it is a necessary part of his studies to remember them by such an exertion of memory. similar to those which wiU be occasionally inserted in our subsequent volumes. he could get those which designated the principal species also by heart. no natumore than the names and essential characters of those minor divisions^ or genera. however. and less so to the practical than to the scientific naturalist. tribes. An ornithologist or an entomologist of the old school. and sub-families class —lof — as the of animals to which the former belongs. not only on the score of expense.

that such collections are often accumulated by wealthy who liberally permit others student. and many assist plans for forming collections. and understood nothing. in the of his collection . are equally subject^ applicable to the concentration of materials for that museum. from the steady prosecution of any one course of investigation. until obliged. when I collected every thing. or the much depends advantages he may possess of that line Should he confine himshells of his . and upon the nature of of study he intends to pursue. should resist all temptations His mind will be distracted to collect indiscriminately. collector of a ficient for the The specimens. for want of room. the reader will find many hints upon this subject. Standing. self either to the birds. The passion for collecting increases with its indulgence . The remarks (374. had some judicious friend directed my enthusiasm to the accomplishment of a definite object. Looking back to the early years of my own life. under impossible. (379-) It ation is obviously impossible to lay seeing that so down any form- specific rules for the systematic naturalist.) that have been already made on the concentration of study. upon the opportunities or acquiring specimens. 313 In our volume which will include Taxidermy. who went on purchasing entire libraries. and he will finally not be unlike one of our modern bibliologists. to deposit them in cases and dark garrets. But the who really desires to understand what he possesses. even under every advantage. to turn them to eflfectual use. amateurs.EVILS OF INDISCRIMINATE COLLECTING. only to see the hght and be put again into circulation at the death of their owner. will find the whole of his time barely sufstudy. which may materially him. and had guided my exertions into a regular channel. We strongly recommend his attention to this and we proffer him the fruits of our own experience in this matter. the insects. It is %vell for science such circumstances. I feel how much more profitably time might have been employed. to make them is arrangement and the preservation of his the objects of his study. and he will be bewildered in the variety of his materials.

and concentrate his attention while. Having thus informed himself on the essential or primary characteristics of the first great divisions in ornithology. however. should be in skins. Should he limit ductions. 314 PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. for the sake of easy examination. husband his resources. should be well examined. he may successively increase his materials by examples of the families. and compare well their corresponding members. sub-families. fowl. the additional tribes of which will be represented by a shrike. and duck. without commencing on a regular plan of selection. The crow is the type of the perching order {Insessores^. the acquisition of which will mainly dehis own exertions. and procure examples of the tribes. although frequently not of beauty. in either of these departments. unless. to foreign pro- most of which are only to be acquired by purchase. the acquisition of a generic type is infinitely more desirable than that of a species. indeed. for instance. let him first procure types of the great orders of birds. the investigation of the contents of a has been said upon orniapplied either to entomology or conchology. and swallow. crow. as his knowledge increases. to ornithology. until he is informed on the mode in which these members vary. that.. or as opportunities occur. A student. woodpecker. should progressively procure specimens. These. it is obviously the best own pend upon way to collect them as they occur . that is. But if he extends his studies. which are represented by such common species as a hawk. in like manner. These. that the excessive rarity or the great bulk of genus is decided upon. and then compared with the characters assigned to them in books. in point of real utility. he may proceed a step farther. stuffed. Let him well study the different structures displayed by these specimens. always remembering. snipe. he will find the beneficial consequences of proceeding upon a systematic plan. country. and genera . What thology is of equal force when . It will sometimes happen. his attention. but not set up in position with wires. humming-bird. in this manner.

a casso- wary. the Argus pheasant (Poh/plectron^.HINTS UPON COLLECTING. may be enjoyed by consulting the specimens in the British Museum. has already remarkable instance. may or unless he preserves be understood by those who have specimens for future inspection. by examining them. the active properties of which investigated. to when speaking of the habits make himself well under- stood unless he has sufficient knowledge of his pursuit. which at present stand as almost solitary examples of their respective genera. and of enabling others. to describe the subject itself in such lan- guage that never seen it it . for instance. to injuries it produced. for the inspection of the scientific student. our plan is. a generic type renders venient or unattainable. are so rare. from inattention to these requisites. In such cases. to make slight but accurate pencil-drawings of the head and feet. pamphlets. illustrating been mentioned . and where they are at all times gratuitously opened. or a peacock : while the plantain-eater {Jllusophaga). in most cases. will derive no small advantage from the power of referring to specimens at his pleasure . whatever he may think on the inutility of a collection to illustrate his department. have space sufficient for an ostrich. whenever an opportunity occurs. and other publications. It is alrtiost impossible. who collect the ani- . (380. with alacrity and hberality. to complete he has alone or the history of an animal. of their natural size. economy of a species. and a number of smaller birds. the naturalists of Europe could not make out even the order. and bear so high a price. its 315 either incon- acquisition Few private collections. since a pile of reports. as a science. Americans belonged. where many of these rare birds are to be seen. that they are placed beyond the reach of ordinary collectors. in fact. where. had been expressly devoted to describe the genus or the species. This advantage. for a field-naturalist. Travellers. A this necessity. much less either the which the Hessian fly of the This was the more extraordinary.) The practical naturalist.

in fact. every naturalist and traveller would do well to make himself acquainted with the ordinary process of prepurposes of general science. and of collecting and preserving insects and shells.) The assistance of books is as important as the : by the latter we from specimens study nature. for (382. they occur. unless they collect for the ulterior In either case. they should proceed. after they have been contracted by being put into spirits. however. but they are inevitable. and for the same reasons. find that the preservation of specimens is absolutely necessary. the language of zoology. Such as are of fre- quent occurrence had better be copied out in a memo- randum book more perfect recollection . in these cases. serving skins. very little inform- ation can he obtained from them. As for the soft mollusca. and come under the denomination of practical naturalists.) Technical words will prove. occasion to preserve objects to which they can attach no anecdote or history. that the principle upon which. while by the former we learn the opinions of her expounders. at first. (381. is very different from that already suggested for There is no the adoption of the scientific naturalist. a great hinThey derance to the student . mals of the country they go through.6 31 PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. Let us remember that the latter are Divine. . as we shall arrange all the words of this description. at the end of each succeeding volume. To lessen this difficulty. where they may be immediately referred to. constitute. It is obvious. while the former partake more or less of that imperfection which belongs assistance derived to every thing human. however. and the progress they have made in recording her manifold works. since they are employed to express ideas which cannot be conveyed by words in ordinary use. a plan which would tend more to fix them upon the memory than any other we could recommend.

and that he is more desirous of pursuing it as a science. (383.) In the foregoing chapter we have laid before the student the qualifications which should be possessed both by the practical and the scientific naturahst . II. This feehng continues. indeed. the time and disposition to acquire Avith being a mere collector of objects and facts. at the mean time. proceeded. TESTS WHICH ILLUSTRATED. to lay before their disciples the reasons which it being generally taken for granted . in the feels become an adept. AND THE PIFFERENT EVERY CIRCLE MUST UNDERGO. and the principles. It is then that the desire arises to know the reasons which have influenced tlie author. commencement of he .317 CHAP. and that which. from whatever cause. and. if any. EXPLAINED AND REASONS FOR THEREON. we must now turn to the latter with the hope that the reader has both more than a superficial knowledge of zoology . which they have neither the disposition nor the knowledge to call in question. propagated by a ruler of science. than to rest contented . . The student. they resolve to adopt any particular system not connected with general principles. It has hitherto been but little the custom. It systems. they trouble not themselves with desire such information upon which by them as a law. IMPORTANCE OF ACQUiniNG FIRST PRINCIPLES. until they acquire sufficient knowledge to discover the defects (real or imaginary) of their favourite oracle. having stated the objects of the former. that the reputation of the writer rendered such a step seldom happens. has probably himself qualified to criticise his studies. SUPPOSING A PLAN IN CREATION. that students for if. with the inventors of have guided them unnecessary. OPINIONS THE CIRCULAR THEORY. upon which he has to criticise the reasons It is received seeking to know and a system is founded.

more intimately) with those of the apterous and the winged insects. Having. or unnatural combination or arrangement. If the student resolved. looked upon as oracular. if he studies the lepidopterous order of insects. will be qualified not only to understand the former disquisitions in this volume. of which there are probably 200 species. thus prepared. and he becomes. he will find their natural series to tally not only with those of the parrots and the vertebrated classes. qualified to judge of their correctness.) Hence it becomes necessary that a general knowledge of the principles of natural arrangement should be first acquired . regulated precisely by the same laws as those which the classes divide of vertebrated In like manner. to confine his attention to the parrot family. qualified to enter AVhen this is acquired. he will discover that the natural arrangement of these species. for instance. that what appeared in the first instance an example of defective. intimated those requisites which should prepare him for this enquiry. may be truly unexceptionable when viewed with reference to those general principles upon which the system itself is founded. (SS^. nevertheless. themselves. It may. is indispensable. we now proceed to a familiar explanation of these principles. in the last chapter. they form the basis of every true combination above that of a collection of individuals of the same species. . but also (and. for. even in systems grounded upon universal principles. in some degree. but will peruse those which succeed with feelings of interest he could not otherwise entertain. the student is upon the details of that particular . as these principles are as conspicuous in the smallest groups of nature as they are in the largest. unnecessary. happen. therefore.318 PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. A general idea. is among animals. of course. The student. of those fundamental principles of classification by which all these dissimilar groups are naturally arranged. portion he has selected for study elevated pleasure in tracing he will receive an principles these in the arrangement of the objects before him .

) No one who believes in the existence of an Omnipotent Creator^ can suppose. it had long ago been discovered. or each succeeding age would not have produced systems. the lord of the creaonly another . for a moment. that the innumerable beings which He has created were formed without a plan. at first sight. or are we still wandering in the mazes of error Let us briefly consider these questions. we No rational being can therefore suppose its that the great Architect of the world has created in- habitants without a plan. it. that we see this beauty attain in its true hght. Had this plan or system been simple. in the view we now name for the natural system : what. and of the manner in which it is combined with others into one great uhole. columns. nary minds as the most rational theory . implies uni- versality. is and harmony. 319 (385. until the series This. is the basis of this system ? Has any part of it been discovered. and that many . If an architect sat down and made innumerable models of cornices. and of easy apprehension. order. but when we begin to trace this scale. It is beautiful in itself. strikes orditerminated in man. in a straight line. aptly termed the chain of being. and. was in a simple series. we discover that every animal has more relations than one. Let us apply this reasoning to the creation however perfect an animal may be in its structure. friezes. indeed. that his work was imperfect.'' tion. and proceeding step by step. from the despised worm. beginning with a worm or an animalcule.) take of The plan of creation^ therefore. that this plan. yet without any design of subsequently combining them. we should naturally say. it would still : only resemble one of the ornaments we have it is just al- luded to. however much we might admire the parts. to man. totally at variance with each other.PLAX IN THE CREATION. and all those ornaments used in a stately building. (386. It was long supposed. then. to search after the innumerable steps which are supposed to lead. entablatures. but only when some glimpse of the station it occupies with its fellows. we are very soon perplexed.

so extensively verified. As the details of this theory have been already enlarged upon.320 PHACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. con- sider it hopeless to discover by what general principle these innumerable tiesof affinity are affected. until the beginning of the present century that a new A belight was thrown upon this interesting question. in the scale of nature. it utterly impossible to exemplify losopher. become more frequent and more perappear^ as were joined to others plexing . quadrupeds by fishes. that first We . demonstrated by Messrs. we relinquish the investigation that. birds are followed by quadrupeds. and these latter by reptiles and tortoises. Lamarck . fishes by frogs. originated with which ultimately met together. the system of nature has been compared to an extensive piece of network. by which the gradations of natural beings are regulated. and united.) The circular series. It was not without venturing to its demonstration. will suppose it proved that. arrived. in its details. and become convinced such a supposition however rational or probable it is may appear in theory. may be thus explained. where the different knots and meshes represent the mode in which different animals are connected together in every direction. to wander out of the series. (388. but this was only the " sha- dowing forth" of the discovery that affinities are really circular.) By another theory. our present object is merely to explain its leading peculiarities by the most simple and familiar illustrations. lief that there existed a branched or double progression of affinities. avowed or implied. MacLeay and Fries. it were. as hopeless. which we are vainly endeavouring to trace. and has now been it may be pronounced the law of natural arrangement. This is called the Circular Theory . the conclusion. these deviations out of the simple and direct line. and content themselves with asserting the probability of the theory. As we advance. The advocates of this theory. however. has ultimately This has been which every phi- (3S7. as if they which neither preceded nor followed them directly. at who has investigated the subject.

" or " a circle returning into itself." . THE CIRCUliAR THEORY EXPLAINED. then these birds must be placed next in succession. but if so." " the closing of a circle. it is true. birds. what animals are we to place after the tortoises They are preceded by the reptiles.'' to them than any other existing race. and both seem out of their natural element when they are upon the dry ground. they have wings. they have feathers. and affix to it. upon the sand. let him take a straight piece of cane. the following labels penguins. and that with "tortoises" the last.. and we consequently come back again to the first class of animals we commenced with.) If any one of our readers find a difficulty in comprehending the mode by which a series of animals forms a circle. but that is not the immediate question the point we must keep in view is this." all which phrases are only different modes of expressing that circu- Y . This. That with "penguins" will. at equal intervals. but which makes the nearest approach to a tortoise ? The ornithologist will immediately point to the penguins. the question arises. and perform the same oflice.'' . without a nest. and proceeding in a tortoises . but they are so formed as to resemble scales ." (389. by this contrivance is mediately comprehend what he meant by a " will inicircle of " a circular succession. the first label and the last will thus be brought together without deranging fully : the rest of the series affinity. Let him then bend the cane into a hoop. frogs. penguins possess a greater similarity birds is . fish. namely. There still is. These are indeed birds. " that the circle returns into itself. be the first. and this union expressed when it is said. but by what class are they followed if the . the series thus forms a circle. a great difierence between them . is a beginning with birds. the student may probably say. reptiles. next class ? what animal is there which class different 321 series. but they cannot fly . simple direct line to which is the belongs to a from that of the reptiles. of course. but they are transformed into the shape. both lay their eggs. quadrupeds. tortoises. as the fore-feet of the turtle .

contains five minor circles. Thus. because they contain those animals which! exhibit the greatest perfection of those particular qualities which more or less belong to all the five. trate it we shall illus- by calling his attention to the vertebrated animals. contain five minor circles. Here. Two of these divisions are called typical. and the last. the one blends into the other . the five classes of which follow each other in the series mentioned in the last paragraph. in short. to use the expressive phrase. and end with reptiles. gradually descending from the highest to the lowest divisions. there is no line of ahsolute distinction . MacLeay considers that every hence circle first divides itself into five minor circles the system which he has developed is called quinary. We begin with birds and qua- drupeds. (390. we have five principal divisions in every circle. formed by the first assemblage of individual species. upon investigation. (39l. the nature of which must now be explained. lar succession of affinities which is the first great principle of the natural system. The birds of prey and the perching birds are the typical orders of the feathered tribes. are five divisions of vertebrated animals. The apterous and the winged insects are typical . and the series. Between the first group or genus of a natural series.322 PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. itself. and every circle. proceed to fishes and amphibious animals. again. then. As it is better that the student should understand this principle of division before he proceeds farther. the same principle is discovered whether large or small. or such as have an internal bony skeleton . the vertebrated and the annulose animals are the typical groups of the animal kingdom." " returns into look to what are the natural Mr. Let any one of these : minor circles be selected for more close examination.) According to this theory. : five being the primary number employed. are found to constitute a separate circle of their own . until we come to the smallest groups in nature. comprehensive or limited.) Let us now divisions of a circle. these. and thus we go on. each of which.


.of the



or insects.

The other three

divisions are

termed aberrant, because they lead off from their own circle into others, and exhibit the characters of the typical groups under a more diminished or less perfect form. Thus, reptiles, amphibia, and fishes, are the aberrant, or the most imperfect divisions of the vertebrated animals.


barnacles {Cirripedes), the



and the




aberrant divisions of the anniUar

or of insects

and the swimming, wading, and gallinaceous orders hold the same station among birds. The aberrant groups of a circle, in short, are always the most imperfect of their kind, and are the points of connection by which the circle to which they belong is united to that circle which precedes, and to that which follows. (392.) The nature of the typical and aberrant divisions may be further illustrated by a more direct example.




look again to the circle of

vertebrated animals.

Quadrupeds and birds are

higher in the scale of creation than reptiles, frogs, or fishes : they are furnished with limbs capable of many uses ; their structure is more compHcated, and their anatomy, although peculiar, is still more like that of man than what we observe in fishes and reptiles. They are,

consequently, the two typical divisions of the vertebrate Let us now turn to the three others. Reptiles,

frogs, and fishes are obviously less perfect animals than quadrupeds or birds. They seem only to have that shght developement of instinct necessary to preserve and support existence many of them have no feet ; and their blood is always cold. They are nearly incapable of affection towards man, and have never been improved by domestication. All these circumstances tend to show their inferiority to birds and quadrupeds ; they

are, consequently, the

uhernmt (or the



groups of the

five classes of vertebrated animals.


student cannot longer be at a loss to comprehend the

meaning of


genera, so frequently alluded

and aberrant forms, groups, or to. Mr. MacLeay has geneY 2



used the term normal in the same sense as we apply the word typical; but we have preferred the latter, tliroughout the whole of this work, as being more
shall now attempt another mode of ex{SQS.) plaining the difference between typical and aberrant


home to the most Let the reader suppose that each of his five fingers represents one of the five divisions of Let him further suppose the thumb and every circle. forefinger to represent the two typical groups, and the
groups, which will bring the matter

ordinary capacity.

three others, the aberrant.



or typical groups,

as before stated, are always the most perfect ;



they are


by possessing more strength,

and are endowed with greater qualifications or perfecthan any others. Now, the thumb and the forefinger are the most important to the human hand consider for a moment the strength and security which is given by the thumb to every office which the hand performs how weak woidd be our grasp, how unsteady our writing, how insecure our handling, if we were unfortunately deprived of this member The loss of any one, or even of any two, of our three last fingers would
: !

not subject us to half the inconvenience of the loss of the The forefinger is nearly as important it acts more immediately in unison with the thumb, and is only inferior to it in strength and utility. It matters not




this prevalent use of the forefinger is the result

any argument against the assertion loses his forefinger, or even his thumb, may, nevertheless, acquire the power of
of habit;


is it

to urge, that a

man who

doing almost every thing necessary with his remaining The first two were manifestly intended to be more used than the others ; and a greater power, or, what is the same thing, a greater perfection, has consequently been given to them. So far, then, for an illustration of the two typical groups. The aberrant groups are three they always preserve a sufficient similarity to the two others to show their absolute connection

with them


but they are lower in the scale of peras it were, supplementary ; and, taken abstractedly, convey a very inadequate idea of

They seem,

the typical excellency of the other two groups, to which
are, nevertheless, connected just as children, although belonging to their parents, exhibit only the immature excellencies and perfections of those who are their closest kindred. Now, there is a very singular analogy in all this to the last three fingers of the hand. They seem, indeed, to be necessary, but


inferior auxiliaries to those offices chiefly performed


our typical fingers.


are material aids, but not so

vitally essential ; since the loss of any one would not prevent an author, a painter, or a sculptor, from going on with his pursuits, nearly as well as if his hand was



Could this be said, if either the thumb or the was lost Certainly not.

(39-i-) Let the student


apply these analogical facts

to the five great divisions of vertebrated animals.



be compared to the thumb ; they are the strongest, the most bulky, the most developed, and the


most perfect of all animals.

Birds, ir


these qualities,

rank next to quadrupeds ; and they may, therefore, be compared to the forefinger. The longest of all vertebrated
animals, in proportion to their circumference, are the serpents and reptiles ; and the middle finger will remind the

student of this very peculiar characteristic. The two next fingers may be compared to the frogs and other Amphibia, and to the fishes these last seem to be the farthest removed from quadrupeds, because they have no feet : they comprehend, also, the smallest of all the Vertehrata; but yet they are joined to quadrupeds by dolphins and whales. The little finger will remind us of


of these facts.


regards size and thickness,


and is, therefore, the most different from the thumb ; but they are the only two which are of the same length, and they thus preserve the graduated scale which runs through the whole. It may be said that such familiar illustrations Y 3

the weakest and the least of



are trifling

; but it must be remembered that no facts supplied by one part of creation to illustrate another part, can deserve that epithet. On the contrary, the more simple the illustration, and the more familiar the

example, the greater force does analogical reasoning



nature of a circle of


and the

number of

natural divisions which compose
sufficiently explained.


have novr been


constitute the first principles of natural arrangement, the

student would do well, by frequent perusal, to retain


in his


or he


consider these familiar
the fuller exposition,


as introductory

already given on these subjects, in the second portion of this volume.


We shall now lead the

student a step farther,

by calHng

attention, first,




and, secondly, to the means by which such groups are to be detected and proved. An attennatural groups

consideration of the relations subsisting between


groups of animals has led
last section,

to the discovery of

certain properties peculiar to each of those

have, in the


which we denominated typical and aberfew of the most remarkable circumstances so



briefly explain.
is to

(397») stand an



word group, the reader



of individual

species or higher assortments, possessing
selves certain characters definite
is used, in a general

and peculiar.

among themThe term
an which


to express either a class,

order, a family, a genus,

or any other division

employed in system, the class of birds being as a group as is the family of crows. WTien such an assemblage is formed upon characters or circumstances which have no general reference to primary laws, the group is termed artificial. The genera Sylvia and Muscicapa of the Linneean school, for instance, are good examples of artificial groups every small bird, with a slender bill, was placed in the first ; and all



those with broad


were referred

to the



in neither were habits, analogies, or general structure,

taken into the account. On the other hand, we deem a natural group to be an assemblage which is represented by other groups in different classes of animals ; and which is characterised not by one or two peculiarities, but by distinctions drawn both from economy and structure. The toucans, the humming-birds, the lamellicorn floral beetles, and numerous others, are natural groups, not so much because they are obvious to the inexperienced eye, as because they represent analogically other groups in totally different departments of nature. Strictly speaking, and using the term in its true sense, no group can be termed natural, uxxiW its circular tendency is detected, and its analogical relations pointed out. are thus led to seek farther information (398.) upon the question How are we to prove that a group is natural? Onenaturalist selects one set of characters, which by another are shghted ; some look only to the internal


structure, others confine their characters to the external;



are prepared with reasons in support of their

different theories.




then to discover which

are the essential requisites or properties of a natural






which natural objects

foUow each other
larity of a

circular, it follows that the circu-


is its

primary requisite.

therefore, which,


close investigation, does not

Every group, form



circle, or

which does not exhibit a

tendency thereto,

be considered artificial ; while, on the contrary, every one which has its affinities returning into itself, exemplifies the first general law of nature, and wears the aspect of being natural.





property, therefore, which

we must

look for in a natural group,
contains proceed
is rarely that a

that the affinities of
less in a circle.

more or

group, which from other circumstances



to be natural, contains

few subjects, and these

so wide apart from each other, as to prevent us from

detecting their



a circle


on the

Y 4




Other hand, so numberless are the forms of nature, that
circles can be made, and are frequently made, by putting in, to fill up our gaps, animals which have no

with that circle which we wish to renHence, although we must first look to the circularity of a group as a primary requisite, still the accuracy of this circle must be proved by other tests, which will be shortly explained. (400.) The second property possessed by natural groups regards those only which we call aberrant, and consists in the three aberrant groups or divisions of a circle being united among themselves into one circle, independent of their union also with the two typical groups. This theory, although it virtually makes the primary division of every circle to be three, does not,
real connection

der perfect.

fact, affect the accuracy of a group which is first divided into five, any more than this, that it shows these aberrant divisions to have other properties than


were formally suspected
to the typical groups,


so that, besides being united

they also blend in a circle of their own, as if they were independent of the two others.

(401.) As we have hitherto looked to the vertebrated animals as furnishing one of the most familiar illustrations of natural arrangement, we will again use them to exemplify the union of which we are now speaking.

Quadrupeds and
fishes are

birds, then, are the

two typical groups

of vertebrated animals

while reptiles, amphibia, and

the three aberrant. Now, if these latter are found, upon investigation, to form a circle by themselves,

naturally follows


the jwimary circles in every
the three aberrant divi-

group are

and not

This union, however, cannot always be traced, from the causes elsewhere assigned ; and therefore, in dubious cases, it is more advisable to adhere to the usual method of distinguishing each of the aberrant groups separately by themselves. It
follows, nevertheless, that, wherever

sions being


five ; into one.

we must

consider that the circle

can be demonis first divided

into three others, each of



again resolved into

three lesser ones,



so on, until


arrive at the lowest

groups in nature, which are called sub-genera. (402.) Some other properties of natural groups need not here be alluded to, since they belong to a more Intimate acquaintance with the science than is usually aimed at by beginners, and they have already been discussed in the body of this work. So soon as the student understands so much of the nature of groups as we have now endeavoured familiarly to explain, he will be fully competent to jiursue the subject as discussed in the former chapters. There are, nevertheless, certain
other properties in natural groups, which the young

because they serve ; groups should be tried ; as these enter into the laws of verification, they will not now be considered. (403.) After perusing thus far, the student may probably say, " I understand that all natural groups forTi their own circle and that each circle contains three smaller ones, two of which are typical, and one aberrant but in what manner am I to prove my circle, whether it be natural, since I have been told that false circles can be
as tests

naturalist should be acquainted with

by which






for instance, I


desirous of discovering,

without the aid of books, the manner in which the family of thrushes {Meralidce Sw.*) describe their circle of affinity, what check have I upon my own arrangement, after I have placed these birds in such a way as to exhibit a circle Must I be guided only by what appears to be the circle of affinity ? or are there other circumstances by which my circle is to be verified, and my fancy kept in check ? " (404.) These are questions which may naturally be asked, and which we shall now proceed to answer. There are three modes, or processes, then, by which natural 2. groups are to be verified. 1. By their circularity. By the parallel analogy of their contents to other groups;

and, 3.


the order in


their types or subordinate

divisions occur.


may be termed

the theory

• See their natural arrangement in Northern Zoology,


p. 1-49.

in the same manner. that is. While. according to mere fancy. of variation. neither is it irregular.— SSO PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. by which we shall discover that the contents of one group wiU represent. that he has arranged them in a circle. natural. No. The the same succession and all the parts of one circle will represent those of another. with all its which he must compare his own circle in component parts. This brings us to the application of the theory of analogy. which. which may be selected. if they are occur in precisely the same order.) Let us now illustrate this precept by an example. viz. are To these circular groups. in some remarkable manner. the points of resemblance are not to be selected in an indefinite manner. or thrushes. from a number of others presenting no com- mon similitudes . by another. the MerulidcB. and His exdiscovered the typical and aberrant divisions. position of the whole group will accordingly stand We thus : i . (406. the greater confidence may he entertain that his circle his group will bear this test in one instance. the first of these proofs^ Having already explained the nature of we shall now give to the two latter a separate consideration. and in . is truly natural. (405. in proportion to the extent to which he can carry this comparison. and establish such similitudes or analogies between different parts of the animal kingdom. in order to make one group tally with the other. so substantiated. This representation. moreover. he may refer as standards of authority. is not confined to a general similitude^ nor does it rest upon one or two particular instances. the naturalist is to compare his supposed circle with some others. wiU analogies of two groups. When the student finds that he must proceed to verify it. the contents of another group. from having been verified and tested in every possible manner. wiU suppose the student to have investigated the family of birds just mentioned.) The difference between analogy and affinity being well understood. looked upon as estabHshed.

) Myoth. _ J "Bill Merulina abruptly bent. legs ( 1. and that these again lead back to the Methis circle is : Now The above is a tabular exposition of this series. \ Typical groupi ) moderately long . . which exhibits the These divisions are composed of the rapacious (^Raptores). but if we throw it into a circle. in some other well-known and established series. for No that instance. Aberrant group. \ \ wings short. tarsi toes frequently united at the base. — (407. and then see in what manner they represent each other : — . ^rioliua the same order. the gallinaceous {Rasores). it will stand as follows : rulinee. the waders (^Grallatores)." wings adapted for perfect flight . not adapted ^OriolinEe. 'Bill short. Sub-typical group. slightly notched or entire . Brachypodince. Let us now throw this series. bring them together. circular group. for walking. strongly . 331 MERULID^. T Brachypodinse. legs short.TESTS OF THE CIRCLE OF MERULID^. "Bill gradually arched. moderate Ant Myotherina. which blend into the Orioles . Mtruliuee Now the veri- fication of this circle is to bfc accomplished by all its showing that in di- visions are represented. the perchers (^Insessores) . % J CrateropodinEP. True I Thrushes. is better first known than great orders of the whole feathered creation. toes disunited. [ wings rounded. slightly notched. that from the Orioles the affinity is traced to the long-legged thnishes {Crateropodince). like the last. that these conduct him to the short-legged division. feeble Thrushes. founded simply upon the affinity he he finds that the Mediscovers between the divisions riiUncB insensibly pass into the Myotherince. and the swimmers (^Natatores'). notched. into a circle.

and we are now to consider component divisions. and the fruits of — . Next come the Brachypodince. as caterpillars and tender berries. or swimmers . grebes. and pulpy marine animals the caterpillars of the sand. all short-legged thrushes. although not in kind of the great majority of the waders . re- markable for living only upon the softest nourishment. The most perfect or typical of the minor groups. in fact. this character gives us a beautiful representation of the Raptores. pelicans. agree in analogy. The typical groups of each fore circle. &c. or birds of prey. instead of soft caterpillars and pulpy fruits. are the blackall and the most perfect of birds are the Insessores. one of other. birds and throstles among . for it is notorious that the ducks. so as to assume the appearance of a tooth . in the opposite circle. just. are the shortest-footed birds in creation . characteristics is placed opposite each The whose chief a hooked bill armed with a strong tooth. Now this is precisely the description of food in substance. Merul ina?>Sr "^Kj' usessores Hapto.332 PRACTICAIi AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. the thrushes. or The two groups further agree in living only upon other animals. that. BrachypodincB are the shortest-footed thrushes. Now this very circumstance is one of the most prominent distinctions of the Natatores. with this — — difference only. therefore. and the notch very deep.-eR"A^ '^iyot'henna" "\ d - / MERULIN* ^ b ^K«sor ^^^^ Natatores ^ Crateropodinae/ Brachipodinae Oriolinae / \. Oriolince. distinguished from the other divisions of their family by the unusual shortness of their feet. To these succeed the orioles. and are there- ant thrushes (^Myotherina) are more especially distinguished by the tip of their bill being abruptly hooked. Grallatores (408. as the penguins.) their By this diagram the two circles are brought into immediate comparison. they eat soft worms. or perchers.

and their short and comparatively feeble wings. sowary. bustard. it must be remembered that our group has yet only been proved by one test. however fancy it is might deceive us in the first formation of a circle. the Crateropodwce are to the family of thrushes . namely.ANALOGICAL TESTS OF CIRCLES. fore. moreover. are nevertheless remote. the Crateropodince. (409. to believe that we have discovered the true series for. although strong. &c. impossible to believe that so much harmony would result from an erroneous application of a theoretical truth. We therefore pass onward to the last. Nevertheless. the strongest feet. AVith three such strong and remarkable points of analogibe no doubt that the Crateropodince are the representatives of ihtRasores. that our . are analogous. he would undoubtedly mention as among the first. which we compare with the order of Raaores. it therefore is expedient. that it contains fection. and they are the largest birds in their particular group. Now what the rasorial order is to the whole feathered creation. these is in perfect It among general habits. there can words. in fact. cas. is The first of these pecu- absolutely essential to them.) When results like these attend is the com- parison of a doubtful circle with one that universally deemed to be natural. that these two groups are parallel and analogous. in other cal resemblance. as their name implies. they have the shortest wings. they have. It has been compared with the circle of the leading orders of birds . but this is not sufficient for complete demonstration. or. The and analogies. instead of the forest. they habitually hve upon the ground while the last^ which in a tribe of flying birds would be an imperfec- harmony with their would. If an ordinary observer was asked what were the most conspicuous distinctions of the gallinaceous order. the largest birds in creation witness the ostrich. the ocean. or strong-legged thrushes. 333 These groups. thereand do not disturb the harmony of the series. liarities. or the gallinaceous birds. the great size and strength of their feet. be remarked. there is good reason . as a third distinction of the rasorial group. because . if not essential.

that false circles of aflSnity can be made with every appearance of being natural.334 PHACTICAIi AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. group should receive stronger verification.). with the family of shrikes {Laniadce Sw. up for verification. each of which. for we have tried the experiment. from the fallacy of their circles having been detected. occasion has been given to shallow reasoners to throw doubts upon one of the greatest truths in natural science . our group will bear results follow. no doubt. This. but we pile accumulated proofs upon the thoretical assertion that there is but one uniform plan of variation throughout nature. And if.) The student wiU now see the worthlessness of aU assumed circles of affinity which have not been put to these necessary tests. and finally with one of its own rank . to " make all these comparisons. might be arranged in two or three circular ways. and these comparisons are to be instituted on precisely the same principles as those we have just exemplified. has been the rock upon which some of the warmest advocates of this theory have split. Yet the moment these assumed circles are brought their falsity is at once demonstrated.'' we can extend our comparisons. that it should be compared with others of its own order. of which such persons have only a partial knowledge. and that these will " pass muster" with all those . in fact. If. in other and detect the same analogical resemblances groups belonging to different classes of animals. therefore. by judging of their value from their mistaken application by zealous but ill-informed advocates. would appear to be just as natural as the one here given . Hence the student will see the reason of our former remark. and if the same analogical and in the same order. we may then be assured that our circle is a true one. by their discordance with authenticated circles. truths. While. assurance doubly sure. for instance. and which merely repose on the assertion of their inventors. as. if their analogical resemblances to other groups are dispensed with. in short. (410. we not only demonstrate our arrangement of the Merulidw with almost mathematical certainty. The family of Merulidce.

Tyrant Shrikes. Drungo Shrikes.ANAIiOGICAL TESTS OF CIRCLES. when in reality they are not so .) The third test hy which a circular group is to be verified. We have shown that groups can be made to appear natural and circular. . CThamnophilus. even by comparing their contents with those of another estabUshed group. as every one knows. Calerpillar-Catchers. Aberrant. Typical. (412. each of its principal modi: form are to follow each other according to a definite rule. the Merulidce. however. Sub-typicaL Lanius. An ornithologist of this country. But the verification of such an extensive group as that we have now instanced. and thus testing them by the theory of parallel analogies. consists in its being in unison with the theory of variation that is to say. who has done much towards the determination of the leading families of birds.) These divisions. Tme Shriies. form a circugroup. that it seems hardly necessary to repeat it here familiar examples. tlieir now who retired from science. and each division follows in the order of succession here stated and as the bush shrikes. < Ceblepyris. and these fications of : examples. (41 1 . naturalists 335 who think that other proofs are unnecessary. Edolius. — to })revent the recital of those exceptions which must be noted if we attempted to speak generally of the whole animal kingdom will be drawn from some of the groups of ornithology. Sush Shrikes. will render it more apparent to the student. blend into the true shrikes. the circle is closed. This rule has been so fully and so clearly explained in the body of the work. and we have now to show thai — erroneous composition cannot always be detected. f Tyranmis. and lar : the whole has a verisimihtude of being truly natural. and in many instances has shown great judgment in the location of the groups. namely. it has been said.) which exemplifies the error we are now speaking of: he disposes the groups of these birds in the following manner : — Genera. is hy no means yet complete. has nevertheless been led into an arrangement of the shrike family {Laniadce Sw.

Feet very sliort. been arrived at. it has a verisimilitude of being truly circular. number of p. for. the tip. Myothera. vol..) Nothing'can be more perfect than the parallel from comparing these two groups . must be resorted to. as we have elsewhere demonstrated*.) lated Now.„. it is that the author in question did not think its it necessary to verify this group by tracing parallel analogies in the next (the Merulida. a union of the greatest * Northern Zoology. ing group. — and and then. its yet the great error of be detected. . . Had he done so. if implicit reliance were placed upon the accuracy of this series. . are correct. yet both are nevertheless disposed falsely. J Tyrannus. and yet. ^ Edolius. Ceblepyrts. Craterapus. - — . at no loss to make them out \ i '^''^ T" spective Thrushes. circles. ^Onolus. — in the it Here then first is a group which has undergone two instance. f ^ Brachypus. in the typical form. the principles by which groups. so far as concerns the order of the divisions just specified. supposed to be natural.336 True PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY.v. taken separately. as a last and final criterion of the true value of all (414. Characters coTnmon to both.. 164. and we merely proceeded to fix upon the groups analogical to these in the next family circle. Live in the vicinity of water. namely. the definite system of variation. all the vari- ations of form throughout the class of birds are regu- maybe thus concisely stated: — First. although the divisions and analogies in both these columns. tests. Bill hooked at ai«. "^^^P'^'f^'y organised of their re. „ Wings rather long rump feathers more orl Thamnophilus. we should be manner : in the following Shrikes. How then are or we to composition remains to proceed in our pro- cess of verification ? how can a false circle be distin- It is here that the third test guished from a true one ? we have intimated. we have. were in reahty an artiAnd yet this conviction might not have ficial circle. 1 ^.. or thrushes) which succeeds to it. being compared with an adjoinis found to possess parallel analogies thereto. ii. Lanius. analogies resulting (413. he might probably have discovered that this. less rigid.

or to live in its vicinity. whose chief character is the soft nature of food . This is the first. with an organisation conformable thereto. it may. or typical group. or. perhaps. if it will. great breadth of bill. The voice. or the sub-typical variation. in other words. by the length of its legs. however. This modification always succeeds the sub-typical group. Grallatorial or Suctorial . tailed. if must be some error in the disposition of the Let us now make the comparison : — . nature proceeds to another. is peculiarly loud. is this. glossy plumage. 4. and very short feet . As this series of variations can be traced. Next in succession comes one closely resembling it. throughout the whole animal kingdom. consequently. Natatorial . 1. also. conducts to that which This type of form invariably is pre-eminently typical. therefore. the highest degree of organisation. and. is made up by a superior degree of courage or ferocity. closes the circle. and always discordant. but it is also known by the superior length of the bill. be expedient hereafter to designate each of them by a general name . large tail. the group is a natural one . whose instincts lead them to frequent : water. and which. as before de- correspond with this series of the variation in ? other birds not. Insessorial . gregarious habits. (415. crested head. Rasorial.) This definite mode of variation explains the nature of the third and last test for the verification of the group of shrikes. 2. will The all the series. short wings. however. which deficiency. which we are now considering question.CIRCLES OF THE SHKIKES different perfections^ AND THRUSHES. and often a marked predilection for the society of man. 337 or qualities . The last variation to be found in a true ornithological circle is manifested by superiority of bulk. and is followed its by another. and. very strong legs. 3. 5. generally. characterised by a large head. more or less. there series. leads them to feed upon other animals this is the second in rank. but deficient in some few points . at present. Following this. Raptorial. they may be called after the primary divisions of birds: viz.

„<™. (_ quently the feet. •< crested heads . Lanius. therefore the r Small Tyrannus.. J f Glossy plumage. the new circle is just as complete as the old. therefore. raptorial . Typical. Sub-typical > Edolius. C quently the J r Glossy plumage. < great heads. conic-shaped. water*. r Inferior only l_ to the last. therefore the 3 tails. we have to retrace our steps.-„f f Live entirely upon soft sub.„<™. conse. T C broad flattened bills.-„. vol. is (41 6.\Grallatorial. Y Lanius. great tails. followed by the Natatorial. G''""'""' '"' stances . being only inferior to that of groups..^„„j. gregarious > iJffiorfoi habits. as follows 1. claws not y Insessorial. f < most rapacious of all theT c The perching birds therefore the > Raptorial. therefore the J 7 . f t Edolius. . ") broad flat bills. iL . great heads. Northern Zoology. 1. f Live entirelv upon soft sub. The series of variation. and we then compare it with the able to stand the test supplied — — types of variation (as above specified).typical. T Thamnophilus. dive in the y Natatorial. : — Typical 1 VLamus. i in not having raptorial > Insessorial. J r Small short Tyrannus. consequently the J Aberrant. consequently the] i r Inferior only to the shrikes. C claws. This we find can be done.) Our imaginary circle. shows it to be one of the typical placed in the aberrant division. great < T C Aberrant Ceblepyrus. turns out to be different from that in all other groups of birds. whose structure. bill Thamnophilus.7 /-^„. dive f-J'^a/o^onat in the water . in the circle we are now testing. not. therefore the j also • See Wilson's American Ornithology p. •j short feet. 3. T vss PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. Ceblcpyrus. crested heads. i stances. by the Grallatorial . then. 136. Types or Birds. Shrikes. and ascertain whether an equally good circle cannot be formed by placing these divisions in a different series. not being by the theory of d^nite variation. Distinguishing Characters. fTlie most rapacious of all^ < the perching birds con%e-^ Raptorial. and while the genus Thamnophilus. and it therefore cannot be the true one. < Sub. that in this supposed circle the Rasorial type of form all is other birds. consequently the j it Here. as in is seen. in short.>Rasorial.

the exposition of the two groups. its paconsequently stand three tests. and notwithstanding its analogies series in the latter family. Mervla. and with the because principle of variation. and its coinci- variation — dence with the established mode.CIRCLES OF THE SHRIKES AND THRUSHES. Frequent the vicinity of water. it becomes we necessary to institute a further analysis. or ant thrushes. Lnnius. its circularity. or progression. Rump it feathers more or less rigid. is this that is. Edol/iis. Nyothera. although the being made to correspond with the erroneous disposition of that of the Laniadce. notwithstanding it appeared to be circular. could be traced in the family oi Merulidce. Be- fore. The most Feet very typical of their respective families. in old group which nature varies her groups. to select any one of the subordinate divisions. rallelism of analogy with other groups. can pronounce that either of these families are strictly proved. but the series in which they are made being as follows True Circle of to follow incorrect . But z 2 this. by the genus Myothera. is Crateropus. or thrushes. are correct for some of them are contain either very numerous in species. strictly speaking. as divisions. its most obvious distinctions are in accordance with analogies to be traced in other circles.) But sions in these not sufficient that each of the divi. therefore. 339 (417. sliort. the analogies being correct. (418. as a whole. and to submit its contents to the very same tests as we have just applied to its family. circular. Circle cf the Thrushes. Oriolus.) Thus we see that our new circle has this advantage over the oldj that the variation of the series composing it turns out to be in accordance with the It can of all other ornithological groups. is it lesser groups. represented For instance. necessarily shared in the error. in all their parts.'' We may it is natural. Ti/rannus. two families. in the circle of the Now. is a truly natural group fairly conjecture ? one of the divisions. the MvoTHERiNiE. T/iamnophilus. or many striking deviations in their form. True the Shrikes. The would not bear this latter verification. Bill hookcci at the tip. as : — now re-formed. is . Sracliypus. Ceblept/riis.

thus three different tests : to be detected by 1 . p. moreover. and Brachypus. it natural . all the trials necessary to establish trust that the its cor- (420. from affinity . Crateropus. of being really trust. and have demonstrated that they form a natural group. and. and we shall find the subordinate variations analogically repre- far senting ilferu^a. in another work *. therefore. (419. not enough for demonstration : its circularity must be made out. that he what they are affirmed. 3. on the present out. prove them : than they possess. a circular group. If the MvoTHERiNiE. have confined our illusoccasion. if it will stand such an ordeal. capable of the same degree of verification as we have been here insisting upon. make circles. but the two latter entirely depend upon No group which will not bear these tests can analogy. selected the MyothebinjE for this especial pur- pose. trations to ornithology . form a truly natural. To that who desires to see in work we must what manner relations of analogy. By the draw the first of these proofs theory of variation. 2. will be needless. at first sight. So is this beautiful uniformity of consistent. either from mere assertion. and definite variation from being chimerical. its component parts will represent all the divisions of its own family . . Oriolus. 168. whereas. then.) Natural groups are. to give them more value We • Northern Zoology. or from wearing an appearance. in so small a circle. refer the reader. but it must be remembered that the same laws are applicable to every group in the To We animal kingdom.340 PRACTICAIi AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. can be made pursue the subject farther.) We young naturalist will see the truth of the observation long ago now made by a well-known to naturalist. that we have. that nothing can be easier than provided it is not thought necessary to in other words. be We has passed rectness. By their simple series of circular affinity. and. By the theory of analogy. vol ii. and its contents submitted to the very same tests that have been applied to the entire family.

drawn from all the groups of the animal kingdom. we have endeavoured. have been bestowed. and to show that all the divisions. in a strictly arbitrary and rigorous sense. that the different which various systematic writers have given different names. or the different ranks of those by whom it is commanded. indicative.) It is not only convenient. for the most part. He will then be justly entitled to have his opinions regarded. CHAP. OF SPECIES AND VARIETIES. some small. by publishing to the world crude and superiicial theories of primary divisions and which have no foundation but in his heated imagination the result. but of limited materials. and his theories investinature. and an ignorance of all but one department of circular groups. OR GROUPS. do actually exist in nature . to place these designations upon a more secure footing. to indeed. sential. not of extensive experience and matured investigation. ON THE RANK AND NAMES OF THE NATURAL DIVISIONS. III. in fact. and inflicts an injury upon science. will pause before 341 he commits his own fame. and let him prove the accuracy of his theories by facts. however. and the divisions themselves made altogether arbitrarily. but X 3 . gated. in another part of this volume.RANK AND NAMES OF GROUPS. without any ulterior reference to a uniform plan. are divisions. As these names. (421. of their size and relative rank . IN THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. in some measure. not. but absolutely es- groups of animals should be distinguished by names. own — Let him first become master of all the existing knowledge on these subjects. just as we should distinguish the component parts of an army. hereafter enumerated. These groups. some large.

MacLeay and to his dis- our science is indebted for the introduction of this definite system of naming groups. or groups. so do we also give stability to all that belongs to (422. the names indicative of their rank must be definite also. indeed. in proportion to the precision which we can attain in the determination of a group. each and all. definite: it therefore follows. Whe- ther we term these parts of the great system of nature.) which we are about to explain . which he the author. shall devote this chapter to the explanation and illustration of those groups whose rank or value have been ascertained. we immediately know the determinate value of the group spoken of. : objects.342 PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. dence or proof whatever that they are " natural. if we can ascertain what is the relative rank or value of such a group. groups are definite. not upon any fixed plan of proceeding. in short.) So soon as a group. to prevent tautology. without bringing forward any evi. in the truest sense of the word. that. the tests enumerated in the last chapter." . the least advantage of which is. tribe. must understand that they designate. but upon the mere opinion of these terms. in reference to other definite groups. but the it. sufficiently marked to render them recognisable. more or less. &c. the three words. gists call their divisions by these names. The different ranks of divisions or * I regret to observe. in fact. when we now talk of a natural ciples that family. unless otherwise stated are merely conventional meet with in other systems. however. that very recently some of our entomolo. has been verified by it becomes. or a natural order*. family. are circular. therefore. however. It is to Mr. provided a uniformity in their nomenclature is preserved. will . student must remember that. an assemblage of circles. If. whose It is affinities. will be here considered synonymous the reader. divisions. obvious that. being founded. we can then give a definite meaning to the name we bestow upon it. are accustomed to distinguish their artificial groups by many of the same terms (as order. is immaterial. and conclude with a few remarks upon species and We their varieties. Authors.

as its name implies. it is not yet ascertained in what precise manner the vegetable. whose soft bodies are generally protected three last groups. or. the Mollusca. Family. 6. z 4 . the mineral kingdom *. 4. hke the star-fish. there : are five. Kingdom. and a sub-kingdom. MacLeay. the and the mineral kingdoms of nature . and the hardest parts are outside . not only in — the highest and science. it being much better that the first of these numbers • See Northern Zoology. perhaps. according to Mr. 7. 3.) It has been long customary. 1. liv. is the first and greatest circle . therefore. comprehending all beings which usually pass under that name. however. 9.Subfamily. proceed to alter the definite divisions from five to three. the Acrita.Sub-genus. or shell-fish. 4. united by nervous threads. as insects. and by a shell. and. although describe their own circles. 2. form a circle more or less complete among themselves. which. A kingdom. and all the ranks of groups we are about to describe. the Acrita. 8. but in ordinary parlance. where the body and legs are jointed. have the mouth in the middle. or vertebrated .RANK OF CIRCULAR GROUPS. great divisions of ponderable matter as the animal. 3. or the animalcules. (423. shall not. whose affinities proceed in a circle. are nine. to designate the three vegetable. Sub-kingdescending to the lowest dom. Tribe. We ii. the Mollusca. commencing from : 1. 5. Preface. or annulose animals. are the aberrant divisions or sub-kingdoms of the animal kingdom . The and the Radiata. if our conclusions be correct. the Vertebrata. Genus. 5. also. Class. the An- NULosA. Order. and they are thus designated. in this part of our work. namely. THE Radiata. whose nervous system is composed of several scattered masses or ganglions. 343 groups that have been detected in the animal kingdom. p. is one of the primary divisions of the animal kingdom of these. animals. having an internal bony skeleton 2. or radiated animals. which. yet it is sufficient for our present purpose that the animal kingdom forms a circular group.

and the Annelides. seems to have had an intuitive perception . be our object. whicli Mr. to prove that the Ptilota.lNSESsoBES.S44< PKACTICAIi AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. being truly groups of this value. the Vermes. or fowls. or bivalves. are so many classes. and fishes: these are the classes of the sub-kiiigdom tebrata. notwithstanding the dismemberment they have received from some of the best modern entomologists.) Orders come next in rank to to the class of quadrupeds. have never yet been correctly made out . in a ferent series to birds. — Raptobes. (425. or univalves.* In again. somewhat difwhat has been stated elsewhere. of which Linnseus. his Cole~ optera. nevertheless. reptiles. or swimmers. to cite further instances of this description of groups. however. 5. classes.Natatores. also.or perchers. or waders . 2. Neuroptera. or winged insects.) confusion in the mind kingdom. Those of the annulose animals. * Xiinnxan Transactions. amphibia. into By Class is implied the first divisions of a subThe vertebrated animals are first divided classes. those of the vertebrated circle. it will. the Cirripeda. The first division?. all should be here used^ to avoid of the student. or barnacles. or worms. iheAptera. in this place. following each other. 3. on the other hand. are strictly classes . Hemiptera. or wingless insects. The classes of the other sub-kingdoms have never yet been defined with precision. hereafter. (424. and the Gasteropoda. the same groups occur. &c. or birds of prey. Looking we find there are five natural orders. of course. Rasores. among the molluscous f Ibid. birds. or red-blooded sea-worms. indeed. or first divisions of the sub-kingdom Annidosa / representing. MacLeay was the first to desig: nate and define by their true characters this therefore. 4. . and they have been correctly designated in the following natural seriesf: 1. nor will it be necessary. into which both the apterous and winged insects are naturally grouped. In hke manner the Acephala.. which reVer- spectively contain quadrupeds. is appropriated to those divisions name. Grallatobes.

has the five tribes of Diurnes. The Scansores. otherwise. or perching birds. which brings on the woodpeckers. as Mr. or perchers of prey. like the humming-birds. flat bills. when properh' restricted. The lepidopterous order. namely. or silk moths . tribes are very prevalent. . for instance.). Conirostres. At events we have not yet detected them. Mollusca. * Linnsean Transactions. designated and characterised as follows : 1. the best-established groups in zoology. will be found groups of the same value. 4. now. or winged insects. This most extensive order has been correctly stated* as the only one in the ornithological circle which contains tribes. and long bills. rank of Tribes from one of the most perfect. when the latter exist. of cornes tionable whether tribes occur in the aberrant orders of either the Annulosa. Sphingides. But in most of the orders of the Ptilota. then they must be considered (42fi. and cuckoos. Dentirostres. Kirby truly remarks. the primary division of this tribes order is into forming one circle. and Noctuides. to be hereafter verified. And. three. Phalcenides. with large heads. or night moths although. MacLeay. or climbers. and weak feet. parrots.) Families are comprehended under tribes. and living chiefly upon insects. and i\\e Prcedatores. if we consider the Mollusca as a class . or geometric moths . as a sub-kingdom. that is. as the swifts and swallows. It is questribes are very large. the order of Insessores. with a conic bill. and pre-eminently illustrate the We shall — 2. with small eyes and mouth. or rapacious beetles (Chilopodomorpha MacL. 5. These are the only tribes. any all more than they do in the aberrant orders of birds. but if we view it. Tenuirostres . Radiata. with sharp claws.: nANK OF CIRCULAR GROUPS.) as examples. or Acrita. perchers. and. lastly. Fissirostres. with Mr. the three aberrant In the coleopterous order the which we shall cite the Lamelli{ScarabcBus Lin. or herbiverous beetles. . as in the case of the Rasores. 3.) as classes. (427. or groups between families and orders. to be in the class of birds. or found hawk-moths Bombycides. or diurnal butterflies . 345 shell-fish.

and Hesperia It is essential here of Latreille give us the types of the families in the tribe of Diurnal butterflies {Diurnes). the groups called stirpes. as PapilionJrf«. Ericina. Nymphalirf«. and.) Sub-families constitute the primary divisions of the last group . woodpeckers. it is used. yet groups of this rank are every where to be found in nature. and flycatcher repre. many famihes. Among birds. which few have the leisure or the opportunity of undertaking. in artificial systems. they come immediately after orders. similar to the famihes of the moderns. even at first sight. in the nature of any of the groups here enumerated. . Nymphalis. (428. &c. that the names of all families are terminated in -idee. or races. chatterer. sent the five families of the tribe Dentirostres Papilio. both in a natural and philosophic sense of the word. than to the Predatorial tribe of beetles. are no other than fatitilies of their contents. warbler.: a plan of nomenclature which at once points out the rank of the group bearing a name so constructed. This. &c. shrikes. that it is comparatively easy. thrush. and speak at once to the apprehension The genera of the old authors are more of the reader. to remark. it is usual to designate the family. while Satyrus. MacLeay*. are so common . to know the family to which a bird or an insect belongs. According to our views. parrots. to designate an in- definite number of genera. it may be observed. The crows. is perhaps. in most cases.34<6 PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. although the term is but seldom met with in artificial systems. 6. and then at once proceed to the genus (or rather the * Annulosa Javanica. having a few characters in but in natural classification its meaning is as determinate as any other of the circular groups here named. by Mr. among birds. the most prevalent description of group in the animal kingdom . but to ascertain into which of the primary divisions of that family it naturally enters. p. To account for this omission. the shrike. next to genera and sub-genera. in describing a new object. imposes the necessity of a severe and frequently a laborious analysis. Hence. &c.

would exclude them from being ranked under one generic name.) as so many sub-families. indicate the finitions (429. if laid down. in fact. Names designating this description of group are made to terminate in -iHae. he will find their analysis detailed at some length in " Northern Zoology. the Myotherince. the genera there named being only typical examples. but no fixed rules were laid down for determining what degree of variation. — . in process of time. which frequently bore but a mere outward or remote resemblance thereto. of the same volume. as much. the various and conflicting opinions of those who — by supposing there are no really definite groups in the creation affix to the term a meaning either so vague or so circumscribed as to leave every one at liberty to put — their own interpretation upon the alleged definition. Do what we will to define a genus. between famihes and genera. the original type to have been lost sight of.. ending in -irfae. and yet not among true insects. or. If the student wishes to see the demonstration of one of these sub-families. as a ready mark of distinction from such as." p. We names of families. has been so extensively demonstrated in ornithology that the matter has been set at rest. so small a class as that of Avi'g. by the old writers.RANK OF CIRCULAR GROUPS. as in the proportion of twelve to one. at p. 300. among these species. that. and also that of the subfamily PkiaiKP. comparatively. whose numbers exceed those of birds. or. we may cite the divisions of the two famiUes of shrikes and thrushes (418. they were so frequently seems and a host of other species became associated with it. was the first assembling together of species . for it cannot be supposed for a moment that such groups should exist in. A genus. probably. now come to Genera. or the pre-eminently typical wood- peckers. Following our plan of giving examples.) have been given than of any other group in It is quite unnecessary to repeat. of which more de- nature. or ant thrushes. in this place. any other violated. vening description of circles^ however. 34-7 That there is an intersub-genus) and the species. l68.

no doubt. of course. Plate 132. but let not these two sorts of groups be misnamed and lost sight of. PKACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY.348 group. Up to this time these are the only genera in entomology which have been so verified. . be circular in its affinities. for they cannot be so overlooked in any natural arrangement. by rejecting this definition. as this was the first de- explanation of a genus. MacLeay. and it must likewise contain within itself certain types or divisions which shall correspond with or have just represent those of all other natural genera. will be found in all other genera. one of the most interesting to British entomologists. and in the " Zooother natural group. was impressed with this conviction. (430. without gaining a single advantage. as containing all the beautiful little blue butterflies of our meadows. even in our artificial systems.) . The genus that of Polyommatus. Mr. for he was the first who restricted a genus to an assemblage of species.S'u6-5fewera are the leading types or divisions It is very just spoken of. and that these characters. unless that definition is it that it must have becomes definite. and applying the term to another description of groups. like every essential to such arrangements. but because. in taken from question is the lepidopterous order. and which he further illustrated by showing their actual existence in the genera so constructed that certain assigned characters. in which five distinct modifications of form were discoverable. without a direct violation of that uniformity and consistency which are absolutely genus. — Phcenius and Scarabceus. We logical Illustrations*" the reader will find another. we perpetuate a confusion of terms. Now. cited the examples that have been given of statural genera among the coleopterous insects. under different modifications. finite it. seldom they are so numerous in species that their cir* Second series. we are surely bound to adopt not only as emanating from our learned countryman. as belonging to a genus. Let every one be at liberty to call an insect or a bird by its generic or its sub-generic name . A must. — we shall never succeed.

instances. united most completely to the and representing Nymphalis Lath. Next follows Lyccena. no atten- frequently happens that the essential characters are overlooked. genera is very useful. and which. . and Erina brings us again to Polyommatus. were they. we must refer to the As an example of sub-genera " Zoological Illus- trations. Nearly all the modern genera are. It which come between genera and theless been repeatedly has never- proved to demonstration that two intervening circular groups do actually exist in nature . as the theory of definite variation (415. each of these. Now.BANE can be done in all OF CIRCDLAB GROUPS. therefore. as typical of the HesperidcB. according to the . stands as representing Papilio Lath. Lucia represents the Erycinidee. The sub-genus Polyommatus. or. but. sub-genera. or the copper butterflies. indeed. for instance. provided their true distinctions are conspicuously noted . because every deviation from a type of formation is made into " a genus . Na'is comes next. they are the first assembling together of species : all of which belong to the same type of formation. they will then represent all the higher divisions of their own order. 349 cularity can be traced : but in some few instances this therefore. in other words. in fact. at the head. they would invariably possess this property. unless they are united in their proper genus. really natural." but no effort is made to assemble these types under those intervening groups. as in Polyommatus . The modernpracticeof definingand naming these sub. equally abundant in species. and the unimportat least in it entomology. Sub- genera thus become the lowest circular groups in nature. are bond fide genera and sub-families. ant ones brought forward. families. It will be further remarked. with which it not only unites. circularity." where the reader will find all those of the genus Polyommatus described and figured. last.) has hitherto received tion. as already stated. cannot be always traced. justified in believing we are. that these sub-genera are to be regulated in their selection by the same laws Their individual as are applicable to liigher groups. but represents in itself the Satyridce.

from another animal. in other words. This latter question we shall probably invesIn the mean time. the task becomes easy. taken collectively. what is the same thing to the present question. now enumerated all the ranks and degrees of circular groups yet detected. as in the Drongo shrikes {Edolius). they form a circular group. requires a very practised but where. " after is its kind. in the usual acceptation of the term. markings. a genus. and in many of those composing the family ." individuals perfectly resembhng the parent are permanent. Sometimes aU the species of a whole species." are strictly suh-genera.: 350 PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. the changes of life. they were always distinguished. in a state of nature. (431. When animals are domesticated. It propagates. diverge. is distinguished by certain peculiarities of form. and frequently of country. colour. having tigate in its proper place. in a state of nature.. The discrimination of as it were. nomenclature of the " Horse Entomologicae" and the " Northern Zoology. or. we shaU proceed to make a few concluding observations upon species and their varieties. size. or other circumstances. on the other hand. therefore. such as we These are examples of sub-genera have here defined. We see this in all the domestic quadrupeds and birds. of food. — — . which. from recent researches into the large and diversified assemblage of forms constituting the genus Papilio of LatreiUe. we are only acquainted with a few species but. we feel thoroughly persuaded that. there is an obvious difference in colour. where there is a great numerical preponderance. or.) A Species. but that they contain their own internal types. when under the dominion of man. &c. are known to have the effect of altering and destroying those marks by which. which they undergo. an animal which. its pecidiarities. eye in many instances. ] genus will be entirely black. because they have not each taken by itself really but a few species . They are circular. size. but. into endless variety. which are not in themselves circular . as definitely and perfectly as do genera and aU higher groups. sub-genera are not only circular.

and endeavour to make out how the different sorts of all those which may be of a black colour can be distinguished. however. and pure white. The species. the indented or elevated marks or strife upon their valves. more attention. The young entomologist will do well to collect together all the specimens he meets with. much more closely resemble each other than in others. decide the question. ON SPECIES ANn VARIETIES. the prevalent colour will be blue. &c. The pattern. the different tellens ( Tellince) are only to be known by nice distinctions in their form and sculpture. that is. insects are best distinguished by their markings. common English species varies between every shade of The dark brown. number. A smooth and a hairy beetle can never be of the same species. as the form. form and sculpture.. where even the Lepidopterous shape varies in different individuals. are the same . These shells are further remarkable for the great variety they exhibit in their colours for. among the absence of other information.. rich orange. therefore. moreover. will often. is a most Our uncertain guide for distinguishing the pectens. and then sit down. : it sometimes happen that scarcely two individuals will be of the same tint. however. Colour. of the Linnaean genus Carnhus. of Cnritbida : 351 these. Thus. in all these varieties. in some genera. must be examined with and the relative birds. of the same species. of the rows of punctures in the wing-covers of beetles is also a good criterion. in his walks. the under sides are variegated in a beautiful . form. as the genera Thecla and Polyomspots. This plan will greatly awaken his powers of observation and he will then be surprised to find how many of those he first thought were tlie same. and relative disposition of their bands will on the upper and under surface of their Sometimes the upper surface of the greater number (as in the SatyridcB) will be uniform brown while in other groups. matiis. among shells. pink. are really different. In all these. both and wings. but the most difficult of all shells to characterise are those of the oyster family. in length of the quill-feathers. The size of the bill.

so they need hardly be described. a degree of interest and of facility which no other plan of study can produce. : either in their birth. the causes being removed. he will then be better qualified to understand. is intelligible student. or accidental cause. posed to question the necessity of grounding himself in this sort of information. or their food they do not perpetuate the peculiarities they possess .S52 PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. As they are evanescent.'?3. a state of nature. or delicate stripes. on the principles of his science. and to be interested in. to her original type. are rare. generally speaking. . from which they vary are common. except to illustrate something more than the bare fact. on this subject the distinctions of Species. The more thoroughly we understand the groundwork of any department of knowledge.) We have now laid before the young naturalist the essence of those general principles which have been more fully and more scientifically discussed in a where the species He may possibly be disformer part of this volume. spots. These preliminary chapters. not desiring to be profoundly versed in the philosophy of that which is to him a mere recreation or amusement.) origin Varieties. either with eyelike that the species can be easily detected. and to his future progress. nature returns again. as it were. the more rapid will be our subsequent advancement in its details. there seems no occasion to dwell further in upon (432. from some unusual. to their consti- Varieties. have their local. (4. so also does unusual heat or cold with insects removed even from that temperature most congenial tution. should therefore be perused until their substance is impressed upon the memory. may at once : proceed to the following chapter. their situation. Scanty food produces dwarfs. the more enlarged views already taken of the subject while the amateur. but. As what we have even to the already said. so manner. but he may rest assured that it will give to his more immediate pursuits.

if you think me worthy of being your master. IN DETAIL. and that both are requisite to make a good pin. I shall the professor's gown. When I first began to collect shells and catch insects.) Honest now throw aside critics suit. Get some Costa's . To get a few Latin names by heart is like learning a few letters ." This. but a good naturalist. although I cannot conduct you by a short cut to what I have been some thirty years in learning. WITH EXAMPLES DRAWN FROM THAT OF ORNITHOLOGY. Remember that knowledge implies study ." after taking " two or three walks in the country.'' knowledge. and. Think yourself fortunate. as weU as "Alphabets" are very useful . of what service are letters if they do not teach us words? and what are words without sentences ? So with natural history. but who will believe it is the right one Not you. Times. and. by the way. neither of these worthies having any more idea about analogy and affinity than I had myself. or rather a rail-road. IV. and appear in my every-day Let us talk of science as of ordinary matters . THE DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS OF ZOOLOGY. of first principles . (434. are strangely changed. and. if you believe a modern professor. at least. with which the have bedecked me. any body can do this. the only guides we then had were " Da Conchology. in having a master of any sort. CONVEYING HINTS FOR A PLAN OF STUDYING. I may still make the way smoother and easier than if you were left to pore over strange phrases and unknown circles. scholar^ as Izaak Walton says. way to knowledge . to be sure^ is a most royal. you Now you may choose out see. of twenty systems . CONVERSATIONAL CHAPTER. therefore." 353 CHAP. may become a " very good naturaUst. after read- ." and " Yeates's Entomology .

There are. resemble quadrupeds . atbe interesting. be the department of nature you feel a predilection for studying. 354! PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY.^ You may into the primary groups. but highly useful. indeed. but a general acquaintance with is all that we can be supposed next proceed to acquire an insight and to understand upon what Should leading characters they are chiefly founded. by constantly living in the water. more obvious analogies recommend. upon looking to the first great divisions of ornithology. all distinguished by an uncommon length of tail. fowls. or perchers. among the lizards. represent fishes.. . a general acquaintance with the manner in which the class {^i!SQ. &c. you will find that some acquaintance with the general arrangement of that class or division of which it forms a part will not only If. you fix your choice upon birds. and comprising the peacocks. whose habits lead them as to much to the land as the water. tracted by the beauty of their plumage.) Whatever may between us. comprehending the most perfectly formed of the feathered creation. pheasants. the most perfectly organised birds. or waders. or swimmers.. the Grallatores. without entering into the further details of those reptiles. of course. then. a general acquaintance with the rank or relations of your favourites. look upon this as a conversation (435. You thus gain. you will perceive that the order oi Natatores. and other groups of the order of Eagles and vultures. this can be done . groups with which you compare it. comprise. with very little trouble. and by the interest which an observance of their manners gives to a country walk. typify the frogs while the gallinaceous birds. at pre- sent. for instance. crocodiles. find their prototypes and other amphibia forming the order Rasores. last ing the chapter two or three times over. you be desirous of studying Entomology. few of the the to large divisions of zoology wherein. by masticating or tearing their food. you should begin with understanding what relation they bear to other vertebrated animals . while the great order of Insessores.

he succeeds so far as to ascertain the genus of his insect. He may possibly think his search is now drawtera. several as have hard wing-covers come under the order Coleop. is Now it quite evident . and you will be in no danger of referring an apterous moth or a Proceed in this female glowworm to a wrong order. and genera of this order. is inevitable. until he discovers to which of He finds that all such these orders his insect belongs. indeed. and he wishes to know He finds. he will begin by studying the comnaturalist. he may consider himself very and he comes to the species. and many professed To do this. and this. useful upon many occasions. its for instance. a beetle. will point out the distinction of true insects from such as are destitute of wings . gradually entering into further details as you approach that particular portion which you intend to The study of any one of the great divisions of annulose animals is ample occupation for a life . in not wandering over the tempting but boundless fields of nature. families. but the superficial acquaintance thus obtained. have in view. is manifestly a short and easy road to knowledge .) To discover the name of a species is the ultimate object which all amateurs. fortunate. If. position of groups. will not satisfy the true Hence. manner. ing to a conclusion. ing over the plates of a zoological work. the winged {Ptilotn) or the wingless (Aptera) : but this is not enough. (4-37. the more will you ultimately rejoice at your forbearance. He must therefore first ascertain to which of the great divisions of insects it belongs . but he will be very much deceived. 355 Annulosa is divided. he finds there are orders in each of these great divisions. name. and the more you restrict your attention to one department. before he descends into further details . however convenient and investigate. by merely turnnaturalists. One more trial.PLAN FOR STUDYING. whether the student willingly consents or not. He has to compare his insect with the characters of all the different tribes. in the present paucity of good elementary books. and he is detained in his search.

The latter. although they form important division of all animals. and come not daily before us . in hke manner. in travelling menageries or zoological gardens. or are merely seen. and that of fishes Ichthyology. if PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGT. that of Erpetology. moreover. Entomology has been usually applied to the study of all the annulose class. (438. he first makes himself acquainted with the leading characters of the great or primary divisions of entomology. The study of the Mammalia.) Distinguishing names have been assigned to the study of distinct portions of the animal kingdom. To learn names by it farther partakes of the scansorial nature. or quadrupeds has been termed Mammalogy. or by supplying information on the natural habits of such as are already known. says. and will be employed in the reptiles following hints. or those who reside out of Europe. than those of any other class. although it might be as well. Those of our own country are very few. the longest way at first is the nearest at last . The studies of the radiated and of the polypous animals have not yet The use of these terms received distinguishing names. Travellers. he will be at once prepared to commence among the families or the sub-families. while those of other countries are but thinly scattered in public museums. Conchology. both as to new species. even as regards The i . may yet make important discoveries. designates the study of shell-fish. (439. perr haps. instead of pursuing the regular road to knowledge. and are employed to designate its different branches. have been better investigated and are more thoroughly known. and this search so the beginner will find in the rote case is we have parrot-like just . by teaching him to be climbing over the wall.S56 that. in a state of confinement. is not particularly inviting. that of birds Ornithology. is of much convenience. were it limited to true insects. from their comparative fewness. indeed. The species.) the most study of quadrupeds. and The adage thus abridge a great part of his labour. instanced.

is that of follow present can at you best arrangement Cuvier's " Animal Kingdom. Bewick's quadrupeds. I should recommend your procuring the valuable octavo volume of Frederick Cuvier. brother to the great anatomist." in French. by Professor Temminck *. where you will find nearly all the modern genera illustrated by addiately inteUigible mirable plates of their teeth. and all those which for interesting observation. yet may be rendered imme- by figures. popular degree of man of science and the general reader. field is 357 a wide and much-neglected carrying with it a interests both the which information. is within a moderate sum.) There is no work in our language on the natural arrangement of quadrupeds . are expensive. iffcrens Musves de I'Kurope. Of works with coloured figures. several have been published on the Continent. liowever. is useful. and very expensive. The are intended to describe the species. but Desmarest much better. exhibited in different posi* Temminck. to say which of the many cheap compilations now publishing is the best. I him I shall am really unprepared As for spevery frequently refer. but they are. ou Descriptions de quelles aues Genres de Mammifferes dont les Sptcies ont Hi observes dans 1 vol. however." the better. particularly in France . if you are in a hurry. of course. Lesson's "Manuel. A A 3 . procure Cuvier . (440. and is absolutely essential to every one who studies teeth mammalogy. One of these. partial in their range. Quadrupeds may probably form the next volume of this series but. . if you such it is invaluable wish to follow up the views exhibited in this volume. notwithstanding its obsolete names and occasional errors. is a standard book. the less you burthen your memory with the details of the arrangement in the " Regne Animal. in seven numbers." . our native quadrupeds. of reference as : for to cies. 410. Monographes dc Mammalogie.WORKS UPON QUADRUPEDS. Keep it : as a book but. You will perceive that upon the of quadrupeds most of the modern arrangements are founded and as the different forms of these organs are often very difficult to be expressed by words.

for it concerns the most elegant of those animals which move about us .) by flitting before our path. and their preservation neither difficult nor expensive. if you choose to increase your collection of native birds by purchasing foreign ones. in half an hour. hut I have not yet had the opportunity of seeing the first number. tions. that they can be easily procured. their price on the average is very moderate. for instance. another constructed for especially requisite if of large groups You will very soon . and is both instructive and interesting. the study of these lovely and elegant creatures opens a field for much discovery while. with a good elementary book before you. you may form a very valuable cabinet. Wood has announced the commencement of a general work upon quadrupeds. wiU give you the types of the leading divisions of this class. Thus the study of our native birds may be prosecuted by all who live in the country their acquisition. (44'3. with the requisite knowledge. a rabbit or hare. that the eye at once embraces all it will take a page to describe. and which attract our attention.) The necessity is of acquiring a general knowledge you study birds. 358 PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. (441. whether the information which (4!'t2. Ornithology is a very dehghtful branch. This is the case in every department. The skulls. singing coming about our dwellings. for a moderate making number would but a collection of their skulls is fill a house within compass. of a monkey^ a catj a dolphin : or porpoise. which leads to healthy exercise. and these are such common animals. If you or no. and shows the real use of collections . understand the difference between a foot formed for swimming. and a horse or sheep. you read specimens as you would a book. or : we will reside in foreign countries. Study the differences they exhibit. and you will learn more about them. In a few years. Mr.. ) No private individual ever thinks of a collection of these animals. than if you read their details in a book for half a day. is comparatively easy. either their pretty song. with this in- — calculable advantage.

now give you a short explanation of these prid. while.) a. the sub-typical. . you will have no great trouble in ascertaining the name of a species. 56. and are not retractile. and the Strigidce: these are the only great divisions yet known. the wading (Gml/atores) I shall and the swimming tribes (Natatores) e. ii. claws or talons are hooked and retractile^ Uke those of a cat. the Falconida. or birds of belongs to the order Raptores. wading. at a glance. or is placed high up on the heel. you may conclude it is of the order of perchers (Insessores) b .* The family of vultures is so small. composed of the gallinaceous (Rasores) c. Vigors. a third for scratching and walking . and they follow each other in beautiful succession. and these are the first divisions. so as to rest upon the ground with them. by the help of some of the general works upon birds I shall You will also find a valuable paper presently name. or the aberIf its rant orders . whether a bird belongs to the typical. in the Zoological Journal. gives you a perfect idea of the Vulturidce. that _^ * Vol. will have no difficulty. a hawk. and its claws are merely curved. if its hind toe is on a level with the others. you may be sure it (Jig. and You will thus be able to decide. 359 so on. prey . if the hind toe is wanting.HINTS FOB STUDYING ORNITHOLOGY. you may feel assured that the species belongs to one of the three aberrant groups. and an owl. I A A 4 .) In the investigation of the rapacious order you A vulture. upon them by Mr. mary divisions. (444.

if you wish to investigate the species of the next It family {Falconidce). or of any of the foreign booksellers in London. them the same authors. the two volumes of the ornithological portion of the " Encyclopedic Methodique.45. have a plumage very different from that which they acquire in adult age . doubt whether a species is new or old. if you know the liahitat or country of your specimens. together hence the groups belonging to it are much ." must be consulted for those of North America . however. or perching and this order is larger than all the others put . Spix for those of Brazil . since this knowFor the ledge will very much abridge your labour. you will be sadly perplexed.) birds. while for those of Britain. but. and you must consult for (4. Unluckily. M. will be the best manual you can have . but absolute caricatures. as in other birds. until their contents are collected and digested into one. and they may be purchased in Paris." by Vieillot. when young. has figured many of the foreign species in his '' Planches Colorees . perhaps. which are not only expensive. and " Northern Zoology.S60 But PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. Next come the order of Insessores. Selby's work is quite sufficient. " all which are incorporated in the " Traite d'Ornithologie " of Lesson. will be a great point gained. Wilson. while Le Vaillant is an oracle upon those of Southern Africa. is sometimes It will require a certain dedifferent from the males. and that of the females. you will soon get some ideas on this point. by examining the specimens of these birds in the British or any other museum. Upon the whole. you will always be in gree of tact (only to be got by experience) to distinguish a young from an adult falcon . Birds of prey. Temminck. without the third volume of plates. so that. Mr. European species. The species of owls are as difficult to determine as the falcons. who excels all other ornithologists of the day in a practical knowledge of this intricate family. nearly all these are expensive books . Teraminck's '' Manuel " is an authority which may be looked upon as almost oracular. The volumes of the prince of Musignano.

can belong to the order. varied. You have. ascertained this primary character. therefore. notched near the end. the foot. S6l You may same how a swallow. or typical. course. If the bird before you has the upper mandible distinctly notched. nevertheless. if at all. but this character disappears in some of the titmice (Farus). of . If. chief. however. consequently. and a crow. humming- and crow.) nature's thrushes (Crateropodince) have the bill entire. only to see if the foot of a swallow. that the claws are not retractile for this latter circumstance distinguishes the birds of prey. you next look to the bill. you have the general characters of the Conirostres. and so per-^ . you will begin to see that groups cannot be rigorously defined: and this fact will become more and more apparent. and that their bill without a notch : they. order. a perhaps be at a loss to comprehend humming-bird. All these groups.(f HINTS FOB STUDYING OBNITHOLOQT. (44-6. are so formed: this is y owe first point Other distinctions follow in their proper order. it trary. and is not perceptible The long-legged in all the mock-birds (Orpheus). are perchers. belongs to the tribe of Dentirostres. have the feet so long. You will find that their legs are much that their toes are either united at their base. or placed is two and two . oh the conyou see that the bill is very slightly. belong to the large aberrant circle of the Curtipedes. you may conclude at once that to ascertain. may cipal be. or short. Here. the legs of moderate length. in proIt is one of the portion as you proceed into details. whatever their general appearance safely throw out of these two prin- tribes. But look to the characters of the All birds having their hind toe or toes placed upon a level with the ground. and the claws. you may and typical shorter . as in the crow or sparrow. Having.footed birds. and the toes three before and one behind. distinctions of the Dentirostres to have the bill distinctly notched . therefore. but that the feet are still moderately long. All other birds (and they amount to many hundreds) which do not pos- sess these characters. provided. bird.

to " Northern Zoology. we select the common blue titmouse (Parus ccBruleus L. all that commit to memory. although it —just as a horn- cow is still has no horns. and flycatcher. and species you wish to make out. the very distinct manner in which their bills are notched must be taken into consideration . therefore. conic form which belongs to the Conirostres. refer you. in fact.). and might compare with what you read of each. destitute of that thickened. class their feet. 1 must information. and. without. (447. read over the chatheir chief distinctions. you would do a more (448. it is sufficient to point out that they are of the tooth-billed families. to the genera and the sub-genera . as a bird whose family. form a part of the Dentirostres. genus. notwithstanding their short feet they are. and getting when I finish the ornithological series. thrush.:: 362 PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. you will general ideas on the nature of each . you look to the primary . you read. as endeavouring to lesson. if to judge of the natural station of the short-legged thrushes {Br achypodincB). Suppose." is where a good deal but. aberrant groups . thus gradually descending from one circle to another. Again. course. not less all. you would then have examples before you of each family. of of arrangement. we were merely lince). on the other hand. we should this character is so very conspicuous. while their compressed hill. acquired a general idea of the whole. and all the aberrant groups have only : some.) Having now Dentirostral division as a racters of the families. fectly formed. however. said about each of these families volume of this want no other introduction to my views From the families you proceed. of the typical characters a cow. First. as or the flycatchers (Todidce). that you can have no hesitation in excluding them from the Ctirtipedes. chatterer. the orioles {Oriothat they still by the length of them in the order Curtipedes but then. warbler. for this them For the present.) But nothing will make this plan of proceeding intelligible to you than taking an example. and learn If you could get the skins of a shrike. indicates.

to the warblers. The structure of its toes. or . long. namely. sub-family. you may read its particular history in any of the authors species. in some measure. and wings with the third. the preponderance of its characters decides the question. out a notch. perceive that.MODE OP DETERMINING A divisions of birds. fourth. having found its specific and common name. shows at once that this there is it as this order is again divided. one of the aberrant divisions . characterised by their facility of climbing. because. inner toe shorter than the outer. therefore. and there the very first genus you meet with is Parus. and fifth quills of equal length . defined as having a compressed conic entire bill. or toothed-biUed Scansores. or conic-billed . family. In no difficulty. animal food. All that now remains is to ascertain the species. are in its favour. and sharp hind claw. you have traced your bird through the order. At the same time. 363 which it will come. therefore. curved. and genus to which it belongs. or perchers. Now. which depends upon the colour of the plumage. and this latter resting on the same level with the others. . Thus. To this division. To the family of Syluiadce you accordingly turn and here you find a division (or subfamily) called Pariana. belongs to the order of Insessores. you has not all the dentirostral characters. but then small size. seems at variance with one of the chief its characters of the Dentirostres . and the Fissirostres. and climbing toes. as it it must belong to : and. here you wiU have some difficulty in deciding whether your bird belongs to the Conirostres or the Dentirostres . to see under SPECIES. in other words. you carefully look over the Conirostres. who have written upon the (449. you refer . a habit which exactly tallies with your bird. or swallows. the Dentirostres. or honey- suckers perhaps.) Such is the plan of study and mode of investi- I . Now. sharp curved claws. all this answering precisely to the bird before you. with. the climbers the Tenuirostres. the next set of divisions. and. it unites the characters of the two. Its somewhat conic bill. strong feet. tribe. three before and one behind .

but in every other branch. not only in ornithology. depends. conchology. Follow that arrangement which is most agreeable to what you see in nature. — . in fact. if you wish to follow my plan of study.) Here. knowing the bird we have been speaking about was a titmouse. you may. Be this. the plan of study I have chalked out is equally applicable to any system. pursue this plan with Linnaeus. are published. and have turned at once to the page of the book wherein you thought it might be described. then. You will. than if you kept your mind free from different impressions. It is quite useless to multiply instances in entomology. Besides. but upon which a great deal . your reason and observation you will overlook will not be called into exercise. your ideas at first will become confused. to which I must inevitably refer you. you must wait until other departments. having to unlearn a good deal of what you will there learn. or on any other of the systems . which must belong to the harmonious plan of an Omnipotent Creator. no matter who is the expositor . the principles would be precisely the same. or any of the only would differ. and I shall end with this advice. when you are so far adbut vanced as to know by heart the chief divisions if you begin in this way. (450. pared to receive instruction in the system you ultimately intend to follow. whatever it be. without being able to assign reason^ when your book is taken from you. and you wiU be less pre- minck. It is true that. as my scholar. as it may. and most conducive to exhibit the infinite beauty of that system. learn your lesson like a parrot. gation I should recommend you to pursue. time.364) PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ZOOLOGY. is an example of the mode in which you should proceed. This mode of proceeding will be all very well. the volumes. however. you might have saved yourself aU this trouble. in the The names If you are impatient. artificial mean Tem- although there is great fear that. things apparently trivial. however.

Asia. Of the 231. Ants of Africa. 296. Birds. 4. 231. system of. 227. 325. Affinity. Geer. Birds of Europe. Shells Aberrant of. 88. Analogical tests of circles. 100. 289. Theory explained.INDEX. iSS. 46. Artificial systems. theory of. 296. compared. 33. Arctic Europe. 322. — Camelopardalis. Africa. Conirostres. Arctic America. Various. 330. 54. Collecting. circles peds of. of. American animals generally. ' Accentor modularis. 2. 43. animals of. plans for. Merulidse. America. temperate. 249. 98. 114. Merulida. dom. Diagrams of the circle.34. 239. Aristotle. 331. Amphrisius Priamus. 30. 224. and Aves. illustrated. Classification. 80. tralia. 319. first divisions of a Of the animal kingOf the class Aves and Laniada? and 293. Aus- D. 95. 20-2. 274. 112. Binary systems. Quadra. A. three relations of. 227. 234. 73. 87. Analogical tables Insessores and Aves. Colour of species. qualities of. 77. . 193. Acrita. 241. S3. America. system of. 20. Dodo of Madagascar. 98. Dichotomous systems. 16. the Merulidae. 310. Arctic regions. Cuvier. affinity illustrated. Characters of species. True and Si'2. MerulidsB. 18. class of. recommended. Analogy and nions upon. 91. Insects of. 217. Denomination of groups. system of. 279. Chilopoda and Thysanura. 243. : 56. Equinoctial . yj. 233. two species of. 193. 320. remarks upon. 35y.\trioa. 331. Groups. 333. 58. 84. Birds of. Feet of the Entomology Brazil. 203. 56. Australian animals generally. 187. 125. America. Reptiles of. animals of. Comparison of groups. Animal geography. Analogies. of troniral AfVlca. Central Europe. 361. Analogy. 288. 328. 62. 523. orders of. 19. 216. Dentirostral birds. explained. 293. Creation must have a plan. different opiFirst divisions Hints for. African animals in general. 249. their diversity explained. Laniaila and Merulidae. 114. B. Raptores and InsesTenuirostres and sores. 134. false. Merulida. Crow. 170. De Aquatic or natatorial forms. genus Parus. 315. difl'erent modes of stating. Circular arrangement of the class Aves and genus Parus. 91. Animals of Europe. 203. first laws of natural. 209. 17. 332. characters of. general view of. Divisions of a circle. Central Asia. 237. 297. Circular arrangement of the animal kingdom. Central group of Fries. £98.

Laniadfe. false circles of. 201. 112. its natural and ana- ed. 271. Africa. Ox and the bison. system of. False circles. kingdom. the circle of the. Hermann. rank of. N. 89. True Podalirius Machaon. 92. of. INDEX. 357. 338. Field naturalist's occupations. Lamarck. 269. Lions. 1S3. oil. 225. Groups. of. Books upon. M. Petalocerous beetles. Myotherinae. %vorks upon. Quadrupeds of Europe. Latreille.<. Newman. ' sys. 45. circle of. 55. Northern Asia. 2H0. Pariana^. 198. Natural system. Natatorial type described. rank of. 210. Mexican birds.. animals. Of Europe. Harpula vexillum. the division of. Nycthemerus pictus and argentatus. logical characters. Mr. Prichard's. . Linnteus. 117. 241. 47. primary. Pacific Islands. 220. 'CS'k Familiar conversation with beginners. system of. Group. recommend- H. the three. 213. Qualifications of a naturalist. 42. O. animals F. 249. illustrated. system Man. 273. 224. lUiger. Names of divisions in the animal 343. 284. 118. 68. 3. 344. 301. Parus CEeruleus. 189. Kingdoms. system of. of. 193. 326. 119. Fries. Natural systems.366 European animals. system of. the primary laws. External 1. 224. 271. Observation. Genus. First principles to be learned. Facts. Madagascar. Genera of African animals. rank of. Mexico. 338. of nature. Holland. 340. Orders of birds. meaning of the term. requisites 196. Quinary system explained. Of Quadrupeds. 32. animals. Ranks of natural groups. 49. 331. system of. theory. animals of. Australian animals. variations of. Merulids. the observation of. 292. sjstem of. 362. 19. T. Parus biarmicus. Laws. Leach. 359. 309. 357. 305. 343. New New Guinea. Perseverance recommended. Rank of groups.58. 14. 248. Meaning of the term. affinities. accurate. of. circle Fabricius. 205. theory. 307. Hedge-sparrow. 214. plan for studying.339. 19S. Primary types of nature. 199. IS. primary divisions of circular. 305. 140. American Asiatic animals. 301. 318. two G. classes of. 110. exposition of the. Polyommatus. 247. Properties of natural groups. of the natural tem. 70. MacLeay. system of. 128. Naturalists. 324. 235. 35o. the two first group. 5. Dr. Ornithology. Memory to be exercised. 311. European 120. 335.. different species of. Northern Africa. 349. a natural.

Transportation of groups. 184. meaning of. The circle of Merulidce. desirable. Systems and methods. V. 239. Kaptores and W. T. Parians. objects of. 242. S67 Insessores. 243. Variation. rank of. 243. Temminck. principle of. 303. 292. Systems. 237. of. defined. Suctorial type described. Typical and aberrant circles explained. Willughby and Ray. 47. 287. 323. the principal. 183. Septenary and other systems. Rasorial type described. Insessores and the class 273. qualities of. or thrushes. . 241. 287. 122. 337. Merulidje. Theory of. Vertebrated animals. Species. 298. a. Systematic naturalist. 124. Shells of Europe. 221. Smeathman on African Southern Africa. 254. 134. Tables of the rank of groups. Europe. System of nature. law of. blue. Titmouse. Natural and artificial. insects. 355. Study. Kasorial birds. 36i'. a. General plan of. defined. Aves. 99. THE END. of. system of. Verification of a natural group. 273. Vieillot. 231. 350. 40. 217. system 138. Typical form defined. Of an aberrant circle. Mixed. 35. Theory of representation. Tropical America. 237. artificial. 296. 271. 310. Woodpecker. Characters of. 335. Thysanura and Chilopoda. 217. 224. 257. Representation. Sub-typical form described.INDEX. 299. Theory Variety. 127. 2fi4. 320. 352. circle of. Scarabseus sacer. a plan of. 275. 289. Subgenus. first laws of. 296. 332. system Tests of a natural group. of. animals 100. of. 331. 67. 245. 72. Asia. Types of a typical circle. 34?. 243.

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