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VIRONMENT

URAL GEOGRAPHY
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G.R. SWA IN E

HERBERT RUSSELL

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ENVIRONMENT.
A
Natural Geography.

BY

G. R.

SWAINE,

F.R.MET.S.,

Associate of the College of Preceptors.
Victorian Lecturer of the Manchester Geographical Society.

Geography Master

at the

Manchester Warehousemen and Clerks' Schooli

ttoiiu-cn:

HERBERT RUSSELL,
TEMPLE CHAMBERS,
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PREFACE.
been a revolution in the methods of teaching Geography. The antiquated memorising of names of Capes, Bays, Rivers and Towns lias given place to a more rational and scientific
recent

Within

years there

has

Geography

;

for

questions of
political or

it has come to be recognised that Geography have strongly influenced and

are interwoven with almost every matter of historical,

economic importance. With this fact in view, I have taken as the theme of the present work, " The Influence ot Environment on Man " and this in my opinion, is the fundamental principle in the teaching of Geography. I must acknowlelge, witii gratitude, the profound impression made upon me by the lectures of Processor Herbortson an Miss Semple, at Oxford Their teaching ed the train of thought of which the present volume is the outcome. The sketches have been pre: I
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by

my
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B.

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Fitchew, for whose

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Finally, I

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my

tnend,

Mr.

B.

Parley,

B.A.,

F.R.G.S

of

Manon
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ner, for consi lerable assistance in the section-

Animal Geography.

G. R.

PUBLISHERS'
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Publishers beg to tt-inler their grateful acknowledges
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aa under, for permission to use various photographs
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Bernaoohi (Physicist to the Scott Antarctic Expedition) for " Antarol ic Ec< TiiHigh Commissioner, Union of South Africa, fur
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. Low Rainfall . Chap.. . The Elevated Lands of the Temperate Zone 57-65 66-78 79-80 — Section III. II...— The South Polar Region 11-20 12-19 .. Chap.. .. III...— Extreme Interior Lowlands IV.— The Extreme Lands I. Introduction Section I.Tropical Bighlanda 211-213 The [glands of the Pacific Chap. ... . — — Ocean Appendix. and . Chap. . 20 21-80 22-56 Section II.— Equable Hot Lowlands Chap. II.. Chap. III.— The Extreme Lowlands .— The North Polar Region II. Chap.. ment Globsabi Indi \ Towns 216-219 220-221 ... —The Equable Lands .... 164-215 — Rainless Deserts — The Tropical Monsoon 161-173 Lands of Asia 17! . Chap.... I.CONTENTS. .. The Warm Temperate Regions 81-163 82 127-154 155-158 Chap. -C »f 2] 1-216 : the of ( I .. Section IV. p... The Polar Regions .. Chap. 202-210 Chap. i ....... IV. Chap. . The Hot Regions I. .. —The Equable Lands — Lands with Cold Winters . 9-10 . The Cool Temperate Regions I. Tropical and Semi . V. IV.— Extreme Tablelands r L59-163 . Cnap.. Chap.. Chap. I II.. I. PAGES.

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OF ILLUSTRATIONS.. A Mountain Scene 34 43 A Red 6. The Steppe Region 14. 3. South African 1 ( >x- Waggon ( erossinj Spruit 1-7 20 [oub< New tainea . L6. Eskimo Winter Hut Norwegian Fiord and Seater or Mountain Hut 15 28 31 A Sussex Village Street in Scotland 4.)cr Japanese Lady. 139 of T. 3. L68 17. Indian Chief of An Indian Encampment A Maori Village Wigwams 44 50 A Clearing in the Canadian Forest Belt o the North 71 A Canadian Wheat Field 76 . •:• 1. L5. 12. Bay 11. 7. The Desert 165 the Nile in the I A Scene on L66 A Pastoral Scene li Holy I. of Naples and Vesuvius Japanese House and Garden ..LIST KIG.. African N tutl L69 L81 A Siamese River Scene 19. 2. showing Shane Style of Hair nnd 140 166 13..

. New Zealand ... .. To face 40 128 160 184 192 Natural Eegions of Europe Natural Regions of ... * PAGE.. placed there . 136 149 Bio de Janeiro and the Harbour 199 LIST The The The The The The The The British Isles OF MAPS.. i Natural Regions of North America Natural Regions of Africa ... .. ... Natural Regions of South America .. Natural Regions of Asia • • 200 i) 208 N.. Natural Regions of Australia. Nagasaki Sugar-cane in Natal... . — Scott Expedition To face 20 49 79 Mustering Sheep —New Zealand Corral of Horses near Calgary Japanese Temple..B. . — The Maps in the latter part of the book are to facilitate reference.LIST Antarctic Iceberg OF PLATES..

are not always true geographical boundaries. where the climatic conditions. as regards bears more iblanoe to il raphical conditions. The boundaries however.S. that is to they do not always separate lands differing to any considerable extent in such outstanding features as Clin: Natural Productions or Formation of the Surface. I it tuntries than it d to the south-eastern portion oi Germany itself. is not a natural or true geographical boundary of these countries. For example. Natural Regions. Western Germany almost exactly the same Belgium or Holland. or The inhabitants of each of these countries are looked upon as united peoples. Within of these natural regions afl ' we find life.. Thus. As you know. because the Wheatlands of Manitoba in Canada stretch across the political border into Minnesota and at all.A. such as number of England. or. <>!' t ti conditions be land. for geographical purposes.S. B . and the general Level of the BUI So too. is divided into a divisions called countries. the world France. is not naturally divided from Dakota in the U. we find that the boundary between Canada and •die U. for they usually speak a common tongue and are governed by the same laws. man's and daily nat ure Buch he as din Boil. men have recently i m i to divide tiie earth into truer | i plural regions. the Mature of the soil. Germany. the other hand.A. as we will now rail them.INTRODUCTION.

Later. usually attract population. from those Now to climate and the surface of the earth affect man an enormous extent. man have been largely determined by . and the purpose of this book to show how. All those powerful agents that called his is man's life are Environment. in the main. in the different Natural Eegions of the world. recreations his thoughts are affected and even greatly by these and kindred affect causes. whilst they are different. we shall see that his industries. clothing man himself — in and daily labours. therefore. customs. being easy of access and favourable of to means land of transport.10 Environment : similar. of all other natural regions. there are parts of the earth so cold or so arid that human habitation is almost impossible. whilst other parts produce with little labour materials for food and clothing in abundance. obviously cause great differences in his foods. Again. Varieties climate and surface. For instance. mountains have ever been such barriers to human intercourse as to hinder trade. whereas plains. the chief interests of it.

these conditions m -1 al the time of the northern winter. as for example. The time of the northern Bummer however. each season is well marked both by its particular type of weather and by the character of the vegetation which In other parts of the world. in our islands. there are tracts of earth and sea which experience long and severe winters and little or no summer. earth which are situated at the furthest distance from the Equatorial belt either do not receive the sun's rays at all. In <u)ite of the long period of sunshine however. the boo never sets in the Arctic Region daring the part of May. such as clothes the soil. coincides with the time of the southern wi obliquely. the >un's heat is too weak to impression on th< p which ha in make much the the win! ' r the land. Lands It is of this latter type are called of the Polar Regions. the varying seasons come and go. June and July. the hot months of summer and the cold months winter are separated by only a tew short days. and in ice becomes thicker ami thousand parts is actually uio . while of In. sia. In parts of the world. Ob viously. or receive them Northern Hen.SECTION # I. while the Arctic Region is enjoying its long Iod of eontinuous daylight the Antarctic is wrapped the darkness of winter. of the In the summer and thus. well-known that our earth is nearly spherical in shape and that owing to its annual journey round the sun through space. aim at the actual :h Pole there is no darkness tor the six months from March to September. THE POLAR REGIONS.

The North The lie Polar Region. only nine hundred miles are water. greater part of this region lies within the Arctic but portions of land which show similar features and are over fifteen hundred The Arctic Circle itself miles from the North Pole. This current bears great icebergs. and its northern edge is still unexplored. selves. traces have been found of visits of first the Norsemen as early as the thirteenth century. western coast flows an ice-cold current from the north through Davis Strait between Labrador and Greenland. Greenland has the sea Along the on both its western and eastern shores. Greenland is perhaps. As may be seen from the map. Greenland of to the temperate regions inhabited became known because it lay nearest by the exploring races Europe. indeed. The remaining land influences very greatly the movements of Circle. The eastern coast is constantly . Greenland. It is only within very recent times that Greenland was shown an island. and consequently the western coast has a to be very severe climate. the most typical of the lands within this region. has a circumference of over eight thousand miles and of this.CHAPTEK I. outside this latitude the ocean currents and of ice-masses these in their turn have much effect on the climate of the land areas them. broken from the ends of the glaciers which reach the sea from the high interior of Greenland.

Tho cold r the Labrador Current. 13 fringed with pack-ice brought by an arctic drift of water from the open sea on the north. If winds blow from any direction between south and north-west they will pass over a wide stretch of cold water and will therefore bring very cold weather. It will be seen then. there is a widespread. accumulating faster in the intense cold of winter than it can disappear in the short Bummer. buried under a great depth of ice. where it is known as the Fohn Wind. 1 is interesting to note that in south Greenland. and is the result of a heavy and abundant snowfall. blowing down the lee slope of a ridge and thus heating itself by compression at the rate of 06° F. This ice-cap is some thou. or are broken into great 1" tried southward by the current. which have lost mucli of their heat in their journey across the North Atlantic. even depth of snow. that the weather on the coasts of Greenland is almost entirely dependent on the direction of the wind. The interior of Greenland is a lofty plateau.i on the mainland of Ameri Id in character an colder . and are either extended under water for some distance before they melt. 1 i : 1 .A Natural Geogravhy. thus » make the climate of southern Greenland and of Lahr. forming great glaciers. but are still considerably warmer than the Arctic currents. continual causes a movement seaward of the interior under layers of ice. Winds blowing from the east and southeast will bring warmer weather since they cross a warmer Occasionally the valleys between the ridges receive sea. ds of feet thick. this wind is also found in for every 100 feet of descent tzerland. while in the drier north there The pressure of the ice in is no widespread layer of ice. or Cold \\'<dl. where the oceanic winds meet the high lands. a warm wind. These flow from a height of over six thousand feet to the Labrador rent. To the south and south-east of Greenland pass the diffused waters of the Gulf Drift.

All Arctic seas teem with the lower forms of animal life. Eskimo dog and white and blue live in the foxes. Northern Lights or Aurora Borealis. they may either escape detection by their enemies or creep near to their prey unobserved. red. . fringe of the Arctic Circle. whilst the following larger animals are to be found in Greenland — 'the white bear. walrus. the difficulty of distinguishing it from a heap of snow still is truly remarkable. the polar bear affords the most familiar example. from a golden band of light on the northern horizon. low birches* tation is of a very poor type. A * magnificent and beautiful sight . sufficient to the fact that on the southern where the summer's heat is produce a scanty vegetation. whilst — Of this Protective Coloration as it is called. to be witnessed within these Polar regions at times. until they are lost in the darkness. It is interesting to observe how their environment has affected the coloration of many of the animals of this Their thick fur is often white in colour. raven. Mosses and lichen grow where other vegeta- snow and — tion fails. off seal. willows and shrubs bearing berries may be found. the animals. Vegetation and Animal Life. whilst the These are the sea assume a glow and sparkle. ermine. but further north the only woody plant found is the creeping willow. hawk-owl and ptarmigan. Naturally the vegeIn the south. and when this animal is at rest. that by region. green and gold coloured rays shoot outwards along the sky in a fan-shape. even is when quite near- Stranger however. south such as the eider duck. resembling the snow. The whale is found a few birds are able to the western shores. arctic hare. than that which is lie nearer to the North Pole. and in the imposing silence of the night their effect is most mysterious and charming.14 Environment of Iceland or Spitzbergen.

The I striking resemblai hat of the Japan* i The habits and general show very clearly th< the I i >f life of the Eskimos of environment.. low forehead. ire-blooded Eskimos. 10 The Inhabitants. 15 in order harmonise with their surroundi onetimes change their colours with the seasons.>: - some centuries ago. and coarse black fe small. about hi akin boats and when on land. when . Eskimo WlMTBB Ell i. plank . for inter-marriage with tiers Greenland now contains few Danish . they live in ii houses buill of turf. becomes in winter almost as white as snow.I Natural Geography. to Owing i in the interior and the the only settlements u on >und In summer the Eskimos on the western Bhorelands.'t The Eskimo is has taken place freely. —The native inhabitants it of land are the Eskimos and is fairly certain that Greenthey crossed over from the American mainland on the icetioes . with high check bones. the face broad and flat. shor: hair. 1. Tims the plumage of the ptarmigan. narrow slan whilst the hands and flat nose. which in summer is black and grey. i-'it. is rarely under five feet in height..

Since the land produces almost nothing. as they are called. the bladder also impedes a wounded animal in its efforts to escape. Blubber is got from the is whale and both eaten and rubbed on the body. This passage serves the double purpose of keeping out the biting winds and the hungry Polar bears. wear birdskin garments with the plumage outwards.16 Environment: these materials are not so easily obtained. whilst oil and seal blood are drunk. The harpoon and bladder. they erect snow houses shaped with a funnel-shaped. oil and dried moss are used in bone vessels. half underground passage as the entrance. with a hood to cover the head and it is practically alike for men and women. All the household implements are made of bone. most of the food is obtained from the sea and it is chiefly of a fatty nature to produce warmth. All the weapons of the Eskimos are simple but very artistic and clever. such as bone-tipped arrows and javelins and the famous harpoon with its bladder. like bee-hives. As is the custom amongst many half civilised peoples. and for lamps. This garment is also worn on the coast of Siberia in Asia. In the summer time these huskies. like the renowned Australian boomerang. the women carry children on their backs in large hoods of fur attached to the clothes thus the children are kept warm and do not interfere with the use of the mother's arms. are rarely fed and so their faculties They are trained to obey the voice and are sharpened. Their clothes are made of skins and furs of animals. The dress is formed of trousers and a close fitting coat. is a device to guard against the possible loss often of the whilst the women weapon if it should fail to strike. Travelling is done by means of sledges drawn by Eskimo dogs. nor are so useful for protection. and the men are very skilful in using them. A team of dogs consists of from eight . no reins are used.

the lips thick. but small numbers are found in Asia Dear Behring Strait Eskimo is . with dark. bristly hair and little heard. arc quite different irom the Bskimt Lappland. Obviously they are an entirely of from the Eskimos in origin. hut the air is DO -'in in winter and the cold IS the unpleasantness of the still. The mouth is large. in fringe of the northern fringe of Europe and the Asia are peopled by g part of tribes of An appearance. They never go far from the c<' probably on account of their need of seal-hunting and also of their fear of the warlike Indians. They are not so useful as the reindeer which the Lapps use. because they are fretful often suffer from disease. to some similar in I I to that of the Eskimos.A Xatural Geography. and the eyes small an ring but not oblique. The northern people who. and this I tempera! ure a little The Bumc i . For seven or eighl *«'. They are entirely unknown in Europe. however. fastened by one leading rope of hide and they can travel forty miles a day at seven miles an hour. A striking proof of the influence of their environment is found in their belief that the place of punishment in after-life is a region of bitter cold and hunger. and quarrelsome and they The position and rank of an reckoned by the number of dogs that lie possesses and not by money. the Lapp is usually from four to live feet in height. whilst their idea of heaven is a place of warmth and abundance. The Eskimo tribes are the most widely spread of all primitive peoples. 17 to thirteen. The Northern Fringe of Eurasia. for money is of little or no value in that ice-bound desert land. race people different Their environment is.m<l along all the arctic shores of America from Green- Land to Alaska. although the climate is - qoI there continuously severe.

their wholesome fare and cheerful cups. milk. warmer than the Greenland summer. The reindeer supplies nearly all their wants meat. This tundra region is a dreary swamp in summer and a frozen waste in winter. The Samoyeddes live chiefly near the Kara Sea and in the Yalmal Peninsula. selfish and nob very trustworthy. The poet Thompson describes their simple life as "The reindeer form their riches: these their tents. Like the Eskimos.18 Environment '. (The Eskimo also very ready to cheat strangers. but within his — is own community he is very honest." Unlike the Eskimos. having been driven there from the Altai Mountains by the more powerful Tartar races. The Lapp is unclean in habits. . Their legs are short and bandy. for example.partly due to their overusing them in early childhood on the barren uplands and waste plains. and the hardness of their lives makes them very wiry. and this is. follows Sweden and Eussia. the Lapps are capable of great exertion. whilst the words of the language contain many elements introduced through his connection with the peoples of Norway. because of its close connection with the great land mass of Eurasia. Their robes. but he is very good-natured. their beds and all their homely wealth Supply. the Lapps are able to retire inland when the winter season comes on. and clothing and it is their chief means of transport. Many tribes of Lapps are spread over the tundra region of Russia and here also are tribes of Samoyeddes. because their retreat is southward to a warmer district. there are different is shown no less than eleven foreign words to describe the colour of the reindeer. as are those of the Eskimo.) The influence of the Lapp's environment in his language. whilst the Eskimo is bounded on the south by frozen seas.

in spite of their intercourse with Russians. the names of Hudson. Amund Baffin. Not only are they rapidly diminishing in numbers largely owing to the use of spirits and to the swarms of mosquitos which bring small-pox. Davis. whilst the is summers fit are short. greal order to attain Much but the Buffering zest for and even adventure loss lite bave resulted. Peary.. of daring adventurers for many centuries. and 1'known. whilst insular districts like Iceland do not exhibit such Arctic characteristics in spite of their high latitude. we may note the following: 1. 19 by bunting. still draws many to further attempt s. barely for human life habitation and the 'ion and animal show very si^ns of the influence of the frigid and desolate nature of the environment. an American. where marine influence lacking. Throughout the region the winters are long and •re. Ann « famous Arctic explorers. Franklin. but they have lost much of their earlier live chiefly They civilisation. The land people. Hansen. They show very strong or traits of never marauding thieving from either hones neighbours or strangers.4 Natural Geography.). and Ashing in the rivi their implements are made of bone and their huts resemble the stone huts of the Eskimos. In summarising the chief characteristics of this Northern Polar Region then. The North Pole has been the Arctic Exploration. The Arctic region extends further to the south ov is r the great land masses. and men 1 — of many in nationalities in risks of in Europe and America bave underit. 2. ('apt. but bis success was very largely due L9 )'. who do not scruple to do these things. nt from the pioneers of An t ploration rang through tli his in . EProbisher. led in reaching the North Pole on April 6th.

no matter how hardy. South Africa and South America by a vast ocean this in itself being sufficient to prevent the advent. a Norwegian. is very unlikely that this store of mineral wealth will ever prove of advantage to the human race. followed a month later by Captain Scott of the British Royal Navy. of any settlers. the South Pole is very elevated. Amongst the most noted explorers of the Antarctic are Ross. this was verified by Captain Owing to the rigours of the climate. 1911. with mosses and lichen growing in scattered patches. some whales and penguins. this great region of ice and snow is entirely uninhabited. The productions are very meagre. 1912. who found that in 85 degrees south. and is separated from Australasia. was the first party.CHAPTER II. S: Unlike the North Polar Region. — . The South Polar Region. to reach the South Pole on December 14th. Very little else is known of the whole region. Recent exploration has shown that whereas the North Pole is in a depression or basin which is an unfathomed sea. however. up to the present. for it is only within recent years that exploration has taken place. It lies within the Antarctic Circle. and the sad disaster which overtook Captain Scott and four comrades on their return journey from the Pole in January. including a few varieties of seal. coal measures at least fifteen hundred feet thick existed. caused widespread sorrow and a universal outburst of admiration for the courage and endurance of the whole Captain Amundsen. with several seams outcropping from the cliff face. An interesting discovery was made by Shackleton. Scott and Amundsen. the land near it being in parts over ten thousand feet high. it Scott. Shackleton.

c - W H H O 'J GO H a: < H 55 .a .

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SECTION II. Many parts of these regions have cool and equable climates. but in many districts far removed from oceanic are the influence. or at a high altitude. . greater extremes . and Tasmania and part of New Zealand in Australasia. as will be seen from this chief factors of climate have all some influence in modih the climate of the different parts ut these regions. The cool temperate regions lie immediately to the south in of the Arctic Region in the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere they include the southern end of Argentina and Chili in America. •rienced and. THE COOL TEMPERATE REGIONS.

The Equable The Lands. another new country. hinder ac:ivity. British Columbia. These are well supplied with rain by the south-westerly or westerly anti-trade winds. t Chili.CHAPTER I. It is interesting to note that almost all these lands are amongst the most powerful and important trading nations of the world. for neither Arctic cold nor tropical heat are suitable for work of the best kind.We-. Tasmania and Xew Zealand. South. the Low Countries. which is practically a -new country to civilised people is rapidly becoming Chili is undeveloped so far commercially important. Consequently. because of its dense forests and high mountains which. the most industrious races of the world are to be found here and perhaps also in the equable portion he warm temperate region. the Western half rermany and Western Scandinavia). . and it is largely owing to the abundant rainfall that the climates are so equable. best examples of lands with equable climates within North-West Europe (including the British Xorth France. this region are Isles. is gradually developing its mineral resources are being opened up and the difficulties of access and egress are being overcome. impeding communication. The absence of extremes in temperature is a very important factor in the life of the peoples occupying tl parts of the world. while Xew Zealand. the Pacific border of Canada.

beech and ash on the lower hills and further to the south. s. clover and turnips flourish in the originally forest land — equable. potatoes. brought about by the various conquests of the British Islands.Western Europe belong to various once entirely distinctive. — Much of the north-west of Europe * and this may still be found on the In the north 9 . of North. with the oak. in another a different strain is uppermost. North-Western Europe. plums and pears are grown extensively in many places. flax. but cast their leaves in winter. the present British : product of the union of early Teutonic tribes of the North Sea coast. . while in the middle and Biscay border of France the vine is considerably vated. :ees of this region are markedly different from those Mediterranean region: very many deciduous. they are clothed with rich foliage in summer. Mediterranean races and Keltic races of alpine Em-ope. 23. other parts of North-West Europe are peopled by what we may call mixed European peoples. damp climate. we find pines.andinavia and other high lands. while very large stretches of moor and poor grass land are to be found at the foot of the hills and in the chalk and limestone districts where the moisture is quickly absorbed. thai is to say. and while in one part one race strain appeal's to be dominant. Certain fruits such as apples. but by inter-conquest and -equent mingling of races. many oi the original race features have become merged in each other for example.A Natural Geography. on of the . In like manner. firs and silver birches. The people - Vegetation. barley for the more valuable cereal and root crops and rye. and yet throughout the whole region many common characteristics may be noted. The plain lands have been largely cleared of trees to make way oats.

agriculture was the chief occupation of the inhabitants. of the vegetation. — where the Dogger Bank breeds enormous quantities of The rivers of Scotland and Scandinavia breed very valuable supplies of salmon. such as the Yorkshire The wild flesh-eating moors.24 Environment the other hand. wild supply. because there are few impassable barriers separating the regions and animal lfe is less directly dependent than plant life on Climate certainly influences the character climate. The chief animals animal of this region are the domesticated animals. those of southern Europe are evergreen in type. Thus. The land animals of this region are very similar to those of the whole land mass of Eurasia. because of the mildness of the climate. many of the birds are songsters and their plumage is not generally so brilliant as those of sunnier regions. rabbits in great numbers. animals. like the fox. is The region Until within the last hundred and fifty years. large numbers of rodents and in the less populated districts. appeared. Columbia. life Where human population is becomes less. polecat. but the . This is particularly the case in the shallow North Sea. and the wolf has completely disvery rich in bird life at all seasons. and this is largely the animals' food great. Animal Life. stoat and weasel are rapidly diminishing. etc. but these cannot compare with the enormous quantities in the rivers of British fish. but that the waters surrounding coasts are more abundant in their supply than deeper waters — — this being rivers bring food supply due to the fact that from the land to the sea. the sea areas close to the coasts of North-West Europe the Continental Shelf as it called are very rich in fish. Eecent observations have shown that not only are there larger quantities of fish and marine animals in the colder waters.

which lies This district. the British Isles. windward side of the hills. these is rivers — the M—\ Qpon one south. was followed by a corresponding development of manufactures and commerce. This caused the growth of huge centres of population such as Manchester. From a careful examination of the map. the great banking centre the caused also the rise of new and greater ports to cope with increased shipping traffic. and Lancashire was an ill-drained. These facts will l show how admirably in suited the dis- the manufacture of COttOD goods and to the -. Liverpool Btands. and Germany. and the decline of others that were at one time p of some importance. . o . the Liverpool authorities For this deepened the channel . the heart of the iron industry of : Frankfort-on-Main. hence its climate by the southrace for supremacy. at one time the equal of any port in . may be wise to study such instai Liverpool before the eighteenth century was a small village. and at this point. however. peaty marsh but the latter is now one of the most important cen of trade in the world and Liverpool is its great port. I -'> development of the mineral resources of Britain. and how preparation of el thickly-populated region Bprang up. I county ringed with < coalfields. it is often it German Rhineland clear why these great it centres of population have so developed. while in Che-hire. gium. together with the invention of new machinery and more rapid means of transport. the hub of the cotton trade .. Liverpool • is h humid and of it is well supplied with rivers. has been easily outdistanced in the t \ From the map it will be seen on the sea coast of Lancashire. being on the of the Pennine Range. receives the rains brought Mti-trade winds. Birmingham. 1 of salt. Bristol.1 Natural Geography.

that ths On the north-west coast of Barrow-in-Furness. iron and limestone. It will be seen therefore. . chemicals and the numberless products of other industries which also sprang up in the Lancashire-Cheshire area. . however. Birmingham. — Owes its importance as the iron metro- polis to its situation near coal. . and her river estuary is only suitable for admitting vessels of small draught. Take a map and study the position of the following towns and the reason for their importance will be clear. and so it is with all our great centres of population. to Southampton as an ocean liner port owing to its unsuitable situation. Hence it became surrounded by woollen manufactories and varied industries and developed as an important railway centre. and has become a naval centre and dockyard. Plymouth. is fairly importance of Liverpool is due to her geographic environment. near one coalfield only. — . some distance from London and the It has therefore had to give place centre of England. Bristol. Leeds. — . but once useful as Sea North the a power to work mills) at the foot of a valley leading to the Aire Gap one of the only two good routes across the Pennine Range on a large coal and iron field near to the sheep-rearing moors of Yorkshire.26 of Environment the Mersey estuary in order to admit the ever- increasing supplies of to raw cotton and of food-stuffs. hence the town has failed to compete with Liverpool as a port and as a centre of population. Is situated on the River Aire (navigable from by small boats only. trict. on a good natural harbour not near any large manufacturing area. to its . —In the south-west corner of England . and make provision for exporting cotton goods. England sheltered by Walney Island near the Lancashire and Cumberland coalfields near an iron-ore disHence it became a shipbuilding port. — .

is — Is at the mouth of the River Elbe. Its constant freedom from ice makes it the outlet for the produce of the rich and fertile northern plain of Germany. it is at the head of navigation for oceanto going steamers. show many si^ns of is —The inhabitants of this re^ r i m The clim healthy and temperate. Although the lack of coal has i. opp. Hamburg. — Is on the River Seine and at the head of navigation for small vessels. though not of a very sunny nature. 1 inThese things do not tend to make people lazy an hot la.. Paris. and and football in producing such qualities as patiei Bnglishm lurance is -mown by lb kl . which is ice-free ail the year round. is in general. it became the i France and the largest town on the mainlan It is situated in the heart of industrial of Europe. • hindered capital of the rise of great industries.> burden . but only by hard work. their bread -it is there to be that obtained. and it is subject to many and frequent chan. 27 central position and the ease with which railways and other means of transport could be designed on the surrounding plain.i<ls. tic and hardworking.is m the \ childhood upwards are. stunt the growth aid nor do they ks in make the preservation of :i life . many tributaries convi on the Paris area. tennis m this part their influence times. Hull and is therefore open to English coal supplies. rheir environment. stands which on the North Sea. and it was originally situated on a small islau very easy of defence. It navigable throughout Germany. it is surrounded by a very fertile across which pass all the great trade routes France.1 Natural Geography. 1'ra The Inhabitants. Even the games show evidence of climatic influence cricket.

2. in manufacture. There is a great common bond between the various Since nations of this region in their trading relations. the people of Norway have led and are still following a sea-faring or pastoral life owing to the mountainous character of the France. as well as numberless trading. almost the whole of the north and the middle of England. is still land surface. being short of minerals. their ships are constantly exchanging goods and passengers also keen competition between ports and business. Dutch and Norwegians are and have been the leaders of enterprise and adventure all over the world. the lower Ehine basin. and the country of Belgium are employed The special character of the other hand.28 Environment Frenchmen. the work engaged upon in any part. there firms is of and these things have social connections. between the created different parts of the region. For instance. On . each borders the North Atlantic ocean. Fig. Norwegian Fiord and S^eter or Mountain Hut. Germans. naturally depends largely upon the mineral productions or on the structure of the surface. Saxony and Silesia in Germany. .

Schleswigof little Ifolstein the foot of the Jutland Peninsula w. BX Auvergne IS largely leri lie and well v violent < Idle . at it may frequently he found as underlying The province land. all It is quite certain that very to n- attempts at colonisation have been due . ipulated unce. 29 mainly agricultural. the great German military it. This led to the historic raids of the Vikings of Norway. and thus. of Norway is agricultural land. the Lower and the Dpper. The Auvergne is divided into two portions. that water-power the WJiite Coal of is used to generate electricity and thus to France Only remedy the deficiency in the supply of coal. worthy fact is. wanted Bismarck. the distinction between the two being well marked b\ their physical features. although the part within this region. so as to obtain the mouth of the Elbe River. Hamburg and to construct to Germau prosperity importance to Hamburg and by from the Baltic across German to A striking instance of the power of environment affect the movements and the lives of people is to be found in the Auvergne Province of France. in very early times the people rapidly began to outgrow their food supply. to safeguard the Kiel Canal. a similar tlie cause that is. which lies on the south-east border of this natural region.A Natural Geography. mountainous and covered with extinct volcan wh. swampy which seemed but besman. having the best access to mineral supplies. motive. is more indusAnother n trial than the Mediterranean coastal belt. Upper Auvergm rugged. and is the cause of the present constant stream of emigrants from the — — Norwegian shores. Even cases where this of cause the -pai is not so evident. the increasing of population and in insufficiency of food supply. Thus he added by giving additional providing a sa: territory. three per cent.

30 that of the second is Environment mild and equable. . when warmer temperatures began stretches of plain-lands are covered with glacial deposits in the shape of clays rich pastures for districts. and marls. the men averaging one inch and the is about five feet women about four feet ten inches. Thus. and these provide very cattle and are therefore dairy-farming such districts are the Cheshire plain and the North German plain. first. and in conse- quence the strongest and best of the inhabitants migrate down the Loire. and with the map before us. while large moraines presents are to be found where the glacier has halted for a space in its gradual retreat to prevail. These divisions. and the race gradually becoming weaker. its physical structure and afterwards the effect of this upon the inhabitants and their lives. Scotland and Ireland. . There is no better illustration of the influence of environment than that of our own islands.- — A very large part of very clearly the results of previous An examination of the rocks will show glacial action. (Some of these in outside this region Finland — which however. the food supply is naturally inadequate. the remaining inhabitants are somewhat undersized. Wales. let us consider. the peculiar scratchings due to this. the north of this The region Ice Age. the Seine and other river valleys. —are a hundred miles in length. have remained this practically unaltered for some hundreds of years is because the boundaries are natural or geographic and The boundary between England not merely political. On the plateau. as they are marked to-day.) Large is. and a very evident sign of the nature of the soil is to be seen in the large Among number of buildings made of brick. Influences of Environment within the British Isles. settling in Paris and other French towns. Some — The British Islands are divided into four chief political sections— England.

England.. the separates the ancient mountainous mass of Wales from the lower glacial plains of Cheshire. onfall and isure . country. England may be divided into two great sections by a line drawn from Flaiuborough J lead to North-west of this line lie all the great Portland Bill. uplands and Lowlands. eta. hut it separates the manufacturing from the agricultural districts. ::. -A Sussei Village Street. and Scotland .A Natural Geography. while Ireland is entirely cut off from Great Britain by its the Irish Sea and narrow channels.rate 31 is the Cheviot Hills. Hence find the cultivation of wheat in Lincolnshire and Norfolk is more important than in other parts oi the country. Shropshire. and this southern uplands of Scotland from the The Welsh boundary northern counties of England. On the plains and lowlands agriculture is naturally more easily followed than the more barren and rugged uplands.. while to the south-east arc plains and undulating This division not only divides the country downs. uplands of this Fi.

and the town of Norwich was flooded so that much property was damaged or destroyed. both being frequently situated near to waterways of some usefulness Thus we have the great cotton for navigation purposes. suffered considerably. the salt mining of Cheshire. the steel trade of Sheffield and the pottery trade of North Staffordshire. while the land is covered deposited by the overflowing of the rivers. we find hops growing on the sunny slopes. Occasionally the floods are more extensive than usual. and considerable damage to crops is done. the coal trade of Newcastle.32 Environment with alluvial soil of sunshine. manufactures has congregation of people into towns. caused an enormous and some of these have become so large that many have effect The of this distribution of . The rivers overflowed their banks far beyond their usual limits. and thus sheep are reared in large flocks here. too. the grass is plentiful but of a somewhat poor quality. In 1912. In Kent. and is thus very fertile. and in the winter season the rivers frequently flood the low-lying fields. industry of Lancashire. on the chalk downs. the iron industries of Cleveland and the Black Country. the east of England was visited in the summer by a most unusual sequence of heavy rains. too. the woollen industry of the West Hiding of Yorkshire. and scores of acres in Huntingdonshire and Lincolnshire were inundated. Another factor of great importance to our manufactures is the presence of iron in close proximity to the coal. The Fens produce potatoes and strawberries abundantly in the rich soil. while vegetables of every kind flourish and give heavy crops. the land to the north-west of the line to be chiefly devoted to manufacturing purposes. The mineral wealth of England is almost entirely in the upland portion of the country. swampy marsh. Norfolk. and it is this fact which has caused . Much of this district has been reclaimed from the sea or was once a dreary.

. and thus the traffic from the heart of Europe converges upon The surrounding country was Thames mouth. peopled. and it was paratively easy to construct inland lines of communication. the largest being: to The Ports. which ewe much of their importance eithei (1) religious li iations. Norwich and Lincoln. such as Hull. the Metropolis the world. the Rhine. merged into each other. for cially suitable building purposes.' mdon coupled with - msiderable The discovery to of America ad it the importance of fch placed the\ Enmercial world of the — it London became o at .A Xataral Geography. which serve as gateways for produce and from the Continent. in The bhe soutl !i portion of England. Manchester alone distributes to nearly nine for millions of people foodstuffs and raw material manu- In the south -eastern portion there are few towns of great population. A striking example of the uneven distribution of population will be noticed from the tollowing statement :— The average number of people per square mile in England is about 670. the invading races of Europe.000. Grimsby or Boston. . Huh . local facilities for industry or the ruction of railwa (3) in London. and th other adv.Inch gave it much rial ha advanl very early in the history of our coup tr to the mouth of a navigable r which enters the North Sea opposite the mouth of the continental waterway. don ini}) of England and the larg< Although not a manufacturing city. facture. early time the part part most thickly mo I . (2) A few towns such as Peterborough. while the avei per square mile in several large areas of Lancashin over 2.

however. lofty and barren. beingrugged. is a Lowland plain. because of their surroundings. —A Mountain Scene of Note the dry walls due to lack in Scotland. while the southern uplands also possess few minerals. were more self-reliant and . habited. The Highlands of Scotland. 4. retained their native more rapidly because of the greater ease of inter-com- The Highlanders. who assimilated English customs and accepted English laws worn. some instances the Their speech is old national dress History tells us that the Highlanders independence much longer than did the people south of the Grampian mountains. munication with the English. the Highlands. great rift known as the and iron are As would naturally be expected. distinctive traits Gaelic is still and in and characteristics. too. mortar and the thatched roof of the cottage.34 Environment Scotland. and on this mined to a considerable extent. whilst even to-day the inhabitants retain many Fig. are somewhat sparsely inplain coal Between these. lying north of a line be- tween the Firth of Tay and Bothesay in the Isle of Bute are plateau-like in character and are remarkably poor in mineral resources.

so that 3o they reset. England 1>_\ . to three things. The Lowlands of Scotland include the Lowland Plain in and the Southern Uplands.>ly. developed strong clan feelings. In addition to coal mining the ? und the iron industry. . hills are amongst the oldest of the Continent and are of the same age and structure as the Scandinavian mounthey are extremely picturesque and are much tains : frequented by tourists in the summer months. cotton manufacturing is extensively carried on. and they have more points common with the northern counties of England than The Lowland Plain is with the Highlands of Scotland. b for Berwick is some centuries oi interesting it and was sub her to law d. rference . I to laws affecting in unless the town I Berwick wi included Act ol by name. liiciii ally since the develop- railwa n The bordi of iliar. they are but the southern fringe of a great These eau.A Natural Geography. mainly. 'i > nee. viz. present the appearance of a magnificent range of lofty weather-beaten hills. deeply indented on the east and the west by the r/s-d-v/s the Clyde and the Forth and it is very rich in coal and iron. In the Southern uplands the Tweed : i industry . and it lias make it a town dvantage in its environ. Parliament in L885. when ed from the plain of Strathmore. Glasgow is the urea industrial city. Eence it is the centre of all manufactures. for the re iring of The (b) (c) she Plentiful war ol : .ii i Tied on in the valley of the River LS this ]» our. deeply indented and broken into rifts. The Grampians. in reality. jofcoal. as the climate is damp and very suitable. very vigorously.

The west coast of Ireland. and the sea runs far inland at one or of the Irish two points on the north and south. and the inhabitants make use of the peat as . large patches of the surface are covered with stagnant Near these. the wildness of the land. for this region can obtain coal supplies from a large central plain the English and Scottish coalfields. meanders for over two hundred miles across the central plain. which is exposed to the full force of the Atlantic storms. The rivers are slowflowin^ for the most part. with The highest of these mountains are fringing the coast. in the south-west corner of Munster. The inhabitants.be found. and in the extreme west. but at the same time has retarded the development of culture and intelligence moreover their livelihood is only obtained after hard toil on land and sea. has developed hardiness and endurance in the inhabitants. especially of Belfast. and. follow agricultural or pastoral callings. and in many cases broaden out into big lakes the Shannon. and the county of Kerry is most beautiful on account of its lake and mountain scenery. The country of Ireland is somewhat saucer-like in and mountains formation.36 Environment Ireland. as a general rule. In the latter part of each summer large numbers of Irishmen cross over to England to seek employment in the harvest fields and in late years many have crossed the Atlantic in order to seek prosperity in the United States and Canada. passing through bog lands and a chain of lakes. for . is deeply indented. Ireland's longest river. town the round chief industrial area is Ulster. . The population of Ireland is somewhat scanty. Ireland has very little coal and thus The its manufacturing development has been hindered. in Galway. like that of Scotland. beds of peat are to bogs and marshy lakes. enters the sea by a broad estuary.

although there are a considerable number of Pro:in ihe province of Ulster. OB the whole. Indeed th< animal lit- | . roofs difficulty of obtaining The Animals bish in ] of the are.g. and the houses in those districts are built mainly of granite. House Structure • in the British Isles. and this settlement of manufacturing of the native Irish is industries in the province of Ulster alone. a in the 1 wilder parts of Ireland are often built in a e\lm<l Bhape on account of the weather. dee British Isles. and we find tins material dominating in the villages an towns of the neighbourhood.1 Natural Geograpluj. however. but they very decided barriers to another reason for the form communication. 'M fuel in the place of coal. and its preservation is largely due to its separation from England and to the fact that many parts of the countr\ are isolated by bog-lands and mountains. Not only do these man interfere with the spread of cultivation. who are. like nihility of The animals i h< i the parts of the mainland of Europe haying a similar climate. Many localities product building material. e. than and dv\ stone walls show the Blatea and mortal-. The religion still of the great majority of the people is Roman Catholicism. Ivnt Btill has many wood houses built of the tin rowing heavily on the Weald of K rborough Cathedral is built of a white stone found The at Barnac in the neighbourhood.. Aberdeen and Cornwall produce granite. a kindred tongue to that spoken in the Highla of Scotland and the wilder parts of Wales. and both in the Highlands of Scotland and the mountains of In 'land. mainly of English or Scottish extraction.. The language spoken by many Erse. —Throughout may | the British Isles the influence of environment be on house structure.

Everyone knows that since animals constantly prey upon each other. result of our insularity has been that many to the keenness of the struggle for exisunequal species. those which are not possessed of adequate means of defence are in constant danger of extinction. Ireland the effect has been two-fold.38 Environment : the North Temperate Zone right across the Old World of the to the shores of the Pacific. in which the weakest animals are killed off. It is since the time of that man inhabited this region of the earth that Britain was severed from the continent. The second . common beaver. a shrew (like a mouse) and a few insects peculiar to the same area. though on the continent they still Still more noticeable is survive in considerable numbers. but the animal life United Kingdom has been greatly modified by the fact that it consists chiefly of two large islands. there are no representatives of over twenty In that species of animals still found in this country. the keenness of the struggle has developed some entirely new species of animals especially capable of surviving in the conditions which prevail in these islands. this in Ireland where. Thus the bear and the tence. by virtue of longer separation from the continent. for example. once found in Britain. however. are now no longer to be enough. and it is quite clear that the struggle for existence. will be much keener in small areas like islands. where the animals are constantly coming into contact with each other. In Great Britain and In the first place. the British Islands. as the shallowness the German Ocean and many other facts testify. geologically speaking. quite recent. have become extinct. The Eed Grouse. exists nowhere in the world outside it is the only bird possessing There are. but that distinction. and where it is impossible for the weakest to migrate to new homes away from their enemies. The small number of peculiar forms is fully accounted for by the fact that our separation from the continent is.

of winch to-day only e small renin plant lite of the plants. that by matching the snow. wild cat have disappeared long ago.n animal life. in some d cases. polecats.-1 Natural Geography.) country there are no roe-deer. Plant Life in the British portant The most im- cultivated United Kingdom. being thus from his natural enemies. thanks to a pretty story of St. has increased alarmingly. has become a proverb. Tinis now so rare in England that any specimen now killed may well be the last of its race. of prey. no such change of colour occurs. q our coal supply. weasel and the birds fr that the rat. Isles. The greater pari of the country was formerly c with large forests. i. their environment affects individual animals like its cousin the wolf. The natural extinction Ix'. sant war against the polecat. of Britain in ways. it would. said. weasels or m and the fact that there are no snakes in Ireland. :V. Patrick. namely the having been deal: with previon little more remains to Ik.) own it coat of fa whit-'. may be less t c wink - 'ids the on the hut in Ireland. m . as the following instance will be On the approach of winter in S sufficient to prove. many the mountain hare change -. witli the result man himself.-n of many kinds of animals has greatly helped in this country by sometimes to his great cost. Tin' wholesale destruction of our due n<>t ships need of timber bo much that until about one hundi alised for the immense vain. from the of our insular part general V <. as in the Macclesfield to the I merely I a name remains. and Gamekeepers wage incesstoat. or. where lie mild snow to remain for more than a few id. the} were consumed nelt iron. and had the fox not been preserved for purposes of sport.

and these are intersected by numerous valleys enclosing big streams. there still remain large forests of pine. British Columbia The western sea-board very similar in Canada possesses a climate many respects to that of North. In addition to this r it strikes the British Columbia is in the belt of the south-west anti- . whose native home is near the Mediterranean Sea. is responsible for the presence in our parks and gardens of many evergreens like the laurel. These trees. which is so equable as to enable us to grow roses out of doors in December. which by virtue of their small. however. is very surface the land as picturesque. The Pacific Ocean is not easily affected by icebergs as is the Atlantic. and thus the Japan Current retains part of its warmth until Canadian shores.4:0 Environment : The forests consisted mainly of deciduous trees.Western of Europe. . are so well able to resist the winter's cold. and this is because it is subject to many geographic conditions like those which prevail in the latter. form a most con- spicuous feature of Scottish scenery. needle-like leaves. fir and other cone-bearing trees. Three distinct ranges are evident. such as In some parts. The richness of the vegetation is due to the abundance of the rainfall. which is excessive near the coast. for Behring Strait is too shallow and narrow to admit of a great inflow of icy water from the Arctic Ocean. and the beech. especially in Scotland. but gradually diminishes towards the interior. It is formed of a stretch of country averaging four hundred miles in width from the summit of the Eocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. when even the holly and gorse are being killed in the east of France by the severity of winter. province is most varied in appearance and is thickly clothed with forests. The whole fed by the snows and glaciers of the hills. ash and oak. Our maritime climate. tough. running from north to south.

.The British Isle* [To face p. 4ii.

.

population rapidly began to inc Uthough attention to the province. yield such enormous quantities of salmon. but they are known to be of incalculable value. The livers that -warms reaching three hundred feet in straight trunk-. follows A warm double that of the Bn be briefly described as summer. imperfectly developed. reaches seven hundred miles in — length before it enters the sea opposite the southern extremity of Vancouver Island. This island. yet —The mineral resources of the region . the pine and tlr ss are gigai in -ize.1 Natural Geography. Rivers. are taken daily in great wire nets. like the mainland. when n was discovered bfa ir existed r. Thus the prevailing winds of Bri Columbia are saturated with moisture when they reach the coast. !y throughout the province and on the [aland of Vancouver. Since the mountains are so near the co. halibut and other Minerals. of gold alone lias The value of the annual output more than a million pounds and coal and iron beds are found extenin recent year-. as a rule. and this served bo tli- An immediate rush helped to open out itfl natural resources. which blow over the fairly warm waters of the mid-Pacific. especially copious the coast and on the western slopes of the hill-. and the highlands immediately cause condensation into a rainfall Isles. such as the Douglas fir. too swilt for navigation purposes. which then. at the same . The : climate. is may with a rainfall at all seasons. but the Fraser. whilst fish.. aw in Large quantities in the bed of the l-'i and of pn rs look place. which runs between the ranges. is densely forested and some of the trees. the rivers as may be expected are. Very little was known of this attractive land until the year L856. the seas are rich in cod. -il trade winds. a mild and genial winter.

like many other savage races. Aboriginal and altitude. is The aboriginal inhabiInhabitants. Vancouver and Prince Rupert. .' time causing the development of railways. as is the In case in most parts of the American continent. in com- merce it is never ice-bound it is well supplied with it has at least three splendid harbours coal and iron in Victoria. including timber. differing widely in language and even in colour. The province obviously has a great future . yet it cannot be regarded as altogether beneficial. although the prevailing colour is a coppery brown. and still yields considerable wealth. immense fruit stores of . fish. British Columbia they are composed of a great number of small tribes. tants of British Columbia are the Indians. agricultural labourers quickly found that they could secure prosperity them- by providing for the miners the fruits of the soil and so the discovery of gold led not only to a development of the mining industry. and quickly became necessary to create a strongly organised of system government to safeguard the interests of the settlers. and law and order were enforced.42 Environment . better class of industrious The region was the Dominion of therefore constituted a province of Canada. — . owing bracing and healthy. but to a vast increase in agricultural and general trade and to the growth of selves towns. Although gold-mining proved a prosperous industry. and metals it has plentiful supplies of fresh water. The immigrants included bands of lawless adventurers it from all parts of the world. have written very little Consequently the language has literature of any kind. roads and permanent settlements. it has . raw material. and the Indians. One of the chief factors in making a language permanent and widespread is writing. to the position and the climate.

" re Boown. which are in many The s almost totally different from each other. like and thought. especially in wood and hone carvings. Indians are intelligent and possess considerable arti skill. thai in spite of their long oonwith Europeans. They expert hunters and trackers.A Xatural Geography. b r. not become a fixed one throughout the territory. they are Rtrangely unable to adapt bo civilised modes Le Indians of this region. the who) trouble to the white man of 1 fe thi . hue bas been broken up into dialects.i." native hid . •• War -Pain r. and they are better fishermen than most of their brethren on the continent. Am Indus ChT£I in Fri. because of their mountain and forest environment. wh< the I'll war was waged D and tii. 5. Thev ! ic.

. up to the present. ceased. . and in addition. of this are interesting of From the time to the earliest felt settlements in the United States. their sick people receive the benefit of medical attendance. the natives are better housed. French and these often inter-married with the natives and were able to settle without resort to fighting. and so there has been little Cn the other hand. 6.44 Environment and instructive. from the coming considerably the Indians have gained the cruel inter-tribal wars have of the white man so. ill-feeling displayed by the natives. original Fig. plies are very abundant. the Indians retreat the pressure of the white man and had away from their In Canada. no pressure has been made on the In British Columbia. An Indian Encampment of Wigwams. being amply sufficient for both whites and red men and gradually towards the west. the food area is large and very productive in Canada. Then. too. better clothed and fed. the fish and food supIndians. the first settlers were homes.

man. theatricals and concei Compared with seaboard. and this ii> not inhabitants to oi foreign large baa a only encourages lands. the country has a climate not unlike is that of Britain. holding festivals.illel of latitude. while in the is a greater rainfall. hut in the end the more civilised power A revolt of the Spanish settle. western slopes he Andes Mountains. 4& South-West Chili Chili. I whom are highly cultivated. balls. cold and rainy country within eight hundred miles of the Antarctic Circle. . things have influen liderablj the a whole of lives of the inhabitants mui high i civilisation throughout the land. but it has Chili of length of visits of the induced the immigration numbers I foreigners. the climate more genial than in the most favoured parts of Britain. severing connection the of and Chili b Spain in in its old form and in the setting up of an independent south. Tl' were the li 31 Europeans to attempt S a settlement in Chili.-. from the hot.-i Natural Geography. In South-West Chili. Highlands of Scotland. In the north. in common witli those oi Pram p Sunday as a holiday. while their dress. with less cold weather. whose branches reach to the is The country made up of the and the useful agricultural soil is almost confined to the bottoms of the valle\ -. parched deserts about extends the Tropic of Capricorn to a boisterous. . and they met with a long and 'horn resistance from the warlike tribes of Indians Living there. south of the fortieth Pacific shore. that is. there in the republic The present inhabitants of the repnbl c are il Btyle of •ically Spanish in language and life. amusements and religion have much Igium and Spain. similar to of the American colon ins! England.

and is a flesh eater which can scent Other birds are the a dead carcase at a great distance. etc. Most of the inhabitants is however. in spite of the great difficulties in the way. whilst the lack of strength and size is proOf the bably due to the inferiority of the food supply. and it even ladies and children to ride quite common and this for well. a bird of great size. because the suitable ground utilised for agricultural purposes. soft. it is practically impossible to play such games as cricket is and are. and ticularly coal. wild cat. the condor is the most remarkable. otter. very good railways have been constructed. In later is years. with its wealth of minerals which is abundant in the par— south — may develop into a prosperous trading nation. the latter being a rodent with very much valued for the making of muffs. to the mountainous nature all of the surface. both The these are hunted by the Indians for their wool. has of retarded the rise of manufactures the chief means the sure-footed mountain mule. while in Patagonia the Indians hunt the rhea. white eagle. . hills. —The most dangerous animal — the puma. Two kinds of wild animals of the camel family are found in the lower hills the guanaco. in even smaller numbers. in small and the vicuna. excellent horsemen. grey The horses of Chili are not so strong nor so big as those of Britain. Road-making transport is is exceedingly difficult. which in this country repre- . the fur. Animal and Bird in Chili is Life. it quite a possibility that Chili. Mountainous land always tends to produce greater powers of endurance in both human beings and animals. It is Chilian birds. which is hunted with dogs or caught by the lasso. the hawk and the owl.46 Environment Owing football. and in this respect they are not unlike the ponies of the Shetland Isles. fox and chinchilla are found in most of herds. but they possess far greater powers of endurance.

' islands Lie in the 1 acifio Ocean Burroum Ian i all sides by . are a pest in Chili. Island. marrow.-4 Natural Geography. larger islands called North and South Lslai ed by Cook Strait. celery and >ts are readily grown. '1'!)"-. There reral very small . and a third and much smaller a South called Stewart [aland. ostrich of South Africa. while the strawberry growth is almost unrivalled. lying nearer lie Bqu The Dominion \ t is not included in this region and will he dealt with later. The fori are almost as Luxuriant as in the tropics.which are also inclu knds in the surroundiE h Nori in the Dominion. but potatoc hages. while — the huge crops of kidney beans la a id peas make tl a national dish. Further north. for they enter the houses and frequently spoil food materials. and many magnificenl to he found. In fcbe south. all kind crops are grown with fruit in plentiful quantities. Inlians utilise one of these ci of ro] make the shafts of their lances from a whil i I which grows to a height of thirty feet in the fores New Zealand (South ol Island). besides shellfish on the rocks of the shore in gn mtities. dand consists of two long. however. sents the There are several varieties of tisli off the coast. the rainfall is too heavy for wheat-growing. Vegetation. which is dividi Island h\ Foveaux Strait. and entry hinder communication on Lse account of the creepers ami It is interesting to note that the undergrowth. - Til most abundant throughout the i region. The mountain barrier between Chili and the Argentine Republic the former from the swarms of locusts which was plains of the latter. small ants.

the Tasman Glacier. In South Island.48 Environment being Australia. which is twelve hundred miles to the north-west. produces abundant pastures. — The land is splendidly adapted for pastoral and agricultural pursuits. and was once clothed with evergreen forests.Western Europe. This potash soil. together with the plentiful water supply. but in the east the land forms a big stretch of even surface known as the Canterbury Plain. of which the largest is . culture by These have been gradually cleared for purposes of agrimeans of burning. as in British Columbia and North. Agriculture. helps to lower the temperature to some extent. Oceanic influence is thus felt very strongly. very well suited to the rearing of . . and in this the presence of latter point also it will be seen that South Island re- sembles the two parts of this region already taken. This part of New Zealand is situated in the northwest anti-trades. the Southern Alps lie nearer to the west than to the east. and in some parts actually overlook the coast. which pass over a wide stretch of ocean. and so the plains have become deeply impregnated with potash. however. Through both the larger islands a range of mountains runs parallel with the coast. more or less equable because of the presence of so great a body of water on every side the general elevation of the land too. The Southern Alps are very lofty. and in consequence the west coast. broken by Cook Strait and branching into side ranges. for no part of the whole group of islands is more than seventy miles from the sea. reaching in many places to a height of ten thousand feet they are snowcapped and have great glaciers. The whole island is. beeches and a wealth of ferns. receives the This is greatly encouraged by the greatest rainfall. mountains in the west.

.

OS £ A < < N jz. pT w w w go o w H pq .

broad streets. although having wooden houses and regular. it Btands is also nun" Dunedin. is a town which reminds 01 >ngly of 1 I Edinburgh. 49 The Canterbury Plain is an open. it having an been originally planned by the Archbishop of Canterbury and other English churchmen. spoken reality of it New Zealand is usually as the Antipodes of the British [sles. grey stone buildings on its the steep hillsides and streets bearing BUch n Q ae m's Drive. like Edinburgh's Leith. in the last thirty years Agriculture has developed very rapidly and all kinds of crops similar to those of Britain are produced. but watered by many streams. Comparison with Britain. for instance. it is and especially suitable for the It lacks districts. but on !> in lies island somewhat nearer the Bq a man] than do our ats teal . t favourite pasi nne. but it which are indeed truly is the source of much prosperity to the population. with Princes' Street or it its handsome. parison is A point that still further marks the comsouth. has a climate more akin to that of the Scottish L lands than most parts of the plains. growing of corn and the rearing of sheep. The river upon which after the Hampshire Avon. henoe the wii sports are naturally similar to those of Scotland. Geograplu/. the capital of the Canterbury Plain. the grandeur and the beauty of the mountain magnificent. that this district.A Natural sheep. flat stretch of land with a dry climate. Zealand towns show the relationship which they have with the homeland or with the original founders. either by such Bigns as namestreets or by actual resemblance to British cities. — Many New streets named after English bishoprics. cur being . Chalmers Lower down being well 10 the the has an outport called Port harbour. very unlike an English town. Christchurch. has its cathedral of the Towns.

that he follows the same pursuits and after the same fashion. then a great improvement in physical fitness takes place. same produce. only somewhat improved : . because ivhe. their splendid fitness r New Zealand. Anthony Trollope sums up very aptly an appreciation " The New of New Zealand in the following passage Zealander tells you that he has the same climate as that he grows the Britain. Aboriginal Inhabitants. the case. and it is thought that they came from a warmer and more productive climate than — *:^^: Fig. or from a land where life is easy to one where exertion is a necessity to existence. When the English first began to colonise the country. ever a people spreads from a narrower to a wider sphere.50 Environment : both climate and scenery not unlike those of Britain. The native inhabitants of New Zealand are the Maoris. less of want and a more general share in the gifts which God has given to the country. If that is skill and hunting are easily accounted for. - ""V'„ni': - —A Maori Village. they found the Maoris formed into well-organise i clans. only somewhat grander and more varied. with strength and in industry ." . 7. only with somewhat heavier crops that he has the same beautiful scenery. but with less misery.

plied rapidly. and each triba had unwritten laws Tribes were constantly ch were strictly enforced.. and g world. nn With the exc d of bat no native land mammals. they were cannibals and of society strongly made their captives into slaves.1 Natural Geography. ting with each other. "JI ranks marked. and huge forests ion. and owing to these quarrels the people were vindictive. New Zealand is life. and are able stockades with considerable skill. but the first man to land there was Captain Cook. .md. the dog and the pig were introduced by Gaptai] all kinds of domesticated animals by colonists. The discoverer of New Zealand Flora. ily flowering plants N haw been a character] but the arc of t diminishing oil her b are hard and very useful Many in of the building purposes. and smail bird-. like the Indians they show great aptitude for Europ fortify and habits. They followed agritnral pursuits. The Maoris have great genius build in war. Of the imported animals. in the reign of George III. almost solely made up of impo off some parts of the c interesting. from The I i it has multiplied to such an in I that T. He introduced several lish animals and plants and these increased and multi- Fauna and — . obviously in the scarcity of native animal of There are many va . The fauna and and is flora of the country are both • ilar 11 kinds of and the fauna animals. it has become bch of sea ISO of nuisance which isolates many districts. i - iples of wi: irds and blood-sucking sandflies. -man.. thus explaining the number 01 »den Buch a town as Christchurch.

and these bring The climate . with its open plains fringed by rocky mountain ridges and occasional outstanding peaks. and is a federal state of the Commonwealth of Australia. with their blue. and on the extreme west and south the rocks bear a strong resemblance to those of Scotland. Zealand. and this chain branches out in the island of Tasmania. and lies wholly between 40° and 44° south latitude. making a great plateau with On the plateau bold fronts on the north-east and west. its fine rivers and its extensive lakes. to introduce European and American edible fish. on is the south. low-lying tract of land. The mountain chain along the east coast of Australia appears to be continued across Bass Strait in the chain of islands which almost link up Tasmania with the most southerly point of Victoria. situated. The rivers contain few native breeds of fish. its forested hills. are from the western ocean. The island is wonderfully beautiful. of the island is remarkably healthy and winds. sometimes closely It is separated and sometimes leaving a broader. safe The deep indentations of the coast afford anchorage for ships. This island lies to the south of the Province of Victoria. from the mainland by Bass Strait. as for instance.52 Environment bark which is useful for tanning purposes. white and pinkish peaks rising from somewhat narrow coast strips to nearly three thousand feet. with some success. The lakes. whilst the pine produces valuable gum at its base. where the town of Hobart. kauri Tasmania. This plateau rests upon a lower tableland which averages about fifteen hundred feet high and which skirts the coast. as in the case of New prevailing Its equable. but strong efforts have been made. plateau at water fresh beautiful many are its greatest height is fairly level. the capital.

western district during the same period was 37-55 in. naturally rohs the east of ires. that colonisation was attempted. is on the western half The plateau.i- abolished. it was apparently a mountainous island i commercial importance. caused to settlor >lish English there several of authorities a convict settlement -ice was for give] convicts. the fact that of little first The great distance of Tasmania from England. largely deposited the rain which of the island.rtur. as the following average taken for a nurnher of years. The named - island it was discovered by Tasman Van Dieman's Land after his in 1642.1 Natural Geography. B .d. ' i hibii traits it ition to civilised pressure. probably ov. hut not until ahout 1800 a. show : The general average That for the for the eastern district was 22-07 in. although of the same race as me Australian oath much more ferocious and warlike..i . opposition was experienced from the native blacks who. \\. with its elevation of over three thousand feet running north and south. Inhabitants. much rainfall. tiro tilings dlir. on* . thrr tiic TQ ti)ujitr or has to form an entirely new settlement elsewl bility.-From the fir-. to th of independence which mountain* Whenever a primitt usually encourages.. and which he had to feed itually the practice of transportation . and This was practically akin to slavery. te in return them. by their lab much to the prosperity of the community. who it patron. the natives of Tasmania rapidly diminished in QUml from five thousand to two hundred • I lej I finally took refuge in Plinder's [eland. able race intcrmi.

last An other event which affected Tasmania more than any was the discovery of gold in the neighbouring All the able-bodied popu- province of Victoria in 1851." In concluding this chapter the following points may be noted in connection with the Equable Lands of this Cool Temperate Zone 1. the dying in 1875. . in each is plentiful. Natural Resources. wmile the food produce of Tasmania was sold for almost fabulous prices and exported to Victoria. temperate and equable. although modified by the wider and broader nature of Colonial life. the other sources of wealth — were almost neglected. and when these mineral supplies were found to be of considerable value. — The habits and customs of the present inhabitants are very much like those of their neighbours on the continent and are very much akin to those of the motherland. lation of the island left for the goldfields. 2. wharf and jetty construction. The rivers contain plentiful supplies of salmon and trout and deep sea fishing industry. It was not until nearly twenty years after this that the discovery of the Tasmanian mineral resources began to attract a fresh inflow of settlers. very productive. The forests are magnificent and in late years large quantities of blackwood. while sheep breeding is an important is Habits and Customs. pine and gum trees have been exported to Australia for purposes of house. which is free from overcrowding and from the intense keenness of competition in the struggle to earn the "daily bread.54 Environment : There are now no pure-blooded Tasmanians. but not so excessive hinder activity or to cause considerable discomfort. Fruit growing is extensively carried on. The climate The rainfall as to is cool.

2. but to the abundance of opportunity in new and peoplefor uncrowded countries. Very many historical events ma) be -v/. fitted they are people well 4. to govern and they form excellent colonist- The animal and vegetable productions include those best fitted to supply man's needs. In the more thickly populated parts. produces in the colonial people for i ity is activity and manual labour. 3. Physical and moral OOUrage is dew that live in countries where the ince is :n Btruggle uai s and hunter-. This its not necessarily due to the suitability of climate. I geographical cause. whilst in other parts. control the inuuth of the Elbe. They both provide man with food.A Natural Geography. the gradual development of the country appears to be leading to a similar result. 55 The peoples are active. Mountains and forests interfere with the develop- ment 3. Plains are mi it able for the development of agricul- 1. 5. such as South-West Chili. of trade. and this is dry the case where they are crossed by navigable riv< ng of from a narrow to a wi The from an overcrowded country to a as ture i | colony.. The general areas 1. and the former serve him also as a means of transport. and trade. 6. The presence congregation of people into great centres of industry. the dangerous animals have been practically exterminated. influences of environment wit of minerals causes the lin t! may also be noted. energetic and industrious. stein in the German oi si Bismark obtained the province i Schle 3ol« . .

The Indians survive in Canada. newcomers . Tasmanians and AustraIn large areas like Australia the lian Blacks. e. decline is on that account slow. because the Indian hunter has a considerable commercial value until the fur-bearing .g. e. in spite of conquest.•56 Environment safeguard Canal. Britain's acquisition of colonies to a need for was largely due new of spheres of activity for the more enterprising her growing population. When on the other hand. it gives a promise of survival. 7.. When the original inhabitants leave the land to the it is an acknowledgement of defeat and a sign of racial decay. the natives hold to the soil.. Hamburg and to construct the Kiel Again.g. the Anglo-Saxons after the Norman Conquest and the Indians of North America.animals have become extinct.

easterly natural region of Canada is the area immediately surrounding the St. especially The forests of this region are ive. uid. The water power i^ now Lg used. the interior. into the rivers and carried . in Mnce lies the south-west anti-trade t on wind . Lawrence Eiver and the Great Lakes. . or the generating of electri< lopment and it is playing a considerable pari in 1 t of 1 I knada. belt. Lands with Cold Winters and Low Eastern Canada. for other useful purposes Buch as the working oi mills. slop towards the shallow Hudson Bay on the one side and to the St. These drainareas are well supplied with which are extremely useful as means of carriage lor the Lumbering — I industry. much breme than though The St. —This portion of Canada. behind for the purpose of extricating any pieces of timber that have been a on the downward journey. hus rath it ' low wi] margin. Lawrence System. more and more.CHAPTER II. the . The most Rainfall. Lawrence plain on the other thus forming a watershed (or two great drainage areas. on the plateau and the trees are cut down. c down stream to such centres wa and Three Bi Usually a rait is guided floating the mass of logs. The northern part is plateau-like. is ailing is This he rainfall winds are land bn id for trading purj counterbalanced small.

Ice palaces are built and animated scenes may be The national game of Canada witnessed on every side. which flows past the coast of Labrador and the mouth of the St. The coldness of the winter is intensified by the effect of the icy-cold stream.•58 Environment : immense outflow river St. The Cold Wall. Many are of necessity idle at Some — this time. is which grows so plentifully in this part of the country. . such as the Welland and the Sault The Appalachian mountain system Ste. tobo^anning and ice-yachting. construction of canals. The St. but the St. though intense. being racquets the lacrosse. and since the cold. made from the birch tree. their terminus. The freezing of the St. Lawrence. of water from the Great Lakes by the Lawrence. Marie canals. the people indulge freely in such pastimes as skating. in Nova Scotia. Lawrence and the general ice-bound character of Eastern and Central Canada causes the winter to be the holiday season of the Canadians. Effects of Climate. with here and there rapids and cataracts which once hindered navigation considerThis hindrance has been overcome by the ably. is dry and not altogether unpleasant. Lawrence system is one of the most peculiar river systems in the world. which in summer can reach Montreal nearly a thousand miles up-stream have to make the town of Halifax. The river estuary is then frozen and vessels. the famous falls of Niagara and innumerable islands of varying size. Lawrence proved an easy path to the interior of Canada for the earlier French settlers and it has proved of very great value as a — — natural highway for commerce in later times. At all times the estuary is somewhat difficult of approach on account of numerous islands and of the prevalence of fogs and of irregular currents. for it contains the largest area of fresh water lakes in the world. of the United States barred the westward movement of the early settlers there.

and in er fruits in I abundance. Erie and Ontario. Other provinces where the soil is productive eu iswick. and the eastern division is well supplied with them. and are still developing. north quantities of ue big lake. — On the mainland the fertile land 1 Lawrence. peaches. The climate the spring. Many minor effects of the climate are noticeable. Of the towns in B item Canada many are Halifax.W< ritory of Canada. obtained in Ca [sland. of I vince of (Quebec.-^ . Tobacco and maize are grown in N Scotia. to the St.A Natural Geography. . however. is 59 favourable to work of the best type in summer and autumn. Th( mnot compare. of land enclosed by the Lakes Huron. while the latter mini . although the plague of poisonous insects in the hot summer months is somewhat of a hindrance. Prince Edward [si and and part . while nickel ' is extensively obtained at Sudbury. d important. this district is known of ( as the The mineral product- growing importance. Productions. with the quanti known I in the North.L on of iron ore the Superior Plateau. is Quebec and able quantity of iron and also Scotia pro-luce a considercoal. while the climate of the lake is Ontario Quebec. i. and apples tongue so genial as to produce grapes._med as to allow the snow to fall clear of the pavements into the gutter the absence of proper : 1: - grates and pipes for heating purposes. and especially in the tor. Nova Scotia. Ontario produce. The winter is so cheery and dry as to need no stimulating influence of bright firesides as in damper and the use of stoves climates. such as the steep roofs of hoi. is an important naval bI used by liners in the winter harbour Towns.

John. and Boman Catholicism may be noted has a great boot and shoe industry. gives the town its name.S. overlooking the St. Lawrence and the River Ottawa. at the head of navigation for ocean liners and at the confluence of the St. Canadian Pacific St. and it is the great railway centre of Canada. Paper is made extensively from wood-pulp in Canada. It is surrounded on all sides by the timber-covered hills of New Brunswick. well served by the noted high tides of the Bay of Fundy. contains the magnificent group of Parliament buildings and is the centre of a great lumber trade with saw-mills and paper-mills. John. It is the most French of all the Canadian towns. Lawrence. and its population is more mixed than that of any other Canadian city. This city is the largest of Canada. . and the mills are here worked by water power from two fine water-falls. and of a timber region where bark may be obtained for tanning purposes. navigation. Ottawa. encouraged by the near presence of a cattle-rearing area which produces hides. of the Rivers capital of the U. and in this respect is like Washington. was selected because of the it jealousies of older cities. Quebec. known as Mount Boyal. A hill behind the city. it is the chief commercial city and port.A. on the Heights of Abraham.60 Environment of the has been made a terminal port Railway. has an excellent harbour. Lawrence. the capital city. Montreal is situated on an island in the St. It is at the junction Ottawa and Rideau. which gave rise to the industry of wooden ship-building in earlier days. at the mouth of the Eiver St. has often been called the Key to Canada. probably because of its position at the head of many evidences of It in the streets. The island is connected with the mainland by two fine railway bridges.

the part of Argentina mia (Western P kg >nia is the Forming Eastern I I part of Chili). This strait ie summer shipping route to the St. but have is Newfoundland situated at the mouth of the inlets and safe harbours. such as iron work Since 1906. meat packing. Ontario and lias many industries. B Ball nature and I | . Johns. Gulf of St. 1" Forests and mineral seal are are md it herring and valuable industries on the Newfoundland banks. often of 88. is for the It rises most part a region from the coasl in high at at ime. x . the Falls brewing. intelliisl The is midland dog it widely known for its endurance. and is separated from Labrador by the it of Belle Isle (eleven miles in width). which forbids the growth of anything thorny brush-wood and -canty herbage. three hundred feel ihingle. • lently I lakes or ponds. pe-like plains. 61 in Toronto is the second city of Canada and is built It is situated on a bay of L quite a modern style. The interior and the climate is reme than that mainland because of oceanic influence. have been utilised to supply energy and the whole town is lighted by this means. The capital of the is St. etc. electrical of Niagara. The buildings possess much architectural beauty. Fo mg and winter are very damp frequent and many long is a plateau. The shores of the island are rugged and rock-bound. Lawrence. it is the Larg Hollows in the plain tract of shingle in the world. that is. Southern Argentina.A Natural Geography. them can be obtained medicinal purpo quantities of I -alts for r the : . eighty miles away. island The is a are fertile. and it is covered with terraces. Southern Argentina. cod. Lawrence. but i part of cea fisheries barren. 1« of I raw.

are very fertile and the hills themselves are densely clad in forests of fine timber. The two coast. as it does. when the sun is more over the northern hemisphere that at other times. but there are not safe harbours. unlike that of Chili. The far eastern belt of Asia made up of the broad of the greater eastern margin of Siberia. strong tides and it currents combine to colonisation make perilous. as most ships will then avoid the long and difficult route round Cape Horn. so that its chief inhabitants Commercially unimportant are the Araucanian Indians. bringing with from the cooler ocean it heavy torren- . Environment: however.62 the hills. contains large gulfs practically no islands. the opening is. that is. the difficulties of approach have greatly retarded its development. for the theoretical circulation of winds and distribution of wind belts is here the vastinterfered with by two all-important factors — ness of the Eurasian land mass and the equaily huge area of the adjacent Pacific Ocean stretching. for and more than one or submerged reefs. A Qotable feature of the vegetation is the vast areas of fruit orchards near to the hills. the southern extremity of the Continent. the in- hospitable nature of the coast has done much to hinder and in spite of the great fertility of the western valleys. and this causes a great inrush of air to the south-east and east. These have spread from the lew plantations made by Jesuit priests about the year 1700. of lies Amuria and almost wholly between latitudes part of Manchuria 40° and 60° north. In the summer. across the Equator. in the area over which southwest anti-trade winds might be expected to prevail. Naturally. This however is not the case. Manchuria and South-East Russia. of the Panama Canal as this region will tend to make it of still less importance. the great land mass becomes hotter and hotter as June approaches.

A Natural
tial rains in

Geography.

July and August.

The winter months 00

the other hand receive cold, dry winds from the north-

and thus, as in Eastern Canada, the rivers are frozen and the temperature is very low. Manchuria was little known until comparativeh
•,

times, but

it

has lately attracted the attention of the

whole world by the disturbances of the Boxer rebellion and of the great Chinese revolution which transformed one of the world's largest empires into a republic. Two
large rivers cross the country, while the nature of the

land

is

greatly varied, containing mountain, valley, plain,

desert and

swamp.

This
of

great

variety

naturally

has

led to considerable versatility in
l

varied

number

the occupations

inhabitants

and

and consequent

productions.

Productions.
•.

—W

eat

might be conlargely cultivated

>ly

the chief grain productions are millet
the bean
is

grown, and
its
oil.

for

iwn and fruits of all kinds flourish, while Canada, Lumbering can be developed into a very Coal is found abundantly, and other valuable industry.
i

metals,

it

is

thought, are

to

be had for
future
the

the

seeking.
to
this

Without a doubt, land, more
-

a promising
!,

belongs
useful

since
<>f

revolution,
\

China

to

b-

desirous

acquiring
eastern

and discarding smoking. opium
habits

many

ones,

such

Some

Effects of Environment.

—The
tiger
it,

coldness of

[he winter naturally has

much

effect

on the OCCUpa

human and
thicker

animal.
in

Animals have, in n. winter, and their furs and -kin-

much
•i\

sougb.1

by the large and for

p
ils

i

The

in

particular
a

winter coat
its

develops

thick

ring,

unknown
>le

t;>

mon
B

them

relations

India.

naturally

thick clothing

64
fur

Environment

and to guard against the intense cold of the ground they sleep on boards placed over heated stoves and ovens. Like the Chinese and
in the winter,

and wool

Japanese, they store most of their valuables in cellars, often very well hidden, but the reason in this case is
quite different from that of the Chinese people.

The

mountains of the north are occupied by bands of brigands and outlaws, who are such a danger to life and property that there is no doubt that their presence alone has greatly hindered the settlement of good colonists.

Amuria, separated from Manchuria by
Amur, was once part
fallen a
of

the River

that

province,

prey to Russian covetousness.

but it has Russia has for

a long time been extremely eager to obtain
ful coast strips to

some

use-

her vast continental possessions and, too far north to be of very great value, nevertheless, every particle of coast that is at all usable is of service to Russia. She therefore gained

although Amuria

is

Amuria and established Manchuria as a Russian Protectorate, no doubt hoping by this means to gain eventually the whole coast from Korea to the north. This design, however, was effectually spoilt by the intervention of the Japanese, who totally broke the power of Russia
in a short but very calamitous war.

The

capital

a lesser

and chief town of Manchuria is Mukden — Pekin surrounded by a great brick wall. It is

the headquarters of the

Manchu

dynasty, lately ruling
is

over China, and

it

contains the tombs of various emperors.

Considerable commercial importance

by

its

given to the town trade in the furs of the surrounding province.

Yladivostock is Russia's chief naval port on the Pacific, and it is situated on a most beautiful harbour. It suffers extremes of climate, which somewhat neutralise its value.

The imports
cotton goods,

are varied, including tea, rice, machinery,
etc.,

while

it

exports the well-known Soya.

.1

Natural Geography.

Beans, used for making Soya Sauce

—a

much

reli-

Japanese Luxury.
Since
forest
fertile

the

greater part of

lands,

while

Amuria is mountain and Manchuria has a fair amount of
of

land, the respective occupations
will

the
are

inhabiforest

tants

naturally

differ.

The Amurians

hunters, while the

Manchus, strengthened by Chinese

farmers, are tillers of the soil and agriculturalists.

A great factor in the future development of Manchuria and the whole of this area will undoubtedly be the Tr rian Railw ;/, whose branches end at Yladivostock and Port Arthur.
i

CHAPTER

III.

The Extreme Lowlands,
The
Interior
lowland

Lowlands of Eurasia.
of

That natural region
interior
is

Eurasia which
extent,

may

be termed

of

vast

stretching

almost

two continents through no less than 130° of longitude, or at this distance from the Equator, almost It includes by far one-third the way round the world. the larger part of the Great Lowland Plain of Europe and also the Great Siberian Plain from which it is separated only in name by the Ural Mountains. Commencing in Asia just beyond the tempering influence of the Sea of Okhotsk it stretches across the continent in a broad band, bordered by tundra on the north and high plateaux on the south until its southern boundary rests upon the northern shore of the Black Sea. On crossing into Europe its width greatly increases so as to include almost the whole of Sweden, but then narrows so rapidly that its terminus lies in Switzerland. The political areas thus included are by far the largest parts of Sweden and Eussia, the eastern part of Germany and a broad band
across
stretching through the heart of Asiatic Russia.

Climate.

— Strange

as

it

may

seem, the whole of this

vast area enjoys, or rather endures a similarity of climate which at times apparently defies the influence of latitude.

Thus

in winter

Odessa

is

only as

warm

as

Konigsburg

though the former stands on the Black Sea and the latter Nowhere except in Switzerland on the Baltic Sea.

A Natural Geography.
onfall

67

heavy for it is clear that there is no direction from which rain may come, for high mountains shut out the water laden winds from the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, Leaving the area exposed only to the
cold north.

In spring therefore the rivers are fed by the melting snows and become very shallow as the summer wears on.
Sens and oceans by absorbing the sun's heat less quickly uning it longer than the land, reduce the sumn. and temper the winter's cold of the countries which

border upon them, and so lands which are subjected
of the

to

the

ocean have temperate or maritime or influence equable climates, while those cut off from its influt

have continental or extreme climates. This interior lowland region of vast size and generally shut off from the influences of all the D extreme instance of a continental climate to be found in the world, although Central Canada presents something True, two large seas penetrate it and somesimilar. what modify the extremity of temperature, but as the Black Sea is almost entirely landlocked and the warm moisture-laden winds from the south are first chilled the Plateau of Asia Minor and by their jourir
then robbed of the greater part of their moisture by the intains thai border the northern shore of the Black is found that the port ol Odessa, more than it hundred miles nearer the equator than the D bherly cape in England is blocked by ice for m
.

than two months
[so

of the year.

Similarly, the Baltic 8

landlocked and the range of mountains which high and wi<3 .ay an
I

shut out entirely

the

inflc

>f

the

Atlantic, thus

:nu the climate of
r

Sweden,

in all

but the south-'.

p

•].

Bence

all
kt

the Baltic

ire

Riga.

four

impeded with months in
t

but few places where the land rises to a greater altitude than six hundred feet. and extremely hot summers alternate with very cold winters. the capital of Western Siberia. : be shown how profound an influence this extreme climate and the generally low altitude of the country have exercised upon the daily lives of its It now remains to inhabitants. the same whole seem. increases greatly their liability to be frozen. generally the Volga. where it leaves the lowland to reach YladiYOStock. passing through Omsk. it may in the main. and in these cases. such as the Valdai Hills and the Ural Mountains. and navigable. To summarise then throughout the whole of the interior lowland of Eurasia the rainfall is deficient. is the Trans-Siberian Railway followicg. the low alti- tude of the region has made communication in summer. of the water in the Black and Baltic Seas. the approach is so gradual that little obstruction to communication is The whole distance from the Urals to the offered. Incredible as Magnificent though the artificial means of communication may be. however. Japan the distance from the Baltic to course. Don. and also the fact that they are tideless. . —In the first place. by the A . make the rivers long their great distance from the sea r IV ers. the Vistula. Much more important than the Great Road. glance at the map will serve to show in a north and that the region is crossed. it is possible to traverse in a fortnight the Sea. There are either by land or by water. extremely easy. south direction. Pacific is traversed by the Great Postal Bead. Communications. Tomsk and Irkutsk.68 while the ports of Environment : Norway as far north as Hammerfest The freshness are free irom ice the whole year round. the natural highways are The lowness of the hills and scarcely less remarkable.

but they will of raw the chief ten. barriers into smaller kingdoms as the British Isles have been. In Europe it the Yenesei tributaries will be many observed that as some of the rivers flow with meanderings toward the north-west and others toward the south-east. nor can in the san. a distance of about six thousand miles. together v which link together the larger ams. Thus it is possible to travel from Yakutsk to the Urals. Petersburg as the real mouth of the Volga basin. Communication being so easy.tnufactu among not hop country. Some : Effects of Climate and Location.A the Obi. Russia is to-day the greatest undivided area in the world owning allegiance to one flag.i. 69 countless and the Lena. transported over the marshes and carried down another to a different ocean. i \or\va\ compare with ct. Canals make the journey still easier from this. how infinitely vast would the trade of Russia be But the climate is cruel. for instance. flow. and as the Balkan States still are. :. ! . Natural Geograj^Juj. In winter the rivers are frozen. it is possible for goods to be carried up one stream. With a climate none of these lowland conntrieG to rival the — hope more i maritii bions in manufac- turing industry. . in spring the melting snov. it is not to be wondered at that the Russian people have combined themNot split up by mountain selves into one great nation. If only it were always summer. one may count St. entirely by water save only for two short breaks amounting to less than twenty miles. ^e them to overflow their banks and flood the surrounding coun: in autumn the scanty rainfall leaves their volume much diminished. as are the seas into which .

as well an of bark for tanning. It is interesting to observe that. of Danzig owes much of its importance to the export of timber grown along the banks of the Vistula. whereas scant]. A great deal of the wealth of these countries consists in their huge They forests and many industries nourish beside them. exist over the whole of the north of Sweden and also^ extend northward to the tundra from a line drawn between Warsaw and Perm. The hostility of theclimate to manufactures is a great drawback to a country's progress. from Sweden the wood is exported under the familiar name of deal and at Gefle large quantities of wood are pounded The making of into pulp for the manufacture of paper. accounts in some degree for her comparatively small contribution to the progress of civilisation. As one would expect they consist chiefly of pine and fir whose tough needlelike — evergreen leaves enable them to resist the rigours of South of this line the evergreens give way the climate. The German city to forests of oak.70 Environment Russia's Slow Development. The wild animals of above. Now dense populations mean as a rule interchange of ideas and rapid progress. birch and beech. for it is only in manufacturing districts that dense pipulations as a rule congregate. on account of the absence of coal and the abundant supply of water brought down by the melting snow from the heights worked by water power. — Forests and Dependent Industries. naturally takes place from Riga. Libau and Revel. pitch. together with the fact that Russia has always had to contend with trouble from the east and has thus been unable to face western civilisation and to keep in line with it. In Russia the export of timber and resin. This.. tar and resin form lesser industries at the same place./ populations foster stagnation. Kronstadt. the saw mills of Gefle are the forests formerly yielded valuable supplies of fur .

is 71 decreasing. that Russia is the world's greatest producer of that commodity. i This naturally goes to the Black Sea ports. The fallen es of the forest have formed a soil so suitable to the growth of hemp. In eastern Germany not only is it used for the manufacture of rye . Odessr.A Natural but the Geography. wheat may he grown. barley and on in the Baltic Provinces. In Swed. for the -p and summer. Wherever the rich black earth found in Siberia. the herds of Agriculture and Dependent Industries. In the clearings of the forests and oats are grown. n it is used for home consumption. On this account the . are warm and bright. the latter port also exports enormous quant As is only to be expected. — 1. The brandy and vodka that are not used for home consumption both rind their way to ReYel and Riga to be shipped abroad. in order that the grown in the south may be wholly exported.rearing of of the winter not only ro to I continental climaU the a The i aalfl of their food their being housed indoors during the jn. where methods produce huge crops of wheat. — < bread. value of this export steadily enormous trees. Rostov and Kherson. deciduous forests are now the home of swine which find an abundance of food in the acorns and beech nuts which fall from the Instead. produce is much more varied in the Black Earth imitive south of the forest belt of Russia. Indeed. the ag icultural of eggs. Domestic Animals.. though short. also where the well-known sian drink vodka is made from rye and the crops of potatoes are utilised in the making of brandy. but in the district surrounding Posen both rye Distilling is potatoes are used in the ied distilleries.' > . on account of its great hardiness rye is grown over the whole region.

but as the making cities impeded by the dry atmosphere. as at KieY and Kazan. . Tver and Kostroma where of coal is found. coalfield lies along the river of textiles is so Oder. almost on the borders of Poland. lie what are believed to be the greatest zinc deposits in the cities is Almost inexhaustible also are the deposits of copper and iron in Svealand or Sweden proper. Mineral wealth of St. the along the river devote their attention to the manuThe chief of these facture of hardware and chemicals. Breslau. though abundant over the greater part of the region. is —A continental climate also a great hindrance to textile manufacture. a leather indus- an try naturally arises. : In eastern Germany the dry sandy plain is suited to the rearing of sheep. but wherever the cattle are kept near to the forests where birch bark may be obtained for tanning. Tammerfors in Finland. all kinds. In consequence the difficulties presented by the continental to occur in the damper as at climate. that is the manufacture of soap and candles. Konigshutte. though the supply of wool is decreasing.72 Environment inferior quality. Elsewhere the cattle give rise to the tallow industry. of textiles artificially making can be The demands a humid atmosphere which produced only at great expense. which from its frontier position serves as a market where the manufactures of the west may At be exchanged for the raw materials of the east. factured at Moscow. as it is found cheaper to import. Norkoping in Sweden and Petersburg. textile manufacture tends districts round the Baltic Sea. These metals are found near Fahlun and Gene and as the world. Manufactures and Minerals. has not yet received the In eastern Germany the chief attention it deserves. In Russia textiles are manufactured under several parts of these difficult conditions woollens and linens are manu.

iid to the ral Mountains. are to be found in Norrland. both precious and common. and lie chiefly in the _ coalfields are the Q8 of the Donetz and Vistula and around Tula. The land heats is the south. ir . although where minerals (especially c Her are extracted. a high price wh< Other deposits of metal. however. North American middle form the portion of t] Continent an and the Golf of in the An itching 'The interior lowlands or prairies of the M-\ico. and the I. dense populations have sprung up. Russia has not yet taken full advantage of her vast mineral wealth. am the The Prairies of Canada. and copper.A Sat urn proximity of the forests I (• hy. i: irals : I this distric be gal I from the fact that nine- tenths of the world's output of platinum a Ekaterinburg and Perm. as ad iron. i I ! i the precious metals thi - carcity. n Highlands x he Atlantic influence t id < »rth and south he land lies open. which are rich in platinum. aim Bommi warm winds from Of rain. . and in south aroun Ekaterinoslay. is mined chiefly in the basin of the Kama. bringing local Bho? rapidly m siiiiiiiht. has been p. a tributary of the Volga. More attention. gold is abundant throughout Siberia. a low l The wet 1 acifio Etockj • unable to affect the region becaus Mountains. n Europe. '> i bles - e iron to he suit >] with charcoal. where howon account of the latitude only iron is extracted. gold and precious stones. on the whole. The climate win is distinctly continental in eha rainfall. and in the bh the daylight long and Vt i ting . hut the rigour of the climate has hitherto prevented their being worked to am int. steel is required.

while the north is a land of forest and fur-bearing animals. The forest belt stretches north of the great lakes. . 8. although wheat growing is possible after the chief occupation is of a pastoral nature. such as the Mackenzie. \*.. developed greatly in this but trappers gain considerable profit from the skins Lumbering has not been somewhat forbidding area. very dry. '"'^C"^C. but the thaws of spring supply abundant moisture rainless. the of the Prairie region is The extreme west Churchill and the Nelson but all these regions are economically spoiled by their frozen condition during .. ^ Fig. and agriculture gives place to cattle-ranching..-. for east of this is the greatest wheat region of the world. —A Clearing in the Canadian Forest Belt of a great part the year. and west of it.^^:55iSg^ of the North. for the tilling of the ground.74 Environment the huge areas of ivheat. irrigation.. and furs of the animals.. and is crossed by many rivers. The region may be divided from north to south by the 100° west line of longitude. and almost The winters are very cold and the ground is frozen deep and hard.

A ( \.\ VIDIAN Will \ I I'll II'. the great market and central town of the wheat area. thus it is possible for the best labour-saving appiiai to be widely employed.'.A Natural Geography. situated near the southern end is i Winnipeg Winnipeg. 9. with splendid \. at the confluence of the Assiniboine It and I has grown with astonishing rapidity. tie of many railways. ah of ii"\i impo is Brandon. and . railway line only so thai i I: \ could adequately Bupply their growing t n<l relieve the their product i oid small settlements. and ripen the wheat. Minnesota and part of Saskatchewan are included in this belt. Tin. rising and public build ii the hich Seem8 :•: :t.most important towns ol this aaturally Bprang ap on or near the firsl . The early summer rains come at the most suitahle time. sunny days which >• The land is generally level. another wheat town.1 ^d&*&^k^ji J /'£> 1'. North and South Dakota. and they are succeeded by warm. 75 of I The Wheat Area. however. . —The provinces Manitoba. >rs.

and sheep and cattle rearing. It is readily observable that North America is not completely isolated. Hardy colonists. The Animal Life op North America. life connected by the well-known Isthmus of Panama. Already there are four railways crossing the Dominion. by hard toil and frequent disappointments. paved the way for what has become in many cases a rapidly developing town and the village of to-day may be the this still goes on prosperous city of to-morrow. the present connection has lasted sufficiently long to admit America it is . — — Prince Albert. it pervades the will be advisable this region typifies juncture.76 the wheat Environment belt. but is or has been connected by narrow isthmuses with two great land masses whose With South animal life present many differences. and the lands to the north and west differ from it only in unimportant details. Here one can find the cowboy of the story-books. together with wheat growing are the chief occupations. Medicine Hat. Thousands of emigrants are adding yearly to the population of Alberta and Saskatchewan. the mounted police headquarters. and although this narrow neck of land has many times been submerged beneath the waves. as this it at to describe the whole. an important junction. riding his half-broken broncho horse with skill and daring. all great ranching and farming centres. and around these have sprung up such towns as Regina. The lesser wants of the communities are also being partially supplied by the growth of many small industries made possible by the opening up in a small way of the coal seams known to exist in rich deposits in these north-west provinces. As a general similarity of animal whole continent north of Mexico. Saskatoon and Edmonton. in his picturesque costume and broad sun-hat.

which cot f< I >me c ding In- imea attack it man . and a few forms such as opossums from the southern continent to which they properly belong. which although coming originally from the Old World. man has found it necessary first greatly bheir rn cumbers. herds to his white man proved much . hunting them. there have migrated into North America a Large number of forms such as the lynxes. hears.A of Natural Geography.an But the coming of the w hen he brought i new colonies. their food like but a few of the features of interest attaching North America. comparatively » i( found their chief in support.unl ital. they found the plains inhabi thouliana by herds of bison to be Cumbered only iii ds. as well as their chief amusement. and the rattlesnake which signifies its •r in the peculiar manner to which it owes its name. When Europeans read of Continent.BS D . elks and bisons.d> are considerably smaller much more cunning. be these anim. wolves. will be doubt!. hardly reduced by tin. we now regard as typical of the New. it will perhaps be best to show one or two of the ways in which they have affei men. animal life in In the first place. the passenger-pigeons some monkeys in the pouches whose migrations darken the sky. As a consequence of the droughts which have so many times forced the From animals of Central Asia to seek another home. but as it is impossible to describe them all. but the time has been when a dry land connection existed. by the narrow Behring Asia it is now severed Strait.bisOO has man any kindly puma ami tic wolf. he drove I the lyn animals further and tin wild animal tin. The rats which store of their cheeks. himself. 77 the immigration of racoons.

78 Environment : years before they suffer the same fate. . like the moose. others like the silver fox and marten are still captured by trappers and hunters Best of all. has become domesticated. the turkey. man has seen the wisdom of making his roads to follow them. To give it it the plentiful supply of water in which it delights. which for its value as a table delicacy has been introduced in many other lands. Some. This is One. they have served But although man has been unkind to the native him well in various ways. The beaver has incurred man's displeasure for a very different reason. for as their runways usually cross the country by the safest and smoothest path. men have destroyed the numbers and in populous districts they have become extinct. afford him exciting sport. animals. the larger animals for their fur. but only one. beavers in large gnaws down the trees of the river-side To preserve the timber as well as to procure their fur. however. and constructs huge dams. like the bear have shown him the direction in which to build his roads.

.

3 S? £ 05 < J < o PS < w t» O w O hJ -*! 03 03 o O .

containing considerably. Lofty highlands occur in both the western and eastern hemispheres. while the glaciers. > . snow crowned and have many Bumn The olio cold and forbids settlement. mountains lie near to the Pacific coast and form the northern part of a vast drain running throughout the American c 'it. the Kicking I H i Pass.mis chief are now c I by railways. with Dawson City as field in the Klondyk Further south. Between th reral parallel. but in the southern half oi the world they are confined narrow Andean Ridge beta Southern Chili and Southern Argentina. two main rii chief settlement. . broken and extending their length ranges run. This mountain mas in Alaska and runs in Plateau through Yukon. which contains a rich goldB on. the Cascade Range bounding the Bril are found Columbian area and th< Rocky Mountains forming the bo the — bern limit of the plateau. The Elevated Lands of the Temperate Zone.. The western slopes are heavily . on the ranching plain to the tar to which the and the Crou British Columbian coalfields lie. as it is here that the rainfall is from the wet south-west anti-trades. In North America.CHAPTER IV. through which nadiaii PaciJ passes from Calgary.

are found plentifully. minerals to commerce. . the Yenesei and the Amur.80 Environment : Southern Altai Highlands. but the climate and difficulties of communication and access have made them not easily obtainable. but as they mostly flow to the frozen seas they are of little value As in other mountain regions. are always cold. composed of very high detached mountain chains cut by long river valleys and fairly well watered by rain-bearing winds from the Pacific. but the valleys in summer become Siberia is The Siberian and — almost unbearably hot. such as the Lena. but exposed The summits to very great variations in temperature. Many long rivers rise here.

in lie nearer to the Equator than exception interior area. small indeed in the in areas and summer the east of the continents.) T1k >ns have conti- warm summers and. their winters are The rainfall in throughout winter in tfa one. the Poles. . THE WARM TEMPERATE REGIONS. opposite page 33. •:• The warm temperate lands. except on highlands mild.SECTION III. of being most heavy very Q the west interior each continent. and nental interiors. in to both hemispheres. of with the a small part included tip of the Siberian and of the northern the Mediterrai (See map.

(2) The Cape Corner of West Australia. The Mediterranean or "Mid-Land " Sea is the largest Gibraltar. landlocked sea in the world. All these lands have equable warm climates with the Similar in climate rainfall chiefly in the winter months. * The lands which border the Mediterranean Sea on all sides possess well marked common traits is and it is quite true to say that the north of Africa more like the France than the latter is to the north of France. (3) The Cape Town corner of Caps Colony. south of The Mediterranean Lands. The Equable Lands. sharply divided into two .CHAPTEK I. Victoria and the North Island of New Zealand in Australasia. this great inland basin surrounding features of the lands will probably supply us with a key to the reasons for its importance. being the only natural entrance by For centuries. From east to west the ssa It is is two thousand one hundred miles in length. greatest importance. and productions to the Mediterranean lands we find (1) California and Central Chili in America. the Gulf Border of South Australia. politically and commercially. the Straits of nine miles in breadth. and this importance has been due almost entirely to its Thus a study of the geographic geographical situation. the Mediterranean was of the water.

but the sinking of the Level of the the Mediterranean area. The « (applied only half form of rain is of the amount taken ion. -trades or is within the calms. through The whole ( ribraltar. belt begins to As winter approaches.A distinct basins. The western basin is connected with the Atlantic by the Straits of Gibraltar and it has cornet ively smooth and unindented coast-. the Natural Geography. and its southern ma ubject to much g than are any other I portions of the basin is M ih mean mated as year. The bulk of the eastern nearer the Kquator than the most BOUthi basin lies bo point of the western basin. but has some of the larger and more important ones. The eastern basin stretches from ( Bon in Tunis to the coast of Syria. S3 western basin and the eastern or Levant basin. such as the Adriatic and J^gean Seas. and p \ bj . the sun belt lies the M the northern tropic. in hemmed by natural boundari ips mountain raogi form vrry well marked barriers. t! move southwards and the M under the influence of the south-. region. It is much la than the western basin and has important branches which have long borne separate names. and thus the winter is the rainy within in tin* ranean comes by IS <•. 3 boundaries are the coasts of Spain. France and Italy and the northern shores of Sicily and of Africa. known as the " H Latitudes" which are experienced at the parting of In either ease a rainfall and amithe is produced. broken )n irth. • j) t i by the Inflow of water lioin the 0! is < All. to receive two sets of prevailing win further In the summer. It contains small islands.. the whole trade wind north than in the winter and thus the dry north-east mean l l wind wind at that season.

then. and manufactured a fine purple dye of which they alone held the secret. then known as Gaul." as Amongst these were the it was called in early times. spread in thin streams round the eastern end of the mountain barrier and up the Danube valley. The Early Importance of the Mediterranean Countries. the great Sahara Desert stretches to the very shores of the sea and forms an impassable barrier.C. to . who lived on the northern coast strip of and who had colonies and settlements all along the Mediterranean. Traces of Phoenician civilisation dating This race further back than 2000 B. Phoenicians. The Romans did not cross into the Rhine valley and North Europe until the Roman expansion into Gaul had become very marked. with the exception of the fertile strip between the Atlas Kange and the coast.84 Environment the only two of importance being the the west Ehone valley in and the Danube valley in the east. Their ships actually passed into the Atlantic and are supposed have called ior the tin of the Cornish mines. Syria. The of the routes eastern fringe of the basin plateau. have been found. One used frequently in these later times is that between the Mediterranean and the Garonne river. this spreading into North Europe was only possible over the lower passes of the Rhone valley. — Some of the greatest races the world has yet seen were reared in the basin of the " Great Sea. They traded in glass and tin. is also flanked by desert and These natural barriers to race movements serve to confine the Mediterranean races to the lands adjoining The Greeks certainly the basin for a very long period. but both these expansions were for a long time indefinite. On the^ south. and. for the Canal du Midi now links the Bay of Biscay with the Mediterranean Sea. and the Romans passed into Erance.

become very prominent. as it is called. With the fall of Koine. ]» maritime city of the first importance. each of which rao . historically and c Yenice.vr\ powerful and highly civilised. via the Danube Valley into Bohemia. until at length she 9ed under the rule of the Turks in the 15th cent ury \. with a j> >werful of merchant >hij>-. lying as it cd<J at the threshold of Asia and near a great trade route to the east. at the north end of the Adrial bed at the end of the great trade route overland another route passed up the \: atic to through Venice. and then their sway was challenged by the Persians. [t grevt maritime I' . [taly. and one lrom C through the Black Sea. . i > . and hence. the Carthaginians and the Romans. Greece.c. The stories of Greece are full of a mixed Asiatic and European influence and they form a good example of how situation or location.power lementa in the Lei mt. on the coast of Asi Minor one from Cyprus across Asia Minor to Troy. was under strong Asiatic influence. and this influence is it clearly shown in the Greek literature. finally colonies of their — possesses also two other cities whose situation ca tliem to . where copper and tin were to be found.. Genoa. Thus Troy became the chief city of the then known world.i>. mercially. ol ( - ind on what is qow called I was originally the terminus of the md route t<> In lia. which was once the seat of the Roman Empire. navy and to India.i i on the Gull Riviera. affects the life and thought of a race. The two great exchange routes to the north and e ^ed through the city of Troy. overthrown by the Greek races who planted own on the Mediterranean shores. the importance of Greece also diminished. The Greeks extended their s\ Mem of commerce all ovt r the Mediterranean in the 8th and 7th centuries b.A Natural - Geography. and hi tipI i by it rival Venice. and Venice became B >hemia.

The Atlantic coast yet shows considerable variation. although of a Climate. "Africa begins at the Pyrenees. Mediterranean type with its rains chiefly in the winter. — With region. Since the days of Eome. value of minerals. The great routes of mercial portions of exchange between the comthe Old World pass through the Mediterranean. — . 2. The sea is safe for shipping. as it high plateau which falls rapidly is called. the exception of the shorelands north of the Cantabrian Mountains. Mediterranean and the inhabitants are also of the Mediterranean type in these particulars it is very much akin to the north-west corner of Africa and this connection has also been strongly marked in the history of Spain. in fact as one writer says. Spain and Portugal. Spain has been politically linked . All the countries have long coastlines. Spain and Portugal lie entirely within the Mediterranean of a The Iberian Peninsula. consists to lowlands along the Guadalquivir in the south-west and along the Bbro It is cut off from the rest of Europe in the north-east. not having been discovered. They were thus well supplied with natural : harbours. The 5.86 Environment : The chief reasons Jbr the early importance of these Mediterranean Countries may be summed up as follows 1. The climate is mild and^ the soil is naturally productive. by the Pyrenees which form an even greater barrier The flora and fauna are distinctly than the Alps. 4. with north Africa. often much indented. 3." The climate of Iberia. A brief survey of the political countries in this region will here be useful. the lack of such was not any drawback to the development of these lands.

is naturally very heavy in this part and it is i fairly spread throughout the year. tremes in temperature and receives rain clouds are all con lensed on The beau. several ship. hot. The climate most fertile The rainfall is distinctly equable and Portugal is and best watered portion of the peninsula. as the plateau rivers called. only portion- of the peninsula which are are in cally summers mild.A Natural Geography. and the ruins almost the coast of solely the winter month Certain lly parts of i malaria. for it produces heavy fogs which render the Portuguese coast dangerous for for example. is it dry and infertile and the three which cross do so in deep gorges and are of little use until they reach the lowlands of Portugal. the w:. and one or two were completely v. sheltered are for by the mountains from the cooling breezes. to the south 'i of Valencia. although there particularly heavy rainy season for a short time in the Although this rainfall ma early part of each year. rain. The land.which border the Me Iv the y. the the mouth Q ladiana and Guadalquivir and round the mouth This is partly due to the flooding jus. it has its drawbacks. interior plateau has gi little . the soil rich. for the the of is This i '.got into difficulties. very while the higher lands are very cold many months. The charming and equable temperature is not perienced very far from the coast. the rivi I 'he fierce b wind which blows from the Sahara -able d wmd which in the . rim of SI lowlands is the summers are much under the influence of the oc warm while the winters are genm 1 . near the in mouth lowlan the Ebro. for the deeper valli shipping. in 1912.

because the Government. a linen industry. however. probably because the north is more temperate and equable than the south. where the chief manuand lace The Biscay sea border is also the centre of goods. while the south-east is well-known for its ropes. strong paper made from Esparto grass. quicksilver. round the town factures are cotton goods. has been comit pelled to surrender one mine life of after another. Spain is exceptionally rich in minerals. while the southern peasant is content to live upon chestnuts and to tend his pigs and goats. which are.88 east coastal region Environment is : the Solano —a moist heated wind from the east. The plant and animal the peninsula of is distinctly of a Mediterranean type. The peasant of the north not only tends his vines. lead ore. woollen has also great stores of coal. but special mention made of of the cork oak trees must be the lower hills and beans and olives which supply the with their chief foods. corner. — The of Iberia are not very important. the crops of villages . in order to raise money. Generally speaking. salt. It will be seen that the maritime districts are the chief centres of manufactures because they are most favourably situated for the import of coal and raw material. trious of the and energetic than those Manufactures and manufactures greatest in Natural Productions. are much more indus- south and east. but in many cases rears silkworms and grows olive trees. The noted merino sheep reared in Spain is of great value. silver ore and many others. baskets and thick. the inhabitants of the north and especially of the coast districts. such as coppei ore. linen goods. being especially the extreme of north-east Barcelona. carpets. largely undeveloped and many of the mines are owned by foreign (principally English) companies.

did Spain decline.A Natural The i.' Many of the reasons have already been noted above. The Moors were a very industrious race and their energies. was the first cause of decline. and because impossible to estimate accurately the trading re- lations between Spain and its neighbours. Spain has few harbours Buitable . — summary of the causes : — The expulsion of the Moors and the Jews and the growth of the power of the Inquisition. and why does she. for big ships. rade. and the barren nature of Ai. forbade the construction of good means of communication and has hindered the production of Railway and canal construction mineral supplies. and one of the principal factors of this rise was the Moorish conquest of Spain. France Portugal. raised Spain to its prominent position in Europe. which hindered is and freedom natural oi . profitless wars and (Mill g ill her besl colonies of I hi mconr 6. coupled with the enterprise of the huge numbers of Jews then resident in the Peninsula. Geography. The elevation ople are naturally indolent"! not suitable for hard physical labour. - s l> intense poverty of many of the people of leads this to a great is amount of smuggling. Roads are necessarily lengthened by windis difficult. Why then. with her immense mineral resources not now occupy a leading place amongst the traders of the world'. In the fifteenth century Spain rose to a supreme place among the nations. r navigation. ings and the riwrs are swift and u2. i climafc The national resources have been Bapped it of both men and money in bj expensive. Spain's Decline. but it will be well to indicate here a brief 1.

160 feet above the lower. The mountainous province behind is Its climate is genial and pleasant and rich in minerals.90 Environment : Towns. Oporto stands cultivated at the mouth of the Douro and is the second city of Portugal. it became the capital of Spain on account of this Its central position central position. have combined to give the town much importance from the time of the Eomans. One could not leave the Iberian Peninsula without glancing at its most noted military stronghold . the Atlantic and the Bay of Biscay. has made it the focus of the railways of the peninsula in modern times. of almost equidistant from the Mediterranean. and has a fine. spanned by a fine two roadways. being necessary in times The bar at the mouth Douro has made necessary the construction of a small town as an Atlantic harbour. almost land-locked harbour. — Some of the chief towns on the Peninsula : are splendid examples of environment Lisbon. stands on a promontory. the capital of Portugal. it is nearly in the centre. whilst in earlier days. Mediterranean which Gibraltar. It is thus the chief port of Portugal and is a port of call for many southward and eastward bound vessels. the uppej of the one. All these things its harbour is large and easy of access. Madrid stands on a climate the a bleak treeless tableland which has of extremes. Barcelona is situated on a fertile coast plain of the is one of the most productive areas on the peninsula. It is the centre of the best and most prosperous district in the country not only as the centre of the port wine trade but as the seat of many busy industries. The river is bridge in one arch which carries of flood. and Kingdom of Spain. four miles to the north. while to-day it is the chief industrial and commercial port and city of Spain. at the mouth of the river Tagus.

but are mild and genial in winl je are the only provinces which do not rec Atlantic prevailing winds. ho w towns » Cannes and families in the winter. but suffer from a cold wind at times from the north-north-W68t known the Mistral. partly to I . which. sides of the rock cannot be climbed and the fourth bristles with £uns. The Cevennes form the south-east of the Auver^ne Plateau. At the very summit of the rock. The coastal provinces are Bubject to rather excessive summer. E3 nouth. 91 hands of the British. it is Thus entrance to the Southern France. Nice. and to the northof of i' across the Khone Valley the Jura Mountains begin. It is situated at the extreme south end of the peninsula on a rocky promontory overlooking a strait only thirteen miles is which now in the in a position to control the western Mediterranean Sea and is probably Three the most important strategic town in the world. whicli are found nowhere else in ope. owii i- sunny winter climate are mucl This distrid t known >>f th | Riviera.'ii the Ail .: from the Atlantic provinces by the chief mountain ridges and groups of the country. in width. lome ill-health and occasional damage to the produce of the soil. — The south-eastern provin France are in the Mediterranean area and are separ. Geography. Rhone and . li\ res nail number of apes. or hot southern This variety of winds is tl winds. ' 1 of pro luctive.A Natural Gibraltar. partly owing r the . or from Alpine winds. but are of the same family as those of Africa.

From this point the Ehone takes a direct southerly course and enters the almost tideless Mediterranean Sea in a delta. A little to the east of the Ehone delta situated the town of Marseilles. is within easy reach of one of the chief manufacturing districts where coal. — The people of the . are distinctly Mediterranean in type. have naturally combined to make Marseilles the principal seaport of France from very early times. etc. where it deposits much of its mud and mountain debris. are produced. so called because of the storms which It is at the foot of one of the few often roar in it. natural routes to the north of Europe.92 Environment The Ehone. has a splendid harbour. mulberries (whose leaves provide food for the silkworms necessary to the Lyons silk trade) and other southern fruits. emerges as a clear blue stream and rushes rapidly on until joined by the Saone. where the town of Lyons has sprung up. —The vegetable productions olives. is Marseilles. Since the construction of the railway between Lyons and Marseilles the river traffic has rapidly declined. not far from a coalfield (St. steel-goods. is a convenient port of call for eastward bound vessels from the Straits of Gibraltar and is at the southern terminus These facts of an overland railroute from the north.. south of France are naturally like their brethren throughout the country since they are subject to the same mode of government The People. silk-goods. rising in the Swiss Alps and passing through Lake Geneva in Switzerland. finely situated on the — Gulf of Lions. So much debris is brought by this rapidly flowing stream that sandbanks and shoals are constantly forming and shifting in the lower regions of the stream. and although the river is navigable up to Lyons. Etienne). the difficulties are great.'. Vegetable Productions. including vines.

where winds warm and I lie ski pie . are French I The Riviera. is know . like themselves are passionate. They are quick and clever and renowned for their politeness of manner. most of their southern neighbours who. especially in the sunny Riviera of the south. Tn the ire cloudy and our weather often Nice i when damp f and i- Rivi the : 'is. The French race however. The French people have been called the liveliest people in the world.or. has is a very courageous one. of the Mediterranean. The French alwa buries. and belong 03 to the same race. and renowned for its warlike character. night and In this liveliness of manner and disposition the day. their ueral good feast cause of patriotism. which makes the people of France more steady in their industrial and agricultural life and gives them the power to enter much more like French are much successfully into competition with the northern trading nations than can their neighbours of Spain and Italy. dancing. ie has already l» Riviera of the French coast and the towns slight —A refereno i fcrict are very beautiful. In almost every French town. being very fond of music. and play-going. crowds throng the open air cafes and gardens. For in the France his been a dominant race id | world and one to lias only to think of the time of Napoleon. lively and of a changeable nature. and they are accustomed to frivolity and gaiety.A Natural Geography. that the Frenchman not only a gay pleasure i but one who can endure excitable long and hardships in the the Yet with all their bravi and easily BWayed by the -ions of the moment. also shows the influence of the more sober northern races of Europe. They are very volatile or changeable in their moods.

At its extreme southern end is the island of Sicily. the peninsula of Italy projects into the Mediterranean from the mass of Central Europe. South of this. The country of Italy is one of the best examples in the world of a land whose natural boundaries are marked with great distinctness. which sweeps round in a great semi-circle from the head of the Adriatic Sea to the principality of Monaco. Italy. long presented a great obstacle to the is invasion of Italy. On the north there its many the great Alpine barrier. where people of every nationality assemble to risk their wealth in the hope of making large fortunes. which is obviously a continuation of the mountains of the peninsula itself.94 of Environment Nice of is a small principality. eight square miles in area its and ruled by own army Rock 130 men. As may be expected. the Apennines . much more real in From the early days of navigation than it is to-day. between Nice and Genoa. The reason for this is that all the Government expenses are easily covered by the profits made the out of the gambling rooms of the Monte Carlo Casino. situated in beautiful grounds in one section of little state. but man)'. despite passes. The inhabitants themselves are not allowed to play. and there is no doubt that this vinces of south-east France fact contributed much to its early importance. while on every other side the sea pro- vided a natural barrier to invasion. The north of Italy is divided from the coastal pro- and from Switzerland by the mighty chain of the Alps. which.are employed in the gambling rooms. The is crowded with buildings and the people are required to pay no taxes. Prince and having its own small This small army is responsible for the defence of the rocky promontory of Monaco. the Alps. many people are utterly ruined every year in this most beautiful city of the Riviera.

mulberries and most excellent pasturage for sheep Thus. one only to instance the Emelian Way which.A Natural stretch in an Geography. Its great fertility allows it to produc vines. preserving an unbroken straight line for more than a hundred while alluvial soil is also ) much — . then turn more to the south that the northern plain between the Apennines and the Alps is sharply divided from the rest of the peninsula. although included for convenience in the Mediterranean region. One important result of this position of the Apennines is line across the unbroken Adriatic Sea. drink from the vines. forming as it were the backbone. is really b >me- what continental j in character. we find food in the form of rice. This plain receives the waters from the snows on the southern slopes of the Alps and from the northern slopes of the Apennines. mutton and in the shape ol silk from the silkworms reared on the ae land Burl mulberry leaves all produced from The Lombardy Plain is remarkably level. — Northern Italy consists chiefly of the basins of the rivers Po and Adige. The climate of Northern Italy. and rain of the at al. Northern . Italy. pari summer abund dill Ol riwbaek to the summer the thunder . . 95 country to the and along the whole country. which form a broad and fertile plain. having extremes is in summer producfertility and winter. and cattle. has been o! . extending without a rise or depression to the very foot of the mountains on all sides. As an illustration of this.treine Lombard Plain thus due to the heat with its the soil and to the rainfall. until they reach the very toe of the peninsula. g itest high- Northern Italy from the time of the Romans our own. brought down and spread over the plain. fifty i miles across the plain. and clothing cheese.

Many parts of the land are infested by mosquitoes and other insects which spread malarial fevers.96 Environment hailstorms. grass is to be seen. which are often truly terrible. The west is naturally protected from the cooler north-east winds by the mountain barrier and it also receives rather more rain in the winter than does the eastern or leeward side. They are often divided into what may be called summer and winter quarters the summer one being on the lower story with . as if the winepress of the wrath of God had stained their mountain raiment I have seen . to counteract the intense cold of the winter. stone or marble floors and the winter one on the upper story having comfortable warm appointments. — . description can be given than the words of No better John Ruskin. Central and Southern Italy. . One interesting result of this variation in the summer climates is the structure of many of the houses of North Italy. rugs. In the south the rainfall is very slight. will readily be seen that they will have considerable effect on the climate and hence on the lives of the inhabitants. carpets. especially in summer. This sirocco Very little green is very like the Leveche wind of Spain. and this causes considerable ill-health. with fire- place. when at times a hot scorching wind called the Sirocco blows from Africa. " who says. etc. olives and other southern fruits flourish on the low-lying hills. — Since the Apennines it traverse the whole length of the peninsula. I have seen the thunderclouds come down on those Italian hills and all their crags dipped in the dark terrible purple. the hail fall in Italy if till the forest branches stood stiff and bare as blasted by the locust. although vines. oranges. the heat of the day is usually followed by rapid cooling at night." House Structure. In summer time..

Bay of Naflbs am. Vesuvius. Naples. a volcano which is still frequently in eruption and which was responsible in 74 a. The city of Rome was built in the very centre ol the Italian v. such as the densely populated province of Campania. far from being clean and healthy. city of Naples. and is durable. the far-famed recent beauty was. The streets of these cities have recently been brought to light again. 97 Some provinces of the west are exceptionally fertile. i i I . containing the capital eitj of une name. cannot help but notice the noise made by the vehicles and horses in the streets and this is due to the fact the streets are paved with lava and hard volcanic The material is easily obtained from Vesuvine. for the complete destruction of two Roman cities.d.A Natural Geography. after being covered for centuries by the debris thrown out from the volcano. 10. but sanitary ohanges have been made which have Visitors to Na] done much to transform the city. which contains the largest and most beautifully situated city of Italy. . up to a short time ago.. but ledingly slippery for the anio North of Campania lies the province of Rome. Behind Naples rises the cone of Vesuvius.

and the far world and pilgrims from great Eoman Catholic cathedral of St. and many Of late years no violent outrages frequently occurred. the foot of the carried on at chiefly are industries hills. but the population is now very scanty owing to the prevalence of malaria. probably because of the fear of consequent severe punishment. streams. In the middle of the river is an island which made bridge-building easy. — This has been especially the case since the discovery of the value of water-power as a means of producing electricity. Environment : on seven hills on the left bank of the river Tiber. as the Abruzzi The province known of was once the scene Brigands infested the mountains travellers. the textile rapid." as she once could boast. Here is situated the Vatican. the chief are vines. she is still the headquarters of the greatest religious sect in the and wide have journeyed to Home for centuries. cereals (including especially wheat and rice). for Italy's mountainous core gives it a plentiful supply of Hence. . olives (both for food and for olive oil). the palace of the Pope. and it was in close proximity to the sea. Of the products of the soil. tobacco. The Lombardy Plain produces the well-known Gorgonzola and Parmesan cheeses. if not voluminous. chestnuts and Mediterranean fruits.attacks on foreigners have been made. The district round the city was once well drained It and cultivated.98 coast. was thus healthy and easy of defence at a time when this was a very important factor in a city's growth. . much and extorted heavy ransoms from on natives still occur at times. although manufactures have developed considerably in recent years. By far the larger number of the people of Italy are employed in agriculture. flax. hemp. Occupations and Productions. Peter. Although Borne is not now the "mistress of the world. hunting and fishing. but attacks lawlessness.

—The Alps are now pierced by several communicachief tunnels tunnels. deal of this ei '.an range. are the Mont Ccnis Tunnel to France. Geography. passing from Yerona into the Alps and over the lowest of the alpine passes the Brenner Pass (4. i the it has alwa subject In no other part oi and Inter-racial troubles. • and l at high and ! irope. The Balkan Peninsula. 99 goats and pigs are very numerous The silkworms of the in many pails of the country. The Balkan Peninsula kl is the most easterly of the tli peninsulas M ol idite I. The . opened Milan into Switzerland — Roman the Sin high road to Augsburg in Bavaria.4s0 ft. id i> there so i^ much lion be! unrest and r. enough is retained to create a good silk industry in Italy. with Turin the large town at the Italian end the St. gre. especially in the towns near the source of supply Milan. and it is e id from the mainland by the deep and rapid river Danube and its th< long tributary a The peninsula distil] is essentially ing i mountain land.). Alpine Passes. southwards into which >h ranean Sea. sheep. Gotthard Tunnel to Switzerland. and although much of this is exported to France for the Lyons bilk industry. and the Sinqjlon in 1906. bringing the Italian railroads into tion with those of Northern Europe. silk of B logna.it \\ - both SO and re! in the Balkans. Genoa.A Natural while cattle. with Milan in Italy. three-fourths of the rawLomhardy Plain supply nearly Europe. as such. and a •'. [1 i the . the most . also leading from on the north. -• strile. and. Along this pass lies also the Tunnel. A railway connects Italy with Austria. The conof struction of the alpine railway tunnels Cc 1 1 and the cutting have greatly expanded Italian trade.

wandering Asia. the capital of what was so recently as 1912. as a consequence.. People. Slavs. tribes of Serbs. determined fighting races. mountains. —Many etc. bands of Mohammedan Turks passed into the peninsula from Asia Minor and at last in such First. at many peninsulas and numerous fringing islands. and these natural are intensified of is differences which composed uplands. only to be regained a few weeks later by the Turks. took the town of Adrianople seven hundred years ago. and. settled along the basin of the Danube. valleys. by the nature of the land. of the Danube. and stony points deeply cut by the sea into centuries ago. which in spite of constant inter-tribal feuds have . struck the great barrier of the Carpathian — the representatives of the Slav races. if not from extinction. reaching as far as the Swiss Alps and in time spreading throughout the From time northern half of the Balkan Peninsula. it also served to cover much of the wrong and cruel misdeeds of the conquerors. to time. From the first conquest to the European Turkey. as we may call them. the town which so lately fell once more into the hands of Sea. but misgovernment and neglect have not made the most of what little fertility there is. Mohammedan and the Christian. The land is in great part barren. the states of the peninsula are thinly peopled. they numbers as to overcome the inhabitants. and although the mountainous nature of the land probably saved the conquered races from complete subjection. but with hardy. Turks the have been guilty of constant day present oppression and cruelty to their Christian subjects. and afterwards Constantinople.100 Environment : the common meeting ground of the Asiatic and the European. crossing from north of the Black Mountains and were divided into two thin main streams one passing northwards into Poland and West Germany and the other following the natural highway These Slav races.

nourished from the earliest times a hardy The mountains served the double purpose of limiting the area of arable land (one-fifth of the whole country) and of protecting the race from outside encroachment. i Occupations and Agriculture. In this connection. agriculture is a \ bad ma. being i Greece. state. Thin population. Lack of st misation. but it will be best for our purpose to take a glimpse at each political area in turn. Much more could be said of the feuds. 101 retained sufficient power gradually to win back their independence. and little attempt has been made >f to impi The ch Antiquated metho this are : cultivation. The other European Powers recognised Turkey's usefulness to themselves as a means of blocking Eussia's outlet to the sea. the race differences and religions of this rugged peninsula.. : usury. roads. The Bad fact that owners frequently n out oi the country altogether. and for this reason her iniquities were overlooked and her power bolstered up. the plains and valleys ii whei in supplied with water being very rich and producing tnagnicrops. !. :.1 Natural Geography. and with a limited food supply. — Greece is essentially an agricultural country. an area with well marked natural mountain and sea boundaries. had she not held Constantinople. while encouraging the keeping alive of clan lighting instil type of conditions forms the best " nursery " for the growth of a civilised race and is also to be found in such examples as Japan and the British Ules.. 1. In spite of this. 1. it will be well to note that the power of Turkey in Europe would probably have been broken 1<> _ go. .

and seeing this magnirather than risk the voyage. Towns. —Many of the glories of the ancient towns of Greece have departed. and before actually transto the east coasts many traders by land from the west The irregular range of hills which spread throughout the kingdom are crowned by the glorious summit of Parnassus. silver. with its fringe crops. for if the cultivation of crops is impossible. which is now* cut by the Corinth Canal. The chief product is the currant. is interesting to note that even as early as the Roman period a canal was thought of. ficent peak of 10. sheep and goats. and they take a large share in the fisheries and general trade of the Levant. either through long neglect or by . and other metals are produced. for the roads are not well . Considerable quantities of marble. but figs. for the sea passage round is the south end of the archipelago the construction of the canal. such as India. ( suited to horses. iron ore. ferred their goods very bad. that should one fail the loss is often compensated by greater abundance in another crop. Much of the inland transport is done by the sure-footed mule. of islands. are reared bn the scanty pastures. prosperity is not always reliable but in Greece there is such a variety of crops. vines. Though the country is almost everywhere mountainous. The kingdom is divided almost equally by the Isthmus It of Corinth. little of the land is waste. and a growing industry is the culture of the silkworm on the leaves of mulberry trees.102 7. cereals and tobacco yield excellent The long coast-line of Greece. olives. almost wdd. has made the Greeks into a nation of sailors and traders. Environment : The growing distaste for rural life and the increasing movement to towns owing to the spread of education. In many countries dependent largely on agriculture.000 feet one can understand it why the Greek poets of old represented as the abode of gods.

These Europe. as for example. lias often been likened to the city of Edin- and like Edinburgh its trade is carried on through an out-port. Habits. the once-famed town of Corinth. leisure pursuits. t Tins part of the peninsula contains tilt mountains—the Balkans. natural means 103 earthquake and storm. which exports currants. the Piraeus. and often in many kinds of labour. but the ruins ot its classic structures have been well pre•d and lend to the modern Athens the mantle of its ancient glory. however. — through Athens gh. Much of the city is modern. One town. S: 30 Lately plunged to in a war which threatened more than once draw in the whole of have been the centre of much unrest for rations. of ranges parallel tothewesl coast. in marked cont lose of such lac our own. which is the largest of the Greek ports. and the Pindus Range in the south. • n eastward to the lilaek Sea. sports. in most Mediterranean lands. and . the habits of the people vary but little throughout the year. on the Gulf of Corinth. The second port is Patras. known as the Dinario Alps in the north. and the war oi L912 was hut the clin <>i tenturies Beething disturbance. charged with 1 and religious strife. ithward B Jkans is wild and dillicult Lstern portion ha I hern s] . has retained its ancient greatness.A Natural Geography. where winter and Bummer usually produce differences in clothing. It is interesting to note that in Greece. Athens. sue: and other open-air industri — Turkey and the Balkan States. named after the ancient commercial city of Corinth. and is still the capital of Greece. ranning southward from .

but the interior lowlands of Central Europe or This variety of climate the highlands of Scandinavia. figs and other southern fruits are to be found. : which forbids transport crossing this section is The only means of by narrow tracks which are even for mules. and along these two high roads are the most important towns and trade routes. Many of the huge forests of Bulgaria have been destroyed in order to deprive brigands of shelter. very difficult Vegetable Productions. the diverse nature The of its surface gives it many varieties of climate. A second depression is formed by the Eiver Vardar. old river courses formed the depression of these two high road and is now the track of the railway from Constantinople to Central Europe. the products. west coast district is typically Mediterranean. —Although this district is included in the Mediterranean area.10i Environment of goods. for Bulgars. from the Gulf of Salonica to the Dinaric Alps in Albania. In the maritime towns. and in some cases even cultivate the vine. there are no definite race boun- daries. on effect natural has a lemons. On the northern slopes are scattered. the . From between the Balkans and the western ranges flow two rivers. Turks. the Morava to the north into the Danube and The the Maritza to the south into the iEgean Sea. places with fine beech forests. for in the west. but the southern many in slopes are quite bare because of their precipitous character. In all of the States. Serbs. and thus a great source of wealth has been wantonly lost by Turkish is more like the indifference. Albanians. and others are to be found throughout. where the mountain hamlets villages and peasants tend their herds of goats and half -wild sheep. while in the interior the vegetation is of a more northerly The northern slopes of the Balkans are clothed type.

most important towns of the peninsula.. with walls made from the stones of the surroundIn this uninviting ing hills and with one small window.• so fertile that more corn produced than the Servians themselves The capital of Servia is Belgrade. wl women do the manual labour and \\ ten are trai a race which is nowhere in Europe excelled in to war . is one of the world. for the alar ridg I n the base of a of mountain. occx] It The third side. 11 mmand of all the Danubian traffic. that little is is culture in a simple. it ha mo ol I i u . has always considered great political and commercial importance. primitive fashion. and thus itiervia and held the key to Hungary. one of the require. a stony district with few fertile stretches oil. . an l» is i ce. 105 natural aptitude of the Greek for navigation and com- merce has caused a strong Greek element to gather th< while the Turkish population is very thin in most p and in late years has shown a strong tendency to 36 by emigration. and the consequently rear cattle and attempt to follow for cultivation. environment is reared the Montenegrin race. in spite of the small . strategical. the reasons for importance will be gathered from an analysis of its sitdon. yet. h is Bituated :id at t he junction of two big | the the Danube. In these plains are scattered a lew houses some distance apart each is usually a small hut of one story.1 Natural Geography. cut up I liver defiles - most mountainous countries and rushing w in No manufi this 3lble in yet been found to be land of mountain and valley. The smallest of these most interesting states is Montenegro. and these rivers practically bound I town. - — manliness or physical fi1 Servia compie -.

supplies. and it is a notable coincidence that in the late war. and he has harmonised badly with his European surroundings and associates. Many Turks are still eastern in dress and habits. brightly coloured jackets and sashes. a wretched condition. —This district. she took the lead in the alliance formed oi: Bulgaria. The Turk's . and has gradually dwindled in size and in commercial imporThe roads are bad and the local government in tance. composed of wide. in many cases. These mountains are occupied by a peculiar tribe of people known as Shops. It is possible that in a for little while manufactures possesses valuable may be developed. and with the appointment of a German Prince to the Kingship of Bulgaria. all — against her oppressors. have been able to retain their distinctive customs. The Turk is essentially an eastern man. lately stretched from the Black Sea to the Adriatic but it has been in a very backward condition . from the beginning of the eighteenth century. while the interiors of their houses bear a stronglv eastern appearance. Bulgaria capital is mineral The Sofia. which at the present time seems about to be taken in great part from the Turks. there seems every possibility of a bright future for the country once she recovers from the effects of the late war. so that the cultivation of crops lias not been encouraged and the general life of the people has been.106 Environment This country has probably suffered most from the Turks. standing at the meeting place of roads in a basin of the mountains. Turkey in Europe. with dress. and who. and the consequent closer connection of the land with western powers. The people are a fine race and very industrious. who are possibly the remains of the aboriginal race of the time before the first Slav invasion. by reason of the protective environment. clothing and language. poor and miserable. baggy trousers.

bears no resemblanc to any European costume. I town is situated at the junction of the liosphorus and the Sea of Marmora. this city is built which might lulls • on seven and vail and it 'it appi 3 a in. which is never abandoned. | atinople fall is 3 a central position for the duoe of the Black c Turks in the fifteenth •niury had a great and lasting effect on all the western to it were due tl: Qreek Literature. of religious though! an ion 1 of th. open air.A Natural Geography.spin! in Ighf ' adventure and exploration. the Turk is forbidden to indulge in alcohol. although there are some few ances where nothing of the east remains but the The women are always fez._ and are found in large numbers. in many cases. their train such results as the ft o! and the . 107 • the customary red fez as head-gear.. Constantine the Great. are over four hundred m while the bazaars -wherein are sold the wares of the — —are large.: from the with its domes and minarets rising everywhere. The is from it al of the city is chiefly carried on b I and in considerable. The capital of th Constantinople. are-proof buildings. This deep inle very plentifully supplied with ae. There all built on high ground. the revival of learning. horn-shaped arm of the sea. drinking coffee and momenl sitting cross-legge in the open spaces of the towns. Li i fuln fish. of The this city I : part. Like all Mohammedan peoples. unobserved. and it stands on two hilly promoir divided by a branching. l. i very appropriately called / den b 11 pe and a rich source of revenue. while the men occupy their leisure smoking Long pipes. but contact with western pe* veiled in the I has i this rule to be. named after its founder.

108 Environment : Asia Minor and Syria. — Across lies the Bosphorus the real domain of the Turk. stretching from the The coastal strip of iEgean Sea into Asia Proper. peculiarly religious appearance. share the inevitable legacy of the Turk —neglect and decay. cut off from the Sahara desert by salt marshes and mountains. a very quaint and olives. and in consequence receives the rainfall from both the Mediterranean and Black Seas. and chief towns are Tunis. Damascus. of Africa which can be classed with the Mediterranean region is the extreme north-western corner. The general state of Asia Minor is wretched and uncared for. Tunis. and second. and this gives a white-washed are town like the capital city. The population its about two millions. and among such are Smyrna and Brusa. the houses to reflect the heat. that it is at the western end of the shortest caravan route across the Syrian Desert. but the coast plains are fertile is Tunisia in producing the usual Mediterranean fruits. including Tunis. first. Asia Minor and Syria belongs to the Mediterranean region. especially As in many other sunny countries. and these coastal regions. on the edge of the Syrian Desert is a centre of exchange. It is^ separated from the interior desert plateau by mountain ridges. Sfax. Algeria and Morocco three of — the Barbary States. and : it owes it its importance mainly to two facts is from Beirut on the coast. and it possesses all the advantages of a genial climate and fertile soil. Susa and Bizerta. The few towns which enjoy prosperity seem to owe it to foreign energy in the pursuit of trade. of Tunisia is . in spite of their natural advantages. that at the terminus of the railway The Barbary The only portion States.

left its mark on the everywhere one can find cafes and open-air rarants. The §alt marshes and dry water-courses of the summer have made malaria rather prevalent. In spite of this. The greater part of the are inhabitants Berbers or Arabs. greatly improved by the French. and Tunis has been enabled to do a great trade in them since a canal was cut to it from the open sea. On the coast the tem- very equable. agricultural products and mineral supplies are valuable. the towns have not lost their eastern character. The and are of the town is Algiers. but in the interior the climate approaches the Sahara type. a and coaling station of some importance. i <|iiaintness of the ich are not at all like British or American to races in their met hods of oolonisa- -thev are no! pioneers nipt and as a consequence they extend their territory inland. The roofs are flat. chief M 'iiammedan :>ort religion. Except for the part of Tunisia within the Sahara. the rainfall is well distributed over Much of this the country and is chiefly in mid-winter. The fisheries. water is stored in tanks Algeria perature is is a French colony. Strings of donkey a bearing baskets add to the The French occupation has for cities. [ts delightful climate makes it a popular holiday resort. however. as in Tunisia. and is the central portion of the Barbary States. while the exteriors of most are white. so that people may use them i-air rooms or gardens. while wines are sold very cheaply and are almost to ex o iSS. 109 and last of which have good harbours. and distributed by the actual irrigation works constructed by the Romans. and thus is left much valuable land onreclaimecl in thegri] .A Natural the first Geography. and as a consence eucalyptus trees have been introduced as an idote.

shelter Gibraltar possesses a good roadstead and is the best means of entering the country for Europeans. It is scarcely safe for a Christian to walk unpro ected. with whose history it has been so closely linked. while it sends to England some of the finest steads off the coasts. The country of Morocco still produces some of its beautiful leather goods. under the and protected by a high cape. This portion possesses rich plains and fertile valleys. but now a city. Houses or hovels are practically bridges.110 Environment lies in Morocco the extreme north-east of Africa. while the sand-choked 4 river mouths are left undredged. shipped . This religious fanaticism has resulted in an almost barbarous state of public affairs. railways are looked upon as signs of mission to the hated Chri-tian. city of decay with very narrow. over ten thousand feet high. the prosperity of the country is checked by weak government and by the religious intolerance and ignorance of the population. famous of old. while Jews have to submit to many indignities. The backbone of the country is the Atlas Eange. are crossed by few and those few in shocking sub- condition. tangerine oranges. safety. vegetable and mineral resources. but the only really useful tract is that between this range and the sea. and opposite Spain. unhealthy streets and the usual sullen and fanatical inhabitants. In few countries is religious hatred carried to so great an extreme. The foreign trade of the country is thus dependent on the fairly good road- The town of Tangier. such as walking bare-foot in the streets and wearing special costume. but as is the case with Greece and Turkey. cluster together for rivers roads non-existent. of dates the world can produce . The land enjoys all the advantages of a good climate and great animal. and the heavy winter rains supply the rivers with enough water to last throughout the year. and it is the only town which approaches any resemblance to a European The chief city is Fez.

a - Structure. This valley. the is — climate varies in different parts of the state. the position of the mountain ranges or the altitude of the land. but it requ the hand of the hated Christian to do it.1 Natural Geography. according one or other of the chief factors is most prominent in its influence. all by of mountains.. valuable. and these unite about the middle of the I-'raneisco. one being in every way the This portion is formed of a most remark- bounded on the east by the Siena Nevada and on the west by the coast ranges which are close to the Pacific. it will be well to study the physical structure of the region. Through this valley How two streams. and its climate is Mediterranean in type. namely: the Pacific Ocean. of the finest examples of the influence of geographic environment it is possible to find. The California. — California may be divided into three dis- tinct portions. the central . and of this area close UDOD twenty thousand square miles \ striking feature almost perfectly level lamento River is th.i two bundled miles is . the the river at only opening being i^ the in channel San Francisco. Much might be done with this remnant of a former glory. California. are also widely known. Thus. the ramento from the north and the San Joaquin from the south. Before pointing out more definitely those differences. an area of nearly sixty thousand square miles trained through this one narrow opening to the Pacific. and enter the Bay of San remarkable Great Valley is perfectly hemmed in on able valley. called the Qolden Gate. Ill from Tangiers. which This channel is places only one mile in width. most westerly state of the American one Union. with two well-marked seasons the summer dry and the winter wet.

When the miners began to extend their work to higher ground. for while the rainfall on from and not the one is plentiful. other metals and gold-mining industry. mountains have been the great cause of the rapid growth of population on the Pacific border. and as a conse- quence very important inventions revolutionised the Besides gold. and the country the land becomes very rough and thinly inhabited South of the unproductive. and largely is barren Practically .A. the unsuitability of primitive mining methods was soon experienced. The slope to the great its everywhere long and gradual. silver. the Great Valley disappears. Where the coast ranges and the Sierra unite in the north. with the excep- . and the discovery of this did more to stimulate commerce and emigration than anything had ever done before. a very large area is mountainous and thinly inhabited. iron is of and coal —the coal poor quality and thus the lack of fuel has prevented the utilisation of the great quantities of iron ore deposits. southern junction of the valley walls. There are many other minor mineral supplies largely un- developed.. such as quicksilver. It is a rain-shadow area. and of these borax appears likely to become a valuable export. that on the other is almost entirely cut off. and this slope contains very deeply-cut caiions or precipitous gorges.112 of its course Environment no tributary flows into it from either wall is of mountains. tin. or Snowy Eange. value. and is scenery and vegetation are attractive and varied. all the rivers flow from the Sierra Nevada the coast ranges.S. minerals are to be found plentifully in the State. — These California was long known chiefly for its great quantity of gold. for they contain mineral resources of enormous Minerals. the largest range in the U. The most valley Sierra Nevada. copper.

i INSE UK. i H a HER > .

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and amongst its peculiarities are the following: first. their great height. the country. 11 3 narrow coast strip near Los Angeles. and practically hundred . Everywhere in California the winters are mild and the summers are kept from being disagreeable by the great dryness of the air. and the country beco: a desert. Naturally.A Natural Geography. lives 1' . the width of the valley of its third. |' The damaj tdmated and millions of pounds worth Since the earthquake thi baa Francisco. second.000 Climate. Earthquakes.settlement The lasl d< turbance occurred the city of San ii 1906. This has led to an extension of irrigation work-. the majestic peak Mount Dana (13. it greatly dis- hindered the . especially when compared with beauty soars high). of Over the valley ft. the climate along the Pacific milder and more equable and the rainfall more pronounced than it is east of the mountains towards the — The north of the state has also a longer winter than the south indeed. . rainfall . California i- — Like in all t of the Pacific lias urthquakee. the the ical character of its walls . dryness is responsible for a great annoyance in the shape of dust. canals. tion of a strip. by the melting -mows of the mountain summ: interior. This about twenty miles wide. is as fertile as any io is. the marvellous waterfalls. The rainfall is by no means constant from \ for one year may have more than sufficient while the next may be so short of rain that crops totally fail. Beautiful as most of California ticular spot there is one par- which exceeds others in its attractiveness Yosemite Valley. in the south-east of the there is practically no rain. but at the same time. This valley is about a hund and fifty miles from San Francisco in the Sierra Nevada. and this of the State.

apricot and grape being especially good. sugar and molasses refining. San Francisco and district is the centre of population. the town of San Francisco is the sea are lertile. while the chief articles of manufacture are mining instruments and machinery and heavy woollen goods. Productions and Manufactures. and to the expense of constructing appliances for utilising the water power.114 Ejivironment remodelled on a grander scale and style. — — is very important. which withstands shocks much better than anything else. possibly a total failure. the pear. and most of the houses are built in a steel framework. to the absence of coal. manufactured. exported in very large quantities. to the distance of California from other manufacturingnations. but only for home con- Petroleum is Manufacturing is at a disadvantage owing sumption. loundries. It is built chiefly on steep sandhills. the reasons for this being clear. and there usually follow heavy crops in June and July. The climate is most agreeable and healthy. at the narrow entrance to San Erancisco -Bay. but as yet the quality is not good. the farmer may find his crops poor and Wheat of fine quality is grown. metropolis of the whole Pacific coast of North America. Boots and shoes are also made. then ploughing and sowing is begun at once. if this is not the case. and the valleys which open to the Thus. meat and iruit . while fruit-growing is of great importance Wine is plum. especially blankets. No shelter is required and no food other than that of the paswinter in the mild In summer tures of the plains and the mountain valleys. with countless flocks of crowded are the Sierra valleys Sheep-rearing sheep. called the Golden Gate. The influences of environment are strongly shown in the Calif ornian productions. Its industries are chiefly connected with shipbuilding. If the rainfall is sufficient before November.

bringing rain and keeping the weather mild. in 5] of the distance from the It i^ one of the mos modern of the western c America. a great part of this region is enclosed by ranges running north and south.A Natural Geography. while in winter the wind is from the equator. pari- including amid delightful surroundSantiago. hut it is c Buenos Ayres at the Plata in the Argentine. p -<i .ible thai this interior Bite was chosen through the o! marauding navigators and pirates. forming a very fertile valley. packing. The productions are naturally akin to those of the Mediterranean >n and include vine-. hut its natural . The eastern of Chili. however. The climate is of the Mediterranean \ pe. lemons. togel her with latter instru- raph and telephone. It is :>.ire nunc the irable. »f of tine buildings. orange-. 3 many cities. ge is very lotty and continuous. and all the passes are so high that Transport is through the lowest of the passes a railway has tunnelled. while maize and wheat growin is portion of Chili contains its chief the capital. most thickly populated part the most useful and Like California. carried on by mules and llamas chiefly. Unlike the former. the centred valley of Chili has many outlets to the sea through the coast range. situal between the Andes and the coast range. this point in mouth of the Eio de la Thus the continent may now t one and a half days. there is very little rain. and it exports all the produce of the Great Vail Central Chili. which ment . lies Between 28° and 40° south. for in summer with the prevailing wind from the Pole. connecting Valparaiso on the Chilian with impossible for vehicles to cross them. apples and nes.

land as to petre as it make is it yield sufficient for the needs of their increasing population. The brightly coloured costumes of the poorer Spanish classes and the richer but less gaudy clothes of the moneyed classes add a quaint charm to picturesque touch this already delightful city of the west. wheat guano Guano as a soda. and this accounts for the largeness well represented. where the semi-tropical heat of summer acts upon refuse of all kinds. where the Spanish population enjoy their favourite sport of bull-fighting. A Valparaiso. named after a Spanish town. . manure for the soil was discovered by the Incas who. Among the imports are cotton and woollen goods for clothing. for much of the city is situated on a reclaimed sandy tract or on the slopes of a few somewhat barren hills near the 'shore. and as in all Chilian cities. with barred windows and nail-studded doors. has been much troubled by earthquakes. There is also a large arena. called. and mean- ing Valley of Paradise. Nitrate of soda. is . is somewhat misnamed. The harbour is not naturally a good one. and it is found in the drier parts of the country. found it necessary so to cultivate their quantities. but on the margin of the most useful portion of the western coast of South America it has long been an important centre of commerce. unable to expand their territory because of mountain walls and sea. A large colony of English is centred here and other nations are to its position owing The bulk of the import trade is with the United Kingdom. converting it into this valuable fertiliser. of the English community. the third city of Chili. and copper ores nitrate of and are also exported. especially silver . Concepcion.116 Environment is added to the city by many houses built in the old Spanish style. coal Several minerals are exported in large and some cattle. machinery. or Chili salt- a valuable manure it is obtained extensively.

rent flowing northwards. (b) the fertile stretch round the Eyre Peninsula. . They The extreme south-western corner of V Australia. we m ( ):i the south. Three portions of Australia. Spencer Gulf and the town of Adelaide. and (c) practically are (a) the whole of Victoria. and possess a general climate like that of the Mediterranean border. though long. is is the most of The heat summer cooled by sea breezes. iiul ports of the State are Bituated As a consequence. this having been found to better than any other system of building. Perth. but this town suffered less than did Santiago and Valparaiso. all in the south of t In- continent. which is Bituated within an is . — By Dumber of far the the habitants <>i Western is Australia inhabit the south-western corner. for this genial district of the whole state. Fremantle has hen to taki a harbour ficially improvi the capital. the alternation of drought mild and not unpleasant : and flood is not feared here as in most other parts oi find the chief the continent. on an iron shocks In 190G a Australian " Mediterranean " Regions. its 117 houses are now chiefly built of concrete framework.i natural I This district has a oonsi salt industry. \ i Dipping low and the shore W8 is This the strength increased ol the difficulty by difficult. receive their rains in winter. and it is thus a nit harbour of call for \ making Australia The western coast from Cape Leeuwin the west. the port of Albany 18 the only port on western half of the south coast.A Natural Geography. while the winter. this section. The South-Western Corner. great earthquake caused considerable damage along the American coast.

Port Augusta and Port The former is the southern terminus of the Pirie. contains two harbours. The most important town of South Australia. tin and gold are also found. while the trade in proportion to the population is hardly equalled by any other new All this is due first to the splendid climate country. the tidal swell and the numerous submerged rocks and islands render navigation somewhat dangerous. The rapidity of its growth will be realised when one finds that in about eighty years a wilderness. while silver. excellent harbours and thousands of miles of rail and road highway. Vincent Gulf —Port Adelaide. although the precipitous cliffs. has been converted into a prosperous land. for here the weather is always delightfully cool and clear. is Adelaide. This district of Australia owes a great its importance to the discovery of valuable copper mines in the York Peninsula and at Burra Burra. Occupations. The trade is carried on through an outport on produce continent. inhabited by a few wandering black fellows. with cities and towns. partially constructed the latter trans-continental railway line. inhabited by a great part of the city business people. Spencer Gulf. St.118 Environment : Gulf Portion of South Australia. millions deal of — sheep are reared. and it exports large quantities of wheat and pastoral . and elevated above the sea The hilly suburbs of the town are on a plateau. fruit orchards and vineconveniences. is the chief wheat port of the and it exports the silver produce brought by rail from the Silverton mines. The coast is indented and contains several important harbours. together with the telegraph and many other modern Wheat fields. a beautifully hill-girt city. yards have begun to yield enormous supplies. however. bismuth. of . the largest opening.— The Gulf portion of South Australia is a district of rapidly growing importance.

remarkable for I Occupations. Australian colonies. has occasionally suffered from drought. in large quantities. that sco' In 1851.. is the most southerly of all the its beauty and although it mild. Victoria had a of the Australian summer. and vine growing are thriving industries.— Victoria. owin. Victoria. dreadful tire. and second. the not cut . recovered from these calamities with the speed only possible to a young and undeveloped land. most disastrous drought.'hts a strippar. 119 and the natural resources of the country. of the it summer. x that is down all. . In addition to mining. lone . and it was foun that the numerous fires. however. 1 — nated the already it suit tble volcanic soil with ashes. kught the colonists a The occasion Lesson. instead of being altogether had so imp j. Victoria. and - it is inl that. which consumed the bulk of farm property and produce and caused the death of many people. Gold was discovered at Ballarat and Bendigo. As will from the excellence of the dim I)- many agricultural industries flourif i Dairy fa ming. >te Much wl i- grown. sheep-rearing became a popular and profitable in lustry.holes and left thousands This was followed by a of sheep dead on the plain. and now artificial great irri- On Works BUpply water by means. to the energy and patience of the colonists who have taken so firm a grip on the possibilities connected with their new homelands. and Its climate is genial fertility.us of stalk at is of so little value wl.A Natural Geography. and her population grew apace. thai could be became especially good for pastures on which sheep The Merino in enormous nnmbe re wool of Victoria ranks as the finest in the world. while ir La i' i . which cracked the very leaves on the trees. drie the water.

and is now truly a magnificent city. for. and its climate moist enough to admit of the manufacture of woollen goods from the raw wool obtained in the neighbourhood. Eallarat is not only the centre of the richest goldmining district in the world. There is no inducement for the rural population to quit their prospering country settlements for a no more profitable town life. A notable feature of Australian life is the fact that the growth of the town population has not been by the absorption of the rural inhabitants. another gold-mining Ballarat the centres it centre. — Of Port Phillip. with its is two smaller forty miles Bay and Hobson's Bay. abroid. the towns in Victoria. animal life the of the whole consider will be well to continent. branches.120 Environment chief. Corio This enormous bay. with broad. Melbourne is the stands on the Yarra Kiver and on one of the two finest harbours in the Southern Hemisphere It Towns. Melbourne has grown with amazing rapidity. shared with first inrush of the prospectors. long and forty miles wide. straight streets and fine buildings. as is often the case in the great manufacturing countries of the world. as animals are not restricted in their The Animal — . Geelong is a fine seaport on Corio Bay. Bendigo. attracted At this point it Life of Australia. In such is a natural consequence that noted mining schools have arisen. but by the influx of colonists from by the labour requirements of the towns. It is the chief manufacturing centre of Australia. as is the case in most old countries. Like most of the other cities of Australia. At the present time all these towns are well supplied is with railways converging at Melbourne. but it is surrounded by a fine agricultural and pastoral area producing a good brand of wool.

In the early history of the world. So far as the cause of this is known it is very interesting. however. One might search the whole continent through for lions. On the other hand. or animals which rear their young from eggs. In the course of t he quite unable to hold their own. when the shapes of continents were greatly different from what they are now. leopards or monkeys and not only search in vain. one would find many monotremcs. Asia and Australia formed one vast land. being neither so strong nor so intelligent. there were distributed. Geography. . Thus. deer. . indie To-day it ->inkn:. they have naturally spread wherever they The animal the world. On some map- a dotted 1. the red. the fauna of Australia includes the oldest or most primitive forma of animals 1 in the world. and marto be found so supials. with the single exception of the opossum.: jing Lambuk whi channel between the island ol Bali and and on through the Molucca Passage. and these killed off the older forms which. nor such an absence of forms common in other lands. are to be found nowhere else in the world. v. This M P sea rier of water the newcomers were unable to ci and so the marsupial* and monotremcs of Australia from the fierce competition which exterwen minated them elsewhere. but tail to rind any native animal even roughly resembling them. this change was taking place a which during buries deep Binking of the land along what is now called the made Australia into an island.A Natural could find subsistence. evolved new forms of animals resembling those that inhabit Asia to-day. which. 121 movements. whose young are carried in a pouch. over which the pouched and egg-laying animals were wide!) In process of time. life of Australia is the most remarkable in In no other continent or country are there many peculiar forms of animals.

for instance. but. would naturally many themselves a very ancient form of animal. in honour of the famous naturalist who pointed out the marked differences between bears the the fauna living on opposite sides of this channel. correspond with them to a degree The peculiar features of remarkable and unexplained. about as tall as a man. are not bounded like the land animals by the sea. the wombat. three exits. crows are from those of our own land . coot belong also to this class. It has soft fur like a mole. and the hot climate favours birds like the brush-turkey. such as alligators. many species of birds for evolved have continent the which one may look in vain elsewhere. pouched cheeks like a monkey. and name of Wallace's line. The Australian porcupine is also an egg-laying animal. the koala and the bandiinches high. being capable of crossing wide stretches of water. dug in the banks of a stream. webbed feet and Its home is a burrow." the most familiar is the kangaroo. nevertheless. ranging in size from* the great grey kangaroo. The birds. Of the "marsupials. snakes and lizards. which cover their eggs with a large mound of leaves to be hatched by the heat given out as The other birds differ in many ways the leaves decay. An absence of native fruit has given rise to many kinds of birds that feed on flowers. to the rat-kangaroo. world. monotremes. only a few The opossum (the only marsupial found outside Australia). thereby differing from its representatives in other parts of the Of the " the platypus. In Australia there are no less than one hundred and forty different kinds of reptiles." that most commonly known is This strange creature seems to be a most peculiar combination of animals.122 line of Environment : separation between Asia and Australasia. Amongst such expect to find a primitive fauna. . one reptiles. with two or a bill like a duck.

on. The emu and cassowary. indi. ing and Bhipmi I > In i on BUG <>r Je as be an indusl ry is in it - The DingO. and cross the deserts the camel cattle. s. sportsmen. whence and by whom it v . their 1 captui and wholesome.imi of the South American Introduced Animals. a discovery was made that has tun nuisance into a valuable asset.1 Natural Geography L23 white and swans are black. As was early introduced. is so named from the shape of its gorgeously-coloured tail. whilst the rabbit and sparrow have so multiplied as to become The rabbits swarm in such myriads to to once though! necessary to leave certain pa and the government found it advisable them offer larg irds for methods oi accomplishing then alone. beauty is rivalled by that of the bird of para and songless parrots and cockatoos of every conceivable hue. introduced in the interests of :es and game-birds. one of the few singing birds of Australia and an excelleni mimic of the sounds of the bush. Sheep and :d stated in a previous in millions and form are p a principal source of wealth. are the representatives in Australia of the ostrich of the I'- South African plains and the rhea p. lw other case-^ the introduction of European animals been attended with anything hut beneficial results. il rabbits c The discovery by artificial freezing has made it p to be shipped immense and a ci | s their destination fresh ce. wild doe. Fortunately. have a positive pest.. continent include —The present animals of the in many kinds brought a beast of burden the horse t<> by man. of Australia probably I although when. as was found indispensable. 3 already become too common. however. and none wholesale destruction. both large running birds.. l)ut their two outstanding ures are beauty of plumage and absence of s< The lyre-bird. .

but latterlj. the colonists have : considerably reduced its numbers. where a narrow neck of land supports the city and this neck divides the low. of the city. and like South Island. Its streets and public buildings are built on the generous colonial plan. North Island of New Zealand . Auckland is the chief city of may but now supplying holiday resorts for the people of the island. with lower coast strips. while when the forests are cleared. owing to a rigorous campaign of destruction. a short time ago it worked great ravages on the sheep-farms. and is largely inhabited by Maories. mountainous. . south of Auckland. etc. The Island is almost divided into two parts at Auckland. it has adopted many English names for its streets and suburbs. tinct volcanic tribes. being not unlike the climate of the Mediterranean area.124 introduced are fossil state. Much of the peninsula portion is forest land. much indented peninsula of the north from the wider and somewhat mountainous area further south. Kauri pines are produced here. As it is found in a semimust have inhabited the continent from perhaps it came with the earliest very early times Until human settlers. on the whole. there is no doubt that a rich fruit and farming area its sister cities of New Zealand. be developed. the strongholds of Maori once heights. The North Island of New Zealand has naturally a warmer climate than South Island. it all Environment unknown. The broader portion is. with here and there small settlements of white people. It has a charming climate and a most beautiful situation. but tempered by the surrounding seas. which cut deeply into the ' land in many places. being Bound the city are exwell laid-out and uncrowded. with a harbour on each side of the city.

and Palmerston north. The whole of this district a great health resort. extending to the north in all a series of volcanic cones not quite extinct. New Plymouth. the only good one on a long coast-line. climate and has a plain behind it. Volcanic action is marked in many forms hot spr . to jed in the iron industry. geysers and water-spouts are common. originally built of wood because krthquakes. The central of Kuapehu and its neighbour Tongariro form the nucleus of a mountain system. which when cleared nay bring additional prosperity to this town further Greytown. the per! waters possessing remarkable curative pro- on the east coast are the Bay of Plenty. as in Japan. be released by a blow or a scratch. Poverty Bay. may the warm water provide natural and luxuriant Some years ago the sight of the island was pink and white terraces near Mount Tarawera. the biggest lake of New Zealand. encour tmmerce and brought a In chief openings i The de. a healthy lent. round which there is little ilation.A Naturae Geography in 125 peak some parts narrow and in others wide. with the town of Napier. the largest river of North Island. on a -pur of the v. Wellington the building • is the oldest settlement and is the capital of the colony because of its central situation. and behind . but brick is now supplanting wood since earthquakes ha\ me less It has a large and safe harbour. whose harbour. while beautifully tin pools baths. near at hand. and Hawke Bay. boiling mud bubbles and spits from cracks and scars. and it flows through Lake Taupo. rises From this central mountain mass the River Waikato. but of a sudden eruption of ashes and red-hot stones blighted is the surrounding country and utterly destroyed the beautiful : i.

of Simon's Town the guttural — . a solitary snow-capped peak. Dutch. then open. still to be seen. in the neighbourhood of grow vines abundantly. ing out. This Mediterranean area of is confined to the it immediate hinterland Gape Town. wine. while Dutch tongue is freely used. ostrich feathers. of its railways connections wool. Kaffirs. It exports the products of all parts by means especially gold. but at great expense a break-water and good harbour have been constructed. and its inhabi- — tants form a motley throng of English. with the flat. The South-West of Cape Colony. The extreme south-west corner most equable portion of all South it of Cape Colony is the Africa. hides. with the terrace or " stoep " along the front of each house. diamonds. however. while Malmesbury wheat is a valuable is Cape Town. Hottentots and numerous other races. is 8.000 feet in height. it retained its importance as the great commercial centre for South Africa. a marked contrast to the dry terraced areas near hills The northern slopes of the product. False Bay. in the winter. It owed its early importance to its position as half-ivay house to the but when this advantage was lost through the East opening of the Suez Canal.topped Table Mountain overlooking the city. white-fronted houses. is the harbour the colony's naval station. which used as a national park. beautifully situated ou the shores of Table Bay. from the westerly anti-trades. the heaviest rains being. the capital of Cape Colony. The early Dutch occupation left its mark in the flat- roofed. etc.. The harbour was naturally a poor one..126 Environment rises : town Mount Eginont. being exposed to gales from the west and north-west. and bears it. on the other side of the Cape of Good Hope. largely because receives rain-bearing winds at all seasons.

or t China Proper. intended to protect the m< t ma wandering . - for fourteen hundred miles.Turkestan. . t I la. " A -at-home gard and by the nature of the country. this desire for i-><>la' On all land boundaries. north Mongolia and on the Pacific ice. China Proper.vero m c ' many ita years the I ie1 . implicity and to avoid confusion. All these countries. Burmah and Cochin China with . i has upon its southern boundaries he ropical monsoon lands of Siam. the conntrii he tab They subject to extreme climates with a heavy fall summer rain- brought by the wet south-east monsoon. with the exception of the island of Yezo and a very small portion Peking. the Chinese Republic. but for pnrp of China. I I < of the naturally an or as nti" writer has called them.CHATTER IT. high plateau of Tibet. »n <>t' Wall. are within this wholes. The Extreme Lands. high suppli . mono and 1 the al bar . on he north-w< now is. capital. round the region. Japan and Korea.

(for it is navigable for twelve hundred miles from its mouth. the former for its great commercial value. and the latter for its vast and destructive floods which have on several occasions completely submerged the lowlands its near banks. for chih-li. A considerable portion of China Proper is covered with mountains. the Yang-tse-keang and the Hwang-ho. This peculiar formation covers a great part of the north of China and it spreads alike over high and low grounds in many places being quite a thousand a great plain. the two largest. — feet thick. When rivers cut into it. sediment reaches the sea and causes the shallowness of the Yellow Sea and the Gulf of PihThe loess is very valuable to the natives. especially in the west is remarkably fertile. the surplus population of over-crowded China often find homes in the cliffs removed from the action of running water. known as loess. being covered with a yellow soil. Loess. which are easily undermined by the water. or Yellow River have been great controlling factors Both in Chinese life in past ages and are so to-day. The rivers of China are very numerous and Rivers. Where this river enters the great plain . — such as Nanking and Hankow). are famous. falling into the stream to be carried over the land in the flood seasons. southward from Peking for seven hundred miles is — This plain. and upon its banks stand many rich and populous cities. with little labour and no application of manure. even on hills the loess beds are available for as sediment all Much of this agricultural purposes. digging out caves in the vertical clefts and reaping the harvests of abundant crops from the surface. but the north-eastern portion. and it is an eloquent tribute to the greatness of the ancient Chinese race.128 Environment probable invaders. the loess encloses them between vertical cliffs. Thus.

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now however. and it may be interesting to note what happened on the last occasion in 1853. the danger of destructive floods has not encouraged the development of towns on its banks and added to this is the fact that navigation is almost impossible by reason of the sand bars at or near the river's mouth. v. and in times past water way was much used as a high road between Nort and South China. communication with Peking. after submer_ _ and greatly damaging a large tract of land. in - J . which often cause enormous damage. c The rainfall here is of a tropical nature and autumn and esprcially in May. such a vast area the climatic conThe highlands of the interior and of the Mongolian plains are dry and liav s of heat and cold. More important than any of the minor Chinese riv'/. coasting Bteamships have taken much of its traffic awav. heat is experienced from July to B rible typheons.A Natural Geography. Thus. between the towns of Hankow At the latter town it joins a river in db Tien-tsin.'' of According to records. the course of the Yellow River has changed on nine occasions in the last hundred year-. the been completely two thousand nve muddy waters of the Hwang-ho ar< beginning to destroy the banks of the new bed which they adopted for themselves. the floods were heavy and the lowLi were submerged until the waters entered the bed of a smaller narrow stream and by cutting out a pasalong this new bed left the old bed dry. — Over •' equable. being nearer the Pacific are moister and Climate. i ditions naturally vary. o:* 129 title China. For three years prior to this. part it is known by the suggestive of "The Sorrow this of Han. while the basins of the two 9. Naturally.

highly probable that a great developaffairs may take place in This probability is greatly increased by commercial the fact that the old absolute bar to all progress — Manchu monarchy the was swept away in the revolution of — 1911 and a new and enlightened form of republican government set up. China is essentially an agricultural nation the resources of the ground have been developed very considerably and all manner of products are obtained in very great quantities from the rich soil. Many provinces possess rich stores of coal and although iron has been mined for thousand of years. Thus. but are very lacking in originality. the sea was a no less formidable barrier to traverse. but the enormous mineral wealth of the country has been almost totally neglected. They excel in workmanship and possess great patience. ' — within reach. but remained exclusive and jealous of outside influence. being content to run The in the same groove for an indefinite period of time. but it is rapidly being overcome under more enlightening influences.. which Europe did not discover until centuries later. empire was cut off from the rest of Asia by high mountains and tablelands. Chinese civilisation developed to a certain point. paper machines. it is ment in Chinese the near future. only those ores which could easily be extracted have been used and huge quantities are yet to be obtained. wool . This national feeling has been a great factor in the slow development of Chinese national life in later years. copper and silver abound.130 Environment Commerce and Industries. and before the days of steam power. etc. and since the Government has now become fully aware of the wealth . Other minerals such as the ores of tin. Among the chief manufactures of China are iron. The Chinese were centuries ahead of any European Power in civilised development and they possessed inventions such as printing machines.

full of sacred temples and the Emperor's palace.. supplies have to be imported from ti-" south and this brought about the construction of the nal one of the finest waterways in the brief survey of a will Towns. in the midst of a rich alluvial plain oed by the Delta. rapidly decreasing under the strong repressive measures of the Government. a Manchu inner part.<• of which. Hour is milled and the silk industry prospering. lion which is easily accessible. —A be useful. The river affords safe anchoi vessels a and Tin' a Large number of the inhabitants favourite device in I ma. :• I built on | ! guard the against thi of floods. The wall surrounding the city is forty-five feet high and The streets are unusually wide. and a Chinese outer part. is The opium traffic. is sheltered o the north and northi by a range of 11 hills. but like most Chinese streets fchey are dirty and unimIts choice as capital is probably due to its pressive. the capital of China is in the midst of a densely populated area and is divided into parts. forty-seven feet thick. — world. ig arc narrow to densely popuU and crooked. the great curse of China. 131 is and cotton goods . and the fact that it is within a (lav's march of the northern fronti' [rests the idea that the Tartar conquerors desired to keep well within reach of the steppe region which had been their As the country round is too poor to support home. few of the chief towns Peking. situated seventy miles from the mouth of the Canton or Pearl river. illation. lation . Canton. the due tli" sts the prevailing Chim i . cannot follow crooked paths. they think. and t are built ot mud.1 Natural Geography. while tea is exported in great quantities.

that . hard-working people and remarkably patient. Thus it is a common . while he carries his coins on a string placed through a square hole in the middle of each coin. The Chinese are a well-built. yellow skin and black. when once aroused they can be very cruel and revengeful. its exports being chiefly silk. obtained the right to trade. is of the Mongol type. Its trade has suffered through the opening up of Shanghai and the Yang-tse valley. cereals. It is one of the Treaty ports of one of the twenty-four ports at which England has. Chinese Life. narrow. glossy hair. situated near the estuary of the Yang-tseKeang and connected by canal with all parts of the province has exceptional of of the facilities for the first distribution goods and Empire. chinaware and matting and it makes great quantities of fireworks. and Hankow. by treaty. Tientsin. Canton is also a Treaty port. cotton. with high cheek-bones. the starting point of the Grand Canal are all towns of considerable importance. China. and as the climate is healthy there are many foreign residents. cheerful. somewhat undersized race combining some of the suppleness of the races of India with a fair amount of the strength The face usually associated with European peoples. Nanking. hides. — — Although they are a temperate. Shanghai.132 Environment about one million. opened to its Canton was the first Chinese port foreign trade and this has accounted much for success. rice. wool and is. but it is still considerable. The Chinaman is a poor arithmetician and so we find that his systems of measurement and of coinage are unsteady and of a fairly simple character. tea. a former capital on the Yang-tse Singan. the port of supply for China north of the Yellow river. tea. it has become the foreign market It exports chiefly silk. on a tributary of the Hwang-ho. slanting eyes.

charcoal stoves places . Most of the houses are one-sto I and oiled in the case of a rich man's house. is -on for the looseness of the clothing found are in Chinese opinion that line of the body ban it is unbecoming of to show the i out- feet the womm is lildhood until they become quite loan ir. The Chinese garments almost alike for men and women and the material v: from silk to cotton. sight for a wealthy 133 man going to market to be accompanied by an attendent to carry these cumbrous coins. In the colder of the country. homes cluster together for safety and each village usually possesses a tower of defence with two stories. the air is often stagnant and the stench from decaying garbage is most unj> and unhealthy. thu the tinest situation of .itliout Hong-Kong. are u latter. ifl an i* nth of lied all and Victoria. while much furniture wooden In the country district-.A Natural Geography. thus. Windows the paper. which are conin Qg the winter time. The towns are closely crowded with shops in the narrow and often awnings are stretched across to keep streets out the heat of the sun. the great British out Honjf-Konjf Biyer. reference to . with additional furs in winter. the upper one being loop-holed and the lower one without openThis lower one is for the purpose ings of any kind. d. while the is upper one a thick for the protection of human b< wall surrounds the village. fortunately. but. and of a simple character. of hiding cattle in case of attack. b ovens are much used and the structed of brick. of his rooms form are often of is quite a village in themselves. this custom No some of the description of China would be com.

quantities producing food. The climate of Japan is very largely controlled by the near presence of a great ocean on the one side and a great land mass on the other. and since the population has grown from twenty-seven millions to fifty-two millions in sixty years. but there are countless rocks of and a half miles in circumference which are not recognised as islands by the Japanese Government. toivards country in the world has so small an area of arable land in proportion to its size. Japan OP Niphon. silk. etc. in area slightly larger than the British Isles. Out of ninety-five million acres. Climate. in considerable compared with the area cultivated. hundred and less than two The islands stretch through twenty-eight degrees of latitude. as its rapidly outgrowing food supply. number of the islands is five twenty. the northern being much in winter than the southern islands. and thus considerable variety part of climate colder is experienced. Two- thirds of the area is mountainous.134 East.. a nation. and the rivers are hence of a torrential nature. This will in a large measure account for the growing tendency No cultured colonisation and emigration. while in addition. part of the low-lying ground is coated with a very infertile volcanic ash. — Japan The official consists of a number of islands. is it will be seen that Japan. less than fourteen millions are under cultivation. have attracted all manner of people. with its Environment white houses rising tier after tier up Shady nooks and rocky beauty spots the hillsides. while the trade of the port ranks it amongst the finest ports of the world. for in the summer months the monsoon is drawn in from — . and thus the people have had to cultivate their land in an intensive manner.

and Shikoku and Kiushiu on the south. in The chief island Honshiu. the largest inland. frequently incorrectly called 3 t Formosa and northward to the insula by the Kurile Islands. and in consequence the heaviest rains are at that period. Hondo. violent typhoons often cause great damage both to shipping and land property. and in calm weather land and sea breezes alternate with day and night a many other parts of the world. while slight ones are of to the fact that is : Owing Japan frequent occurrence. In the months of July. I nut >ple ii i in . Japan bus alw nerienced earthquakes. and these are at ti very violent and destructive.425 . lautifnl volcanic feet). however. itrv it touching upon the customs of the Japanese will be well to study the nature of greater detail. detached from the mainland.A Natural Geography 135 the south and south-west by the beat of the continent. These larger islands form he n tng away Boni hv. com[ta now practically extinct. shores as the oonsidi ar by a warm ocean cum t known Kut i and y is this caosefl the warmer than i he ini vhilo the rainfall 1 Datui J \\ ' oi Bum] the toiiv an wide spread ti< -iallv i m o ice to i . Hondo. by broken ranges of mountains with of m most magnifies Fuji-yama (12. August and September. this monsoon is not nearly so regula the Chinese and Indian monsoons. or Niphon is divided from Yezo on the north. is I Kamchatka PenI from end to end inches. I iefore however.

The population of Japan most densely concentrated in three districts its port. the official of the ruler of Japan. (3) Round the port of Nagasaki in Kiushiu. buildings are mostly situated European buildings and on high ground.136 wheat. A approaching inadequacy of the home food production. is to be observed in the cultivation of the lower slopes of Fuji-yama. while the Thatched roofs. The sides are cut into terraces sign. and are significant Environment tea in large quantities. Tokio stands at the head of a deep inlet and has for four hundred years been the capital and residence The Mikado's palace. and the overhanging eaves support sheaves of drying barley. are common. during the heaviest rains and after it is harvested wheat. (1) In and around Tokio and Yokohama Hondo on the shore of (2) Round Kobe and Osaka. which are fairly well surrounded by mountains. regarding the rapidly and crops of of cereals are grown This in spite of the difficulty of ploughing is on the slope. heavily weighted. but . same area of soil at the same time. In some parts the land is so fertile that two crops can be reared on the villages nestle at the bottom. Centres of Population. in : — is the Inland Sea. but the usual custom is to plant rice in June. Separating Hondo from Shikoku and Kiushiu is the Inland Sea which is difficult of navigation because of strong currents and numerous rocks. while mulberries now grown for the rearing of the silk-worm. also done on the sides the valleys. but it links up the fertile lowlands round its shores. and which contain some of the most densely populated parts of the islands. but the commercial city stands on low Many ground reclaimed from marshes and the sea of the houses are still built of bamboo and paper. barley and beans are sown in the wet fields as winter crops.

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on of i' KiushlU and it OWOfl much . which is an important naval station for the Japanese fleet. i l- Nagasaki.A Natural may be seen in Geography. Hence it is less Japanese in character than any other town of Japan. the adjuncts of traffic is manufacturing greatly by a large number of canals. Many beauty spots surround these towns and they are noted for the hot sulphur waters of volcanic Faji-yama. near to Lake Biwa. in the tram-lines in the light. Inland Sea contains the At Osaka wo have all its cotton mills. warehouses and city. Btanda Kioto. increasing parks and shops and in the free use of electric which is rapidly supplanting the picturesque paper lanterns — so productive of destroying fires. 137 a sign of the influence of western inter-mixture however. It is joined by rail with Tokio. the gradually brick dwellings. This rapidly developed port is the Japanese terminus of many steamship lines from the old and the new world and it is here that foreign merchants live. it is essentially Japai mc arf although here and there the effect of v a busy while I i UM ma\ island of in. an old capital of the for the enormous number of temples that it contains. Unlike Tokio and Yokohama. Bra! other towns of somi importance are groupin this protected sea and thirty miles inland on the ad of Hondo. the chief seaport of the country. number of along the main streets. This city is remarkable re. The river of Tokio is silted up and is useless as a harbour and vessels have to anchor a few miles out of the city. while the sacred crown of the mountain towers over the district in majestic splendour. Across the bay on which Osaka stands is the rising port of Kobe. The northern shore :' it of the in lustrial centres of Japan. Most of the trade is done through the port of Yokohama.

The short. with oblique eyes. the customs of politeness. and useful forests of deciduous trees are abundant. their faces are sallow-complexioned. while it is considerably different from the rest of Japan both in Coal is plentifully found. productions and climate. which to the Japanese is indispensable. It very mountainous and has heavy woods. black hair — the women are fond of ornamenting Mongol type the hair with flowers and tortoise-shell combs. and damp fogs frequently prevail. Both peoples are courteous in the extreme and given to over-display Japanese Life. but because of the impossibility of cultivating rice. The winter is much more severe than in any other part of the empire. fast rivers are full of salmon. It is the nearest Japanese town to the western world and perhaps naturally became the first port open to Europeans. other than the jinrickshas or mancarriages are to be seen in the streets of an ordiniry . They are under-sized. high obviously of the cheek-bones and long. but the people are slow to venture on this less inviting land. Few vehicles. although the Japanese are said to be somealert what shifty in their dealings. but very wiry and . The Japanese government offers many inducements to settlers. The Island of YezD. from the and her Japan proximity of neighbour are in many respects similar.138 Environment : ment to the excellence of its land-locked harbour. Japanese town. not only because of the climate. and it is remarkable how much labour . genial climate has made it a popular foreign health resort. It is most beautifully situated with a mountain background and its healthy. while grouse and other moorland birds are to be found. —As may be expected of China. though is larger than the two southern islands together is only scantily peopled.

'i-y differenl from a Bun »] house. as will be Been from the following description: The framework which is of the house la usually Bides mboo.A Xdtural these GeograpJu/. and and fatigue this is especially endure pain true of the Japanese.N\ >(> 'lr\ urlej v. Via 1 1 ] . L39 Most orientals can horses can endure. are of easily obtainable. human They will face the certain pros- pect of a painful death with perfect coolness and without exhibiting the least sign of fear. Li \m the -i 1 [OUSI AMI ing l» ( i \K!>I. the . stoically.

such as . The paper lanterns. Environment unusual to have more than one story. showing Shape of Face and Style of Hair. while the Japanese love of light accounts for the use of paper lanterns all night. have led to the construction of garden cellars of concrete where valuables are stored for safety. The chief feature of the Japanese clothing is its loose- ness. are a frequent cause of fires. and of an open side to the house in the day time. The frequent earthquakes experienced in Japan have caused this style of building to be generally used." but a brief description of the dress and daily fires life of the people will not be out of place. Sliding paper shutters convert the house into apartments at night and into one large room during the day. while the one story system is partly due to the Buddhist fear of women sleeping above men and thus causing loss of dignity to the latter. however. 12. It would be impossible to describe in detail the numberless quaint and interesting customs of this " Land of the Rising Sun. and it is naturally of home-made material.140 oiled paper. and these it and is Fig. Japanese Lady.

largely consisting of rice or fish. balls. chess-playing and fencing are popular amusements with the adults. and thing to see stiffened paper waterproofs in is uncommon the rainy season. wrestling. b« of sauces but to outstrip 'gun many of ber rivals. of brilliant >f Powers powers Japan. fertile p of coast . and she bids fair. Within the last forty years Japan has become a power in the world. cour.. some of them hundreds of years old. and K virtually a Japanese col B ble » !• •. but the latter take great pride in their hair. of There is little difference between the clothing men and women. Dancing. while the children play with kites. not an Sandals are usually worn. which is always elaborately adorned. ) Later y< there . developed Cereals. Korea and Southern Saghalin. — Korea a peninsula. . The food of the Japanese is somewhat insipid. Already she Formosa.lap the Russo-Japanese War. shuttle-cocks and (on the great annual feast days) with their family dolls and toys. and The ii\ irrigated. cotton. and so they have become fond and spices. dividing the Japan A range of mountains closely follows the east coast. and i fine illustration of the energy. not only to retain that . in hemp. but tin rn slope is the valleys are fertile and well : more gradual. Leaving only a very narrow. Geography.A Natural cotton or silk. mewhat v in the ly exl reme. is organisation of this Korea. Yezo. with rains aln Bummer. and the manner in which she overcame what appeared like insurmountable obstacles in to colonise in Formosa. Japan's influei still greater. ad etc. but owing to Chil . Kon indifl under the suzerainty of . suitable it 141 to for these are the climate. and open towards China. is a cunning. which add flavour to the food.

for some time. comprising almost all the Middle Atlantic States. east of the Alleghany Mountains.142 Environment magnificent sea-fishing industry which is under the conA useful railway line trol of Japan. the Cotton States. opposite Japan. changes of temperature often referred to in the daily — papers as " Heat and Cold Waves " and it is less equable than the west coast. traverses the country from Fu-san. The summer rains are due to the blowing of the northeast trade winds — from the Atlantic. much of the area passes under the influence of dry south-west anti-trade winds. This portion of the States. the earliest to be developed. whereas in winter. it is much affected by a cold stream flowing from the north. because being nearest to the old world. China and Eussia. were confined to the fertile Atlantic border. to Manchuria. it was here that settlements were first made. the area dominated by the Appalachian Mountains and that containing the lower Mississippi System. the population is scanty and the customs somewhat Alleganies had been crossed. These settlements however. because in winter. Eastern United States of America. as for instance. has a climate of moderate extremes with rains chiefly in It is very liable to sudden and great the summer time. that is. antiquated. even to-day. together with the rest of the Atlantic border. and a few of the Prairie States. was naturally. areas where settled. But once the spirit of exploration had been roused by the desire for fresh and wider fields for it settlement and the was not long before the whole of this eastern area began to be known and There are however. in the high central ranges of . The eastern portion of the United States of America. for the whole system of winds moves southwards with the sun in winter.

the Appalachian Mountains in East Kentucky. as we approach Mississippi. quite unattractive. between Lakes thinly peopled. tobacco and rice. collective funeral services and marriage services are date. in this part of America there is found no foreign element. there are naturally differences due to latitude. and owing to the infrequent visits of clergy riders.A Natural Geography. in the main. magnolia can be grown in profusion. the next. in North-West Ohio and North in America. and to-day wo find there an area comparatively Indiana. The North Atlantic States are devoted. The Manufacturing States. comer this natural region. woods and open e to bo id. Thus. Further inland. Michigan and Erie. for they are difficult of access. Although tl: rn portion has climatic features throughout. a fact which is quite unusual Again. dly on the | i fertile flood plains of the river itself. spinning-wheel and hand-loom are by no means out valley One has eighteanth century English of The Bible is the only literature to be had. there are 10. where maize and sugar-cane. which and hence un- . manufacturing ot cities — Most y of the chief are situated in the north . while the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Slates depend almost wholly on is of >n. necessary. swamps movement of settlers and deflected westward barred the these movements to the north and south of the swamp area. as compared with the practically fertile lowlands. and. less more or common to considerable varieties of industry. 143 Here. to trade and manufacture.000 square miles of mountain land which naturally repelled immigration. distance from the Bea and These differences have given structure of the land. no intercourse with the is still spoken.

let for many industrial etc. was founded by the Quaker. and as the water-ways are excellent and the harbours quite good. Washington is the artificial capital of the Union. as is the case in the New York " sky-scrapers. Minerals. engaged It building ships and locomotives. has a climate which is sufficiently marine to allow the manufacture of cotton goods. including large quantities of coal and iron. reaching even to nine hundred feet. like many of the cities of the States. It was originally built on Manhattan Island. in the same industrial area. rectangular system of selves display every type of architecture and style. taking in several other smaller cities. abound. especially German. though much Unmodified by foreign." Baltimore. influence. a although the buildings themlines. in a ten square mile enclosure known as Columbia. the second largest which is situated on a splendid harbour at the mouth of the Eiver Hudson.144 suitable for Environment agriculture. every advantage for manufacturing purposes exists. rich in coal. Its buildings are renowned for their immense height. The York. . iron. This industry thrives because the town is the northern outlet for the raw cotton producing area Iron goods are also made. districts. of the Southern States. petroleum. its houses are mostly the abode of single families and not of scores. New York is the outchief centre is the city of New and wealthiest city of the world. William Penn. New York commands many fine land and sea routes it is connected by rail with all the great cities of the country and it is united to the Great Lakes by the Erie Canal which passes through the Hudson and Mohawk Valleys to Buffalo. but it has extended on all sides. and the city is still noted for its Puritan characteristics. in its street planning Philadelphia specially in is also a great hive of industry. and it is like most American cities. however. anthracite. It is . including Brooklyn on Long Island and Jersey City.

This flourished and quickly became the staple crop. while in the stony northern the settlers had no use for it. first President of the United States. it and thus lowlands of the Cotton Belt. . Slave labour the alluvial is onlv valuable in lands that are easily cultivated. — \ Afl the middle of the nineteenth century approached. slave question began to occupy the minds of all olai of men.'ids oft* onditions exist on the the coast of the Atlantic Southern T . Between Lake Erie and the coast is situated a great iron manufacturing area. and their iron by the Great Lakes from the Superior Plateau. It is situated at the limit is its on the River James. where much iron ore is minea. but as the climate in summer is too hot and damp for white. — south of Virginia. containing Pittsburg. timber and Belt. Cotton flourishes best on low-lying ground near the with salt in air and soil. — Richmond region and of the tide is the centre of the tobacco-manufacturing chief market. the. These obtain their coal supplies from the Alleghany coalfield. and in a moist tropical was found very profitable in or semi-tropical climate. Millions of people are employed. 145 thus quite apart from State jealousies. and possesses the tallest obelisk in the world a memorial to George Washington. and found it easy to S With the abolition movement. and finally culminated in war between the northern and southern States. the official residence of the President. along the Atlantic slope and round the Gulf of Mexico into Texas once produced nothing but rice. Chicago and Cleveland. The city contains the White House. States The Cotton — The and for years no successful crops were rai As a consequence the settlers tried a new crop cotton. negro ere imported and compelled to work in the fit indigo. as a result of which slavery was abolished in 1865.A Natural Geography. lab >ur.

The Mississippi Basin. clusters of white houses indicate a negro — — village. some European there is countries. while much coal and iron in Texas and Alabama. These cotton-growing states also produce much tobacco and rice the low marshy peninsula of Florida grows millions of oranges and great quantities of cedar wood Texas. has vast cattle ranches. which is raised above the surrounding country. Mobile. This brand of cotton is known as "sea-island" cotton and is the finest quality in the world. The chief pores are Charleston. the largest state of the Union. Here and there. Galveston and the river port of Augusta. This is the cause of frequent and often disastrous floods. This known . and the frequent swamps give to the west. the Missishills. Cotton manufacturing was long confined to the more northerly states but is now being carried on in the cotton growing districts themselves. New Orleans. where the heavy woods have been cleared. The Mississippi is the second river of the world and it has an immense tributary the Missouri. rich crops of maize and sugar-cane with fruits of many varieties grow abundantly. Savannah. The banks of the river are fringed with willows and. Georgia and Florida. A peculiar feature of the lower course of the main stream is that it grows narrower and deeper as it nears the delta. lie rolling little indication that away prairies and wind Like the Yellow Eiver of China. and as big as inferior quality is grown is in Texas States. changed its course in Louisiana through often has sippi swept . Mississippi and as " upland " cotton. and the cotton growing spread to the mainland where almost similar conditions prevail. Cotton in greater quantity but of slightly Alabama. to break the monotony of the scene. which like the stream it feeds is navigable into the very heart of the country.146 Environment North and South Carolina.

us grain supplies have been used to fatten pigs and cattle. . naturally its wiiat b n the principal ca rapid develop- . Louis. New Orleans. The surp. of the world. It is on a rather swampy foundation. —but with is less disastrous effect its and. It is the southern outlet for all the produce of the Mississippi basin. and countless other commodities meats are received and transmitted. leather goods and beer. Chicago k situated at the south-west end of L It has become the greatest railway centre Michigan. about a hundred miles from the mouth of the river built the cotton capital of the country. and until exteuit carried out. I the . south and west. would probably have been the chief city of the basin. seventy years ago. had a reputation for fevers and general ill-health. its course has come more under control. which but for the development of Chicago through the construction of railways. since the Government has realised great value as a national highway. situated near the junction of the Missouri and the Mississippi is a town of rapid growth. From i ' this bri int . manufactures tobacco. No city in the world ha90 ippi and the east . and now. at the inmost point of lake navigation and splendidly placed to receive all the produce of a vast region to the north. \. It is built along the river in gently slop it terraces and is the depot for transmitting the grain to supplies of the prairies to the southern ports by the It by the river Ohio. little more than a hamlet. more than two million people live and find employment within its bounds. for it is midway between the Rockies and the Atlantic. and so have given rise to the great meal canning industry of the district. rapidly . St.A Natural the soft soil Geography. 11. Grain. it was a small military station. Causes of 1 of Development. timber.

who. in summer. for the winds . it not for the high nature of the land. Orange River Colony. well fitted for the climate and by nature given to overcoming obstacles. especially Since the area lies between throughout. The country ways into the continent — —the Eastern South Africa. It was a land of boundless possibilities and the race which entered it was eminently fitted to take full advantage of everything it had to offer. Natal. the wind-belts move northward. the In winter. Its settlers were men of endurance and courage. latitudes 25° and 35° S. but Natal and the south coast receive a fair amount of rain at all The rainfall would be very small indeed were times. Basutoland.. portion comes under the influence of the dry westerly anti-trades blowing across the colony. The Indian in this part of America was always resentful of the advance of the settlers. and although there are considerable differences in the structure and nature of the land. unlike the French in Canada. as rain-bearing south-east trade winds. there are certain similarities.148 Environment : ment of to its present position as co-leader with Britain the world's commerce. came not for trading purposes but to make permanent homes for their families. the southern half of the Transvaal and the eastern portion of Cape Colony together form this region. answered. lies The question is readily- between two great gatsSt. the southern inland of climate. Lawrence River and the Mississippi River -with harbours open at all seasons and unspoiled by a trying climate. it receives. The Appalachian barrier to westward movement confined the settlers until they achieved unity and prevented their being scattered over wide prairies where they would quickly have fallen a prey to the hostile red man.

.

=H

e

^

.-3

< < o D
CO

.1

Natural Gcograpluj.

149

moving from a cooler to a warmer region, which forbids condensation. The mountains, however, force the winds high and cause cooling and condensation
are
into rain.

Natal. — The
between
this part

land rises rapidly from the coast, and

and vegetation and the Hat coastal region in the southeast corner, which is dry and barren. The crowning ra of the Drakensberg Mountains rises to a height of ten thousand feet, and is snow-clad even in summer. The beauties of mountainous Natal equal those of Switzerand the lower slopes and valleys are gardens of semi-tropical vegetation, where coffee, sugar, rice, cotton and semi-tropical fruits grow in rich profusion. As the land slopes upward, its climate changes from semitropical to gonial, temperate conditions, and is not unlike
this accounts for the difference in rainfall
l,

our

own
i

climate at
to stock-r

its

best.

Moreover, these pleasant

The uplands and and large Hocks of herds of cattle find good grazing grounds in the brae air. A special long, silky wool is obtained from the important To Natal, perhaps fch< Angora goat. which maize for all, is provides food man and crop of " tea. also, has b beast under the name of " mealies
conditions prevail at every season.
;

successfully introduced.
1^

well

d of Natal The "bunks known and abundant, while iron, marble and
i

gold are to be found in great quant
lus,

trial

with combined clime icultural and indusadvantages barely rivalled, Natal should ha\ is future, although the labour problem
I

i-

\it\

difficult of solution,

tropical area the white
I

man
Hi:

for in the moist, luxuriant cannot work and the Qfl

much hard
ads
of

labour.

To

D

-inand,

en

ini-

.

and these tnak

a pi

150

Environment

Natal lacks good harbours, Durban being the only useful one, and even this, after much expenditure of money, is still marred by a great sand-bar at the mouth of its large dock. Although modern equipages and handsome public buildings adorn the streets of the city, it is a comman thing to see rickshaws of the Japanese style

drawn by Zulus,
the outlet for
largest
all

in all the principal streets.

Durban
is

is

the produce of the country and
is

the

town.

It

connected by

rail

with Pieter-

maritzburg
of

in the middle agricultural belt, the capital

of the country, situated fifty miles inland at

an elevation

two thousand
there
is

ings

are

Besides the Government buildbreweries and tanneries the country
feet.
;

here

most picturesque.

The chief river of Natal is the Tugela and this, with such places as Colenso, Ladysmith and Glencoe played a notable part in the last Boer war. The Boers recognised that the rugged nature of the country was well suited to their style of warfare and so they made Natal the
Ladysmith for one hundred and nineteen days and holding in check a British relieving force at the river Tugela for a conearly scene of their operations, besieging
siderable period.

The
live

native

inhabitants

are

Zulus or Kaffirs,

who
They

are a fine

handsome race

of a warlike disposition.

an organised

mostly in Zululand, in the north of the country and rising among them might prove dangerous They live in circular huts, to the white inhabitants, called kraals, usually arranged in a ring formation; and although in a state of semi-savagery, are now quiet and
peaceable.

The Orange Riven Colony,

lately

known

as the Orange Free State, is enclosed by the river Vaal, the Orange Eiver and the Drakensberg Mountains. It is

an undulating country, with here and there flat-topped

A Natural Geography.
hills,

101

making some break in a monotonous The plains are and dry except in the early summer months of November and December and the streams are often but tiny trickling ?rcourses, full of stones and boulders. Floods in the
called kopjes,
ry

Landscape.

i

I

wet season convert

these

" spruits "

into
fertile

torrential
strip
is

currents, quite unnavigable.

The only

along the Qaledon River, flowing from the Drakensh

along the border of Basutoland into the Orange

E

and here agriculture

is

followed.

The

inhal
all

are chiefly Kaffirs

who

are

engaged
of

in

and Dutch Boers fanning, there being no manusize
is

factures in the country whatever.

The only town
c ipital,
little

any

Bloemfontein, the
tov.
I

which

is

a quiet, healthy market

of

further importance.
is

Across the Vaal
rital,

the

Transvaal Colony,
is

the

bhern half of which

an of country
I

much

Pretoria, a the same type

and contains town Burrounded by low hills
in this region

Bloemfontein. The v similar to the other Boer colony, with
as

the

t

On that more' mining is done, especially un ildfield, which is very rich indeed. The chiei
-

town, and the largest in the colony, is Johannesburg, a mushroom growth, and bearing upon it even mark
of the

occupation of mining -'itlement.

its

inhabitants, being a typical, rough

South-Eastern Cape Colony
>n,

La

a pastoral

with plentiful rainfall only on quantities on the Ka
'

rich
<•

iThe East London and Port Elizabeth, and Kimberley. connected by rail with Johannesburg an Largely with the rod Thus their and with

ling

are

i

I

|

t

152

Environment

and pastoral districts. Grahamstown is the principal inland town and Graaf Beinet is a sheep-rearing centre •on the Great Karroo. Kimberley is the great diamond mining centre of the world, and here are situated the famous mines of De Beers.

Middle-Eastenn Coastlands of Australia. The greater half of both Queensland and New South
Wales together form one natural region, whose rainfall is supplied by the south-west trade winds, chiefly in the summer time. Since the highlands are of no considerable height and extend for some distance inland, the rainfall
is

differing

here spread over a fairly wide area, in this respect from the region further south, where the moun-

tains are higher

and more compact.

The mountains

receive various

names

in different parts of the country,

region,

but amongst the chief ranges from south to north of the we have the Blue Mountains, the Liverpool Eange, the New England Eange, etc., and these present
steep escarpments to the sea, due to the action of the

weather upon their

soft

sandstone formation.

The

east flowing rivers are short
all

and

of

no great

value, while
direction.

long rivers flow in a westerly chief The system is the Murray-Darling,
the

which has many affluents such as the Macquarie, the All these streams Murrumbidgee and the Lachlan. vary in depth according to the rainfall, and the- usefulness of the whole system is marred by shoals and sandbanks at the mouth. The main stream diminishes in volume towards the mouth owing to great evaporation, and in this respect it resembles the Nile. The coast region has several good harbours, which

The largest is that have naturally attracted settlers. of Port Jackson, round which has sprung up the great town of Sydney, containing more than a third of the Sydney Harbour is population of New South Wales.

but fairly large . a town on a creek of Sydney hour.1 Natural Geography.) of Sydney is greater than that of any other town in the southern hemisphere. north of Sydney. fo require not so • much of good. l'f-i one city. its buildings handsome and its public gardens unequalled. as a Large and ses. as its name implies. The coast regions of New South Wale-. C is ' ' capital o. The Baity nature of the soil and is the bush. broken thai hills in which may mineral wealth equal Silverton .. rich pasturage. little Lie New South Wales with t«> known region. one 3ydney. corner of hundred and L6 miles south -wi north-western a wild. It has a great export trade and has been outgrown in commerce by Sydney. One of its holiday resorts is Botany Bay. unjustly noted (The as being the first convict settlement in Australia. a vast plain of bush and scrub is reached. is the port and centre of the chief Australian coal district. poor the a. Br ken IInl and of the colony M othi in . Newcastle. to le situated fift} Commonwealth of Australia Canberra on the River Yass. which is one of the finest engineering of the World. exactly suited to sheep rearing on a large scale. and the now fit to compare with any European Its streets are well laid out. while its tine harbour has made it the railway " hub " of eastern Australia. -row large plantations of orange trees and the centre for the oral le is at Parramatta. coupled with the extensive nature of the land. The trade convict station was at Port Jackson itself. which stretches southwards as one of the great sheep I fi us of Australia. Leaving Parramatta and crossing the Blue Mountains railway. of the best itself is town and most beautiful in the world.

In addition to being so well endowed in these respects. especially capital. Brisbane. Queensland is exceptionally well supplied with a rich variety of crops. which produce extraordinary pure gold. and this has caused frequent inundations The rainfall is. while behind the city is a fine pastoral region. Its docks river has been canalised.154 Environment : Southern Queensland is a great cattle and sheeprearing area. sufficient of parts of the city. however. and in addition it has gold. because the can receive the sea. Kanakas have been imported from the South Sea Islands to take the place of white labour. some distance from large vessels. and in consequence its trade is considerable. As in other similar parts of the world. Beside many temperate products. tin and copper in very large quantities. As is the case with most Australian coastrivers. the Brisbane Eiver often rises in great floods in the wet season. a practice which has met with much opposition. as is the and near the case with many of the streams. are the Mount Morgan Mines. further north. while the cultivation of growing importance. silver. and has been the cause of serious political differences in the sugar-cane of the colony. iron. here to prevent its drying up in the dry season. Near Rockhampton. . maize and tropical fruits is nourish. The south in is the most thickly populated part.

CHAFTEB

III.

Extreme

Interior Lowlands.

The Steppes and Russian Turkestan.
B »uth of the Siberian interior lies a land
fall is

where

I

scanty and the climate extreme.

It is

hemmed

in on the north by a desert-like steppe round the Casp and Aral He the Kirghiz country, while on the th and cast are the lofty plateaus and mountain-, which form a very decided harrier to communications. To the south lies Persia, while across the Hindu Kush Afghanistan amid its mountain heights and vail farther north the Pamir Plateau, the roof of the world,
1

3

oul

its

them

—the
t
!

bween

branching ranges in all directions, one of Thian Shan Range —forming the boundary m and Chinese Turkestan.
Sti

Thus

this

trea is cut off in

:

from the rest

of the

world by very

real

barriers to

measure comri
\

munication, while
the land are couth
fed

in addition, the

habitable portion
ies

made by

the

mountain summits, which either by the Bnows Mian and Aral Seas or lose themselves into ti
of the
i '

in fertilising the

Many of many changes
they
still

sandy OS on the

aemi-deserl area.
re old

and ha\
and
title-

in the governing power bear marks of an

of the land,

in

their

fine

old

buildings.

i

156

Environment
rice, cotton,

produce

wheat and

fruits of

many

varieties,

not great enough for these, cattle, horses, camels and sheep are reared on the coarser but wide pastoral areas. As these move from place to place in search of fresh food supplies, they are accompanied by tribes of pastoral nomads, who build their houses by the sides of streams where willows are to be found, or carry portable felt tents for use where the willow wood cannot
fertility is

and where

be used.

Among

the towns on the oases are MerY, which

is

at

the crossing place of ancient routes

Bokhara and Samarkand

all of

Khiva, Tashkent. which are now linked

Fig. 13.

The Steppe Region.

by the Trans-Caspian Bailivay from Krasnovodsk, on the Caspian Sea, although caravans still follow the old routes between the towns and even over the high passes into Eastern Turkestan, and as far as Lake Balkash and the pass between the Altai Range and the Thian Shan Mountains.

The Kirghiz Steppe
north
of the

in the north stretches across the

Caspian Sea, and is broken by the lower course and delta of the Volga River, which is considerably below sea level and is very marshy. The inhabitants,

.1

Natural Geography.

157

who

are chiefly Kirghiz, are spread in thin tribes from
to the

Volga and are a nomadic pastoral race. In summer the ground is little more than a brown ible, while in winter irregular drifts of snow are scattered over the barren earth. Living is at all times difficult, and the whole region would be quite uninhabi: able but for the snows and rains of the mountains on

Lake Balkash

-

the

<

The Central
The
Rockies
less

Plain of the U.S.A.
the most easterly ridge
of

plain between

the
too

and

the

Mississippi

Valley

is

generally

for agriculture and the western half of it is not The portion than three thousand feet in elevation. Lying east of the hundredth parallel of longitude is better earns and occasional rains than the ilised b item portion and in consequence maize and tobacco are grown in the north, while the cotton belt extends The chief into Oklahoma and Texas in the south. this somewhat arid region however, is occupation in le ranching, and great herds wander half wild across Thus the cowboy is here, as on plains. the onl the Canadian D prairie, a familiar figure, and 30nal round-ups of cattle for branding and inspection

purp with
jnai.

'

her together enormous

1

t'

:endant cowboys.
at

The

combination
*

of

taring lias Led
.

Omaha.

Bee >nd only to that of

Chicago,
!1.

for the cuttle are fattened

on the surplus supplies

In this district the canon-like formation of th<
vail;

gins to

become

evi<

bed of the

stream Leaving perpendicular walls
In
I
i

unattacked by weather and rain action. the arid alkaline Staked plaint

lie

158

Environment

:

Middle and North Argentina.
Argentina
is

largely a semi-desert region of a stony,,

salt or shingly nature, except at the

base of the Andes
is

which

is

well watered by streams and

quite

fertile,

in the valley of the river

Parana and round the Plata

Estuary.

The western part
irrigation

of the steppe region is capable of

and Mediterranean fruits can be grown. But the great tract inland is dry and warm from the influence of the Andes wind, which is like the Fohn wind of Switzerland, heated by compression through its own rapid downward motion. Sheep are reared in great quantities and mining is developing. The population is scanty in the whole region, and there is a fair sprinkling of Indians, as in other parts of South America. Much of the region is formed of great grassy plains called pampas, corresponding to the prairies of the north, and here vast herds of cattle are reared to supply the towns of the Plate Eegion for the noted frozen meat export industry. In the north
is

a valuable forest region practically undeveloped.

The

chief

town

is

Buenos Ayres, from which railways spread

one crossing the continent via It is at the heart of an Mendoza to Valparaiso. agricultural district, where wheat, maize, sugar, etc., can be grown, and it is the chief outlet for the produce of this and the pastoral area inland. The harbour is spoilt by the silt of the river, and in consequence a new and deeper harbour has been constructed at La Plata, nearer the Rosario is at the head of navigation for open sea. on the Kiver Parana, and it exports vessels ocean-going wheat.
over the level plains,

CHAPTER

IV.

Extreme Tablelands,
and lofty mountains stretching in an almost unbroken line from the border of the Levant basin of the Mediterranean to Manchuria, and the tableland portion included in this
l.\

Asia there

is

a broad belt of plateaus

natural region coi
of northern China.

part of Turkey-in-Asia, Persia

and Afghanistan, and the Mongolian and

portion

Asia Minor and Armenia.
separated from the plateau by mountains on the north and south, the whole
Excepi
for
c

a narrow

trip

Minor LB elevated, and Armenia, where several higher
i

this

is

continued into
3S

the country.

climate in winter

is

very
iat

are

th<
a

and the summers ap >ration and
great part of the plateau
lightful

deficient rainfall has converted

into a

Bandy desert.
ti,e

On

tin

1

west the land slopes
-this strip
is

the climal

within

Mediterranean region. Between the Syrian Deserl <»n the south and Asia Minor, a gap in the Taurus provides a route through which commerce ami
e

invasion b
as the Cili<

on

for centuries -this

gap

is

known
of

Lying betwe P< sia and Arabia is the fertile plain Mesopotamia, watered by the Euphrates and the
I

. nation. for it is meanly built and badly laid out. Mountains.160 Environment : but where agriculture and the highest civilisation once flourished. but ignorance which despotic rule. while they are in constant danger valleys. dromedaries and goats. the population is now thin and chiefly engaged in pastoral pursuits. isolated The north-east The climate is occupied by elevated and a dense mountain mass containing many is very dry. and from a distance the city belies its real appearance. and while the valleys are hot the highlands are very cold. capital — The chief towns of Persia are Teheran. of robber bands. the Teheran is situated Tabriz and Kerman. Tabriz and Kerman are both more important trade centres. Towns. Persia. and the latter stands at the junction of trade routes between the Persian Gulf and Central Asia. unjust taxation. rearing horses. known together as Irania. Several ranges cross Persia from north-west to south-east into Baluchistan. and on account of the number at night. and here only pastoral tribes can live. These countries. with sandy and salt deserts and swampy areas in the north and centre. Villages are often surrounded by high mud walls with strong gates. which lie south of the Elburz south of the Caspian Sea. form an elevated plateau. and the forbade the construction of roads and railways has brought Persia to the position of little more than a nominal independent state. mountain from wild animals. Afghanistan and Baluchistan. for British influence is para- Once Persia was a great commercial mount at the present time. and India is separated from Irania by the Suliman and other mountain ranges. with ill-paved streets. all herds are Houses are built with flat brought inside roofs and have few windows.

Equable D. Arctic Lowlands. Small Rains. treme.. Elevated. B. Cold. E. Small Rains. Interior Lowlands. B. Desert. C. Lxtreme.. Ex. Cold Winters. KEY A. Summer Rains. C. Arctic Highlands. Moderate Rains. A.. • . Monsoon.— Hot. Cool Temperate —Equable.H. Small Rains. Plateau. G. Di. Interior treme. Lowlands.— Warm.— Ex.The Natural Regions of North Amkrica. Small Rains. Winter Rains.F. Warm Temperate.. 160. [To face p.

.

vn there QOE city. will probably soon pass Mongolia* — The golia. is eri - b v ist. and Peshawar. round the gn :ul. between Kabul. Much of the region is composed of the great Gobi J >> continued in Monsides by high mountains. and mountain riu_ and much too dry Bowever. It is constantly the scene of warfare and bloodshed owing to its position as a buffer state between Indian. known as Salt on the produce of L district. United States and Mexican Plateaus. where the Indian railways end. where nomadic pastoral peoples tend their herds of goats and half-wild cattle. the experiment carried out plains of salt basins. and it has been the scene of much intrigua and The route the stirring up of strife by jealous agi'ators. The lands are steppe regions. h Lake City. 161 of Afghanistan. . — Afghanistan is one the most waste and sterile countries in the world. plateau line which is enclosed on all and has therefore a very dry and extreme climate. The soil is parched and dry in summer and the winter brings bitter ud furious destroying blizzards. and the railway on to Kandahar.A Natural Geography. flat is consisting for agriculture. Eussian and Chinese territory. and it has a considerThe country is now connected by rail able value. to India is by the Khyber Pass. >ry of Kandahar is a walled city with a terrible war and bloodshed. The great composed of rely basin of the United States of America high. Thus it is always necessary to keep the hills well fortified against the raids of fierce and cruel clansmen. the capital of Afghanistan. b 8 L ke <>t I 'tan has proved so buc- that a tlourishii. from Sind in India via the Bolan Pass to Quetta and New Chaman. dry waste.

Minerals of distributed. while the coast regions are hot and falls swampy. are very widely exist in vast quantities . The finest of these is the Grand Canon. which divides the Colorado Plateau and the Staked Plains of Texas from the Mexican Plateau. while the needs of the settlements are partially supplied by a few areas of agricultural and cattle-rearing plains. Most of the rain .—The Colorado is a rainless region. because of mountain rain high barriers. seven thousand feet deep. is on the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the towns on the plateau are is which mining settlements. Flowing from the Rockies and turning to the east is the Rio Grande del Norte. Cruz. and and while the coast slopes are the richest in vegetable produce. and the exports are chiefly mineral. and the plateau is the exposed to northerly winds which makes its climate akin to that of the United States Plateau. especially silver. leaving narrow strips of coast plains and enclosing the Mexican Plateau. and it is the outlet for the most thickly populated portion of the country. all kinds. according to the elevation on the plateau. In Mexico the continent begins to narrow and the mountains follow either coast. Hence. lie able effect on the river beds. and through which On the east of the plateau lie the Rocky Mountains. and this has had a remark- deeply at the base of canons. temperate and cold. on the outer slopes. many hollows on the plateau are made very fertile by the The climate varies between streams which cross it. Yera goods to be largely imported.162 Environment: plateau of The Plateau of Colorado. a range crosses the country and contains several lofty summits. while about twenty degrees north. forest and pastoral products. while the lack of manufactures causes manufactured The chief port. whose sides are perpendicular and unaffected by the action of rain. which flows the Colorado River. little agricultural work can be carried on. which form the watershed of many streams.

a civilised race who have left many remains.A Xatural Geography. The early inhabitants were the Aztecs. In 182-1 Mexico became an independent republic. it bears the impress of the Spanish rule. and it is commercially important. Its houses are often built of adobs and have the usual courtyard in the centre. and the broken plateau barrier. frequently richly decked with tropical blooms round the fountain. rainfall on the Pacific slope. dry and at present practically unIts climate is verv extreme. But like most towns of Mexico. of the interior known. The capital is 163 Mexico. New The Lofty Andes of Extreme South America are an almost impenetrable mountain although they are crossed at Uspallata by a tunnel through which passes the railway between They have their Valparaiso and Buenos Ayres. They were overthrown by the Spaniards early in the sixteenth century. is .

and is constantly drifting into height. * The Sahara and Arabian Deserts. and thence across the Arabian Sea. sinks into the ground . CHAPTER I. and cut near its eastern north-west to south-east. Sea. The Sahara from is a low plateau crossed by a high ridge which divides the Libyan portion from the western portion. THE HOT REGIONS. with great daily . The sea limit by the fertile strip of the Nile Valley. Rainless Deserts. which has drifted. often of considerable rain does fall. desert is almost rainless. and the extremes of temperature have caused splitting and powdering of the rock surface into fine sand. being broken only by the narrow valley of the Nile it is continued on the other side of the Ked Sea in the Desert of Arabia. What little sand-dunes. It stretches from the Ocean to the Eed . into the Desert of Thar in north- west India.SECTION IV. and is nearly as big as Europe itself. The Sahara Atlantic is the largest desert in the world.and seasonal extremes of climate. Little need be said of the physical structure of these commercially unimportant wastes of land. for their chief •characteristic is barrenness of surface.

without which the desert would be quite uninhabitable. 165 and reappears at lower levels in springs. b the Sudan area south — two. The staple product of these oases is the datepalm. that I Delta area. Fig. goats and camels. and hemmed in River on either is I • lesert plateaus. where oases are situated. and in -innnier rains occur. The southern edge of the desert lias always been the northern limit of Negro Africa. There are many caravan routes across the desert. Tiie Desert. and even cereals are to be raised. On the extreme north. In the more fertile spots of the Sahara the wandering tent-dwellers tend flocks of sheep. often taking weeks and even months to cross.A Natural Geography.— made up of the banks 1 consists of a of the Nile and flood plains. light winter rains fall. the fall. and there is constant danger from sand-storms and lack of water. 14. bically is no rain- The River Nile the great controlling factor iu . The fertile strip Nile Valley of hind its and Egypt. while it is the barrier to southward expansion of the northern tribes. however.

rice. tion works A network of canals conveys the water in all directions. and thus it is not a matter for surprise that the early Egyptians worshipped the Nile as a god. great engineering efforts have been made to bring the waters of the Nile under control. cotton and several others are It is — Fig. The two streams unite at Khartoum. maize. upon which rich crops of wheat. 15. The heavy rains in Abyssinia cause the annual flooding of the Lower Nile from August to September. —A Scene on the Nile. for without it fertile Egypt could not exist. black famine stalked through the land. — . and now the fear of famine has been reduced to a minimum by the construction of irrigathe dam at Aswan being world famous.166 Environment Egyptian life. flowing out of Lake Victoria Nyanza. however. If this flood were or insufficient in past centuries. controlled Egypt. to be conSince British influence has ciliated at all costs. late raised. formed by two great arms the Blue Nile rising in the mountains of Abyssinia and fed by the heavy summer rains brought by the monsoon. and the White Nile. famous as the scene of General Gordon's death at the hands of the Dervishes. spreading rich alluvial soil over the valley.

the the Arab specimen of manhood. In the more barren areas of Egypt. being naturally confined within of extension. and this people. and is a fortified I and incapable town. —a home of who frequently a SUjQ \ want. became highly cultured and civilised. well-built ft tribes. At the of the Delta is Cairo. Many memorials of their ancient such kin. U can all the want virtue. alleys rich in is » hilly district crossed This district. oon traced and cultivated up to re . 167 of the Nile. from the most remote times. which is a kind of sun-dried mud brick. They are usually built -tone or of adobe. as the pyramids of Gixeh and the ruins at Luxor and Thebes.i high and The hills v. where the tribes wander from oasis to oasis. The Delta is inhabited by an ignorant race called the fellaheen or soil-cutters. who grow cotton and live in the lowest social fashion it is possible to find. Arabia ia an elevated plateau with high lands round the coast. lies a sterile desert of burning sand. being highest on the Red Sea by \ edge. the capital of Egypt and the largest town of Africa. while Alexandria on the coast is the chief commercial centre. known as Nejd. A notable feature of almost all the permanent dwellings in desert areas. daring and courageous. fertile is family be fully suppl part of Arabia is Yemen. early became inhabited by a population that rapidly grew dense.A Natural The Valley fixed limits Geography. the people use skin tents. which are easily carried about. it is a notable fact ti matters of honesty. • the south- lO. for only by this means in The most inch rainfall. is their flat roofs on which the people may sleep. and especially in Egypt. Behind mountain rim turage. but revengeful and not too particular in Indeed. fine.

or the Holy Land. the Moslem. is part of the country of Syria. to silence All desert peoples are given and this is a marked characteristic of and contemplation. with many mosques. began to enjoy easier conditions of as in Spain. and the Arabs became fine horticulturists. while their religion gave them great enthusiasm. 16. It was only when the Mohammedans life. the Arab race. valley of the Eiver Euphrates on the east.168 Environment : 6. shown Fig. arid desert.000 feet in early times. extending to Damascus on the west and to the Palestine. the birth-place of the of Mohammed and place of Moslem faith. ' and in their fondness for The wide. in their religious observances such games as chess. is the holy the centre pilgrimage to built. that their powers waned. The Holy Land is . —A Pastoral Scene in the Holy Land. Mecca. and the inhabited portion lies immediately between the desert proper and the Mediterranean Sea. unchanging expanse of of the blue heavens- and the endless stretch naturally produces this trait. The northern desert of Arabia passes into the Syrian Desert. Its houses are of stone and very well and its streets wide.

or near the capital is Dead 8 Jerusalem. The chief river is the Jordan. It passes through the Sea of Galilee and finally into the Dead Sea. every line of it. 17.wivk Hots. Tin. which is so salt as to allow n-w bodies to None hut the very lowest forms of life can sink in it.A Natural Geography. is of great historic outflow of water. which although unnavi- and scriptural renown. which is very ind the Baits brought along by the Btream are left in the basin. which is hundreds of feet below sea level and hemmed in by hills through which there is no gable. taken out by evaporation. of chiefly noted as th< of the life of Chri is of the world and the The population Palestine mixed. South African X. One has but to glance at the twenty-third Im to notice the influence of the desert on almost Bible. - m The . Arabs and tminate. but the Jewish population seem- . 1G9 familiar to us as the scene of the events depicted in the and the language in which that book is writl bears ample testimony to the influence of environment on literature.

and part of Mexico approach the desert type. being arid and almost rainless. and is made 3. with the excepof the tion of the coasts and the western slopes coast Many provinces are is dry and of a salt nature. . for sleeping purposes. Nevada and Colorado. and many are whitened on account Tha Kalahari Desert.000 feet. Much ranges of the west of North America. which. The rainto the Eiver Zambesi. Lower California. very elevated and have great extremes of climate. are yet semi-desert in character. the part most plentifully wooded and grassed. is but a continuation of the Great Plateau Region of Utah. The wellunder chiefs built natives are peaceful semi-savages. very scanty. up chiefly of red sand and dried up salt lakes. and the meagre supply forms into where native bushmen and Bantus herd their goats and where wild animals like the antelope or the lion can find food and water. is Bechuanaland is part of the Kalahari where the land very sterile and at present unproductive. This district is commercially of little value and is It practically uninhabitable except near to the shores. and the white sand glows in the glaring sun almost like snow. living in organised villages —the huts being of the typical Kaffir rounded shape. and in parts the hardy bush is quite dense. although of much greater importance. The houses are all flat-topped. while maize is reared in small patches near some of the pools. The Alkaline Plains of North America. This area stretches from the border of Cape Colony and has a general elevation of over It is smaller than the Sahara. Arizona. The central portion is fall is pools. of the fierce heat.170 Environment : be gradually increasing.

while on the coast-rocks and islets guano is obtained. and there are also large quantities of borax. The tablelands a similar I t towards the interior into lower with a few broken ran itweeu the two chiel d : fall pi . crowd together near the coasts. No have made doubt the arid md made more product ert might be irrig but it would be the means of spoiling the fertiliproducts obtained here.. no such work will be attempted. etc. . Beyond lie stretches of brown earth. become vast deposits of by have unaffected soil. iron sheds. in fertility it Many valuable mines are situated high on the Bolivian Plateau.-imdar eztrei fierce Summer heat and is formed in . soaring up many thousands of feet into the dry air. the dry water-courses the construction of the lines easier. The houses. silver and copper ores. huts. The Australian Desert. soda-nitrate. railways zig-zag :ern slope of the Andes. in rolling hills and dry. which are very extensive.. until these supplies are exhausted. rain. Tl ' Desert of West and Central Australia bears it many likenesses to the Sahara. tanks. for •ure lias —a . and the inhabitants adopt many devices in order to take lull advantage of any dew or mist their best Bubstitutes tor rain. and so. except in a few valleys. and in consequence. way by the weathering of the rooks into sand two main sections are the Great Sandy Desert and the Great of the south. makes up for in the value of its mineral The salts of the deposits.1 Xfttural Geography. ifi up the and although water supply -iillicult to obtain. the coast strips) are barren and What the land lacks rainless. dusty billows. 171 Chili-Peru Desert The northern part of Chili and the southern part of western Peru fthat is. until the mountain background is reached.

172

Environment
in the

:

extreme south-eastern corner of the desert area, is a salt lake below the sea level, and from In the central this point the land rises very gradually. ranges, deep valleys, shaded from the sun, hold water all the year round, but this is the only district where such can be found. The dry regions north of these ranges have a few patches of spiky scrub and short, tufty grasses, while there are wide plains with no vegetation, The heat is exfull of stones and bare, brown earth. cessive, and in the dry atmosphere explorers have found that the hair even ceases to grow. Gold is found in the south-western corner at Coolgardie, Murchison, and other places, and water is conveyed to the mines by pipes laid from the coast. Mining could probably be extended further inland if water could be obtained, but so far this has not been As in Africa, the camel is chiefly used for possible. purposes of trade and communication. The cooling of the interior of the houses of the mining populations, and indeed of most of the dry parts of Australia, is brought about by means of a water-filled porous bag. The heat is thus greatly reduced by evaporation, the dry air absorbing the water rapidly.

Lake Eyre,

The Animals

of the Desert.

— Of large areas

of

the

earth's surface, deserts are

by

far the

most inhospitable,

serving as the most effective barriers both to human proBut despite the fact gress and to animal distribution.

that the vegetation is always of the scantiest, and thedaily changes of heat the most intolerable, certain animals

have adopted the desert as their own dominion. They are, apart from birds and reptiles, about fifteen in number,

and include the
jerboa, the hare

gazelle, the jackal, the fennec-fox,

the

and the sand-rat.

Some of

these animals

find their subsistence on the scanty vegetation, uninviting though it is, and the others, being carnivorous, feed upon

them.

A Natural Geography.
It
is

173

not surprising to find that these animals h

undergone radical changes in achieving the mastery of such a hostile environment, and two observations may
be made in respect of nearly all of them. Firstly, the animals mentioned above being all of a sandy or khaki colour, harmonise closely with their surroundings (the reasons for this have been discussed elsewhere) and
;

secondly, owing to the absence of cover and the long

distances which

they must travel in search
fleet

of

food,

they are usually

of foot.

slenderest of the antelopes,
of the smaller animals,

Thus the gazelle is the the hare amongst the swiftest

and the jerboa has developed long hind legs which make it resemble a rat-kangaroo. As the ostrich is the fleetest of living creatures it needs no protective colouration, though it is probably not a mere
coincidence that

eggs are the colour of the sand. -s that inhabit the desert, the it of all the c camel has undergone the greatest changes of adaptation to its environment, an adaptation that is so perfect that
its

wherever deserts have to be crossed by man, the camel, or its near relative the dromedary, has become indisThe broad foot which will not sink in the isable. the acuteness of scent and Bight which take it to the next oasis by the shortest route, the hump of fat and internal reserve of water which, in hard straits, enable it. to travel for days without food or drink, the frugal and de diet, the indifference to temperature by which it
i,
i

3

the

1.

lays or the coldest nights, and,

above
time,

all,

the remarkable powers of speed and endui
it

by which
all

cove;

aces in the
desert

minimum

of

serve to
of

show how manifold and exacting
life,

are

the

conditions

and how complete the

ndancy which the camel has gained over them.

CHAPTER
Sfi-

II.

The
The East

Tropical

Monsoon Lands,
*includes almost the

Tropical

Monsoon Eegion

which whole of India. It excludes only that territory of Thar or Indian Desert, the greater part is known as the the mouth extending inland from the Gulf of Cambay to lowlying land is unable to conof the Indus, where the The dense the monsoon winds from the Arabian Sea.
northern boundary of the region is the Himalaya Mouneastward so as to include tains, but the region extends most southerly the Indo-China Peninsula and all but the way, it another Described in of the Philippine Islands. Asia where consists of all that portion of south-eastern the moisturethe mountains are so arranged as to intercept from laden winds which blow during the summer months importance the Indian Ocean. As these winds are of vital prosperity meaning population, of to the teeming millions when they arrive in time and dearth and famine when how they are delayed, it will be necessary to understand

they

arise.

The Monsoons.

—The

region consists of peninsulas

land mass in jutting into a vast ocean from the greatest by the world, from which, however, they are separated length extreme of range the Himalayan Mountains, a

A Natural
and breadth, and
of the world.

Geography.

175

of a height unequalled in

any other part

In winter, the winds blow, as one would expect, from the great land mass to the equator, and being deflect e by the earth's rotation form what is called the NorthEast Winter Monsoon, but what is re.illy only the regular Trade Wind of the Northern Hemisphere. In the summer months, however, this wind is reversed, for the air above the great land mass of Northern India becomes so heated by the sun, which is then north of the equator, that the cooler air of the Indian Ocean, saturated with moisture, blows with great violence towards it. In doing this, however, it meets almost at right angles the high range of mountains above referred to, and is so cooled in asc aiding the chilly heights that its moisture is either deposited as rain on the lower slopes of the mountains or frozen into snow nearer their summits, Wherever in the region the height of the land is sufficient to cause this wind, called the South-Wcst Monsoon, to ascend considerably, rain is deposited, and its quantity increases with the altitude of the land and the angle at which the wind reaches it. From this fact it follows that the rainiest parts will lie on the slopes of the Western Ghats and the Himalayas. In Assam, where the mountains intercept the winds to whose moisture the Ba B ngal lias also contributed, lies Cherrapungi, whose rainfall of over five hundred inches IS the greatest on
I

the Burface of

tin

1

earth.

The rainy
from
dry.

or

summer season

includes

the

months
is

May

to October,

In places,

while the resl of the year however, where the configuration

of

the land is such that the North-East Winter Monsoon flows over a large body of water, it may bring rain.
Sucli a place
rainfall
is is

the Ooromandel or eastern coast, hut neither BO regular nor SO he;i thai
.

enjoyed by the rest of the region.

As

this alternation

176
of

Environment

:

the land
its

wet and dry seasons is very unhealthy for Europeans, is still, and always will be, inhabited chiefly by
native people.

Rivers. Testimony to the amount of rain which the monsoons bring is shown in the magnificent rivers that the region possesses. The Indus which, with its four
tributaries, gives the

name Punjaub,

or Five Bivers, to

North-Western India; the sacred Ganges, to which a hundred million souls owe their livelihood the mighty Brahamaputra or Sanpu, which joins the Ganges near its mouth the Godavari and the Kistna, which cross the Deccan the Irawadi, Salwen and Mekong, which serve as the great highways of the eastern peninsula, are but a few of the most important rivers to which the region owes its great prosperity. Not only do they serve as avenues for trade and as the means of irrigating
;

;

;

very
vast

the greater part of the country, but they provide the soil itself. Their great volume and the height from

which they

fall

enable them

all

to carry
is

with them a

amount
of

of sediment,

which

deposited upon the

lower courses. Thus the soil of the is not only enriched, but renewed from year to year, and the vast irrigation works, for which the Empire is famous, carry the fertilising waters to lands now rich with produce that were formerly barren
plains
their

Indo-Gangetic Plain

and lifeless. The immense quantity of rain which falls in the wet season, helped by the retentive nature of the soil, is sufficient to supply the rivers the whole year round.
Agriculture.

—Now the extremely exacting conditions

demanded
of heat

for the cultivation of rice, namely abundance and moisture followed by a dry period, are nowhere better fulfilled than in the tropical monsoon regions, and as these conditions are almost impossible to imitate by artificial means, the monsoon regions practically hold a

endeavour from time to time to limit its importation. so luxuriant. in such quantities as to leave a surplus after providing for the needs of the enormous native population. in is a country where vegetable growth crops will be ire spic<--. and to a lesser extent in Indo-China. —To carry this vast en some of the the whole the produce abroad there have ports in the world. of the majority of the population generally. to crops of cotton and jute which. Rice and millet form the staple food of the native people. for reasons which will be explained later. Rice is raised chiefly along the deltas of the great rivers.. 1. and is grown chiefly in and Annam. Tea also requires 3 soil. indeed. Native needs thus being satisfied. however. more and more being worked into manufacti goods in India itself. Those above-mentioned are but a few of the vegetable products of the region to which are cial interest is attached. other variety. Iras. Ports. The cultivation of opium for the Chinese market is of especial interest. although its is i ill-favoured in n poe shipping facilities. 1 Xa t u ra I Geog raj) hy. tecial interest also a. though it should bo added that there is no crop produced in such vast quantity that takes so small a part in international trade. indigo. nature of the oo M . reared chiefly in the Punjaub and Central Provinces.7 monopoly in the cultivation of that crop. only a moderately damp M \ -much as the Chinese authorities. coffee is Bow imp do less griculture maybe i from the fact that than nine-tenths of the popu- lation are either directly or indirectly in it. wheat is grown wholly for export. tobacco. cultivated in great sugar. Burinah exports more rice than any other country in the world. Naturally. Amoi and gath< oil-seeds. Requiring less moisture than rice. Ceylon Assam. seeing the harm done by this drug.

the people of India represent many different stages of civilisation. Passing eastward along the coast we come to Chittagong. however. though sugar and coffee are shipped in great quantity. the shallowness of the waters near the shore. which carries off some of the surplus trade of Calcutta. swampy nature Neither is Madras w ell placed. with hundreds of sub-divisions. the presence of sandbanks and swift currents are foreign trade. Bangkok is the only port of Siam. has created huge ports which suffer from disadvantages that would be almost fatal elsewhere." because porting rice.178 especially of Environment : the larger peninsula. the chief port of Tonking. Bombay. obstacles in the way of The greatness of the demand. rice and coal. apart from the great w heat port of Karachi 7 Bengal. in order that the different classes of people shall remain distinct. it is still strictly adhered . Such. Saigon Manilla is the capital and chief port of the Philippines and is most famous for its export of hemp and tobacco. distant from to the T coal. rice and tin. — Stretching as they do over such a large area. despite its great trade. It is. possesses by far the best harbour in all India. however. possesses one of the most dangerous harbours in the world. Nonavigable river helps inland communication. Although this system of caste is hundreds of years old. ex- teak and tin from the Irawadi Valley as far as Mandalay. is It exports teak. owing the coast. exports teak. the rice port of Cochin-China. and until the opening of a railway experienced great difficulty in of communicating inland. Rangoon is the chief port of Burmah. and Haiphong. are the greatest ports of India. Inhabitants. and it is often called the " Venice of the East. on Salsette Island. of its watery highways. and the unprotected shipping is exposed to the open Bay of Calcutta. (outside the region). and as is well known they have divided themselves into four great castes.

carry the produce of the \ alley across the Chinese frontier. I fail to respect great trouble higher classes are often very wealthy. and like the Kashmir shawls are embroidery of Lucknow of great 1 an the gold and silver lace of their manufacture. Their appreciation of the beautiful is shown in the thousands of magnificent native temples and other buildings. are Poona in ivory. noted the world over for its objects in figured brass and Lacquer work. show infinite patience in Cuttack specialises in silver filigree. which are without rival amo: lie non-European peoples. consist chiefly in the making of articles of luxury silks and muslins. and objects in silver and gold. hut Mandalay. educa" and intelligent. en the River Song-ka. si^us that India herself may some Air. There are. and Delhi in jewellery. to. Hanoi. One of the ancient cities engaged in this work is Benares. dav become a great manufacturing country. the capital of Dpper Burm ah. there has been established in Bombay modern machinery the raw cotton to c on goods without the necc i shipping the unworked material to Bur >t .A Xatural Geography. It also rivals Trichinopoli in the pro- — duction of fine ity. is 179 it and when Europeans caused. ports have been mentioned. Lahore. owes its importance to its ruby mines. and therefore have no manufactures. In consequence a it follows that pi the only important towns are the sea-port and the The where agricultural produce is collected or minerals found. however. silks. Towns. The native industries. carved wood and ivory. is Tongking. wl have been carried on for centuries. The people of the eastern peninsula — neither >o industrious nor so intelligent. from which the caravan-. other inland towns are the capital of • I unimportant. which are the most important in the world. To the north and on the same river lies Bhamo.

we may some day find that our Indian Empire has captured the market in the Ear East. Minerals. and even where coal is found there is usually a local absence of iron. as a few instances will Burmah. The country suffers from one great drawback. doing with her jute what Bombay does with Of late years there has been a constantly decreasing import of goods manufactured from cotton and jute. attributable to the fact that India is making these goods for herself. the supply of coal is greatly increasing. live near the river in pile dwellings or on the river in boats made of teak are thus near to the flood-plains and bamboo. are on rafts and boats moored The teak-cutting is usually done in in the streams. at Raniganj and in the Deccan. a comparative scarcity of coal. Habits and Customs. the wet season. and though at present Bombay and Calcutta practically monopolise these modern industries. and elephants are trained to do all the hard toil attached to the industry. When these have been opened up we may find that the Tropical Monsoon Eegion has become as famous for its coal as it has been in times past for its gold and precious stones.180 Environment is Calcutta her cotton. — The chief fields at present lie to the north-east of Calcutta. They where their rice is sown and they naturally become in early childhood as much Their games are at chiefly water games. . However.ore. as well as in parts of Burma and Annam. with the discovery of new fields and railway access to them. not injure the falling timber. when the softness of the ground will in home the water as on land. and most of their shops and places of entertainment. The people of Siam and as a rule. The character of the land and the nature of the climate have had a pronounced effect — on the habits of the people. be sufficient to show.. etc. Such a disadvantage is fatal to great manufacturing industry.

while the teak is hard and much more readily withstands the attacks of weather and the numerous wood-destroying insects that infest the region. lithe and ol patriotism. and they have curious devices to scare away spirits — all kinds of such as creaky Fig.A Natural Geography. wheels to the car. possibly because of the denseness of the dark forests.1 . The people are superstitious. and this is largely the result of the land ire. and the growth of clan feeling. rims to prevent their sinking in the The tribes ol the mountain frontiers of India. Not only are these trees most abundant. all mgly built a result of their had and often hand•nouth existence in their mountain e ment. which isolates tnhes in their mountain fastnesses. which is reall} The men are also wiry. —A SiAMlSB Km B 3< I nk. 18. and not surprising that vast quant. of teak and bamboo are utilised for all manner of articles and structure-. 181 in The materials primitive districts in daily use — are it is —especially the more usually those easily obtained in each locality. especial} on the north-west. I . are constantly breaking out into rebellion. which are also made with very broad >il. but the bamboo is light and easily carried about.-.

the area in which wild animals are abundant is steadily diminishing. that it not only contains the huge apes. has much less sentiment. lions and buffaloes . When to this is added a tropical climate and a regular rainfall. Thus the lemurs of Malacca have their nearest allies in the primitive fauna of Madagascar. elephants. Thus. here survives. save in tropical America. It contains high The Animals Monsoon — mountains and wide rivers. — — Interest attaches to the fact that the comparative. there exist the conditions which have made this region small in comparison with Africa or America far richer than both. isolation of the Malay Peninsula has given that area just a touch of primitive life. rhinoceroses. but by no means perfect. for as animals -are usually adapted to a definite environment. Now this region is particularly diverse. however. and owing partly to its measures and partly to the spread of civilisation. and a shape broken up by gulfs and straits into numerous promontories and islands. and monkeys The are held sacred even when committing damage. It would be foolish indeed to even a tithe of the creatures Suffice it abounds.182 Environment of Tropical Asia. vast forests and grassy plains. it has become extinct. the more varied the environment the more varied the animal life. even when this has involved great sacrifice. and the tapir. It is by no means an accident that this region should be richer than any other in animal life. one of the oldest living animals. Nor has man here made the endeavours which elsewhere have been so fatal to animal life. which makes vegetation most luxuriant. to molest the native cattle is a grave crime. British government. though everywhere else. Not only have the natives failed to make constant war upon the animals. endeavour to enumerate with which this region to say. but they have in some cases made laws to protect them.

aie ion in one of the most familiar. they include such magnificent forms as the pea- Even the insects. Though they are not usually distinguished for their beauty. and no other region can show such an abundance of snakes. The tawny background resembles the sun-burnt gra amongst which it lives. seem to rival the birds in their variety and splendour. environment animal as well as human . the Bengal which in a cage looks so conspicuous. about half of which are unknown elsewhere. causes the government to offer large rewards for their destruction.i which characterise Africa. too. finds in its beautiful markings a concealment of no mean value. they each and all bear the impress of their environment upon them. but also the bears. especially cock and argus pheasant. its environment the animal is enabled to creep near to or away from its few enemies unobserved. t< show us how the all influence of life. which by unfortunately claiming each year so heavy a toll of human life.A Natural Geography. are to be numbered in many hundreds of kinds. . the tapir. the on of the concealment being realised only by who have encountered this monarch of the Incidentally it Berves _le in its native home. The reptiles range in size from the huge crocodile to the smallest lizard. The birds. However peculiar may be the circumstances in which animals are placed. and the black stripes the thicker By this mimicry of la which grow amongst them. on the Himalayan slopes and Malay Peninsula. ' t :. and many kinds of deer and cattle which Africa has not. and difficult it is to choose an outstanding instance where all a-it will perhaps be best to find an illusexcellent. lS.

giraffe. rhinoceros. all these surrounding the Guinea Coast and the Congo Basin. Ehodesia and part of Angola. Inhabitants. — It is the the land of the negros. It is only lately that anything has been known of this great region. and Portuguese East Africa. together with the island of Madagascar. German. the . and in the vicinity — made of the stalks of the grain grown all these together with the presence of greatly this tropical the lion. frequent general features between them. drawn in from the surrounding oceans by the heat of the continent and feeding the crocodile show how waters of the Nile. however. such as the thick.184 Environment The African Tablelands. for the means of access to it are both dangerous and unhealthy. Abyssinia. elephant. The portion of Africa affected of the by the Monsoons is a broad belt formed Sudan. vegetation and High grasses. is largely under the dominion hair. negro population. clearings where maize is grown by the natives who live in beehive huts not unlike those of their Kaffir brethren further south. Somaliiand. which form a separate equatorial region. and the strong white teeth which The are all probably the result of their environment. The Sudan Region stretches along the southern margin of the Sahara Desert and although there is no well denned boundary between the two. the Niger and the Congo. belts of thorny woodlands full of creeping undergrowth. fall heavily in summer. become quite acclimatized to the unhealthy conditions and they show physical traits. hippopotamus and monsoon area The rains differs from the desert land on the north. there is a very strongly marked contrast in climate. curly home of the native blacks who through long centuries have hard skull. British.

Deserts. Semi-Tropical. Heavy Rains. 0. KEY A. Extreme.The Natural Regions of Africa. : — Equable Climate. Monsoon. Winter Bams. Tablelands. . B. Mediterranean Regions. Summer Rains. 184. Equatorial. Warm Temperate. [To face p. D. B.

being tempered by the also vary with the altitude. and the influence of this flelds is civil strife in the last shown in the wasted and deserted villages on the once cultivated slopes of the hills. the chief being Harrar. is Abyssinia. retained its inde- pendence. of access. for while the higher lands produce many fruits. . like South France. but formerly It eventually a great slave market. The land has been much torn by century. the hot lowlands grow the baobab tree and other tropical plants. became the centre was carried It is the greatest port of eastern Africa. the lowlands being hot and the plateaux and mountain areas with a climate altitude. be expected. this its moun- tain land. very cruel and much given to noisy music. the When Moslem invaders swept over Africa.186 Environment is : Zanzibar* East Africa and an island. being none too easy it. The climate naturally varies with the elevation. — Abyssinia its a land of mountains and people have been Christian from very early times. route calling place. and with Christianity. His manner of eating is coarse and his taste for raw meat somewhat in warfare His house is usually a round stone or mud hut. from which the crusade against slave trading on. The Abyssinian is a strong. as The productions may barley and oats and coffee. while his towns are unimportant. Many wild animals remain here. thirty miles from German now a British Protectorate. well-built man. while wild bees provide honey a favourite food for the people. The wet winds from the Indian Ocean in summer are condensed on the mountains and cause the annual flooding of the Nile which is fed from Abyssinia by the Blue Nile. with a roof of thatch and little or no means of lighting the interior. important as a trade surprising.

187 The Southern Monsoon Territory. for This region might very well be termed Living stonia. passing over the famous Victoria Falls and across the province of Khod' sia. while wi: . The River Zambesi flows through the district.! 1 inhabitants. which is still comparatively unknown. lias lately been introduced reeu tl The miner. great Lakes Tanganyika and Nyassa and region that the slave ible Here are the was in this trade was followed in its most it form. it is in this part that the great African missionary and explorer pursued his untiring labours. and they are chiefly e 1 in the culti- vation of tobacco and the wring >ry gathering of rubber. South Ajrican Ox. white men live here amongst the thousands of black 1 L'i>. 19. while the I resouroes arc crops of thought to be valuable. Roads are being con ply on the lakes and the has its terminus in the distri< I mahips ro Railway at .) a "Spruit.A Natural Geography.. grain and vegetables are of Borne value.Waggon Crossing (Note the boulders.

but up to the present all carriage of goods has been done by men. cotton and hemp. The south and west. as will be seen later. The Malagasy people a considerable quantity are weavers of of this is silk. Blantyre is one of the chief white settlements where much missionary work is done. exported.188 Ujiji is Environment a market town on Lake Tanganyika. African and Malay mixed of people inhabitants are a origin. Antananarivo. and although much is made for home use. canoes. because their presence appears at first so unaccountable as to have given rise to the theory that a large continent formerly There is so striking a existed in the Indian Ocean. through dominated by a range of mountains running the length of the island. and as the rainfall is heavy on the east coast. are is Madagascar sandy and unproductive. although the remnants of old customs and traditions are still maintained. and is noted as the meeting place of Stanley and Livingstone. however. one of the largest islands of the It is world. The land is now a French possession. is on the Eiver Ikopa. It is named after the place in Scotland where Livingstone was born. at the edge of a very fertile and wide rice area. not only on account of the peculiarity of the animals them- but also. or in The capital. The French are now building roads and railways. Animal Life in Madagascar.—The fauna of Mada- gascar surpasses in interest that of all other islands. the African mainland that some naturalists have pro- . many of whom are Christians. that part is densely forested and covered with rich vegetation. with a population of over two millions. difference between the animals of the island and those of selves. although it was The for a long time the seat of a great Arab trade.

:. i the single forward Btep. none of which are to be found elsewhere. finally allowed it to represent a whole family of animals in itself. as a few instances make abundantly clear. occur in greater variety and abundance than elseThese tree-dwelling lizards. their environment. being called by the Germans half-apes. but the third finger of each hand is ily thicker than a wire. Tin not share this inactivity. which the word lemur means. All the fingers are its Long and slender. a iking peculiarity about will marked primitiveness in others and them all. the island chameleons. Adaptation to its environment is shown in its whole form. namely there is a singular poverty in some : classes of animals. but especially in its remarkable hand. headquarters of the Moreover. it ura I Geography. is which this strange creature is so fond. are extremely Bluggish. and capable of probing into strange the name — the very nam vvices in search of the insec. and ngue however. Amongst these animals. and for their appearance and nocturnal habits well deserve ghosts. Although the individual animals are quite different. after haying made several mistakes in deciding to which el of animals it belonged. which although found in many other land-. frequently occupying a minute in takin.. the general features of the fauna resemble those of Australasia in three respects. They are the lowest form of monkeys. whose form is eminently ad. the wood-grubs whose presence acute hearing readily detects. there being more than thirty species. 1S9 posed to make Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands a distinct animal region in themselves. Madagascar possesses one of the n weird-looking creatures in the world the aye-aye whose appearance is so unique that naturalists.1 X. with which it picks out from eath the bark of trees. do when the former perot . The island is the especial home of the lemurs.

such as the sun-birds and kingfishers. Why the birds. will the bird each contain as much matter as three ostrich eggs. A few of its eggs have been found in a semi-fossil state. such as kites. which on being polished is used for combs and ornamental purposes.190 Environment thefor- an insect near by. . is by no means fully understood. should exhibit the same peculiarity as the animals. They are best known by their power ward changing their colour. hawks and owls and numerous waterfowl. and as they . with a rapidity and accuracy that render escape impossible. this and other real having made them a source of time immemorial. a running bird corresponding to the Moa of New Zealand. They include a few of brilliant plumage. which. seems to be due to changes in the animal's feelings. rather than to the necessity for concealment. The giant tortoise once ranged over the whole island. itself must have attained huge proportions. Another sluggish reptile. of more superstitious days and imaginary habits fables and stories from fable. is which Madagascar possesses several This animal is remarkable for its great hard bone. which is club-shaped at end and covered with a gummy secretion. yet of the existing hundred and fifty kinds of land birds an unusually large number are unknown on the mainland less than two hundred and fifty miles away. Within comparatively recent times there lived in Madagascar the iEpyornis. many birds of prey. of Owing to feed to their habit of filling their large lungs to distension. and for its protective shield of Aldabra. is thrust to a distance often exceeding the length of theanimal's body. peculiar kinds. likewise noted in the tortoise. but is now restricted to the Islands of tenacity of life. lying to the north. the latter. contrary to general opinion. they were thought in on air. to which the crossing of the Mozambique Channel means but the flight of a few hours.

The whole of the cat tribe is reprelike sented by a single specimen — the fossa — it. nor hope to see the zebra on the plains. to which ie nai! once stretched righl the Indian thai ( the Mala} Peninsula.A Natural G Remarkable though stranger still hy. top. -s-eating and hoofed animals with which the continent abounds. life 191 he. the large flesh-eating. in the corresponding latitud 98 — account for the pro- — bul difficulty m • the Malay Peninsula. active and fierce. It is the largest carnivorous animal on the ml. valleys. >f similar animate lands now a strong indi and therefore som raphers I have supposed that a large continent. no native cattle graze in the fertile nor wild goats find a fastness on the mountain The elephant. not . the is :. it this animal may becoi when we discover that the characteristic forms of tropical life are all absent. in Owing to the which f most animals find | crossing wide bhey water. with a body over a yard long. the all antelope and the lion. an enormous weasel. are quite unknown. and entirely confined to of this The explanation fauna connection with the British pointed out how isolation on islands tends to m impoverished and peculiar fauna. Long severance the mainland i not at all simple. the hippopotamus. In [sles it has already been is fi i may in this case fully having gone so far this much is clear bul unexpected difficulty appears when it is seen that the nearest relations of many of the animals are found. in fact. One need not fear the leopard in the jungle. and one would have to look in vain for many of the birds which breed abundantly the opposite shore. and the great depth of the Mozambique Channel seem to rod addithe 1 )< . the giraffe. very slender. The Malagasy people have more in common with the Malayans than the Africans.>ne would expect.

Ecuador. many of which are but little government is not all that could be desired. with a somewhat similat climate. The Monsoon Lands of America. two great sections the American Continent are joined by a great neck Central America^ —The of of land of irregular shape. but in view of its peculiar fauna one must believe separation from the mainland. but modern research has made such an explanation unnecessary. except on the higher parts and the summers are hot and wet. stretch the line of mountains connecting the number of political known and whose Eocky Mountains with the Andes and there is no doubt that it is these which have interfered so greatly with the Two attempts have been opening up of the region. from the effects of the north-east Trades in the northern hemisphere and the south-east Trades in the southern hemisphere. but most remote antiquity. Along the west coast. occurring in Europe and even America. Fossil forms of recent discovery prove that formerly lemurs had a much wider distribution. that a piece land which once formed part of the adjoining conti- nent that . of Colombia. Madaof gascar to be a continental island. divided into a States. We may its therefore consider is. and south-eastern Brazil The winters are very dry and moderately warm. unlike that of the British Isles. These lands include Central America between the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Panama Isthmus. by canals. the Panama mountains the made to pierce .192 tional Env i ro nmen t credence to this theory. of the was an event not of yesterday. the West Indies and the plateaus. but for some unknown reason have nowhere been able to hold their own save in the isolated Malay Peninsula and the ancient forests of this vast island.

ink GEN " \v\ClF$C 20 G ISOS .so / 00 — y~ \ -4o \ 50 r' * •Of? 7 Falkland Islands aggllan I / / ~50 \ \ \ / 60 50 / 90 / 30 90 1 80 70 Thk Natural Begions of South America.— ^ 10 80 70 60 50 40 1 / LATLA f£TIC_ QCEA V f^X^S-' e- ^'EfA i 10 kz/uT Is ^7T J < \\PERI. Winter Rains.o J I30 -1 Wf} |/3f \0CEAfJ -V" - VT . Femi-Tropical Plateau.mf c^t afr^r \ I *M*r\ ***•%. Semi- Extreme Plateau. Ai. Cool Temperate. B. E. 6. /*Bah. Equable. Rainy. Low Rain- Monsoon Tropical. fall. [To face j. Cold. Extreme. KEY: A. Cold Winters. Interior Lowlands. ~ /—. Temperate. Warm D. Equable. Equatorial Lowlands. Ci. Bi. I. Plateau. Lands. J. 19Z. Low Raiutall. . Desert.

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often of Btyle. commerce between the two oceans has been aided by a railway across the Panama Isthmus. while silver and other minerals have been produced from the time of its est — The northern of Tehuantepec sheep and goa occupation by the Spaniards. bananas. in Btraggling fashion. Much money has expended in the contest against yellow fever. together brought the work porarily to a close. For fifty year-. which is perhaps the greatest foe of enterprise in this 'ii.A Natural Geography. part of the plateau in the rea Isthmus hora numbers of cattle. towards the low divide three hundred feet in height which barred the way to the Pacific. both of which failed at the first attempt. —There dev< are naturally few important tow it in this region. but the work has now been undertaken by the U. The — — — unhealthiness i of the swamps and difficulties forests. The chief productions of Central America are sugar. although is i> ssible that i Colon Panama may 1 of the opening between them. de Lesseps the constructor of the Suez Canal. Government.A.S. The Panama route partially complet J by the French engineer. was through a region of soft rocks. and it is said that the risk has now become very smalL floods and financial 1 Productions. Towns. tobacco. maize. . rubber. and other tropical growths. 193 Canal and the Nicaraguan Canal. rice. the Most of the towns are built adobe and in the Spanish bouses of the better class usually inc ntral courtyard. and the canal will probably be open for traffic in 1914. cacao. but this lias frequently 1> sen in danger from the flooding of rivers in the heavy rains of the wet seasons.

moist climate. United States. but of the The vegetation is exceptionally same type as that rich. of the being more mainland. until lately in the hands independent republic under It has fine tropical forests and grows tobacco and sugar very largely. capital. but now owned an the protection of the United States. HaYana. and north-west these latter are continued in the Bahamas. Haiti or Hispaniola and Porto Rico. Cuba is the largest island. lie —Across the the Caribbean Sea from Central America several groups. West Indies. In many of the islands the cotton-growing industry has been re-introduced and is beginning to flourish. profuse. arid subject to fearful hurricanes and frequent outbursts of volcanic All the islands force. s have a hot.194 Environment : The West divided into Indies. although in common with that of the whole group of islands its sugar trade has declined very much since the freeing of the slaves brought about a difficulty in obtaining labour iron ore is mined in the mountains. . Its soil. was formerly a Spanish penal settlement. which are The Greater Antilles stretch to the east from the Yucatan Peninsula and contain Cuba Jamaica. belonging to the excellent rice crops while the island is not deficient in . the of Spain. coast and climate are excellent and make it a useful possession. Hispaniola has immense forests and but for a weak independent government might develop some very fine agricultural lands. The whole island is utilised. South-east of these lie the Lesser Antilles. tempered in some degree by oceanic influence. even the swamps producing Porto Rico. is well situated on the routes to the Peninsulas of Yucatan and Florida. The native Indian race appears to have become extinct under the sometimes cruel oppression of the European immigrants.

Kingston is the capital. owing to the difficulties of the labour problem. 195 It bids fair mineral wealth. obtained of the island. nutmegs. as yet undeveloped. are exported in large quantities. The once immense si. which stands on a somewhat shallow harbour. although of late years the importation of Indian and Bananas form Chinese coolies has been commenced. the chief export. but the great depth . on a harbour of the south where the rainfall is lowest. e mountain summits. Islari Trinidad not the hottest of the West Indian to unhealthy.. maize. bo remind us. while oranges. etc. -per under the progressive United States' rule. from the Pitch Lake in the Jt^ capital is Port of Spain. with suffi- cient rainfall to keep the land constantly green. Jamaica has on its a central mass of mountains.d like stepping to 3 in a graceful curve from ezuela is the peninsulas of ider thai Florida and Yucatan. there being these islands represent but summits of a now submerged range of mountains wo American continents. ting through its name having been given to a world-wide Luxury tobac West Indian Islands one q Looking at a map of the aot help being impressed with the fact that they — . . draii e now greatly improving the health is of the city. Sanitary precautions and has been too prevalent. the thai 1 • this arrangement accidental.. plantations worked by slaves have begun to fall to ite. Near the island Lies the smaller one of Tobago. charts used to of incidenc depict in 1 Antilles still which the name aland called Antiglia. and is owing the variety of its urces a known product. Asphalt is its wellprosperous colony.1 Natural Geography. hut where yellow at.

The Fauna of the West Indies. still remain. the extinction of the of clearing the ground by setting woods and forests. strange to say. are unknown in South America and the rodents doubtless owe their survival to the astounding rapidity with which their numbers increase. so called from the odour of its fur. all the larger animals have disappeared. This fact has had the greatest effect on the fauna of the archipelago. As one might expect from the long isolation. Long insularity has produced a few peculiar forms. the smaller forms which still survive bearing a resemblance to those of the southern continent. such as the tailless rat forces of man and of Cuba. much used in the lining of cloaks. one factor in the preservation of the insect-eating animals which. carnivorous animals was. This extinction has indeed been aided by the settlers' practice fire to the primeval the Virgin Islands having suffered Only two orders of animals particularly in this way. As regards these. The fondness which these creatures are known to betray toward their old haunts has. when for a space the . . restricted many forms of bird life to the narrow limits They include many of brilliant of this archipelago. and the musk-rat. such as parrots. combined nature cease to oppress them. perhaps.196 of the sea is itself Environment'. however. pigeons and humming birds. Seeing that they are possessed of such exceptional seems strange that the facilities for locomotion. sufficient to prove that the depression of the mountain chain must have occurred in an age extremely remote. Amongst the latter is the agouti. it islands should enjoy an abundance of birds unknown to the mainland. a pig-like form. making it partake so much of the character of oceanic islands that no other region on earth to — which nature has besn otherwise so kind suffers from such a scarcity of the higher forms of animal life. plumage.

the western coast Lands are low and swan but cooled by the northward flow of a cool oc cunvnt and the Caribbean Sea coast which was (iuli Stream is hotter than the Pacific although by iii" further from the equator. Bogota. may be interesting to observe that the local being collected in considerable numbers in glass botth -. The tropical climate which all the islands save the northern Bahamas enjoy has largely encouraged reptilian life. The L97 characteristic dearth of the higher animals cannot be said to apply to the lower forms. rubber. boas and adders innumerable. silver. situated H. this fact probably acco: 'J 1 t 1 ing for the position of this settlement. cocoa and maize. in respect of land-shells. while platinum. The temperature zones of Colombia are four in number. being abundant. possessing more species fireti than It all the rest of America. and gold are mined and orchid much sought for. the triple mountain chain of the Andes is lofty and cool. The eastward slope of the Andes is hot. part of large the country is mountainous and although it lies round the equatori temperate products grow at an elevation of about feet. lizards and scorpions Further. Monsoon Lands Colombia. and is fairly elevated. containing river valleys and high level plateaus. The largest river is the Ma^dalena.500 feet above the with a fresh and sunny climate all the year round. \ of South America. which into the Caribbean Sea and is navigable for five hundre miles to the town of Honda. are used as lanterns by the poorer class of natives. Communication is difficult and this 000 lerably retarded development. Coffee and tobacco are the chief exports but other crops are cinchona. capital is .A Natural Geography. the West Indies are the most productive area in the world. The — .

very good ports on the coast. also breeds large numbers of cattle.198 Environment : and often scarcely wide enough for mules to pass each other. on the equator.Eastern Brazil. and is a typically dirty and ill-kept Spanish town. cut The bv several long rivers draining to the Atlantic. the position of its capital. but the clear. sugar plantations. is Sao Paulo stands high up and although one of the oldest towns of Brazil. and its There are several stoep slopes closely border the coast. cocoa-nuts. and it has many . so that travellers across the mountains are carried in chairs on the backs of Indians. while the western slopes grow palms. Ecuador* The rainfall is is receives its name from its position. and the wide open tablelands of the interior are wooded and These highless fertile than the lowlands and valleys. so that if communication were easier agriculture would prosper. The coastal range is called the Sierra de Mar. centred round Sao This district Paulo. such as the making of Panama hats is done. very healthy. Quito stands nine thousand feet above the sea. pine-apple groves and flower gardens of brilliant hues. on a tributary of the Eiver Parana. bananas. Quito. or rather. abundant and the soil fertile.— The portion of Brazil not included in the Amazon Basin is a tableland. Santos is the port for a great coffee-growing region on the other side of the coast range. who are very sure- footed. The montana or eastern forested slopes of the mountains are very vegetation everywhere plentiful and densely clothed with trees. pure air and cool temperature keep the city healthy. A little manufacturing of various kinds. lands are called Campos. South. while religious houses are very numerous. ridges of the plateau are highest near the coast.

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s P o PC (3 w a H Q w o « a ft « .

J Natural Geography. Rio de Janeiro is a world-famous city on account of beauty of its situation. hut It city of is narrow streets and evil its harbour the most spacious of Brazil. It has a long. An the almost unequalled power of vegetation to a' the climate is shown by a law which forbids the cutting down of trees. thrived on the proc and on ruined. now not so prevalent. for it has been found that this practice was having quite a parching effect on the climate. coal. for the town itself has badly-laid streets and many evil odours. winding some distance inland. land-locked harbour. etc. Ted pie. : ion of Improvements are now being ma fine modern buildings and le both in the in improved sanitary arrangements. The trade with Santos is by rail. its it excellent harbour has \ produi much commerce and less exp Behind the of t diamon is a and swamps. often d i boundaries of Brazil require Ij afford and the larger army than Brazil can n this has prevented her from expending more on her commercial development. c ttlements populated region the to high grassy a compos a of Central Brazil. changing 'M. Another factor wh a progress <-an in is the nature of the who always dirl find enough to live upon. so that lev olera. and cutting into the coast range which surrounds the hay with splendid peaks and rugged heights. silent illustration of the i fortunately the beauty of the city is only apparent from a distance. Bahia is another smells. its abolition was nearly Lcted 2 However. fine buildings 199 and is a railway centre of importance. and and ignore bhemse .. The nice is a mile wide and is strongly fortified. while its inhabitants are a motley throng. has Innd.

Western Australia. as it fulfils many of the requirements. through inter-marriage between is to the Blacks and the Chinese or other foreign settlers. Northern portions of West Australia. hot climate. bear a marked resemblance to those Palms and other tropical trees nourish in of India. The Northern Territory of South Australia. Queensland. sugar-cane cultivation. is rich swamps and jungles with dense undergrowths of ferns and creepers. being mainly Chinese. maize and The rainfall is fruit-growing are all thriving industries. The chief town is Palmerston. North Australia. . The population is largely a mixed one. and mining. — The the moist.200 Environment : Monsoon Lands of Australia. and even in the dry season the dew is so heavy that men strip to wade through the long. very great in summer. —The shores are here bold and rugged and the inhabitants few in number. infested with snakes and a huge variety of birds. possibly be cultivated for cotton-growing. grass. greater attention will be paid to this northern district. —This district is not so it rich in vegetation as the rest of the region. while gold is a good sheep and be found in the Kimberley division. —This is the most populous part of the region. which is waist-high.more the continent become more thickly peopled and developed. a small settlement and terminus of The area might the overland telegraph to Adelaide. . favoured parts of and no doubt. South Australia and Queensland lie within the tropics and receive monsoon winds with Tha vegetation near the coast heavy summer rains. but cattle-rearing area. as the.

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TownsYille. Cape Yorke is a wild region in The Great Barrier Reef is a series of coral reefs extending for over thirteen hundred miles along the coast of Queensland. and are due to the fresh water of the riv which is unfavourable to the growth of the coral polypes.A Natural Geography. is a kind of smoked or sun-dried sea-slug shaped like a cucumber. much eaten by the Chinese people. collected by Chinese are and natives from the trepang reef. bold and rugged. which the natives The mountains are here quite live quite undisturbed. gold and other minerals. . differing from those further south. and it exports grain. or Bcchc de Mer. The gaps are most numerous in the south. Between the Barrier and the mainland the water is calm Pearls and as the reef forms a natural breakwater. opposite a break in the Great Barrier Reef. is the chief town. Trepang.

Since Brazil receives either the wet south-east or the equally wet north-east trade winds according to the season and since the Amazon itself lies in close proximity to the Doldrums. upon which a population equal to that of this Europe could be supported. by well wooded streams. are bracing and healthy and vary between stoniness and great fertility. . As it is. Not only can region produce abundant food stuffs but it is along with the rest of Brazil. Equable Hot Lowlands. and known as campos. usually furrowed could be developed into very profitable grazing grounds and agricultural areas. many towns are scourged by yellow fever and the numerous swamps are the homes of malaria and a°ue. while iron found in parts of the Country. and the country could be made fairly healthy if better sanitary measures were taken and more money could be spared. r>recious in all stones and metals. The Amazon Basin. is exceptionally rich. especially — between December and May.CHAPTER III. They The elevated lands. while rheumatism and general all weakness is encouraged by the damp heat in parts of the country. or Zone of Equatorial rains. The latitude makes the climate warm and the rainfall makes it equable. the country receives a copious rainfall all through the year that of the upper Amazon being exceptionally heavy.

cotton. robber. for distinct differences —The may be noted according to position and surrounding. mile-. but everywhere the trees are gigantic and no brushwood is to be found. with the well-known Brazil nuts. while kinds abound. and while it is two f<>r thoUSSJD fOT ocean Vessels I normally a mi. too pro- The vegetation of Brazil. who often live on boats in the streams and swamps. gently merging into the campos of the higher lands further south. tobacco. every kind of useful fruits of all wood is grown in the forests. The influence of the environment is clearly marked on the vegetation of the forest lands. The River Amazon — flowing as it does close to • and almost parallel with the equator tor the is part of its course nearly four thousand miles tributaries. except fine for man to hold in check. and the combined effects of heat and moisture cause an abundance of vegetable life. The banana forms the chief food of the native Indians. such as coffee. pine-apples.A Vegetation. Natural Geography. mangos and melons. 203 huge northern lowland is covered with mattas or dense forests. in !• mil receive^ enormous The i drained by this vast river system -the largest in the world is not less than two and a half million square — miles. is luxuriant <>nd description. and Beldo 11 remain long in one place. sugar. The Amazon. including bananas. rice. dials for foreign markets. The in difference in their surroundings is chiefly shown Almost the character of the bark. etc. in I 10I0 . or more than one-third of all South A basin comprises the northern two-thirds of Brazil The river i> naviga and the northern half of Bolivia. on the loftiest mountains and on the stony parts of the campos. One Btufifs of the reasons why Brazil produces so little food and imports so much wheat from the Un s that the cultivated soil is occupied in the production of ma.

204 Environment surrounding country is under water. The coast various states. while the coast is surf-bound. gums. but merge into swamps and forests. dusty Harmattan wind blows from the Sahara. then higher to lands that are still covered with forests. a typical equatorial forest area. The climate is hot at all seasons. formed by the. at the junction of the Eio Negro and the Amazon has . Liberia is also a freed-slave colony. as the wet south-east trades are drawn across the equator by the heat of Africa. No united existence is possible to the tribes that inhabit this region. . and Manaos. most difficult of access. the rainfall is heavy. The Guinea Coast The Guinea Coast is . and except from October to January. a similar The population of Brazil is very mixed Negroes trade. and of late European immigration has been great. which name commemorates the reason for which the colony was formed. although Para. for the forests are dense and the streams unhealthy. Thsse waters are kept from flowing into the Eiver Orinoco on the north by a low divide. ivory. near the estuary exports forest products. Sierra Leone United States and given independence. gold from the Gold Coast. rubber. so that small clans frequently attack each other under cover of the dark forests. and the descendants of these are settled here and on the neighbouring coast. It was a place of refuge for liberated slaves. districts have lately become divided into has a good port and harbour in Freetown. when the dry. The shores are low and sandy. There are few towns in the basin and none of any great importance. which also create much fear of the supernatural and give rise to many superstitious customs. The chief products of the region are palm-oil and kernels. outnumber the Indians.

while rice and nuts are considerably grown for food latter for and the oils. It is finely Hundreds of milesituated among rocky heights. Boma. Its climate is hot and moist and is unhealthy for Europeans.. the ape and the gorilla are seen in large numbers. is seventy miles up stream and is the head of navigation for ocean vessels. and its banks are thickly mlated by negros. which hopes in time to develop by their means a and useful territory. witli the tributary Aruwimi the are navigable. Most of the Congo Basin is the Congo Free State.1 Natural Geography . falls Congo hut for the — — \ flowing 3.. and rapids whicb bar continuous traffic. bounded by low plateau edges Basin from those of which separate the the Zambesi and the Nile from Lake Chad and the Niger. am bush. The Congo Coast is is feverish and full of jungles reached by rivers from the higher interior. Cotton growing has recently been established on a commercial basis in Nigeria and along the Gold Coast. l!00 etc. Lagos is an important commercial town on the SlaYe Coast. of dense high forests lie i terns and all weeds four teet and roofed is foliage that shuts out little Bunlight. The animal inhabitants are numerous and while the lion and giraffe are not found. the capital. The rainfall heavy and the forests are kept wet and luxuriant all the year round. the home o dwarfed over in height. The coast rises to a plain some fifteen hundred feet high. The Congo Basin and Coast. race. many of whom are canniba my of the tributaries are huge and belong to France. which is really a Belgian dependency. but e aze over twenty millions of the black inhabitants. Their . Some of the forests are nnmei and the thickest of them.

besides Armenians solid dwellings of these latter contrast strangely with the pile dwellings of the Malays on the edge of the jungles. and it shows characteristics similar to those of the mainland and of the islands of the Archipelago on the south. The native settlements make a blaze of colour. but Chinese settlers carry on many industries. and who use the poisoned arrow and the blow-pipe as their chief weapons. Malays are the most prominent in numbers. sticks. These dwarf races are commonly known as Pigmies. and the more of immigrants from India. thus attracting much commerce. Singapore stands on an island at the southern ex- not only a British Naval Station and the capital of the Straits Settlements.206 stunted size is Environment due to their dank and dismal environment and their fear of cannibals causes them to be very They can afraid of coming into contact with strangers. The Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. flit about the trees like monkeys and will frequently follow a stranger for days and attempt to shoot him with their poisoned arrows and darts. baskets. but is a free port where such are rare. The jungles of the interior are still inhabited by tribes not unlike the Pigmies of Central Africa in their stunted size and monkey-like habits. etc. The climate is hot and equable. The Malay Peninsula has a central boss of mountains rising from swampy mangrove coasts and alluvial plains. v . and is day. while the ease with which the country is reached by sea attracts numbers and Europeans. but is made bearable by ocean breezes bringing frequent showers almost every tremity. The land is joined by a narrow neck to the mainland. and it is a picturesque sight to observe the Malays in open avenues of palms making canes.

together with a short. ping towards Torres Strait in the south. rid. often infested with noxious animals. The chief weapons are the kris. and these are divided into two distinct of fauna and flora by the line passing through the Molucca Passage. IS drained by the .A Natural GeogravJuj. to those of tort the lips The games are similar the Siamese. I This lower north of t while the ho m >untain harrier has winter rains. a short crooked sword. who thus often hurt or kill many is — in their momentary madness. but very quick to take offence and thought found throughout the by many to be cruel and treacherous. Borneo. but it is now Indian Archipelago. The people are lazy. New Guinea and imblances lire. its adjacent islands bear many is to in I Australia. forked stick for the purpose of pinning to the wall any who should " run amok " a common event among the brooding Malays. silent and temperate. ins. straight knife called a parang. and the whole island . which includes a long. The : Islands. A peculiar feature of Malay life the police equipment. known as Wallaces Line. — and Celebes. Sumatra. -"< by catting and twisting rattans of palm tree. and New Guinea the md B north and centre of the island are mountainous. The reason for his elevated pile dwellings— reached by ladder — is the necessity for avoiding the swampy ground. and contain sev< very large ones chiefly New Guinea. —The islands of the East Indian Archipelago are countless in number. and like them the people disby chewing the betel-nut. The Malay race was cradled of —the stems of a variety in the mountain island J Sumatra.inner Ply rains River.

.) i Pearls and trepang are obtained from the sea.208 Environment interior is undeveloped because of the heavy while even the mountains are covered with vegetation. Tree House. but still undeveloped owing to the bad means of communication. where cannibalism and other barbarous practices are indulged. while mineral wealth and timber is abundant. and as a natural consequence the people are divided into small tribes. {Malay houses are often similar. The forests. 20. New Guinea. Fig.

_." 6 I - • . 2« s H <._ cd d Q a a.S'3 J _ si M .

.

mountainous visitors. They are fond of dancing and noisy music. bananas. 209 mostly built on piles or trees the roofs being frequently ornamented by shells and the skulls of slain enemies they are thus protected in a measure from marauding tribes. in of the islands.A Natural The houses Geography. forest lands which . nose and breasts are decorated with shells. and the ears. Sumatra lies on either side of the Hquator with tne volcanic a great its heavy rains and considerable elevation. while the body is often tattooed. sheltered by a large island. an under an English ruler is situated on lowlands its name is Sarawak. bones. The Northern Islands. with a soil. wild beasts and tloo is. In the centres are placed. nuts. of the people are — — Many of the people wear no clothes. food produce is easily obtained o and . but disturbed by squalls thunder-storms. — Most of these islands present high fronts to the oceans and low shores to the shallow inland seas. state — Java fertile. while they are daring and adventurous on the sea oread-fruit in their light canoes. A. or in grasses hung round the They are very waist. coffee. sugar-cane. fond of ornament and decoration. is the most productive of the islands. and the best port is Surabaya. live conquered races that have frequently intermarried with their Lent river In the north of Borneo. quinine. and cereals are grown. products due to range of Rubber. usual equatorial climate. Across these the winds blow with ilarity and thus navigation has always been easy and the peoples are sailor races. and teeth. Their chief productions are nuts. others dress in bark softened by chewing. the hair being trained like a mop. The numerous islands of which Guinea forms the bulk are called Melanesia. noticeable feature of the costume is the enormous plaited hat which serves as both headgear and umbrella. sugar. New and tobacco.

none being more pronounced than that of the wise rulsr of Sarawak Eajah Brooke. The natives are Dyaks. for black gums and as in other The islands rich mineral products are worked here by the Chinese. are truthful and industrious.210 hence the people are the island is noted camphor. The influence of environment on the language of the peoples of these islands is most clearly shown by the immense number of sea-faring terms. They are a remarkable race who have high central morals. swamps and river deltas. with a mass of mountains surrounded by wide coast plains of forests. although European influence is gradually making itself felt among them. - Borneo is second only to New Guinea in size. : Much its timber abounds. of — . The island is rich in vegetable and mineral products. Thus. but have the custom head-hunting as a means of proving their manhood. Environment lazy. while pepper. obviously introduced by their long and constant connection with the surrounding seas. but few pure blooded ones remain. they have long been a source of danger to travellers and to other tribes.

and the effect of the is verj not form of the Bolivian Indians. 1 who livi an altitude of 11. With the exception of Tibet. and very South American can be said concerning them. Highlands of Ecuador and Colombia. there are three •is of the Andes.CHAPTER IV. thai of the sand feet. two convi Peru and Bolivia arc plateau formations. importance to trade were it not for the difficulty of communication. In Colombia. lie all the highlands of the tropical area in the cordilleras of the little Andes. Tropical and Semi-Tropical Highlands. besides the coastal range. The whole region would without doubt beo.000 feet. all volcanic in structure. of Peru and Bolivia comprise the region and their The nearness to the equator so neutralises their altitude that cultivation of the soil is possible to a height of ten thou- and trees will grow well thousand feet higher than this. while m Ecuador the chains have 'Ho main ridges. and very containing . for its valleys are rich in tropical produce. and their chests an ihorl big. 1 and environment and the rare atmosphere in the physical Great extremes of night g the largest in the Andes. its minerals are valuable and it is near the rich rubber-producing area of the Upper Amazon. Their cular. day are experienced.

and the yak is the chief beast of burden. The chief port is Callao. and it name of was from this vast wealth that Bolivia received El Dorado " The Golden. The mineral deposits of silver. The northern portion practically uninhabited. with fiatroofed houses. The summers are hot and scorching. The rainfall is scanty and while in summer there are vast stretches of shifting sand. horses and mules. ranging from barren. The scenery in Peru is most varied. —The includes not only Tibet itself. rearing flocks of all. when brought to a lower level they become subject to illness and often perish. goats. and it was these riches which lifted Spain its rivers crowned peaks. but are similar in some respects. but Southern Tibet has valleys and plains where population is settled.212 Environment like distended bellows. with an excellent harbour and busy manufactures. while to the forefront of the nations in the fifteenth century." — its The Tibetan Plateau. . copper. and the liberated negro slaves who have settled in the country are a menace to safety even in broad daylight. desert-like stretches to rich valleys and snow- and lakes are very large. great areas of the higher regions are covered with snow and form the is headquarters of huge glaciers. Misgovernment is everywhere apparent. These high plateaus lie further from the Equator than the corresponding regions in South America. Tibetan Plateau but the high arid area crossed by the Tarim Eiver between the Kwen Lun Mountains and the Thian Shan Range and the dry lower plateau betwesn the latter range and the Altai Mountains. yaks. rudely built of mud or bamboo. gold and coal are enormous. although there is no external trade carried on at The people are chiefly herdsmen. while the winters are bitterly cold and severe. Many of these valleys are irrigated and yield some cereals and a few fruits. and near it on a dry plain lies the capital. Lima.

The Tibetans their country chief ruler is are noted for their religious fervour.A Natural Geography. of the least known in all the world. whereas at Kashgar the oasis supports more than sixty thousand people. >ome streams supply sufficient water to support only one or families. which also serves as a rain screen and gives to Tibet its dry climate. ccording to the size of the community. and is the chief stronghold of Buddhism. chiefly at few settlements hi Kashgar and Yarkand. a In Eastern Turkestan in the south. and he is worshipped as a god in his temple at Lhasa. and these are naturally subject to raids from wandering robbers. and it is noticeable that the intellectual Btrength of the pe >ple is been made small or . communication with India is forbidden nv the impassable barrier of the lofty Himalayas. called the a mystery to the outer world. Gobi Desert and the Sin Ling Mountains. barley soup and tea. which are starting points for the caravan routes across Here the size the high Pamirs into Russian Turkestan. yak beef. On the south. and the food chiefly consists of mutton. and so there is no need to wonder that this country is one trated there. China is cut off by the Kwen Lun Mountains. for only in large social communities that such intercom can be obtain- ill promote intellig . and difficulty it is only with great and danger that some few foreigners have peneThe houses are dirty. the capital and sole The city has been kept important town of the country. of the oasis determines the size of the community. which which is drunk almost all day long. Their Grand Lama.

many are the result ot all seasons it is heaviest in summer. The means of dispersion which have served to clothe the islands with a rich vegetation. and while the rainfall occurs is of coral. The best known islands are the Fiji Group the Sandwich Islands — now called the Hawaiian Group — containing the port of Honolulu. while the more fertile ones produce sugar. Animal — has never been connected with any great land mass and as such oceanic islands never possess any of the higher forms of animal life. these creatures having secured a world-wide distribution by clinging to . — . the largest and most mountainous the whole group of islands. we have here. cotton and many fruits. being mainly either of volcanic or coral origin. The The Islands of the Pacific Ocean. Samoa. the island home of a famous writer Eobert Louis Stephenson . the climate is the most equable on the surface of the globe. and of Caledonia. The vast archipelago which has earned the name of Polynesia. have been quite incapable of performing the same service to animals.CHAPTER V. New Life in the Islands of the Pacific. mostly in the tropical portion of the Western Pacific Ocean. the poorest animal region in the world. very natural. coffee. and while most of them are Pacific Islands lie made As at volcanic action. despite its great extent and genial climate. Only the land-shells are abundant. Cocoanuts are produced on the coral islands. rice.

These islands. we Galapagos Islands. tortoises to which the islands owe their name. and as t lie four or dands are separated from each five larg other by swift currents flowing through deep chan: On nearing come to the 7 a species unknown all to the rest. they ha develo] iliar forms in accordance with the varied conditions their new environment imposed upon them. where} during unmolested by man. six hundred miles v. though it is unknown by what means they have reached their present abode. to which country they belong. but their numbers rapidly diminish toward the east and cease This fact would point to altogether east of Samoa. The lizards. Considering how great a variety of bird life obtains elsewhere. Avuifs 215 broken from the shore and carried by marine currents and winds far from their original home. the American continent.A Natural Geography. such as lizards and snakes are more numerous than could be expected. of Ecuador. a violent . No doubt at some distant . never having been connected either with South America or even with each other show the influence of isolation better than any other such group on the Here have been preserved the peculiar gigantic globe. Insects too are scarce. the existence of but a hundred and of five thousand miles shows fi ty species over a space how great is the scarcity of animal life. The smaller reptiles. Even the birds seem to have little fondness for this waste of waters. the like in ind nearly the birds exhibit a far time Btorm or other accident h Tied tfa i'ijiii the South American coast. however. their coming from the Old World mass. peculiarity.

-*- The influence of Environment of is very clearly shown in the origin and development easily possible for us to trace the causes to towns and it is often which their growth is due. Paris and several other towns. Men are by nature fond of the companionship of their fellows and where food is plentiful will tend to associate together into communities. This should make it towns and villages do not spring up without cause or reason and that although one or two factors may predominate. possessing amongst other advantages. in dealing with North-west Europe. their importance and even their origin have been affected by the various features of their environment. when under primi- men were scattered over a country in groups or communities. the means of being easily defended. Many towns therefore originated because of these reasons.APPENDIX. We have already seen. how in the case of Leeds. Causes of the Origin and Development of Towns. . tive conditions. Now. Birmingham. some would be more favourably situated than others and the communities would thus strive one against the other for possession of the better This would lead to the selection of sites situations. there are usually several others which clear that bear considerable influence.

environment. as. mineral.Natural Geography. To one or more of the above reasons most towns owe There are. bringing with them new ideas. amongst which would be the knowledge that certain natural productions. or those designed for some special purpose. those situated in specially healthy or beautiful surroundings. those founded for religious purposes. and to such places would come adventurers from other districts and other lands. All communities or towns develop in size and importance according as their environment is well suited to the special nature of the occupations carried and every feature or structure of pari in such on there or no. 217 Other communities would live where communication was easy. some towns which their origin. where this could be most easily carried on. however. have Bprnng up for reasons quite unconnected with any hese. for example. whether it be climate . This would to barter and naturally to the growth of towns . animal or vegetable. possessed a greater value elsewhere than in the region where they were found. .an important the land or any oth< of of develops Below will be found a list containing a summary the causes to which the origin and development of toare due. together with illustrative examples. especially by water. such as the advancement of learning.

Barrow. (b) At a bend on the course of a river. Holyhead. Halifax. 1. Montreal. Paris. Adelaide. Pons. — Berlin and Manchester. Buffalo [Niagara bridging. two Reading. Swansea. Goole. Calcutta. Oxford. Berne. Savannah. (a) At the highest point of the tide. Liverpool. Cambridge. Aswan 4. Orleans. At the head navigaSteamers. John. Examples. Confluens). Magdeburg. River Ports. Sydney. Hamburg. (b) At the head of navigation for Ocean Steamers. Newcastle. On good On Harbours. (a) At the (b) mouths of Kivers. (A) Exchange of Commodities. some Capitals of Europe. (c) the leeward side of Islands and Promontories. Towns. Lisbon. St. Towns on Navigable (a) Rivers. Bordeaux. Montreal. Paris. York. [Nile Cataract) Meeting Place (a) of Trade Routes. Southampton. Prague. a bridge). Bridgnorth. Falls). London. Fishguard. Coblentz (Latin. (c) At the lowest point for bridging or where the the banks of nature facilitates London.218 Environment. Paris. of At the junction streams. Hamburg. Peterborough. (c) Teddmgton(Tide-e?idtoivri). Burton. Chief Causes of the Development of I. tion for smaller of 3. Trade. . Pontefract (Latin. 2. Seaports. Mannheim. Central Position Crossing Place of Roads. (d) Where falls or rapids impede navigation.

terwick. Aden. Wigan (Coal). Gibraltar. Where raw material is produced or mined. 1. 219 Trade. Milan. Where special facilities for manufacture exist. Keswick. Timbuktu (Sahara). J . Ripon. at Examples. Other Circumstances than Trade or Defence. Scutari. Kabul. Kabul. the foot Turin. On islands in of ri\ or at the mouths Hamilton (New 3 ) Towns commanding passes by laud or wal Harbour). irnemouth.A I. Alexandria. Buxton. Dover.oui:. ( I -i. z. Chamonix. Pr mtier Towns. Lawar. Biarrit Sim] Marienbad. II. Natural Geography. and Coal). Examples. Nantwich (Salt). 1 Defence. ( >ban. ribraltar. Peterborough. Examples. C ' irlisle. Heligoland. Namur. Augusta (Cotton). Watering Barrogate. Lille. Coal and Waterway). L\ons (Mulben iet silk worms. P 1 - Tourist Cluny. 3. MIII. Quebec. 2. I iug rne. Sheerness. ' . [ealthy tain Mounconditions Sanatoria. — Caravan Peshawar. 2. Forts Lafayette and fill for. 1. Lee (b) In a Valley of a Pass. (B) Production of Commodities. (c) Edge of Deserts Routes. Jodhpur (Thar). Pittsburg (Iron. Religions Associal ion-. : . Constantinople. and Coal). I '. Middlesborough(iron) Blackburn (Climatr •_!.

Deep gorges between high and steep banks forming as it were great natural tubes. of the lizard kind — Chameleon. Earth and other matter deposited anywhere by the ordinary operations of water and usually forming a very fertile soil. —A and is term for the tropical zones of caused by the rising of the trade winds a region of constant precipitation of rain. Fbhn Wind. —The head-hunting races of Borneo and the face of ridges of of adjacent islands. Aye-Aye. Cordilleras. earth and dung made into bricks and dried in the sun. calms. —The Swiss name for the warm southerly winds heated by compression through their own rapid descent of the mountains. Adobe. They are usually found in rainless districts where the denuding of the sides of gorges by weather action is almost impossible. Canons. A good example is the steep slope the Cotswold Hills on to the Severn Valley. —A term given is The name sailor's Doldrums. A small South American rodent. . Escarpment. Andes. GLOSSARY. so called from the cry of the animal. of —A mixture — Alluvium. — An animal change the colour which can of its coat.220 Environment. —The steeper cliff-like hard rock. It is Dyaks. —A rare animal of Madagascar. Chinchilla. soft grey fur is used in the making of muffs. — whose to the South American more correctly applied to the ragged or dome-like summits of these mountains. chopped straw.

—A quadruped of several species somewhat like a pig. of —The dung of birds or sea fowls found in beds of great thickness on certain islands off the coast South America. -Great rotatory storms canes thai visit of wind or hurri- the coasts of Southern China and They Japan. —A Japanese carriage drawn by a coolie. earth or all debris found at the edges and terminations of glacie. often do great damage to property Wallaces Line. Harmattan. Typhoons. Australia passing through the Mo! Line of separation between the faunas of the — two continental areas and it is named after the famous naturalisl who pointed out these different . Guino. ±11 —The name given to certain intermittent boil- ing springs or spouting fountains found in Iceland. North America and New Zealand. It is much valued as a manure. — An edible sea slug found in the Indian Or chiefly and much enjoyed by the Chinese. hot dry winds of Senegambia and Guinea. generally from June to December. and shipping. — Ricksha or Jinricksha. (Horses are somewhat dangerous m the narrower streets. The line of division between Asia It ige. A North American animal somewhat larger than the fox and resembling a badger. great Racoon. — The Moraine. — Accumulations of stone.A Natural Geography. January and February. veranda round a South African house. Geysers.) Stoep. blowing from the great desert of Africa in December. They are generally made of cane an have rush blinds soaked with water to keep out the glare of the sun and to cool the atmosphere. Trepang. li^iit I —A Tapir.

198 84. 115 ... 182. 108 Balkan Mts. Bavaria Beche de Mer (see Trepang) 157 72 160 170 108-111 52. 84. 79. 207 Australian Animal Life . iEgean Sea Africa . 29. 22. 158. 100. 71.40. 160 Afghanistan Aire 2 17. 168 Arabia Winds Borneo Bosphorus Boxers Brahmaputra Brazil 63 R 176 Arabian Sea Aral Sea 164.. 200 Black Sea 66-68..174 155 Brenner Pass Brisbane 192. 28. 192. Balkan Peninsula Balkash Lake Baltic Sea 103. 91.. 79 British Isles . 110 Mts Cambay. 152-154.206 Aruwimi R Asia Minor Asiatic Animal Life Assam Assiniboine • . 47. 106 .53.. 96. 25. Belle Isle Strait 170 17. 100. Altai Mts 198.73 62.159 182. 53 99 148. 40-44. . 220 . 208. 103. 95.64. 69. 46. .. 220 109 90 Biwa Lake 137 Black Earth Region 71 Black Fellows . 90. 56-61. 148. 106 Bulgaria 127. 83..109 Algeria 142 Alleghany Mts Alps 8(5.. 41. 79.. 148 94. 73. 220 107. 56. 160.. 83. 199. 183 175. 202.. 201.INDEX. 117-124. 112. 171.198.... 13. 25. 45. 57. 28. Gulf of 174 Campos Canada . 63. 91.. 48. 79. 203. 157 .. 82. 61. 85. 91. 111-115 Californian Great Valley 111. 96 Apennine Mts 159.Continental Railway Austria Aztecs • • •• 118 99 163 Canadian Eastern Highlands .. 95. 95. Basutoland .. 171-173. 151 Bohemia Bolan Pass Bolivia 85 161 171. 143. 48.49 131. 66-68. 115... 212 207... 80. 186 Adobe Adriatic Sea. 52. 79 Midi du Canal 84 Cantabrian Mts 86 Canterbury Plain 48. 82. 76 9.... 211 Amazon R 80 Amur R . 67... 83. 211.. 40-44.. 126. . Aurora Borealis Australia 14 198.. 99. 156. 73 Canadian Pacific Railway 60. 162...65 85 . Andes 45. 142. 99-105 15ri. 202. 201. 40. 75. 94. 166. 134. 182. 210. 86. 50. 183-188. 151 . 86.. 13. 22. Baluchistan Banfcus 47. 191. 191. 166. 10* 69. Bay of Bengal Berbers Bay of Biscay Amuria Ancient Greece 62. 211. 88. 148. 221 Bechuanaland Behring Strait Belgium . 49.. 184..120-124. 36. 200. 73-76. 142.. Argentina 62 13. 98 163. 198. 164. 158 154 British Columbia 22. 118. 40. 58. 177-181 R Armenia Artificial Irrigation 159... 52. 22-28. 12. 67. 159. 197. 178 .83.. 189 Australian Trans . 30-41.133 Canton R Cape Breton Island 59 . 204. 148 Appalachian Mts.202-204 99 Araucanian Indians Arctic Ocean 21. 204-206 155. 172. 52. 104. 56.108. 209. 203 9. 164-167. 167. 24.. 58. 153 23.. 71. 83. Angola Angora Goat Annam Anti-trade 184 149 177 Boers 150. 108-111... 106-108 Blue Mts 152. 119 205 67. 48. Abyssinia Adige R.. 94.. 92.. 115.. 36. 54. 104 212 18. 164. Gap Barbary States Bass Strait . 62. 54. 103.. 108 . 85. 205 61 175. 84. 116. 177 Burmah Galedon R 151 R Aswan Dam Atlantic Ocean Atlas 75 166 California 82. 45. 79 Alaska 104 Albania 76 Alberta 190 Aldabra Islands 108. 170. 79. 142. 84. 167. 192 104.

.A. Clans Clyde R Cold Wall Colombia < 35 12.. Chnrchill R 35. 62. 28.... 130-132... . Danube 1 R. 157 85 79 85 Gibraltar Gibraltar..72 . 143- 117. Strait of 178 90.. 116. 81. 30. 31. loi-ii -I . 45-17... . 33. 116. 126. 105 12 160 B ten Mines .. 197 R. . and R. 891 Chinese . . 117. 127-134. 177. • Don Pour i Efc.50... Erie Canal Kskinios arpathian Mts Cascade Range Caspian Sea Celebes Island Cevennes Mts Ceylon Chad Lake Cheviot Hills Chili .205 21 47. 186. 221 Finland Flinders Island Florida Pen 30. . 91 . Bay of Galilee 22.. 1 Galapagos Islands Lake Ganges R Garden of Canada . 160 207 91 177 165. lght a Victoria Desert 117.161 181.. S2-84.. . 64. 141. 188 305 . 213 Goflaveri R. .. 80 Decline of Spain mark Dervishes Aniinai . 156. 82. 115-H7 Chili Saltp' tre 116..S. 108.... l 19-19 -7 Earthquakes Bbro K. .. 37-30. 210.22i) Gold Coast Golden Gate Golden Horn ozola Cheese Grampian Mis Grand Canal of China Great Barrier Reef Great Lakes of Canada Great Postal Road i- Ill.. 64. I>avi. ... 137 60 ColoradoR Congo Free State Congo R Continental Shelf 162 162 205 184. 215 160 i7».. 170 Emelian Way . 140. 69-72.1 192.) 1 102 103 190 12. I-.. 4^. 141.. i7<. 171 China . 12. Cilician Gates 74 159 R St Foveaux France. 200.' 13.... 63. 05.. 114.211. 99. m 107 98 2 1 . 128. 15. 89. 2 '. 13. 177. . I .A Natural Geography. 221 161. 201.. 110 211) e ks 1 BS. .. 82. Crete Crow's Nest Pass rus 220 146.. Gulf of Corio B iv iwold Hills on Belt (U. 173 21 2D2. 91.. 48 Cook Strait Corinth Canal Corinth... 161 171 127 irakensberg Mts. _-er Bank B una 166 172. 113. 28. 45. Quint Gulf Drift i 18 : 18.. 183 . 125 193. 62 196 187 197 Bpsom Salts. Harmattan Wind Hawaiian 212 I 204.'. 61. 159. 104. 161.. 79. ti. 113. -2-2.197.... 186. 82. .. . 141 . 114.. 27. 195 . 35 47 . Cape Colony e Horn Cape of Good Hope Cape to Cairo Railway i ( 223 95 144 37 15-19 47. 59 M 99 95 Germany Ghats 9. 212. 169 22. 103 79 156. B Glaciers. 41 135.129. Garonne R Geneva Lake Genoa.. 206. Gulf of . 55. 127... 91-94..51. 179.".. 901 Fdhn Wind Formosa Forth . 211 . 135. 35.221 » .... 815 l iana :.'. . 39. 58 194. 63.. 181. 136.Strait 1 1. 172. . Fens Fiji Islands .218..211 IIS 'ulorado Grand Caiion Colorado Plateau Fraser R Fuji-yama Mt. 205 31 Esparto Grass Euphrates R.. 117. Great Sandy Di a . j 87. 100. 1-7 Eyre Lake 172 False Bay Fellaheen 126 167 .. 32 BUI 21. 66. 79. 195 Exploration 19 20.. 195. >:.. Fundy. 142.

133 83 126 59 144 105 Libyan Desert Lions. 146-148. Labrador Current Lachlan R. 126.22 Island .221 207. Monsoon .. 127. 186-192 Magdalena R 197 Malacca 182 Malay Archipelago 207-210 Malav Peninsula 182.110. 207. 17. 100. 211. 204. 93. Levant Leveche Wind Liberia 9.." 161-163. 186. 134-142 40 Japanese 15. 161.. 194 Lumbering . 98.. Hobson's Bay Holland Environment: 125 142 175. Marmora.. 74 IceAse Icebergs Ice 30 12. 188 191.. 212 174.. 81-105. 13... 209 62-65. 125..85. Jordan R Jura Mts Jutland Peninsula Kaffirs . Gulf of Mississippi R. 220 Madagascar Animal Life... 152 17-19 17. Iberia . 138-141 136.. 51. 146... 184.. 141. 138 Mongols 121. 176 209 88. Hong Kong Hottentots Horse Latitudes . 15 14.. (see Yellow R. 86-91. Japan Current Japan Sea Java Jews Jinrickshas 145 101.. 110. 160. 187.. 182.145. 206. 174. 160 50. 115. 213 149 155 120 . 143.. . . 206. 18 117 69.. 127. 152 Madagascar . 96.. 111 Mormons Morocco Kwen Lun Mts . 158. 68.. 170.221 103 161 108. Gulf of Liverpool Range Loess Lombardy Plain Long Island . Hudson Bay Hudson R Hungary Hwang-ho R.. 126. 142. 159. 107... 188. 29.124 103 107 121. 40.. Cap Iceland IkopaR Incas India .. Indians ..221 42-47. 159. 221 188 116 85. 174-176 180.. 207. 167. 80 83.. 110. 175. 168. Kalahari Desert Kama R Kamchatka Peninsula Kanakas Kara Sea Karroos Kirghiz Country . Japanese Inland Sea Mascarene Islands. 182.169 138. 203. 166. 109. 131 144 . 127. Malays Manchuria Indo-Gangetic Plain Indus R Irania 176 174.) 45.93-99 James R Japan 15. 192.. 197. Lapland Lapps Lee u win Cape (see Cold Wall). 65.. 67.147 91 . 221 Merino Wool Mersey R. 127.141.. 174-181.'.. 99 144 57. 152 Mistral Wind Mohammedans Mohawke R. . 64.. 170 73. 150.. 117. 148. . 124.. 96 Lena R. 169 91 29 '. 207.51. Mekong R Melanesia 68. 213 Indian Ocean 174. 213 144 121. 150... 65.'. 83. 142 135 135 212.209 89.. Hindoos Hindu Kush Mts.. 164.178 103 R of . 135...26 87 159 76. 64. 191.. 131. 159 87.. 19.. 64.162 142. 161 132. 176 Manchus Manhattan Island Maories Maritza . 168 Khyber Pass Kicking Horse Pass Kiel Canal Kistna R Klondyke Kopjes Korea Kurile Islands Kuro Sivvo 155-157 161 79 29. 157 Missouri R. 56 176 79 151 . 62. 137 . Sea Marsupials 83. 192. 184. 198. . 194. 111. 221 Molucca Passage 93 Monaco Mongolia . 129. 70. 77. 119 25. 122 189 203 IrawadiR Iron Gates Italy 176.. . Mont Cenis Tunnel Monte Carlo Montenegro Moors Moraine Morava R 99 94 105 89 30. 183. 204 164 92 152 128 . 40 11..... Meseta Mesopotamia Mexico Mexico.. 102. 188-192.. 177 Indo-China Mackenzie R 74 Macquarie R. 85. 170 73 135 154 18 151. 206.. 183. 158.... 56. 159 64. 130. 200.. 184 . 102.. Mattas Mediterranean Region 23. 200. 95. 122 Monotremes.224 Hawke Bay Heat and Cold Waves Himalaya Mts.

157 Nelson R Niw Caledonia 74 214 IS3 61 907-210 47-52. 13.18 38 187 69 Romans Ruapehn Mt. 211. 62-73. 191 214 162. 12.92 Plata (See Plate River) Rio Grande del Norte 162 la .212 17) >-se .91. L6fl l iyof Sin Ling Mta I 8 . Orange R Orange River Colony Orinoco R Pacific fie 147 184. 40.V Of 12-1 it.. 73.. Norsemen North American Animal Life Rio Negro Riviera Rocky Mts..58. 16 16P 170 in 210 58 I can 78. 197. lf| 2. 167 25. . 101.. .l Plain.. Ohio R Okhotsk. 27.nir Plateaa . 95. 1-... 109. 124-126.. Red Sea Rhine R Rhodesia 151 75 164. 18. Bohleawifr-Holstein 72. Marie Canal B BeandinaTia .114 . Port Phillip Poverty Bay Prairies cros 184. 148. 1M. 216 ii:t... 185. 199 85. 111-114. 190.. 9M m-ii. 16.) Severn l R : Pennine Range '.. 1 98 . 212 76. 17-. 184i- Rhone R Rio de NileR... 1-7 Nicaraguan Canal 193 205 R .112 Ill B4.:: 12.211. (. 61 Serbs i 100. 108. .. 79. 69 Obi R Ocean Currents 186. 20 113 12ti . Shannon R 160 Islands 106 127. Mans 40..2 H J..205 164-167.lids M de f Mar one .gonia Pearl R.i . 127. 17s. 84 184..A Natural Mount Dana Mount Egmont Mozambique Channel Murray R Murrumbidgee Natal ET< Geography.... 24. 79. 86 76. 163 152 R 1 59 PoR 95 12U . 41. LM L06 Pat .Canton R. 157 21. 160. 1< LiKiulf ianB ' Biam . BO. -7. 17. 18. 162. Pindua Mt^ Pink and l: ida Mt-.") v l . 99 Sahara Desert L66.. 79.. 214 Animal Life Island* . 33.. i-i 171. 214. 12.Mt. 40.93 North German Plain North Pole North Sea sa .2 I 5 111.. Bimplon 'runnel 2<!f> 116. 82. 105 [ce rtine i-»». Sea of Opium.. 104 17-t 63 150 1 Salonica. 28. 80 11.22-24.91. 100 14. 157. Lake 14.alia 111. 197. 221.5 ly it.. Sacramento R . Niagara Fall« ria r Ranching Rand Red R. 198 Highland! i::. . 164. 218 Panama Canal Panama Isthmus Parana R Parmesan Cheese PaniH--u. 170. 205. 204. Gulf of Island enR Samoa Bamoyeddea sandwich Islands Sin Francisco Ray Joaqnin R iwak Sault Ste. OderR. 86. tish 15H.. 1"". 19.204.28. Prince Edward Island 59 167 Pyramids Pyrenees New England Range Newfoundland N'ew Guinea 'ew Zealand 191. 16. 161 21 1. lull 128 18. 214.SV/. 171. ern Uplands ton 86 IC 102 45-17. Poland Polar Animal Life Polynesia Port Jackson 225 72. Ru11. Norrland 73 1 84. 33. 150 . 2 J. . 135. 146. .... 12.. 11.. . 117..

.108. Vincent Gulf Sudan Suez Canal .. 115 154 64. Slave Coasi Slavery Slavs . 175. 52-54.. 65 117. 195 .... 141 69.. 106 88 184 r.. 211-213 159 137 TokioR 125 Toagariro Mt 207 Torres Strait 83.' Stoep Straits Settlements 126. Trepang 201. . 221 TarimR Tartars 125 212 18. 120 153 132. 207. 157 Syria 83. 193 33 Walney Island Weald of Kent Welland Canal West Indian Animal Life West Indies Wheat Area of Canada White Coai White House Winnipeg Lake Yalmal Peninsula Yang-tse-keang R. VardarR Venezuela Vesuvius • .'. ..127. 99. Solano Wind Tundra Tunisia Turkestan 195 loO 18. 168 Table Bay Table Mt TagusR Tanganyika Lake Tarawera Mt 126 126 87. 169 35 129. 70 Somaliland . 111.226 Sirocco Environment Wind 96 144 205 145 100. 162. 193-195... 48. London. Tweed R. 142-148. .151 68 41 (See Tasmania) 104 195 97 187 Stratum ore . 66. 155. . 60. South Sea Islands Soya Beans .. Valdai Hills . 73.73 71 Vodka Volga R. 170. Spiuits Turkey Turks ..221 206 35 118 165. 205 ... .. Staked Plains Steppes St. 75. 128. St..... 92.9 48 20.. "l29. 202. 156.. Typhoon 83. St.. 66.. 79 . 82.126. 159. 36.110. 204 Trade Winds 156 Trans-Caspian Railway Trans-Siberian Railway ...193 160 Sumatra Svealand Switzerland 158. 69.210 72 13. 197 191-197 74-76. 144 29 145 75 .. 66. 94.185 196 68. 212 98 127. 108. 187. Upland Cotton Ural Mts Vaal R.109 127.. 18 128. Tasmania Taupo Lake Taurus Range Tehuan tepee Isthmus .209. 161. . 220.. 66. 132 Thar Desert Thian Shan M^s. Thames Tiber R 125 159 192.. 146 73 .. Tugela R ... 99. 2<>3. i — . 152... lt-8 Waikato R Wallace's Line .. Victoria Falls Victoria N>anza Virgin Islands Vistula R Lake .. 100. 69.'.221 186 150 Printed by Henry Palmer dt Co..70.. 156. 65. 207..208. 151 Transvaal 1H2 Treaty Ports of China R Tibet Tigris R 128. Gothard Tunnel Lawrence R... .174 .. 6s.. 43-4 >. 166. 9J 187. 63. Song-ka River Southern Alps South Pole . Suliman Mts.. 84. 144 . . 148 : Trinidad Pitch Lake Sky-scrapers. 26 37 58 196.213 100-104. 170. 58. 68 148. 157. 125 121.159 85. 164.. Yarra R Yass R Yellow R Yellow Sea Yenesei R York Peninsula Yosemite Valley Yucatan Peninsula 9.131 Glacier 48 22. 118 14 151 157. Spencer Gulf Spitzbergen . 184.. 185 Vancouver Island Van Dieman's Land 150 . 155-157 99 57-61.155-157....106-108. 149.. 162 61.. SO Yukon Zambesi R Zanzibar Zulus 118 113 194. Uganda United States of America 9. 115. 104-107. 56 Tasman 21... 221 185 .

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