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OU_1 66586


Call No. fT'/


Accession No.




This book should be-reVumfd on or before the date

marked below.








Geoffrey Cumberlege, Publisher to the University

FIRST PUBLISHED 1920 REPRINTED 1925, 1935, 1946,



IN the preface to Dr. Marcel Hardy's Introduction to Plant Geography, Professor Herbertson wrote, it will

be followed by a more advanced book '. This advanced book is the volume now published.



contributed to delay its appearance the death of Professor Herbertson the departure of the
: ;

Many causes have

author to South America; the


and. its afteripatji,

which have rendered so extremely difficult everything connected with the publication of books but the proofs

have been fully revised, and have been inserted.

many new photographs


be taken as in some sort an expansion of
' '

Part III of the earlier work, since the slight survey of the continents given there has served as the plan for

new book, and has been expanded

into a full dis-

cussion of the conditions in which plants flourish, and
their distribution

in the great geographical


of the earth.


index of

the plants mentioned

appended, with the scientific or popular name, as the where the author has used a precise name, case may be

where a genus only is indicated, the corresponding generic term is set down, unless some particular species is peculiarly characteristic
the exact equivalent



M. Professor A. M. Ordnance Survey. J. Miss Czaplicka. Messrs. M. W. Mr. Loucas. Service & Co. Brown. W. Mathers. H. Donaldson Smith. Watkins. Eardley Wilmot. C. the Visual Instruction Committee. Cross. the Controller of H. Mr. Edwards. Mrs. Mr. Coachman. species is added. S. Captain C. Woodward for the loan of photographs from which the illustrations have been made. Sir Aurel Stein. . Traill. Mr. Seeley. Miss Kirkaldy very kindly made herself responsible for seeing the book through the press. Sir Everard Im Thurn. T. name of that Thanks are most gratefully offered Government. and to Miss MacMunn for most kindly reading through the final proof. Messrs. W. Sir H. W. OXFORD. Doyne. Sir S. M. Johnston. 1920. M. Ffoulkes. Professor A. Mr. to the Belgian Col. Thompson. Mrs.iv PREFACE when the full of the region described.. Mrs. Underwood and Underwood. Lloyd. Lagarde. Mrs. C. H. Mrs.

Yezo) Kamchatka Indo-China ( Japan Eastern Margin of the Great Central Plateau Manchuria Northern China Central China Malay ArchiIndia The Indus Desert Iran pelago Mesopotamia Asia Minor Turan Turkestan Highlands Kirghiz Steppe Siberian Highlands Mongolia Tibet andPamirsTeaidam. CHAPTER SOUTH AMERICA Central . III 124 America Orinoco Wanos Guiana Highlands Guiana Lowlands The Amazon Basin Flood Forests -Caaguazu Brazilian Coast Forest Belt landsNorthern Portion Southern East Brazilian HighBrazil Highlands-^ . - CHAPTER NORTH AMERICA II 75 Tundra Region The Great Canadian Forest -. Hokkaido Sakhalin.CONTENTS CHAPTER ASIA Tundra I PAGE 1 West Siberia Eastern Siberia Amuria. Korea.Great Lake Region Appalachian Region West of the Appalachians Southern States -Texas -Great Staked Plain The Grass Belt The Western Mountains Interment Plateaus of the Pacific California The American Deserts Lower California and Northern Sonora The Mexican Plateau Atlantic Lowlands of Mexico and Southern Mexico Florida and the West Indies.

195 Mediterranean Africa.Southern Belt of South Africa Knysna Forest Kaffraria Madagascar. . Thornwood Tropical The Mallee The Brigalow Scrub Tableland CHAPTER V AFRICA .vi CONTENTS PAGE M. Cbaco Lower Parana CHAPTER AUSTRALIA Northern Point of the - IV 171 Savana Scrubland Scrub The Mulga Scrub Great Central Desert MurrayDarling Valley and South Australia Mediterranean Portions of Southern Australia Savana Woods South-eastern Temperate Rain-forest Northern Portion of the Eastern Highlands. The The Andes Patagonia Fuego Montana Argentine subtropical Andes Dry Argentine Cordillera Western Andes Peruvian Andes Atacama Central Chile -South Chilian Rain-forests Extreme South and FuoffO Punas.Abyssinia Abyssino-Eritrean Foot-hills Yemen - Somaliland LightForests : and Parks of Tropical Africa "West African Coast Guinea West African Plateaus The Congo Basin Angola East African Mountain Region The Zambezi basin and Unyamwezi Gazaland and Mozambique Boschveld Hoogeveld Drakenberg -Kalahari -Damara Desert Karroo Region The Karroos .The Atlas Intermont Plateaus The African Islands Sahara Sudan Semi-Desert Sudanese Savana Futa-Jallon Egyptian Sudan.itfco Oroso and West Goyaz Bolivian Llanos Alto Parana-Paraguay Paraguay and The Pampa Marshes Western Argentine Wastes South Semi-desert Rios Entre and Patagonia Uruguay Eastern Andes.Tasmania New Guinea New Caledonia New Zealand Pacific Islands.

302 308 315 GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX INDEX OF PLANT NAMES ..CONTENTS vii PAGE CHAPTER EUROPE VI 250 Fjelds The Arctic Region Arctic-Alpine Tundras and Russian Steppe Northern Europe Hungary Peninsula Valley Balkan Mediterranean Iilyrian Karst Po Central Europe ...Western Europe Atlantic Fringe Caucasia Britain. CHAPTER CONCLUSION VII > .


Pine Forest bordering meadow..33 A River Scene in Burma (Photo Sir S. Stein) 74 76 Physical Features of North America Mean Annual Rainfall of North America . PAGE Physical Features of Asia Mean Annual Rainfall of Asia 3 2. 21. 6. The Jubailah Creek Mesopotamia The Top of the Last Pass (Photo Sir A. 20. Rocky Mountains (Photo A. Donaldson Smith) 24 Undergrowth of Evergreen Equatorial Forest in Solomon Islands (Photo C. . W. . W. 1. Seasonal Distribution of Rainfall in Asia . Eardley Wilmot) 37 The Himalayas.. Mean Temperature Mean Temperature Vegetation of Asia of Asia in January reduced to sea-level of Asia in July reduced to sea-level Siberian Tundra (Photo : Miss Czaplicka) Sir S. July reduced to sea-level 23.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIG. The Manchurian Steppe and 11.77 Seasonal Distribution of Rainfall in North America 78 22. 18. The Canadian Prairie (Photo C. Brown) 101 . Spruce Forest on a river flat 79 80 Canada (Photo . . . 12.. 26. 7. 15. 17. from Darjiling (Photo Visual Instruction : . . 13. Mathers) The prairie passing into a brush of summer-green bushes and small birches : 96 99 : 27. A... M. 8 9 8. . : : Committee) 14. 82 Mathers) 25. Kashmir (Photo Sir A. 9. 5. : . 4 5 6 7 4. its Camps (Photo Prof. W. The Sundarbans (Photo : Eardley Wilmot) : A Chinese Rice-field (Photo Underwood and Underwood) 20 22 10. . Mean Temperature of North America in January and : 40 46 52 .. Stein) . . An Oasis in the DesertIran : 19.. Vegetation of North America 24. .. Woodward) . : C. .71 Dal Lake. 3. 16. . W.

W. 37. Brown) . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE View in the Rocky Mountains. 50. Argentina (Photo A. Brown) 103 105 Big trees in the Coastal Forests of British Columbia : . 51..E. 29. Brown) Taxodium trees Sacromonte Amecameca (Mexico) (Photo: : 35. 52.. W. Physical features of Australia . 30. Brazilian Savana. 31. . A. W. 48.. Brown) W... . Brown) A. Dry cereus scrub on steep slopes of a gorge Mexico 115 (P}u>to A. Brown) Cactus on the dry slopes of the Andes (Photo Underwood and Underwood) A Eucalyptus-clad gorge in the mountains N. Brown) 139 47. W. W. 36. 32. Brown) Chanar and dry cereus scrub. Paraguayan Forest near Guayra Falls Campos in North Paraguay Subtropical Rain Forest. W. 34. 153 : 53. Swamp Forest with rgots of trees sticking out above flood 43.121 In a Florida Swamp (Photo Underwood and Underwood) 122 : . W. showing pines and Douglas firs (Photo A. Mexico (Photo A.. W. : tidal bayou' in intertropical country 126 38. Undergrowth of a ' 41. . Australia 156 167 . Aspen Forest in Colorado (Photo : Sage-brush. 49. W.. W. Mean Temperature of South America in January and 129 July reduced to sea-level . Physical Features of South America 128 39. . W. Paraguay Palm Grove in Corrientes. 55. W. .x FIG. A typical timbered canon in the Colorado region (Photo A. Araucaria imbricafa (Chile pine) Matto Grosso . Colorado (Photo: A. Brown) 118 Dry scrub and cereus-trees on arid slopes Tuland valley. 54. : level 46. Forest cutting - 137 Eastern Brazil (Photo : A. Brown) . W. W. W. 144 146 . 40. 106 . Vegetation of 44. W. W. Im Thurn) 45. . 109 Ill : 33.. 129 42. W.. Seasonal Distribution of Rainfall in South America 129 South America 130 Tangle of Mangrove roots at low tide British Guiana 134 (Photo Sir E. Argentina (Photo .. : 172 173 56. W. Mean Annual Rainfall of South America . 28. W.150 151 152 : A.

. Australia 186 66. C. Pineapple Plantation 71. . Atlas Cedars Algeria (Photo: A. . Seasonal Distribution of Rainfall in Africa . . xi PAGE Mean Annual Rainfall of Australia . Australia 65..184 Gum-tree or Eucalyptus Forest in Australia S. W. .. . Settlers in Bush Country. 91. Savana plain and timbered slopes E. 209 Nigeria (Photo Capt. Thompson) 84.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIG.197 . : . . Zealand 194 70.. Johnston) 87. Seasonal Distribution of Rainfall in Australia 60. . 81. Nigeria 86. 93.Nigeria (Photo: Capt. A station in the Savana Country.E. . . 215 216 217 . C.210 Open Brush. W.Nigeria (Photo Capt. . Mean Annual Rainfall of Africa . N. Australia 192 69. 80. C. Vegetation of Australia 63.E. : . Forest Vegetation. . S. Eucalyptus Forest cleared for wheat harvest 187 67. 181 183 . A. Reg Desert Sinai 206 79. Somaliland : : Characteristic Country 88. Brown) 200 77. . .197 198 74. . N. Coffee Plantation . 175 59.. 90. 57. Moan Temperature to sea-level of Africa in January and July reduced .S. . Kauri Logs and Forest. Semi-desert . Zambezi 237 The Karroo (Mrs. River Limbe.176 177 Mean Temperature reduced to sea-level of Australia in January and July 62. 61. II. .Thompson) M. Tree-ferns in a gully. 177 . 233. Floating Blocks of In the drier Scrubland of the Egyptian Sudan Sudd (Photo: M. Blue Mountains. Brown) 201 78. Savana landscape with nucleus of a settlement . Edwards) 243 . 222 225 Tropical Forest in the Congo State (Belgian Government) 229 The King of the African Savana. Ffoulkes) 212 : . Baobab Tree 232 . Africa . . 76. Vegetation of Africa Gorge in Mountains of Algeria (Photo: A. . Australia 190 68. J.218 Stony and Thorn (Photo Sir II. Savana landscape in E. Railway cutting in a Tropical Forest S. W. . . 89. 72. 82. 92. . Physical Features of Africa 196 . Ffoulkes) . 75. S. Australia 64. W. 174 58. Silver Trees 245 . The Desert near Rogel (Photo British East Africa 85. 197 73. . 88. Ffoulkes) High Savana Brush.

Turf-cutting on an Irish bog 300 110. Characteristic Vegetation S. . France (Photo J. Brown) 286 A. Lagarde) 285 111. Lagarde) 103. . Mean Annual Rainfall of Europe 252 less Regions of Europe receiving more or fall during summer 3 months 98. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE . than 6" of rain253 less than 6" of rain253 Mean Temperature of Europe in January and July reduced to sea-level 101. . 105.W. Moor Serbia J. of .W. Plmts pinea. 113 Pine Wood Surrey (Photo A. : . . Brown) 115.xii I'lQ. . S. Regions of Europe receiving more or fall during winter 3 months 97. . . 254 255 256 260 262 106. W... 266 269 275 108. France (Photo : J. W. Arundel Beeches (Photo . 99.. Limestone slopes on the Adriatic (Photo: A. typical northern forest of .279 Lagarde) France (Photo: 281 Lagarde) limestone plain. or carso S. A barren . bordered with elms 298 (Photo: A. 104. 94. Traveller's Trees 249 251 95. : : W . . 100. Lagarde) . of France (Photo : J.W. W. Clump of Cork Oaks in S. . Snow-bound Tundra (Photo View in Southern Norway Europe : Miss Czaplicka) . Physical Features of Europe 96.W. Brown) . Live Oak Garique on limestone J.. Olive Grove France (Photo: 109. 295 Brown) 114 Forest clearing planted with rye. Bilberry 10'7. Vegetation of Europe 102.292 112. S.

circle. or . whether vegeto a human. in other pulsion of the surrounding masses of : words.CHAPTER ASIA I THE stupendous size and compact shape of continents are features of this greatest which by themselves are bound to exercise the strongest control on its vegetation by determining the climate. In this very general arrangement. moist B . life is distributed. initiates The exaggeration of summer heat and winter cold of the atmosphere over the far inland parts corresponding movements of attraction and reair. on the whole. such a difference in the amount of atmospheric heat is bound to be expressed by a difference in the amount and the character of life on the two sides. and barren table. must be reduced minimum. however. of necessity. in concentric belts of increasing density. be dry. All other things being equal. the fact of its excentric symmetry with regard to the Equator introduces a first and fundamental is Asia a land of extremes. and life. starting from a dead centre. Broadly speaking. animal. The northern shores penetrate while the southern coast is far into the polar bathed by tropical seas. extreme in climate. the inflowing summer winds are. large cyclones and anticyclones which have been termed monsoons the rhythmic alternation of these forms the pulse of that vast body. The centre of this vast body of land is so far removed from the regulating influences of large sheets of water that it must. irregularity. As may be expected. or.

thus inducing vigorous plant life. land masses. such as those which cross the continent . the lofty ranges. and while the outflowing winter winds are dry and harmful. size. easily saturated at low temperatures. yielding but scant moisture to the low- hardy but not luxuriant lying plains and plateaus. On that account. of is the type expression of such climatic vegetation conditions. becomes gradually warmer and drier as it rushes inland. the inflowing winds Those called in from the produce unequal effects. above sea-level in vast plateaus which are fringed by an unbroken rim of still loftier mountain ranges. are further emphasized by the nature of the The central portions are raised thousands of feet relief. and position.2 ASIA beneficial. Again. according to their origin. At the same time. the excessive heating of the interior exaggerates the landward influx of air in summer while the intense cooling in winter adds impetus to the outward flowing winds. The limits of the barren interior are drawn more sharply by the screen of high mountains surrounding them. while the more favoured east lies open to the beneficial Thus the arid centre extends westward up to the uncertain borders of the adjacent influences of the oceans. which screen off any moisture from the western quarters. on the other hand. on cooling. is condensed over the southern and eastern margins of the continent. warm Indian and Pacific Oceans are naturally laden with moisture which. by the accident of shape. The air from the north and east. These broad features of the distribution of life on the surface of Asia. A Another inequality arises from the situation of the neighbouring continents of Europe and Africa.



from the Caspian to the Sea of Okhotsk, drain the winds
of their last traces of moisture.

This moisture, deposited as spring rain or, in large proportion, as winter snow, causes a fairly continuous line of highland oases, the more marvellous in contrast


feet above sea-level


600-3000 3000-EQOO
Over 12000



Physical Features of Asia.

with the surrounding lowland deserts.
time, the snow-fed

At the same


streams, before losing themselves the sands of the plains, fertilize a stretch of

country at the foot of the mountains and of this alluvial belt, even before the dawn of history, advantage was

taken by man.


influence of these lofty Asiatic

B 2



chains is thus seen to be double, as being expressed in abundant summer pastures on the upper slopes, and in gardens and winter pastures on the lower slopes and the

adjacent belt.
influence on

man and

Correspondingly there originates a double animals in quest of food lirst,

a yearly migration of populations between the lowlands

FIG. 2.

Mean Annual

Rainfall of Asia.

and the highlands, between the drought and the snow: second, larger movements of nations along the fertile piedmont belts, which naturally became the highways of history, as peoples were forced by various causes to migrate, and trekked between the deserts on one hand and the mountain wildernesses on the



brief, then, the distribution of plant life in Asia,

first glance, appears to be in widening belts of increasing density, has to be further analysed, the

which, at a

north being poorer than the south and the west than the east. The south-eastern quarter is the centre of Of the radiation of plant life for the whole continent.



IPO o Mile.

1000 isoo


FIG. 8.

Seasonal Distribution of Rainfall in Asia,

two western

quarters, the northern, having more water heat than the southern, is also more luxuriant. Tundra. Along the Arctic Ocean, Asia possesses an
coast-line involving about one-

enormous development of
the whole,

third of the parallel of 70 N.

This coast-line




nearer the pole than the corresponding



shores of the mainland of North America

one would

therefore expect to see a correspondingly greater extension inland of the cold treeless desert called the


As a





not so; the barren

grounds of

North America reach much farther south, towards the extreme east and west, and when

FIG. 4.

Mean Temperature

of Asia in

January reduced

to Sea-level.

the coast-line advances poleward or retreats southward, the accompanying belt of tundra follows the same oscillations. This broad fringe covers a low-lying undulated land, interrupted by no high hills, but indented by wide

and marshy


Two main

forms of tundra are recognized, the moss

tundra and the lichen tundra.
moister kind, and



The moss tundra is the formed of peat-hills and puddles. are enormous spongy cushions, built up by

the slow accumulations of gradually decomposing mosses they are frozen inside, and have a velvety covering of

Fia. 5.

Mean Temperature

in July reduced to Sea-level.

straight-stemmed mosses, among which a few dwarf flowering plants are sometimes scattered, and in between

mounds wind the marshy tracts or puddles, often grown over with peat-moss. The lichen tundra has a drier soil, but requires an

abundance of

rainfall, drizzles, mists,

and atmospheric

moisture, and,

it is

overgrown with low shrubs,
features of these arctic landfloors,'

may become a heath. Among the most curious
scapes rank the


or floors of hardened

'Tundra 4> Lofty Mountain 3 Tai&a crPine Forest EMI, Steppe Cool DeciduousF. Mediterranean MM. SunimerRainF < rr^-^ ^ Mbn&oonfr Equatorial E



FIG, 6.

Vegetation of Asia.

mud with cracks arranged in polygonal patterns. Out of these slits the lines of tiny plants arise in quaint devices not unlike box

The monotony and desolation

edging. of the landscape are



broken now and then by veritable gardens of gorgeous which colonize the warm and well-drained

slopes exposed squarely to the rays of the

low sun of


The unusual





blossoms as well as the leaves and stems of the small

herbs in arctic and alpine regions is associated with the presence in the plant-body of certain substances protective against exposure.

FIG, 7.

Siberian Tundra.

The development

of peat in the marshes of the Siberian

tundra, being dependent on the moisture of the air and the length of the growing season, is not so important as

might be thought at first. Heather or ling plays but an inconspicuous part, and our common peat-moss is of
restricted occurrence.


is little

resource for the


being in such

Between the Urals and the is Yenissei. which remain frozen for six of the year. and cultivation is out of the question. north of the fifty-fifth parallel. which recall the fjelds of Scandinavia. the land rising less very low and than 100 feet in about 600 miles. but a most useful asset is found in the reindeer. such as those of Siverma. especially towards forest is restricted to the best-drained and the banks rising groundsgenerally gentle swellings. These freely alternate -With swamps of reeds. The tundra which surrounds the vast estuaries of the Ob and Tas gradually passes into morasses of a more temperate type. It is regularly flooded their tributaries. obliged not feed in a permanent and circumscribed place of abode.10 ASIA A few berries are all that man can gather. thereis to follow his wild he could which fore. months though the remains under twenty inches mists and fogs are frequent. and Anadyr. Yangkan. and consisting of peat-mosses. regions. the south. Such a region is naturally the battle-ground between the swamp vegetation and the forest. The and sedges. and snow lies on the ground till late in spring. rushes. The climate is uniformly cold and damp. Hunting and fishing are the primary occupations. by the large rivers Ob and Irtish and which have built high banks along their surface waters. not unlike those of Ireland and Scotland. Man. Siberia. rainfall . so that courses and thus stopped the natural drainage of the it is covered by vast and im- passable swamps. West flat. Kolyma. whose every part and product becomes precious. Verkhoyansk. herds. The tundra extends to the higher lands or plateaus which stretch southward. . while it supports itself on what lichens and mosses the tundra can supply.

necessarily hampered by late frosts and icy The backwoods and swamps are hardly ever mists. several species of small rhododendrons. which are an unmixed nuisance. willows. Siberian larches and spruces are the main constituents of these forests. These conditions of climate and soil are only suitable for conifers and a few hardy representatives of the broadleaved trees. The dampness of makes it the climate unpleasant. and to trap the fur-bearing animals The timber as yet remains the southern on untouched. however. the latter predominating on wet soils. visited by man. living largely on fish. and alders.. reedy moors. getting the timber from the forests on the banks and resorting to a local kind of agriculture. The freezing of the waterways and it is all when frozen and under snow. therefore. The lighter kinds of forest afford a shelter for northern types of plants. is when their coat at its best. mosses. such as andromeda. during winter tribes of Ostiaks frequent this locality to find in it a shelter against the terrible icy gales which sweep across the tundra. more especially on account of the swarms of mosquitoes. remains confined to a few settlements along the main rivers. and ferns. marketing of the timber It is only. and making dark. a few herbs chiefly of the marsh-dwelling types. The vegetation is a mosaic of forests. The human population. and peat-bogs. dense forests with little undergrowth. seas to the north renders the costly and that a few difficult. except margin. meadows. and can best be crossed in winter. This vast extent of wooded marshes offers serious obstacles to travelling. therefore. such as aspens and birches. which is. and swamps. &c.WEST SIBERIA sected 11 thrown up by the rivers and is thus constantly interby innumerable marshy pastures. .

on the cooler and in the hollows. It is a low plateau. where it forms a dark.12 ASIA Towards the west. which favours the development of a dense. The larch forms. which covers the broad margin of the Arctic Ocean. The tundra. and thus the vegetation is essentially one of forests of conifers. the eastern region is well drained. so the different species of conifers share the ground among themselves. the range between the averages of the two seasons being 120 F. and possesses a drier and more ex- treme hottest climate : indeed. The Scots and the arolla pine prefer the dry. sends spurs further south. heavy canopy. often impenetrable. Compared with western Siberia. under . including pines and firs. which the ground remains almost plantless. above which tower tabular volcanic heights. and the good drainage. covered with a thick mat of needles and mosses. but the formation of swamps and peat-bogs is limited here by reason of the extreme climate. sei East of the Lena. the coldest winters and the summers known on earth are to be found there. along the most important ridges. and the vegetation at once assumes a more varied aspect. however. Eastern Siberia. Beech and oak could not live here. the scanty rainfall. larches and spruces. the foot-hills and terraces along the Urals rise comparatively quickly. undergrowth of shrubs and herbs. luxuriant meadows and other hill-pastures. sunny slopes and the lighter soils. The spruce occurs mainly slopes in moist situations. similar to the fjelds of Scandinavia . a light cover. the plateau rises gradually amid a somewhat broken landscape towards the crescentshaped edge of the Stanovoi. The country between the Ob-Yenisdivide and the Lena is fairly uniform.

the forest growth becomes and increasingly scattered and dwarfed. reach no great height or thickness. a large proportion of the species of bushes and herbs are common to Europe and Siberia. Despite the prevalence of forests. a mountainous region lying to the north of Amuria Korea the Ilchuri-Alin and the Little Khingan. geraniums. and the trees. and contains the broad valleys of the lower and middle Amur. One would find bramble and wild rose. This is a condition similar to that in the backwoods of the northern Canadian forest. tree- growth is not luxuriant. North of that latitude. Sakhalin Hokkaido (Yezo). to the hot summer. and stately umbelliferae in the pastures and meadows. relatively low altitudes. they stop below 700 feet. but the ling is absent. coupled with a moderate is northern agriculture possible in eastern Dairy-farming and stock-breeding find there an excellent field and grain crops are capable of a great Siberia.and other berry bushes. but bear the imprint of are the also inimical conditions to of the climate. This is on the whole. whortle. filling the intervening spaces. Thanks rainfall. and including the basin of the Ussuri and the upper basin of the Sungari. development. even aconites.EASTERN SIBERIA Siberian firs 13 and stone (arolla) pines are also found in the east. Siberian forests are stunted. 64 the on Lena. pastures tundra and of stretches meadows. They N. It consists mainly of a series of ranges and valleys parallel with the coast-line. to confined which this east Siberian taiga corresponds exactly. by Thus. hung and padded with mosses and lichens. however. . monkshoods. . moors. The lower vegetation differs very little from that of northern and central Europe. indeed.

In the the resinous forests mountains. but they are also of a mixed type. This broad-leaved vegetation is. restricted to valleys. and giving the usual aspect of northern temperate mountains. with birches and aspens. cedars. The rivers. the western slopes of the Sungari hills and mountains have been largely deforested by the Chinese settlers. and the lower forestbelt is similar to our oak and beech zones. lime-trees. although winters are very hard and protracted. including the Mongolian oak. the Manpines. but the region. This is essentially a timber country.14 ASIA The climate may be described as cool temperate. and tsugas. The conditions are temperate enough to permit of the occurrence of broad-leaved. pines. In the broad valleys. and vine. which umbellifers are most remarkable. in latitude it corresponds to central Europe. proper the timber is well preserved. on the summer monsoon. with which this region has much in common : all northern cereals and green crops In Amuria accommodate themselves to this climate. lower slopes. and foot-hills. It consists mixed forests. Manchurian kinds of walnut. with the usual disastrous consequences. especially in the northern part. elms. replete with possibilities. naturally predominate. maples. hazel-nut. Though . and rowans of : churian shrub dimorphanthus is freely grown in our gardens. barberry. the Amur and its tributaries flow amid luxuriant pastures of rich grass and tall herbs. which a fair rain-supply. and mixed farming certainly find there as promising a field as in eastern Canada. among In spite of its hard winters. are ice-bound for four or five months in the year whole. but in lower Manchuria. Amuria is a fertile land. Cattle-breeding. enjoys the benefit of the gives it . however. deciduous forests of a central and north-European type. dairying. including larches.

and open them at least to grazing and dairying industries. the interior slopes. and is also densely wooded. remain chiefly a timber country. damp. lies along the margins of the rivers of the inland valleys. foggy atmosphere and bad natural drainage. Similarly a verdant park -landscape. and to the continental north- west winds. make these forests almost impenetrable. As a contrast. including walnuts. and the litter of dead branches. of the valleys and the naked ridges. together with the dense tangle of brambles. shelter a temperate vegetation of a mild character with broad-leaved forests. The island longitudinal valleys and except for the floor thrown into a succession of ridges. shares in some measure the conditions of south Sakhalin and the adjacent mainland. owing to the cold. may . and peaty bogs of great depth recall the high moors of Ireland and Scotland. a fact due to the cold sea-current which bathes its shores. recalling the vegetation of Japan. left standing. It Sakhalin proves thus to be a land of contrasts in its vegetation as well as in its climate. but it is possible that a good drainage may remove the blanket of peat from the valleys. and shrubs. the bleak coastbelt seems to be an outlier of the subarctic tundra. The Pacific slopes show the influence of the cold seacurrents and winds in their mixed coniferous forests of Numbers of dead trees are larches. pines.AMURIA KOREA SAKHALIN HOKKAIDO 15 Sakhalin has the same extreme climate with severe and prolonged winters. and is entirely wooded. and even bambus six feet high. yews. recalling that of Amuria even in its bogs. maples. vines. especially on the south-west. roses. the floor of the valleys is swampy. at a moderate elevation. indeed. with fine hydrangeas and shrubby bilberries. the northern island of -Japan. is Here again. and spruces. elms. Yezo.

the land sinks rapidly down to a narrow shelf. run ribbons of rich green pastures. This region naturally lies under the moderating influence of the neighbouring seas. among which American species are to be found besides the dahurica larch there occur two kinds of spruces and one of tsuga fir but conditions are still too hard for broad-leaved trees. and the vegetation includes some of the types of plants of the American coastal continent. the slopes are clad with prosperous and dense forests of mixed conifers. occupies. which extend almost to the eastern coast-line. an approximation to the climate of southern Alaska. at the eastern extremity of Eurasia. formed by a dwarf variety of our European stone-pine. The lower valleys and the coastal shelf. From the ice-fields and lichen moors of the edge of the plateau one descends into a belt of elfin woods. along the rivers. expand into dreary. are to be found along the river courses in the undergrowth the Kamchatka rhododendron forms dense bushes. and the moist and mild winds thereof. ridges. . Lower down. lying most of the time under the belts of cold air and mists which settle down from the neighbouring heights. on the west between the 50th and 60th north parallels. which . the east Siberian plateaus. in some measure. Only birches and alders.16 ASIA Beyond the edge of Okhotsk Region. it is sheltered from the cold blasts from the interior by the edge of the Stanovoi. a position corresponding to that of the British Isles. poplars and willows. so that the rainfall is higher here than inland. quasi-arctic swamps. Kamchatka. At the same time. in the middle of which. There is. . and is carved into a series of parallel between which run short torrential streams. . More desolate still is Kamchatka.

fan-like. as in Alaska and Columbia. which unite to form the barren. The characteristic vegetation is represented by elfin and stunted woods. however. and lying under snow for nearly two thirds of the year. with patches of tall umbellifers. treeless moors of the coast. separated by steep and narrow gorges. from which arise very short torrents. which it resembles in its vegetation. and This open alders. and shrubberies of rhododendrons. birches. however. impossible. indeed. The lofty parallel ridges. Impenetrable brushes of gnarled alders and cedars clothe most of the slopes. Indo-China. Parallel longitudinal ridges. sometimes very dense. skirted by swamps. in three distinct the eastern chain of Annam. 17 is swept by icy winds from of the north every part especially by the north-east Its bathed coast is gales. Just south of the tropic. and the westernmost or Arakan chain they include the plains of Siam and Burma. their convergence chains chain. which form the approach to south-eastern Tibet. Wild sheep are to be found here. with groves of poplars. and pass upwards to dwarf elfin bushes. form the core of the peninsula. sometimes sparse. rise on the foot slopes and clothe the gentle rises between It is only along the streams in the the lower valleys. diverge. sheltered valleys that a really pleasant vegetation is found. by the cold sea-currents from Bering Straits. There extend prosperous meadows. the central Malay which extends near the Equator. Birch woods. This inhospitable land. infested in summer with mosquitoes.1 . : : 1159. Between this and the naked ridges stretch ragged carpets of alpine meadows. Agriculture is.KAMCHATKA Kamchatka. natural park is. and these give it a climate corresponding to that of Lapland. is suited for little else than sheep and cattle of the hardiest type.

characterized by the annual rhythm of the dry and the wet seasons. either evergreen or more or less extensive patches. except the Malay Peninsula. and forming transitions between the teak forest. and the savana. called jungle in In fact. The rainfall is abundant and the temperature typically It is therefore to be expected that vegetation. It is best represented on the low hinterland plateaus of Siam and Laos. Besides these. Savanas and jungles are representative of lower Burma and the low plateau of Siam. lies within the monsoon area. the typical tree of such forests (3) the jungle. bush-savana. a dry and tall deciduous scrub. as The teak well as on the marginal foot-hills of the middle Mekong. continuous or distributed in woods. The entire region. corresponding with that of the Sudan and South America. however. occur count: : : ' 1 less varieties of light tropical deciduous. is perfectly expressed only in part of the lowlands of Siam and Burma. and to a less degree in Burma (2) the drier and lighter tropical forests which shed their leaves in the dry season. which represents here the caatinga of Brazil. in eastern Asia. while exhibiting tropical luxuriance. some thirty feet in height. on local circumstances of soil and upper forests are best represented in the inland plains and foot-hills of the Irawadi. and is. The distribution of these monsoon formations seems to depend largely relief.18 builds ASIA up an uninterrupted and massive system of parallel folds extending from Assam to Yun-nan. the jungle. tree-savana in the Sudan or Brazil. tropical. but their development is limited both on the seaward and on the highland side . The landscapes which bear the stamp of the monsoon are here (1) the savana. therefore. a great portion of what is Indo-China would be termed savana. should reflect the well-marked monsoon rhythm: this. Teak is.

impenetrable tangles of evergreen swamp forests. is however being reclaimed by man and enclosed by levees before it has time to develop its own vegetation. orange and lemon. covered by an inextricable tidal network of sluggish. manjack fruit. cotton. and cinnamon . the land. bounded areca trees yield profuse crops. and the low swamps rapidly encroaching on the sea by means of the colossal deposits which are spread broadcast by the rivers when in flood. muddy. thus create vast belts of half -emerged swamps. and rivers are bordered by areca and ' other palms. indigo. where there is an extraordinary abundance of game. of the interior hardly know a period and are therefore clad with c2 . tamarind. tobacco. like the sundarbans of the these shaky muds have sprung into exis- tence low. Besides rice. The mountains entirely devoid of rainfall. Rice-fields (or paddy '-fields) are planted on the undried silt. In Indo-China indeed two main landscapes strike the eye of the traveller the rugged mass of wooded mountains through which swift and mighty streams have carved their deep channels. A great part of the land thus conquered by the shallow seas. An excess of groundwater here counterbalances the effect of the dry season. and all the variety of tropical produce. On waterways. corresponding to the vargem or igapii of the Amazon. All the big rivers. Song-ho. gloomy.1NDO-CHINA : 19 by conditions of soil and climate. impassable reedswamps. and Irawadi. bread-fruit. bambu-thickets and groves of bananatrees. Salwin. and ever- changing Ganges. gives pineapple. Mekong. The waste-land remains in the state of undrained. with their canopy almost resting on the water during the monsoon period. divided as a chess-board. The luxuriance of these 'paddy-lands' is un- and coco-nut palms. Menam. Si-kiang.

8. The Sundarbans. .FIG.

deer. in their fastnesses. and deep gullies. all the economic products would be too . hidden beneath dense and tall forests. gutta-percha plants. even northern.. In the Shan states. crossed by still higher ridges. in the clearings of which equatorial agriculture is The greater portion of the mountains.000 feet in elevation. and in the highlands. and the valuable teak-tree. display rich grassy expanses. but the enumeration of long. three of the most universally essential articles of diet our common lemon and the world. howpractised. the plateaus of 3. boar. ever. the excessive ground moisture. on the sea side. whose distribution is regulated by altitude. rhinoceros. common to all savana lands. cinnamon. the melon and cucumber are among the indigenous plants of this region. gums : as betel. restrict the true mon- soon type of vegetation to the plains of Siam and Burma. banana. &c.000 to 5. indeed. are all natives here. precipitous slopes. which may be characterized by tea and camellia. jungle-fowl. tea-trees. and cardamom. : orange are found wild similarly. is under rain-forests of the sub-tropical type. peacock. is said to be the original home of rice. conditions. though on the upper slopes. a veritable jumble of sharp ridges. Thus the secluded valleys support on their lower slopes regular equatorial selvas. It would be difficult to exaggerate the importance of this south-east corner of Asia in the economic development of Here. and snipe are still found in abundance in this broken and wild region. and sugar-cane. the atmospheric humidity. tiger. Spices such as pepper. ginger. oaks and pines are to be found in abundance. has favoured the extension of the jungle. evergreen rain-forests. camphor-wood trees. Buffalo. rubber-plants as many species of ficus. and mark temperate. egrets.INDO-CHINA 21 They offer. Thus. It is even possible that the practice of grass-burning.

despite their insalubrity. in the inhabitable parts of the country Cambodia. In the highlands. in the past. except for the limited agriculture practised at the bottom of the Fia. or Nippon. therefore. still master of the slopes and of Japan. are scarcely less densely peopled than the rich lands of central and northern China. Siam. whilst the northern part. A Chinese Rice-field. and Hokkaido shares in a large measure the characteristics of Amuria. The southern portion of Japan belongs to the same region as central China. The paddy-lands of the deltas. On the whole. 9. that civilizations of a high order have advanced.22 ASIA It is hardly surprising. belongs to the region of eastern Korea. the main island consists of a core of . the hunter is their forests. valleys. and Burma.

In winter the air is forced outwards from the cold interior. lying at to profit much by the monsoons. and is fertile. while the climate reaches to southern Korea. The vast above low to condense a due moisture of the of the Pacific winds on their proportion the from Korea to way Khingans. but in winter is swept .JAPAN highlands or Alps. is ploughed by mighty rivers. having a coastal plain or hill 23 land of varying breadth. which are very cold and dry. from 10 N. passes gradually from equatorial to nearly polar conditions. Equatorial conditions persist along the deltas and marshes of the coast as far as the Tropic of Cancer. It is too far north feet 500 rolling plain sea-level. they water abundantly the lands of China. sweep over the marginal The broad belt of lower lands. which extends lands. The winds. The plateaus of Mongolia and Tibet are limited on the east by the Great Khingan and the mountainous margin of eastern Tibet. That the strength and beneficial effect of the monsoons gradually decrease from south to north is partly shown by the fact that the Tibetan margin. is too thus defined. and north-westerly winds. receiving only a meagre rainfall. : warm temperate Manchuria is sharply limited on all sides but one by mountains the Khingan scarps on the west and north. to 50 N. which is abundantly watered. The whole of this marginal region hilly slope by the wet monsoons. deposit .. the Sikhota Alin and Korean Highlands on the east and south. Sub-tropical nature advances as far as the mouth of the Yang-tse. which are sucked inland from the in Pacific by the summer. are not deeply eroded. much excessive heating of the interior of their moisture on the eastern but before reaching it. whereas the is benefited Khingan escarpments. Eastern Margin of the Great Central Plateau.

Spring and summer rains are sometimes abundant and render the plain im- FIG. Manchuria deserves is often applied to in respect of its but it also offers some analogies situation. The Manchurian Steppe and its Camps. passable. with the low plain of . in many respects. extreme climate. which it. Indeed. with dry and intense cold in winter and sweltering heat in summer. the name of Eastern Gobi. 10. climate and vegetation.24 ASIA It has therefore an by icy blasts from the north.

Manchuria has attracted of Chinese agricultural settlers. fertile soil may be found generally at a depth of a few feet. which flame into beautiful colours in spring. trees will flourish everywhere. is There no doubt that these hills were once clad with timber similar to that of the Usuri basin. . though absent from the surface. opium poppy. with various herbs. offering a low and fairly continuous level of dry grasses. who are large 3ndeavouring to turn the country into a rich wheat and cereal land and export the crops into Russia in large Hemp. extreme climate. Despite its numbers grown successfully. as usual. and tobacco are also quantities. whether climate and fertility. towards the Sikhota Alin highlands. which may even be represented tion is by sand-deserts. and around these vegeta- widening concentric belts of increasing Manchurian steppe resembles the buffalo-grass plains. it on account of its scanty rainfall. which does not exceed 20 inches yearly. and large portions of the plain form rich agricultural districts. travellers who believe that once the Mongols cease burning the steppe and begin to plough. in parallel folds. soil trees There are. interspersed. Partly the lower Columbian district.MANCHURIA the lower Columbia on the Canadian border. 25 Like possesses a naturally and water. it has remained a treeless steppe. indeed. It is doubtful. undershrubs. East of the Sungari the land rises. and bulbs. disposed in The typical alone could account altogether for the absence of and shrubs in this region. but. but apart from destruction by the nomads. and already in the northwest corner a sort of park steppe with small round trees [nay be seen. deforestation has followed in the wake of the Chinese . no other reason is forthcoming. It possesses a few centres of aridity. gently at first. however.

has given way to cultivation and to pastures. Gradually. west of the Gulf of Liaotung. which naturally would be a dense forest growth. conifers being still the outstanding feature in forests of a European type. Much of the timber. China support an abundant plant life. the eastern slopes of the chain are richer than those facing the Gobi. towards the east. As might be expected.wood trees are now enormously reduced. however. compressed between the Khingans and the sea. It is possible to see from what is actually left that this forest once existed and was of a northern. The Khingan slopes are naturally well wooded. the Great Khingan escarpment. and an absence of protracted droughts make northern. a fertile soil. being slightly higher. summer-green. Despite the severity of the winters. and the hills have been stripped of their soil. and so analogous to our . broadleaved type mixed with conifers. Northern China. The Gobi-Manchuria barrier. with more abundant rains and a somewhat less extreme climate. In China.26 settlers. appear. Manchuria is separated from China proper. an abundant rainfall. agriculture. forest-clad slopes of a European type. and form a transition to the Amur-Usuri region. render this district an important asset in the development of forests of conifers eastern Asia. ASIA and the mixed : and hard. and restricted to some of the valleys destructive floods also have arisen. both mineral and agricultural. continued for long centuries. The natural wealth. succeeds in wringing more moisture out of the south-easterly winds. and fertile valleys like that of the Usuri. by a broken highland of moderate height. has altered the natural appearance of the land to such an extent that the primitive aspect of the vegetation can only be reconstructed with extreme difficulty.

natural that plant life in northern China. unable through the winter limitations to assume a subtropical aspect. Lured at one time of year. ailanthus. This was to be expected from a region with a severe and dry winter. the importance of the severe winter as a controlling influence upon the kind of vegetation is at once realized. temperate ing season : type in its highest activity. therefore. and the paper-tree or broussonetia . which have a milder winter by reason of their outlying situation. and by a combination of very favourable influences. even more marked here than in the coastal plains of eastern North America. into a growth of abnormal luxuriance.NORTHERN CHINA 27 European type. developed trees are no longer oaks and beeches and others familiar to us. When it is considered. gleditschia. that northern China lies in the latitudes of southern Spain and the Mediterranean. vegetation is at another time compelled to adjust itself to the eliminating conditions of a very try- a strong rhythm. and are free from the cold and dry northern winds from the desert. we find the . summergreen kind. broad-leaf. It is. summer-green. should exhibit the northern cool. sophora. arborescent type. In southern Japan sub-tropical evergreen vegetation fully and. however. That the controlling feature of the climate upon vegetation is the severe cold weather is still further shown by a comparison with the parts of Japan in the same latitudes. catalpa. but species of paulownia. and is not a high plateau. though of the broad-leaved. The vegetation of northern China represents the supreme expression of the cool. and is to be compared with that of the southern Appalachians and the Atlantic coast-plains of North America. the plant life of northern China has distinct The principal relationship with more southern floras. temperate.

pected. by reason of their hardiness. was also settled and utilized before the flood portion. hemp abundantly As might be excultivated. one sees that the flora of Amuria. naturally rising above water-level and consequently cultivated more easily. In a sense. In the east of northern China is an undulating lowland. has been carried along the range of the Khingans south to the Tsin-ling-shan there oaks. cotton. The hill-land west of the Gulf of Liaotung is a beautiful park. the Chinese nation was cradled in the hill-land The forested . the incomparable yellow earth or loess which is No soil more deeply furrowed by rivers and roads. and yield admirable crops. features of our parks and gardens. which offers greater difficulties. flow above the general level of the land across the suitable for the ' ' and are partially and with difficulty kept within bounds by means of levees. hence periodical floods cover the region. birches. results. have been acclimatized in Europe and are becoming familiar Further inland. of Shan-tung has been entirely deand opened to agriculture. tobacco. quently support a dense population. Both the yellow belt and the delta are utilized for agricultural purposes to the fullest extent. are and wheat. the Yellow Basin. often with the most disastrous alluvial plains. the loess belt. with rich meadows and patches of coniferous woods.XS ASIA a good many of which. and it vies with the black earth of Russia in Further down the valley. covered with enormously thick layers : of a fine. however. and conse- Barley. millet. growth of cereal crops is found anywhere. similar to that of Europe in many respects. porous. maize. arms of the river fertility. hazels. and extremely rich soil of a yellow ' ' colour. and conifers are to be found.

In respect of its climate. endurance. a more equable and milder climate. Towards the east.NORTHERN CHINA Yellow Valley. The Tsinling range establishes an effective and sharp barrier between the Mongolian type of climate and mild and rainy central China. unsurpassed any. Woods are mostly restricted to the upper valleys. fortitude. in which one discovers the Mongolian representatives of oaks. central China lies under very much the same conditions as the southernmost Atlantic States of North America. his wonderful There skill as it is 29 that the Chinaman developed by an agriculturist. birches. Everything points to its having been originally a region of extensive rain-forests . though here the monsoon is conifers. Central China. owing largely to deforestation. They display already the chief characteristics of a moist sub-tropical climate with dwarf palms. stnd got those qualities of thrift. and the slopes facing south are much more abundantly watered and considerably milder. summer and autumn. In comparison with northern China. and perseverance which are his characteristics. and regularly distributed over spring. are the principal features of the large portion of China which stretches from the Tsinlingshan and the hills north of the Lower Yangtse to the mountainous region of Tongking and Yun-nan. are mostly covered with a scattered bush. large ferns. with a more abundant rainfall. however. the distinction between the two regions of northern and central China is not so sharply drawn along the low divide between the Hwang-ho and the Yangtse basins. r the great factor of plant-life. together with an immunity from the cold and dry blasts from central Asia. ranging from 40 to 60 inches yearly. The steep northern slopes of the Tsinling. bambus. and and even paulown la and catalpa. and an approach to temperate rain-forests.

at the present stage of intensive agriculture. The fact that central China is the meeting-ground of the northern and sub. to reconstruct exactly the original distribution of the different kinds of difficult. strong variations are certain to arise between the north and south. abundantly mixed with conifers and summer-green trees but it is .30 ASIA of a sub-tropical. and the hill-land of Hunan and Kiangsi. mark the temperate nature of the climate. however. Within such an immense area.tropical floras produces a bewildering wealth of plant-life. especially tea-trees and liquidambars. even small lianas and epiphytes. Proceeding westward. bet ween the Alps of Hupe. the low valley of the Yangtse. dating back so many centuries. bambus. which includes Yunnan. of which one is further reminded by the presence of winter-bare trees. Increasingly loftier mountains attract an almost excessive rainfall. the far interior and the coast districts. and is hardly interrupted by a short and temperate period of rest. such as gingko and cypresses (and even pines). such as chestnuts and maples. but hardy species of palms. camellias. Separate mention should be made of the western part. mostly evergreen character. and such trees as Bananas and similar camphor. hardly surpassed in any other region of the world. the and western chou. and ferns. land becomes extremely broken. it is legitimate to picture the primitive vegetation of central China as resembling that of the Alto Parand and Paraguay regions of South America. which display in their forests a magnificent profusion. The growing period extends over the larger part of the year. are well represented.wood. In short. and the . This is best seen in the mountains in the west. are absent. forests and pastures. plants. as well as the tall tropical palms. KweiSechwan. Conifers of a southern type.

hemp. magnolias and bambus. it is hard to find any portion of the earth. cult and as yet little the gorgeous wealth of rhododendrons and azaleas. are found here in A belt of temperate. mulberries and tea. The alpine zone. the range of produce is no less rice and cotton. In brief. of ranunculus and their native haunts. forests. those of Hunan and Kwang-si. fuchsias. including Europe. maize. with variety. sugar. Agriculture has always remained the primary and . In its Amid the remarkforests. far surpassing the beauty of our own alpine meadows. camellias and tea.CENTRAL CHINA 31 profusion of nature simply knows no bounds. anemones. roses and chrysanthemums. able and unsurpassed diversity of precious timber species. As regards striking: agriculture. and the hanging vines of the wistaria. poppies and beans. whilst the rapid and vast changes of elevation create an immense From the lowlands and the hill-lands. one passes upwards into the diffi- explored mountain region. pulses. For thousands of years the natives have been an essentially agricultural population and have carried their methods of cultivation to a high degree of perfection. of camphor and other lauraceous trees. known and the countless beautifully blossomed plants generally to our gardeners as japonica. and tobacco. summer-green well-known trees. with a large of and variety primroses gentians. furnish profuse crops under the skilled and patient labour of the Chinese. their mixture of pines and palms. Especially worthy of notice are the valley of the Yangtse. and the terraced region of Sechwan. extends to the line of eternal snows. wheat. indigo. such as oaks and including alders and hazels. onions. is followed further up by dense forests of stately conifers. where the diversity and abundance of fruits and other produce are greater than in central China. vegetation simply runs riot.

or in centres from which chains radiate. as in Borneo. the chief of the state is but a glorified peasant. morals. and so thoroughly appropriated.32 ASIA almost exclusive occupation of the Chinese. variations. arts. therefore. expect to find here all the profusion of tropical nature. the lower slopes are clad with a heavy growth of luxuriant selva: in the east . We Only minor climatic the relief and soil. in China. This contrast can be traced throughout the different belts of altitude from the sea-shore to the tops of the mountain screens. the Celebes. along with the nature of determine departures from this highest and heaviest type of vegetation. and poetry. and consequently the alternation of dry and wet periods tells more on the vegetation. In Sumatra and Java. other industries being subsidiary to it and ranking far behind it in importance. either in long barrierranges. as in Sumatra and Java. The equatorial selva is indeed the rule here. organization. to which may be added the Malay Peninsula enjoy an equable equatorial climate. and thus render the northern slopes comparatively dry. West Java is also moister than the eastern portion of the island. the soil nowhere has rural : and organization been stronger in a way. equatorial belt. All these islands possess a skeleton of mountains. Java. Malay Archipelago. religion. and the Philippines. of the geographic environment. By their situation within the the islands of south-eastern Asia: Sumatra. In no large natural region can the influence of agriculture. in the west and south. and through it. be traced so clearly as institutions. those ranges are high and continuous enough to drain the bulk of the southern monsoon. on the mode life : of life. with an abundant rainfall : distributed regularly throughout the year. No nation has made more of. Borneo. Thus. may.

djati '. tending towards the leaf-shedding type of the teak or The with which it is abundantly intermixed. FIG. 11. not unlike south Chili and.MALAY ARCHIPELAGO 33 ' and north the forest type is much poorer and lighter. corresponding to the cloud-belt. . succeeding o belt on the moister side consists of everthose of green. Undergrowth of Evergreen Equatorial Forest in Solomon Ishxnds. temperate rain-forests.

the trees and even the elfin scrub disappear to make way for the meagre grass-lands. to elfin scrub and alpine brush. Borneo. strong roots. suggesting the poor ground brush of a thin pine forest. in only on the northern side. most of which. which are fully developed culture. on the Asiatic side. .34 ASIA -On characteristically overgrown with hanging mosses. the middle zone is constituted by a park landscape of grasslands interspersed with woods. as a whole. are the seat of an active agriwhich tobacco and coffee predominate. The narrow plateaus which form the backbone of the Celebes display typical savanas. The ground vegetation consists of small bushes with a leathery foliage. and gorgeous display of flowers. : Intermont plateaus intervene frequently between the they are scarps and the opposite slopes covered with poor pastures. whose leafless and shadeless twigs have the appearance of our humble horsetail. and It is equally remarkable that entirely free from snow. far as as has been ascertained.000 feet the ridges are covered with coniferous woodlands passing to elfin woods. at higher levels. leathery. temperate rain-forest carried far into the upper Above 7. with their tiny. include a lower zone of equatorial selva and a middle with fields belt of valleys. or wool-clad leaves. are covered southern The central highlands and fallow-lands. locally called tjemoro '. is surrounded by wide coastal plains. The well-watered plains. which are usually associated with ice and snow. the drier side. Approaching the tops of the mountains. under the Equator. It is a striking fact that the alpine vegetation of dwarf shrubs and cushion-plants. are densely wooded and. and. ' Their dominant tree is a casuarina. should be found here characteristically represented at comparatively low levels.

the semi -arid tableland of the Deccan is robbed of a large portion of its water by the screen of the western Ghats. north-west is In the Himalayas. and their influence spread all over the eastern seas. Approached from the south-west. To this day the Malayan islands are among the most densely populated. but the winds gradually spend their moisture on the way westward. and the plain of the Ganges which lies open to the south-east monsoon is fairly well-watered on the whole. which thus The separates it from the luxuriant Malabar coast. The same phenomena are still more Islands. while the north-western part only receives a scanty balance of the moisture. southern part of the plateau. the eastern half is abundantly watered. merely from its geographical position. D 2 . India may be said to be entirely governed by the monsoon. however. tural and sea-faring was very considerable. Mysterious ruins of truly magnificent cities testify to the high measure of civilization reached by those people long before the advent of Europeans.MALAY ARCHIPELAGO 35 the upper limit of forest-growth is very low as compared with the corresponding levels amid the continental ranges of the equatorial belt. To the enormous and varied resources of their islands. forcibly exhibited in the lower South Sea They all tend to show that the strength and dryness of the winds are the real influences which limit tree-growth and shape the alpine vegetation on the mountains. as they do in the polar regions. enjoys a longer wet season than the northern half and is correspondingly more fertile. whose effects are largely controlled by the relief of the surface : thus the area beyond its influence in the extremely arid. the Malays have greatly added by sea trade in the The wealth of these populations at once agriculpast.

are utilized for irrigation. Assam. The vast table-land of the Deccan. is thus felt throughout the whole of India but on the outskirts of the area. and from the abundant water-supply the Ganges and its tributaries. Consequently these regions are the seat of evergreen wet forests. opium. which Rice. Its fertility comes at present it is well-nigh treeless. have hitherto proved too strong for human powers. now support a large population but it is not unlikely it was formerly a savana interspersed with various kinds of rain-green woodlands. and have challenged human enterprise much as the corresponding swamps of the Mekong. along the Malabar coast. indigo. and western Burma. difficult of access . it bears the . are the staple crops which . except among the mountains. The lower swampy alluvium. wheat. covered by an impenetrable mixture of evergreen jungle and mangrove. Throughout the rest of India. therefore. that The combined delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra presents an aspect similar to that of the Burmese and Indo-Chinese deltas.36 ASIA of the The strong rhythm two seasons . The winter colds are unimportant as a factor in vegetation. the period of drought is so short as to be practically without influence. a region of continuous and dense forests. in some parts. cotton. the ground is sharply contested between tree-growth and scrub but where tree-growth is possible. and. in the north-eastern Himalayas. but offers a varied landscape whose type oscillates between tropical deciduous woodlands and the poor acacia scrub. valley has been cultivated so long and so intensively that its original state can only be guessed at . Central India is not. The Ganges from its alluvial soil afforded by its rivers. stamp of the seasonal contrast and foliage is shed during the dry period.


The drought lasts less than two months and the of oases. Africa. it is evident that some of its deciduous jungles and woodlands. which however.wood and cedrela. It . which growth consequent upon is natural in a country with a comparatively dense population. Among the economic resources of the woodlands are teak. into a north-west drier part and a south-eastern portion where the rainless period only but the driest area extends over two or three months and seamed by deep gorges. as the eastern Ghats leads one from the central plateau to the low and narrow coastal plain is a dry and hot. however. do not form a continuous cover. to a much less degree. This * extensively grown. equivalent to the restinga formation of the Brazilian shores. seasonal . mostly covered with thickets of thorny evergreen shrubs. may be classed under that type. but are intermingled with large expanses of semi-arid scrub.38 ASIA may is less than 3. gives way. drought-bare of the destruction forests. be divided. the bastard cedar. Though the Deccan is said to be destitute of true caatinga formation similar to what exists in South America. The gorges. and scrub is only new the dense tall. whilst cotton is The escarpment known of Coromandel. and Siam. sandal. broadly. at the deltas main rivers. ' ' Australia.000 feet high. the monsoon rhythm and the influence of the dry season. sandy tract. depending upon analogous climatic conditions and offering the same vegetative characters. are densely wooded. Much of the original character is still preserved in the mixed woodlands of teak and other deciduous trees. which the rivers have cut for themselves below the level A large portion of of the plateau. stretches in a belt at the foot of the western Ghats. to fertile tracts which are suggestive The west coast feels. ' of the The evergreen jungle.

500 feet. such as pines and live oaks. the mountain forests of the Arakan-Assam system. celtis. sumacs.nut palm forests are famous. presents the wet. exhibit a wet evergreen. and others. A cross-section of the cut through the south-eastern portion Himalayas would show a lower tropical belt.000 feet. Here tea is as profusely grown as in southern China. with enormous bambus of palms. at most fifty miles broad and rising in abrupt scarps at the back. and trees of a more familiar aspect. with a great wealth of forms. but distinctly The sub-tropical. display a great exuberance and all the essential features of the typical rain-forest. of loose forests (chiefly of s&l-tree) and rich. and the coco. are abundantly represented.INDIA 39 atmospheric humidity continues to remain high. about twenty miles broad. which reaches an altitude 6. The hot and wet region of Malabar is continued into south-western Ceylon. admixture of leaf -shedding vegetation is fairly strong. olive-trees. this stretch of coast-land. is most appropriately compared with the middle belt of the Montana at the head waters of the Amazon. The sub-tropical belt. as well as those of the southeastern Himalayas. pines. swampy jungles and and tall grasslands. and magnolias. type. is the only one which admits of high tropical rain-forests. albeit they do not attain the luxuriance of the selvas of south Sumatra. These forests. rising from the plains to 1. The north-eastern mountainous region of India. largely deciduous . evergreen aspect. Of peninsular India. In the north-east of India. A temperate zone of non-coniferous. where the character and profusion of the equatorial belt are further emphasized. but includes trees of a familiar type. which is also the region of heaviest rainfall in the world. oaks.


On the the and middle walnuts. sub-tropical Indus district the climate is decidedly dry. hard-leaved trees. evergreen.Arabia-Persia series. The centre of this area is formed by the hot desert of Thar. round-headed. and is covered with a scattered and herbaceous vegetation. of screes and herb coverings. garigue with hardly any undergrowth or ground vegetation. a somewhat mediterranean aspect with stout. at least at the lower elevations. vegetation assumes increasingly. especially in the lower reaches. and the north-west. The Indus Desert is really part of the vast system of tropical deserts of the Old World and the easternmost corner of the arid belt of the Sahara. ascends to 16. deflected towards the east by the Vindhyas. This district is extremely suitable for the cultivation of maize and wheat.INDIA forest-growth. The alpine zone of pastures and shrubberies. oaks. stretches up to 11. a low and monotonous plain. succeeded 41 of conifers by a zone and rhododendrons. The bulk of the monsoon from the Arabian seas is ranean ' '. pines.000 feet. extending on the west to the foot of the Baluchistan highlands. with the Somali nyika '. and deodars. often scattered. one of the dreariest places on earth. It is approached through a main zone concentric belts of increasing barrenness may be distinguished. loses Himalayan vegetation. with a thin dotting of thorny : ' .500 feet. . and on the north to the This zone may be compared foot of the Himalayas. leaving but an unimportant part for the plain of the Indus. firs. Thus the rainfall which is always irregular hardly risec above ten inches yearly. Many of the slopes are either completely denuded or thinly dotted with a Ioos6 evergreen scrub equivalent to the Mediter- The woods are loose. more and more and In the character its profusion.

are to be found in fair abundance. a parallel may be drawn between this Indus belt and Mesopotamia but here the importance of the Himalayan snows is such that the network of rivers and canals allows of a fairly dense human settlement. testifying to its former importance. Geographical changes have also occurred which have moved the centres of population. most of which venture to assume their scanty Among foliage only during the short rainy period. remained comparatively uninhabited. e. by land and sea from all points of the compass.g. canals. 3 merging into the Hindu Kush on the east by the broken Baluchistan highlands. In short. . on the south and west . adventurers.42 ASIA shrubs. There was a time when the Indus was a more powerful stream than it now is. and along the margins of the dry river-beds. Iran is a natural region formed by a vast plateau. In the Deccan. them may be recognized familiar denizens of the African semi-deserts. conquerors. and cities. and travellers. and fertilized a much vaster area of its valley. to the Indus and its tributaries. Oases. By means of auxiliary canals and irrigation ditches. fig-trees and Euphrates poplars. with their dark forests. the immense wealth and infinite resources of India have attracted invaders. fed by melting snows of the Himalayas. with palms. whereas the slopes of the western Ghats. From prehistoric times. and dry most of the year. but the life of this area is due. Even the Thar desert is strewn with ruins of forests. immigrants. the productive surface has been extended in the vicinity of the rivers. the eastern slopes and plateaus came to be densely peopled. the Arabian acacia and the tamarix. defended on all sides by a continuous rim of mountains : on the north by the chain of the Elburz Khorassan cess. and wheat can be grown with suc. and restricted.

including small trees. as a very dry territory. under-shrubs. but low shrubs. and with them an ephemeral flora. which rises like a vast An hummock between the southern chain of Iran and the . from the first. forest-growth out of question even large tracts of continuous grassland are scarce. extra-tropical position. Here again. is its elevation. are best adapted to these conditions. important distinction must be drawn between the broad valley of Shiraz-Isfahan. Except in the north-west. by the nature of The dry winds keep the vegeta- tion low trees require the shelter of the mountains. able to tap the deep-seated ground-water. its which.IRAN 43 by the great barrier of Zagros. shrubs. Its. and of the two chains which cross the plateau. whilst south-west. the life of the country depends largely on the snows of the marginal mountains. and its girdle of lofty mountains mark it. central situation in the midst of arid lands. which dry up and lose themselves at no great distance from the . in the considerable. is Under such circumstances. rising precipitously from the narrow coastal shelf of the Persian Gulf. Loose colonies of plants form the essential feature. and make it a land of extremes of heat and cold. The worst feature is the icy northern blast which sweeps unchecked across ths eastern plains. the yearly rainfall remains under ten inches and is very unreliable. which bursts forth with the occasional showery spells and then dies. conditioned solely 'the relief and the : soil. Perhaps the chief characteristic of the Persian is the extraordinary wealth of thorns and five hundred thorny plants have been about prickles: counted here. therefore. scattered and deciduous. vegetation and perennials. These feed meagre streams. foot-hills. and these are necessarily confined to isolated localities of limited extent.

short grass. peach and almond. The gardens are renowned for : the incomparable beauty of their roses. broad sur- covered with snow in winter. &c. plane. In consequence. towns are always found in the vicinity of the mountains. mountain streams does not extend These streams are absorbed by the sands and evaporated at no great distance from the foothills but before losing themselves. . Orchards have been planted with most of our European fruit and other deciduous trees such as the walnut. they create a fertile belt of terraces. and sometimes In the centre. leafless thorn-bushes. and the plains of Khorassan. faces are thinly dotted with tufts of dry. however.44 interior chain of ASIA Kerman and Yezd. In places the growth of dwarf herbs becomes almost continuous and forms a meagre steppe. In past ages influence of the far in the plains. and the necessity of walling in the gardens against the winds was early recognized. Eegistan. Kuhistan. Such vegetation is also represented and in the belt around. and northern Baluchistan which lie to the north and east. alluvial fans.500 feet. Euphrates poplar. flora of annuals is quite European in its composition and the barren appearance. by the dry winds. It is The valley stretches in a southand penetrates into the mounvery cold at night. the landscape is strangely enlivened by a carpet of low herbs with gorgeous flowers which burst forth from This ephemeral soil as though by magic. but the tops of the trees above the sheltering walls are soon killed in the valleys of. and with stunted. the mountains . The the natives developed great skill in the search for water and the appropriation of the ground moisture. flats and marshes where life is concentrated. attaining an elevation of over 4. east to north-west direction tains of Armenia. During the rainy spells. apricot.

thorny. but with increasing dryness. Seistan was known in the past as one of the granaries of central Asia. similar to those of the Tarim Farther south. is asserted which like those of Africa and . and north-east is Kerman This portion of Persia much poorer in water and more extreme in climate than the plateau of Shiraz-Isfahan . in fact. Other areas support a loose Broad stretches of rubble. Vast expanses of sand-wastes and salt-tracts are well- nigh devoid of vegetation or peopled colonies of by straggling salt-bushes. or. and stunted. siderably. again. Very different is the appearance of the desolate plains Kerman and Khorassan. brush of tamarixes. In the middle of the wide expanse of barren gravel lies the oasis known as Seistan. tracts have contracted conbetween the affluent rivers are covered with jungles of tamarixes. the sub-tropical character clearly in the oases. its limits Swampy desert. and agriculture is of a northern type cereals and fruit-trees . especially grow only solitary bushes. and tufts of stiff. Life is confined to the immediate margins of the rivers which diverge from the Hindu Kush. to the valleys of that belt of low hills which separates Kuhistan from Afghanistan. are profusely grown under shelter. Here are exhibited the characteristics of the northern vegetations. a very rich country due to the convergence of the Hindu Kush rivers towards the lowest point of the relief at the foot of the central chain of hills. in the eastern part.IRAN of 45 limestone slopes are generally as porous and barren as those of Zagros. leafless. whose which of the lie at a lower level east of Teheran chain. it corresponds to the arid alf a plateaus of north-west Africa. wiry grass. sistent and strong dry wind from the north keeps all A per- down tree-growth and is the specific feature of the climate.


hard-leaved trees and shrubs give it a decidedly mediterranean stamp. the desolate plains of Khorassan are unfit for anything.IRAN 47 Arabia are graced by clumps of date-palms. adds greatly to the aridity of the country. in the depths of the secluded longitudinal from winds and favoured by local sheltered troughs. the climate still retains a mediterranean character but towards the east becomes increasingly dry. the vegetafoot of the wall of Iran. In the chain of Zagros. these secluded troughs and terraces reveal a veritable luxuriance in their fruitful orchards of olive. races and The live oak and other evergreen. and is pleasantly diversified by oases. Loose formations of low shrubs fringe the valleys on the gentle lower slopes. by its sheer slopes and the porous nature of its rubble. The mountainous southern portion of Baluchistan and Mekran continues the narrow coastal shelf which stretches at the Outside the oases. The limestone rock. and scattered scrubs of thorny. teristic. tion is limited to poor leafless bushes. . Frequently. almond. accumulations of ground-water. the slopes are singu- which continues the Taurus and forms the south-western escarpment of Persia. Most of the steep slopes are entirely denuded and it is only on the ter. the acacias are now characwhich among While the high plateau of Shiraz occasionally affords a meagre fodder to passing camels. indeed. radiating from the Hindu The valleys of Afghanistan Kush are peopled by villages : dispersed along the bottoms only larly devoid of vegetation. apple. In many respects the Zagros chain strongly recalls the barren region of the Illyrian Karst. peach. pomegranate. at times there is enough water to allow the trees to close in and even to crowd as light woods. apricot. that vegetation appears.

48 ASIA walnut. In addition. and the desert Local names connote coastal shelf of the Persian Gulf. the fig-tree. meadows are often found in these remote hollows they are sufficient to support . and the white mulberry. lies in fruit-trees. and other trees. stops at the Straits of Ormuz. Cereals. with its fissures and its stony wastes. the Zagros-Mekran-Baluchistan ranges in the south. of which are undoubtedly indiSeveral plants of economic value are found many wild. especially wheat and maize. the defined by roughly triangular plateau of Iran the Elburz and Khorassan chains in the north. the tract dry and rocky semi-tropical hilly of Baluchistan in the south-east. then. the karst-like range of the Zagros on the south-west. The main wealth genous. the lower and drier salt depressions of Khorassan-Afghanistan to the north-east. ' : saerhadd ' connotes the elevated summer-pas^ Agriculture in Persia is necessarily restricted to very few and limited localities. some of the ' distinct types of regional vegetation thus ' whence the name has arisen dschaengael jungle : clearly designates loose scrub-land and also scattered wood tures. the herds of the nomads in their yearly migrations from the winter grazing grounds of the lowland to the summer mountain pastures but. falls into quite typical regions . is too dry for continuous swards of grass. the largest cultivated area being found in the trough of Seistan. This mediterranean karst vegetation. Cypresses and plane-trees add to the unexpected beauty of the mountain oases. . and the Baluchistan mountains in the east. are grown with the best results. the limestone rock. : Briefly. the mountain pastures support sheep. the lofty valley of Isfahan-Shiraz. such as the pomegranate. concealed on the terraces and in the valleys of the Zagros margin. as a rule.

in addition. and. and that part of the Elburz which lies along the southern margin of the Caspian is fairly abundantly watered: hence the sharp line drawn between the northern and southern slopes of the chain. maples. the hornbeam. The Iranians were early devoted to agriculture. winter-bare type. which. the walnut. and causes nomadism. with bare trees. The plane-tree. and here occurs the easternmost limit of our common beech. which they . the stately zelkova. the alternate availability of lowland and highland pastures drives the shepherd regularly from one to the other. of central and eastern Europe the ground vegetation in summer reveals plants equally familiar to us in short. which forms almost exclusive scrub at higher levels in the centre of the range. and poplars. the rain-bearing winds become more generous. to our eyes. and snow lying on the ground. The winter appearance of the Caspian forests. the ash. again. Iran is in the belt of lands which have been gradually drying up. Here. tod in the north-west corner towards Armenia. mention has been made already. while the Persian side is arid.IRAN tries are those of silk 49 which give valuable wool: hence two important indusand wool rugs. several kinds of oaks. Towards the Caspian. the southern margin of the Caspian is in striking contrast with its drier sur: roundings. Life has always been more concentrated in the elevated plain of Shiraz and Isfahan. with a rich variety of species. differs very little from that of the mountain-forests . Of the northern chain of Iran and the declivities which face Turan. is the Caspian side is well-wooded. A characteristic shrub is the box. would thus have quite a familiar aspect. compose the forests. The tree-growth decidedly of northern temperate.



indeed raised to a sort of religion: they were among first users, if they have not been, as they claim, the their actual inventors, of the plough and of the windmill

utilizing water was famous. The empires which successively arose and declined there exercised their influence far eastward on China and India, westward on Europe, and made the most valuable

in discovering


contributions to civilization.

Mesopotamia. Under this term is here included the region which extends along the foot of the Zagros from the Straits of Ormuz to the highlands of the Euphrates bounded on the west by the escarpment of the Syrian desert,' it includes the middle and lower valleys of the Euphrates and Tigris. The climate may be best compared to that of the Mediterranean, but with accentuated heat and drought; the winter is comparatively milder, but not so rainy as in the Mediterranean; the

summers are dry and scorching. The great feature of this region, however, is the background of limestone highlands, which prove to be the source of its fertility. The relatively abundant water, which falls on the northern and north-eastern mountains, sinks rapidly to a lower level, and feeds the two main rivers, Euphrates and Tigris. It further washes

down from

the mountains a rich calcareous



deposited in the plain, and renders its soil extremely fertile, while, at the same time, these alluvia are periodi-

cally flooded

by the water from the melting snow. Vast


marshes are thus created on the level is never very deep.

but the

of the climate
inches, is

All these circumstances compensate for the dryness the rainfall which remains under ten

irregular and limited to the winter months. In these plains, vegetation naturally depends on the

of water in


and on the


more than on

the atmospheric humidity the topography and the soil entirely control the character of the natural vegetation.

Where, for geological and topographical reasons, the level of the ground-water is deep, the vegetation, entirely dependent upon the climate, is extremely scanty, low, and stunted, even of a desert type, consisting of a very
thin dotting of bare, thorny, gnarled bushes, intermixed with tufts of dry, stiff grass indeed, the aspect is then to be compared either with that of the barren Atlas plateaus

or with that of the rubble of Baluchistan.

This dreary in winter and when only brightened spring, landscape showers determine the germination of the millions of seeds lying dormant in the sand, thus suddenly called to



and short


The Garmsir



the land of ephemeral' plants, which impart to the landscape an indescribable beauty. Large tracts, however, keep their fertility for a longer time, owing to the retentiveness of the soil and to the presence of water near the surface.

In this

case, vast


are created

by the snow-fed floods of spring, and into pass steppes on the higher ground as do those of
also benefit

upper Mesopotamia. Of the tracts depending entirely on ground-water, the date-palm is the characteristic tree: it marks the irrigated ground and the banks of rivers and canals. Its growth is encouraged by the natives on account of its valuable products; every part of it becomes useful. Under its shade are found admirably cultivated gardens and fields where fruit-trees, from coffee and vine to peach, almond, and fig, are grown; wheat and maize, millet, tobacco, rice, cotton, and hemp also yield profuse

The ranges

of hills


rise isolated in

upper Meso-

E 2



potamia exhibit a marked mediterranean character: live oaks and fig-trees are to be found everywhere, but man has reduced most of the original woods which



slopes to the condition of the evergreen in the Mediterranean as 'maquis' and


Upper Mesopotamia deserves a


mention here.








a zone

FIG. 15.

The Jubailah Creek Mesopotamia. Date-palms on the left.

more abundant rainfall, not exceeding 20 inches This hinterland yearly, and mainly limited to winter.

indeed entirely mediterranean in respect of its climate and vegetation. It is bounded on the north by the Armenian Taurus, and sinks, on the south, to the level

of the lowland
of hills.

by an escarpment giving the impression

This piedmont terrace, the centre of which is Diarbekir, was originally the land of the live oak and the



but is now laid under fields of maize, wheat, tobacco, and rice, fruit orchards, olive- and vineyards. It is continued on the south-east by the foot-hills and
foot-terraces of the Zagros chain. The part of the Garmsir which forms the shelf of

Zagros to the Persian Gulf is arid and scorching. The vicinity of the mountains, however, determines the formation of numerous water points, which are so many date-palm oases, each a nucleus for a village.

The past fertility of Mesopotamia, with its garden of Eden', was due to the utilization of the waters of the twin rivers Tigris and Euphrates by means of irrigation canals and ditches, and to careful drainage, which formed one of the most admirable engineering works the world has ever seen. On these were founded the powerful civilizations which succeeded each other in the course of centuries, with their countless cities and their all-imporIt is now tant influence upon the history of mankind. the and to restore thus to irrigation systems proposed

open a new future to Mesopotamia. Asia Minor is a vast and irregular plateau, with an

average height of over 3,000 feet, and encircled by mounIn the west, it opens by broad valleys to the

on the east, it is bounded by the commountainous region of Armenia. The mountainplicated chains which cross, the plateau, like the other features of the relief and the bounding walls on the north and south, The mountain-rims are directed mainly east and west. on the north, west, and south deprive the centre of Anatolia of most of the climatic advantages which would accrue from its position in the midst of the great inland


Bereft of rains and of the regulating influence

of large sheets of water, the high plateau is arid and extreme in its climate. Its irregular rainfall is limited



bulk of which falls in winter, partly in the form of snow. On account of this and of the altitude, the atmospheric moisture is extremely low. The main portion of the plateau is treeless and barren. Even for large compact masses of shrub-lands and for
to less than ten inches, the

ditions are too severe

permanent and continuous expanses of grass these conand centres of aridity are formed wastes. and sand salt marshes by

Anatolia, therefore,





any other vegetation

than a ragged covering of scattered brush and shrubby perennials. The inland ranges are barren an abundance of thorny plants (shrubs, under-shrubs, and creepers), a development of a woolly covering on the leaves of
the lower plants, and a general dusty-grey aspect of the whole plant- world, are characteristic features of the landscape for the greater part of the year but, during

the irregular spells of rainfall, the growth of the rain flora is quite as vigorous as in Persia.

Up the slopes of the inland mountains, some of which attain a great elevation, the poor scrub and ragged carpet of low, woolly perennials of the plateau pass gradually
to similar wastes, in


plants, isolated shrubs, constitutes the only difference. While this description is true of the central plains,

which the alpine character of the and the disappearance even of the

the general aspect gradually changes towards the west, where the country becomes more broken. The very
scattered brush closes into a loose garigue or a continuous maquis, according to the condition of the soil. In short, the

landscape gradually assumes the mediterranean appearance of evergreen shrub- and wood-lands. Now the live oak, the olive, the orange-tree and laurel, the fig-tree
and, westward, on the upper
increasing abundance.



even pines, occur in has increased to

such an extent that the cultivation of wheat
possible in the valleys.


The southern margin of Anatolia displays the same Along the Taurus, evergreen woodlands, often reduced to the condition of maquis and garigues, are the dominant feature but cypress, cedar, and black pine, together with the Cilician fir and junipers, the remains of a once more luxuriant forest, are abundantly intermixed in the broad and hard-leaved woods they even constitute independent patches in the fastnesses of the mountains. The upper slopes with their
mediterranean character.
: ;

alpine herbage afford summer pastures for cattle. The aspect of the northern slopes, facing the Black Sea, which may be called Pontus or Pontis, is different.

In every respect the climate and the vegetation of these slopes are identical with those of the South-Caspian
barrier of Persia.
Sufficiently watered, yet experiencing distinctly the rhythm of hot and cold seasons, the forests are bare in winter, and their appearance and composition

similar to the central

European woodlands.


ever, the plane-tree, the horse-chestnut, pterocarya, wild

walnut, and many others, exemplify the much greater variety of the trees, and the conditions, milder than in

Europe, which prevail there. To find a vegetation exactly equivalent to that of western Europe, one has to climb

up to a middle zone characterized by the oak. Further up again, a subalpine shrub belt is formed by rhododendrons and bilberries, and leads to alpine pastures. The highlands which rise to the east of Anatolia, and
penetrate far into Persia under the name of Armenia, are not so well provided with water as the Pontic slopes.

Their vegetation presents a transition stage between the mediterranean and the northern types. Originally well-

wooded, but formed often of limestone, they have been

deforested largely


by incessant streams of immigration. Their lower slopes are pretty bare, only supporting the scattered maquis, but the upper slopes often shelter coniferous forests.

The country


rich in the valleys,

where orchards and

gardens are found in abundance. In addition, the upper valleys afford excellent summer pastures with all the glory of our alpine swards, where the shepherds, and part even of the agricultural population, migrate in
probable that climatic changes have taken place in this region, the bulk of Asia Minor, by reason of its aridity, could never become the
the hot weather.


it is

centre of an indigenous civilization, and of great empires, like the valleys of Mesopotamia and Egypt. By contrast,


the fertile but hilly coast fringes permitted the developof small separate nationalities, subsisting partly on

mediterranean agriculture, partly on sea-trade. Each of these in turn rose to some degree of prosperity, and exercised a real influence in history:

each of them also

naturally expanded towards the hinterland, across the mountains, and brought under their sway the adjacent
portions of the arid territories with their itinerant tribes. Apart from the frequent passage of migrating nations,

the history of hilly Armenia is, in the main, a tale of endless struggles between the settled agriculturists of the lower terraces and plains, and the wild shepherds of the upper valleys.

mounand from the Caspian to the Pamirs and the Tian Shan. It is formed by the bottom of a dried-up sea, a vestige of which remains as the Aral. A low plateau, the Ust-Urt, separates it from the
to the

Turau extends from the Kirghiz steppe

tains of Khorassan,

Caspian. By reason of

its feeble altitude as

well as of its central

numerous scaly.shrubs and small sands. 57 Turan receives rain from none of the surrounding areas. resolving itself into grey trunk. spreading besoms of bare. No less formidable than these ' red and black deserts ' are the vast level wastes of saline clayey soils. They are impassable stretches of moving. from scorching winds to icy gales. or crawling and thorny stragglers. whose and curved twisted. open to excessive variations from the hottest summer to the coldest winter. short-segmented twigs. whereto twenty feet in height in also the green matter which represents the absent leaves is hidden other trees have the appearance of the : This brush effectually binds the sand. ranges. The vegetation consists of salt-bushes. Such also is the . heaving large rivers the Amu and where these are relatively settled. Turan owes what fertility it may possess to its two and the Syr. In this respect. broom-like under-shrubs. dusty-grey wormwood. plantations. makes it resemble a besom. the trees possessing tiny leaves or none. it differs from the sub-tropical deserts. which deposit their scanty moisture on the southern and eastern mountain it.TURAN position. vegetation has succeeded in gaining a foothold. fifteen and less than a foot thick. sweep past the depression without Its climate is therefore truly desert any benefit to and extreme. the whole aspect of which recalls tree-heaths or brooms. bushy trees. sparsely dotted with dwarf bunches of mostly leafless plants. and advantage is taken of the fact to resist the encroachments of the shifting dunes by means of extensive tamarix. indeed lifeVast territories less. It consists of a brush. now in thickets of sand. thin. now scattered. are left entirely plantless. It stores water in its bark. The winds from the north. The best representative of this flora is the saxaul. .



dreary landscape of the tracts bordering on the Caspian and covering most of the low Ust-Urt plateau between
that sea and the Aral, where, however, conditions are made worse by the unfavourable nature of the soil, which,
besides being salt

and destitute of moisture, often con-

tains poisonous substances. Through the deserts of Turan, the

Darias stretch two thin lines of oases.

Amu, and the Syr The othr rivers

themselves in the sands, after breaking up into

swamps. Along the southern and eastern margins of Turan extends a belt of terraces, foot-hills, and alluvial tracts, whose naturally fertile soil derives moisture not only from the vicinity of the highlands, but also from their snow-fed rivers: in fact, this belt owes its existence wholly to the mountain streams. It is lined with little oases along the foot of the Khorassan ranges and expands in the valleys of the Heri-Rud, Murghab, Amu, Zerafshan, Syr, and Chu. A good soil and a sufficiency of water, notwithstanding the extreme but not hostile climate, put those rich valleys in striking contrast with
the forbidding solitudes of Turan proper. The land of Fergana bears comparison with the plains of Lombardy,

and the upper valley of the


is still

broader and

In the past, these border-lands were prosperous and eaeji drop of water was carefully appropriated each of the v alleys mentioned was a centre of civilization.

Powerful ^empires in Fergana, Sogdiana, Bactria, and Wergian, With splendid cities such as Kria, furthest Alexandria, Samarkand, Bactra (modern Balkh), Merv, and Herat havk left imposing ruins but the increasing dryness of the dlimate, coupled with invasions of the nomad shepherds \from the desert, gradually extended

the limits of

TuranX To

this day, however, portions of



the large valleys display luxuriant orchards, where most of the mediterranean produce and fruits are grown:

mulberry, apricot, plum, almond, apple, as well as grapes, melons, maize, rice, wheat, and cotton and tall, columnar poplars are everywhere in evidence. In respect of its

agriculture, therefore, this belt is related to the mediterranean regions, of whose climate it presents a drier and

more extreme variety. This comparison would be still more justifiable at the time of the greater extension of
the inland seas.

The winter and spring rains provide temporary grazing grounds for cattle, sheep, camels, and ponies, which migrate in summer to the snow-free and luscious mountain pastures. Here again, as all over central Asia, the annual rhythm of migration from lowlands to highlands and back is strongly marked. Turkestan Highlands Tian Shan, Alai, Badakshan. Compared with the surrounding lowlands, the Tian Shan highlands appear as a delightful oasis, both on account of their varied scenery and of their verdant vegetation. They drain the north and westerly winds of what mois:

may possess, which usually amounts, however, to than 20 inches yearly. The atmosphere is generally clearer than in the Siberian highlands. Owing to the
ture they

northern and western origin of the moisture-bringing winds, the southern and eastern districts are drier and poorer than those of the north and west, and over the
entire area, northern

and western slopes are the richer

and moister. With the

rains, snows, and mists, tree-growth is possible here at altitudes exceeding 5,000 feet and up to 9,000 feet but it is exclusively coniferous. Poplars are seen only in the depths of the river- valleys, and walnuts

and other


grow exclusively

in gardens.



which consist of spruce and a kind of Sabine

juniper, are seldom dense, but towards the east and south they become decidedly diffuse and often fail completely. They are generally not continuous, but are interrupted
pastures, and largely restricted to the valleys. There a fundamental difference between the short and dry swards of the steppes and the long, close, and lush meadows that extend below, through, and above the the latter timber-belt, and often replace it entirely our meadows. of the of luxuriant character partake




They are beset with a number of tall herbs and shrubs, such as the rose and barberry, wild geraniums and
poppies, peonies and gentians, blue bells, wild onions, &c. there is quite a wealth of garden-plants, which grow wild, such as 'asparagus, candytuft, chrysanthemum,

columbine, heliotrope,

pansies, rhubarb, peony,




alpine meadows, which extend beyond the belt of junipers, display an exuberant beauty equal to the best
flower-tracts of our Alps; but there are


no swamps or

bogs, no heather and bilberry moors, no rhododendrons. Below this elevated garden, however, the valleys display only drier steppes, which gradually pass downwards to dusty, scattered brushes, and, sometimes, to entirely
plantless gorges.


the Mongolian side, the steppes

much higher than on the west, and are often replaced immediately by alpine pastures without the
intervention of a tree-belt.

In some respects, then, the Tian Shan recalls the elevated natural parks at the head-waters of the Colorado, in the Rocky Mountains, and provides summer pastures for the cattle and sheep, and quarters for
the shepherds, of the plains.
trates far into the

The portion which peneis

Mongolian desert

naturally very



and grows quite arid towards



Kirghiz Steppe. From north to south, east of the Ural- Caspian line, there is a gradual impoverishment of plant life from the wet Siberian ta'iga to the sandy
deserts of Turan.

The wooded swamps of

Siberia give

place to a fiat or rolling country, where the marshes are reduced to hundreds of small lakelets in the troughs

and hollows, and the climate
as that of the


neither so rainy and cold

tai'ga, nor so dry and hot as that of Turan.


the region of steppes. The line between the forest and the grass-land is not hard and fast. Over a belt 200 to 300 miles wfde, the

transition is made by a park landscape, in which birches are scattered over the prairie in groves, groups, and The innumerable marshes are sometimes in woods.

marked by fringes of giant cow-parsnips, day-lilies, willows, and poplars. Meadows and herb-mats are
Trees disappear gradually interspersed in the steppe. towards the south the steppe assumes a typical, dry aspect with its low covering of wiry grasses, in the

which the soil may be seen. Henceforth, a heaving ocean of grass, the appearance of which changes wholly from season to season: verdant and
interstices of
it is

flowery in spring, brown and parched in late summer,

dusty -grey with woolly wormwood in autumn and It sometimes conceals rich black earth and winter. which forms a heavy and retentive soil. loess,



though not so

hostile as that of Turan,

has an irregular rainfall oscillating between 10 and 20 inches distributed over spring and summer, with droughts recurring every few years. Generally about two-thirds of the year are very dry, and excessive alike in cold and heat. (The combination of this type of

climate and fine

soils, all

over the world, results in a

similar absence of trees

and bushes, and the develop-

ment of the dry grass-land known as steppe or prairie, of which an abundance of bulbs and tubers is a feature.)
Saline wastes grow more numerous southwards. They soon spread over vast areas towards the Aral region, and are accompanied by the usual thin covering of salt bushes and tamarisks. In the middle of the steppe,
the hilly district of Akmolinsk produces a recurrence of fertility which has gained for it the name of 'little



The limited grazing capacity
induces the natives,


any given area

exclusively on frequently as their pasture-grounds become exhausted, and thus to lead a wandering existence in summer,

for their living almost their cattle, ponies, and sheep, to migrate

who depend


the steppe


dried up, those


are not far from

the mountains, journey thither. The remarkable fertility of the black earth and loess, however, now fully recognized, has led to the opening of
the steppe for agricultural purposes, wherever water is available and irrigation possible. large portion of this region may become, in course of time, a wheat


district as rich as that of


Nebraska, California, and the River, the Plate, or Australia, or, nearer at hand,

the Russian steppe. On the south-east, the Kirghiz steppe is continued into that of northern Sungaria and northern Mongolia. This

long grass belt, stretching between the desert on one hand and the mountains and forests on the other, was one of the natural highways whereby the nomadic populations of wild shepherds from further Asia slowly

reached Europe, driving their herds before them. Siberian Highlands. A broad and complex system of

highlands^ of moderate Altai and Sayan chains


elevation, which includes the and the Trans-Baikal highlands with the Vitim and Aldan plateaus, separates Mongolia and Amuria from eastern Siberia.

As may be expected from


continental situation,


a region of severe climatic extremes and reduced atmospheric moisture. The rainfall derived from the

northern and eastern quarters occurs chiefly in summer, but there is a heavy snowfall in winter. The moderate
height of the mountains, sufficient to condense a large proportion of the vapour of the winds, allows some of it to penetrate further south than would such a lofty
barrier as the Kuenlun.

As each successive ridge athwart the southward track of the winds levies its toll of moisture, the lower limits of rains and clouds are gradually raised from ridge to

with the result that the southernmost valleys



Correspondingly, the levels of fairly vegetation recede farther and farther up,

going towards Mongolia and for the same reason, the southern slopes are drier than those facing north. Thus,
whilst the Siberian slopes are abundantly wooded and uninterruptedly with the Siberian tai'ga, the

Mongolian valleys display their forest upper slopes.


only on their

Conifers are the only trees that can constitute forests among the Siberian highlands under such extreme conditions

are of


birches and aspen, which accompany the rivers, importance as forest-trees, and mostly to be

found at lower levels, though on the sunny southern slopes of Trans-Baikalia the birch may reach an elevation of 4,600 feet. Between the Siberian tai'ga and the highland forests there is this difference, that the latter

do not exhibit the stunted, even dwarf aspect, which



characterizes tree-growth on the East-Siberian plateaus ; on the other hand, especially on the southern slopes, they

are seldom dense and close:

they have that scattered the forests on the Rocky characterizes which appearance Mountains and Sierra Nevada. The undergrowth, which is mostly grassy, is far from being thick and impassable
as in Sakhalin.

come next

Scots pines, with a mingling of birches and aspen, to the steppe vegetation on the western and

southern slopes.

Farther up, larches predominate, but


with, or give







Many humbler


plants, with which we are familiar, occur an abundance of aconites, peonies, willow-

herbs, geraniums, cow-parsnips, bright-flowered groundsels, &c., in the meadows and pastures that frequently

Some of the vivid flowers interrupt the clear forests. of the steppes are found far up the wooded slopes.


form the upper tree-limit at altitudes from 4,000 feet on the northern slopes to 5,000 feet on the southern slopes. They penetrate in groves and clusters among the upper hill-pastures, where such shrubs as rhododendrons and such flowering herbs as globe-flowers, columbines, anemones, violets and gentians, poppies and saxifrages, remind one of the Alpine

meadows of Europe.

lands, in contrast with the

The pastures of the Siberian highdry and short swards of the lower seem like down, steppes hay meadows. Thus there seem to exist, in these highlands, two



landscapes gradually merging into one the northern or Siberian, more densely wooded,

and connected with the Siberian

taiga. This is typically the Baikal highlands: the other, the Mongolian or southern aspect, may be seen characteristically displayed south of Baikal, in the districts of the


for the upper slopes are too cold for profitable cultivation. every year south the on the southern mountains. Wherever water is available. steppes Populations leave the burnt their every summer and betake themselves and herds to the fresh and luxuriant grazing-grounds of the mountains. such as the walnut. which slant from the edge of the Jablonoi towards Baikal. for the upper slopes provide excellent summer pastures at a time when the adjacent steppes are scorched and dry. are of the nature of parklike. The plateaus of Vitim and Aldan. subalpine pastures and moors. now begin to appear. especially of the southern slopes. and from the Siberian highlands to the Altyn Tagh. The importance of the Siberian highlands. which stretches from the Khingans to the Tian Shan and Pamirs. some of the broad-leaved. of agriculture should not be practised locally along the rivers. summer-green trees of the latter region. is 1169. It consists of an admixture of pastures and scattered woods. That vast inland basin. is great in the life of the Mongolian tribes.1 F .SIBERIAN HIGHLANDS 65 Orkhon and Tola. is up plains arrested by the forests more than by the mountains themselves. There is no apparent reason why some kind serious obstacles for the herdsmen. Mongolia. Approaching Amuria. Hence the tide of which rises the scorched from nomadism. climate the and darker the colder forests remain side. comparable with the plateaus of British Columbia. and this is the easier on account of the On the northern scattered nature of the forest belt. while denizens of the northern tundras and mountains penetrate far south along the naked ridges of the Jablonoi. but this is true only of the valleys. the soil offers a generous reward to human efforts.

. gave life to this dismal waste. with scattered blocks of loess. rim of mountains. Mongolia forms the largest unbroken portion of it. stones. which also . gravel. for the most part. and Kobdo. not a shrub. the most important of which are to be found in the Gobi or Shamo. . and in Sungaria. were all that met the Not a tree. intermingle with Compositae. one foot high. and coarse-grained sands. neither of which bring is the basin What water may be found within due to the snows of the surrounding mostly rain. Towards the west. of Such centres take the form of stony wastes or of seas moving sand-dunes alternating with salt tracts of they are wellnigh plantless. Around those forbidding areas. Sungaria.66 ASIA considered here as one geographical unit. The ground was burning hot even night brought no relief. the central plateau Rainless practically shut off from outside influences. here and there the bones of a dead camel or horse. in belts that meet each other to cover the largest portion of the plateaus. extend semi-desert wastes of rubble. Predominant among them is the sage-like artemisia or wormwood. but rather develops around certain centres of greatest aridity. according to the season. the great ranges of the Tian Shan and the Altai divide it into the separate basins of the Tarim. sand. is Completely enclosed by mountains. it undergoes without mitigation the alternations of intense cooling and heating. ' : various extent: In the desert of Kami.' storms whirled clouds of sand along. . neither bird nor beast. in the Takhla Makan. says an explorer Siliceous soil. and is swept. Terrible . by icy or scorching winds. not eye. even a lizard. where scattered tufts of dried-up grass. The Han-hai is not an absolute desert over its entire area.

All but dry and apparently dead in summer. raspberry. small or occasional These trees 'are held in great veneration by the natives. are marked by a taller and a species that attains large thicker growth of grass desert belts of northern Africa. Colorado.MONGOLIA 67 characterizes the semi-deserts of Nevada. while the tall F 2 . and such shrubs as dog-rose. There are very few of those strange succulent. all summergreen trees with which we are familiar. of gaunt poplars and willows. where rhubarb may also be found wild. or tuberous water-storing plant-forms of the American and African deserts : tree and bush vegetation trees is represented by solitary thickets at the foot of a hill or in the dry bed of a temporary river. . it displays a beautiful mat of blooms in spring. one-flowered tulips occasionally in Mongolia adorn the ground with fragrant and beautiful carpets. To the north of the desert. bramble. It extends in a narrow atrip along the foot of the mountains carpeting their foot-hills and penetrating deep into their valleys. proportions in favourable situations is the kamish. is not lacking in season. bulbous. river-beds. In this region. and honeysuckle would remind us of home vegetation. string along the marginal mountain-chains they develop where the snow-fed rivers dry up or disappear in the . their vegetation is distinctly of the northern They are recognized in the distance by screens type. elms and ashes. the oases are usually disposed in a . sand shortly after leaving the hills. lie The usual years in flora of for the small plants. as well as the circum- Depressions and dry where some ground water remains during the greater part of the year. The true steppe constitutes another belt outside those just described. which may seed-stage and burst into an ephemeral life only after the casual rains. and Arizona in western North America.

rushes. The alluvial tracts of the rivers make a chain of oases round the desert outside the ring of marshes groves of poplars and willows occur at intervals and shelter the villages. at the foot of the Nan-shan. which mark the places where rivers lose themselves. Extensive brushes. This forms the inner route of the caravans. On the southern side of the life those of our Han-hai. one reaches a broken line of loess terraces. small trees such as tarnarixes and saxauls. either leafless or with heath-like scales.68 reeds which ASIA mark the water-points are identical with own country. plant has some distinct mediterranean features. ranging from dense tangles to scattered heaths. Ultimately among the mountains. joined by a second caravan route. but serves for winter grazing grounds. which are more Beyond a or less planted with maize and fruit trees. and bushy poplars resembling straggling birch-bushes. and coarse deer and tiger. provide abundant . continued along the Nan-shan and the Tsin-ling-shan. This jungle also fringes the uncertain course of the rivers. to the Yellow : tall River. thanks to fair summer rains. constitute a cheerless vegetation. belt of porous and arid gravel downs. around which cultivation of cereals and fruit-trees of a mediterranean type is carried on. Apart from these concentric belts the various regions of the Han-hai possess an individuality of their own. The nucleus of it is the deadly sea of shifting sands of the Takhla Makan. both in the natural and the cultivated vegetation. gnarled and stunted. alternate with reeds. and support agricultural villages. The Tarim basin is related in some degree to the lowlying deserts of Turan as regards its flora. and is tenanted by grass. the heads of the valleys. while its margin is formed by a ring of swamps.

hares. The secluded fcobdo basin lian steppe far is an outlier of the Mongo- much among the highlands. similar disposition is seen in the southern part of Sungaria. Wild sheep and ibexes. along the Khingans. Its landscape is more prosperous than that of Sungaria. Tree-growth remains confined to the river-margins and to the oases. 69 are dried when the lowland grazing grounds in Hence they are tenanted summer. rising to meet the forests. while grassy downs are interspersed with some luxuriant meadows. eventually. Quasi-desert wormwood-brush-wastes cover a large is portion of northern Sungaria. correspondingly widening the belt of steppes. The character of the oases is now decidedly northern. and bears are found here. The desert A nucleus not so extensive as in the Takhla-Makan. and marginal belt of northern Mongolia a On the display landscape similar to that of Kobdo. containing its only a few arid centres of limited extent. the larger portion of the Gobi falls into the zone of scattered grass and wormwood-brush. beyond the barrier of the Tian Shan. and the temporary villages at the foot of the grazing slopes are connected by an outer route. and gradually merge into the steppe which clothes the foothills and lower valleys of the Altai range thence the steppe skirts the southern margin of the Siberian highlands. penetrating deep into : the valleys and up to the belt of luxuriant mountain pastures or. slopes. or again is relegated far up the mountain This is a rich cattle country. wolves. where ponies. sheep find abundant maintenance during the winter months. which in late . up. Between the latter and the desert area lying to the west. and camels.MONGOLIA pastures. north-eastern and eastern margins. the summer rains spread to some distance from the foot-hills The mountains.

Long after the disappearance of the sea. forced the nearer and nearer to the mountains. on the south it is mediterranean.while agriculture supported comparatively dense populations trades. and the line of loess terraces. Water was more abundant than it is now. and others. and the populations had to depart with their herds. Thus the lower valleys. cities : important cities also were engaged in active The gradual drying up continuing. and large rivers wound far into the plain. is also The alternate availability of summer pastures in the mountains and winter pastures in the lowlands has determined the nomadism of the Mongolians. which are often transformed into fertile orchards and corn-fields. similar to those of Fergana and the upper Amu. . The lofty chains increasingly grudged their scanty waters to the plains. the Bag- rach-kul. where of a chain the fact mitigated by permanent cultivation is possible. grapes. inside the loop of the Hwang-ho. This . along This nomadism is the whole margin of the plateau. display rich orchards of apricots. as bad as the true plantless This lies which the case with the Ordos plateau. a more generous climate prevailed over the broad plains strewn with large lakes. burying the old ones in the sand. melons. double of oases. south of the Tarim. On the two sides of the desert the character of the : natural and the cultivated vegetation is different on the northern side it is frankly northern. the Ebi-nor. pumpkins. walnuts and fields of maize. is desert the more readily explained by the fact that the present is the bed of a former inland sea whose last and feeble vestiges are found in such erratic and vanishing sheets of water as the Lob-nor. an inner line of swamps.70 ASIA is summer and winter desert. mulberries. to follow the broad belts of steppes between the snows and the deserts.

MONGOLIA pouring China. Enclosed and traversed by the loftiest and most formidable mountains of the world. 71 westward into Europe and eastward into Tibet and Pamirs-Tsaidam. west and lead through a row of stupendous gullies. 16. flat plateaus. to and level floors or rivers. forming a series of wide. separated by long The mountain-chains converge towards the ridges. the name may be conveniently extended. to which. fed by the monsoon rainfall. therefore.000 feet above sea-level. still partly occupied another region of broad 'Pamirs' of the same origin as those of Tibet. ' Tho Top of the Last Pass '. Towards the east the Chinese by glaciers. have cut for . Tibet consists of a succession of parallel valleys choked with the glacial wastes of their dividing ranges to an elevation of 15. thus up Fio.

Over vastexpanses the rubble and gravel may be entirely The finer soils support a thin sprinkling of plantless.waters of the various Chinese meadows are extensive and generous. Not all parts of Tibet. tufted grasses and a few other rosette herbs. and there does not appear to be the wealth of tuberous and bulbous forms which characterize the South. to an excessive evaporation and radiation. the fertility increases and grazing grounds described. are equally barren: going eastward. It is open. rivers. partly clearing away the glacial wastes. though terrific snow-gales sweep across The soil.72 ASIA themselves gigantic chasms and eaten their way into the heart of the plateau. and even mats of dwarf grasses of an arctic-alpine type. portion north-western half of its area appears to be drier than libet the southern and eastern portions.American punas: even the large cushion plants do not seem to be recorded as striking features. but receives a large proThe of its scanty water in the form of snow. shingle and gravel. or in reported. are better. naturally glacial adds by its excessive porosity to the climatic dryness the fine silts and clays along the rivers and around only Tibet may be the lakes possess a natural fertility. is not entirely rainless. as a cold desert. and alluvial rubble. by reason of its altitude. which consists mostly of its surface in winter. but trees and shrubs are absent. The climate is extremely cold. . however. . Special or strange plant-forms are rare. The bands of alluvia along the rivers often permit of the development of short pastures. Reed and rush-swamps also occur near the rivers and lakes. but relieved in summer by some warm days. but peat-bogs are not Most plants are dwarf and crawling. the alpine At the head. on the whole. and forms above one foot in height are rare. spread rosettes.

Forests of conifers penetrate very far up the deep and narrow valleys of Kashmir and Ladakh. where they form delightful park-landscapes. wild and tame sheep. which here oscillate about 12. The Pamirs proper. Other meagre shrubs. the herds of the Kirgkiz nomads graze the pastures of the alluvial tracts.TIBET AND PAMIRS-TSAIDAM 73 Kuku-nor are particularly and wild and tame yaks. coarse grass-tufts or crawling bushes. summerwhich generally herald the approach of villages and are. antelopes. which are drained by the Indus. as well as to an increase in rainfall and to more moderate winds. bare platforms. Long tracts of these valleys have their flanks entirely denuded. Towards the south. now and then close into a loose scrub. shelves of rubble and waste. but beyond these meadows the porous glacial bottoms offer nothing but a rugged carpet of dry. The north-western portion is the driest. green trees. resembling brambles and brooms. They are poplars. find here ample those of the shores of the beautiful. and other low. trees continue to within a short distance of the glaciers themselves. though clusters of them may yet be found among rich meadows at the bottom of alluvial sections of the valleys. while the crawling and spreading juniper may be strewn over the bare lower slopes. though perhaps not so bleak as : north-western Tibet. and cultivation becomes possible around Lhasa. display a similar vegetation. In summer. food. and other animals. or naked gorges . and is almost entirely destitute of plant-life the intervening ranges are bare and largely covered with snow and ice. the more sheltered plains occasion- ally support orchards of fruit-trees. indeed. willows. small-leaved. mostly planted. wild asses. This is due to its situation and lower altitude.000 feet. Beyond the forest limits.


considering the altitude yet because they receive rainfall and a depend exclusively on very scanty only . vegetation is limited to the floors. Meagre almost up to the foot of the glaciers on their alluvial fans terraces are resorted to for the purpose of irrigation.TIBET and some have AND PAMIRS-TSAIDAM 75 floors of loose and dry pastures of tuftof barley and vegetables are raised crops grass. have received civilizing influences from the surrounding countries without contributing anything of importance to the progress of mankind.few shrubs.000 feet. are bound to show a great similarity in the main features of the distribution of climate. placed in similar situations and possessing broadly similar relations to air and sea currents. Tsaidam. It is a secluded and desolate waste of salt swamps and loose brushes of tuft-grass.000 CHAPTER Two II NORTH AMERICA large bodies of land like North America and Eurasia. is intermediate in elevation between it and the Gobi. intermixed with lifeless deserts. and perhaps unusually mild. such as tamarisks. altitudes of 9. Being absorbed entirely in the bitter struggle against nature. These valleys are well sheltered. the Tibetans. in the north-east corner of Tibet. it does not completely exclude a. the more so still on account of the steepness of the slopes. nitrarias and buckthorns sometimes twenty feet high. their ice-fed rivers. and of life : an increase . ascend to scrub vegetation : and 10. . but. with their edible berries. who have remained primarily shepherds. charmiks (lycium). though treeless.

is a smaller continent. with a maximum in the south and east: a western fringe more equable FIG. and moderate portions at in climate than the central and eastern the warm and cool temperate latitudes. Physical Features of North America.76 of the NORTH AMERICA intensity and total amount of plant-life from north to south. however. North America. and its relief is not drawn on the gigantic scale of that of Asia. from centre to margins. . 18.

. while in Asia they run broadly from east to west. directed from north to south. Mean Annual Rainfall of North America. The main features of the relief of 77 life North America are Under 10 Inches JO to EO EO 40 - 40-80 Over 80 Fro 19. and grass and desert belts also stretch in a meridianal direction in the western continent.NORTH AMERICA hence the contrasts in the distribution and forms of are less emphatic and sharp.

in western North America the interposition of a multiple barrier of lofty mountains keeps that moisture for a narrow fringe and leaves the interior On the east. much lower they are not so effective of the' a barrier in middle of the continent. Seasonal Distribution of Rainfall in North America. keeping the rains out The free communication that exists between the polar seas and the Atlantic. in contrast with the narrow gates of the Bering Sea. is also probably an important factor in reducing the temperature over the north-eastern portions of the New World. and carrying far south the . in some measure with the Chinese Alps. but being FIG.78 NORTH AMERICA in Whereas Europe the absence of high altitudes allows the moisture of the westerly winds to spread far into the continent. the Appalachians correspond quite arid. 20.

to sea-level. From west to east of the continent the isotherms are driven gradually further south. 79 and of the northern coniferous of the Tundra Region. and the northern belts of vegetation are correspond- ingly lowered in latitude on the Atlantic side. not far from 70 N. as . Mean Temperature of North America in January reduced JULY FIG. This line marks also the southern limit of what is really treeless tundra. on the Mackenzie. American vegetation tinents The polar margin is North characterized as in other con- by the treeless tundra. In Alaska the tundra occupies a narrow strip of coast along the Bering Sea: on the northern coast it covers the polar slopes of the northernmost branch of the Rocky Mountains: from the Mackenzie River eastward. It extends. Thus the northern limit of trees which. in Labrador. is driven N. Mean Temperature of North America in July reduced to sea-level. 21. its southern limit strikes inland across the lake region to reach Hudson Bay at Fort Churchill. 22.NORTH AMERICA limits of the cold deserts belt. JANUARY FIG. south to about 55 runs near the Arctic coast..

80 NORTH AMERICA a coastal fringe. wealth and extent of its seems to be drier lichen carpets the cold desert here than in Europe and Asia. Vegetation of North America. Though the ling heath is entirely absent from America. and reaches a great development in western Greenland. 28. as comGreenland. to the Arctic islands. is pared with those of Siberia and the CDTundr* ^Coniferous Temperate ^Mediterranean ixed Tempe rate Warm E3 Steppe Fio. . The specific feature of the American tundra. .

TUNDRA REGION 81 other species of the heather family are numerous. which are attracted from parts as remote as the southernmost extremity of South America. . bloom-mats carpeting the southern slopes of many of the hills and knolls. ' The Great Barrens support a fairly abundant animal population. saxifrages. In Canada the transition from cold moors to temperate conditions is very gradual. in providing an inexhaustible supply of food for the innumerable legions of migrant birds. The the dodecatheon primrose. The Great Canadian Forest. Further north. Indians. fulfil an important rfile in the economy of the animal world. and in the tundra or barrens their dwarf bushes are pre- ponderating. the only centres of barter which tenant the of these bleak regions. for between the actual tundra and the dense forest extends a wide belt of mixed type called the scattered forest It is remarkable that the northern limit of the regular Canadian taiga should follow the latitude of the southern limit of that of west ' '. the furs and feathers of which are sought after by Eskimos. The thick clouds of mosquitoes. together with a handsome willow-bush which grows along the rivers. ledum. has found favour in our gardens. kalmia. tundra and prove such an unmixed nuisance to man. and backof the woodsmen. islands become poorer and poorer lichens of the * in vegetation. and other bushes of a The well-known similar character. who repair at intervals to the trading posts Hudson Bay Company. the arctic poppy. are said to reach their best development in Alaska. bearberries. i. among them occur evergreen rhododendron. e. clad with lichens. most brilliant representative of their flora. Hudsonian Forest. gentians. the tundras of the high 'Arctic &c. like islands or oases of beauty.

Over vast expanses. or gravel. NORTH AMERICA ice sheet great or even ultimately the climatic conditions of the circumpolar cap. The origin : soil of the north Canadian forest of glacial is sand. w flat FIG 24. seldom in close formation side either rivers. the singly or in clusters. are fringed on by regular . almost to their mouths. The species of conifers may vary from east to west. clay. The sub-arctic forest deserves indeed to be termed scattered. marginal forests which follow them.82 Siberia . as on the Mackenzie River. Pine-clad slopes and tree limit. the reason perhaps being the proximity of the which covers the highlands of Greenland. and mode of life are very similar is all throughout. but the general conditions. aspect. Spruce forest on a river Canada. however. tre&s are dotted . The irregular surface .

Life has hitherto been. but for pastoral industries of a northern type it is scarcely touched at present: timber and game are the only products which have been extensively worked so far. and meadows are freely mixed with the forests. and is largely composed of conifers. black.. the white. as it is . in the extreme north-west. trappers. and fur-hunters. and as a rule the ground is poor and cold. The balsam the iir. * ' spruces. If heath and heather are unknown. as in the tundra. may always renewing itself. Here again the dense spruce forest is found only on the large alluvial flats along the Yukon and its main tributaries. The Canadian forest spans the whole continent from the Pacific to the Atlantic.THE GREAT CANADIAN FOREST dotted with innumerable lakes of all 83 often sizes. crowberries. &c. The scattered type of north Canadian forest extends over the central plateau of Alaska. and in many instances form independent groups. the type. and red pines most widespread. are the tamarack. Moors. cranberries. and lumbermen have constituted the majority of the population. It is with animal life. It provides a supply of timber which. Leafy trees are dispersed among them. aromatic winter-green and the huckleberry also occur. if carefully treated. also last indefinitely. replace them. aspen. and several species of It is difficult to over-estimate the importance of this northern advance-guard of the tree vegetation. and bearberries. swamps. constitute stunted. is largely marshy. a large number of plants allied to our whortleberries. young-looking woods almost up to the tree-line. and almost reaches the Bering Sea. between the branches of the Rocky Mountains. The agricultural possiteeming the bilities of region are certainly limited. paper-birch. Balsam poplar. mostly nomadic and primitive. and of the same vegetative The sweet gale or bog-myrtle.

of the interbetween the various sections of the plant and animal world. or disregard. . broad-leaf forests. He the disappearance of many Man is has often acted in ignorance. with serious losses in life. this forest appears to play an important part in the economy of the animal world. are developed. and others hemlock-spruce forms dark and damp clumps. Great Lake Region. two . six of birch. are or growths swamps Eight species of oak. hence. summer-green forests and deeper soils. and resembling that of Amuria. On sand. pine-forests predominate with the Weymouth pine. the pitch pine. Broad-leaf. the climates change much more rapidly from north to south than in narrower and more rapid succession. and involve helpful animal workers.84 NORTH AMERICA Like the tundra. belts of vegetation are The follow one another in the climate allows a variety of species of plants to take advantage of all the modifications of soil and other conditions conifers. and the winter refuge of many others from the far north. and either combine in pure richer prefer found interspersed among the conifers. Its destruction vast numbers of useful birds and might therefore mean serious trouble for mammals. while this region is it is primarily one of a distinguished by large proportion of summer-green. time. In the eastern half of North America. the west. or South Canadian Forest. the cost of recklessly to realize only beginning interfering with the established economy of nature. one of chestnut. Although more extreme than that of western Europe. being the summer resort of many migrant species from the south. thus the forests which extend east of Winnipeg across the Great Lakes and New England are of a richer type than those of the Hudsonian region. and on marshy grounds tamarack and cedar . and energy relations for himself.

South of the great coniferous belt is a vast region. or was. consequently of mixed and dairy farming. which has its great market centre in Montreal. plane. which enjoy the advantage of unlimited water-power. and the type of its forests is the summer-green. offer conditions which are admirably suited to a heavy tree-growth of the most luxuriant mild-temperate . Another activity is fur-hunting. hickory (allied to the tallest and strongest of all the barring Weymonth and other pines. almost entirely forest-clad. Appalachian Region. in addition to several kinds of maple. The poorer soil and the more rainy climate of eastern Canada cereals do not allow that region to compete in the growth of with the more generous and sunny West. An abundant rainfall all the year round. while much richer than that of our country. On other hand. is The white elm trees. brilliancy . ash. It is. perhaps lime. the core of which is formed by the mountain system of the Appalachians. the sugar maple being quite exceptional in that respect and the humbler vegetation. 85 two of walnut. This gives a wealth of timber quite unknown to western Europe. and the cultivation of fruit of a northern and temperate type. and two of hornbeam.GREAT LAKE REGION of beech. and a soil on the whole fairly rich. very similar in aspect and in mode of life. are common forest trees. whose existence is now seriously threatened by the axe and the paper-pulp mill. and four of the walnut). broad-leaf variety. moderate winds and temperature. The lumber industry is well developed. with an admixture is of conifers. it favours the development of good and pastures. The summer-green forests in southern Canada and New England are remarkable for the extraordinary the of their autumn colours. Canadian too well for the proper preservation of the forests.

with kalmia. At the same time. On the retreat of the ice. maclura. laurel. elm. and several shrubs allied to it and to shrubs of the . tulip-tree. magnolia. numerous species of rhododendron and magnolia are the most remarkable. chestnut. hornbeam. hazel-nut. plane. earlier flora was mostly recruited from these In Europe and western Asia the was stopped in its retreat by the Mediterranean and the mountain barriers running east to west : and destroyed the plant population which arose wards was mostly drawn from the east. the wealth and variety of these with forests almost challenge comparison the rich flora and luxuriant vegetation of eastern Asia. the polar ice invaded the now temperate latitudes. birch. the great diversity of the relief and of the soil permits of a large variety in the form As a rule the of the forests and their components. ash. Pine and other coniferous forests are found in greater proportion in the east and on porous sandy soils. in a similar climatic situation. the new plant population of the lands thus laid bare rich southern floras. poplar. willow.86 NORTH AMERICA kind. robinia (our common acacia). after- The catalogue of trees of the temperate type in eastern North America includes many species of oak. in past ages. horse-chestnut. the vegetation of eastern North America and Asia found shelter in the southern extensions of those continents. and surpass anything seen even in south-eastern Europe. When. broad-leaf type is found on the richer soils. sassafras. hickory. and allied trees. Conifers are the countless represented chiefly by pines. Among undergrowth. The circum. 'alder. and largely predominates west of the Appalachians. Indeed. maple.Appalachian region offers an admirable collection of broad-leaf and summer-green trees and shrubs requiring a relatively moist climate. walnut.

the belt is similar to that of central Europe. the Weymouth pine and the red spruce being the chief of these. amid the deciduous forests. was once almost entirely timber-clad. rhododendrons. the black spruce and Fraser fir predominate. sandy-gravelly soil can only support pine-forests and a meagre flora. sometimes by the deciduous trees. a large admixture of patches and clumps of conifers. vegetation of this- On the whole. These constitute the so-called ' New Pine-Barrens '. true 87 its Our common Virginia creeper has and the autumnal beauty of its foliage to serve may give an idea of the gorgeous colours of there. sometimes overtopped by the tall pines.APPALACHIAN REGION the rhododendron. this terrace is followed east of York. home autumn in the Great Lake district. kalmias.Washington by a lower and much indented coastal shelf. Above the limits of the broad-leaf forests. The wide terrace which extends at the rear of the lower coastal plain up to the foothills of the central Appalachians shows a transition between the lake region and the more luxuriant south. The Appalachian range. it This vast region is so varied that naturally falls into large divisions or provinces. and still retains magnificent vestiges of its former wealth. The higher ridges and peaks are covered with subalpine heaths. In the central portion the forests are mixed: among other conifers. and other shrubs form a dense and beautiful under- Weymouth 100 to 150 feet. growth. the pine attains there heights of Magnolias. It possesses. composed of glades. tall scrub and grassy . whose dry. On the seaward the line side. each with a character and a plant-world of its own. in its central and southern portions. as far as vegetation is concerned.

. very serious destructive floods. where the evergreen vegetation of the south is in evidence. The consequences to obtain the wood. the development of rolling Beyond it commence the low mud flats of the shore intersected with marshes and lagoons. far into Texas. Correspondingly the ratio of conifers decreases and that of the broad-leaf evergreens increases. and the alluvial coast plain or Eastern Valley. to. In the lowlands. while the dominant type of vegetation remains the leaf-shedding forest. and the soil more fertile. : and protective measures have had to be resorted to. &c. the of mountain-forests the destruction have attending been. the ruin latter simply : of the slopes. The Atlantic lowlands. has no longer the importance it used to possess when the West was yet uncultivated. and the transition to the vegetation of Flo- rida and the southern states imperceptible. In each. especially the growing of cereals. sandy porous. the temperature becomes milder and more regular.88 NORTH AMERICA Proceeding down the valleys of the southern Appalachians in a south-eastern direction. agriculture. perhaps. is The sequence of belts down to the sea-coast broken by the interposition of a long strip of pine forest which runs parallel to the coast-line and round the extremity of the Appalachians. a regular series of belts parallel to the mountains and the coast is sandy and gravelly foot-hills. the . across the valley of the Mississippi. a less luxuriant growth than in the crossed: the terrace resting mountains. to make room for cultivation and industry. This pine belt exactly coincides with. the rainfall less abundant. as usual. have been cleared of their timber the former. a broad on hard rock. with a greater variety of species but. and is so gradual as to be to a large extent also the mountains. and is due and downs.

and the fruits of warmer climates. and a rich variety of leaf-shedding trees the ridges of the hills naturally bear lighter forests. with tobacco. and ' able to the ' luxuriant meadows cover the heavier bottom-lands. on the whole. Here is the true home of the common 'acacia' (more accurately robinia. cotton. but the interest of this region now lies in other directions. comparable with those which exist between the rainy belt of western Europe and the more extreme central portion. agriculture plays a more important part than in the north. have superseded the luxuriant summer-green forests. summers warmer. The vegetation. and Tennessee. are colder. and the rain does not fall so regularly throughout the year. though cultivated fields of a southern type. the whole country was a fairly continuous forest prior to the dense settlement of man. South of Washington.APPALACHIAN REGION 89 Mixed farming for local needs is still practised. In spite of such minor differences. The country west of the Appalachians is formed by the Alleghany and Cumberland plateaus. continued westward by the lower and undulating plateaus of Ohio. hickory. West of the Appalachians. in the rich Eastern Valley. On : higher ground rise forests comprising many kinds of oak. non-coniferous forest type. Kentucky.and maize-growing West. the climate is primarily favour- growth of the so-called hardwood or broadThe soil is fertile. is very much like. Rivers are screened by dark and marshy woods. The sandy pine-belt yields only lumber and wood products. the country is less industrialized. Here the climate is not so mild as in the east winters . that across the Appa- lachians. it constitutes really a step towards the drier conditions of the west. and leaf. Free from the competition of the wheat. or false . but not so luxuriant arid diversified as.

which herald the approach of the western prairies. an important part in the of the country owing to the wealth of water. maize south of the forty-second .forests or from ' the summer-green type of the plateaus valley offers all . the bayou country favours the extension of the rain-forests into the cooler regions. is particularly well irrigated and It is difficult to distinguish the forests which fertile. wood which The so-called 'cedar- glades' continue down to Alabama. such as gleditschia On forests the dry limestone heights of Tennessee there are of tall junipers. meandering arms called bayous '. and forests of this tree are also found in Florida. the Mississippi transitions from one to the other with a tendency towards the luxuriance of the south. across which the mighty river has thrown vast swamps. with a dense network of sluggish.90 acacia) NORTH AMERICA and other similar leguminous and gymnocladus. Agriculture. Beyond the plain of the Mississippi. the higher plains of Arkansas and eastern Texas possess lighter and poorer woodlands. The low and broad alluvial plain of the Mississippi valley.and rail-ways. continues to play life . however. number of evergreen trees and shrubs Mixed forests of summer-green and evergreen components now mark a step towards the sub-tropical vegetation of the southernmost States. Wheat in the north. producing that excellent red serves for pencils. cover it either from the sub. trees. Gradually. it is afforded an almost unlimited scope. the increases.tropical rain. as one goes south. according with a gradual decrease of rainfall. in spite of the intrusion of other industries. A long way up the river. and evergreen magnolias become abundant. The vast region which extends from the Appalachians to the prairies is one of the largest granaries of the world.

91 are still grown in enormous quantities. The Atlantic shelf up to Cape Hatteras. the American forests of those parts have supplied the world with valuable timber. for it requires a wellwatered soil. Mexico. Its importance is so farof its crops is anxiously the that condition reaching watched year by year in other countries which depend on it for the raw also. the southern States are the most important Tennessee. nearest to the beach. and the northern shores of the Mexican Sea. but the variety of conditions of the soil induces a corresponding diversity in the flora and is curtails On the area belonging to the rain-forest proper. whose expression in of the able to do so to the the plant-world the evergreen rain-forest of a temperate type. and inter-tropical regions. becomes the chief crop. consuitable for the growth of cotton. For a long time. but there is a Sugar-cane has long been grown tendency towards of the limiting it to the warmer climate West Indies. enjoy a warm and rainy climate. This rich agricultural centre of the States has long been the mainstay of the wealth of the country. ditions are cotton producers in the world. from Texas to the Atlantic. but on account both of their rapid disappearance and growing consumption at home. though otherwise adapted to somewhat dry climatic conditions. Behind this curtain . in spite of the invasion of industry.WEST OF THE APPALACHIANS parallel. Southern States. indeed. which. comes a strip of sandy downs tenanted by swamp-pines and sabal palmettos. and tobacco remains a staple product of Kentucky and South of the thirty-seventh parallel. and must remain so. the northern shores of the Gulf of Mexico. they are no longer same extent as formerly. materials of many of their manufactures. in the southern States.

the southern States have a prosperous type. while the belt of coast-swamps nearly reaches Where the nature of the the delta of the Rio Grande. ground allows it. rhododendrons and other shrubs of the same family are in evidence in the undergrowth. and where the 'cedar-glades 1 Further inland the plateau is interrupted by the great pine-belt which extends over sands and sandy loams far This vegetation is carried also into into Carolina. where tall cane thickets give a touch of the Tropics. which unfolds a park landscape of prairies.000 feet. Texas. bar. and forests of a hard-leaf evergreen character of Tennessee recur.swamps and damp coastmeadows. the rest of the year being nearly dry. in which the incense-tree or liquidamextends a belt of flooded. frequently and covered with reeds and sedges. has a distinct season of heavy rains of about ten weeks' duration. beyond the dense cane. Westward from the Gulf of Mexico. Mixed forests of pines and oaks follow on the higher and rolling slopes which lead up to the tableland of limestone. Evergreen magnolias.or bald-cypresses which lose their needles in winter. eroded and form a belt of rolling land. cotton. Texas. sugar-cane. there is a gradual ascent to a plateau rising by successive broad terraces to a height of about The lower terraces are naturally much 4. which is mainly This region light. scrub. predominate.92 NOETH AMERICA swamps and moorland. crops. It is the abode of the tall swamp. composed of .and cypress. often draped entirely with the lichen-like epiphyte tillandsia. The terraces and hummocks between and beyond the marshes are clad with evergreen temperate forests. sandy loams and clays. worked by means of agriculture of a sub-tropical and tobacco being the staple negro labour. the evergreen or Virginia oak.

Here new types from the hot and dry regions give a peculiar stamp to they are the well-known yuccas. Extensive salt clay tracts are strewn over the surface of the Llano. cacti. now contracting into a canon clad with scrub. and is also more diversified. &c. and is only dense bunches of stiff straw. resembling open The grass grows taller than that of the oak-copses. sotol. and other fleshy or 'succulent' These plains are plants. On the represented by the a scattered brush of downs soil naked. such as the acacia-like mesquite. which shed their leaves during the period of drought. either single or in sparse groves. and . feature of the landscape. which extends beyond the Rio Grande over into Mexico. and most plants have deep. is reached. the vegetation : swollen roots. many of which yield fibres. of New Mexico and Arizona. hills. rich in bulbs and tubers. The mesquite and allied species. v more northern Limestone prairies. agaves. all marked by strands. Grass grows scarce. compose this scrub or chaparral which farther west becomes such a special ' '. studded with giant cerei This is the margin of the desert and tree opuntias. colonies of the usual succulent salt-bushes. opuntias. or Llano Estacado. the character of the vegetation becomes still drier. The valley of the latter river. various kinds of acacias and other Leguminosae. now expanding into a rich alluvial and agricultural plain.TEXAS The landscape is 93 that of a very open park dotted with light trees. naturally drier. with a fine loose soil. with a light foliage and stunted growth. stony rolling of the almost entirely composed appears. agaves. are covered with a scrub of thorny shrubs. and others. walnuts. At last the great Staked Plain. open Towards the Rio Grande. It is an almost level and typically semi-arid short grass country.. prickly bunches of the yuccas. cerei.


into broken

now thrown



eroded, with

ruined tables or

variety of landscape.


a large the of tops dry mesas but a poor, semi-desert brush of leafless shrubs,



left standing,


bushy composites, and scanty bunch-grass. The Llano Estacado and the transition zone of Texas

can be largely used for cattle-breeding part of Texas is indeed a country of ranches, where cattle are left to roam and find their own food over vast areas. Along the

comes across agricultural strips, but in the arid sotol districts little can be done apart from the
rivers one

slow cultivation of fibre-plants. Cotton is naturally confined to alluvial tracts where irrigation is possible yet these tracts cover a sufficient surface to constitute

one of the main assets of Texas and north-east Mexico. The water-melon and other fruits are also cultivated

The Grass


Broadly speaking, west of the 100

to the long Rocky chains, stretches a vast region with a type of vegetation different from that already described; it consists of flat or rolling plains,




to the foot of the mountains.

The most

important feature of its climate is dryness, due to its central position in the great body of land and its consequent distance from the sources of moisture, the seas.



hardly rises above a yearly average of

20 inches, and


is most abundant at the growing season. are scorching and winters very hard in the

north and centre.

The conditions

of the vegetation throughout the great

Over large territories the grass-belt are very uniform. endless table-like plains stretch, only furrowed by sunk




no shrubs, no




but dull green close swards of buffalo-grass or



grama-grass, two or three inches high, among which dwarf herbs are scattered. These grasses are very low and dry-looking, with narrow, rolled-in, wire-like leaves;

by means of their runners, they make a dense, velvety carpet upon the thick felt mat of their tangled roots. The power of the soil to retain moisture naturally exercises a great influence where water is so scarce, and the composition of the sward varies accordingly.
Buffalo-grass is prominent, often exclusively present, on clay or sandy grounds, whilst grama-grass and prairie

more abundant on loams. and then the flat plain heaves up into rolling The ridges then prewolds, or even into undulations. serve the dry steppe aspect, but the troughs assume an appearance more or less approaching that of our pastures.
grass are


On porous soils, prickly plants, small species of opuntias or prickly pears, and cerei are in evidence. Towards the eastern margins, plants grow taller, flowers are more
abundant, and the prairie gradually passes to the meadows of the east. On the poorest and most permeable territories,
like those

on the north of the Platte River, the


approximates to the true desert and forms what
as the


Bad-Lands arid tracts, hilly, creviced, and broken, on the loose soil of which frequently not a speck

of green

is visible'.

Where vegetation


it is

and prickly pears, now of one or two feet high bushes small, fleshy-leaved, thorny further on of patches of woolly, greyish eurotia (ComAnother variety of the prairie landscape is positae). found on the sand-hills which extend in a broken belt over parts of Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, and Texas: these rolling downs are covered with a sparse crop of bunch-grasses. As the great plains slowly rise to meet the foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains they undulate

composed now



more and more heavily.
typical grass;


The grama now becomes the wormwood bushes mingle with it and
form a pure

finally replace it to

sage-brush* on the

valleys which break the flat or rolling surface of the prairies provide the eastern forest vegetation with paths along which it reaches to the heart of the

The sunk

Fringing woods accompany the rivers a very long way up, composed of the usual kinds of broad-leaf deciduous trees oaks, elms, lime-trees, walnuts, and hickories, with the robinia-like trees gymnocladus, gleditschia, and a few others.
grass- country.

Towards Texas the vegetation is gradually enriched by the appearance of southern plants, which already impress upon the Llano Estacado a stamp quite different from that of the central and northern prairies indeed,

On tl\e east the great belongs to a distinct region. treeless plains are not sharply defined from the forest lands of the Mississippi it is only gradually that the

become poorer, thinner, and Islands of trees, then of bushes, lost amid the sea of grass, give the landscape the features of a,
forests of the central region

more stunted.

park, and constitute a belt of so-called bush prairie round the treeless area. The park prairie extends into


Iowa, approaching the Great Lakes, as a sort of bay into the forest region. The banks of streams, the
moister hollows, the slopes and foots of the rises, and other favourable localities still retain clumps and patches,
of deciduous trees throughout this intermediate belt. The most extensive of these tree-islands is thrown

athwart the middle course of the Reel, Canadian, and Arkansas rivers it is known as the Cross Timbers \ and covers most of the Indian territory. The Great Prairie is the replica of the Great Russian






due to similar causes. Until and grama grasses supported large herds of bison and numerous other animals. These are now replaced by half -domesticated cattle, tended by mounted herdsmen known as cow-boys. If,

and Asiatic steppes, and

substantial buffalo








pastoral, irrigation has been the means of rendering available part of their naturally fertile soil for agricultural purposes, as the demand for cereals has increased.



especially the case for the generous lands of

Canada bordering on the Great Northern forest, south and west of Winnipeg. There is a striking parallel between the lines of modern development of the great
temperate grass areas of the world the Russian steppe, the Argentine pampa, the African veldt, and the American




they are becoming the main granaries of the The American prairie, however, enjoys the

superiority of greater water-power and easier

communithe Pacific

The Western Mountains. The winds from

are the mainsprings of life in western North America. On their moisture and distribution in relation to the
features of the relief depend the manifold changes in

the vegetation. Moisture decreases from the coast to the inland mountains, and, on the whole, also from north to south. The windward are moister than the leeward

again, low-lying areas are drier than the ridges,

and moisture increases with altitude up to a belt of greatest rainfall, above which it diminishes rapidly. The plains lying between the mountain ranges are



compared with the neighbouring


these reasons, western North America be described broadly as a succession of three parallel


wooded chains separated by arid troughs and



Of the three main ranges, the Coast and the Cascade
be grouped together as representing a rnoister system; while the Rocky Mountains, separated from these by a series of broad plateaus, form a much drier


eastern wing.



Only at one point in the Columbiathanks to the gap in the western barrier

FIG. 2G.


prairie passing into a brush of summer-green buslies

and small birches


zone, Western Canada.

through which the river Frazer flows, does the inland
chain share some of the moisture and luxuriance of the
coast-ranges. The forests of Pacific

North America are almost ex-

composed of



this should be so

not satisfactorily explained yet. It is quite certain that many of the varied climates and soils, as they H 2



stand at the present time, are eminently suitable for at least an abundant admixture of broad-leaf summer-

green forests, and that similar circumstances, at the other end of South America, in southern Chile, in New Zealand, and in Europe, favour the development of such
broad-leaf trees.
It is therefore likely that the cause of

the exclusive predominance of conifers here will be found mainly in the geological history of the country.

The northern half of the coast-ranges enjoys a rather moist and temperate climate even the seaward slopes

of the southern Alaskan range have a comparatively mild winter. Hence the coniferous forests in these
regions, south to latitude 43, display a luxuriance unsurpassed in any part of the world. The predominant

forms, spruces, firs, douglasias, tsugas, possess heavy crowns the lighter pine form is subordinate. Towards the mouths of the Columbia and Frazer these forests reach their maximum of wealth and density on the seaward slopes heavy crops of gigantic trees, and a ground encumbered with a tangle of dead wood, padded with thick layers of mould, and carpeted with mosses and ferns. Though the variety of tree-forms decreases as one goes towards Alaska, the seaward slopes of the Pacific coast mountains continue to enjoy a mild and humid




to Cook's Inlet.


display, in contrast

Alaskan plateau and the Rocky Mountain chain on the north of it, the same luxuriant type of hemlock-spruce and cedar forests South Alaska indeed presents the appearance of a beautiful mountain park pleasantly diversified by rich, flowery meadows. Above
to the central

1,200 feet the park landscape changes to sub-alpine pastures dotted with groves of alders and willows and

a treeless belt of alpine grasses reaches to the snow-

among which wild sheep are to be found. of Norway.THE WESTERN MOUNTAINS 101 line. Pine forest bordering meadow. but the rivers. FIG. nearer to us. in the Rocky Mountains. 27. strikingly recalls that of southern Chile and. . with its ever-moist climate. Naturally the chief industries are concerned with timber. High plateau These forests abound in large animals. In point of structure and vegetation the ColumbianAlaskan coast.

' ' . The predominant vegetation is now the chaparral or scrub yet in northern California the Californian red.wood. shorter. with hardly any cover on the . The sugar-pine tsugas. and belongs to the scattering belt of the North Canadian * ' forest. form stately forests with a dense undergrowth of hard-leaf occasionally. this northern Pacific coast affords a picture of what the west coasts of Scotland and Ireland were like previous to their complete ruin by man. evergreens.102 NORTH AMERICA teeming with fish. An increasingly meagre and smaller kind of forest is carried along the coast-range proper down to San Francisco the Californian portion : which follows on the south is no longer timbered thin woodland patches of some extent can only be seen . with this difference. and several kinds of silver-firs are found on the upper slopes. are another source of wealth. to condense a fair amount of moisture from the sea-winds. attains here the largest proportions. The eastern slopes are again poorer. with the Monterey cypress. the southern Cascades offer in a lighter form the same vegetation. The numerous islands are similarly clothed with conifers. In Alaska the timber-growth on the northern slopes of the coast-range is much more scattered and loose. thanks to their superior elevation. and spruces are conspicuous. and the thinner. the difference between the sea. and poorer forest-growth. In short. The eastern or landward slopes are decidedly drier. in which douglasias.and land-slopes is marked by the abundance of the pinetype on the inland side. for the forest growth becomes patchy and scattered. Behind the coast-range. that the species of trees in our countries were not so varied. Further south. and still able.

the westward slopes are invaded by a number of species which heretofore FIG. the southern portions more barren than the northern. Pines now preponderate. again. showing pines and Douglas firs. View in the Rocky Mountains. in addition to southern species. The high forest. henceforth. 28.THE WESTERN MOUNTAINS 103 naked ground. now protected against destruction. were confined to the eastern side. and among them the yellow pine. and. which rises above a belt of chaparral. are notably drier and Here. The chief ornament of the southern Sierra Nevada is the broken patchy belt of Big-Trees. of which a few thousands are still left. South of Mount Shasta moisture is still scantier. in the Sierra Nevada. consists of much the same trees as that of the Cascades. the most valuable and widespread timber of the west. .

Further south the mountains assume a decidedly parkwith forests in patches. the Douglas and the yellow pine among them. Towards the headwaters of the Colorado River. and confine themselves more and more to the canons and the higher altitudes.000 feet. They are clear and open. favoured not so much by rainfall as by the layers of snow which soak the ground in winter. The close forests of the north. from 8. without undergrowth. Here.000 to 10. are reached.104 NORTH AMERICA forests The on the Pacific side of the Rocky Moun: tains afford but a ragged mantle in the Alaskan region the thin groves of spruce are limited to the secluded southern valleys of the : in British Columbia the stunted form Murray pine predominates in thin woodlands. and precipitations. with the pastures of the lofty plateaus.500 to 12. in order of increasing altitudes fir. form here a veritable park region of some luxuriance. the higher mesas such as the Mogollon. Probably because until the edge of the Colorado plateau. pine. to the Pacific slopes of the Rockies. or the higher peaks such as the San Francisco.000 or 3. but on the upper reaches of the Columbia River the moist winds penetrate farther inland. and displays only a stunted and loose type of woodland on its rocky slopes. . extend like appearance. the Wasatch branch of the eastern mountain system is still more barren. far above the it remains too low. giving thin forests on the upper slopes which. and with them. do not recur adjacent arid lands. or large copses on the naked slopes. into the three zones of and spruce. above a belt of dwarf- pine and juniper or pinon rises. some of the western types.000 feet at an elevation of 9. and south of them. the high forest which is arranged. rains and snow is restricted to a belt of 2.000 feet. sufficient moisture from clouds.

The size of the people gives some idea of the gigantic size of the trees.FIG. . 29. Big trees in the Coastal Forests of British Columbia.

where the vegetation to recover so drought does not allow rapidly as in the moister north. the useless chaparral-scrub has extended considerably over former timber areas. where mines have exhausted the surrounding districts. 30. for a long time. a large number of . The Canadian portion has been little touched so except by forest fires but in the United States the axe and the fires have wrought immense harm to the forests. Now. the yellow pine and the Douglas or red fir being considered the most valuable. goes further south. however.106 NORTH AMERICA The western ranges have furnished. and whole chains have the more serious as one been denuded results. far. This is . down almost to the rock. with disastrous In other parts. especially in California. Aspen forest in Colorado. an abundant supply of timber. FIG. and entire districts have been laid bare.

like the Rocky margin. and enable the coast-forest to penetrate far inland. while the forests of its valleys are well stocked with timber game and fish are plentiful. Between the Pacific coast-systems of mountains and the Rocky Chain there stretches a succession of broad plateaus of varying height and character. varied by meadows and swamps. Connected and denser forests cover only the margins of the Yukon and its main tributaries and their alluvial flats. dotted. are naturally North of the Columbia drier than the adjacent slopes. Interment Plateaus of the Pacific. The arid. All of these. with isolated spruce trees. the spruce peneon both trates into the valleys of the mountain-chains sides of the plain. The deep flat canons alone are well wooded. has that scattered tree-growth which is characteristic of the northern belt of the Canadian forest.THE WESTERN MOUNTAINS forest reserves 107 have been created with a view not only to protecting the mountains themselves and the adjacent lowlands. with small Murray pines. winter-bare woodland. consisting mostly of aspen. the northernmost. and dying out towards the Columbia River. The Frazer-Columbia district has been already mentioned as being happily situated for favouring the inroads of the western vegetation. and the : . screened from the Pacific winds by the mountain barriers. On the south it is bordered by a hilly belt of broad-leaf. River they bear a park-like aspect. south of treeless it they are plateau. With the aspen or cottonwood. and The Yukon meagre grass-land. over large areas. is studded. the Columbian plateau presents grassy tops of a sub-alpine type. The Columbia plateau affords good grazing-grounds. but to preventing the further extension of reckless and harmful lumbering. Lying at a greater elevation and fissured by deep valleys.

THE WESTERN MOUNTAINS forest reserves 107 have been created with a view not only to protecting the mountains themselves and the adjacent lowlands. has that scattered tree-growth which is characteristic of the northern belt of the Canadian forest. The meagre grass-land. Interment Plateaus of the Pacific. The Columbia plateau affords good grazing-grounds. but to preventing the further extension of reckless and harmful lumbering. over large areas. consisting mostly of aspen. River they bear a park-like aspect. the Columbian plateau presents grassy tops of a sub-alpine type. with small Murray pines. and dying out towards the Columbia River. while the forests of its valleys are well stocked with timber game and fish are plentiful. south of it they are The Yukon plateau. like the Rocky margin. Between the Pacific coast-systems of mountains and the Rocky Chain there stretches a succession of broad plateaus of varying height and character. dotted. varied by meadows and swamps. winter-bare woodland. and enable the coast. with isolated spruce trees. screened from the Pacific winds by the mountain barriers. With the aspen or cottonwood. The Frazer-Columbia district has been already mentioned as being happily situated for favouring the inroads of the western vegetation. is studded. the northerntreeless and arid. are naturally North of the Columbia drier than the adjacent slopes. Lying at a greater elevation and fissured flat by deep valleys. the spruce pene- trates into the valleys of the mountain-chains on both sides of the plain. most. The deep canons alone are well wooded. On the south it is bordered by a hilly belt of broad-leaf. All of these. Connected and denser forests cover only the margins of the Yukon and its main tributaries and their alluvial flats. and the : .forest to penetrate far inland.

and closed in on all sides by mountains. while the broken basalt tables remain dreary plains follow with thin includes several kinds of bushy. grey. and here begins the great serni-desert. At the foot of the Cascades lies a park landscape of meadows and wet moors. girdled with forests of aspen. Farther ' brushes of sage '. above which rise pine-clad slopes. which stretches far into Mexico. The northern part is largely covered with lava sheets. All around its margins the foot-slopes of the mountains are covered with woodlands of cottonwood and other winter-bare trees. the Columbia plain is one of the most natural and best-defined wheat areas that can be found anywhere.packing industry is very active. and from the Sierra Nevada to the Rocky chain. and similar plants. East of the Cascades. Its general level above 3. situated at a low level. hoary. east. and occupies the fertile bed Such conditions offer quite exof a former lake. In easy communication with the Pacific ports. Beyond the Blue Mountains. and grassy. it smooth. is and a well irrigated by of large rivers. a name which sage-brush constitutes the background of the vegetation .108 NORTH AMERICA The lower salmon.000 feet and its rainlessness render the climate extreme and arid. The barren. the plain of the lower Columbia River. is a much more arid region in southern Oregon and Idaho. while in the rear rise the pine-clad upper hills. with small. which limit this plain on the south. which have dammed up a number of lakes and thus caused marshes. is treeless. and especially recalls the Great Prairies: number for wheat-growing. ceptional opportunities for agriculture. and stunted artemisias or wormwood. Frazer and Columbia valleys are extensively cultivated for wheat. woolly leaves.

successive belts of succulent salt-bushes. all running in a general north-south direction. the rounded foot-hills. 109 Gila down to the Mohave and The Great Basin of Nevada differs in aspect from that of Oregon-Idaho. rushes. 31. Sage-brush. rocky ridges and bluffs. parallel.INTERMONT PLATEAUS OF THE PACIFIC over the whole tract deserts. for countless short. grasses. Though rains be scarce. of the irregular surface. the very uniform vegetation consists almost . convert into evaporating pans. the gentle inclines of the mesas. and the lower mountain slopes. the waters of the casual showers collect in the troughs FIG. and covering alike the valley plains. Colorado. Outside the saline flats. which they line with clay and many of them covered with layers of alkaline efflorescence and absolutely barren: and shrubs surround them. arise abruptly from its floor.

000 feet. in a loose formation which is never an obstacle to the rider. by the sudden outburst of a flora of dwarf annuals which disappears as quickly as it comes. at an elevation of 5. small. a thin sprinkling of western junipers and stunted.000 feet. portion of the plateau of Asia Minor.110 NORTH AMERICA exclusively of the sage-brush. willow. the is graced by delightful oases. above 6. can the mountain mahogany be met. Other biennial and perennial herbs likewise wither and disappear from the surface in July. firs. showers. when it sinks abruptly along a much broken bluff down to the sweltering desert of Gila. after leaves. As will be seen. with a scanty plant-mantle of bunch-grass and grama- . on the rocky slopes of all the ranges. is found. The steep western slopes of the Wasatch Mountains are destitute of trees. and of low.000 to 7. The Colorado plateau included between the Wasatch and the Rocky chains extends south to the line of the Mogollon Mountains. poplar. With it may occur. clinging to the rocky ledges and on the dry inclines. according to the situation. marked by the characteristic aspen. a few similar bushes. some ten to fifteen feet in height. and other leaf -sheddesert ding trees of a northern type. Only on the principal ranges. however. The canons are lined with a ragged brush of pines. It is a high tableland. single-leaved pines. with whitish. compact habit. dry and naked. the vegetation of the Great Basin corresponds closely with that of the Algerian plateau in north-west Africa it may also be compared with a large . and junipers. strong-scented This permanent vegetation is brightened. cut up by deep and precipitous canons into large flat-topped blocks or mesas. growing about three feet high. arid and treeless. Where the ground water accumulates. From this chain to the Sierra Nevada.

INTERMONT PLATEAUS OF THE PACIFIC grass. including the yellow red fir. pine and the douglas or A few Rio valleys. 111 The canons them have naked walls with nothing but crooked pines sticking FIG. some of vary greatly as regards vegetation . 82. others are clothed with luxuriant and regular pine-forests. A typical timbered canon in the Colorado Region. interspersed with colonies of low cacti. occasionally out of crevices. like those of the Grande and San- .

similar plants of the Mediterranean. naturally well watered. in places. Agriculture is not altogether excluded from those tracts. and deprived of most of the moisture Lying of the Pacific winds. marshes. southward as the Gulf of California.112 Luis. Algerian plateau. and more especially of the Algerian tell. If the Great Basin. and pastures. . The Californian valley extends from the coast-range to the Sierra Nevada in continuation of the trough that separates the mainland of British Columbia from the coast islands. are broad NORTH AMERICA enough to permit of the development cf wastes at the bottom. it enjoys a moderate rainfall during the winter. if of the means be taken of preventing the surface evaporation soil. and a pleasant warm temperate climate. cypresses. the recalls tation. which has succeeded in wresting good maize crops out of what looked like mere sand wastes. the Californian and a large number of evergreen shrubs. sandy. or gravelly artemisias and other sage-brush plants regularly recur. grass steppes claim a large portion of its area. displays a park landscape in which the hard-leaf and evergreen vegetation is prominent. to the correspond laurel. The floor of the valley. California gives a striking replica of the Mediterranean landscape. and consequently are as moisture ' a rule well wooded. in the midst of the general aridity. Above the general level of the plateau rise a few mountain ranges which are able to catch the rain and the snow. which is. luxuriant meadows. Dry in turn. in respect of its vegeCalifornia. and of thoroughly utilizing the ground : ' on these principles is based the system called dry farming or dry-land farming. continued in a hollow. Some of them unexpectedly reveal delightful Alpine corners with prosperous forests of conifers and aspen. when rolling. and is. but evergreen oaks with small leathery leaves.

along with maize and lucerne or alfalfa. developed rapidly in the hope of soon eq. at the foot of the Arizona plateau.. as growth and mode of life of the plants are concerned. California has borrowed its agriculture from the Old World olive. on the south. is a feature of California : the sea-coast in a belt on the lower slopes of the ranges on either side of the valley. The similarity between the two warm temperate regions of Europe and America is continued in the forests of conifers. and an extremely dry and clear atmosphere are the features of this region. Those strenuous efforts have been attended already with some measure The harder kinds of wheat are also grown of success. under the name of the Gila desert a complete drought. and is characteristic of the foot-hills of Mexico. and undergrowth of which correspond. The chaparral. habit. It of it is is almost all the ranges in Arizona and New also a predominant and ever-present feature in north-western Mexico and lower California. on the tracts of dry grass. adopted and. where ground water is available. orange-. a fierce heat. dwarf oaks.ualling the European produce. prickly leaves. and lemon-trees have been silk. Compared with the : 1U9-1 I .and vineyards. orchards of mulberry-trees for peach-.CALIFORNIA This parallel is still ' 113 which is further exemplified in the chaparral'.worms. an exact replica of the European maquis. and much doubtless due to the destruction of forests. point for point. The Great Basin gradually passes. and thorny bushes. &c. to the Mohave desert which extends beyond the Colorado. extensively. the composition. by means of new cultural methods. it extends along others. : . though the species may differ. with its impenetrable thickets of evergreen shrubs with far as the and leathery. Quite naturally. with similar forests of the Mediterranean. The American Deserts.

Not a few valleys collect : Madre the underground waters and develop good pastures. These works reveal the past existence of a highly organized agricultural community. leafless. Being destitute of large mammals. and pine forests crown the summits and upper slopes. while some harbour delightful oases. ungainly. such as it is. nolinas. Proceeding eastward. yuccas. candelabra-cerei of most diverse varieties.114 NORTH AMERICA African and Asiatic deserts. the American desert does not even afford a good hunting-ground. Yet. the Papagos Indians were able to evolve a fairly advanced system of agriculture based on extensive works of irrigation. . at one time. menacing shapes: giant &c. and the population is now dispersed in little communities along the eastern margin and the few large rivers. plants called succulents. and on the outskirts of the plain. of a centre of culture which has possibly disappeared in the ever present struggles between the nomads and the house builders. less ma- millarias. the American desert is remarkable for the extraordinary development of those fleshy. good many plants A with strong underground stems only show themselves This water. agaves. or apparently leafless. opuntias. thorny. is often most necessary. tation provides the rare native or traveller with a beverage which. one has to cross a mountainous tract which is the northern spur of the western Sierra here the prickly chaparral resumes a prominent position in the landscape. Nowhere in the world is there such a combination of weird. strange are the leafless brushes of the creosote-bush (larrea) and the ocotillo (fouquiera) and Hardly the formidable spines of several thorn-bushes belonging to the acacia and mimosa type. in more than one canon. dasilyrions.storing vegeafter the occasional showers.

In point of aridity. while the plain of Sonora continues the Colorado desert to the California the south. Lower southern spur of the coast-range and possibly of the Sierra Nevada. barren and torrid.scrub on steep slopes of a gorge- Mexico. Dry Cereus . . and occasionally tolerates short fringes of mangrove-bushes on the tidal marshes everywhere the . I 2 .LOWER CALIFORNIA Lower California is 115 and Northern Sonora. peninsula and of the Sonoran coastal shelf compete it is another land of with the Mohave-Gila region The Pacific coast. 83. a few strips of scattered chaparral in the troughs of the valleys. shelters thirst. the northern portion of the FIG.

but while the mountains in the rear receive the benefit of the monsoons. &c. extremely diversified. the landscape turns more and more to a mountain park. the plains are too low to condense the moisture. . This region is practically uninhabited. dry pastures dotted with cacti and candelabra-cerei. The valleys become abundantly wooded and display a luxuriance only second to that of the tropical rain-forests. and evergreen oaks. lowland of Mexico. and to a lowering of temperature. while the ridges remain semi-arid. mango. firs. banana. It is a land of ragged. Ascending the Sierra Madre. and they remain half arid outside the narrow margins of the rivers. Further up. ridges of the peninsula are scattered coniferous woods.. the western palm-forests. grown and on the longitudinal fruits. where pastures alternate with extensive forests of pines. The western coastal shelf of the mainland of Mexico becomes increasingly fertile towards the south. if due advantage be taken of the facilities of irrigation. due to a combination of granite soil and irregular monsoon wellnigh all tropical can be successfully rains. papaw. By reason of the variety of climates from .116 NORTH AMERICA : climatic aridity is enhanced by the porous nature of the lava which covers most of the surface of the peninsula but a material change intervenes towards the point of lower California. Numerous mountain torrents water the naturally generous soil. and of prickly jungles or chaparral acacias. one leaves behind the well-defined belts of vegetation which correspond to an increase of rainfall and mists. is favourably situated for semi- tropical and tropical agriculture. In favourable places. mostly composed of The sweltering marshes and lagoons which the rivers create along the Pacific coast support extensive At present thinly peopled.

cacti. becomes more varied and the rainfall more accordregular and abundant towards the south and. has mild but dry winters and warm and moderately rainy summers. greyish bushes. which rises to 6. to the salt-pastures. by Thanks. as usual. the of the vegetation aspect ingly.000 and 7. oil-. The most and are coffee maize. from rice. Timber is actively some parts of the Sierra Madre. arid potatoes. bine the features of both still alkaline swamps and salt-bushes or bolsons accompanied. agaves. it 117 all may be said that the agricultural produce of the earth can be grown in one or the other of these belts of vegetation. Lower and broader. however. the hot plains of the north still belong to the margin of tropical semi-deserts. while important products. and coco-palms through coffee and maize to wheat. is rapidly increasing. is more diversified. and seem to com. cotton. water-sources are numerous. sugar-cane. mountains. From the Rio Grande southwards. This portion of the plateau. woody. ranges. the most remarkable of which is the rubber bush or The inland drainage has developed broad guayule. however. the Mexican plateau rises and contracts gradually. With this The relief . The Mexican Plateau Anahuac. it enjoys towards the south a well-marked and fairly regular summer rainfall. Vast. oats.000 feet above sea-level. They stand intermediate between the the Rio Grande and are arid lands beyond those of the Gila. bordered on both sides by a jagged rim of high mountains and broken by numberless short cattle-breeding exploited in Extremely dry in the north.LOWER CALIFORNIA the coast to the summits. and mesquites predominant. dreary areas are covered with a modified sage-brush of low. and suffice to supply the extensive cattle-ranches and the industrial towns.

whose lowest parts are frequently transformed into lagoons or swamps with no outlet. Taxoclium trees Sncromonte. which are hardly relieved The hill ranges.118 NORTH AMERICA climate. Amecameca (Mexico). the soil being mostly porous arid the inland rivers remaining dry during the greater part of the year. but such conditions are seldom fulfilled. very deep canons. or running in FIG. tree-growth requires a well-watered soil. once wooded to a large extent. . bare. 84. are now Over the plains stretch vast steppes of mostly scattered wiry bunch-grasses.

'. history vestiges of it are still to be seen in the Valley of Mexico The scientific works of irrigation. A notable feature of the upper part of the plateau is the cultivation of the . will in course of time open up vast territories. The rural industries of the Mexican plateau depend almost exclusively on the capacity of the soil for retaining the moisture. and acacia bushes. agaves. who had not reached the same level of culture. and water-supply which these populations carried out . which are not infrequent. brought large areas under prosperous settlement and cultivation. they were unable to equal or replace those gigantic works. which are strewn over the plateau.THE MEXICAN PLATEAU by occasional 119 countless groves of low trees. superior what was known in Europe at the same period of . and on the underground water-supply. irrigation. and evergreen alike. and maize and wheat are extensively cultivated. its ancient inhabitants. more . wiped out the native civilization. cattle-ranching. viz. took full advantage: pastoral industries were unknown for lack of cattle. The lava sheets. Atlantic Lowlands of Mexico The Atlantic or Gulf slopes of the plateau are and Southern Mexico. are marked by thickets of thorny cacti. the Naliua. so that when the European Conquistadores. Fertile agricultural valleys are not lacking. but they practised to an intensive form of agriculture and gardening. yuccas. Of the temperate of conditions and immense resources the plateau of Anahuac. In the moister valleys. opuntias. but over the larger part of the high plain only a modified kind of nomadic life. thrive and increase. is possible. however. deciduous . pastures become quite luxuriant woodlands and groves of tall trees. agave whose fermented juice is a popular drink other agaves are also grown for their fibres. drainage.

and Fairly dry in the north. dyewoods. Mexican rubber. cacao. the Atlantic to nine . In Tabasco and Campeachy. has lengthened so as to cover eight cedar. the rain.forest possesses all the profusion and features of the equatorial sqlva. At this southern of the plain. in Brazil. and outside the alluvial and well. conditions are dry enough to favour the growth of those deciduous.120 NORTH AMERICA abundantly watered than the western Sierra Madre. low thornwoods and jungles which. but wherever the moisture of the soil compensates for the dryness of the atmosphere. there are imposing forests of conifers: in the temperate belt or tierra templada which receives the maximum of ' ' atmospheric moisture. months of the year and render the climate regularly hot and moist. mahogany. This condition is reflected in the vigour of the dark forests which cover the plain and the hills. eastern Sierra gradually enters into the moist tropical region.watered portions. on account of its reduced rainfall. in the lower valleys. where the succession of vegetations from top to foot of the mountains is broadly as follows: on the upper slopes. the agricultural possibilities. which was so extremity short in the north. and possess a still wider range of climate. which are largely of volcanic origin. Thanks to the breach in the line of high plateaus which is known as the isthmus of Tehuantepec and to the wide opening of the Chiapas valley. the magnificent broad-leaf evergreen rain-forests of the valleys alternate with the tall coniferous forests of the ridges: further down. Yet the rainfall has decreased. vegetation. the rainy season. and vanilla are the among indigenous forest products. the equatorial forest regains all its power. are described as 'caatingas': the broad coastal plain or 'tierra caliente' is divided between the jungle and the grass savanas.

or brush-clad table The inland and Pacific valleys are. those just described only the low plateau or plain of Yucatan owes more to the porous nature of its limestone than to its climate and displays a large development of savana and jungle. 35. the . FIG. while the hilly interior is : " ff '' ' t" . the Dry scrub and cereus-trees on arid slopes. by contrast. abundantly wooded up to the heath. on the whole. assuming frequently the character of semi-deserts.ATLANTIC LOWLANDS OF MEXICO winds penetrate to the heart of the 121 of mountains. tops. The civilizations able records high enough according to all availthat preceded. cone. and disappeared before. Mexico. with a scant vesture of acacia-scrubs or wastes of cacti and succulents." it : -^ /. the features of South Mexican mass whose vegetation repeat. A small alluvial abundant vegetation of which supports a group of huts* Tuland valley. very hot and dry.

In a Florida Swamp. 36. .FIG.

mainly in the flowering plants. The southern shores of Florida with its Keys. more than to restrictions of the climate. and to its geological history. in Cuba. do not reach the lavish diversity and splendour of form of the interThis difference seems due to the isolation tropical world. Hispaniola (Hayti). and the Lesser Antilles. the features of the vegetation of the West Indies so closely approach those of the mainland of Central America as to admit of a common description. on the east.and air-currents. to many features of which the plant-life of Florida closely approximates. Florida and the West Indies. The screen of mountains which forms the core of the Antilles is high enough to intercept the atmospheric moisture and leave the leeward slopes fairly dry. Jamaica.ATLANTIC LOWLANDS OF MEXICO 123 invasions of Europeans. were primarily agricultural. which is particularly noticeable in the larger islands. Palms. hence a marked distinction between the two sides. which. Agriculture is the chief industry . the flora of the warm temperate regions is stimulated to a supreme effort of vigour and beauty but the admixture of the more profuse plant types from the south is too limited to admit of the variety and luxuriance of truly tropical vegetation. and the low archipelago of the Bahamas. Leaving aside minor differences. of the country. are bathed in the balmy and moist atmosphere created by the warm waters of the Gulf Stream. and epi. lianas. though the Zapotecs and Mayas amongst others Have left stupendous ruins in southern Mexico. phytes. the state of sea. Tropical conditions are fully attained across the channel. span the gap between the two Americas. while indeed pleasantly common. These islands are so situated as to receive the benefit of the trade-winds. Under the influence of those favourable conditions.

though the Patagonian semi-desert finds no equivalent in the northern continent. are due alike to its situation. and moisture is enhanced by constant equatorial heat the development of a huge alluvial plain which they have helped to create hence the Amazon selva has no area lies . the lofty range of the savanas. high marginal rims prevent the penetration of the moisture very far inland. offered perhaps by no other continent. and reaching south to theGulf of Guayaquil. hence a similar arrangement in the distribution of the large masses of vegetation. along the slopes of the Andes and . life in to its geological history. Andes has the same effect on the westerly winds as the triple barrier of mountains has in North America . Under the latitudes of the trade-winds. to the height and disposition of its relief. The greater extent of its between the Tropics within the belts of The effect of the equatorial rains and trade-winds. as it was in the time of the (related to the Mayas) Cebunaya populations aboriginal which have vanished before the Europeans. a fact which favours the extension of broad Outside the Tropics. its extension in latitude. equal in the world. eastward through northern Venezuela to Trinidad. Central America. and General.124 of the NORTH AMERICA islands to-day. including CentralAmerica up to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. CHAPTER III SOUTH AMERICA The wealth and variety of forms of plantSouth America. The whole land.

which lasts. flat. and palms. landscape. where light clumps of acacias and other short.000 to 14. and a dry and burning hot weather. either bare or covered with dense. The wealth in palms. cacao. fine-leaf trees. or Maracaibo . rubber. and vegetation are detail. depending chiefly for its moisture on local monsoons. Camor a narrow belt leading to peachy. with occasional branches running east and west and an eastern spur forming the coast-ranges of Between the steep sierras. according to locality. They are fringed seaward by arid dunes. and are interrupted by alluvial tracts of heavy tropical rain-forests. falls into and control of the Atlantic trade. or isolated tall ceibas and groves of palms stand conspicuous. chiefly vanilla. and are known in Colombia as 'paramos'. from six to nine months or more. deep northern Venezuela. Many of the mountain. largely under the altitude. The climate is naturally varied owing to differences in a western or Pacific drier portion. known their mahogany. low evergreen scrub. as in Venezuela or. climate. On the Atlantic side the coastal plains are covered with a succession of savanas. 125 may be regarded as forming in : a natural region of Varied as its tropical mountains.CENTRAL AMERICA their prolongation eastward.000 feet of elevation. and marshy tract of lowland as in Honduras.winds. dyewoods. again. a broad. rapidly rising slopes. In the south. rocky shelf as in Yucatan. and sometimes broad valleys open into low sweltering The coast-line on the Atlantic presents a flat plains. for . there are two dry and two wet periods. and an eastern more rainy portion. tops expand into plateaus at 10. this region presents a fairly uniform character mountain ranges or sierras stretch parallel to the Pacific coast-line. The year is divided into a rainy season.

. or brackish. Undergrowth of a. tidal 'bayou* in iniertrop'cal country. pineapple. and rubber. marshy not so great here as in other tropical regions. FIG. forests are frequently fringed with shallow lagoons. mangrove. The low. or hidden by tall and thick hedges of grass and reeds. swamps. along with bananas. coco-palm. cotton. which are belted with swamp forests. In many places the forest has been cut its place. including sugar-cane. down or burnt when a kind of savana takes or plantations have developed.126 SOUTH AMERICA is however. maize. cacao. 37.

in which the number of leaf-shedding trees increases until they are in turn replaced by pine forests on the drier ridges.000 and tree feet the rain- forest palrns.500 to 3. The high wind-swept plateaus are either lightly covered with thin and stunted pine woods. if not in diversity and number. in '. its At about 3. and constitute a zone of gloomy ferns. of stunted heath. is woods. frailezones groups or solitary. the by alpine zone. except where they are open to the north and north-east winds. changes character. small and bambus become conspicuous in the underwood. shaggy bodies. the inland valleys are. sierras which rise above the timber line are capped an Of the Colombian paramos. the tropical pines tall. In all much this region. on the whole. with little undergrowth. lianas and climbers decrease in size. or cushion plants scattered over the bare floor. as in the north of this region. or other short. at greater elevations.CENTRAL AMERICA : 127 and tobacco. make their forests appearance.000 feet. papaw. especially where the gradient is with sparse forests of evergreen covered very oak and strawberry-tree (arbutus). Higher again this warm rain-forest gives way to another less profuse and lower variety. merely clad with a heath-brush. hills. seldom grown. This kind of vegetation may be carried to elevations of 2. Farther up. wool-clad plants. stand the curious with stout. mango. suggesting a bilberry heath. low tussocks of stiff lowest may grass. The present the appearance of an open bushwhile the highest display a truly alpine carpet prairie. drier than the Atlantic slopes. The . as a rule. and woolly heads. rice is. whereas epiphytes. resembling in many ways the Mediterranean oak The slope of the steep. stout trees. or. &c. Among 4 these.

agaves.128 contrast between SOUTH AMERICA the . vast wastes of cacti. instead of luxuriant forests. grey patches of leafless and thorny scrubs. Thin. alternate with light evergreen woods. prickly pear. 38. and prickly acacias. Higher up begin . Physical Features of South America. Pacific and Atlantic coasts is generally striking inland slopes display only varieties of dry vegetation. the Fit*.

39.FIG. Mean Temperature of South America in January reduced to sea-level. FIG. 42. FIG. FIG. Mean Temperature of South America in July reduced to bea-level. 40. . Seasonal Distribution of Rainfall in South America. 41. Mean Annual Rainfall of South America.

. 43. Vegetation of South America.Lof fcy Mounledn Desert CZ3 Scrub Sleppe Poor Steppe Rick FIG.

however. is generally much drier in point of climate and here lighter tropical forests alternate frequently with barren cactus scrubs and grassy savanas. grows weaker as range succeeds range towards the interior. The troughs occasional of of the valleys are lined with savanas native and savana-woods. the equatorial regimen of rainfall being more strongly felt. The northern sides of the coast ridges are still partly covered with stately trees. The South American species which. the influence of which. oaks. mostly Mexico southern were. To the north of the Orinoco there is a low mesa which passes southwards to a level K 2 . The ancient these tropical mountain-lands populations in as and the West Indies. Between the Venezuelan Cordilleras and the Guiana highlands lies an open lowland which extends from the mouth of the Orinoco to the Cassiquiare and the upper Apure. due to the moisture of the trade winds. devoted to agriculture. retain the same forms of growth and leave the general aspect of the vegetation unchanged. Among those which had attained a fair measure of culture before the invasions of Euro- peans may be mentioned the Pipil-Quichue of the Guatemalan valleys and the Muysca or Chibcha of the Colombian plateaus. In Colombia and Ecuador. skilled also in arts arid crafts. grassland. hard-leaf trees and shrubs. though their civilizations have now been wiped out. Much of the forests of those Venezuelan Cordilleras has been destroyed and replaced by dreary scrub slopes.CENTRAL AMERICA 131 more regular forests of mixed pines. and tall jungles. and evergreen. the Andean valleys enjoy a richer vegetation of high forests. Orinoco Llanos. replace the flora of the northern continent. The branch of the Andes which strikes oft' to the east through northern Venezuela . strikingly like mediterranean woodlands. in the south.

of yearly average is not entirely lacking at any time of the year. crossed a dry and a wet season. paspulum fringes of river-forests. but is sweltering. the southern foot of which is followed by the Orinoco in its lower and middle course. The granite hills which stand above the plain are clad with tropical forests. though perhaps practice of grass-burning and the heavy grazing may partly account for it light kind of woodland . rain. and a fair Dew is abundant.132 plain. the country should not be covered by someis not satisfactorily explained the yet. The vegetation is that of a vast savana chequered by the Tall tufts of grasses. the llanos innumerable herds of wild cattle. The mesas. SOUTH AMERICA studded in places with granite hills and hillocks. On to the groves of mauritia palms which fringe them. The Orinoco llanos are admirably adapted for grazing purposes. south of the Guiana Highlands. and conspicuous in the distance thanks marks. mingled with tuberous and perennial herbs and evergreen shrubs form the bulk of it. by broad rivers. antelopes. Marshes. and the type of country closely resembles the Guiana savanas or llanos.. overgrown with tall sedges. and isolated clumps of short. considering the comparatively high atmospheric humidity and the fair amount of rainfall. are swarming. deer. with and severe droughts are not unknown. and panicum. depressions are generally occupied by light woods. but entirely undeveloped. and provide good pastures in times of drought. &c. and The climate is uniformly hot and periodically flooded. which remains under sixty inches. are of a more The rolling character and more park-like in aspect. Why. gnarled trees become conspicuous landirregular. though columnar palms are interspersed in places. are frequent. the atmospheric humidity. bestrewn with swamps.

to give park landscape of way in turn. stunted trees. Some of the mesas reach elevations of from (5. with increasing elevation and rainfall. of which they are the conOn the slopes. and are abundantly interspersed with bulbous and tuberous plants. the round patches . farther up.GUIANA HIGHLANDS Guiana Highlands. and hollows. of evergreen trees with a hard. recalling our ilexes and laurels. and separates it from the Amazon selva. dales. They are rolling wolds. half-way up. denser forests of a warm temperate type succeed. to an open fresh green swards and clumps of low. often marshy or damp. of which they reproduce the main features successions of broad terraces broken rising in steps. To these. the Guiana table- lands recall the Uganda plateau. which are sometimes broadleaved and four to six feet high. treeless. it has therefore more rain and is cooler than the surrounding plains. with remnants of mesas forming ridges or plateaus. and thorny bushes. and covered with large tufts of tall grass. panicum and paspalum. while the valleys share the savana character of the lowlands. In respect of structure and vegetation.000 to 11. The northern and eastern lower terraces are clad with by sunk valleys and dense rain-forests.000 feet. with the advantage of a more abundant rainfall. lier : 133 These constitute a northern out- of the Brazilian highlands. The aspect of those campos differs somewhat from that of the Orinoco llanos. form islands or belts of thin low woods. The troughs. rise open woods tinuation. The Guiana tableland is isolated arid open both to Atlantic and equatorial winds. The higher tables are treeless steppes. where palms are a conspicuous feature. These grasses become shorter on the back of the ridges. A belt of rolling savanas fringes the ' ' tableland on the south and west. leathery foliage.

often. almost on into the tropical selvas. all sides. and the park landscape becomes more and more crowded till the tall and gloomy Amazon selva is reached. night-dew always abundant. at low tide. rhopala in the hollows being locally called and sivartzia being the best known. Tangle of Mnngrove roots British Guiana. Though the rainfall appears to be is low in the Guiana savanas. . sugar-cane. the undulations gradually disappear. Such campos are but sparsely peopled. with hard much divided leaves. cacao. and hardly tilled except for local crops of maize. and manioc.134 SOUTH AMERICA ' capoes '. the grassy character of this belt. which passes. The trees are mostly bushy and deciduous. accounting for Fia. or thorns and prickles. 44. To the south. however.

The Demerara are valuable. This belt may extend ten or twenty miles inland. only interrupted by occasional clearings of savanas on the watersheds of their The low coast-belt with its shallow short streams. from which it a northern spur of the does not differ in any material point. This most extensive of alluvial plains is famous for its wealth of equatorial rain-forests. There is no combination of physical conditions . give the very conditions uninterrupted growth. palms. For this reason they are clad with densely heavy forests. and is succeeded by the tall rain-forest. while there is never complete drought. but it may be added that the mighty network of the trunk river and its innumerable tributaries is more efficient for irrigation than for climate need be said : drainage. teeming with animal life. and sugarcane are the chief products of the Guiana lowlands. coastal shelf is one of lagoons and luxuriant mangrove swamps. Its flat surface of which it offers the most perfect type. hardly varied by the scattered undulations or low while the land is regularly flooded by the mighty river.. sometimes for twenty miles or more on both sides. a regular throughout the year and plentiful rainfall. sedges and grass. The Atlantic slopes of the Guianas and their foot-hills are under the influence of the equatorial rainfall and enjoy a double wet season. district is an important sugar centre. or overhung with low. Cocoa. Of the an equable high temperature and day about 80 F. rubber. with two seasons of heaviest prefor a maximum and cipitation. is hills.GUIANA LOWLANDS 135 Guiana Lowlands. spices. while the rubber and the gum (balata) of the Guianas The Amazon Basin. itself Amazon selva. girt in by brakes of tall reeds. swampy forests and jungles. and is thus transformed into an inland little sea. extremely unhealthy.

hardly solid rank a and dense growth of tall sprung overgrown with a continuous drapery of lianas. half-wild. a green wall impenetrable from outside. traveller. and we may its that which regard at this luxuriance as the supreme effort of plant-life This is period of the world's development. musty. but feebly rooted in the mud. supported by innumerable pillars. thus forming an unbroken dark canopy. the tapping of which gives em- ployment to a roaming. shady. The plants. has teristic been divided into a number of charac- formations or associations. and by the Portuguese the selva The vegetation. stifling. Flood Forests. damp vault. extending broad fringe bordering on the rivers. It forms a gloomy. mud trees (Siam) and in the sundarbans of the From the slimy. It finds in an exact replica of the the flood-forests of the lowlands Mekong has mouth of the Ganges. This igapu is remarkable for its wealth in palms and its poverty in flowers. simply gorged with water. and scattered population . par excellence. It is the home of the Pard rubber-tree (Hevea braziliensis or seringeira). periodically * ? and having an excess of water. tied together by the lianas. expressed in the indescribable wealth of tree growth.136 in the SOUTH AMERICA whole world more favourable to vegetation than the Amazon plain provides. and is particularly well developed on the innumerable sluggish side canals or 'igarapis' that intersect it. are characterized by a peculiar type of forest called the igapii or ' 4 as a caa-gapu' (the rebalsa of the Spaniards). support each other. flooded The banks oi the streams. monotonous though it appears to the in the forest ' '. and choked with a perfect tangle of climbers inside. called by Humboldt 'hylea'. When the rivers are in spate its canopy simply rests on the water.

FIG. Swamp forest with roots of trees sticking out above flood level. ' the typical selva or ete or It is taller caa-guazu extends on firmer than the former. ground. 45.FLOOD FORESTS of Meztisos. It is also . and is sometimes replaced by miriti-palm forests (mauritia). Caa-guazn. and the trees reach and have a more solid structure. a larger size Beyond the * limits of the flood-forests. it 137 The igapii differs in character according as borders on so-called white or black rivers.

Thus vegetation seems to be arranged in broad belts from the rivers: the igapii. and the campo. and in its place soon rises . forbidding of the settlements being along the rivers. The best-known constituent is the para. a condition approaching that of the backwoods of Central Africa. the collection of rubber and castanha occupies several thousands for ' ' of natives. In the forest. or mandioca. as yet little known. ' '. and where it becomes abundant. the of the dwarfs of the African selva. but richer in tree lianas and broad-leaf epiphytes the foliage of the tall trees is smaller and harder. * restored this brush is called the caapu<?ra or capoeira ' ' '. poorer in palms. much like that On the west. and living a lazy. at perpetual war with the intruder. the backwoods of the Great Forest are thinner.138 SOUTH AMERICA more flowery. On the low and slowly rising watersheds between the large tributaries. Only wild tribes of Indians wander amid the fastnesses of the overwhelming forest. most inhabited. maize. ungainly brush. the lighter forest or woodland. where large campos or parklands are believed to stretch between the wooded valleys. selva merges into the montana hill-forests of the Andes. primitive life.the caa-guazu. lighter.(Brazil) nut tree (bertholletia or castanha). burned down to allow of temporary plantations of sugarcane. thanks to its It is to all appearances but sparsely nature. and lower. a dense. is The caa-guazu waterways are the sole means of communication. the forest takes the Here again cacao-trees grow wild name of castanhal The tall primaeval forest is often in the undergrowth. made of all the undergrowth Until the forest proper has been plants and shrubs. . This appears to be the case also with the unexplored low tablelands extending from the Madeira to the Tocantins.

which extends between the sea and the slopes. 139 The Brazilian high: rising gradually towards their eastern margin. arid in places a second and inner line of The coastal appears. completely. Forest cutting Eastern Brazil. have their edge much indented by short. lands.BRAZILIAN COAST FOIiEST BELT Brazilian Coast Forest Belt. . deep valleys this ragged edge is known as the coastal range or FIG. 46. varies greatly in breadth. Sierra do Mar. and sometimes disappears bluffs shelf. making a double range.

but trade winds in the south. being but the encroachments are so far limited. equivalent in many respects on the eastern edge of the African tableland in a similar situation. of a monsoon type in the The proximity of north. but the African coastal forestpoorer. both in size and variety. and passes slowly southern limit. alsophila and others. Through the breaches the flora . drier. in the edge of the plateau the sometimes carried far inland and mixes with of the campo south of the Tropics the upper now ' still largely preserves its character of * matto virgem ' or virgin forest (igapu). arid more broken an exact replica be found in East Madagascar. Palms play a prominent part but lianas and epiphytes are less varied and less strongly developed. rainfall. belt contains forest-belt is A portion of the coastal used for tropical agriculture. which fairly regular throughout the year.140 SOUTH AMERICA ledges and bluffs of the tableland lie open to Atlantic winds. the richest in luxuriant palms. . . fully The broken the sea. to an impoverished type to- wards its It bears in the main the stamp of the Amazon flora. the modifying influence of the moisture. is belt is : The so very gradual that no line can be drawn coastal forest-belt of Brazil finds an anywhere. give the coast sierra a hot and equable climate with an abundance is Hence the forest which and the coastal strip extends almost uninterruptedly from Pernambuco to Porto Alegre. but is somewhat reduced. and constancy of clothes its seaward slopes It preserves a tropical luxuriance far to the south of the Tropics. and the forest araucarias. The transition from the purely equatorial to the attenuated tropical type is in its composition. The lower zone of the hill-barrier. will known for its Brazilis perate zone forest is and jacaranda-woods the temmarked by tree-ferns.

is even drearier and thinner.storing bombax. The woods are green and flpwery for four to five months. water. both seasonal and daily. and increasing still farther inland. Northern Portion. . and cacti.Brazilian Highlands.. To the east of this. The rainfall varies from inches. but look as if dead for the remainder of the year. with gnarled and stunted prickly acacias. The vast tableland is very much broken by swift rivers running in deep valleys well below the general level. and shows great yearly irregularities. and down to Uruguay. stretches a vast and dry tableland. on rocky wastes. The Amazon luxuriance life gradually diminishes over the coastal lowlands. the features of the hilly north-eastern corner of which may be called the sertao or half-desert. In consequence. It is carved into a distinctly hilly landscape in the north-east. tillandsias. The variations of temperature. and orchids. are great. The climate is of a dry and hot description. with a well-marked rainy season lasting from three to five months. to die out towards Maranhao. opuntias. These are tree-bushes. interspersed with umbrella. and more varied than in the Amazon 20 to 60 It ranges from the half-desert through the savana to the light type of tropical forest. The lower bush. ranging from 60 to 100 F. covered in places with epiphytic bromelias. the character of the vegetation is alike drier. ' ' ' come the dreary white woods or caatingas bare and tangled jungles of low thorny '. which may be divided into a northern part as far as the Tropic of Capricorn and a subtropical part farther south. while it assumes a smoother and more rolling surface to the south-west. and prickly candelabra cerei. with swollen.EAST-BRAZILIAN HIGHLANDS of plant 141 East. covered with a more varied vegetation.shaped spoiidias and zizyphus. poorer. Chief basin. among Brazil.

The treeless savana is called campo cultivation. light woods. and liliaceous plants. The campos in occur. leaf -shedding. in : ' the hollows present frequently circular islands of evergreen trees called 'capoes'. and prickly carpetforming bromelias. ' but ' liliaceous trees resembling yuccas may which case the campos are called open or if the savanas are strewn with abertos clumps of low trees. hairy grass-tufts. with an undergrowth of cerei. in Goyaz and Matto Grosso. The course of the rivers is marked by high and thick hedges of river woods. where all grades of transition-forms abound. : ' vero'. savanas tall. dull green. though grass-lands. SOUTH AMERICA and rigid agaves is and bromelia plants. taller and denser. and cocos coronata again distinguishes the southern sertoes. Both carrascos and caatingas are difficult to bring under and the country is thinly peopled. is the next and most barren term of those forbidding vegetations. with various shrubs. Diverse palms mark of the the landscape: waxy carniiuba palm forms oases marshes. sometimes with small leathery leaves. some of which .142 cerei. showing between them the red or white soil. they are serrados '. and gives its name to the province of Ceara: attalea characterizes these aspects the caatinga: round shallow buriti palms form stately groves in some places. pre- dominating: this the 'carrasco'. or regular. dwarf -palms. The sertao proper. are here scarce and and aloe-like of a limited extent. the sertao passes slowly into regular campos or The campos here recall the typical rolling grass-lands. The trees are short and stunted. sometimes deciduous. 4 to 7 metres high. acacias. with a divided foliage. Towards the south and west. form the background of the landscape. which predominate farther west and south. thinly bestrewn with prickly Lushes plants.

very dry. expanses of perennial herbs. coconut-palms. the savana differs strongly from the sertao Here the grass is short. Rain occurs chiefly in summer.000 feet. which may either be dotted with trees. The rainfall is somewhat higher than in the northern region of the highlands. and farther south. mandioca. forests. grassy tablelands. while for home consumption. and varies from 50 to 60 inches. the minima descend very low indeed. elevated. Snow and frost are not unknown. In the upper basin of the Rio San Francisco. and groves of The slopes of the valleys may be strewn with a low brush. with the cultivation of maize. and beans. 143 A conspicuous feature of formed by the 'chapadas' or flat. while the troughs shelter subtropical The most conspicuous feature. thrown into mountains on the These upper highlands have a more eastern margin. The campos resemble by carrascos. however. the winter Under such dry bush more temperate type of Geraes. While the maxima of temperature keep very much to what they were in the equatorial parts. conditions. the tableland rises by steps to altitudes of 3. and other tropical produce the landscape is are the main occupations of the and scattered sparse widely population.NORTHERN PORTION recall the luxuriant selvas. with occasional higher ridges. is the appear- . treeless steppes. or constitute a regular parkscape of grass and woods. extreme climate than those just described. Cattle and horse breeding. and the seasonal and daily alternations of heat and cold are strongly marked. may be Already in Minas aspect. Southern Brazil Highlands.000 and 4. the tropical savana and the aspect of the northern region give way to a vegetation. or they are interrupted bushy tracts.

a sward of short grass. which appears at high altitudes in the coastal ranges. gradually extends inland south-westward. or a thick undergrowth of evergreen shrubs. chief among which comes the yerba mate or Paraguayan tea. 47. In the southern states of Brazil. These forests display either FIG. Araucaria inibricata (Chile pine). the country west of the coast-range slopes inland by a succession of broad . The araucaria descends to lower altitudes as the latitude increases. The umbrella-shaped araucaria brasiliensis.144 ance of SOUTH AMERICA the araucaria near the source of the San Francisco. to become a feature of the plateau and form light forests much interrupted by campos.

Matto Grosso and Weat Goyar. In this region. as a typical tropical savana of the The deep valleys with their 'chapada* description. is not wanting. known for its coffee. To this region also belongs the hilly territory of Misiones. These conditions have enindeed temperate type. but it seems to continue southward the campos of the backwoods of the Amazon. dwarf bushes. a spur of the wooded highlands protruding into the grassy carnpos of the lower Paran&. and cushion-plants. the plateau. due perhaps to some monsoon The country has been little influence from the Amazon. on the low divide of the Amazon and Parana basins. 145 upper ones of which. the climate is cold enough to favour a truly alpine vegetation short close swards. the higher levels. as far as known. while everywhere manioc is grown for home consumption. On the higher ridges. and there is a promising field Wheat has been grown on also for the fruit industry. numerous the of settlement European colonies. and may be conceived. are whereas the lower inland terraces are clad with stately forests of araucaria and yerba mat to the brink of the highlands.1 L : . Sao Paulo is well cultivation.SOUTHERN BRAZIL HIGHLANDS terraces. the treeless grass-lands. There is more rain. the more temperate dry tropical vegetation of the northern highlands has now changed to a decidedly subtropical. nearer the sierra. Owing to the rise : of the highlands and consequently the climate. couraged the chief occupation being cattle-raising and mining. however. 1159. explored. The savana becomes almost exclusively predominant on the watershed plateau between the Amazon and the Parana basins. assumes a more strictly table-like appearance broad valleys are sunk deep below the flat level of the land.

the plain assumes a rolling FIG. Matto Grosso. beyond which. and for obvious reasons most of the human . tinued south-west to the edge of the plateau. character. in lower Matto Grosso.146 steep slopes SOUTH AMERICA are clad with luxuriant selvas of the Amazon This configuration appears to be contype. Brazilian Savana. 48. The country is scarcely inhabited but for warlike Indians. without materially changing the nature of its- grass carpet.

of extensive llanos intersected by broad rivers and. vast marshes. with a predominance of grassy savanas resembling the llanos of the Orinoco. with crown L 2 . hardly undulating land. beyond the Its climate is dry limits of the floods of the Paraguay. The nature and quantity of the water in the soil seems here to control entirely the distribution and character of the vegetation. just beyond the limits of floods. in places. the occurrence of hill ranges has induced the growth of dense forests of a thoroughly tropical nature. but the uncertain drainage retains in the soil in many parts a fair amount of water. is almost unknown. twisted form. hard. and clumps of In the province of Santa Cruz. and gives rise to marshes. the upper Madeira and the Chaco. The foot the of the Amazon are continued along grass-lands plateau. the Guapore and the Montana of the Andes. the quebracho tree being the predominant its gnarled.BOLIVIAN LLANOS settlements 147 there is are located along it the rivers: ground region. On the flat portions. groves of palms. forest are common. The few data so far collected about these savanas authorize the belief that here ties lies for stock-raising and agriculture. and join over the upper Paraguay River with distant future Matto Grosso and Goyaz. The broad strip of country which extends from the swamps of the Paraguay River to the Andes consists of flat or. light is a dense and tall brush of evergreen undergrowth feature. for thinking that will become a rich pastoral The region comprised between Bolivian Llanos. It consists. and hot. and able a country rich alike in possibiliin a to support a dense population. extend vast tracts of thorn woodlands. finely divided leaves. though reedy swamps. and extremely The of small. probably. Chaco.

such as prosopis. owing perhaps to increasing altitude and. As the land rises towards the Andes very gently.148 hard-leaved SOUTH AMERICA shrubs. to a somewhat more liberal rainfall. and scattered cereus and cactus. Dry forests of quebracho reappear with in- creased vigour. while intervening lower and grassy glades occupy the moister ground. chaiiar. prickly bushes. &c. The almost imperceptibly swelling surface is thus distributed between the meadow-like. the quebracho forest gradually thins out. the upper plains are more fertile. alternating with a dry kind of narrow-leaf grass-land. whilst the grass-lands are used for grazing.' the plains with the luxuriant forests of the sierra. and leaves desolate stony wastes dotted with single scraggy shrubs of acacia. and other forests are known here which are almost entirely composed of cebil acacias. acacia. and making This links park landscape known as parque. becoming lower and sometimes passing into a thorny scrub-land of various small-leaf. The northern Chaco is said to contain patches of moist tropical forests. consequently. somewhat marshy shallows and the dry quebracho woods. atriplex. which then appear like on the flats. Thin forests of waxy the palms grace grass-lands and belt the forest the swamps which are strewn over the surface disappear islands or ' ' islas : reeds and sedges. the ' Quebracho forests are now being developed for their hard timber and bark. and gradually merges into the Bolivian llanos. cassia. In Tucuman and farther north along the Andes. Even this thins out in places. and park plain with increasingly dry climate and soil. The great under tall wavy is interrupted by the vast and impassable of the swamps Pilcomayo and the Bermejo. Horse and cattle breeding have so far been fittingly . mimosa.

rises above The equable. Sugar-cane is extensively grown Tucuman. Orange orchards. This typically a moist subtropical region. with the lower belt of the Chinese Lianas. : Covering the southern lower terraces of the plateau of Matto Grosso. Alto Parana-Paraguay. it is on the whole gently undulating and seldom 1. Many of the tall trees of the canopy shed their foliage for a short time in winter. and in that respect may be compared with the middle belt of the eastern Andes or. and large size show above a particularly dense and undergrowth. It is correspondingly covered with luxuriant forests in its eastern moister half. The land which is limited by the lower course of the Rio Paraguay and of the Alto Parana differs alike from the Brazilian highlands and the Cliaco. distributed throughout the year. is and the seasonal rhythm is well marked. find here very favourable conditions. farther afield. and a kind of mediterranean agriculture in is followed. but the existence dry woodlands is an indication of further possibilities in the west. epiphytes. from the campos of Matto Grosso and the campos and swamps of Corrientes it constitutes a natural region. is thoroughly . almost a forest in itself. fairly well at night. amongst others.000 feet in elevation. though hot in summer. Orchards of subtropical and mediof the main occupations terranean fruit-trees may take the place of the forests. and palms of great variety Alps. ranges from 50 inches on the banks of the Paraguay to 80 inches on the Alto Parana: dew is very abundant The climate is rainfall. and indeed have already done so to a certain extent. whilst the tall undergrowth.CHACO the 149 of the region. and sinking abruptly along a bluff down to the alluvial plain of the Paraguay Kiver.

finally predominating on the lower alluvial levels which campos. with Tall palms or scattered thickets. among which is found the yerba-matd. On the more porous soils the forest is reduced to a tall and crowded deciduous jungle. FIG. Each of the numerous rivers throws up at flood time a double high bank clad with a varied and thick . remains limited to the grassy rises and undulations. With the decrease of precipitation towards the west. without changing density and character. intermingle more and more with it. Tree ferns are always present in the gullies. somewhat resembling a broad-leaved laurel. sometimes studded gradually lead to the marginal swamps of the river Paraguay.150 SOUTH AMERICA evergreen. Paraguayan Forest near Guayra Falls. 49. its the forest.

The Para- guay River and its powerful tributaries. though others were skilled in agricultural pursuits. : and the sparse population half pastoral. the Pilcornayo and Bermejo. So flat is the basin that rivers frequently . The half agricultural and Conquistador es found there a great is now FIG. 151 valuable These forests yield a largo number of most kinds of timber. and invaded yearly by floods bringing deposits from the Andes and the campos of Matto G rosso. studded with a few conical knolls. Paraguay and Lower Parana Marshes. run through vast level plains. number of tribes. some whom lived entirely on the natural products of the forest and river.ALTO PARANA-PARAGUAY jungle. 50. while the yerbal jungles provide employment for thousands of the collection of the Paraguayan tea. men engaged in is No country better suited to rich subtropical crops than the Parana portion of this region the western pastures are excellent. Campos of in North Paraguay.

152 SOUTH AMERICA v r shift their courses channels and intersect the country with disused ast swamps. 51. Paraguay. Though the dry and warm. throwing up levees on their and Fio. with the exception of a rainy . way and damming up whole climate is territories. Subtropical Rain Forest.

and The same type of landscape holds farther is strongly marked on the lower Parana . Argentina.PARAGUAY AND LOWER PARANA MARSHES 153 season. male' ' sometimes deepening into actual lakes they are overgrown with tall reeds. continued in the Chaco west of the Paraguay and expanding FIG. into Corrientcs and Santa Fe down to La Plata. the riparian region is turned into a huge swamp similar to those of Central Africa. 52. * It consists of vast level. zales : '. Along the uncertain shores of the . and equally vast swamps. may be detached as a separate region. grassy seas or pampas. banados or deep. and broad-leaf grasses. sedges. thus a broad strip of land extending along the upper course of the Paraguay down to the Apa River. The swamps may be shallow. south. on the -Nile or the Zambesi. often six feet high. Palm Grove in Corrientos.

Ad- vantage roads. the reeds shrivel and dis- appear. and railways: thus happens that frequently . recalling our osier beds. thanks to the seeds carried by the streams and scattered in the mud and sand. of low. but the banks along the streams may be firmly held together by the. Some of the rivers. arid trees strike * or give rise to palm forests. floating down lakes and rivers. affording succulent grazing grounds for horses and cattle. vegetation and even become permanently wooded. followed at first by a carpet on by a crop of tall. even the Pilcomayo. A and later short grass. herbs and bushes. The river banks disappear under hedges of tall canes. Such sudds. but sadly infested by myriads of mosquitoes and other pests. so that dikes and sand-banks thrown up by the waters are. where the firm ground and the muddy floating islands are hard to distinguish. which sometimes support trees and are torn and carried away in times of flood. and grow quickly and deck the levees with impassable low jungles. the SOUTH AMERICA reed vegetation is constantly encroaching. springs up. building floating islands of intertwined reeds. Bushes dry roads. wavy reeds. They may be locally dotted with thin copses of bushy acacias. are a common sight. natural rafts called sudd. in many cases. When the ground dries up. the only These are soon clothed with a luxuriant covering of herbs. and bambus. The islands thus enclosed by the dikes become wet meadows or grass moors strewn with banados '. Such is the power of those changeful and unsettled rivers that the surface of the country is in constant process of transformation by the periodical flooding of the pampas or the draining of marshes. is taken of this by it man for his settlements. lose themselves in impassable loose swamps.154 lakes.

character in the south. Isolated hills or hillocks here and there break the rolling or level surface. and yet irrigated by them. the chief industry of the region is cattle and horse breeding. are spread like cushions here and there on the naked ground. and more or less encloses the desolate land on the east. very wide. gradually pass from the grassy pampa into a vast dreary thorn shrubland. The islands of really firm ground. the chanar. divided leaves and formidable spines. under these latitudes. the landscape. West of the latitude of Luis. and there is a prolonged dry period the variations of temperature are therefore . may also become centres of forest growth. tufts of dwarf prickly An outlier of the Andes. The vast plains at the foot of the Andes. the forest belts and islands assume a decidedly subtropical. while the hinterland is impassable.PARAGUAY AND LOWER PARANA MARSHES 155 the banks of streams only are inhabited. though retaining the name of The rainfall is pampa. prickly verbena and of retama. the Sierra de Cordoba. where low compact bushes. The grass grows sparser and sparser westward. palms. cacti. The ground also becomes somewhat rougher Immense levels and hollow tracts of the ' ' marshy or salt deserts ' travesias sandy dunes the medanos are broken by some of which are shifting. with small. hard. They belong to the typical bush of West Argentina. somewhat like an acacia. and even temperate. slowly changes for the worse. San well below 20 inches yearly. Shrubs of hard-leaf. Tropical in the north. stand solitary. Western Argentine Wastes. which is everywhere conspicuous. whilst more forbidding leafless and opuntias stretch the ungainly shapes of their bristling limbs. cerei. ' is thrown athwart the track to the Cordilleras. and more varied. . above the level of the floods. As might be expected.

the land rises into . crawling dwarf -bunches.156 SOUTH AMERICA rivers. \V. 53. high or low. FIG. CliaTiar and dry cereus scrub. and have a similar aspect the world over: grey leaves in tufts. ileshy. is and there are shrubs. Dotted here ' salitrales'. which afford only limited for a mediterranean agriculture. with small. fed fields There are oases along the margins of the by fresh water. e. Argentina. From these bush lands one rides into the 'esteros' or i. where the bare ground shrouded in a white sheet of salt powder. vast salt-wastes. At the limits of the salitrales. Plants of these parts somewhat resemble those of our own salt-' marshes. or may be Hooded for miles round in times of rain. increasing proportion of salt. growing sparser and lower with an till the soil remains naked but for a few distant. such are the 'junin' wastes.

The little rocky sierras and isolated hills. are not. half-way over the continent. grass and The Pampa. shaped like an umbrella. between which the sand has been washed or blown away. like the as baccharis. such They grow out of little mounds. and other bushes. or an occasional straggling line of pampas-grass. and from the lower Uruguay south to Rio Colorado. or slowly and gently the- undulating. more grass paja y cielo (grass and sky). and studded with tall tufts of dry. been extended to other treeless. however. conspicuous larrea. Misshapen opuntias and cerei are strewn here and there among besoms of stiff* grasses. redeeming features. for their stony slopes are moatly barren. Nothing to break the brown eternity of the pampa but here and there a green ombii. scatters. some of them shifting. On every side a sea of grass. sometimes swollen into low mounds. recalling the chaparral of Even the scrub frequently thins out and California. is entirely level. . are fringed with pampas-grass. as the natives vegetation is * : of the country style their favourite landscape. The name pampa has. small-leaf Compositae. and Occasional low trees become scarce. and by comparison seems as tall as does a poplar in the plains of Lombardy. many of them salt. leaving nothing but a jumble of rocks. flat tracts surrounding the ' pampa vera The pampa '. The rivers.' This describes the true pampa. which appears also on the rare brackish or fresh-water marshes or pantanos and in the hollows. landmarks amid a dry scrub of schinus. extending from the Atlantic.WESTERN ARGENTINE WASTES 157 barren dunes or medanos. to the longitude of San Luis. ' ' sierra of Cordoba. which breaks the edges of some water-course. strictly speaking.

The changeful albeit monotonous aspect of the pampa has been thus described Coal black in spring when the old grass has been burned bright bluish-green when later on brownish-green. Winters are short and comparatively mild. grasses and annuals are few. . mostly evergreen perennials with small leathery leaves. the intervals. aristida. finally at the flowering time when the silvery white spikes overtop the grass. pampa. the soil is caked hard and rendered impervious. loess pours. or sandy the rivers are often saline. and dot the surface of the boundless plain with innumerable marshes. liquid silver. are interspersed among the bulbs are not as abundant as might be expected. forming what is called 'pajonales'. Rivers flow either between sandy banks or tall of hedges gynerium. the soil is . over wide tracts it seems like a rolling. Herbs. but showing the ground in not grasses. succulent plants and flowers. pappophorum. Trees are excluded but for occasional and solitary dmbiis (phytolacca) which grow near the houses. and others the aspect varies slightly. is made of separate dense tufts of stiff in a close mat. mostly shallow the waters. In the slightly undulating grasses stipa. and nightly dew is abundant. and denser swards mixed with various low. pampas-grass and reeds. paspalum.' . fine sand.158 SOUTH AMERICA and devoid of outlet. waving sea of ' : . though distinctly felt daily ranges of temperature are stronger than in the north. According to the nature of the numerous The carpet andropogon. collect hollows. the the young leaves sprout colour of the mature grass. brackish or salt. melica. or merely damp troughs and powdery a stoneless. the moister hollows or shallow canadas are lined with a softer turf. and thanks to the alternations of droughts and heavy down. . . panicum.

Russia. extending westward in limitless fields of corn. Entre low tableland built up by deposits brought from inland. and many other fruits. and now horses and even cattle. is the sudden outburst of woodlands: the rich pampa and black soil has needed only ploughing and aerating to ensure the rapid growth of large plantations of various kinds of trees and of prosperous orchards of peach. wonderful horsemen. Uruguay and Entre Bios. and alfalfa where the wild grasses once and is stood. mostly as horse-breeders.THE PAMPA 159 Swift animals. roam over the pampa. rheas. and North America. Agriculture. A notable fact is the invasion of the east of the country by European and more especially mediterranean weeds. the half-breed Gauchos. plum. at first restricted to the moister and more fertile canadas. and course of the bordered by wide flood territories in process of building up. The lower region between the Parand and the Uruguay. climate. however. quince. this With a warm. flax. which affords them a magnificent pasturage. The Paranfi. forms a that account it assumes a slightly rolling appearance. After the wild Indians. The native Indians of the big plains were primarily nomad hunters. is knew very little of agriculture. h&s gained a firm foothold in the east. on what were twenty years ago treeless solitudes. maize. temperate region also . took possession of the ground. hares. so that the eastern provinces especially have now become one of the important granaries of the world* competing with Australia. and presenting much the same appearance as the vast swampy country to the north. which seem to push back the native herbs and find a congenial habitat : the invaders are mostly thistles Perhaps the most striking change in the grasses. On Eios. but already in process of erosion.

plantago. More rolling and slowly rising in a regular swell same natural features towards the Brazilian uplands. and a thick undergrowth. mostly Compositae. all viscous or hairy. &c. from the Atlantic to the Andes a rolling plain of shingle. still caked and hard. are scrubby. studded with groves of trees or small woodlands. : south of the Rio Colorado. gravel. The forest islands show a distinct mild-temperate type of medium-sized trees with small somewhat leathery leaves and dense crowns. with a grass carpet. but winter colds : are prominent features then in downpours. tiny. open. into a vast cattle-ranch. The landscape is essentially parklike grass-land. frosts and leaves. are developed thin woodlands of orchardlike aspect. and a dotting of low. however. has been trans- formed. from three to nine feet in height. Uruguay offers much the Entre Rios is partly agricultural. to agriculture. The climate is half desert. even scattered growth of bushes. in many places. broken occasionally by short and low ranges. leathery and icy winds rain falls only occasionally. These shrubs. the more rocky land. on account of its natural pastures. maize and wheat being the staple crops. On grounds of more recent formation. thorny arid bushy acacias. from which the tropical wealth of woody lianas and the aerial gardens of broad-leaf epiphytes are absent. though not unsuited. cut up by ravines and canons.160 receives a fair SOUTH AMERICA amount of rain throughout the year. : while in Uruguay. and The result is a treeless. thorny. verbena. the cultural resources are developing. fine-leaved and shadeless. Patagonia semi-desert. with a marked rainy period. A truly dismal picture is that of the Patagonian semi-desert which stretches. with Most . bestrewn with marshy hollows. and woody. grey. and sand. With the increasing immigration of Europeans.

covering the whole breadth of the low south Patagonian plateau and the north-east corner of Fuegia. Tussocks of the tussock-grass. however. are formed in the hollows.PATAGONIA SEMI-DESERT 161 of them. rubble and gravel. travesias. A region of steppe extends to the south and west of the Patagonian semi-desert. The Andes have become at once lower and more interrupted. and a cool. or along the few The intervening wastes are but freshwater rivers. or spread in cushions: unimportant part. poa flabellata y build huge growth . where winter is not extreme. The latitude is now high. be found along the coast. mostly brackish 6r by the salt. The ground is the continuation of that farther a low plateau or high plain. and in winter cast their scanty foliage. and gradually widening to the south-east down to the Atlantic. irregular surface. half-dead bundles of crowded twigs and stems. mostly unused and unusable: settlements may. Little can be done with such a land. and the narrow point of the austral continent plunges into the zone of raw and moist south-westerlies. These conditions are not favourable to treenorth: the country may be described as a vast moor. South. or rivers losing themselves in the sand and gravel they allow of the usual salt-bush vegetation. .1 M . look like bristling besoms some resemble heaths others . Patagonia. beginning in a strip along the Andes. where only wild Indians manage to eke out a precarious living. undulating and broken. mostly by hunting and fishing. treeless 1189. somewhat moist and windy climate. a play of oceanic winds over the land. cloudy. and it lies . consisting of shingle. clay and sand. crawl. with. grass plays here but an Thickets of these woody perennials alternate irregularly with naked tracts. as a result. Here again countless marshes. offering a rough.

and the group of the Falkland Islands. an undergrowth of shrubs and The interferns. which it succeeds to the west and south. of treelessness. The foot-hills and piedmont strip along the Andes. woods. with Here valleys. In point of climate and vegetation it is comparable to the northern part of our own island. perhaps. a very similar vegetation. vening grass-land is somewhat like our wild pastures and meadows. summergreen Antarctic beeches. More sheltered. small. east of the mountains. are more favourably situated than the steppe region just described. and one or two bushes in sheltered is and more broken. well-packed cushions on thick root-stooks bog-balsam strews equally large and crowded bunches or mounds over monotonous heath moors. though \vith quite a number of plants of its own. that of our northern countries. again the winds are the main cause South Patagonia is suitable for sheep-farming. this region stands intermediate between the western timbered highlands and the drier eastern steppes. over the plateaus of central Fuegia. It is a park landscape. The Andes. with thickets. also enjoys a milder It and more equable temperature. extending across the Straits of Magellan. and even forests of middle-sized. a number of crawling or low. in a measure. and a carpet of mosses and lichens. evergreen. Ranging through 65 degrees of latitude. but has a strongly marked winter. rainy.and hard-leaf bushes are inter- mingled with a few grasses. the aspect of which recalls. . chilly.162 SOUTH AMERICA . Puegia. yet receiving the benefit of the western rainfall through the gaps of the mountains. though most of the settlements are as yet confined to the coast and rivers. Rougher still wind-swept.

A powerful barrier athwart the path of the winds.. i. with a though scarcely less rainy climate.THE ANDES to the 163 from the hottest to the coldest. to 4. while the east remain arid. now on the . The Amazon selva rises up the slopes. now on one side. the cordillera of the Andes practically summarizes the vegetation of the whole world there is scarcely a form of plant life that is not represented on that mightiest of mountain-ranges. down to 30 S. under warm . in the western rains before reaching 48 to 50 S. This name may be applied to the vast crescent or amphitheatre of slopes which define the Amazon valley on the west and extend from Venezuela to the Argentine border.e. and exhibits 2 M . temperate conditions. an excessive and uniform rainfall and heat. other. almost unchanged. both sides are about equally dry. to the Tropics. it is abundantly Watered. and are not admitted to a share. exhibiting nearly on eastern and western everywhere the opposite extremes Under the equator. however. In the southern domain of the westerlies. eastern slopes are still well watered. the Pacific slopes become very rnoist. and slopes. the striking contrast. Eastern Andes. though the western side experiences extreme drought then for a short interval of about 10 degrees of latitude. The Montana. locally it is restricted to the Peruvian and Bolivian portions. farther north. and from the most arid dampest regions.000 feet or so. under the same conditions of followed higher cooler. so that the northern range as far south as Guayaquil of is under the influence regular and sufficient precipitations and shows no Farther south. the benefit of the rain-belt extends in fairly equal measure to both sides. It is up by a zone of rain-forest. limited though it be.

slopes. 10. and of the wax-palms. The main body of this forest retains up to 7.164 SOUTH AMERICA smaller palms and lianas.. with carpets of dry.500 or 11. drimys. for all and the nature of the subtropical extremely valuable for their climate. This woodland zone reaches up to The upper belt includes the paramos and higher plants. buddleia (whose vegetation recalls that of the larger kinds of rhododendrons). the features of the subtropical rain-forest all over the world. From 20 to 25 S.000 feet. and bambus. woolly alpine Argentine subtropical Andes. laurels. and an isolated '. tree-ferns. conifer. cross-section of these slopes offers a lower or basal strip of forests succeeding to the park landscape already mentioned. . Waxand some hardier trees go on and up. This is the home of the cinchona. chestnuts. treeless and reduced to a brush of bushes and grass. A quite temperate zone follows above 3. podocarpus. when it stops. with its dry and interrupted woodlands which begin at few miles from the sierra. highly favourable produce. the eastern Andes establish a transition to the drier conditions prevailing farther south. including plains.000 feet. As might be expected. the lower A slopes of the mountains are moister than the adjacent Stately trees with dense crowns.000 or 10. would lend itself to a prosperous agriculture were it not for the difficulty of communication. In the next zone. and broad-leaved cedars.000 feet. and a rich undergrowth. mingling palms its character with deciduous trees to 9. and numerous tall shrubs of escalIonia. machoeriums. compose these virgin subtropical rain-forests. They are timber.500 feet. the woodlands display low trees of 'rose of the Andes bejaria. now cultivated in similar situations in tropical Asia.

Above 12. lena amarilla. but rather displays a park landscape where woodlands prefer the shelter of valleys.trees. like some others. Dry Argentine Cordillera. is dotted with thickets of creosote . and soon comes a belt of pastures with grasses three feet high. &c. in the shelter of which meagre woods and patches of the leguminous adesmia shrubs. barely twenty feet high. causes. interspersed with clumps or isolated specimens of the stout and gnarled quenoa. but farther up. elders.000 feet even the quefioa ceases. there follows a truly arid strip extending far slopes would show nowhere forests or even a parklike landscape. when nearly every valley had prosperous lake and its area of cultivation. and supported a high with a comparatively Whether by natural or human fairly large population degree of civilization. the bare ridges are seamed with gorges. rich in flowers. escallonias. A cross-section of tlie. this state of things ceased to be soon after the invasion of Europeans. tion comes first. has known its times. This subandine belt. a dreary rocky landscape where grass is scarce and parched. Succeeding to the chanar or espinal vegetaon the lower slopes and foot-hills. a belt of scattered scrub or chaparral. This district. until the snow-line is reached. along with Peruvian The mountain is no longer alders. or the combination of both.ARGENTINE SUBTROPICAL ANDES 165 exhibiting forests of ihepodocarpus. Continuing along the eastern slopes of the Andes. are conspicuous on the naked slopes. and alpine pastures develop with the usual aspect. and low acaceous bushes. which are hung with draperies of tillandsias. Still lower and more scattered bushes occur above that entirely useless. clad with an uninterrupted forest. With increasing altitude the proportion of grass-land rises. and grass and bushlands cloak the ridges.

To this zone we owe some of our from 7. opuntias. and tobaccos. with also a somewhat denser covering of evergreen shrubs and shrubby perennials. sandy coastal strip. SOUTH AMERICA and lead up to an alpine zone of dwarf crawling perennials. clematis. brush of mesquites and acacias. studded with cerei. where occasional showers give rise to an ephemeral crop of brightly flowered herbs. it is waste. Each valley possesses extremely short. calceolarias. This landscape continues till the extreme south of Patagonia is reached. and cacti. The narrow. or sierra Above the belt the cordillera feet. rocky. 131). but the south Patagonian slopes may some day Colombian (p. its little town. the sierra or mountain. but more densely grouped on peaty tracts. It gradually . echeverias. ' ' ' '. rainless and hot. and except for a narrow. amongst them. each a small Egypt between the intervening wastes. and barely supports a scattered thorny Peruvian Andes. numerous arid coastal plain is crossed by snow -fed mountain streams. frequently wrapped in and for. that reason cooler and moister. garden plants. varieties of lupins.000 clouds. with frequent dew and mists at night. when another more cheerful aspect replaces it. is useless to man: This dry portion of the Argentine cordillera it is condemned to remain unused and barren. the lower valleys of which run as parallel oases. only scattered on shingles. Of the equatorial and portions a brief mention has already been made The Peruvian Andes have been divided into a lower belt. with sometimes a port at coast-belt rises its mouth. and hilly.000 to 12. Western Andes. the cuesta or coast. and an The cuestu is upper belt.166 belt. lend themselves to pastoral industries. It is a transition from the western timbered Andes to the dry steppes of the eastern plain a park landscape where the trees are deciduous.

. Cactus on the dry slopes of the Andes.FJG. 54.

cultivation now lie desolate. . only to merge into the scarcely less dreary inland punas. with irrigation and manuring. The prosperous cities which lined the shore. nestled in the valleys. This region is practically an absolute desert the soil of which is impregnated and covered with alkalis. are entirely confined to the coast. and up the naked scarps. the rapid declivities of the coastal ranges give of broad terraces broken by ranges way and to a succession rising in steps towards the top plateaus of Bolivia.. By Caldera. the belts of vegetation and cultivation were broader on the Pacific slopes than they are now. the desert proper stops. was then brought to a point of perfection which has not been equalled since in that region but large areas which had been under . or expanded on the plateaus. before the advent of Europeans. . which may be due either to better climatic conditions or to artificial irrigation.168 SOUTH AMERICA sparsely dotted dry. and a few straggling trees and sage-bushes and mesqnites are occasionally met with. Yet it is from those very deserts that one of the most valuable fertilizers nitrates is extracted and shipped to the whole world. Atacama. have fallen into There is no doubt that in the times of the Incas. From terrace to terrace. claimed by the desert. . ruins. Agriculture. The Peruvian Andes was once the seat of a powerful and advanced civilization which flourished until the Spanish conquests of the sixteenth century now impressive ruins are the only traces to be found. dwarf passes to the alpine belt of plants.000 feet. or to both. perhaps the barest place of the tropical world. Central Chile. About the latitude of 20 S. Quichuas and Aymaras. the desert rises to above 10. Human habitations where water can be had by boring.

cool in the south.woodland of dwarf deciduous beeches. of mimosas. among which are conifers. begins the forest-region of Chile. composed of several evergreen small. to a bush-land of barberry. very rainy climate. make their appearance in regular forests.. a wealth of climbers and epiphytes. colletias. mostly evergreen. winds. This belt again gives way. &c. warm temperate in the north. sumac. tubers and bulbs are marked features of the vegetation.CENTRAL CHILE 169 and by a gradual diminution of aridity passes to more prosperous landscapes. with the predominance of the austral moist. Above 5. westerly Vaklivia. and of smaller trees like the magnolaceous drimys Winteri and several other kinds.. saponaria. frankly mediterranean in character. Araucarias replace the pines of California . The the tree-line. thanks to irrigation. A little to the north of by 36 S.and hard-leaf beeches mingled with leaf-shedding trees of the same genus. bambus and tree-ferns. It is now being thrown open to the cultivation of mediterranean produce. itself and the maquis. and.000 feet the forest passes to the shrub. South Chilian Rain-forests. corresponding to ilexes. whole country then becomes abundantly timbered up to The lower belt represents a true temperate mixed rain-forest.000 feet. which produce an equable. recalling the chaparral like it. at about 6. Farther inland the slopes are clothed with a taller woodland of hard. dark and dense.and small-leaf shrubs like quillaja. Above this belt of woods the evergreen beeches. the central valley of Chile is almost an exact replica of the Sacramento valley of California. which strikingly resemble evergreen oaks and other mediterranean evergreens. and escallonia. cran- . The valley has a grassy floor with a thorny brush. Situated between a coastal range and a mountainous background.

or even for grazing purposes to any large extent. description. the south Chilian region remains an important timber asset.temperate luxuriance. Extreme South and Fnegia. Now the forests are dark bambus and damp. The punas are very thinly inhabited. They cannot be utilized for agriculture. with a soaked carpet of mosses and liverworts. the worst types of which are absolutely bare.170 SOUTH AMERICA berry. yet more prosperous and useful. They are vast wastes of rocks and salt. The native camel. escallonias. and a scanty undergrowth. icy winds. like that characteristic. for vast tracts are rosette- wholly desert. on the western slopes. but on account of the steep and broken nature of the ground cannQt be put to other uses. and cushion-plants. but tree-ferns. and under their heavy canopy there is only a thick litter of rotten wood. lianas. some ferns. The upper alpine belt consists of perennial herbs scattered on gravel and rocks. their scanty rainfall. except in some sheltered corners. epiphytes. The forest region continues uninterruptedly down to the extreme point of Fuegia. Like the preceding. somewhat resembling our spruce forests. alone finds a scanty food. and their dry. receive the name of punas '. small-leaf green beeches spread to the farthest south with the drirnys tree. the llama. The higher plateaus that stretch between the Cordilleras of the Andes. bristling tufts : bulbs. and other shrubs. with their abrupt and extreme alternations of heat and cold. and disappear. are treeless grass-lands of a dry. and with them the warm. and it is used as a pack animal. and though retaining its evergreen character in spite of the high latitude. of Jujuy in Argentine. it becomes poorer and poorer both in The same size and variety. and alpine bushes are also Some punas at a lower level. Punas. while others are strewn with * the * ichu ' feather-grass in dry. .

the extra-tropical for water its portion depends mainly on the westerly austral seas storms of the which. Broadly speaking. leaving the centre almost rainless. The snows which occasionally cover the loftier parts of the southern highlands are never of long duration. The northernmost point of the continent is little known as yet. A are known. rob them of most of their moisture. Australia does not reach latitudes high enough to experience any severe cold. the vast Austrais primarily divided into an intra- but this portion. the along mostly margins of the desert centre the varies and little from south continent. in summer. reach the of the monsoon type occurs two southern points of the continent. extra-tropical felt distinction is than the interior. On nearly all sides the margins are higher to north.CHAPTER IV AUSTRALIA LYING across the mass of land and an tropical lian tropic of Capricorn. Australia be described as a desert with a fringe of vegetation but whereas in the northern half the rainfall. forming barriers which lie athwart the paths of the winds rushing in from the surrounding seas. but few tracts of luxuriant tropical forests it is uncertain if they are merely of . in winter. which is may . Along the shores of the warm seas it enjoys a wet period of five months* duration and a yearly average precipitation of 65 inches. Northern Point of the Tableland. and. Only the middle of the east coast enjoys the benefit of the south-eastern trade winds.


with one FIG. Tropical plants like the pandanus and a number of palms of the Twin-Malayan region are undoubtedly present. the country is left to the primitive Australians. about the shore. The adjacent islands are fairly well wooded. or trees large tropical species of leguminous and other mangroves are frequent along the coast.NORTHERN POINT OF THE TABLELAND local 173 of a occurrence. . 50. Physical leatures of Australia. Except for a few settlements of white men dotted two . The prevailing vegetation is somewhat dry type. rather of the nature of a light monsoon forest passing to the thornwood. but it is destined by its climate and soil to enjoy a prosperous future.

The light rain-green woods of the' north thin out farther inland. . in inches. 67. the precipitations also fall tions below an annual 40 inches and display great fluctuafrom year to year. melaleucas and the Australian tea. Thornwood. Mean Annual Rainfall of Australia.trees. Then comes the savana. stretches a somewhat hilly zone of very light woods casting their foliage during the dry and resembling the caatin^a of the Brazilian period sertao or the rain -green woods of the East African tropical FJG. with eucalypti of moderate height. Tropical Savana.174 AUSTRALIA In the rear of this first belt. plateaus. from the south of the Gulf of Carpentaria to Victoria River on the west. Acacias play here quite a predominant part.


59. and over a flat or undulating territory farther east. As in Africa and America. trees.176 AUSTRALIA northstretching in a belt from Dampierland to the eastern highlands. This by tracts of scrub. low shrubby or heath-like acacias. the bombax tree belt is frequently interrupted is conspicuous. (casuarinas). and ia . or mostly evergreen like eucalyptus. alike on the western plateau and in the central lowlands. In its general aspect. the savana is a brush of tall tuft-grass. over the large levels broken by short ranges of hills of the former. dotted with groves or solitary specimens of CLIMATE REGIONS \vilh Type Stations FIG. again with thickets of The most important trees of this savana are again the melaleucas and the tea-trees. Seasonal distribution of Rainfall in Australia.

Mean Temperature of Australia reduced to sea-level.FIGS. . HoWftFoneft Summer RainForeft Winter " Savana m Steppe FIG. CO and 61. 1163-1 E3 Scrub DDesert Vegetation of Australia. 62.

where the rainfall is not abundant enough to support a continuous and dense tree-growth. by the disappearance of the grass and the scattering of the shrubs. the Brigalow and the 'Mallee' scrub. what occurs on other continents. the Mulga '. consisting the south. Three main types of scrub have been distinguished. The respective relations of the three types with their physical conditions have not as yet been properly worked out.178 AUSTRALIA of acacias. viz. Queensland. appear to require at least 15 inches of yearly precipitation. They are all restricted to belts which have a yearly rainfall of under 30 inches. in its Of the three main * ' * conditions. while the Mallee characterizes the warm-temperate climate of the southern and south-western parts. amid climatic conditions which recall those of the drier parts of the Brazilian sertao and the portion . is likely to be characterized by a scattered vegetation of evergreen shrubs with a scanty admixture of grass. of necessity. The Brigalow Scrub is best represented in Queensland behind the coastal range and south of the Gulf of Carpentaria. while. on the other hand. poorer forms. two. if we recall types. Between the wooded areas of the coastal margins and the inland desert there must. seems to be able to stand extremely arid and therefore penetrates far into and among the true deserts. it is especially claimed by the Brigalow-scrub. extend a transition belt. tropical conditions and north-eastern Australia. Towards desert the savana passes gradually into through a belt of acacias. though the Brigalow scrub is of northern a specific characteristic of the hot. west of the mountains. enough This for the belt. Scrubland. each with a specific appearance. the irregularity and distribution of the precipitation are not favourable development of large grass carpets. whilst the third.

grey. and makes a true acacia thornwood. never intermingle. The thorny bush advances in the midst of the swards with an unbroken.and.THE BRIGALOW SCRUB of the sinia. it invades the savana and passes to a park-prairie with grass-glades. Otherwise the uniform dark-brown circle of the horizon remains unbroken. flowers the African marigold and the scarlet bright with their gaudy colours the prevailing relieve pimelea of shimmering silvery -grey tone. impenetrable front. a shrub or small tree with hard. but herbs with trable thickets. sickle-shaped leaves. slowly claims the grass expanses which have been exhausted by excessive grazing. however. untouched by cattle or sheep. its appearance and mode of life a striking resemblance to the thorn-bushes of those regions. and often make up impeneGrass is very scanty. but towards the east. there are two trees of the same family. and a few other tall shrubs. The thornwood becomes more scattered towards the dry interior. in a warm temperate climate. silent and motion- N 2 . and passes into an acacia serni-desert. The Mallee Scrub belongs to the half-arid interior of the southern and south-western portions of Australia. The scrub derives its name from its chief component. The impression given by a Mallee landscape is one of extreme monotony: *A boundless. The smaller plants and woody perennials gather round the centres formed by the tall shrubs. In the far distance is the blue outline of an isolated hill or a granite top. Apart from this. waving sea of yellowish-brown bushes. offer the Brigalow acacia. and on moister soils. . which is very intolerant of other trees. The scrub and the grass. 179 Egyptian Sudan extending at the foot of AbysAccordingly. the most characteristic which is the sandal -wood or dog-wood.

and the strip of higher ground with hill-ranges that separate the great sandy desert on the north from the great Victoria desert on the south and enclose many tracts of pure desert. There is no grass. the eastern foot of the same tableland from south to desert of The name is probably which borders on the Thus the western margin north. Each shrub consists of a close crop or bundle of long. acacias : in this form it is the equivalent of the marginal . and hardly any flowers on the bare. callitriv. applied to the semi-desert scrub and penetrates into it.180 less. AUSTRALIA except for the plaintive cry of the scrub fowl or the rustle of the dry twigs stirred by a puff of wind/ This scrub is composed. the strange melaleucas. and a few others : with heath-like or vertical leaves. of three or four bushy forms of eucalyptus. of the height of a man. crowded together. made up of a scattered scrub of thorny acacias. Seasons may pass without altering the aspect of the Mallee. the leafless casuarinas. more varied. leathery leaves. yellow or rust-coloured soil. The Mulga appears to correspond in some measure but its aspect is to the acacia semi-desert of Africa. occurs occasionally in the bush elsewhere. Among the good fodder-grasses . to the to be description of the Mulga appears Mulga territory. appear to answer. the great plateau with a rainfall under 10 inches. vegetation of the Sudanese Sahara sometimes it occurs as oases in the desert. with a ragged carpet of grass. appear where the scrub opens. Sometimes it is said to crowd into dense thickets sometimes it resembles a low meagre sward studded with bush . its definition more vague than that of either the Brigalow or the Mallee. in the main. thin shoots. to which no exact analogue is known in any part of the world. A small conifer. ending in bunches of long dull-green.

are covered with juicy and fleshy In the north the swamps are beset by bushes. FIG. Note the grass thin. These cattle. trees. the kangaroo grass and the porcupine grass. salt steppes provide a good feeding for sheep and . relatives of the spinach. narrow. hairy oi' leaves are anchored in the sand by means a network of long. with little grass. N. Australia. &c. are restricted The typical desert grass is the ^ >///./. The large alkali tracts of the central lowlands. as in salt other arid countries.//>. the rhagodm. which occur also in arid parts of Africa and America: others. aridula. whose little balls of long.THE MULGA available there are reckoned several species of 181 those kinds of tutdropuyoii.. stipa.. wiry roots. Co. like to Australia. A station in tlie Savana Country. miifde nbeckia. and. This scrub may ultimately be reduced to a thin carpet of flowering herbs.

and others. Great Central Desert. which burst into flower at the beginning of the rainy season in winter: the summer is parched and scorching. but has been largely transformed for agricultural purposes. the surface of which shrubs of is sprinkled over with trees and a park landscape resembling some formations southern Rhodesia or of southern Brazil and Uruguay. while among the short grasses are inter- spersed a large number of beautiful herbs. little is known of its specific vegetation. occasionally. acacias. Here again eucalyptus. there a 'Glen of Palms* on the north slope of Maedomiell Range. shrubs of acacia and casuarina which correspond to the gum acacias and the tamarisks of the Sahara. This covers the largest part of the western tableland and portions of the central lowland. They may serve as grazing grounds during the rainy years. Beyond the fact that it contains no grass other than solitary tufts of triodia and spinifex and.182 AUSTRALIA Some forms of what is here included under Mulga are not entirely without economic use. but the fluctuations of the precipitation render their pasturage precarious and temporary. the Victoria Desert. but only approximations to them in the shape of patches of Mulga. At the back of the south-eastern highlands the plains are clothed with a grass-land of a warm temperate type. However. One . and other brightly flowering trees and shrubs compose the higher vegetation. A similar temperate stamp park grass-land of a existed at one time along the it warm coast of South Australia. Murray-Darling Valley and South Australia. mimosas. and is split into a number of minor areas like the Great Sandy Desert. It has no is oases. the Gibson Desert. properly speaking.

The belt of westerly storms of the austral ocean advances northwards in winter and reaches the two southern ex- similar to that of the Mediterranean. creating a climate almost exactly Accordingly. of central Chile. and of California. 64. Mediterranean Portions of Southern Australia. the vegetation of south-western Australia and that of South Victoria is in many respects a replica of that of the Mediterranean. FIG. Its . Savana landscape in East Australia.MURRAY-DARLING VALLEY 183 encounters here an approximation to the condition of the mediterranean climates and this is increasingly the . tensions of Australia. These lands within the belts of 20 inches of rainfall should form excellent wheat and maize territories. case as one travels farther south. but a large part of them also affords a vast scope to pastoral industries.

but practically no grass carpet. It is extremely rich in remarkable shrubs with beautiful . 05. of tall eucalyptus. in majestic evergreen forests FJG. with an abundant undergrowth of hard-leaved shrubs. Gum-troe or Eucalyptus Forest in Australia.184 AUSTRALIA is most luxuriant expression found along the south- western shore of Australia.

and other fruits. Along the shores of the Spencer Gulf. acacias. which are sometimes termed sand-heaths. and indeed most of its back eucalyptus. and the scrub. with which they compete as regards the vine. acacia. and the borassus palm. Quite naturally. orange. mainly of the Mallee type. these Australian Rivieras are developing along the same lines as the Mediterranean and California!!. forms an intermediate zone leading to the inland Mulga. and a large number of other shrubs and ornamental perennials. the olive. is the eucalyptus savana. the vine. 185 Here is the home of these gorgeous shrubs mimosas. interspersed with grass-lands. but Australia possesses in the euca- lyptus an evergreen timber-tree of the greatest beauty . Sarana Woods. very rapidly. but the undergrowth of hardleaved shrubs builds extensive scrub which exactly corresponds to the Calif ornian chaparral and to the Mediterranean and South African maquis. while it sent From Europe. are frequently interrupted by tracts of Mallee. and many leaf-shedding trees in its savanas.MEDITERRANEAN PORTIONS OF AUSTRALIA riowers. the ceiba. Perhaps the most extensive and the most useful plant-formation of Australia. the forest form is much less developed. and heath-like now cultivated along the Mediterranean and provide us with flowers in midAt the back of this belt the rainfall diminishes winter. which are banksias. as it is also the most characteristic. fjpacridaceae proteas. to be expected that there should be a free interchange of natural products between countries so It was similar as this and the Mediterranean and California. These formations. Australia took orange. South America possesses also savana woods of the deciduous type . the fruit-trees. Africa has the baobab.

FIG. C6. the eucalyptus is intimately It stands either singly associated with the grass-land. it is regularly dotted over the grassy plain without undergrowth. over most of the coastal highlands as well as over a broad margin of plains on the inland side. of West Australia the eucalyptus .186 AUSTRALIA In the mediterranean coastal strip forest is. or possess a sort of : when it it may evergreens. as be entirely destitute of any other than grass. Australia. Eucalyptus forest clenrod for wheat : harvest time 8. an evergreen woodland overtopped by eucalyptus trees but in eastern Australia. properly speaking. when single. and economic value. undergrowth scrubby underwood of occurs in regular forests. and casts hardly any shade by reason of the vertical drooping of its or in loose forests : scythe-like leaves in the mountains. The forests are .


and the range of produce that can be raised with success is enormous. The seaward slopes of the eastern highlands. be truly represented as the most useful trees of Australia. which resembles. fruits in the south. and equable climate. South-eastern Temperate Rain-forest. mango. and todeas. and proteaceae. The Australian temperate rain-forest has a physiognomy of its own. The belt characterized by it. The latter and light canopy. This . and enjoy a mild. on account of its extent and fertility. including sugar-cane. The strong tap-root furnishing an excellent timber. as well as mediterranean. cotton. and other equatorial produce. which determines the development of temperate forests. rising sometimes to 300-400 feet. From tropical Queensland to New South Wales the land covered by savana woods is extremely favourable to agriculture. and extremely clear. the cyatheas. alsophilas. The eucalyptus savana may be said to be the greatest agricultural asset of Australia. far above the lower tier. and the trees reach huge dimensions. of arboreal compositae^ acacias.188 AUSTRALIA always loose. the rain-forest proper. pine apple. rain- This hilly coastal strip is soon followed inland by the mountain ranges. is characterized by an abundance of graceful tree-ferns. which compose an irregular 300-400 gum-trees. south of the tropics to Cape Moore. and even rlorthern crops and is equally favourable to grazing and derived industries. distinct from that of any other in the is due again to the presence of the colossal feet high. dicksonias. moist. receive rain fairly regularly throughout the year. while the undergrowth is world. is able to They may reach the ground-water at great depths. together with large climbing ferns and grasses.

impart to the forests the appearance of those . and its climate is mild. while the mountain girdle is clad with forests similar to those of southeastern Australia. where the giant eucalypti and the tree-ferns are most conspicuous. . and cereals. As may be expected. and surrounded by a broken and difficult hill-land. but it is only along narrow and short strips here and there that the rainfall is sufficient to support the true selva or rain-forest. In the west and south.000 feet in elevation. a grass-land of park-like aspect. mostly peculiar to the island. lypti. especially in the The central plateau is west. and dairy farming. rising and falling in step-like terraces. Tasmania consists of a high tableland about 3. the second tier consists almost exclusively of those tree. Within the tropics. The orange and vine. wealthy Northern Portion of the Eastern Highlands. The of whole island is fairly well watered. the eastern part of the Queensland highlands receives the benefit of the south-east trades and of the summer monsoon. one which gives an edible nut. chiefly maize. acacias. are grown. The euca' ' and banksias play here quite a secondary the part vegetation: they are replaced by true tropical species allied to those of the Indo-Malayan flora among them is found a stingftig-tree or tree-nettle. In the valleys. and many other such industries. all tropical produce can be freely grown here. give an unlimited scope to the agriculture of this territory.SOUTH-EASTERN TEMPERATE RAIN-FOREST 189 crowded with ferns. evergreen beeches and conifers. Near the tropic appear several kinds of araucarias. The general vegetation ' is 'jungle in in India of that lighter type of tropical forest called and bush in Australia.and herb-ferns which have given the name to the famous fern-gullies of south-eastern Australia.

Tree-ferns in a gully. . Blue Mountains..E. S.IK. Australia. US.

and their Australia. the selva proper appears to be confined to the river margins. with a portion. and lumbering on the slopes.wind belt. arising out of an entirely bare ground. while in the south.200 to 1.000 to 3. New Caledonia. a lighter forest or jungle It is also known occupying the intervening lands. and relatively dry climate. parallel to the coastal range of Queensland.000 feet are more forest. including araucarias and ferns. forests greatly resemble the rain-forests of south-eastern The upper forest belt displays a great wealth of conifers. while agriculture finds very favourable conditions in the valleys. The variety of the vegetation and of the resources in . New The Guinea is interior is completely equatorial in its climate. The vegetation of savanas and a peculiar kind of woodland. The dry. it is divided by a long inland chain of mountains and high plateaus into a moister eastern and a drier western coastal strip of lowlands. with eucalypti recalling those of Australia. stony plateaus are covered with a short evergreen scrub. equable. up to 1. which is somewhat drier. supports the densest type of tropical rain-forest. Only the river margins possess parallel bands of tropical The slopes from 1. small trees 40 feet high. stunted melaleucas. with scattered. as yet practically unknown. The northern portion. regularly timbered except on the ridges. separated from the south by a high mountain-range.500 feet on the southern side. recalls the semi-arid belt of northern Australia.000 feet.TASMANIA of 191 southern Chile and southern grassy plateau is New Zealand. Broadly speaking. within the trade. The central naturally mainly pastoral. enjoys a healthy. are found inland about 1. but it appears to be entirely wooded. that typical savanas. and situated on the margin of the tropical belt.

and the pleasantness of the climate. corresponding entirely situated in the temperate to those of southern Europe. The distribution of the 'rain fall over the ideal for the development of the temperate rain-forest. like New Zealand and Tasmania. and enjoys. FIG. Only the upper reaches of the southern Alps rise to the North Island and the northern point of South Island is fairly uniform and abundant throughout the year. on the whole. One or two . 69.192 AUSTRALIA timber. New Zealand is latitudes. N. pastures. Kauri Logs and Forest. a very mild equable climate. which finds here a luxuriant expression. and agricultural land. This combination* of an equable and mild climate with a plentiful moisture is cold belt and possess permanent glaciers. Zealand. make New Caledonia a little inde- pendent world capable of the highest development.

now . There are many other huge trees. The natural resources of New Zealand are varied and The timber is extremely valuable and plen- tiful yet. healthy climate. which make progress almost impossible. eastern Australia. and the influx of the white population. The undulating plain which extends at the foot of the Alps. however. this region entirely the give the temperate stamp to the 'Bush'. agriculture scattered and low. is so swept by winds as to become comparatively dry. : abundant. The evergreen beech only covers the western slopes of the southern and the forest Alps. Towards the (called south.. it has now come abreast of European comits With munities in every respect. excellent alike for grazing and here is the home of the New Zealand flax. On the opposite side of the range. terranean fruits. and lichens. among them The extreme luxuriance of the forest is due to countless ferns. Tree-growth is The plain is covered with a sort of or park-prairie park-steppe. &c. Stately conifers. assuming the aspect of the south Chilian beech forest. despite its rapid destruction. the small-leaved evergreen beech black birch') becomes increasingly abundant. of species confined to the kauri (dammara). A specific * feature is the absence of bright flowers. most of them with leathery. in spite of a fair rainfall. oval leaves. and shrubs. .The natives themselves. climbers.NEW ZEALAND species of the smaller 193 palms give a touch of the subwhile of tree-ferns recalls souththe wealth tropics. are grown in large quantities. kahikatea (podocarpm). Agriculture and Subtropical and medigrazing are very prosperous. in an impoverished condition. mosses. creepers. to the moister gullies. and the forest remains confined. maize and hard wheat. as well as all our temperate produce. the rainfall has decreased to 30-40 inches. loses much of its profusion. &c. .

. warm. and therefore enjoy a thoroughly equable.194 AUSTRALIA fast disappearing. the outcome of which is a luxuriant forest growth. had reached a fair stage of civilization before the arrival of the white man. and rainy climate. Yams and colocasias furnish starch -containing roots. Pacific Islands. spices are also found. Numerous raise . 7u. features of these islands. while cultivation can the whole range of tropical fruits and produce. Palms constitute one of the most common IMG. which forms a fringe round most islands. Mangroveawamps occur occasionally on muddy shores. The coco-nut palm. Pacific islands lie The great bulk of the countless within the intra-tropical belt. and the sago palm the are most offer useful. banana The bread-fruit tree and the an easy and abundant food. Pineapple Plantation.

the climate.CHAPTER V AFRICA General. winds from the boundless. austral ocean. African vegetation may be summarized as follows : Mediterranean Tropical Deserts Tropical Savanas Equatorial Selva Tropical Savanas Tropical Deserts Mediterranean. and droughts. clear skies. Well astride of the equator. by a sort of cumulative effect hence the striking disparity between the Sahara and the austral deserts. exposing only a narrow fringe on either side to the mediterranean climates. it passes through the regions of trade winds into those of tropical high pressures. broken by the two hemiThe much greater area under the northern spheres. In its broad features. the dark continent is the most symmetrical of the large land masses. without any o 2 . With its centre in the belt of equatorial calms and rains. Yet that the ratios between arid and total areas on the two of this diagram is The symmetry unequal distribution of African lands in the : sides of the equator are so disproportionate is not adequately explained by a mere consideration of total South Africa is open to the moisture-bearing surfaces. tropic not only exposes a larger surface to drought but tends to emphasize the aridity of.

Physical Features of Africa. 71. as contrasted with the high elevation of the FIG. while the north and east of the continent dominated by the vast mass of Eurasia from which no moisture comes. The relative lowness of most of northern Africa. grass.196 interference is AFRICA . but not also permits much less condensation. . in southern Africa the place of the desert is taken by a vast extent of very dry.* Owing to those circumstances. southern extremity.

73. 72. surface of that desert. combine to produce a partly monsoon and partly . Mean Annual Rainfall of Africa. 74. Mean Temperature of Africa.GENERAL The western extension of longitude 197 for of the continent thirty the degrees excessive heating of the atmosphere over the broiling tropic. under the northern FIG. reduced to sea-level. FIG. Seasonal Distribution of Rainfall. and the existence of a sufficient relief along the Guinea coast at sub-equatorial latitudes. FIG.

The equatorial rain-forest is not carried over from shore to shore. 75. by the eastern equatorial portion being an elevated plateau . Vegetation of Africa. by the south-eastern trade windg exhausting their moisture . This is to be explained by D HI Mediterranean\^gQ Desert&. the absence of moist north-eastern trade winds .198 AFRICA Guinea equatorial belt of excessive moisture and the exuberant selva.PoorScrub EH Scrub EJ Steppe Park Land (Savana) HotWet Fordt FIG.

The bulk of the grass area corresponds to the trade-winds belt on the oceans. of forests. as it was formerly called. As a consequence. moisture on the eastern and southern scarps of the plateau. and the evaporation is greater. and it includes a long and winding valley called the Tell hemmed in between a lower and much broken coastal range and the northern slopes of the Atlas. whose climate is closely related to that of central and eastern Spain. find the irregular . The undulating high plain has a savana barriers climate and vegetation. the country is fertile. and these are so high that they are mountain forests rather on Madagascar. the mountain and hillthe high plains alone have sufficient strewn over ranges moisture for the maintenance of heavy rain-forests. the whole. and the resembles that of the mediterranean portion vegetation On .GENERAL first 199 mountains that and by part of the monsoons being deflected and drawn towards the lofty mass of Abyssinia. South of it them the savana covers nearly the whole breadth of austral The tropical type of grass-lands passes with Africa. and with the elevated austral The sea winds spend their plateau on land. which are in consequence covered with a girdle The tableland has only a moderate rainfall. Mediterranean Africa or Mauretania. skirt the eastern tableland than selvas. which are neither so widespread nor so strongly developed as those of the Amazoni. then to a temperate type. The elevation of the Congo basin and the surrounding reduce the rainfall. The Atlas Ranges separate from Africa a strip of mountainous land. higher latitudes into a subtropical. This broadens in the extreme west into fertile plains open to the Atlantic winds. Mediterranean Africa. extends from Tunis to Mogador. and thus the area of the selvas.

200 of Spain. 76. and white or deciduous oaks. varying with the soil. &c. it AFRICA Had it been preserved in its original state. is covered with forests of Aleppo pines. dwarf- This oak. would have been that of an open woodland and shrubland of hard-leaved evergreens where the grass is dry and wiry. rosemary. cistus. of palm groves. cork oaks. on vegetation depend of the coastal and western plains of the Tell valley. and olive clumps. Gorge in Mountains of Algeria. and still more numerous undershrubs such as thyme and lavender. FIG. the fields are to be seen .. The undergrowth consists of numerous evergreen shrubs such as tree-heath. The forests have now been almost entirely cleared away Ifi for agricultural purposes. The lowest zone consists altitude. lentiscus. finding a parallel in the valleys of Successive girdles of California and Central Chile.

close thickets of dwarf On the lower slopes some prosperous forests of everlefib. and &c. 77. Waste lands are covered with a high and dense scrub of prickly green bushes FIG. figs. other fruit-trees. maize.MEDITERRANEAN AFRICA. vines. 201 date-palms. forming the maquis. tobacco. olives. been green oaks have Cork oaks predominate . lucerne. Atlas Cedars Algeria. or with palms.

above this the cedar forms the forest. as in the plain. has at all times attracted invasions east. tree-heaths.600 feet.500 feet. The easternmost outlier of typical Mediterranean evergreen vegetation is found in Cyrenaica or Barka. Phoenician. running as a sort of shelf along thet foot of the inland slopes of . mixed here and there with deciduous trees up to the tree limit at 5. The Atlas Interment Plateaus. represented by the cedar of the Atlas. and have held it now Strife between agritor centuries and kept it back. At about 1. mountain vegetation. mingles with the holm-oak. Loose brushes of lavender and other small bushes are The upper girdles have scattered over the stony tops. and is a serious obstacle to its culturist prosperity. while ilex forests are more abundant farther up.202 AFRICA below. been somewhat better preserved. with its desirable climate and the rich rewards it offers to human industry. The variety of cultivation which is possible in this Africa offered of part great scope to the settled tribes of Kabyles and Berbers. and the slopes are clad with dense scrub. Roman. Mauretania. Arab. with undergrowth of myrtles. Unfortunately pastoral and more warlike tribes conquered the land. Behind the great barrier of the Northern Atlas is an elevated region of vast arid plateaus. perhaps on account of their steeper slopes. arranged in parallel terraces and dotted with innumerable salt lakes or ' shotts '. but in a much poorer form. Those plateaus reappear south of the Saharan Atlas. strawberry trees and other shrubs. and nomad is still rampant in the western or Moroccan region. which it successively shared. of the Mediterranean civilizations. when they are not entirely bare. Most of the original covering has long been destroyed. from the the ruins Its historical ground is bestrewn with Greek.

but there are hundreds of other sources of water. arid tracts. Ain-Sefra. Trees are absent. The variations of heat and cold are necessarily greater than in the and the climate surrounding lowlands. or confined to some isolated and thin orchards in the more fertile hollows with some ground moisture. At first sight theite seems to be nothing but a boundless sea of scattered tufts of alfa or esparto grass over stony plateaus. They are reduced to the size and shape of shrubs such as the home ' ' batoum pistacio and the thorny Amid such are welcome shelf of the jujube-tree. the Saharan Atlas is much drier than the northern branch. in which man has bored wells. As might be expected. Large oases line the southern : the largest of them. in small whitish bunches. The saline tracts surrounding the shotts are laid out in belts of fleshy salt-bushes or succulents.THE ATLAS INTERMONT PLATEAUS the range. date-palms. By thus tapping and utilizing the waters. however. the slopes are now . Figuig. They are the of a desert-grass. waterless river-beds converging towards the shallow shotts. They the starting-points of those thin straggling lines of Saharan Atlas which span the immensity. appear like seas of waving the are true gates of the desert. Small dunes may interrupt these belts. Laghuat. a favourite fodder of camels. Soon. covered chiefly with wormwood. fresh-water sources and oases features. although heavy downpours may occasionally cause disastrous floods. 203 In this region the rainfall is is greatly reduced semi-desert. These high plains give us a foretaste of the great desert. Biskra. he has dotted the desert with fertile orchards and gardens travel of fresh verdure. one discovers a network of broad and winding. the drinn (aristida pungent*). These are marked by other steppes.

open slopes clad with scrub of mediterranean character. consisting of The dragon tree and the succulent mainly plants. from 4.000 feet. a valuable product. however. a kind of broom. or trains of camels and horses. the collection of which occupies a few hundreds of workmen scattered in wandering communities along and inaccessible.500 feet. to condense a certain amount of oceanic moisture.204 AFRICA mostly bare. The Canary Islands have played an important part in .000 to 7. with blue-green patches of alfa grass. Outside the cultivated alluvial valleys. More or less scattered bushes of retama. sheltered can scattered woods of green oak. temperate evergreen rainThe extension of Canary forests have found refuge. : The Canary Islands grouped on the west coast of the Sahara are able. more much once of probably vestiges The high plateaus can support but temporarily the passing herds of sheep and goats. and only in the ravines and at the heads of gorges. which reaches 8. characterize the Alpine zone. Their vegetation is of semi-desert character. The esparto grass is. this belt offers little else than stone fields and rocks bestrewn with succulents and meagre bushes of the broom and heather The middle belt. and in the secluded gorges. the above preceding zone coincides with pine-forests the belt of clouds and mists which frequently hide the upper slopes. and the Phoenician juniper. in addition to the Canary date-palm the railway lines. by reason of their altitude. has type. olive. and they are juniper be discovered Aleppo pine. The African Islands. and form a link between the Mediterranean region and the desert. The lower slopes are related with the neighbouring mainland in point of aridity. the Atlantic pistacia. extensive forests. are the chief trees.

the white artemisia. with Very much the same plant-life. turn out to be extremely dense tussocks . When the waste to pebbles rocks of the ruined desert hamada * ' ' are worn down is and gravel. rising above the accumulated detritus. known The immense barren is dotted with what at first sight appear like rounded. as undulating expanses and broken outcrops. among which are the alfa. whitish boulders. almost plantless waste of pebbles.THE AFRICAN ISLANDS : 205 the history of agriculture a number of products of the Old World. They are produced not by climatic differences but by the nature of the surface. vestiges of the prim- by waterless itive surface. is due to the cracking Sahara. Low bushes are sparsely scattered on the bare floor. now wiped out. as tablelands intersected river-beds. This gives the impression of a flat. Madeira. where sheep and camels can find practically no as food. in the and splitting of the rocks by alternate expansions and contractions brought about by abrupt changes of temperature. but. It occurs as bare hills. such as the sugar-cane and the banana. on inspection. the reg or areg '. were mainly agricultural. while. or where the surface is clayey and stony. or rocky desert. only those islands. it is surprising to find in the hamada a large variety of species. except for a few fertile spots. or as isolated blocks. enjoys a moister climate. Three main aspects have been distinguished Great Desert. low. and reached a fairly high standard of civilization. Despite the scarcity of the vegetation. became American after a stage of acclimatization in The native populations. and several sage-like shrubs. the Cape Verde Islands remain huge naked blocks of lava. or again various loose and leafless undershrubs. boundless. The hamada. anchoring their roots in the fissures and cracks.

arid glued fast together by the dried clay. the ground seems bare as far as the horizon on looking carefully. 1 Reproduced from a photograph of the Ordnance Survey by permission of the Controller of H. 78. two feet high. But for a few distant leafless bushes of zollikoferia and ephedra. Reg Desert Sinai. one discovers a large variety of pigmy plants. .206 AFRICA anabasis. the surface is sprinkled with spots . desert Such tussocks are made up of packed bundles of wiry shoots bristling with leathery. also called ' of a cushion plant.M. short. the formations of sand-dunes or 'erg' Vast tracts of this sea of moving sand may arise. : FIG. the cauliflower'. pointed and crowded leaves. remain entirely plantless: nothing seems to vary the beauty of the vivid orange billows but. 1 Where the gravel and clay are ground to impalpable drifting sands. at other places and more frequently. Stationery Office. however.

over and along . a broad expanse of hamadas and aregs characterizes the somewhat higher plateaus of Ahaggar continued southward by that of Ahir and is followed again by the somewhat interrupted and lower ergs of the Fezzan and Teda. Farther on. is chiefly one of hamadas and aregs a second region. The Libyan desert. buried ' : : .SAHARA of a delicate greyish-green. Thus the westernmost or coastal band. As may be noticed on the maps. includes the Great Erg. The saline tracts characteristic of all deserts are always present in the Sahara. Beyond the Red Sea again. and the tamarix endeavours to form a thin heath. and Dakhel. spurge. including the Rio de Oro and Sahel and extending down to Senegal. beyond the oases of Farafreh. tufts of drinn-grass. with their usual vegetation retama. of Saharan broom. the Igidi and Elgof. stretching from Tunis to the western Aderar. hilly type divided or interrupted by the narrow valley of the Nile or Egypt proper. of fleshy or ' succulent ' salt-bushes. These three main varieties of the Sahara appear to be distributed in vast areas or regions which they may serve to characterize. the dunes may be partially or temporarily fixed by the binding aristida. reaching south to the Chad and embracing the Tibu with the Tibesti range. the Arabian desert is divided into vast seas of moving sand and wastes of stone and lava. and some other dry undershrubs and grasses are scattered over the sand. is one vast unbroken stretch of dreary barren sands. and is a colossal sea of sand-dunes to the east. The central portion. In the Egyptian and Nubian deserts is shown a recurrence of the rocky and clayey. the caravan routes avoid the ergs and go from well to well. and from (jasis to oasis. 207 leafless Desultory bushes of and then uprooted by the wind. El Khargeh. is mostly hamada and reg.

deciduous leaves into water reservoirs the majority are resinous or waxy. They no longer belong to the mediterranean flora. sprinklings or even thickets of acacias occur occasion- on are formed others. tablelands. on the naked soil. gnarled trees. on Presently. The semi-desert naturally a more varied land- scape than the desert. small bushes and low. just valuable in so many ways. The date- palm' in the oases and the camel on the road are the two and the very simple existence essentials of desert life . other plants are swollen with small. commiphora the aderas. . of the nomads and of the few settled communities is practically based on them. First. the river-beds and to a fewc slopes. is useful alike for its for its products and by-products. A but this is very irregular. sparse but regular deciduous woodlands by a relative of the balsam-trees. due to the accumulation of underground water or to the short mountain streams which lose themselves in the sands.208 the AFRICA hamadas and the regs. . are found in depressions or along the foot of the heights and tablelands. The oases. The well-known date-palm. make their appearance. often thorny or prickly. and some years may be offers practically rainless. but consist largely of various species of acacias and acacia-like plants. certain amount of rain falls between July and September. some of the ally. which is the feature of protection and as the camel is their vegetation. Small trees and a dearth of grass appear to be the most prominent features of the vegetation. Grass is confined to In depressions with . Sudan Semi-Desert. The transition from the desert to the less arid southern regions is very gradual. besides entirely bare stretches. either solitary or in thin groves. the isolated bushes cluster in loose scrub . on account of a more severe erosion.

Some cultivation now possible. and give rise and there swards less to of is marshes and even lagoons. Such are the o general features of the belt of land. the dhurra millet being the commonest crop. on the margin of the desert. about 300 miles broad on an average. Semi-desert Nigeria. It . which stretches from the Atlantic to the Red Sea. groves. The tree- clayey soils. heavy and retentive. of which there are many species. or even extensive forests of doum-palm (hyphaene thebaica) are the rule. woods. and the umbrella shape of the thorny trees arranged in scattered woods. 79. some of them local.SUDAN SEMI-DESERT 209 a sufficiency of ground water. generally remain FIG. pennisetum grass Here may be seen. but the predominant features are the acacia. others of wide distribution.

210 is AFRICA compared with similar belts round the Australian on the northern side. camels. Such regions are naturally passage ways: the number of wells and water-holes increases as the desert is left desert. and with the southern margins of the Afghan and Indian deserts. and half-wild cattle is the main occupation of the nomad populations. thence over the region Sudanese Savana. Open Brush Nigeria. The savana is one of the most it extends in an widespread landscapes of Africa: uninterrupted belt around the great forest region. yet cultivation remains localized in a very FIG. from Senegal to the Egyptian Swlan. few and small areas. 80. . especially to be behind. The tending of sheep.

preserves throughout. now of lower plains. to the dark selvas land dotted with deciduous trees . between the semi-desert and the savana. the sycamore. from the desert lands. Representative forms and formations of the desert and the semi-desert continue for a time to intermingle with the specific savana vegetation. It results from the tropical climate with a moderate amount of rainfall and trees. always in sight. the ceiba. p 2 . regular thickets drowned in the tall grass. So gradual are the transitions from the poorest to the richest forms of vegetation. or a banyan. or trees like the baobab. lands. The Sudanese savana belt extends from Senegal to the Upper Nile amid a varied landscape. its main characteristics of tall grass- a long spell of drought. and herbs the savana changes. ing in loose woods. now of high tableSome kind of acacia. either dispersed or in woods. Somali. Large deciduous allied tree is mimosa. whether of Sahara.SUDANESE SAVANA 211 of the Great Lakes. with many other small trees. The guttifer shi-butter or butter- and-tallow tree is also one of the economic fig-tree prefer to stand alone in the open. or that any sharp boundary Kalahari. grasses. The raphia wine-palm adorns the margins of rivers and lakes. not unfrequently making. Though the series of and bushes. or between the latter and the light tropical woodland. despite differences of detail. whereas the doum-palm prevails in the north. the tamarind. often gathersometimes dotted singly. while isolated members of the high forest penetrate far into the park-land. Palms of the borassus type and kernel oil-palms form groves in the south. is out of the question. and round across the whole of the Zambezi region back to the Atlantic. shrubs.

FIG. High Savana Brush Nigeria. . 81. rivers have cut deep and narrow valleys the slopes of and which are forest-clad. so that an open tree-steppe is formed towards the south. South of the Gambia. the vegetation increases in variety and luxuriance as it approaches the highforest region yet the intervening sandstone plateaus . among which is the Trees are comparatively rare : scattered. to the south of acacias are predominant. offer but stunted forms of woods and scrub. the Niger. they fail entirely. with bushes. the high tablelands are mantled with tall grass interspersed laiidolphia rubber-bush. in which Farther east. In the plateau.212 AFRICA is Senegambia a low tract of land of a decided savana type. while retaining a number of semi-desert plant forms.

the common wild sugar-cane. and a kind of. an and surrounded and often impassable The Nile portion basin. or again under orchards of small trees overgrown with a rank crop of gigantic grass. Towards Kano. lagoons. exhibits much of the savana. Amid the uniformity of the grassy plains arise sometimes rocky islands. <are marked from afar by fringes of tall palms or dense margin-forest. sweltering. some 600 to 900 feet high. and the delta of the Shari River is covered with a dense growth of acacias. which occupies the centre of a vast arid depression. is girt with a broad belt of swamps. Lake Chad. the territory of the Middle Shari is also part of the typical park-savana which displays here a variety of trees. now broad and at a level with the land which they frequently flood. with reeds. In the vast swamps savana of this district tall reed. supports .SUDANESE SAVANA 213 This district gives way to the vast Niger-Benue plain which resumes the character of park-savana. the acacia type predominating with the butter- and-tallow tree. the savana passes rapidly to the acacia half-desert. at the point of transition from the half-desert to the true savana-land. the tamarind and baobab. Rivers. Following to the southeast. the Bahr-al-Ghazal the same characteristics with It is a tendency towards the thornbush type. marked by an abundance of doum-palms and several forms of the Nubian flora. which are clad with a very luxuriant tropical forest and defended by belts of dense acacia thickets. The Sudan a comparatively large population in With the engaged agriculture and^ cattle-breeding. considerable portions of the plain being under an impenetrable grassy jungle. partly overgrown infertile. Nearer Lake Chad the clayey nature of the soil gives rise to immense swamps and land. grow the papyrus.

and soil.500 to 4.500 feet in altitude. Niger and Guinea. high. which continues southor ward the great Libyan desert and extends across the middle course of the Nile up to the foot of the Abyssinian plateau. it attracts the whole human and animal population. from which the West African rivers arise.214 remarkable wealth of to AFRICA its natural resources it bids fair : become one of the most prosperous parts of Africa and the high forest. A narrow strip of elevated tableland. The conflicts arising out of differences between the nomadic and the settled. . and the medium-sized trees. the pastoral and the agricultural. Scrophulariaceae. which are both avoided by man. is crowned with broken granitic peaks and heights. skirting the latter southward to Lake Rudolph. the landscape reminds one strongly of the : European scenery and atmosphere. while the bottoms are covered with gigantic grasses. temperate type in short. 9 to 10 feet high. Egyptian Sudan. display dreary and treeless the carpet of meagre vistas of monotonous grass-lands about one foot and short grass. harbour patches of tropical forest on their slopes. Futa-Jallon. are of a deciduous. 3. These broken plateaus. gathered in Compositae the watershed between the : : sheltered situations. The treelessness of those plateaus appears to be due to a wholesale destruction of the forests rather than to any influence of climate The sunk valleys are more prosperous. Convolvulaceae. tribes have long retarded the development of the Sudan. is interspersed with Labiatae. This region. and given a chequered situated between the desert history of spells of prosperity followed by periods of decay. bounded on the north by the Sudanese bush and on the south by the high forest of Guinea.

shadeless woods of gnarled acacias which expand in umbrella shapes. and taller. become a distinctive feature. The landscape is now a mosaic of thin. while in the land. balanites. especially still broad depressions. gummy aderas.. 213). of deciduous.Vv. l K FIG. p. i ^'? i ii p l ?. the scrubby and thorny vegetation grows more continuous. and scrub. 82. 3 to 5 feet high. tiny-leaved bushes. thickets of predominate with grassy tracts. As it penetrates farther south. ^nd in many ways recall our . but thorny Nubian and other acacias. and marks a step towards the more prosperous savana conditions. closer. forests of doum-palms. for the rainy season may be fairly depended upon.EGYPTIAN SUDAN 215 shows an improvement on the semi-desert margin. In the north one desert meets with large stretches of on the plateaus. In the drier Scrubland of the Egyptian Sudan. The vegetation is uniform. and characterized throughout by a large development of thorn woods (cf. &c.

S3. but behind that fringe and occasional strips of savana. in the immediate and under its beneficial influence. Floating Blocks of Sudd. thorny scrub and woodland. . which suggest meagre and patchy cornfields on a stony and constitute a specific feature of those regions. sedges. vast swamps bristling with tall reeds. commence the The river forms leafless. shows already something of the luxuriance of grass of the savana. but generally steppes of the stony ground bare under and between the scattered trees. soil. may be a bushy and is woody undergrowth. open. knee-high thornbush vegetation of this region Meagre with alternate and wiry bunch-grass dry The close. now now fairly scrub. The river flows between banks adorned with groves of palms and other tall trees . papyri. may be compared to that of the sertao in the north-eastern part of the Brazilian highlands. The lower portion vicinity of the Nile of the district.216 AFRICA There orchard trees in winter. Extensive tracts among the woodand scrub-lands are covered with peculiar grass formations FIG.

which completely hides the waters and assumes the appearance of our meadows. as well as in portions of the scrub area. are rapidly becoming exhausted. On the savana and the other poor steppes. which 217 may so cover the marshes as to seem like a regular growth. Agriculture is confined to the vicinity of the Fu*. Si. it is yet so severely drained and wind-swept that the effect . and broken While it attracts the by deep and narrow gorges. summer monsoon rains from across the equator. rivers more generous and to the higher lands which receive a somewhat rainfall. for the nature of the country compels pastoral activities. The Desert near Rogel.EGYPTIAN SUDAN canes and rushes. but they supply an abundance of fuel hence they for the steamboats which ply on the Nile . Abyssinia topped by is still an enormous block of lofty tableland. and cloaked with sudd. a certain number of cattle can be supported. The woodlands are of no special economic value. A fishing population of most peculiar habits lives amid those swamps. loftier ranges and peaks.

indeed the of landscape Abyssinia may be regarded as a summary of most of the vegetations of Africa. distribution of rainfall and an extreme diversity oi the drainage due to variations of the relief and of exposure. Varying with the altitude. however. 85.218 of the AFRICA abundant rainfall is partly lost. an unequal ness of northern lands. its climate ranges from dry and hot conditions of the Sudan and the Red Sea to the coolIn addition to this. and the nature of the ground combine in render- FIG. cover strikingly varied. The most characing plant teristic the and extensive formation is the meagre treeless steppe of the wind-swept plateaus. which is. Pr6sperous park landscapes . interrupted on the arid rocky sides of the gorges by patches of thorny brush or thin sprinklings of acacias and low leafless trees. Coffee Plantation British East Africa.

on the plateaus and upper slopes the park landscape with slopes. The increase of rainfall with elevation determines a corresponding arrangement of the vegetation in belts of altitude. a taller hillbush follows higher up. The land gradually Abyssino-Eritrean Foot-hills. support bush grass-lands. This is carried towards the east up to Cape Guardafui by an irregular line of low rises . mountains clad with forests gigantic juniper of undergrowth and podocarpus. groves deciduous trees. on the slopes of the loftier mountains. Abyssinia is also ments. who brought with them their civilization. and with primitive methods. from the low and arid Somali plains towards the Ethiopian highlands in a series of broken terraces which form a hilly landscape. dotted with candelabra euphorbias. and it is not surprising that the population of the latter was partly derived from the Arabian Sabeans. Thus the lower the neighbouring lowlands. and possessing an mediterranean tree-heath. both as regards climate and vegetation. like its European-looking deciduous trees and pastures becomes predominant: juniper forests are best developed between 6.ABYSSINIA 219 strongly recalling those of Europe are not wanting in favoured positions on the upper levels.000 feet.000 and 9. The country is is mainly pastoral. vary the grassy brushes and scrub. but agriculture is quite indeed practised everywhere for local requirepossible. the ancient Ethiopia. and shelters two kinds of wild olive-trees and a great economic interest. the home of the Arabian coffee-tree. Orchard-like of tall of woodlands. Ethiopia was also influenced by Egyptian invasions and became an important centre of culture. many plants of The mountains of Yemen in Arabia Felix offer a close analogy with Abyssinia.

and. the candelabra euphorbias. podocarpus and treeregular heaths interrupted by pastures. leafless. the stiff-leaved aloes. resins.220 AFRICA mountains. left standing on naked stony The cloud-belt favours the growth of more forests of tall junipers. of this transition belt that the Sabean herbalists found the gums. shadeless.and scrub-lands. and aromatic products. identical with those of the Abyssinian highlands. and their A crowns of short stout limbs ending in small bunches of leaves. a greater diversity of soil. the hilly margin of . Such woods look like copses young oak-trees. number of strange plant-forms imparts a peculiar character to these dry grass. arise solitary or in loose clumps on the slopes : gum acacias are also abundant. It was principally on the slopes of dead wastes. which were the objects of an extensive trade in ancient times. low and rounded crowns of the dragontrees. and is continued by the hilly ranges which join the Eritrean coast with the northern part of Abyssinia. A large development of the grassy thornbrush and acacia scrubs. and the occurrence of clouds and mists in the upper reaches go to make the vegetation of this hot belt much more varied than that of Somalilancl proper. Yemen* Across the Bed Sea. without grass or undergrowth of any kind. the barrel-shaped adeniumtrees with their bodies swollen and smooth. on the whole. myrrh and frankincense among them. except for a few weeks in the year. strangest of all. the compact. repeats that of the Brazilian sertao. which. a wealth of orchard-like woods against a background of grass-lands are the specific features of this scenery. An increase of rainfall during the wet season. Among them. In the north of this region the scorched hills of Eritrea support forests of balsam-trees.

balsams. or evaporated. which is supupper slopes. just as among the foot-hills of Eritrea and Ethiopia. an and mists and by abundance of clouds plemented by The dews at climate is equable. resins. torrid coastal shelf they are swallowed The vegetation combines the of the remote past. which furnishes the abundance of gums. The raised south-western edge of the great desert plateau. temperate to subtropical. in ancient times. Hence the extraordinary wealth and diversity of the natural and cultivated resources which gained for the Yemen. thanks to an extreme variety of physical conditions. and gave rise to one of the most famous trades of the mediterranean . wax. which in places exceeds 9. and Babylonia. myrrh. frankincense and k&t occupied the ancient Sabeans. features and profusion and moist subtropical types but it includes also many characteristic forms of the adjacent dry lands. up by the sands. and Himyarites spread as from a centre to Syria. 'the Horn pf Africa/ is a region inter- .000 feet in elevation. the name of Arabia It is largely the vegetation of the more arid Felix. attracts the monsoons from the Indian Ocean in the same manner as does Abyssinia. scents and spices. on the middle and a there is sufficient rainfall. The collection of gums. reaching a point of supreme intensity. areas. Such fortunate conditions convert the highlands into an island of abundance amid the surrounding deserts. The streams have eaten their way far up into the tableland and dissected its jagged rim into a network of deep valleys but on reaching the . Somaliland. Hence. warm plentiful night. Sabeans. cassia and senna. Ethiopia.YEMEN 221 Arabia repeats very much the same landscape and the same vegetation as the symmetrical mass of Ethiopia. The civilization of the Minoans.

222 AFRICA E-i c C Cfl .

Amid the scorching semi-deserts. species of aloes and water-storing plants. with the strange forms of the candelabra euphorbia. and other denizens of the semi-desert Sudanese belt reappear in Somaliland. country very A meagre sprinkling of umbrella-acacias and other low trees. and long sections of the valleys support dense equatorial selvas. It is only in the margins of the often waterless river-beds that one sees impenetrable thickets of acacias and a stronger development of grass : long stretches of the coastland are completely destitute of any visible vegetation. leathery. : grass-bunches or of prickly. to Thus the plant a minimum. pastures mostly temporary and localized.leaved deciduous trees of low woody and bushy growth. salvadora. 223 The rain- bearing monsoons on their way to the lofty mass of Abyssinia pass over this thirsty. over the bare sandy or stony ground is quite. Their flood margins extend in places over five miles. are. secular efforts of man brought it under A similar effort ha . thorny and leafless. Now now light acacia woods bushes gather in open scrubs mark the tracts of some underground moisture a reduced . grudging cover is it the benefit of their moisture. calotropis.and bad dotting of stiff . a general umbrella shape of the tiny. indigo.SOMALILAND mediate between the Sudan and Arabia. may plants strap-leaved form the scanty undergrowth. Grass is scarce . A rich development of thorny plants. which renders the to similar the arid margin of the Sahara. sweltering lowland. recalling pineapple bunches. Tamarix. and jungles of marvellous exuberance: a presumably true picture of primeval Egypt before the coptrol. typical of this region. marshes. two large rivers arising from the Ethiopian highlands form symmetrical replicas of the Blue Nile and the Atbfira. specific features of the vegetation.

this belt. In short. Cultivation is also responsible for much of to the light forests. are comparatively small and scarce. the savana has. Nigeria). whose thinly scattered tribes continue to tend hungry cattle. . Bahr-al-Ghazal. The savana does not pass abruptly to the high tropical forest: with the gradual increase of rainfall and the appearance of a double wet season. Thus it is that. : shed their foliage or possess leathery leaves and lianas and epiphytes. Distinct traces of it may be found in the damage Upper Guinea (the Ivory and Gold and Coast. Light Forests and Parks of Tropical Africa. Togo. universal practice of burning the grass yearly in the dry period. Yet woodlands do not attain to the height and wealth of the equatorial selvas a good many trees and . on the watersheds of the Shari. In Upper Guinea. which are easily set on fire. in most cases. the vegetation slowly grows more luxuriant patches of woods become at once more extensive and more frequent while the park aspect is emphasized. to hunt among the rich scrub. representative growth-forms of the selva are present throughouj. tropical largely transformed into a savana. distinct belt of transition from the savana to the selva. in this belt has been Africa. and. been extended right to the margin of the selva. consisting of light kinds of tropical woods mixed with but by reason of the grass-lands of the savana type . except in the river-forests. there is a still . Oil and borassus .224 AFRICA apparently been beyond the powers of the Somalis. grass-lands. in many instances. and Congo basins and the great Ituri forest passes to the savana through such a margin of light deciduous tropical woods interspersed with the hinterland of . has indeed largely encroached upon its limits by the destruction of the belt of light woods.


oil- palms. From the southern part of French Guinea to the Gold Coast. It has the advantage of an easy irrigation without the drawbacks of the overthe south of the rivers. deeply slopes with of selva forests the are clad type. The reason of this is the heavy rainfall. other large trees : Congo basin. is capable of great development. The low coast-line is and . the Kasai and with their tributaries. and wild coffee-trees are abundant. the below sunk the of the only valleys. tall grassy jungles. exceeding 80 inches and fairly continuous throughout the year. fig-trees. Villages are dotted all along the beach.226 AFRICA palms form a conspicuous feature. the most fertile part of Africa. and penetrates along these gorges far into the savana region. run across a series Here of terraces leading up to the Zambezi divide. cotton. anogeissus. yams. the tropical rain-forest extends from the shore to the upper valleys of the plateaus at the back. and thin low shore woods. Frequently this sandy of tall coco-nuts equable heat. and the natives have cleared narrow strips of ground between the sea and the dark forest which rises at the back. The tablelands are covered with a mixture of light woods and grassy glades. sugar-cane are but a few of its most important products. Its comparatively old cultivation and thick population are proofs of its natural fertility even under primitive methods of cultivation. On Lualaba whelming forest. along with ceibas. This transition zone. sterculias. girt with reeds. : West African Coast Guinea. chlorophoras. coupled with the sandy and marked by a screen Behind this extend oil-palms. general level. coffee. freshwater or brackish lagoons. bombax. rubber. West African mahoganies. Rice.

which extend almost continuously from Lagos to the vicinity of the lower Congo. of the Cameroon. which mark the and inlets. : up to 6. and even with the Himalayas).WEST AFRICAN COAST GUINEA : 227 by tidal swamps. The Guinea selva is the great southern plateau.000 feet the shrubs disappear fast and open grass slopes lead to upper moorlands. the Andes. West African Plateaus. In respect of its situation. above which the ash-cone towers. it is to be compared to the Brazilian coast forest on the other side This remark applies to the forests of of the Atlantic. covering the low and broad tidal tracts at the and the mouths The enormous mass of the Cameroon mountain displays a lower belt of heavy well-marked belts of vegetation a zone of dense mountain followed by equatorial forests. Lower Guinea and the Loango coast. Guinea. and bear on their slimy surface mangrove forests. and beyond that river. of the Old Calabar. . the Cameroon thus shows an unexpectedly low tree-limit. to Benguella. Where the hills reach the shore is interrupted mouths of the rivers crowds down almost to the said to be the densest and most luxuriant forest of Africa. on the seaward slopes of coast-line the rain. and density. and is now becoming famous for its wealth in rubber plants. At 8.000 feet.forest shore. The Gaboon Oguwe and forest appears to continue east of the to join the great forests of the Sanga and tln West Africa there occur Q 2 Ubanghi. Mangrove swamps are particularly abundant along the Gulf of delta of the Niger. Compared with mountains in other parts of the inter-tropical world (Mexico. physical conditions. reaches becomes increasingly mixed with grass-lands dotted with low shrubs. thence upwards the forest gradually dwindles to the size of a high bush and forests.

contrasting with the exuberance of the Cameroon and Gaboon. Other highlands occur in Togo. and many other shrub forms with small leaves. in a general tioned. The hills and plateaus. : . the vegetation of which differs in many respects from that of the surrounding The Futa-Jallon has already been briefly menlands. numerous members of the acacia and mimosa tribes. appears to have a vegetation different from that of the valleys.and plateau-land which forms the watersheds between the Shari. and to the winds. the little known hill. north and south direction. on the other hand. under prosperous native cultivation. composed of light woods and park-lands.and tallow-tree.228 AFRICA a few masses of higher plateaus. and fail. and possibly continue between the Gaboon and the Congo basins. There seems to be a recurrence of the flora of drier lands. in which the baobab and the borassus palm The trees are small or of moderate size. some ' . The Congo Basin is a circular plain-like basin. with the acacias and other plants of the Sudan : mixed brush-woods of middle-sized deciduous trees alternate with grass stretches in a park landscape forests of Combretaceae display in January a fresh pale and shimmering verdure palms are rare. epiphytes and climbers both scanty and small.. include amongst others the butter. Similarly. Here rivers flow at the bottom of narrow gorges which harbour dense and luxuriant forests of the selva type. to a large extent. Ubanghi. display a dry kind of vegetation. The drier character of these plateaus is possibly due to the more complete drainage. North and east of the Cameroon the extensive tablelands of Adamawa and Ngaundere separate the inteiior basin of the Chad from the basin of the Gulf of Guinea. The plateaus to the north and east of the Cameroon are. and Bahr-alGhazal basins.

FIG. in the Congo State. Tropical Forest . 88.

the fig-tree. main and on the middle and upper sections of the rivers. It was long described as one colossal it and unbroken stretch of equatorial rain-forest. which were present in the savaria. for hundreds of miles up stream. Among other interesting trees may be noted the dragon-tree. ceibas. the Kasai runs also through a variegated scenery of light .230 AFRICA 1. The nature of the vegetation covering the tablelands between the rivers has not as yet been satisfactorily studied. the main waterways are accompanied by wide belts of true selva. From the edge of the plateau. which is well represented in drier regions. for and for the lower Kasai. partly of the rain-forest type. yet 80 inches yearly. the The Congo selvas confine themselves to narrow fringes. Oil and borassus palms. Sanga and the the Congo up As in the these broad strips on both sides of the streams are liable to permanent or temporary floods Amazon . to its eastward bend. to the fact that explorers seldom ventured far from the rivers. Perhaps the impression of boundless selva which is recorded in the accounts of more than appears to receive a rainfall that hardly exceeds one traveller is due. as on the Amazon.500 feet above sea-level. opens a park landscape of light woods and savanas the Itiri forest. thus having no opportunity to see the back-country. rotang palms. In the Welle district. much as the floras may differ. surrounded on all sides by the edges of higher plateaus '. continue to be conspicuous in this region in : rubber-trees and lianas are found abundance and heavily exploited. beyond the margin forest. . This is true for the lower Ubanghi up to Stanley Falls. of forests are rain-selva the high equatorial type. &c. turns to a lighter kind towards the east and in its middle course . like the Amazon caaguapu in all its essential vegetative features.

African plateau curves round the Congo basin. The forest belt which has been already mentioned. where. Human settlements are scattered once more prosperous and numerous. at about greens. borassus palm. scanty populations. by their recurrence among the inter-river landscapes. where the forms of the candelabra euphorbia and the baobab.. which This coastal possesses a low and narrow coastal shelf. dragon-tree. Congo. size and in one approaches as decreases profusion. hunting. the aloe and the sanseviera are conspicuous. the selva is limited to the shores and the islands savanas become the chief plant formation. one crosses the southern outlier of the West African coast forest. by fishing. Consequently or Gazaland : its vegetation repeats that of Somaliland meagre and patchy swards of stiff grass. 1. the thorn-bush thins out and soon mingles with jungles of large-leaf everClimbing up the edge of the plateau.000 feet. eke out the meagre living that satisfies them. with a sprinkling of thorn-bush and stunted trees. : along the rivers. On the foot-hills at the back. The northern edge of the high austral Angola. spur strip and its rainfall does not exceed eight inches yearly. suggest a similarity of conditions between the two In the lower districts of the physical environments. comprising high trees and lianas. 231 Such characteristic denizens of the savana as the ceiba. Its north-western extremity passes quite close to the lower Congo. and a minimum of agriculture. and after passing through a fringe of hill-bush one st^ps into the boundless savanas . corresponding with a lower atmospheric humidity. of northern the is but the south-western desert. &c. as well as by the collection of rubber. rapidly the brink of the tableland. forming the region known as Angola.THE CONGO BASIN woods and grass-lands.

escarpments. hills. Baobab tree. but cultivahere fairly extensive. and lead on to. and is replaced by the jungle and the thorn-bush. and FIG. comprehends many coffee. the South and East African plateau from theeastern coast. tropical cotton. the broken country which skirts the eastern rift t and the hills west and east . It comprises also the rolling and hilly land north of the Victoria Nyanza. amongst which sugar-cane are the most important. and mountains which border. The King of the African Savana. known which is resources of the rain -forest belt. 80. products. Under this name may be included the variegated landscape of terraces. wards Benguella. East African Mountain Region.232 AFRICA The coastal hill forest rapidly dwindles to- which cover the whole breadth of the South African continent. Rubber and the Guinea palm-oil are the best tion.

w 05 H cS .

is The background and general theme of always some kind of savana or thorn for the tropics this rise light tropical woods woodland. and for similar physical reasons. from the Congo forest. where a dotting of acacias with the umbrella shape prevails. tation except in the south. the diversity of the drainage. and from the drier lowlands of Mozambique: yet despite its diverse aspects. trees with thin light crowns and thick gnarled trunks. south to the lower Zambezi. from the Zambezi savana. Several factors. large portions of which are only of moderate height. Thus this part of Africa offers a -great similarity to the northern Brazilian highlands. corresponding to a From moderate and even but by reason of the great elevation of the plateau on the west and of the drought nearer the coast. the unequal influence of the south-east trade. and the deciduous thornbrush or wood of. such as the varying but generally high altitudes. the savanas are generally poor. combine to make this region one of the most varied of the continent. from the forest-clad hills of the Shire to those of the Upper Nile province. and the nature of the soil.winds. As a rule. few climbers. from the Bahr-alGhazal savana.234 AFRICA The region of the Nyassa. the eastern and southern slopes possess a richer vegetation than those of the west and north. the picture rainfall. it has a certain unity. thus defined embraces a manifold scenery: it differs alike from the Somali half-desert. The best known is the Mau forest. but a dense undergrowth of shrubs and grass other parts approach : . the caatinga form is the typical vegehigh forests. the equatorial and tropical situation. 60-70 feet. Light kinds of tropical forests do not fail in the hill-land. and few lianas. most of the rainfall coming from the south-eastern trades and monsoons.

000 Eambu forests up to to . Tree senecios and shrub a loose bush up to Tree-heaths up to 14. Inland valleys are.. Populations of hunters. shepherds. 6.000 8. the regular park savana is exemplified beautifully in the Masai and Karamoyo plains. extensive tracts are thinly studded with umbrella-shaped acacias over a meagre carpet of low grass.. and Uganda * side : Snow . .EAST AFRICAN MOUNTAIN REGION the exuberant subtropical rain-forest... and agriculturists are naturally intermixed amid. . with reference to the Kenya. lobelias. south to the Sabi River. . among the hills. being . but. In the Athi and Kidwani valleys. 12. 235 Hill rain-forests occur on most of the mountains. different zones are the following. . all varieties of which are to be se6n on both sides of the Nyassa and in the Shire district.700 Tall forests up Savanna and bush up to . Towards the south. displays They reappear south of the Zambezi on the hilly terraces of Umtali and Barue. . On the first-named the Kilima-njaro. The belts of altitude can be traced distinctly up the four great mountain masses of the Ruwenzori. in many instances. Elgon. the tall juniper and the podocarpus. may be found in Masailand. extremely dry. . the vegetation passes to a more uniform type of deciduous monsoon forest. south to the lower Zambezi: north-eastern Rhodesia especially several large belts of them.200 .such varied surroundings. 10. the lower portions often assuming the true selva type. the hunting and pastoral tribes. as usual.. . .500 Two conifers. ft. On the other hand. .

jungles and orchards of loose-limbed acacias overgrown with tall grass. however. . offers throughout a fairly uniform type of savana repeating. round heads and fine foliage. and beyond Tanganyika to Victoria Nyanza. many forest.236 AFRICA of the soil. tillers : The Zambezi basin and Unyamwezi. basaltic way and limestone rocks the grass and woods give to stunted forms of grey thorn scrub relieved by Candelabra shrubby evergreens and wo^cly perennials. the physical conditions of the Sudan. varieties of savana woods occur. open clusters of trees of a stouter more and bushy growth with clear. especially. A which in many instances resembles a thin oak Besides this. As far as we know. : . now even in extensive patches: among them may be enumerated thin copses of deciduous trees with straight. conspicuous in the distance. slender trunks and flat. is the tallest form of it. dottings of umbrella-shaped thorn-bushes in the savana with the solitary baobab On drier and more broken. spare crowns supported by gaunt. though at a much higher elevation. will have to be stamped out before a regular settlement is possible. have established an ascendancy over the These countries are capable of a prosperous development under the influence of the white man the Uganda plateau. more warlike. Under the general influence of a characteristic savana climate. the nature of the ground and of the relief seems to be the determining factor in the distribution of the light tropical forest of a leaf-shedding vegetation. the vast plateau territory which sweeps round from Angola to the Great Lakes over the Congo-Zambezi divide and most of the Zambezi basin. twisted limbs no undergrowth but grass up type. now in clumps and groves. Several animal foes such as the tsetse fly and the tick. to three feet high. offers a vast scope on account of its healthy climate.

2 i Ci M .d JS a & 2 .

peculiar tribes. sometimes girt with light jungles. . or tracts of doubtful gradient. On one of those swamps. aloes. The vegetation is correspondingly poor and. Broadly speaking. lead a primitive existence on floating reed-rafts. They are too low to con- dense the moisture of the south-east trade-winds. an open bush of thorn-wood with but scant grass of a wiry description. Towards the great lakes Tanganyika and Nyassa the surface heaves up into a regular hill-land the vegetation . or of the lowland of Mossamedes. have developed swamps partly covered by tall reeds. and agriculture are the simple occupations of the inhabitants of this region. where the moist ground supports luxuriant tropical evergreen forests. The arid landscape is broken by the deltas of the most important rivers. especially along the lower courses of the Zambezi and Limpopo. and other water-storing or succulent plants. Hunting in the once thickly stocked savana. similar to that of the latter region. cattle- grazing. this is a repetition of the conditions obtaining in Somaliland in a lesser degree. and the region passes gradually to the hill forests of East Africa. Over the vast savana tableland. screened from the whole world which they ignore. are lightly scattered among the rocky scrub.238 AFRICA euphorbias. on the whole. Gazaland and Mozambique. centres of inland drainage. South-east of the hill region of east Africa the coastal plains and plateaus expand greatly before reaching the edge of the high austral African tablelands. living entirely on the products of the large shallow water. and swamps create around them heavy jungles. that is. which therefore sweep past them without materially benefiting them. becomes more exuberant and is diversified by light forests.

It is closely allied in life with the park scenery of and of mode appearance and is primarily a grazing ground. like the Matoppos. with low and flattened crowns as a characteristic feature.GAZALAND AND MOZAMBIQUE 239 Boschveld. South of the Zambezi. or almost alone. under the name of 'boschveld'. and acacias form the bulk of them. ' They are their and scattered singly or in groups over the surface dark foliage contrasts strikingly with the green or faded straw-yellow of the sward/ Especially noticeable here are the thorny acacia horrida. in which the mesquite would be replaced by the acacia and the mopani-tree. lighter successfully resists the yearly grass-fires the majority of trees shed their foliage in winter. The boschveld may be compared with the prairies of Texas. the grass plays but a secondary : part. but more varied in forms of vegetation and species of plants. the tropical savana very gradually turns to a subtropical type of park landscape which. there is no longer that variety of trees which prevailed within the tropics. Trees are mostly bushy. and the woody perennials and bushy tree-forms become more prominent. are freely interspersed among bulbous and tuberous plants. can Agriculture only assume the second rank as an East Africa. It is a barer landscape. this is essentially a grass-land. On granite hills. With a rainfall of about 20 inches. concentrated in summer. . extends into the northern Transvaal. with increasing distance from the equator and an undiminished elevation. Numerous small herbaceous bushes with small leathery leaves. especially composites. the low growth of which no longer compares with the tall tufts of the tropical savana grasses. but consists largely of short andropogon and aristida forms. and the mopani-tree which alone.

A rain-supply upon the Drakenbergs sufficient to the presence of forests. which is called the Drakenberg. could not be grazed permanently on hence arose the necessity of shifting the . a vast. Hoogeveld.240 occupation as it AFRICA is which requires a combination of soil realized in but limited areas. here and there above the general level of the plains. not a shrub. The pastures originally supported quantities of wild cattle and big game. as far as tree-growth . not a pebble. and soil has prevented tree-growth. were not these mountains justify falls exposed to the full strength of precisely those south- easterly blasts . and water The South African plateau continues in an increasing gradient towards its south-eastern edge. Drakenberg. treeless expanse a steppe with a short and irregular sward.000 to and. the American prairies and the Table-like eminences called kopjes rise Asiatic steppes.500 feet. the hoogeveld extends on the south at an elevation of from 4. however. scarps. Large numbers the same spot of cattle. breaks the monotony of the endless plateaus trees are : immediate vicinity of the water-courses and of human settlements. and rocky a thin sprinkling of stunted bushes on their often steep Otherwise. of the nomadic life led by the white invaders. and the huntsman and the herdsman found there abundant occupation.which bring the rain. The combined influence of winds. The pastures are carried right over the raised edge of the plateau which has been so carved into hills as to deserve the name of mountain-range. only to be compared to the . pastures and hunting-fields and. 5. in their turn. Thus the beneficial effect of the latter is counteracted. drought. The dry and cool climate of restricted to the the hoogeveld renders it the healthiest part of Africa. other vast steppe-regions. partly. following upon the boschveld. level.

dry salt pans. with a small number of low. The average rainfall oscillates of West of the boschveld of the high tableland. The landscape of the Drakenberg is thus one of grassy dales and gorges varied with shrubs and perennial herbs. by an exaggerated evaporation. and the grass is thinner and shorter. the dry character of which goes on increasing from east to west. from to The Kalahari but is very irregular year year. Thornbushes.DRAKENBERG is 241 concerned. arid lands. Rhodesia and Transvaal the trees are gradually more scattered and lower. and woods of a marked deciduous and temperate type are confined to the bottom of the valleys. on the other hand. or again on north winds and sea-breezes which cool in winter on reaching the high plateau. The strength and moisture of the southeastern trade winds are exhausted before the central and western portions of South Africa are reached the westerly winter storms. Now table-like tops and vast plains may be seen bare and rocky or with a ragged mat of poa grass. exercise but little influence over these portions. especially the acacia with its tusk-shaped thorns. amid wiry tufts of dry andropogon and aristida grasses. typical pastoral scenery. and is the largest of those regions occupies the centre coast. Thus the vast regions : lying to the south of the subtropical boschveld depend for their life-stirring moisture mostly on local winds and storms. for scattered succulents speckle the stony . heath-like. woody trees and short sage-bushes are thinly spread over the whole the only portions which are area of the Kalahari really plantless are the valleys or level depressions and . Hence the extension of broad. Kalahari. so as to reach a truly desert condition on the Atlantic about four inches. form loose thickets in the dry beds of the streams. In similar situations the tree euphorbia and the aloe.

over miles In places may be seen that strangest of the welwitschia. In the interior. covered with the crawling melon plant. is almost sym- metrical and analogous to. Karroo Region.bush and trees giraffe acacias. Damara Desert. Beyond tho edge of the plateau. a solitary stumpy pigmyplant-forms. occur here and there an open brush of bushy. : Plateaus. AFRICA The South African waste land with. leafless. reaches purely desert conditions. the Algerian high plateaus in point of forms of growth. Stony troughs harbour a sprinkling fleshy euphorbias. though in the moister depressions grassy patches are found interspersed with shrubs and the ever-present thorny acacia these alternate with heath-like wastes covered with short : brushes of dwarf shrubs of a dull-green hue. in the buried sand. tree. The sandy strand extending inland by means of dunes is plantless. a few grassy depressions afford some temporary pastures. A rainless strip along the coast from the Cunene to the Orange River. of thorn. . whence emerges a crown of long tattered ribbons of leaves miles. tree euphorbias. though perhaps not so destitute of trees. thorny acacias. The Kalahari is carried across the Orange River to a scarcely less monotonous plain. chiefly characterized by a vegetation of bulbs and tubers. are found farther In comparatively wet years the ground is inland. but broadening somewhat in the middle towards the Namib region. which is thrown into a mountainlike range. treeless and dotted with stunted bushes. only showing its woody head.242 scarps. which supplies a most welcome food. one descends to a lower terrace called the Karroo. on sandy wastes may coiling over the ground. acanthosicyos horrida. and Again. &c.

Bj M s I II .

fleshy leaves. human settlements are. leathery.and hard-leaf shrubs and banks: animal fare. with tiny. river-beds is loose scrub of the horrid in addition to numerous pelargoniums and oxalids.244 AFRICA The Karroos are also treeless waste lands. among . heath. the In the dry tusk-thorn the the olive-like acacia. is A very large number of tubers and bulbs characteristic of Karroos. there by more powerful tribes and by white men live permanently on the verge of starvation and at the lowest stage of destitution. confined to riverlife cannot be plentiful on such a and meagre agriculture and grazing are out of the There remains only the ostrich. On that account it exhibits a vegetation which stands in close relation to that of extreme North. bird of the desert which is bred for its feathers on Natives who have been driven regular ostrich farms. with a small. and by reason of its position enjoys a climate very similar to that of the Mediterranean. Few oases occur among those deserts and semi-deserts. of spare vegetative habit but profuse Forest growths similar to those of the mediterranean oaks and pines have disappeared. with a herb the and karreeboom. the woody formations are reduced to the condition of maquis. and simple foliage. small. sumac. mostly stony and semi-desert. which are thus divided into deserts of bulbs and succulents and deserts of dwarf shrubs. and end where continuous grass begins. of necessity. and are fast disappearing. likewise the homes of dwarf rounded leaves in some years the : rainfall may reach the minimum of one inch. Southern Belt of South Africa. a giraffe acacia. small trees flowering. the specific question.West Africa: a wealth of evergreen. capparis. The Cape Region receives the benefit of the winter rains due to the westerly winds.

has furnished us with a large collection of ornamental plants.SOUTHERN BELT OF SOUTH AFRICA A 245 which proteas and leucadendron are the best known types. A by deep valleys as to fall which altitudinal belts are well broken strip of coast and lowlands. heathlarge number of extremely varied shrubs and ' like plants. 93. which appears like an FIG. includes the strand receives the minimum . is characteristic of this In addition. enriched replica of the Mediterranean flora. a diverse flora of bushy perennials. which of moisture. of bulbs and succulent plants. usually well represented in our conservatories under the name of Cape heaths '. This south-western margin of the South African tablelands has been so dissected into a hilly scenery in marked. Silver trees. region.

246 AFRICA and dune formations. introduced from Australia. spread abundantly. Characteristic also of this coast strip are the numerous representatives of the sedgelike order of Restiaceae. in inaccessible positions on the northern slopes of a remote mounleft at useful tres are now tain range (Cfcdar Mountains). Knysha atrip tract left in Almost the only natural timbered South Africa occurs in a narrow and hilly along the coast. cloud. mountain swamps. rock heaths and mountain brushes. With increased rainfall. both of which probably replace the destroyed woodlands. tribution. the cedars of the Atlas and Lebanon. find an equivalent in the widdringtvnia. much like the Monterey cypress which had formerly a large area of disThe last few survivors of those stately and about 2. together with myrtaceous shrubs. the upper mountain belt displays. and has materially altered the original aspect of the landscape. in isolated areas. from Mossel Bay to Algoa Bay.700 feet. the aspect of the whole suggesting the bush of the coast strip rather than the maquis. form well-defined vegetation units on shifting support sands resting on clay or hard pan. and mists. Forest. has tingas. There seems to be no doubt that the Cape region once possessed luxuriant forests of the Mediterranean type. 'tail and dense formations . among which are remarkable bushlands and shrubby heaths. The Mediterranean cypress. which. so of California. A pseudo-alpine low vegetation crowns the wind-swept ridges. and that the same process of destruction which gave origin to the European maquis largely also transformed these forests into mere brushes. recalling the Brazilian resAcacia cyclops. The : foot-hills the typical evergreen hard-leaf scrub along with these maquis occur hill heaths akin to the garigues. forests The are regular.

twisted. as usual. one descends This region consists of a succession of into Kaffraria. the early mistakes now cost much money and . and perennials are found interspersed among the . Upon the mountains are found two conifers. and. For the most part. Reafforestation is more difficult and more costly than would have been a wise husbanding of the natural resources. Kaffraria.forests. epiphytes and climbers abound in portions of them. giving the impression of overgrown elfin woods. however. The northern and upper parts are covered with a park vegetation of a warm temperate type. This timber belt is intermediate between the medi- terranean and the subtropical rain-forests. dense jungles of slender. and last from May to July. There is a remarkable parallel between the central valley of Chile with its mediterranean vegetation and the temperate rain-forest on the south of it. Woods are not uncommon but northern hills the among they assume the form of . and proteas predominate. the middle and upper terraces support park or bush grass-lands. and the sequence of the Cape and extreme South African forest region. and form excellent pasture grounds. and distorted trees of small stature. due to a rainfall amounting to 36 inches yearly and spread over the whole year. podocarpus and widdringtonia. not unlike those of Texas. where acacias. The Knysna forest was more extensive in former days its area has been greatly reduced by the axe and the fire. broad terraces open to the south-east winds and possesses a fairly abundant rainfall. energy to repair. Winters are dry and cool. aloes.KNYSNA FOREST 247 of various evergreen trees with a glossy foliage. Many bulbous plants. the effect of which is here again partly counteracted by the winds. Crossing the Drakenberg. varied shrubs. as in the warm temperate rain.

and other be grown with excellent results. The core of Madagascar is an elongatedhigh plateau occupying the centre of the island. bushy is also a feature of the acacias. and watered valleys of the south. or exclusively pastoral belt. and woods of small trees. The natural vegetation consists mostly of shrubs.500 feet. without possessing the luxuriance of the savana. about 1. .500 feet above sea-level. which extends between the Drakenberg and the Lebombo range in the This hilly district. tobacco. steppes that is the of woodland of caatinga jungles. in has taller trees and Three zones of occupation may thus be distinguished Natal: (1) the subtropical coast belt of cane. The character of savana is strongly marked on the terrace. On the lower terraces. euphorbias studded with tall aloes are not rare.248 AFRICA : grass or in colonies around the trees the umbrella shape Thickets of grey. and fruits. times known as the ' nether.veld it '.500 feet (2) the temperate agricultural belt with corn and maize and (3) the upper . type those of a more profuse character occur in the wellaloes. bananas. Madagascar. grass than the boschveld. while the stony hills are strewn with succulents and the ever-present aloe form. the tree euphorbias which latter are found alike among the parkA frequent and the subtropical brush-woods. at about 1. is somenorth of Natal. up to 1. cotton. banana-like strelitzia. thickets. favourable to the development of subtropical agriculture: fruits may sugar-cane. the climate changes to a moderately dry and hot subtropical type. To- . among which are palms and the ornamental. and continuing across the sea the tableland of Rhodesia. maize. a transition between the bush-steppe and the regular tropical savana.

Traveller's trees. and display a similar kind of light tropical wood- . The top of the tableland is naturally the continuation which consequently is of the Rhodesian boschveld. while 249 wards the west the sea is reached by a series of step-like towards the east the plateau sinks precipitously to a narrow fringe of marshy coast.MADAGASCAR terraces. Mada- gascar is ever moist on the eastern scarp of the tableland. reproduce the condition of the hinterland of Beira. clad with an overwhelming tropical rain-forest. Situated within the south-eastern Trades belt. on the whole. 94. The western terraces. descending to a margin of mangrove-swamps. Fio.

The extra-tropical southern point of the island is very offers a vegetation not unlike that much of drier. the banana-like the beautiful ravenala: several rubber-trees are also to be found here. In the moister depressions. Europe appears like a peninsula grafted on to the western side of Asia and advancing into the middle of temperate seas. but recently. a specific character. All agricultural industries of the Tropics find a promising field amid the varied conditions of this island.250 AFRICA land interrupted by savanas and thornwoods. the block of Madagascar. the vegetation may attain the profusion of the true selva. decided progress has been made by settlers on the western and northern sides. because the approach was made from the unhealthy eastern shore. were more advanced than the Africans. and of the Karroo. better it many special types of its own. For a time. attempts at colonization were unsuccessful. on the whole. its subdued General. Among the curious be mentioned an obelisk-like pandanus traveller's tree. however. The native populations. has developed which give plants may and. known. Long detached from the main mass the African tableland. Its geographical situation. relief and the penetrations of inland seas almost to its eastern limits ensure for the small continent a great . while retaining much of the plant and animal population of the continent. CHAPTER VI EUROPE In the general land-mass of the northern hemisphere.


252 EUROPE equability and a great uniformity of climate which are its dominant features. circle. by transverse barriers of mounand therefore are able to extend their influence Congruous with the to a considerable distance inland. Such conditions are the result of the westerly winds which sweep across the Atlantic and penetrate far into FIG. 06. moderate winds. finding its expression in a fairly continuous 'cover of forests of a cool . The climate. with a moderate sunshine. the Arctic Pacific tains. Mean Annual Rainfall of Europe. yet with a marked seasonal rhythm. may be described as cool temperate. the vegetation exhibits the same features of equability and uniformity. These breezes are not checked. climatic conditions. as in North America. a moderate atmospheric moisture. a moderate rainfall. on the whole.

98. Eu- rope shows gentle and gradual variations of.GENERAL 253 temperate. In opposition to Asia. in every respect a land of sharply con- trasted extremes.e. the west- erly breezes. As may be expected. Of this character. tend to be emphasized more . and of indicating their geographical boundaries. broad-leaf type. deciduous. i. Europe may be analysed into a succession of strips or of decreasing belts FIG. Regions of Europe receiving less than 6 inches of rainfall equability and uniThe seasonal formity. 97. and daily contrasts more or during the winter three months. or departures from. Regions of Europe receiving less than 6 inches of rainfall to the moderating fluences. the greater difficulty of characterizing what appear as nuances of the vege' delicate shades or ' table carpet. best exempliin the British fied Isles as being nearer inFio. the oak and beech are the foremost representatives. Hence more or during the summer three months. a uniform temperate average. starting from the Atlantic shores and pene- trating farther and farther into the mass of land.

reduced to sen-ifVt. 99. 100.FJOS. Mean Temperature of Europe in January and July. .!.

instances the opposite extreme in its steppe. In respect of heat and cold and of their action on vegetation. luxuriant evergreens. and a scorching. and ranges of temperature. with their balmy creasingly. a central European tract.GENERAL 255 and more. periods of rainfall and drought are more sharply defined. 101. in conformity with the . a western European margin. way may -and an eastern European region. Vegetation of Europe. and prolonged winter frost. summer In this be distinguished an Atlantic or oceanic fringe. the western fringes. dry. central Russia with a sharp Vegetation Tundra Coniferous fores* Deciduous trees Mediterranean Sbeppe Mountain FIG. and mild winter and summer. widen inWhile the Scilly Isles. express the complete moderation of climate in their wealth of broadleaf. atmosphere. both in seasonal averages and in absolute extremes. heat.

. Franco. Clump of Cork Oaks in S. 102.FIG.

due to winter colds or summer droughts. In the southern or Mediterranean region. the broad-leaf deciduous. stretch in a general meridian direcFarther east. and the evergreen hard-leaf forests. In the northern region. i. the Alps and their outspurs in Illyria. the brief duration of the period of intense growth and the general unfavourableness of the greater part of the year. the distribution of warmth tends more and more to division into cold. e. but the boundary between the cool temperate and the warm temperate regions. is defined by mountain ranges such as the central plateau of France. and leaves the ground to the spare and gaunt conifers. deciduous belt the Rhodope range. conform to latitudes hence a broad cool temperate. with their enormously reduced and wholly protected green surface. The larger land the of supports a stout. belts which find their expression in the coniferous. : In the northern region the shortness of the vegetative period excludes the broad-leaf deciduous. the strip of coast open to the Arctic winds is clear of tree-growth and is clothed with low brush and moors: this constitutes a distinct belt The passage from the coniferous to the is very gradual and is obscured by the influence of soils. with the weakening influence of the westerly breezes. well-protected.1 . between the deciduous and the mediterranean vegetations. and by of tundras. and warm temperate. nonportion vegetation luxuriant type : the woody evergreen with a spare and leathery foliage. 257 trend of isotherms. If differences between the east and the west of Europe S are observed in the vegetation of the northern coniferous 1159. limits the broad-leaf deciduous to abundantly watered areas. and with their store of reserve-matter in the soft wood. ever ready to work when the weather permits.GENERAL tion.

so the spring rea whole. but show themselves in the comparative abundance of certain growth-forms and plant formations. this respect western Europe bears some relation to such cool-temperate evergreen regions as southern Chile or south-western New Zealand and Tasmania. They do not materially affect the general aspect and composition of the large masses of forests. there is a tendency weakening of autumn is to a prolonged. the periodic phenomena of plant life are not so regular nor so sudden.258 EUROPE and southern or Mediterranean regions. vegetative habits. of necessity. a large number of mediterranean leathery -leaf evergreens survive the winter and are extensively planted. and modes of life of the same plant species in the various districts. or again in the varied forms. to a sort of In tender-leaf evergreen of the cool temperate type. In the west. growth period. the Portugal laurel. where evergreens of more or less thin foliage. Life is perhaps less exuberant in summer. more subtle than between the latitudinal belts of vegetation. the mild winters allow plants to retain their foliage longer than in the east. in the east. they are still more apparent in the deciduous zone of central Europe. Such distinctions are. more gradual and slow. like the strawberry-tree. This is especially the case for the oceanic fringe of coasts and headlands. In addition. of the seasonal rhythm. the holly and the yew. from Ireland to Spain. and'there is a marked tendency to the evergreen habit in certain shrubs which. but the period As the advent of rest is not so complete and universal. With the as awakening. if less active. the cherry laurel. are frankly deciduous. develop best. The contrast between the east and the west is striking in the grass formations than in the forests more and . takes place earlier.

characteristic of poor soils. by the abundance of water in the rich soil. and habits connotes a fundamental divergence of physical environment. as in China or India. common to eastern and western Europe. are the high moors or peat-bogs which occur on indicative of uniformly cool badly drained soils and in impure waters. alterations undergone by the soil. strewn with mires and swamps. packed with a thick undergrowth. To the climate of western Europe are due the extensive evergreen carpets of succulent grass with thin. and disappear gradually eastward. The meadows. In Europe the relations between vegetation and its physical environment are obscured. littered with decaying branches. which 'reach their characteristic developin the British Isles. of the dry and spare type of the steppe with narrow. by the removal of the primitive plant-covering and the and even the climate. 8*3 . At a short distance from the Atlantic shore of the continent the grass begins to turn ment yellow-grey and to wither in winter and in the height of summer. broad leaves. undrained. The well-kept woodlands of * these countries bear but a distant relation to the primeval wildernesses of forest. but fail in the east. are determined. requirements. The heather moors. encumbered with dead trunks and stumps. hard. as a rule. outside tho lush meadows of the rich alluvial valleys and the subalpine and alpine regions. and wiry leaves. and to be found extensively in western Europe as well as in the nor^h. are again plentiful in the west and in northern Germany.GENERAL shrubs. in the course of centuries. larity of appearance. Also and rainy climates. 259 In eastern Europe. Thus the geographical significance of the two types is west and in the east of grass carpets in the The dissimientirely different. as a rule. the grass tracts are. and padded with mosses and ferns.


the nature of the plant carpet has been It is therefore diffiindirectly but powerfully affected. heather moors. whose variable and heterogeneous plant carpet. sometimes competing successfully with the original denizens. others again irrigated or put beyond the reach of floods. drawn from the adjacent formations. An intense frost and darkness during nearly a half of the year. its regional In the middle of the deciduous belt various subalpine heights form insulated areas of conifers. many given up to cattle and sheep. the coniferous districts enclose cores of alpine vegetation. and grasslands has been altered. and peat have been changed and generally extended and the bogs surface altered beyond recognition. alternations of frostbound earth and icy water during the . Similarly the composition of forests. it is apparent that by altering the equilibrium of the animal world. whilst a large area has The areas been claimed by cultivation. The Arctic Region. Ultimately. the Alps and the Carpathians. On the Pyrenees. destroying many species and introducing others. Most parts have been cleared of timber. Numberless species of plants have been imported by man. The most unfavourable conditions offered to plant and animal life are found in the ice and snow-fields of the arctic and alpine regions. A large extent of waste and derelict land has been created. made even the barbarians pause of grass pastures. by fire or by grazing. many again burned yearly. cult to do more than briefly to indicate the more obvious correspondences between the vegetation and environment. bushes. Some portions have been drained. others submerged.GENERAL Such forests only allowed settlements 261 on the margins of the valley meadows. strives for some kind of organization and balance. and and go round.

hardly more than drops of FIG. 104. Seventy-two plant species. such are the conditions to which organisms must adapt themselves.262 EUROPE remainder. The bright colours. and . in addition to many species of animals. red. Yet even the hostility of such an environment has not proved too much for the powers of endurance of plant and animal life. are able to live to and reproduce on snow and ice. for of external devices such as life are able to evolve. Living things are reduced to a powdering purple of tiny cells penetrating the snow to a depth of one or two inches. rose. Snow-bound Tundra nature of their tious living matter finding their powers of resistance in the own substance rather than in adventi- means higher forms of of protection. there appear to be few or none. They are reduced the most elementary forms.

woody or fibrous. foliage. pact. the frequent provision of a woolly covering on the leaves the vivid colours of herbaceous shoots due to the presence of heat-storing substances. which serves as a store of reserve materials the thick. the absence of arboreal vegetation the shortness of growth in length df the shoots and internodes the consequent crowded . . alone possess a climate severe enough to preclude the extension of the hardy northern trees and shrubs. The tundra also . yellow and green snows given to colonies of such hardy organisms. and sanction the names of red. Arctic condiArctic-Alpine Tundras and Pjcld*. deprived of the benefit of those winds by the lofty barrier of the Scandinavian Alps. the bright coloration of the blossoms associated with the duration of the long summer day and a wealth of finer devices both superficial and internal. and its re- duction in size. and bearing the full onslaught of the circumpolar winds. . This is due to the comparatively low latitudes of the northern shores and to the moderating influence of the south-westerly winds which penetrate far into the Arctic Circle. telling features of the arctic climate are the of the vegetative period. brown. impossible are only found in Europe along a narrow strip of coast facing the polar seas. assumed by the algae are ascribed to the production of substances apparently destined to absorb heat. and leathery nature of the . The immediate shores of the frozen sea. and even shrub-growth.THE ARCTIC EEGION 268 brown. Those features are reflected by : the usual characteristics of the tundra belt . tions such as make tree-growth. comfoliage close to the ground . which is reduced to shortness two or three months in the year. not so much by the long The most icy winter night as by the freezing of the ground and the and drying winds. the strong development of the underground root-stock.

the ground is left bare. from seed to seed. Rock. dwarf berry-bushes.264 shelters a EUROPE small number of tiny and tender annuals which accomplish their life-cycle. spongy. offer the scantiest vegetation. summer. destitute of snow in winter. interspersed with crawling . all aglow with gorsilt . Vast carpets of slwubby lichens. and parched clay floors in exposed situations. with a labyrinth of intervening puddles or choked with snow in winter and submerged in Mosses are particularly fitted to withstand the dry conditions obtaining on these peat hillocks on account of their capacity of drying up and reviving again rapidly under moisture. the higher plant. . rubble. rushes. The nearest approximation we have to moss-tundras is the peat-bog. the of the margins of the streams beautiful oases or bloom-mats on the southern slopes of hillocks at right angles to the rays of the low sun. sometimes from 10 to 18 feet high. and of their hardy nature. dreary moors formed by vast accumulations of half-decomposed peat-moss remains in the shape of gigantic. . The European tundra is development of moss-heaths characterized by an abundant or moss-swamps. cotton-grass and coarse grass growing on . these form the more luxuriant aspects of the tundra. and other creeping under-shrubs in comparatively quiet and sheltered surroundings even low shrub-heaths marshes of reeds. . rounded cushions and mounds. sedges. It may be a coat of crust-lichens or a sparse dotting of pigmy undershrubs and perennial herbs often. common in Ireland and Scotland but the formation of gutters. in the space of a few weeks. geous flowers. These ultimate expressions of plant-life under most unfavourable circumstances penetrate farthest north and are the pioneers of however.

wild herds. extensive. Physical conditions very similar to those of the tundra extend far south on the ridges of the Urals and the summits of the Scandinavian Highlands. and is characteristic only of the subarctic district. while they wander after the half. the peatthe and or moss. and an occasional Forsalad of cochlearia are all that can be expected. In the tundra the gastronomic resources are reduced to their minimum. crowberries. and flesh. going farther north.ARCTIC-ALPINE TUNDRAS AND FJELDS 265 peat in the Arctic region is not so rapid. besides its hardiness and its unique aptitude to cross the moors by reason of its broad hoofs. so common among sphagnum. Beyond 4. lar alternation of day and night. chiefly by reason of the shortness of the vegetative season. cranberries. horns.000 feet this is succeeded by a close mat or rug of yellow-grey shrubby . a few roots. Hence it becomes a most valuable asset for the natives who are obliged to leave it to find its own fodder. Above the last birches which here. fail in the Arctic. with small and leathery-leaved dwarf junipers and birches. bones. a meagre soup of reindeer-lichen. our tracts of peat-bogs. and depend largely on the milk. The name 'fjelds' connotes. The mosstundra disappears. skin. and perfect as in milder countries. on the whole. the vegetation of these arctic-alpine plateaus possesses. Moreover. occurs a grassy brush of low undershrubs. in Scandinavia. the same features. as on the polar side. form the upper Jimit of the forests. this type of physical and plant scenery. &c.. tunately the reindeer. for a living. often over a carpet of mosses and lichens. A scanty supply of berries. the ultimate outliers of which may be encountered in the broad table Despite the now regutops of the Scottish Highlands. ling. exhibits a remarkable faculty for turning lichens into food.

105. The region of vast forests of conifers includes most of Scandinavia. Of rainfall there . and Russia north FIG. View in Southern Norway the typical northern forest of Europe. of a line extending from the head of the Gulf of Finland towards the mouth of the Vyatka. The exclusion of summer-green broad-leaved forests seems to be determined largely by the shortness of the vegetative season as marked by the correlative duration of continuous frost which here averages five months. Northern Europe.266 lichens. EUROPE and higher up again they are more and more interrupted by plantless rubble screes which ascend to the snow-line.

Thus as we go eastward the variety of coniferous forms increases. the aspen. in the western districts of and the Scots spruce. chiefly. contrary to what occurs in warmer latitudes. Ultimately there is hardly time enough for the maturing of the fruits of the temperate vegetation as and western Europe. endanger their very existence. and there is an abundance of snow on the ground in winter but the . The chief timber species are. whilst the night occur at the beginning and towards the close of the period of growth. where. in the eastern part of to which pine. uncertainties of the early and late growing period limit still more the actual time available for the develop- ment and work frosts. a stunted form of birch constitutes low woodlands in a broken belt north of the limit of conifers : . a single species. northern Russia. The biting. Among the very few hardy summer-green trees that accompany the conifers in these northern regions are the white birch. and the rowan. perhaps. dry arctic winds become here more moderate. in their requirements. or two or three species. The spruce generally thrives best in moist situations and on heavy soils. Scandinavia. the number of tall trees able to withstand them is necessarily much reduced. east of the Ladoga and Onega lakes. Hence the uniformity of northern forests. the Norway the Siberian spruce and fir. while the pine and the larch are not so particular though they do not grow so well in damp surroundings. the European larch. the Siberian larch and the Siberian stone pine are added. may prevail exclusively over extenit we know in central sive tracts of country.NORTHERN EUROPE is 267 a sufficiency throughout the year and the atmosphere remains fairly moist. by reason of the low temperatures generally prevailing. Indeed. which of the broad leaves. As climatic conditions become more severe.

represent the deciduous components of such forests. Not infrequently. and of even low. heather. raw and chilly climate. with an abundance of berry bushes. : : and morasses are limited to a large fruits cannot withstand the few berries and roots. a considerable space is claimed by other forms of vegetation on the margins of the rivers are different kinds of meadows and moors on alluvial . Fair-sized willows are chiefly restricted to damp and sheltered situations: those growing in the open are stunted and often straggling.268 EUROPE Under the heavy alders may occur in river thickets. waste lands. and epiphytes are reduced to mosses. moors indeed. . lichens. . either natural or artificial. &c. . it is in damp and cool northern Europe that the greatest accumulations of peat are found. Depressions and badly drained areas are the seat of extensive peat-bogs or high silt flats. canopy of dense spruce forests. moors. Only a very few kinds of small -leaved trees. sedge. . and an occasional fern.and rush-marshes on wet grounds. while the lighter cover of the pines and larches admits of the existence of a uniform brush of low woody and straggling bushes with inconspicuous flowers and small. There are no lianas climbers are rare and small. reed-. The food resources of the forests. herbaceous ferns. leathery leaves. and those extremely hardy. the persistent semi-darkness tolerates on the mat of dead needles but occasional carpets of mosses and lichens. probably by reason of the shortness of the growing period annuals are rather scarce and small tubers and bulbs are rare. thickets of willows. Large-leaved herbs are limited to meadows and are chiefly perennial. alders. similar to our heathermoors. especially in Russia. are : covered by moors of low shrubs. and bracken. Though forests occupy the largest portion of the land.


or in the main. only oats. Of cereals. sultant conditions of the ground. In some parts. on the other. Forest growth ceases altogether and gives way to the steppe or dry grass-land when the annual rainfall is below 20 inches. The soil of the northern region. outside mining. by two to four months of frosty weather and. to the industries connected with hunting. and therefore unsuited for agriculture. level. and transport. is. a dry atmosphere. support a flourishing dairy industry. and there is a coid and dry winter and a hot summer. : a scarcity of rain- and atmospheric moisture a fairly abundant precipitation in spring a period of growth limited. vegetation . In Norway. but to the direct are not favourable to tree growth influences must climatic undoubtedly be added the re. . is poor and cold. of a if allow low stances. is afforded the succession of the seasons. The conditions which accompany and largely determine the appearance of this new fall landscape are now well known . very scarce. the meadows. but also very hardy and industrious. lumbering. . on the one hand. The Russian steppe is the westernmost extension o that vast belt which crosses Asia between the northern It covers low. Russian Steppe. rye. and the impossibility of utilizing them for cattle or sheep. pastoral activities are limited by the steepness of the mountain sides.270 EUROPE : and have no time for maturing. of necessity. as in Finland and Sweden. diversity by forests and the central deserts. The population being reduced. and barley can be grown in a few favoured spots the potato is grown locally. sole. by two months of excessive heat in winter Such circum^ as well as summer. largely of glacial origin. which occupy clearings in the vast forests. they grass and herbs. if not the which gently undulating plains. fishing.

all delicate plants The glamour of spring vanishes. their abundance being determined entirely by local conditions of soil and drainage. mustard. pheasant's-eyes. and a grey. but the chief feature of South Russia is a deep and fertile cover of fine loam. such as and clay. yarrow. feather or thyrsa-grasses spread a silvery sheen in early summer. dull green or bluish leaves. Among these tufts of grass. irises. and porosity. squills. fineness. milk-vetch. when the overheated atmosphere is all aglow with fantastic visions. garlics.RUSSIAN STEPPE sand. perennials with stronger tap-roots. exhibits equally such as boundless fields of blue flax. hedgemany others. and fata morgana. chemiits proportion of organic matter. loess. mirages. and clovers. red glorious sights. its Early summer. The main part of the vegetation consists of short tufts of grass which very seldom form a continuous sward like that of our lawns or meadows. known as black earth* or chernozyom. . The ' conditions of the cal soil. and even under-shrubs. with poppies. formed by the accumulation of dead and decomposed vegetable matter. curled or rolled in along the edges. 271 The steppe may be formed upon various soils. are profusely interspersed. tulips. With the coming of the hot weather. its and physical nature. die out. wiry. short-lived annuals. changing skies. depth. numerous kinds of low herbs. under dazzling skies and a scorching sun. bulbs and tubers. the first is awakening announced by a magnificent blossoming of bulbs and tubers. nonsuch. After the dreary winter. On the black earth. and corydalis. control the various details of appearance and composition of the steppe. sheep-grasses and koeleria predominate: on less generous soils. among which are fritillaries. Those grasses have generally narrow. cropping up at various times of the year. however. gageas. stiff.

can withstand the drought. the soil ' is mostly and the grass steppe gives way to the vermuth or sage-brush of western These brushes form arid wastes whose soil ' wormwood brushes similar to the North America. among which the flowers of the spikenards.272 yellowish tint EUROPE invades the whole as the landscape. the uniform dark-grey tone is not brightened by the gorgeous showing the bare . patches or fringes of river woods present the familiar aspect temperate trees : of broad-leaved. two feet high. such as various kinds of spreading thistles. Even in May. summer-green. one to one and a half feet high. to which are added large sheep and goats. but even these wither under the continuous drought. are not so fertile and retain their pastoral life. Now only stronger plants. * which assumes the aspect known burydn '. below the broad levels and in the depressions of the rolling downs. poplars and willows are the dominant notes of such oases. and mallows can hardly throw a little brightness. wormwoods. larkspurs. Around the Caspian salt Sea. In the sunk valleys. The chernozyom reaches the foot of the Caucasus down to the Caspian Sea. Dead stalks. or clay. is the typical pasture land and supports herds of cattle and horses. loess. eryngos. but the steppes around the Black and the Caspian seas. and at the outset of the bad weather. echinopses. flower halms and straw turn a darker and darker grey. on sand. between them. and pastures * The steppe ' beet. have slowly retreated before the cornfields and the sugarmuch as in the case of the Argentine Pampa and South Australia. and knapweeds. impart a dull appearance to the whole scenery. the vast silent plain appears uniformly dead. silver-grey or hoary bushes. Under irrigation. scattered. the black earth has proved to be of immense fertility. especially. however.

dense. Like the Russian steppe.1 . dense. according to local conditions. owing to its central situation in Europe. the dry and cold winter. e. and evaporation grass completely withers in the meadows. the usual river-woods. Hungary is Hungary. especially in the* eastern portion. the strong winds. dotted 1161. On the margins of the rivers. tall tufts of golden-beard grass. slender trees. by salt meadows. In mid-summer. the appearance of these salt depressions. with a rich scrubby undergrowth many places. the dry and hot late summer. Salt tracts are frequent. and are distinguished. and the prevalent dryness of the air are unfavourable to tree growth. reed. i.RUSSIAN STEPPE 273 colours of the steppe. and covered with waving feather-grass or close. Other salt bushes accompany the but often wormwood. greyish- green swards of dry grasses. and consequent the crops turn yellow prematurely. is. the hornbeam forms an irregular belt of : dense thickets crowded with thin. and . the leaves of the trees and shrubs wither in consequence of the great heat. whose climate. In places. the deciduous forests consist in almost entirely of oaks. Hungary is thus an outlier of the great steppe. conditions of plant-life it largely shares. as well as to the circle of lofty mountain-ranges which shut out most of the external modifying influences. called here 'puszta'. large tracts are left entirely lifeless. dry enough to give rise to sand-dunes often covered with low.and sedge-swamps and flood meadows are found. The steppe. The climate of this broad depression is one of extremes. a region where the moderate rainfall. drought. low mats of perennial herbs. though in a less accentuated form. On the indented edge of it. in places. The steppe extends on the west to the foot of the Carpathians and stretches north to the forest-belt. or by salt steppes showing scattered tufts of blue-green waxy herbs or undershrubs.

but the mo. central Europe. . now with flood meadows. and the steppe indeed the three types of plants of the steppe. but in a much greater wealth of species and a larger variety of forms. beet- . The forests struggle here for predominance. is almost identical with that of the Algerian shotts. and the cold temperate world. low display much river. dry. the Mediterranean.274 EUROPE with a meagre sprinkling of succulent salt-bushes. the Hungarian plain has been largely laid under cultivation and is noted as one of the granaries of the sunny hills. The oak forests which partly clothe them offer the same types as our own. The broad. Balkan Peninsula. hills which encircle the puszta display the characteristic vegetation of central Europe. These establish a transition to the forests of oaks which surround the grass-lands. not unlike the common blackthorn or the juniper. with lush meadows and other varied formations. especially that of the Danube. Apart from its pastures on which especially fine horses are bred. They are mixed with forests of black pine.woods valleys. the steppe still largely clothes the plains. deter- now with dry sand prairies. of the steppe character. North of the Rhodope range the Balkan lands offer a type of climate and vegetation intermediate between those of the Mediterranean. feather-grass. The natural pastures mine the occupation of the inhabitants. covered by a rich carpet of have been utilized for vine-growing and The lowlands and footyield a famous wine (Tokay). Apart from the and lower swamps. Behind this belt of lowland and forehills rise the wooded highlands of the Alps and fertile parts offer a scope for the growing of hemp. intermixed. On the edge of the steppe are to be seen frequently deciduous scrubs of thorny or prickly bushes.

107. sugar. IMG.and water-melons.500 feet. plum. Among the lower uplands and foot-hills. Among and black pines gives way the highlands proper.BALKAN PENINSULA root. dominated by the mixed of Clumps manna ash.. walnuts. cultivation includes the vine.600 feet. Forests are deficient and on the lower hills up to 1. About 1. as in central Em-ope. Characteristic vegetation Serbia.600 feet above sea-level. and mulberry. begin to close in regular forests of some extent. 275 in the lowlands and various other vegetables. almond. T 2 by heavy mixed masses . summer- green trees. apricot. apple. Maize and wheat. tobacco. and walnut are grown in this belt. tomatoes. deciduous woods. the vegetation of oaks to true mountain forests dis- tinguished. intermixed with black pines. broad-leaved. represent the tree vegetation. mostly oaks. and southern fruit-trees such as peach. which reaches up to 3. &c.

The region comprised between the Black Sea and the Caspian. lofty barrier athwart the path of the south-west winds which sweep across the Black Sea. tree belt EUROPE . and vegetation. especially in the mountain district. are warm or temperate with a mild winter. and between the steppes of Russia and those of Persia. climate. well known from earliest times for its in- describable beauty. ance is to be found in western Caucasia. is extremely diversified alike in its Thrown as a steep and relief. at least in the lower parts. and gradually dwindles to 20 This rainfall is spread with inches towards the east.western-central China. a fair regularity throughout the year. At the same time the conditions of temperature. Cauca- a climate analogous to that of . at feet commence 6. Europe possesses no region of richer profusion than the ancient Colchis. The development of warm temperate evergreen rain-forests is opposed by the temperature minima of the winter and the scarcity of rain in the autumn. and moors. Such ideal circumstances make the Caucasus essentially a land of heavy and dense forests contrasting sharply sia has with the surrounding arid areas. For these reasons and owing to the well- defined seasonal rhythm. like those of the northern The centre of the greatest luxurislopes of the Elburz.276 of beeches and pastures. which in the west reaches over 80 inches yearly. Conifers form the upper and are followed by a strip of elfin woods The usual alpine of dwarf pines and other shrubs. Another distinctive feature of its . and interspersed with mountain fir trees meadows.500 carpets Caucasia. and extend to the summit. or again to that of the southernmost Appalachians. the forests remain of the broadleaved summer-green type. in a lower belt* 1 along the eastern shore of the Black Sea. the Caucasus range causes a heavy precipitation.

avoid the monotony of those of western Europe and. until conifers alone remain. plane trees. even in the west. cotoneasters. recall the conditions prevailing over the south-western part of the continent prior to the onset of the Ice Age. for conifers : the eastern portion of the range indeed. range. and sumac.CAUCASIA forests. at 6. horse chestnuts. the west Caucasian forests.. The northern slopes. abundantly watered by the snow-fed torrents and the mists. 277 and one which denotes at once a more generous climate and a less troubled history than those of western Europe. one notices the distrees appearance. one by one. are more uniformly. of the more delicate species of and shrubs and the gradual change to the more monotonous aspect of our western forests. but there is ample compensation in the development of exuberant meadows with grass 6 to 7 feet high. With the several kinds of oaks. and spruces. wooded. do not extend over woods seem to . walnuts. cherry laurels. and climbers. to a certain extent. cherry trees. less profusely. vines. &c. and their wealth of beautiful shrubs. Above the conifers. with an admixture of several Mediterranean representatives such as the laurel. lime-trees. often impenetrable. Rising towards the central range.500 feet. is the variety of forest trees and shrubs. which lead up to the shorter-set but scarcely less beautiful alpine meadows and pastures. beeches. chestnuts. which is much and where woods play quite A secondary part. figtree. The broadleaved forests are mainly composed of oaks with an undergrowth of hazel. of varied conifers such as pines. Quite different is the scenery of the eastern half of the drier. hornbeams. extends a belt of shrubs. richly blossomed rhododendrons. maples. They are packed with many tall and strong herbs of broad and delicate foliage and profuse flowering. firs.

the On the east the MediterAlps. with a mild and rainy winter anil a hot and drjt summer. being situated on a natural route from the east to the west. Mediterranean. and the Rhodope range. the pastoral population of the plateau and upper many As on the Mediterslopes destroyed them from above. with the result that of its forests have entirely disappeared: while the agricultural populations made inroads on them from below. in the middle of the steppe. This region. Caucasus. They are replaced by thickets of a thorny bush. an outlier of the Caucasian region. has suffered greatly from the wars and petty struggles that have gone on for centuries. The region of warm temperate climate. The hilly nature of the Crimean peninsula affords it the full advantage of the moisture of the Black Sea winds and makes it. ranean. even in the lowlands of the Kur valley. which form a sort of maquis. and the steppe penetrates far into them but agriculture . the forests have been reduced often to loose and dry wood-.and shrublands. more or less mixed deciduous scattered and with but of a a scanty undergrowth. south of the Kur valley. round the shores of the Mediterranean by a barrier of mountains and highlands: the Pyrenees. and sheltering many vanquished races in the fastnesses of its rugged and difficult mountains. and the complex ranges of northern Armenia share only to a limited extent in the luxuriance of the western Caucasus The little : what remains of their forests is and coniferous type. in respect of vegetation as well as of climate. The Caspian valleys are increasingly dry towards their mouths and largely deforested. geographically. is carried on. the central plateau of France. the poliurus. .278 EUROPE be mostly of local occurrence on the Caspian slopes. is fairly well defined. brush.

MEDITERRANEAN ranean region is 279 bounded by the Anatolian plateau. and the Syrian desert on the south it embraces broken strips of the north African headlands such as the coast of Cyrena'ica. The mean average temperature for the year ranges from 60 to 70 F. On such a vast and diversified area the climate naturally changes in its details. FIG. 108. a coastal strip of Tunis. and the winter is comparatively mild and rainy. but remains fairly conBtant in its typical ieatures. the : Taurus. and the Tell of Algeria and Morocco north of the Atlas. and the annual rainfall is generally over 20 inches there are three or : four months of dry and hot weather. France. These conditions favour . Olive grove S..

lentiscus. Aleppo cedar. and development essential oils. leathery. The elm and its relative the celtis. . Of shrubs and smaller trees there occurs a bewildering variety: among the best myrtle. many of which composed the undergrowth of the original woods. are the &c. resins. dwarf palms. plane-trees. On limestone grounds the scrub is generally drier and more scattered. When the forests are destroyed there springs up in their place dense scrub. firs. but ar. Bulbs. or height lianas are wanting vines are usually fibrous and wiry climbers the undergrowth of shrubby . olive. and several others may form locally mixed or pure woods or thickets. the tere-* binth and the Judas-tree.280 EUROPE the growth of a vegetation consisting mostly of forests.e mostly solitary. attain great density. evergreen foliage by an apparent exaggeration of the woody and fibrous portions. luxuriance. impassable. Frequently and black : pines. stone-pine. and is called the garique in France. wood. the plane-tree. cypress and deciduous forests occur where the it oaks. chiefly limited to bushy evergreens. The cork-oak. tubers. Laurels.. rosemary. dwarf -oak.and shrublands characterized by a small-leaved. shrubby form. fig. The forests do not. components. tree-heath. as a rule. There are many varieties of such rocky heaths ' ' and low thin woodlands and brushes. by a rather low stature . locust-bean or carob-trees. are also characteristic. known are the cistus. of mixed ever- ground moisture allows green and deciduous shrubs. and rootstocks . sometimes most common forests are those of ilex-oak. evergreens is abundant. 5-10 feet high. and other devices chiefly directed against excessive transpiration. wax. of the trees a general dull-green or bluish colour . manna-ash. . the of thorns and prickles. . : are characteristic of this region perennials are richly varied and often assume a woody.


rocky core: the whole region has been impoverished thereby and in places entirely ruined. Lebanon. and many others. Spain is further remarkable for its arid esparto grass-lands. instead of being 20 inches: the forests having been the sierras have been converted into retained and distributed regularly by the vegetation of the highlands. those countries which have suffered severely.. and rice. undershrubs. trees. EUROPE : oleander.282 laurustinus. so that the rivers are either dried up or in. is rendered rather precarious. maize. larger. and has been attended by more serious conse- quences by disturbing the water-supply. It is succeeded by a belt of mixed summer-green woodlands. The destruction of forests in this region is even more complete and extensive than in central and western Europe. and agriculture. Spain may be mentioned. except in the irrigated lowlands or huertas of Andalusia. which recall the Algerian . unchecked. and Taurus). reducing whole mountain sides to the bare. lucerne and carob. cotton and tobacco. almond and fig. while the cedar is a notable type in the south-west and in the east (Atlas. and Valencia. because the rainfall is scantier. and bulbs is even affords here . Agriculture most varied resources wheat. exposing and clearing away the soil. to the sea. &c. among which oaks play a prominent part. shrubs. perennials. is allowed to rush away. stony and rocky wastes: rain-water. orange and lemon. Among Over a great portion tion does not reach all of its surface the yearly precipita- but wiped out. Murcia. Typical Mediterranean vegetation generally extends up the slopes of the surrounding highlands to about 2. walnut and chestnut.800 feet above sea-level. flood. grape and olive the number of ornamental plants.

a middle area whose'climate corresponds to that of the lowlands of central Europe. washing away the loose soil and depositing it over the closed plains or Scarcity of soil naturally renders vegetation both stunted and scattered. stony depressions . deep valleys. through which rain-water sinks too rapidly. rising its sharply eastern shore. resulting from the soluble nature of the limestone. largely that of the vegetation. stone rock entirely controls the nature of the relief and plains. and holes of all sizes. The most important are found in the Ebro valley. and scanty soil. The Highlands of Illyria. and on the south-east coast. from the snow- . According to the elevation three climatic zones : may be distinguished a lower or Mediterranean. and a higher mountain belt corresponding to the Alps. forming many longitudinal terraces and scarps. As features of this region are to be counted the bora and the sirocco the former : a dry icy blast sweeping down. in winter. When torrential downpours sweep across the country. These conditions of poljes '. ' Illjrian Karat. fissures. the overflow comes rushing down the steep slopes. A series of limestone ranges. and confines it largely to valleys and terraces. and Greece separate the Mediterranean from central Europe. Such areas correspond to a rainfall below 16 inches. lofty from the Adriatic and shaping and rugged highlands they sink gradually to the north-east into the hilly lowlands Here the prevalence of limeof the Save and Danube. The rock is full of cracks. Albania. ' sheer slope. porous rock.MEDITERRANEAN 283 alfa plateau. impart to the vegetation a much drier aspect than it would possess otherwise. The Meseta high plateau. caverns. run in a general north-west to south-east direction. in c La Mancha. is equally arid and treeless. another centre of low rainfall. leaving the surface dry.

which soon sink down through the connoted by the local name of Karst which applies to the western and southern portion of vegetation. laurustinus. wash down the soil and humus. The coastal shelves. They sometimes form impenetrable thickets wherein dwarf oaks. however. and the arid appearance of its ducing. stony wastes with pits and larger holes called dolina the * ' . summits and doing great harm to early vegetation the latter. oleander. Rugged cliffs and sheer slopes. and perennials abound. with its fantastic rugged relief. form its characteristic features. which blows from the south and west. Spanish broom. and the maquis and garigues have taken possession of the ground. and work more harm than good. undershrubs. this region. tree. choke the narrow gorges. lentiscs. . alluvia and isles have partly retained forests of black and Aleppo pines with an undergrowth of hard-leaf evergreens on the rocky ground. paliurus. with its rainless scorching summer and its moderately rainy winter. and numerous other hardleaf shrubs. desolate highlands and isolated depressions turning into temporary The woodlands. is ' '. the plants can only form a scattered growth ort rock-heath. flood the holes and closed plains. and large stony tracts are left almost bare. lack of water and soil. pro- mighty downpours honeycombed rock. strawberry-tree. myrtle.and other heaths. lakes. with narrow ledges and terraces. which at one time undoubtedly covered a large portion of it. from October to December. laurel. This specific aspect of the limestone country. sumacs. fissured rock. Often. the slopes were almost entirely denuded of their soil. The most Mediterranean typical part of the Karst is the lower or belt. having been recklessly destroyed. whole seamed with precipitous gorges.284 clad EUROPE . terebinth.

m .

temperate oak belt which. mer-green landscape which covers most of the hill-lands. and hornbeams. bu/> extensive timber areas still persist on the Danube side. . 111. it is frequently replaced by scrub. beside oaks.800 feet. various kinds of maples. This is the depressions.000 feet the typical vegetation gradually gives way to a sum- Other alluvial parts are quite swampy when leathery-leaf not. Limestone slopes on the Adriatic. reappears on their eastern and northern Fio. but Above 1. wrapping round the ranges of high mountains.286 EUROPE fertile when drained. characteristic forms such as the manna-ash. and the middle valleys draining to the Aegean Great havoc has been wrought among these deSea. The karst-forest includes. sides and spreads over the uplands draining to the Save and Danube. ciduous oak forests on the Mediterranean slopes. and slopes up to 3.500-2.

receiving therefore but a scanty rainfall. Fo Valley. stately forests of mixed beeches and conifers of great beauty and a rich variety of plant forms. the big alluvial plain of north Italy possesses conditions of soil and climate which differentiate it at once from neighbouring Mediterranean lands. Interspersed among the forests and spreading into an alpine zone are to be found extensive and lush meadows and pastures these are best represented on the outcrops of older rocks which form the core and summits of many of the inland mountain ranges. and having as a consequence a rather extreme climate. and presents it a striking similarity to the plain of the Ganges. What owes its great fertility to the abundant irrigation produced by a network of rivers and canals. dry grass-lands with a steppe character once played an important part in the natural landscape. Its actual tree-growth is largely of the broad-leaved. It seems probable* that besides flood-meadows and marshes. either planted or in river-woods. waste lands and rough pastures of feather-grass and andropogon or golden-beard grass. : : sented. appearance the virgin alluvium originally preto say after so many centuries of cultivation and alteration. Certain it is that it does not bear the stamp of the typical Mediterranean vegetation that it is difficult . Well enclosed on all sides but one by mountains and lying very low and level. but of these few traces are left: for these reasons the plain of the Fo stands apart as a geographical unit* .1LLYRIAN KARST 287 heaths. Not seldom even bush and thirsty grass-lands disappear entirely the soil is washed away and nothing is left but deserts of naked The upper zone is better preserved and exhibits rock. summer-green type. but liken it to the Hungarian puszta and to the Rumanian and Russian steppe.

or again to due to a spon- . Those are ideal conditions for a dense forest growth of a cool.. Taking the broad lines of the respective distribution of conifers and deciduous trees. temperate type. Denmark. and north it stretches eastward in the shape of a the northern belt of conifers and the between wedge.288 Central Europe. the isotherm of 32 F. and the bulk of the land east of the lower Rhine valley. and under milder conditions. yet the northern conifers are not excluded. for January. while the contrast between winter and summer of the Alps : temperatures increases. marks the northern limit of average winter tem: perature above freezing-point. From the Atlantic coast eastward the rainfall decreases. of the Vosges and Jura. Russian steppes. EUROPE Under this name may be described the region which includes the southern portion of Scandinavia. and it is well known that most of central Europe was at one time heavily wooded. the yearly amount of precipitation exceeding 20 inches. mostly glacial or subglacial deposits. e^ of a climate analogous to that of northern Europe : their generally occurrence in the lowlands. marks outcrops of poor and dry soils. and the lines of equal duration of frosty directed which weather are similarly for instance. but summers are warm and the vegetative period is long and sufficiently damp. to the Urals. Most of central Europe possesses over two months of lasting frosts. The trend of the winter isotherms lies in a north and south direction. i. Forests are of a mixed type like those of eastern North America or of Manchuria. the former are characteristic of the upper slopes of the highlands. runs from the west coast of Denmark and Norway a very few points east of south down to Trieste. Deciduous trees with broad leaves are best adapted to this kind of climate. and they occur in overwhelming majority.

woodruff. The beech especially succeeds in shutting out The oak all competitors. raising. moors Among the predominant forest constituents. for agriculture. and resulted in a complete disturbance of the natural state of Thus different kinds of forest have replaced affairs. exclude all underwood also deciduous. which occur scattered or in small clumps. are the maple. much as the spruce does. The fairly regular distribution of the rainfall throughout the year. anemones. woodsorrel. the absence of excessively dry winds. the gean (or wild cherry). willows. certain orchids. wild hyacinths. way to pastures. the ash. the birch. the hornbeam may also flourish almost exclusively in special circumstances and over tracts of lesser extent than the oak and the beech. Solomon's seal. &c. each other or again have given or waste lands. the aspen. or cattle and sheep has entirely altered the original covering. The shrubs and smaller trees of the undergrowth are The temperate forests vary greatly in amount of undergrowth which their leaf canopy The heavier types like the beech forests. The sweet chestnut.CENTRAL EUROPE taneous or artificial deterioration of 289 soil. mostly by cutting or burning forests for mining. perennial and annual herbs. poplars. primroses. herb Paris. the except a few mould-loving species. Other still less social trees. the oak and the beech stand foremost and sometimes form nearly pure communities. woodrush. constitutes more open covers and tolerates the growth of other subordinate trees. like the lily of the valley. the interference of man. most when strongly developed. and . the Again. and even bulbs and tubers. smelting. or again ferns and patches of mosses. The clearings generally harbour a large number of shrubs. elms and lime-trees. allows. the rowan.

and also. seldom of forest. tree and keen and. tall and profuse .290 EUROPE the moderate humidity of the atmosphere in central Europe also favour the local development of close grass and herb carpets of the succulent meadow type. it seems that originally the best for the transformation of such combinations of meadows and woods. mind that the relations between the natural physical environment and the vegetation have been infinitely complicated by the intervention of man. nonfibrous. carpeting limestone rocks over a thin coat of soil. Leaf-shedding shrubs sometimes constitute lasting communities in the form of thickets. not only in their composition but in their adaptations and modes of life. hornbeam or hazel-nut copses on sunny limestone hills. stunted grasses. peat-bogs or high-moors.g. man's ingrass. e. according to circum- stances. and in the mounMarshes ar/j tains. frequent and varied. are rich alluvial plains. are certain short and meagre tracts of dry. It should be kept in Scandinavia. also exhibit a great variety. beside local conditions. fluence has often turned the scale in favour of pasture. of shorter pastures presenting drier. but these More important are the heather moors of various kinds which occupy large portions of poor soil areas in north-west Germany. develop in badly drained localities. In between forest and meadow. the contest is resembling the steppe. depending entirely on local circumstances: greatly places. Again. for instance. in Denmark and are of local occurrence. From a comparison of virgin soils in eastern Asia and America. or again willow and alder thickets in river marshes. . less luxuriant types leading to the dry steppe grass-lands. especially in the northern portion of this region. sometimes called wood-meadows. Pastures into a park scenery.

but . while the summer is also somewhat milder than farther east. in the wild state. Jura. It . . during which frosts are only temporary by a somewhat greater and more regularly distributed rainfall by cloudier skies. Western Europe climatically is distinguished from central Europe by its milder winters. Most of England belongs to this region. generally a region of subdued features. except the Scots pine in Britain. it is now fairly certain that a large extent of such peat bogs covers the former sites of forests. or over former swamps. and for these reasons the vegetation lacks the variety which obtains in central Europe. on the central plateau of France. The vegetative period is thus longer than in central and eastern Europe. The westernmost coniferous forests are to be found on the line of the Venns. pure or mixed forests. and a moister atmosphere. : the later or secondary developments of the original plant cover and the uses to which it was put by man were largely determined by the double influence of climate and soil yet even the nature of both has been . and on the is tf 2 . never constitute. the common juniper. and western Alps.CENTRAL EUROPE 291 Quito apart from spontaneous causes. so profoundly altered in the process of utilization that it becomes increasingly difficult to unravel the tangle of actions and reactions which have been at play.yew. A considerable portion of the North German heather moors has taken the place of forests of conifers: the manifold varieties of pastures have similarly replaced other vegetable coverings again cultivation has extended over former timber grounds or Doubtless natural meadows. the Vosges. large plains and gentle uplands. It is essentially a land of oak and beech forests and of green pastures and meadows. Conifers are remarkably lacking. and the They have been introduced extensively.

are the chief constituents. . for cultivation The greater portion of the forests have been cleared and grazing. They include mostly mixed FIG. and sometimes form pure woods. of which the beech and the oak. barring the woods of maritime pine on the south-west shores of France. River woods or marsh woods consist of poplars. birches. ashes. berry-bearing alders. deciduous types. 112.292 EUROPE Pyrenees. rowans. willows. Arundcl Beeches. alders.

more frequent form A of marsh is is the meadow-marsh or low moor in which the 4 water moderately rich in lime and characterized by rushes. guelder-rose. in the belt of coniferous forests. The thickets of sloe or sea-buckthorn on rocks or sandhills. Heather moors are moors. heather moors. again. again. may be found copses of hornbeam. the Scots pine generally marks poorer and drier grounds. sedges. Under the name of moors may be included grass moors. There are few shrub formations. the western German plain. and dominate in the fenlands of polders in Flanders and often associated with peat Denmark. occur so plentifully in this region as farther north. such as sand or gravel or moors. succulent salt-bush brushes in salt Herbaceous vegetations offer a from the tall reed-swamps. hawthorn. to the regular meadows and pastures of different kinds.WESTERN EUROPE climbers. the rush-. brier. in the north of Holland. blackthorn. be counted the heather. chiefly of the sphagnum-moss. brushes or brakes and other more or less indefinite waste herbage. fairly large variety. hazelnut. do not marshes near the sea. bramble. reeds. Low marshes preand the corresponding tracts Holland. The largest areas of peat bogs are to be found in an tm intermediate zone between western and central Europe glacial. . Amongst hills. over a carpet of sheep's grass. 293 with a great development of large-leaved herbs and In England. or brushes of gorse and broom are well known and on dry limestone . ill-d&ined soils. or. dogwood. and meadow-marshes. and coarse grasses. The peat bogs formed by the accumulation of dead remains of several kinds of mosses. juniper. sedge-. usually associated with sand or peaty or other poor grounds devoid lower brushes of lime may . with a thin layer of soil. or mixtures of both or. . either mixed or in separate colonies.

and the coast ranges of Spain and Portugal down to Lisbon. plants have a greater freedom && regards the times of passing through the periodical stages of their annual growth.e seaward slopes of the Cantabrian and open directly to the moderating influence of the southThis fringe erly. south-westerly. the bountiful alluvial plains. which are performed more in accordance with the particular bent of each species or even of each individual: the setting in of . in the course of history. as well as of vegetation. An abundance of rich grass of the succulent type was and still is a feature permitted by the moderate and uniform climate : wood meadows and valley meadows are combined with timber in a pleasant park landscape.294 EUROPE Western Europe was probably less extensively and densely forested than central Europe. Britanny. which in respect of climate and scenery. covers also a widening strip south of the Gironde to the Pyrenees. Atlantic fringe. The most temperate region western Europe is naturally found on the oceanic of fringe. forests as the Mediterranean itself. th. and the lush grass of the graceful wolds exercised almost as great an attraction for the eastern invaders emerging from the sombre central European . and westerly winds. South of this region rises the central plateau of France. seasonal In this region of narrow climatic ranges and weak rhythm. There was more ground directly available for the rude implements of the early agriculturist and more room for his cattle indeed. includes a narrow coastal strip of south-west Ireland and England extending eastward to the Isle of Wight. bears a great resemblance to the highlands of England and Scotland. and in France wraps round the point of It Asturian barrier. the mild climate.

Pine Wood Surrey. 113.FIG. .

intimately associated with thoroughly even temperate climates.fresh appearance. and some profuse types of delicate magnolias. The same mildness of winter accounts for the luxuriant growth and abundance of such native evergreens as the holly. Among gardens those which are most commonly seen in our may be mentioned the in laurel. ancubas. and the yew. euonymus. such as the privet. and in many cases there is a real tendency thereto. but it is not lacking among the shrubs of the undergrowth. and be thoroughly such plants the laurustinus. and even camellias and aralias. foli- As regards plant societies. camellias. strange as it may appear in view of the . are spread over longer periods. while in sheltered corners it permits the exis- tence in the open of some of the hardier palms. This is especially noticeable with the lawns and pastures. display the same exuberance of age and blossom as in their native home. acclimatized Southern conifers favourable may spots: as the fuchsias. assuming. which preserve throughout the winter an ever. as well as the reawakening in spring. the strawberry tree. the leafy stage is also somewhat prolonged. the whole plant world gives an impression of evergreenness.296 EUROPE the autumnal rest. the holm oak. the oceanic fringe of Europe has developed few characteristics of its own and does not differ from western Europe. It is important also to mention that. the rhododendrons. in most cases. the enormous development of such imported evergreens as the cherry laurel and Portugal laurel. with It also explains their comparatively tender leaves. privets. the broader and thinner foliage and the general aspect of tender-leaved evergreens. Hence. At the same time a large number of hard-leaf evergreens of the Mediterranean are able to vegetate throughout the winter.

tubers. viously adjusted in respect of their stores of reserve materials in bulbs. or strong rootstocks. Several aspects of the vegetation of Britain : have already been mentioned the Scottish and English highlands were associated with the Scandinavian Alps as part of the North European region of conifers and birches. to long periods of rest through drought or cold and to a short period of aerial growth. regions like the South African Karroos. &c. and quite characteristic of. rocks. the bulb and tuber are not characteristic features of the vegeSuch forms.. They decrease and Russian steppes. steppe or mediterranean climates. and the south-western or Atlantic fringe was connected with the broken fragments of a similar belt in France and Spain. On from the south-east to the north-west of oceanic and sub-oceanic margins they con- fine themselves. the Peruvian semi-deserts. They are particularly well developed in. Europe. certain kinds of forest moulds. where but a short growth period is available. variety. the Asiatic Mediterranean. and the alike in number. and size. or are possibly confined by competition of other plant forms in the wild state. are rather test plants of arid. undulating park. to very special environments such as rich pastures.the region of the cool-temperate jmdoubtedly deciduous belt? from which it differs in no essential is typically that of western an Europe. so obtation of mild oceanic climates. The bulk of the country belongs western to. meadows and marshes. The fact their extensive cultivation illustrates their great adaptability and the early reawakening of nature on the oceanic fringe. . dotted respect. The landscape viz. of Britain. semi-arid. where pastures and meadows predominate over the cultivated area.ATLANTIC FRINGE 297 enormous cultivation of bulbs in this country.

o their original covering. i . Above the plains and lower hills all The existing woods rise the uplands and highlands. ^ i r x. indeed.. mostly of oak and beech and other mixed deciduous trees. ^ |^ S^^l^i FIG. which have also been entirely denuded .- - r *r i " ' J i> k^ . n*ffi : : ^% . been planted. there remains have any genuine vestige. 114. Of the vast forests which undoubtedly once covered a large portion of the land there remains less than in most continental countries. and whose actual vegetation consists of moorlands and hill pastures. except is in some remote parts of Scotland and Wales it doubtful whether - . the . maple and ash being the chief subordinate species. It is possible to trace four that of main zones of altitude: the lowest zone is the beechwoods and lowland oak woods.298 EUROPE with small patches of forest. A forest clearing planted with rye and bordered with elms.

Similar deficiencies are noticeable the silver among the broad-leaf trees and shrubs. the British highlands are northern mountains than with those of central Europe. the arolla. as subordinate species.BRITAIN oak 299 rises higher than the beech. and wastes occur above the coniferous or subalpine belt. and various kinds of hill pastures occupy nearly the whole of the surface. they are accompanied by the birch. Norway spruce. related rather with the over 2. broad-leaf forests. but it is in accordance with the order of succession prevailing among the Scandinavian mountains and also with the extension of the beech and oak in latitude. Above the oak belt. The actual woods. this order is the reverse of that prevailing among central European mountains where beech forests mixed with conifers occur above the oaks and mark the upper belt of summer-green. not to mention J&HKibler plants % *which. both form the tree-limit. the fir. therefore. Curiously enough. the yew and juniper. as as just and spread An early separation from Scandinavia and from the Continent before Britain was fully stocked with European plants. Moorlands. moors. when the beech stops nearer south than the oak. The British mountains lack the larch. in places. and. hill the forest intermingles with pastures in a third zone. and mountain pine. and . at altitudes ranging from 700 to 900 feet. peatbogs. the conifers remain in almost exclusive possession of the In this respect. and moorlands constitute the fourth. are extremely few and scattered.000 feet ground to an elevation reaching. They show only the Scots pine. and with the help of the Scots pine constitutes a second belt of deciduous forests poorer than those of the lower reaches and lowlands. appears to be responsible for the absence of a number of . however. while alpine pastures. thrive well in their native countries. once introduced.

and generally for the poverty of plant forms. namely. air conditions. with it generally appears the or again moor-lands heather. whose dead remains putrefy under unfavourable water. Turf-cutting on an Ins The extension of moors in the plains is similarly con- nected with poor glacial soils in Scotland and Ireland. originate in ill-drained areas supplied with pure siliceous They are due to the enormous Me velopmer/^-Jf several kinds of mosses.trees and shrubs which diversify the continental mountains. 115.300 EUROPE timber. mainly . either cold and devoid of lime. The wet moors. a similar result : an excess of moisture and lack of is produced by other plants. forming low heaths. the Scots pine usually marks the occurrence of dry. IG. which may be taken as connoting infertile soils. or sandy and porous. chiefly of sphagnum or peatmoss. also called high moors or peat bogs. In the lowlands. poor soils such as gravel and sand. .

It is frequently associated with alluvial tracts. added to the uncertainty difficulties of cultivation. Among the best for pastures. which form so large a proportion of the uplands and highlands of Britain are. renders and the the weather of them more after they suitable for pastures. which are represented across the Channel by the moeres ' ' ' ' ' and polders' of Flanders and Holland. In many cases the peat has taken the place of forests. on the whole.. is the fen. as is shown by the remains of trees found buried in the high moors. &c. &c. such as the fens or carses '. may be mentioned the limestone soils of*Tbrkshire. 301 Heather is usually associated with this kind of vegetation. which is extensively developed in the west and north of Britain and on the uplands and highlands : heavy and impervious infertile glacial clays are particularly favourable to their formation. of an infertile nature. dry grass-moors. . or meadow-moor which usually takes the form of reed (rush or sedge) or grass marsh. undrained. and provided with water rich in lime or organic deposits.BRITAIN sedges and cotton-grass. the better kinds giving rise to pastures. in process of formation. It was largely the nature of the soil which determined the fate of the hills. characteristic of the lowlands. This. were cleared of their timber. the peat decomposes into a rich black earth which is especially suitable for market ' gardening. Another kind of moor. The older rocks. heath-moors. the poorer soils rapidly developing moors. under the moist and equable climate of Britain. Sutherland. low. When they are drained and cultivated.

and should now be Attempted as a 4 ' necessary exercise. the central valley of Chile. The list of these obvious correspondences or will easily be made from the analogies foregoing short sketches. it will be at once apparent that the plant-covering does not consist of a mosaic of entirely dissimilar parts. Nature. of many parts Upper Guinea coast. different regions. whether the Mediterranean of the old world. When their indigenous vegetable products are placed side by side in a conservatory. or the south-west corner of Australia. of the lower Orinoco. a number of which have been mentioned in the course of the descriptions. on the contrary.CHAPTER VII CONCLUSION THOUGH the foregoing account only deals with the broad features of the natural regions of the world in a bird's-eye view. be considered. the south-west corner of Africa. may be . or again of the big Indo-Chinese deltas. are strikingly alike. or New Guinea. and the landscapes of the lower of the Amazon. Borneo. Thus the vegetation of the mediterranean scenery all over the world is singularly alike. To apparently plants identical conditions of climate and soil. can hardly be told one from the other. it is difficult to trace them back to Similarly the equatorial forests belt. by various means. attains her ends ' and shows herself infinitely diverse. however. but. California. all over the tropical though composed of entirely different species. that it offers obvious similarities and relations.

the true homology of the plant-forms and com- modes of life munities. like plant-forms. the plant materials themselves to these now identical ghange and adjust environments r&ay have been originally different.CONCLUSION adapted in 303 many different ways: various plant communities. It is somewhat difficult. Only the study of the and of the deeper-seated internal adaptations discloses the identity of purpose and final adjustment. The evergreen. may be adjusted with equal efficiency to similar environments. however. though the appearance of the enjoying difficulty in vegetation either in plant-forms or in communities may be different. to understand why the Pacific mountains of North America should be so overwhelmingly populated with coniferous forests. the Argentine pampa and the North-American prairie or. The result is a certain bracketing together regions which from the data at present available we may presume are physical similar conditions. undergoing different processes of development in the course of ages. the dissimilarity of plant-forms really conceals a combination of different means making for an equivalent adjustment to similar conditions. landscapes of the hinterland of eastern Australia and the campos park-landscapes of the subtropical Brazilian In many cases uncertainty arises simply highlands. It should also be borne in mind that the present plant have arisen populations of the various parts of the world from various sources. temperate forests of the Magellan and south Chilian coast region. are a case in point. without . from the scarcity of reliable observations. for instance. and the moist coniferous forests of the coast of British Columbia. In others. cool. the eucalyptus park. again. again. Even though physical conditions be equivalent at the present time on two which had to points of the world.

Starting with a different history or heredity. of another slowly spreading replacing it. It would be bold.304 CONCLUSION In other words. plant materials evolving towards a similar adjustment to similar circumstances have attained this same end in different ways. to hold the ground is well illustrated in the Plate region. there is a severe struggle between the grass-land and the thorny brigalow scrub whose formidable tangles steadily spread and kill the grass: again. prising that -the result. reproduce. however. where a high proportion of foreign : plants have been able successfully to compete with the indigenous vegetation. not wanting of one type of vegetation dying out. the advance of . in it is not sur- point of plant-forms and combinations thereof. Nearer home. the the help of some geological reason. Assuming. to assert that the vegetation. of unlike of modification plant materials in processes view of the same end have been different. and In South Africa the mediterranean vegetation of the south-western or Cape region is slowly being driven back by the drier and lower forms of the Karroos in the savanas of Central Africa it is an open question : whether the baobab or monkey-bread tree is still spreading or holding its own. the superior fitness of plants. from other but similar regions of the world. and spread amid equivalent surroundings. therefore. even as it is is represented in corresponding natural regions. adapted with equal efficiency to its actual environInstances are now ment. offers divergences. indeed whether it is not gradually dying out in the back lands of Queensland : and South Wales. where weeds imported New from the Mediterranean propagate with extraording$f rapidity at the expense of the native species or agajn in New Zealand. an equal degree of fitness to thrive.

: the problem involves the fourfold question (1) of origin. In other words.CONCLUSION 305 the spruce forests from east to west through northwestern Europe is an established fact. in some instances. not least. man has been instrumental in introducing profound changes in the character and economy 1159. of the point which the process of adjustment . has been unequal in various corresponding regions. is highly probable and. travellers through the deserts of Taklareport having passed through endless miles of dead scrub of saxaul and other desert shrubs. of of adjustment process (2) (3) of time during which this process has been at . or previous history . and the degree of correspondence is not equal in all cases. Gradual changes of climate are almost certainly responsible for the retreat of the Canary temperate rain-forests to secluded moist gorges. for the transformation of the vegetation of Cyprus and Cyrena'ica. and therefore during which the process of adjustment has been going on. : Rome makan That the length of time during which the present physical conditions have prevailed. of the gradual evolution of physical conditions or again. when dealing either with single growth forms or combinations of them into landscapes. The result naturally is that the aim is not attained with the same completeness everywhere and that a more or less large proportion of plant-forms belonging to previous periods in the history of these regions has been able to survive. may have reached. the latter once a granary of again.1 X . is established beyond doubt. work (4) . The task of finding out homologies is thus rendered somewhat complex. starting-point. Last.

from man's standpoint. some- by the very necessities of life. and constituting legitimate improvements upon the original conditions. whole mountainchains have been left bereft of their plant covering and of the world surface. and are frequently mistaken 'for them. the agaves of Mexico and Texas are equivalent to nfSny forms of African aloes. analogous cushion-forms in arctic or in alpine regions are drawn from the most diverse orders . It is somewhat sad to reflect that the activity of quite a con- devoted to repairing damages done by other portions. and may be conveniently termed here plant formations or communities. : turned into arid rocks : a good deal of the treelessness of the Asiatic grass-lands is probably due to persistent depredations the tropical savana has been extended and : depleted by yearly grass fires at the expense tall forests. analogies of this sort are innumerable. when siderable portion of is mankind considering the various minor units of different orders yrhich compose them. involving consequences disastrous for humanity. and in a still larger measure. To mention only one or two of the most of striking instances: the candelabra cerei or cacti America correspond to the candelabra euphorbia of Africa. Ultimately. been the result of ignorance and improvidence. has. or by former generations. What has been said hitherto of the large masses of vegetation obtains. the growth forms or vegetative types. of woodlands and even of the times justified This interference with the balance of nature. or again.306 CONCLUSION The heavily forested plains of and have retained a small proNorth America Europe has been cultivated for of woodlands: China portion countless centuries all over the world. among the primitive units. which correspond to plant species in the study of the flora. in countless other instances.

marshes. soils . Botanic gardens. alpine rockeries. Hence the variety of moist dry tropical houses. endeavouring to copy the conditions of climate and suitable to analogous plant forms. tropical hothouses. &c. fern and palm houses. and provide them as far as possible with the most favourable conditions..CONCLUSION 307 of plants: the 'elfin' form is assumed by shrubs of widely separated families in widely separated habitats. It is there that the variety and uniformity of Nature will be best studied in our countries. with their conservatories. thus group together plants of the same requirements and modes of life. temperate houses.

55. 204. African Islands. 16S. 241. 282. 63. 221. plateaus. 283. Basin. Mediterranean. Arizona. 182. Alto Parana. 149. 153. North. Eastern. Australia. South. Apa. 81. South. 79. Atlantic Lowlands of Mexico. 806. 1. Saharan. 221. 65. 117. Lesser. 57. Ahir. 232. Ainsefra. 10.83. 166. 16. 55. 142. . 286. 17. West. 166. 199. 223. Aral. 66. Central. 56. Alexandria. America. 58. 221. Altai. Akmolinsk. Anahuac. Mountain Region. Amu. Amuria. 283. Areg. Argentine sub-tropical. Wastes.GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX The The spelling of the names following is that of ChisholnVs Gazetteer Of the World. Atlas. 124. Abyssinia. Abyssino-Eritrean Foot-hi 11s. 306. 163. 22.. 261. 162. 304. 49. 89. 69. 51. 235. Armenia.124. Atbara. Central. 62. 207. 59. 219. 202. 55. Peruvian. 17. Alai. 199. 171. Atacama.119. Altyn Tagh. 85. Annam. South. 195. Minor. 219. 119. 13. 283. 207. Asia. 131. 223. Andes. 246. 231. 19. 123. 155. Argentine Cordillera. (Aymaras. Algoa Bay. Adamawa. 205. 70. 164. 151. 18. 151. Angola. 123. 226. 228. 124. Arctic Ocean. 145. Alleghany. figures in thick type indicate the headings of sections. 58. Andalusia. Anadyr. Felix. East. 202. Afghanistan. 118. West. 14. Aldan. 135. 168. Antilles. 165. 288. 90. 68. Alps. 13. 65. 208. 53. 291. Alaska. Appalachian Region. 217. 45. 161. 279. Amazon. 218. 17. 199. 58. 207. Albania. 155. Amur. Western. 84. Aegean. Arkansas. 58. Apure. 5. Aderar. Africa. West. 257. 65. 75. Ahaggar. 86. 93. Arabia. 124. 63. Assam. Argentina. 261 j 276. Western. Abertos. 288. Region. East. 306. 238. 304. 44. 203. Arakan. Anatolia. Adriatic. Intermont. 90. 147. Athi. 53. 220.

115. Congo. 136. Great. 92. 228. 224. Caa-pura. Carrasco. Sea. 125. 246. Balkh. 203. 272. 282. 805. 143. 56. Brazilian Coast Forest Belt. 128. 107. Colorado. 17. 176. Dampierland. 199. Britain. 58. Black Earth. 244. Bush prairie. 202. 99. Capdes. 226. 230. 271. 139. Basin. 309 Canary Islands. 17. South. 112. 3. 112. 291. Badakshan. 276. *JU>wer > U-5Cambodia. Chu. Bactria. 149. 306. 141. Capoeira. 276. Carolina. 174. 142. 297. 305. Caucasus. 207. 18. 279. 70. Cameroon. 207. Cordilleras. Baluchistan. Caldera. 51. 228. Chad. 98. 102. Brahmaputra. 249. Celebes. 155. Brittany. 137. 58. 237. Cascade!. Chapadat. 104. Caa-gapu. 108. Chaparral. 49. 188. Canadian Forest. 113. Colombia. 228. 271. 294. Crimea. Dakhel. Bactra. 112. 29. 259. Cumberland Cunene. 59. plateau. 174. CyrenaXca. Chaco. Ceara. 148.GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX Babylonia. 142. 89. 131. 228. Chernozyom. 58. Caucasia. 224. 218. 305. 108. 178. 143. 276. 104. Cassiquiare. 180. 149. Chiapas Valley. 55. Little. 131. 272. British Columbia. 202. 99. 278. 235. 84. 84. Ceylon. 81. 36. Caspian Sea. 154. Barka. Cebunayas. 95. Chile. Bahr-al-Ghazal. East. Bagrach-kul. Campo vero. 82. Corrientes. 58. 202. 278. Colchis. 78. 274. Cedar glades. Bad-Lands. 120. 22. Brazilian Highlands. Caa-guazu. 261. 106. 100. Northern. 120. 26. 221. Bafiados. Castanhal. Burma. 42. 272. 147. Caatinga. 95. South. Bering Sea. 168. 153. 102. China. 278. Carpathian!. Chibcha. 153. 138. 88. 242. Borneo. Dakota. 151. 113. 97. Straits. Bermejo. Isles. Boschveld. 124. Blue Mountains. 84. 108. 48. 125. 90. Campeachy. 272. Gulf of. 181. 276. Benguella. 188. 188. Cape Region. 83. Central. Cyprus. Coromandel. 32. 28. Brigalow Scrub. 97. Cross Timbers. 141. Carpentaria. Mountains. Highlands. 142. 17. Central. Canada. 168. Coast Mountains. 142. Cuba. 41. Columbia. 39. Biskra. Beira. 104. 22. Berbers. 92. Buryan. . California. 239. 149. 204. 44. Barue. 120. 227.

23. 58. 207. 266. Nubian. Thar. 286. 88. Gila. Gobi. 19. 51. Syrian. 133. 94. Elgon. 58. Guatemala. 162. 53. 226. 109. 207. 53. 279. Garmsir. 161. 109. 81. 185. West. 227. Desert. 224. African. 291. 66. 207. Western. 52. Great Barrens. 41. 228. . Drakenberg. Denmark. 135. Victoria. Damara. Colorado. Great Canadian. Central Plateau. Futa-Jallon. Danube. 147. Gibson. 288. Ebi-nor. 283. Frazer. 170. Ghats. 25O. 147. 52. 156. Forests. 70. Western. Guapore. France. 159. 288. 283. Euphrates. 207. 215. Guardafui. 293. 292. 207. Erg. 226. 4L Libyan. 115. 208. Eastern. 801. Goyaz. 293. 207. 1&3. 159. 224. Northern. Guayaquil. 267. 10. Diarbekir. Arabian. Great Central. Elburz. Hatteras. 293. 38. 226. Fezzan. Grass Belt. 228. Germany. 70. Fort Churchill. 180. 238. 291. 284. 49. 294. Mohave.310 GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX Florida. Congo. Deserts. Gold Coast. 162. Europe. Egyptian Sudan. 242. 56. 90. Fergana. Gauchos. Gulf of. Lowlands. 212. 206. Figuig. 9l! Hayti. Han-hai. Ebro. Gironde. 24O. Demerara. 205. Egyptian. Ester os. 248. 124. Guinea. 75. 182. 82. Flood. 66. 266. 182. Greece. 48. Central. 263. 219. Guiana Highlands. Farafreh. 224. 35. 294. Eritrea. Deccan. 50. Elgof. Indus. 306. 68. 231. 293. 123. Finland. 123. Tarim. Greenland. Upper. 79. Flanders. 50. 100. Ethiopia. West. 221. 207. 81. Erg. 288. 86. 42. Eskimos. 117. 221. 207. 207. North. Garigue. 136. 210. 290. Egypt. 145. Ganges. 42. 131. Lake Region. North-west. 214. 274. 84. 294 29C. American. 290. Gazaland. 36. 207. 291. England. 80. 285. Gaboon. Falkland Islands. Hamada. Gambia. 88. 24. 259. 283. . Fuego. Gulf Stream. 113. 81. 42. 163. 142. French. Fjelds. 113. 45. Ecuador. Gila. 3G. 270. 42. 219. 247. 131. El Khargeh. Light. 214. Gulf of. Entre Rios. .

Kano. Kalahari. Hokkaido. 53. 93. Kolyma. 30. Knytna forest. 21. Hwang-ho. 148. Illyrian Karst. 39. 147.GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX Heri-Rud. 207. Lisbon. Lualaba. 238. 45. 804. Madeira. 291. Ireland. 294. 81. 235. Korea. Jujuy. India. 153. 18. 48. 186. Hudsonian forest. iO. 131. Llanos. 170. 31. 73. 47. Irtish. 79. 73. Magellan. Hupe. 32. Holland. 18. Irnwadi. 56. Kiangsi. 235. 205. Kerman. Kobdo. Honduras. Laghuat. 17. 227. Isfahan. Great. 108. 35. 29. 26. 109. Jura. 28. 80. 107. Limpopo. Hispaniola. Kentucky. 13. Indus. Korean Highlands. 13. Isle of Wight. 257. Kuhistan. 86. Lebombo. 22. 247. Malabar. 224. 248. 128. 97. 235. 81. Orinoco. Kasai. 241. Idaho. 211. 202. Hudson Bay. Lebanon. Igapu. Incas. 12. Ladakh. Little. 70. 273. La Plata. Kamchatka. 248. Mackenzie River. 283. 17. 282. Ivory Coast. Llano Estacado. Karamoyo. 15. 19. Japan. 226. 147. 27. Hungary. 23. Lake Rudolph. Igidi. 44. 69. 89. 66. 156. 49. 242. Ilchuri-AIin. Lapland. Illyria. 235. Khorassan. Karroo. 221. 45. . 10. 48. 227. 89. 294. 240. 18. 80. 185. 288. Java. Igarapfs. Hunan. Junin wastes. 136. valley. Kashmir. 182. La Mancha. 44. Hylea. 22. 801. 68. Kami. 19. Macdonald Range.73. 125. 214. Laos. . 18. Islas. 86. Jamaica. Madagascar. Himalayas. Hoogeveld. 18. 17. 16. Liaotung. 293. 70. Kenya. 44. 23. 45. 91. Lob-Nor. 162. . Bolivian. 18. 199. 85. 42. Indo-China. Jahlonoi. 65. 23. 213. Lagos. 294. 30. 85. Malay Archipelago. 278. 264. Iran. 258. River. 26. 81. 223. Khingan. Jungle. 78. Kria. Loango. 82. 32. Kilima-njaro. 42. 42. 168. 95. Kansas. 79. 148. Kidwani. 66. 42. 288. 79. 136. 203. 311 Hindu Kush. Labrador. 226. Kaffraria. 123. 188. Himyarites. 242. Lena. Kuku-nor. 13. Kweichou. Interment plateaus. 58. 58. 246. Kur Kuenlun.

25. Paddy. Upper. Niger. 47. 273. South Wales. Manchuria. 22. 212. 242. 301. 194. Maracaibo. England. 22. 65. 71. Pipil-Quichue. Mexico. Virgem. 151. Murray-Darling Valley. 304. Lower. 85. 191. Natal. 108. 94. 18. 199. 214. 43. 297. Marshes. Old Calabar. Pilcomayo. 66. 188. 48. 119. 234. 145. 114. 306. Mossel Bay. Matoppos. 127. Mallee scrub. 153. 148. 192. 73. uszta. 52. Maquis. 110. 8. 301. Pamirs. Persia. South Australia. Maya. 84. Nebraska. 68. 61. Nyassa. 199. Poljes. 199. 304. 153. Montana. Matto Grosso. 227. 113. 65. 234. 216. 149. Nile. Ob. 91. Mulga scrub. 145.312 GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX New Caledonia. Polygonal floor*. 191. 234. 65. Minas geraes. MoSres. 188. Pernambuco. 188. 304. 238. 51. 137. 227. 119. Mesopotamia. 63. 11. 118. 18O. Malezales. 193. 65. Blue. Mossamedes. Mexican plateau. Mozambique. 116. 23. 5O. Pampa. Mesas. 50. 191. 36. 66. 151. Mauretania. 19. Nippon. 239. Pontus. 304. Masai plains. Mekong. Namib. 179. 214. 145. 235. Ostiak. Ormuz. 95. 257. Po Valley. Patagonia. Polders. 228. 143. 131. Pacific Islands. 17O. Meseta. Menam. Ngaundere. Mediterranean Africa. 56. 95. Nahua. Mongolia. Orkhon. 141. Paraguay. Morocco. Nan-shan. Maranh&o. Medanos. Orinoco. 3. 238. 238. Guinea. Norway. 224. Misiones. 248. 151. 16. Persian Gulf. 62. Papagos Indians. 19. 153. 92. Punas. Nigeria. 89. Masailand. 142. Mogador. 131. 147.lands. Gulf of. Mogollon. 147. 48. 97. 182. 161. 235. 287. 91. 140. Parani. 58. Portugal. 132. 218. 124. Moore. 294. Porto Alegre. Ohio. Ordos plateau. 288. Orange River. 207. 104. Plate region. 147. 157. Merv. 283. 47. Platte. Oregon. 140. Mississippi. South. 149. 283. Okhotsk. 147. Montreal. 163. 88. Meztisos. Mediterranean. 235. 221. 23. 242. 42. 202. . 90. 279. Zealand. Mexico. 227. 159. 90. 270. 278. Southern. 246. 154. Oguwe. Minoans. 131. 14. 19. 22S. Mekran. 10. 48. 63. 140.

Shari. Rebnlsa. East. 228. 19. Save. 93. Sierra. 145. Sanga. Rio Grande. 207. Guinea. Sea. 56. Tropical. 221. 47. 274. 157. 21O. 166. 278. 14. 12. 292.115. 133. 276. 18. 91. do Mar. 132. . 12. South-eastern Temperate. 223. 235. 97. Sabi. Sikhota Alin. 304. 160. 142. Rhodope. 116. Scottish Highlands. 66. 286. 282. 62. 290. 209.112. Patagonia n. 58. 207. Shamo. 258. Sechwan. Somali plains. 6L Rumanian. Salwin. Sahara. 157. 147. Sahel. 174. 266. 185. 294. Somali. Ruwenzori. 210. 213. Russian. Siberia. 224. Salitrales. 95. Shantung. 156. 141. Sundarbans. 49. 83. 219. Santa Cruz. 205. 10. 255. Sayan. Sogdiana. 157. Steppe. Luis. 111. 64. 22. 13. 19. 188. Sudan. Kirghiz. 148. 224. ^gambezi. Amazon. 313 Scrubland. Rio de Oro. 136. Quichuas. 114. Scandinavia. 18. Woods. 231. 248. 188. Red River. 103. Russia. 185. 15. 228. West. 168. 43. Sacramento. 101. Reg. 219. 265. 38. 265. Serrados. 19. Song-ho. 120. 28. 207. 44. 280. 220. Staked Plain.GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX Pyrenees. Restinga. 13. 224. 234. Sabeans. Rhodesia. 241. 207. Rhine. 238. Siberian Highlands. Queensland. 218. Siverma. Si-kiang. Bahr-al-Ghazal. Scotland. 268. Sierra de Cordoba. 214. 298. 134. San Francisco. Rocky Mountains. Sertao. 205. Siam. Samarkand. 27O. 169. 58. Sonora. 178. 102.. Sao Paulo. Rain forests. 267. 218. 174. Registan. Spencer Gulf. 136. Sumatra. 80. 142. 264. Guiana. 257. Rio San Francisco. 45. Senegambia. Spain. 63. Egyptian. 207. 23. South Chilian. F(. 234. 234. 235. Scandinavian Highlands. 169. 112. . 103. 115. Stanovoi. 93. Sakhalin. 104. 117. Nevada. 227. 39. Seistan. 235. 255. 211. 220. Savana. 287. 19. 288. Taiga. 227. 17. Madre. 110. 288. Shiraz. 223. Semi-desert. 261. 153. Northern. 163. 16. 155. 266. Rio Colorado. 45. 155. 160* Southern. Selva. Somaliland. Southern States. Shasta. Stanley Falls. 108. 25. Suiigari. 221. 139. 10. Sudanese. 178. * Scilly Islands. 234. Senegal. 208. 294. Sudan. 21. 80. Shire. 212.

89. 79. Yezo. 238. 124. 125. 15. 48. Tennessee. Yang Tse. Vosges. 71. 174. 219. 17. 188. 224. Valencia. 10. Umtaii. 238. Teheran. Transvaal. 90. West West Australia. Earth. 58. Tola. 69. 228. Venezuela. Vitim. Washington. 174. 91. 53. 121. Winnipeg. Tabasco. 282. Togo. Tsin-ling. 189. 124. 28. 207. Ubanghi. 131. 68. 107. GEOGEAPHICAL INDEX Uganda. 120. 45. Tucuman. Tocantins. 68. 235. 169. 64. 18. 241. 236. 83. 48. 807. Tian Shan. 57. 58. 50. 199. Takhla Makan. 199. 120. 120. 211. 289. 65. 226. 69. 120. 10. 63. Sutherland. Welle. 808. 66. 239. Tehuan tepee. 236. Venns. 75. 221. 124. 73. 58. 65. Tundra. 88. Tunis. Yunnan. 98. Tell. Zambezi. * * Basin. Turan. 305. Ust-Urt. Tongking. 19. 291. 81. 220. 50. 282. 291. 125. Yorkshire. Thornwood. 56. 298. 68. Yenissei. 29. Syria. 801. Valdivia. 123. 44. 186. Wergian. Tibesti. 228. Zerafshan. 236. Tierra caliente. 207. 95. 84. Tibet. 10. Darias. Tibu. 66. 65. 141. 10. 163. Yemen. 23. Yangkan. Tasmania. Texas. Zagros. Travesias. 92. Syr. 280. Tas. 56. 90. Yezd.814 Sungaria. Turkestan Highlands. Trinidad. 41. 68. Unyamwezi. 45. River. Vindhyas. 207. 29. 236. Indies. 228. 59. 25. Trieste. 58. 263. Usuri. 66. 288. Teda. 49. Wasatch. 18. 52. 18. 55. Siberian. 148. 53. 50. 63. 282. 181. Tagaf. Vyatka. Tsing-ling-shan. River. Vargam. 207. Victoria Nyanza. 230. 236. 110. 279. templada. 5. 155. 29. 92. 104. Yellow Basin. Tanganyika. Western mountains. 68. 30. Wales. 58. 47. 235. Verkhoyansk. 23. Tsaidam. 10. 29. 89. 28. Yukon. 236. Canadian. 97. Trans-Baikalia. Tigris. 94. Taurus. Yucatan. 169. 91. 266. 13. 47. ' . 227. Urals. Uruguay. 97. 265. 62.

Prunus Armeniaca. 19. 60. Birch. 21. &c. 18. 54. Betulus spp. Bastard cedar. Andromeda polifolia. 59. Acacia arabica. Coffee. Chrysanthemum. Ardocarpus incisa. Pyrus malus. or wild rosemary. Dendrocalamua spp. 12. Panicum muticum. 42. 47. Areca (betel) nut palm. 63. Bilberry. Banana. Cinnamomum Camphora. wormwood. 64. Ash. Aquilegia spp. 34. Candytuft. 21. Casuarina (tjemoro). Azalea. tree of ven. 75. Apricot. 47. 64. Lycium Bambu. Pinus Laricio. Camphor. 19. Vaccinium Myrtillus. 44. 28. 19. 61. Apple.. 25. 89. 31. Cassia. False elm. 60. Catechu. Cedrtla spp. have ing thig Index. Heracleum sphondy- . 64. fruit. 16^ 54. BJack (Corsican) pine. Hordeum wMgare. equisetifolia. Bramble. 64. spp. Arolla (Siberian stone) Pinus Cembra. and Engler-Prantl. 70.. 11. Populus tremulosa. Aconitum.. 66. 81. Marsh andromeda. 18.INDEX OF PLANT NAMES Gerth van Wijk.. Cotton. 19. Elettaria Cardamomum. 60. Arabian acacia (gum acacia). Fraxinus spp. Almond. Ash. Barberry. Berberis vulgaris. Cardamom. fir. mountain (rowan). 30. barbarum.. 14. Box. Asparagus.. 31.. Dictionary Naturliche PJlanzenfamilien. 51. Rhamnus spp. Catalpa. Alnus spp. Cidrus 54. Celtis spp. ium. Toon 88. Areca pine. Casuarina Libani. paper-tree or paper mulberry. Cow-parsnip. 59. Iberis amara. Anemone. 60. Cedar of Lebanon. Aspen. 36. Charm ik. 64. Prunus 47. 66. 155. Alder. Broussonetia papyrtfera. 21. 81. 39. 75. Buxus sempervirens. 28. Buffalo grass. Ailanthus glandulosa. 60. 15. 19. Cinnamomum cum. Eranthis. 16. Cinnamomum Cassia. Rubus fruticosus. 21. amygdalus... 19. 59. Olossypium spp. Buckthorn. Cocos nucifera. Sorbus Aucuparia. 49. 15.. 14.. P'Vifey. Cojfea spp. 21. Musa spp. 64. &c. Cilician Abies Cilicia. 49. 30. Hea- Bread 44. Cinnamon.. 27. Chinese cedar. 51. Columbine.. zeylani- Coco-nut 9 Betel nut. 19. 54. Artemisia spp. of Plant Names. 11. 29. 68. tree. been taken as authorities in compil- ASIA Aconite. Dryobalanops aromatica. Bambusa arundinacea. 27. 59.. see Areca. 84. 60. 51.

59. Indigofsra 36. Maize. 14. 21. 51. 19. . Sorghum spp. 64. 16. Lombardy. Lemon. 59. . 16. 70. Maple. Zingiber offlcinale. Onion. 61. 48. 60. 49. Vitia vinifera. Papaver spp. 75. edulis. Morus alba.. 15. Euphrates poplar. 49. Globe flower. Cucumis Melo. 19. 47. Phlox spp. 70. Ficuscarica. Quercus virens. Indigo. 13. Aralia Djati. Carpintis spp. 28. 49. 70. Pine. Opium poppy. 48. Ulmus spp. 60. 66. Populus pyra- Kamchatka rhododendron.. Gentian. Hdiotropium europatum. 59.Fucfcst'a. 64. Gleditschia (sinensis). 60. 81. Rosa canina. 68. white. Hemerocattisfulva. 14. Populus spp. Tilia spp. Date palm. PLANT INDEX sativus. Olea spp. Live oak. 55. Deodar. 17. Plane. Mulberry spp.. Rhododendron kamtschaticum... 54... 51. Plum. Prunus Pomegranate. midalis. 21. 64. &c. 42. Lonicera Hornbeam. 49. 19. nitre bush. lily. 63. Monkshood. Corylusapp. 49. 44. 36. 81. 61 59. Allium Cepa. 31. Poplar.. Cupressus funebris. Heather. 60. 60. 59. Gutta-percha tree. Melon. 14. Ficus elastica. Groundsel. 47. Equisetum spp. Cordia macrophylla. Poplar.. 60. Horsetail.. Populus euphratica. 66. Laurel. 48. . Matheran c offee Peach. 48. 81. 44. 54. Pauloumia(Indica) . Chinese soap Nitraria spp. 27. Dahurica larch. spp. 16. 80. 39. 80. Zea Mais. Quercus spp. Geranium. &c. 86. Viola 29. 64. Pinus spp. 34. 14. Ginger. Heliotrope. Oak.. 64. Phoenix Day dactylifera.. 41. Aesculus Hippo- Pepper.. Calluna vulgaris.. Honeysuckle.. 81. 21.. tree.. . Paeonia spp. Pink. Hazel. _ tytnica QranatunfffT. Chinese sweet gum. Hydrangea. 801. Limetree. Aconitum Napellus. Peony. Qinkgo (bttobata). 51. tricolor. 53. 42. 48.. 54. 81. 64. cast anum. 12. 80. 55. 14.. Dimorphanthus.pp.316 Crocus. Cannabis saliva. 54. 41. Prunus Persica. Juniper. Quercus mongolica. Elm. 18. Laurus nobilis.. 49. Ananas sativa. Cucumis 64. Rhizophora conjugata. Piper nigrum.. 60.. Platanus spp. 41. Erica spp. 41. Orange. Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Pansy. 66. 21. Papaver somniferum. Sweet William.. salt tree. 48. Juntperus spp. Magnolia. 21.. Trollius spp.. see Teak. Larix spp. 54. a. Citrus Limonum. Ling. 47. cherrypie. Manjack. Cucumber. 44. 59. Senecio spp. Panicum spp. 25. &c. 44. Acer spp. 64.. Olive.. 14. tinctoria. Joponica. Larix dahurica. Cedrus Deodara. 31. 14. Dog rose. 9. 28. Millet. 19. Morus. Mangrove. Pineapple. Liquidambar (formosana). Grapes (vine). 62. Mongolian oak. 66. Larch.. 59. 25. 64. Fig. 31.. maidenhair tree. Citrus Aurantium f 19. Abies spp. Hemp. 70. Fir. Cypress. Horse-chestnut. 61. Poppy.

86. Sequoia gigantea. Sumac. Rubus idaeus. 84. 111. 95. comm on. Tulipa spp. 14. Vaccinium spp. grass. keaki. sandal-wood.PLANT INDEX Plerocarya spp. 48. Siberian fir. 18.53. 19. Whortleberry. Tobacco. 81.. Fraxinus spp. Rose. worm wood. 55. False or American Aloe. Salix spp. Tectona grandis. 41. Artemisia spp. 88. 21. Violet. 120.. Sorbus Rubber. 49. Triticum spp. 25.. 86. 120. Rhubarb. &c. Ragwort. 21. Pinus Cembraj 64. Solanum nicotiana. Arctostaphylos uva ursi. Cacao. 66. Sophora spp. Walnut. Raspberry. 51. 59. Taxus false 68. Thea chincnsis. Tea. 44. Rosa spp. Cereus. 83. Beech. Willow herb. 89. 68. Agave (americana). 95. Pagoda tree. 31.. Buchlov dactyloides. Popidus tremuloidesj 107..53... Sugar cane. Californian laurel. Arctic (Iceland) nudicaule.. Taxodium distichum. Rowan (mountain Aucuparia. 117. sativa. 81. Bouteloua chya. &c. Ficus elastica. 59. Candelabra-cerei. 14. 103. 13. Musa Bearberry. Cucurbita Pepo. groundsel. 58. Teak. 55. 116. 59. Papaver Black spruce.. 86. 121. Pumpkin. 49. 64. 116. Vine. poppy. 12. Balsam poplar.. 42. Rosa. rose. indica. Vitis vim/era. 67. 66.112. 36. 47. 31. 317 spp. Saxifrage. 117. TsugafirjTsttgfa brunoniana. 112. Zelkova spp. Bunch 94. Hima. Cedrus spp. 28...wood. Epilobiumspp. Oryza 86. ash). Shorea robusta. 17. Wild Scots pine. 51. 98. 18. Cedar.. 15. 27. Sandal. 100. 11.. 39. Senecio spp. 14. 44. 114. 82. 116. 21. 60. 16. 21. Populus balsami/era. 114. Santalum album. Picea spp. 70. Willow.. 64. 60. 41. Picea nigra (mariana). 118. 38. Banana.. Theobroma Cacao. 68. 85. 12. 64. baccata. 21. Aspen.. 68. 75. NORTH AMERICA Acacia spp.55. Rice (paddy). 66. 19. Spruce. regia. comma. 114. 49. 31. Birch. river elm. 64. Wormwood. Saxaul. Balsam fir. 83. oligosta- B$Jd (or swamp) cypress. 64. Alder. Buffalo grass. Artemisia spp.. 83. 61. Saccharum ojfficinarum. Abies balsamifera... Birch. 93. layan laburnum. Fagus spp. 110. Caucasian walnut. S3. century plant. Juglans Sal tree. . Wheat. Big tree (Wellingtonia). Cereus giganteus. 57. Viola spp. 84. 87. Rhus &c. Tamarind. Haloxylon ammodendron. Umbellularia californica. 14. Tulip. Yew.. 60. 39. Ash. 60. 38. 70.. 49. Betula papyracea.. Pinus syhestris. paper (or canoe). 81. spp.. 83. 93. 92. Tamarindus Tamarisk.. Sabine juniper. 108. 19. Rheum officinale. 57. Tamarix anglica or gallica. 60. Betula spp. Cactus. 93. 83. 85. 110. Alnus spp. &c. Rhododendron. Juniperus sabina. 30.

Pinon. Carpinus spp. Castanea Coconut-palm. Qwrcus itac. Douglas (red) fir. Liquidambar styraciJlua. Oats. 110. 89. Maize. Juniperus spp. Parthenium argentatum. 113. 86. 85. 91. osage orange. 81. 113. Mango. Zea Mais. 108.. Huckleberry. 98. 102. . Cupressus macrocarpus. f Pitch pine. 89. 87. Oil palm.. Cotton wood. 113. Mountain mahogany. Citrus Limonum. 120. Cercocarpus Mulberry. 90. Incense-tree.. Pinus Mughus. Juniper. &c.. 117. Ledum spp. Honey locust. 117. Cranberry.. Cotton. Tilia spp. Qpuntia spp. 115. Cupretsus spp. Sweet bay. 100. Haamotacyton campechianurn. 116. Prunus persiea. Wmus app. 107.. &c. 97... 106. Acer spp. 90 113. Oxycoccus palustris. Maple. Creosote-bush. 104. Olive. 97. Mammal cactus. 117. 117. Mahogany. 81. 86. Madura ber tree. Pseudotsuga Douglasii.. Dwarf oak. &c. 95. 83. white sage. Fir. 94. Magnolia spp. Mimosa spp.. Ocotillo (devil's chair). &c. Pinus rigida. 83. JRhizophora mangle. &c. 95. Lime. Evergreen oak. Hemlock spruce. 97. 110. Quercus spp. Guayule (rubber bush). spp.318 86. &c. Carica papaya. Coffee. Monterey cypress.. PLANT INDEX satira. Horse-chestnut. 86. 86. Ac. Ac.. Citrus Aurantium. 89. Swietenia Mahagoni. P'nus*spp.. Grama grass. 95. Prosopis spp. Dodecantheon primrose (American cowslip). 92. 104. 114... 97. Gleditschia spp. Quercus humilis.. Bow wood. Gaylussacia spp.. Mammillaria spp.Dodecantoeon Meadia. 97. Prickly pear. 86. Oak. Elm. 86. 81.. Fouquiera splcndcns. 86. Lemon. 113. Nolina (Roulinia). 116. 114. 111. 112.. 118. Dyewood (logwood). Kalmia spp. Kentucky coffeetree. Hickory (white walnut). 85. 107. 110. 97.. Qlossypium spp. American laurel. 84. Dwarf pine. Gentian. 92. 85... Pine. 85.. 114. Laurus spp. Cypress. 104. spp. Hazel... 114. 86.. Hornbeam. 117.. Eurotia spp... 89. 85.. Cqffea spp. ^^ Papaw. Murray (lodge polo) pine. 88. Chestnut (edible).. 113. 117. Larrea mexicana. Lucerne (see Alfalfa). Elaeis guincensis. 81. Avena spp. &c. Labrador tea plant.. Tsuga canadensts. Peach. 120. Cocos nucifera. Empetrum nigrum. t &c. OZeaspp. Mangifera indica. 120. 97. 110. 90. Carya spp. Mesquite... 81. Fraser's Abies Fraseri. Mexican rubber. 92." r Orange. Mangrove.. Aesculus spp. . 84. 102. 117. Castilloa dastica. Laurel. 114. 93. fir.. 93. 114. Pinus cdulis.. 100. 86. 86.. 117. Bouteloua spp. cucum- Crowberry. Qymnodadus spp.... Moras spp. -4Msspp. tferam'um. 86.. Corylus spp. Populus moniltfera. 118. 86.. Pinus Murrayana.

Pinus monophylla. Yellow pine. Alsophila. 92. Sugar maple. 165. Red spruce. 142. Swamp (long leaf) Lambertiana. Sabal Palmetto. sassafras tree. Adesmia. 102. 83. Picea rubra. Taxodium di- Artemisia spp. 142. rosebay. Vaccinium spp. stichum. 120. 90. &c. Alfalfa. larch). Tumble weeds. 89. Araucaria brasiliensis. 114..... 128. Pinus Lambertiana. SOUTH AMERICA Acacia spp. &c. Populus spp. spp. 108. Juglans spp. Vanilla. Red wood.. Liriodendron tulipifera. Prairie grass. 85. 95. &c. 319 Sweet gale (bog myrtle). 110. Sequoia... Artemisia tridentata. 111. Virginian oak. 86. Andropogon spp. Spruce. Adam's needle. &c. Lanx Red cedar (savin). Atriplex spp. set 102. 92. 87.. Saccharum officinarum. 44*. Water melon. . Big tree. Virginia creeper. 92. Willow. 89. &c. 92. 110. mitis. False spikenard. pine. 85. 148. Ampelopsis quinquefolia. 140. 85. 100.. Saxifraga spp.. Triticum spp. White spruce.. acacia. bear's grass. Sage brush. Tsuga. Weymouth Wormwood. Oryzasativa. 97. Rhododendron spp. 100. Pinus Spanish bayonet. 159. 103. 83. 83. 81. Chile pine. 108. Pinus Strobus.. Wheat. 158. 169. Palmetto palm. 144. 88. Drinn grass. 110. 128. 92. 94. 85. Common orache. Sugar-cane.. Groundsel spikenard.. fir. Ulmus americana. 102. 81. Yucca spp.. Antarctic beech. monkey puzzle. century plant. 86. Potato. &c. False honeysuckle.PLANT INDEX Plane. 117.. White elm. 87.. Tobacco. azalea. Poplar. Single-leaf pine. Hemlock spruce. Spartina spp. &c. 86. 102. 140.. 125. 166. 97. Tulip tree.. Ac. Aristida spp. 117.. 84. Winter green. Locust tree. spp. 104. Qaultheria procumbens. redwood. Agave spp. Saxifrage. 91. 100. 84.86. &c. Swamp cypress.. . 92. antarctica. Solanum tuberosum. see Walnut. Nicotiana Tabacum. Sequoia sempervirens. Medicago saliva. 86. Abies pectinata. Juniperus virginiana. Acer Saccharinum. Robinia spp. ploughman's tree.. 102... 81. &c. 86. Araucaria Attaka 142. 142.. Platanus spp. Fagus 162. 107.. pine. Whortleberry. Myrica Tamarack (black americana. Tillandtia spp. Lena amarilla. Silver 110. Salix spp. 88. Brazilian pine.. Broom palm.. 90. Pinus 106. 85. 117. 158. 87. imbricata. Citrulus vulgaris. 141. 117. ague tree. 86. 148. false Vitis hederacea. Rice. Picea canadensis (alba\ 88. Gale. 92.. Araucaria spp*. Sugar pine. Sassafras officinale (Laurus Sassafras}.. Liatris odoratissima. Baccharis 157. Quercus virginiana. 112. Picea spp. 93.

Buddleia spp. Buriti palm. Esptletia. 142. &c. 166. 140.. Cactut. 164. 148. 132.. 164. Pappophorum.. 142. 127. &c. 142.. 166. Winter's bark. 125. 169. nuei/era. Bombax Ceiba. Dyewood.. Rose of the Andes. 141. 126. Mahogany. 164. 148. 165. grass. Theobroma Cacao. 188. 142. 148. panic grass. Banana. Manioc. Nachaerium spp.. Chestnut. Barberry. 158. 157. 164. 148. Cupaina amm'cana. Qynerium argenteum. Glossypium spp. &c. Peruvian bark. Pampas grass. 125. anchor plant. 126. Qyneriwn argenteum. Frailezones. 164. Oak. Gourlita chilensis. 149. 141. Oocos Colletia cruciate. Mandioca Mandioca (main hot. Mango.. PLANT INDEX spp. 143... 142. Chile gum box.. 158. 127.. Bean.. 142. Conocarpus erectus. wort. 148.. 187. 169. Culcitium 141. Wild pine. (acutifolia.320 Bambu. Citrus Aurantium. &c. 164. Lupinus spp. Escallonia spp. 126. 167. 126. 155. Creosote 165.. 127. 169. Kidney. pinguin. 149. 166. Cotton. Cereus. Ftaaspp. 155. Pampas camp*- Palms. Mauritia spp.. angustifolia]. 181. 165.. Orchid. 166. 138. Papaw. 166.. Broad-leaved cedar.. Bejaria spp. Echeveria (cotyledon) spp. Prosopis ipp.. utilissima. 157. cia certfera. Green beech. Cebil acacia (red cebil). Coffea spp. Summer lilac. 145. 164. Quercus 164. .. Cacao. 165. spp. 134. Elder. 145. 185. sn Mandioca. 164. 127.. Cereus giganCoperni- 141. DrimyaWinteri. Mauritia vintfera &nd flexuosa... Qutrcus spp. see Para nut. Mimosa. honey-ball tree. senna. Cinchona spp. &c. Bromelia spp. Phytolacca spp. Prickly pear. 164. Musa spp. Evergreen oak. 184. Tigerwood. Orange. Clematis. silk 1 cotton tree. 140. 169. 1^4. Mangifera indica. 125. Brazil nut. 127. Mangrove. 141. 127. 158.. see Evergreen oak. 170. 148. Mauritia or miriti palm. Rhizophora mangle. <fec. Bambusa 169. millet. &c. Candelabra cereus.. 125. Calceolaria. Hafmatoxylon chianum. Laurel. Cebil. Panicwn spp. . Oxycoccus palustris. Carita papaya. Lauras nobilis. Ilex. Lupin. Melica spp. Melic grass. 166.. Slipa Ichu. &c. 184.. 164. 169. 126. Eriodendrcnleiantherum. quinine. Lianas. Sambucus spp. 127. Cocos coronata. pennywort.. Maize. Coconut-palm. cassava). 148. Coffee. Epiphytes. Ombu (poke weed). 158. 170.. 155. Swietenia Mahagoni. Mesquite. teus. Berberis vulgaris. Jaracanda. 149. bush. Acacia 148. 140. Chafiar. ilex. Larrea Opuntia spp. 158. Ceiba. 164. 142. &c.. 166. 157. mexicana. Zea Mais. 169. Carfiauba Cassia (wax fan palm). Cranberry. Ichu grass.

grass. .. 182.. 151.. Brazilian plum &c. spp. 138. 176. 189. spp. 125. Nicotiana Tabacum. Bejariaspp.. 176. Saccharum ojficinarum. Bcmbax Ce:da. &c. Myalls. Chile soap tree. 188. spp.. 148... Verbena. koko-yam. 169. 194. Tumbleweed. gra^>8. Tussock Podocar^ws spp. Drinu w. Tillandsia spp. Cocos nucifera... &c. she- 180. &c.. Pinus spp. Prickly pear. Cypress pine. tree. 161. 141. False spikenard. 188. &c.. Bunya-bunya. Manihot Qlaziovii. Spondiasspp. Rrfbber. 159. Acacia harpophylla.. Aristida spp. Silk cotton tre. &c. 194.. Cotton. 166. alder. Orysa sativa. Tobacco. Tree ferns... grandifolia. 141. 126. Beef. 189.. 135. Feathergrass. Coco-nut. Callitris African marigold. Quenoa. Colocasia spp. &c. 188. false pepper.1 176. &c. spp. Norfolk Island pine. black moss. 125. Rice. Oydonia vulgaris. Rhus spp Swartzia .. 194.. Rhopala. 157. 148. 134. 188. Vanilla. 134.. Prunus Peruvian 165. Polylepis racemosa. 148. Quince.. Paspalum spp. Andropogon spp. &c. 155.. Hevea gnianensis. Sumac. 169.. 159. Peach. gum . &c. Araucaria spp. wattles. Verba-mate" (Paraguayan tea tree).. ce~ara (see also Pard rubber). &c. 165. 184.. 179. lotus tree. Ananas sativa. 185. Yucca. Arctocarpus incisa. Ratama. 186. 169. Opuntia vulgaris. Plum. Saponaria spp. 127. 125. AUSTRALIA Acacia spp. &c. Pineapple. Australian tree. 141. Sugai'-cane. Banana. 180. 182. Glossypium spp. Mesquite. Plantain.. 126. Copernica cerifera. ] Eucalyptus spp. 182. black tree. Wax palm. 164. Pine. 194. 164.. 165. 142. &c. bottle brush. fir. Arbutus Unedo. Casuarina golden beard grass. Musa Banksia spp. jujube tree. 164.. Hevea brasiliensis and Seringeira. 135. 189. 159. 127. Bread fruit. Zticksonia. Spartocytisus nubigens. 158. Mastic tree.. 189. &c. 185. 182. Schinus spp. Strawberry Stipa spp. 1169. 147. 184. 321 Para Guiana. Australian honeysuckle. &c. 181.wood. Soap wort. Plantago spp. 127. Hex paraguayensis 145. t Zisyphus Rubber. Bertholletia (Castanka) excelsa. Cyathea. Pfunus domestica... Par& (Brazilian) rubber.. Brigalow scrub. Persica. Quebr&chOjAspidosperma Quebracho. vegetable hair. 155. oak. 131. Alsophila. Llatris odoratissima.PLANT INDEX (Brazil) nut. 160.. 158. Alnus acuminata. Hog plum. 169. taro.. 164. Prosopis. 165.. Tagetes 179. Quillaja saponaria. e recta.. 188. Rose of the Andes. Poa flabellata. millet grass. 160. 128. 148..

173. &c. Tree nettle (stinging tree). Tea tree. 208. Aderas. 241. Agathis (Dammara) austraRhagodia Australian berry. 181. 17$. South Sea myrtle. Palms. 185. Leptospermum spp. ' Evergreen beech. Pistacia 203. 181. 241. 205. harbour grape. 220.. 181. 281.. coffee. 215. Acacia horrid a. 182. Desert cauliflower. Alfa or esparto grass. Melaleuca Cajapuli (leucadendrori).. 211. Andropogon spp. Todea. 194. 218. 289. &c. Mangifera indica. 289. 228. Aloe. Vine. Miihlenbeckia Macquarrie spp.. Vitis vinifera. Metroxylon (Sagus) Rumphii.. Sago palm. 209. Olive. Bamfeu. Zea Mais.. Citrus Aurantium. Atlas cedar. 19a. Yam. 194. Sugar-cane. 228. &o.. Eremophila Mitchelli. Porcupine grass. Mango. native ivy. 191. Commiphora sp 208. 180. 179. 178.. AFRICA Acacia. 185.... . stralis.. 174. 281. 198. cajuput (Australian tea tree). Black birch'. sugar boom. 198. 247. atlantica. Podocarpus spp. 185. 183. Balsam &c % 216. Mimosa spp.. Triodia. &c. 198. desert Anabasis spp. Orange. 198. Drinn grass. &c. Mai lee scrub. 188. 188. pungens. 188. Wheat. Larportea gigas.. Cedrus atlanticaj&Q2.322 PLANT INDEX Pimeka spp. tree. Hongel bush. grass. 245. Dioscorea sativa. bush. 289. 289. 204. 188.. white pine). Sandalwood Mnize. Leptospermum. Mangrove. Rice flower. see Spinifex. 179. Aristida spp.. Triodia irritans. Spinifex (porcupine grass). (bastard).. Alfa or esparto grass. 220. Stipa tenacissima. 174.. Screwpine. Acacia aneura. Stipa tenacissima. berry. Kara plant.. 285.&c. 241. 208. &c.. Anogeissua spp. Chew stick. 207. 204. 189. 241. spp. 185. thorn tree. 219. Arabian Acanthosicyos horrida> 242. 198. Ananas sativa. Spinacia oleracea. 246. 226. au- Protea spp.. Triticum spp. Eucalyptus dumosa.. Mulga scrub. wattles. Aristida pungens. 241. Saccharum officinarum. brown or shea pine. Pandanusapp. Fagus antarctica. 182. 238. 220. Otea spp. Australian tea tree. Podocarpus dacrydioides.. Rhizophora mucronata. Australian yew. Tusk thorn acacia. 189... Cojffea arabica. 185. 248. Wagen sea Kauri. Spinach. Arundo Donax. &c.bearing glasswort. Adenium spp. Kangaroo Ks. Acacia Cyclops. 181. 181. see Aderas. 236. 206. Kahikatea (Sugar-loaf pine. 178. Balanites spp. Pineapple. 188. Anthistiria see Spinifex. 180.. &c. 189. . Atlantic pistacia. &o. date.

218. Odum. Coco. Myrtle. Evergreen Ilex. Lobelia. 207. Banyan.. Bunchgrass. 246. &c. 246. Elaeis guineensit. Borassus palm (deleb). 242. dactylifera. 211. Borassus Atthiopium. Indigo. 200. 220. 203. 236..PLANT INDEX Banana. Medicago satiia. Cape heath. 201.. Canary date palm. Dracaena Draco. 230. 227. Bombaxj Silk cotton tree. 220. Cistus spp. tree. caper. Cassia. MyrrhyCommiphora myrrha. palm.. 201. 211. Zea Mais. (holm) oak.stick acacia (African camel thorn). 244. Doum Dragon palm. 231. Ephedra spp.. 288. 211. Charhaerops humilis. 201. 230.. Lucerne 201.. 218. 226. thebaica. 205. Silver trees. 200. 202. 200. 204. 226. Coffca. 201. 221. Avicennia nitida. sea grape. Copaifrra Mopani. 220. see Alfa. cactus. Mimosa. 201. Acacia girqffae.. Butter and tallow tree (guttifer shi butter) ButyrospermumParkii. Hyphaene 209. 226. Batoum pistacia (see Atlantic pistacia).. Leucactendron spp. 249. 220. 200.. Phoenix 208. 228. Quercus Frankincense Fig. Calotropis spp. 230. Dhurra 209. anfractuosum. Butyrospermum Par/en. 219. Cedrus 246. 235. Acacia arabica (SeneGiraffe galensis). 228. tree. Coffee sp. Lavender (Saharan). 215. 281. Common 221. 226. 202. 204. Cork oak. Quercus Suber.. 286. 248. 231. 220. Mopani tree (African iron wood). &c. Quercus spp. Quercus humilis. Eat. 228. Date palm. Mudar. 211. tomentosa. . Adansonia digitata. Candle. tree. Juniper. 230. Sorghum vulgare. Drinn. 231. 280. Euphorbia. Candelabra euphotia.nut palm. Aristida pungens. 202. . Phoenix canariensis. 201. 228. Erythrina Libani. Ceiba. 206. Rock rose. Nubian 215.. Boswellia spp. Cocos nucifera. Rhizophora mucronata. 211. Gum acacia.22l. Jujube 235. 213. millet. Cotton. Lentiscus (Pistacia lentiscus). Acacia Senegalensis. Zizyphus Jujuba. Lavandula Chlorophora spp. 216. 228. 228. 244. Mangrove. Quercus Ilex. 211. 211. Baobab (calabash or monkey's breadj. 226.228. 226. Eriodendron Karee boom..220. 248. Guttifer shi butter (butter and tallow tree). Mediterranean cypress. 219. Indigofera 221. Oil Oak. 221. 239. 203. Senna plant. Musa spp. Mastic tree.. 245. Cedar of Lebanon. Ficus Carica. Dwarf oak. Capparis spinosa. tinctoria. Juniperus spp. Dwarf palm. * Esparto. 218. &c. Bouteloua oligostachya. (alfalfa). Maize. Caltha edulis. coronipifolia. acacia. 226. Ficus indica. Erica spp. shrubby horse tail. 218. Olossypium spp. Holm oak. 200. 226. 211. 244.

207. Foxtail gras*. 205.&c. tree. Tooth-brush artemisia. 221. Phoenix tree. Pandanus spp. Tree heath. elastica. 244. indica.j 217.. spp.. spp. 226. 230. 250.324 Olive. Podocarpus spp. . 250. 209. Alnus spp. 282.. Khaya senegalennis. Meadow &c. WiddringtoniaWhytei.. nala madagascariensis. Prunus Amygdalus. 201. Tamarisk. 201... &c. Wagen boom. 275. Saccharum cffidnarum.. 204. Tusk thorn acacia. Tamarind. Acacia Oswaldi. Viti* vmifera. PLANT INDEX 200. Dioscurea sativa. Anemone. 200. Apricot. Aleppo pine... 247. 220. Rosemary. Senna. &c. 226. Fibre trees. Andropogon spp. Sugar-cane. Almond. Artemisia Herbaalba. Strelitzia spp. Nicotiana Tabacum. Funtuma 227. West African mahogany. &e. 217. Rotaug palm Rotang. Sedge.226 tridentata. sugar Tree euphorbia. Tree Ravenala Retain a. Oryza sativa. RaveThevetia nereifolia. Sterculia spp. golden beard Ash. Alder. vinifera. 245. Acacia horrida. 204. &c. 235. tifolia. 213.. 241. Umbrella 223. Raphia 211. 289. 247. 206. Tamarix spp. 242. 231. 289. 201.. Vine. 226. 248. pine. Rice. Saharan broom. Aspen. Tamarindus 213. Penntsetotwspp... 248. Papyrus. Cassia spp. Oxalis spp.. tree. acacia. 250. see Siberian stone Arolla... 221. Screw pine. Raphia wine palm. 268. Pinus halepensis.Cola-nut tree. 231. Sanseviera spp. 220. Prun&s Armeniaca. 242. Syc&more.. EUROPE Alder. 248. Calamus Welwitschia.. 223. Yellow wood. Euphorbia spp. 226. 200. Spurge.. Senecio arborea.Acerpseudo~platanus. Apple. giant groundsel. Rubber. Pelargonium spp. Populus tremulosa. Pinus spp. 207. Strawberry 202. 242. &c. Tobacco. 230. 226 White Sage brush. 275. 287. Tea (iron wood). Cyperus papyrus. Pine. 280. 296.. &c. Ginseng. 219. Juniperus Phoenicea. Casuarina equise- Poa (jpratensis and grass.. 281. Salvadora.. 285. see Elder.. White (deciduous) oak. 219. 211. 201. bottle Wood sorrel. Quercus alba. 207. 241.. Rosmarinus 200. 292. Protea trivialis). Aralia spp. 246. 244. Yam. 247. 292. Artemisia 241. 207. Phoenician juniper. 202. Zollikoferia.. Stork's bill. Mlanje cedar. (rattan). tree. offidnalis. berry-bearing. Olea 219. Carexspp. Fraxtyus spp. 289. Thyme. Pyrus malus.. 244. bush.211. 248. 205. senecio.. 200. grass.. (traveller's tree). &c. Arbutus Uncdo. Erica arborea.

272. Linwn usitatissinwm. Pinus mughus. Beech. 271. Cochlearia spp. 298. 282. Stipa pennata. Stipa tenacissima. Laurus noUlis. Guelder rose. 277..284. laurel. 266. 271. Birch. Broom. Ilex Dogwood (cornel). 280. 270. Dwarf oak. Celtis australis. 298. 289. 272. Hornbeam. 274. 287. Fagus spp. Black (Corsican) pine. &c. Carpinus spp. Betula spp. Cerasus spp. Sambucus nigra. Delphinium Ajacis. Cotoneaster. Cotton grass.8 Carica.271. Eryvgium J Larkspur.. Spindle tree. Castanea sativa. 298 Hedge mustard. Fritillary (snake's head).. Hazel nut. Heather. 296. Bracken. 292. 289. 278. (sweet Spanish). 264. 258. 277.. 275. Ilex 289. 271. algaroba). Dwarf (common) Cornusspp. Avium. 258. 277. Cotton. Beet 274. Oxy coccus palustris. 272. Cedrus spp.. Cupressus spp. 296. dork oak. 274. tree. or Crataegus Oxyacantha. 280. Holm oak. Ptunus spinosa. aguifolium. Beta spp.Larix europaea 2Q7. Grape vine. Cranberry. 277. sea holly. 296. Hemp. 265. 293. Dwarf palm (Spanish palmetto). Sisymbrium officinale. Viburnum Opulus.. 292. Chamaerops humilis.. Fuchsia. Paris quadrifolia. 291. Blackthorn 274. Vitis vinifera. Aesculus Hippocastanum. Scurvy grass. Pinus Laricio. Ceratonia Siliqua. 271. 282. Corydalis spp. Crowberry. 298. 293. 271. Echinopsis. Elm. Abies spp 275. 280. Gean (wild cherry }.. 264. 280. evergreen oak). Cannabis sativa. 280. Juniperus communis. 293. 296. Cercia Siliquastrum. Garlic. 268. perus communis. Flax (blue). Pteris aquilina. Corylus spp. . Camellia. 280. Esparto. Yellow gage. Rubus fntticosus.Trifolium. Carob (locust bean. Cherry laurel. 271. Empetrum nigrum.. 282.. fumitory. juniper. t Barley. 272. Eriophorum spp. Prunus Laurocerasus. Iris spp.. 28. Laurel. European larch . 280. . Elder. 298. &c. 270. Chestnut Cistus. Golden beard Sorghum. Juniperus spp. 275. europaeus.293. Cytisus scovarius. Fir. Koeleria. Clover.PLANT INDEX Aucula japonica.. variegated golden leaf. 280. 271. 271. Centaurea. 280. 265. 289. 265. FritiUana Meleagris. 292. Feather (steppe) grass or thyra. Judas Juniper.. Quercus Ilex. 20. Hordeum spp. Cherry. 280. Bramble (blackberry). Knapweed. (sloe). 273. 277. spp. 273. 298. 280. 282. 291. 825 Eumymua 296. 299. 284. 277. nettle tree. Erica spp. 286.. 280.. Herb Paris.. Fig. 296.. grass. Hawthorn. Rock rose. Andropogon Cedar. 289. 282. 253. Common juniper. Juni- (holm oak. 277. Cypress. Quercus Suber. Horse chestnut. 274. Ficv. 289. Holly.. Quercushumilis.. 284. maritimum. 275. flags. 265. 280. see Ilex. 277.. 296. 277.. Allium sativum. 282. Ulmus Eryngo. 296. Cerasus. Qagea lutea. Medicago. 282. 277. Glossypium spp. root. Dwarf pine.

Myrtis communis. 289. Thistle. * esculentum.. Rice. Astragalus spp. 272. Carduus spp. Rhododendron. Pista- of thorns Terebinth (turpentine tree). THia spp. Maple. Orchids.) Oats. Rhus spp. Scots pine. 277. Lcntiscus.. 299. 277. see Blackthorn. Pinus Nonsuch. 275. 272. 293. 267. Picea excelsa. Plum. Quercus Robur. 277. Polygonatum multi- florum. Pinus spp. Peat moss. Solanum tuberosum. 284. Tree 284. Absinthium. 274. water. Oak. Sphagnum. Tulipa spp. Tulip. 280. Stone pine. Privet. 283. 289. 271.. 282. Lycopersicum 275. 265. Orchis. 296. (alfalfa). 299. 282. cia Terebinthus.. Hippophae rhamnoides. 270. Crown tree. 286. Sedge. Nardostachys Jataman&i. Myrtle. 282. 280. 298. peat moss. Convallaria majalis.. Strawberry tree. Sloe.. 282. officinatis. 293. Mountain pine. Malva spp. Melon. Pinus Pumilio. Solomon's Seal. 292. 272. 293.. Festuca ovina. Sea buckthorn. 277. 280. Magnolia. 284. 275. 284. ash). 289. Cembra. sugar. Sorbus Rye. Abies pectinata. Tobacco.. 298. 271.. Primula vulgaris. Locust-bean. Pheasant's eye. Picea spp. Larix sibirica. Ligustrum vulgare. Oleander. 275. Prunus 296. Rosemary (old man).326 PLANT INDEX Citrus Lauristinus. Acer spp. Platanus spp. common. Spanish broom. 271.. 282. Maize. Mil]k vetch. Prunus spp. Poplar. 258. 289. Vermuth (vformwood). Silver fir. 253. Norway spruce. Rosmarinus Lucerne 282. see Red poppy. 278. Lily of the Valley. 267.. Plane. 298. 2$0. 275. 267. Lemon. 284. Arbutus Unedo. Oryza sativa. Genista 284. 277. 280. Carob. 286. heath. Lime. 289.. Zea Mais. Manna ash. 286. see Siberian stone pine. Pistacia Lentiscus. (Oak.. Siberian lir. 275. 289. Pinus silvestris.. 296. lusitanica. 280. Avena spp. Peach. Adonis autumnalis. Mulberry. Olive. Orange.. Secale cereale. 284. Melon. Sumac. Potato. Medicago cupulina. Pinus pinea. Morus spp. 267. 289.. 267. Tomato. 284. 280. 271. Sheep's grass. 284. 275. Populus spp. &e. 291. Primrose. Fraxinus ornus. 280. 282. 275. 277. Citrullu? vulgaris. 291. Rowan (Mountain Aucuparia. 275. hispanica. &c. Siberian larch. Papaver Ehoeas. 282. Citrus Aurantium. Olea spp. Sphagnum. 296. 270. 284. 289.. 277. Spikenard. Pine. 299. Paliurus spp. 277. Mallow. Picea ajanensis. Prunus Persica. 272. Spruce. Viburnum Tinus. 271. Nicoliana Tabacum. Quercus spp. Carex spp. 292. Siberian stone pine (arolla). Siberian spruce. 275.. Limonum. Cucumis Melo. Artemisia . Medicago sativa. Portugal laurel.. 296.. Erica arborea. 280. 280. 282. 289. 275. 272. 270. Nerium Oleander.

271.. Wood sorrel. Yew. 289. baccata. regia. Vitis mnifera. Luzula spp. Salix 292. 289. . 272. Yarrow.289. Tritwum sativum. 296.. 258. Woodruff. 272. 282. 273. &c. Oxalis acetosella. 268. 274. 289. 299. . Willow. 277. 275. spp. Artemisia spp. Scilla nonscripta. 289. 327 (southern wood. 275.). Wild hyacinth.PLANT INDEX Vine. Wood-rush. Taxus Achittea Millefolium.. 275. Juglans 282. Wheat. Wormwood Walnut. Asperula spp.