Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

104 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Diff
- 2011 Trig Star Sample Test
- Ch 7.1 Area of a Region Between 2 Curves.pdf
- Practice Problem No. 2
- Presentation on GIS
- Direction-based Qualitative Locations
- High Dive Unit Problem- Can We Save Andre
- Bowen 2009 Prelim Am p1
- Engineering Mathematics Dec 2007
- 64 Trigonometri Equations Part 1 of 1
- 11 01 Fourier Series
- Math Stats Booklet 1
- Ex 10 1 FSC Part1
- Spring 12 Math 106 Sample Key 3
- Mathcad - CAPE - 1998 - Math Unit 1 - Paper 02
- MaxMin
- Solution Set 4
- 2010 Euclid Solution
- Holiday Assignment for CLASS XII
- 9860_pact_t02_01

You are on page 1of 5

2 (51) - 2009

Series II: Forestry • Wood Engineering • Agriculture and Food Engineering

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS

BY USING WATERSHEDS

DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS

V.D. PACURAR1

peculiarities of the solar direct radiation in mountain regions, using the GIS

digital elevation models. There are given a set of formulas for calculating the

direct solar energy received by various surfaces as a function of the

incidence angle. Using the thematic maps with the slope gradient and aspect

of each raster cell, there were calculated the layers with the equivalent

latitudes and longitudes for the experimental watershed Valea Baii, located

south of Brasov, in the Piatra Mare Mountains. The differences between the

various areas within the watershed are illustrated by the area distribution on

classes of equivalent coordinates. These variations are obviously affecting

the local climate conditions and should be taken into account for

establishing climate change scenarios at tree stand level.

soils, vegetation and certainly to the

The natural systems and their specific different land uses and their management

processes show an obvious spatial scenarios. The complex watershed model

variability and certainly a time variation. (realized in an analytical raster GIS) is

Their complexity imposes the system definitely a mathematical model, but it

mathematical modeling and process simu- differs from the classical ones by using

lation as major research methods and functions synthetically defined through

useful tools in the decision making process tables of values instead of analytical

concerning the natural resources mana- functions. These synthetical functions,

gement. We consider that their importance f(x,y), are the arrays, the layers of the GIS

will increase in the future, in the context of raster representation. The GIS modules

human induced environment modifi- enabling cartographic and especially 3D-

cations, such as the largely debated climate views lead to some similarities with the

changes, which will make inappropriate physical models, creating genuine

many management "golden rules" derived computer "virtual laboratories".

from past experience. The watershed models, comprise a large

The mountain watersheds are charac- number of layers, thematic maps, referring

terized by large data sets referring to to morphometry, cover etc. The core of

1

Silviculture Dept., Transilvania University of Braşov.

Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov • Vol. 2 (51) - 2009 • Series II

2

these models is represented by the digital January 4th, when the Earth is closest to the

elevation model (DEM), an array (matrix) Sun and the lower one on July 5th, when it

with cell elevation values. In this way, the is furthest.

landforms could be accurately represented As passes the atmosphere, the solar

at “meso” (medium) level, but certainly, radiation suffers an extinction, through

the geomorphologic details (at micro scale) absorption and scattering, which depends

are stochastically distributed. The accurate on the transparency coefficient (inverse of

representation of the geomorphology the extinction coefficient) and the optical

makes a great difference, because the depth (or air mass). Consequently, the

landforms are the backbone of the site, intensity of the radiation on a surface

enabling us to take account of: the di- perpendicular to the beam, could be

fferent microclimatic conditions (depen- calculated using the equation expressing

dent of steepness, aspect, slope position the Beers-Bouguer Law:

-and also influenced by soil and cover 1

peculiarities), soil properties spatial .

cos( z ) (3)

I = I0 ⋅ p

variation (its depth, clay content etc. are

obviously varying along a hillslope), etc. where:

These digital models are useful for I- radiation intensity on normal surface

simulating a wide range of natural (perpendicular to the beam) [W/m2];

processes, because a watershed represents I0, solar ‘constant’,[W/m2];

a geosystem, a complex system integrating p, total transparency coefficient [-];

several related ecosystems, therefore a z – the zenith angle (the angle between the

basic unit for many geophysical and sun beam and the vertical line).

biological processes. Thus, the watershed The zenith angle (z), which is

models are useful for applications in complementary to the solar “height” angle

mountain climatology, in forest soils and (h0=900-z), could be calculated using the

site analysis, generally in mountain and following trigonometric relation:

forest ecology. cos(z) = sin(λ)sin(δ) +

cos(λ)cos(δ)cos(ω) (4)

2. Solar radiation calculations where: λ − the latitude of the location;

δ − the declination of the sun;

Solar radiation incident outside the ω −the hour angle.

earth's atmosphere is called extraterrestrial The declination of the sun is the angle

radiation [4]. On average the extra- between the earth's axis and the plane

terrestrial radiance, also called the ‘solar perpendicular to the line between the earth

constant’, is 1367 W/m2, but this value and the sun. An approximate formula for

slightly varies during the year. The the declination of the sun is given below:

extraterrestrial radiation for each Julian π 2π ⋅ ( 284 + n)

day (n, counted from January 1st) could be δ = 23.45 ⋅ ⋅ sin (5)

180 365

calculated, using the following formulas: The hour angle could be calculated for

Io= 1367 . [1.00011 + 0.034221 . cos(β) + any time moment, usually for any hour,

0.001280 . sin(β) + +0.000719 . cos(2β) after computing the solar time (Tsolar).

+ 0.000077 . sin(2β)]. [W/m2] (1) ω = π . (12 - Tsolar) / 12 (6)

β = 2πn / 365 . [radians] (2) By multiplying the radiation intensity, I

The higher values of the ‘solar constant’ [W/m2], on the normal surface, given by

are recorded in the boreal winter, around (3), with cos(θ), where θ is the angle

PACURAR V.: Mountain Areas Solar Radiation Spatial Distribution Analysis…

3

to the considered surface, one can obtain inclination and aspect for each cell were

the values corresponding to an elementary produced and these are illustrated in the

surface having the inclination α and being Figure 1.

rotated γ degrees from the south-north For calculating the incoming radiation on

direction. a surface that is not horizontal, we can

consider that its inclination (α –slope

2. Equivalent latitude and longitude gradient) and the azimuth angle (γ− aspect)

determination for an experimental determine a latitude and longitude

watershed modification. These equivalent latitude

(eqlat) and longitude (eqlong) could be

In order to test the possibilities offered calculated using the relations (7) and (8)

by the Geographical Information Systems given below[1], [3].

for establishing the spatial distribution of By substituting the latitude and the

the direct solar radiation in a mountain longitude in formula (4), and operating

area we considered an experimental several simplifications we come to the

watershed, Valea Baii, located south of equation (9), which can be used for

Brasov, in the Piatra Mare Mountains for establishing the angle θ, and consequently

which the digital complex model [2], as the incoming solar radiation for any raster

described in the introduction, was realized. cell at a certain time moment (day and

Using the digital elevation model and the hour giving the δ and ω angles).

context operators, the layers with the slope

eqlat = arcsin[cos(α ) sin(λ ) + sin(α ) cos(λ ) cos(γ )] (7)

sin(α ) sin(γ )

eqlong = arctg (8)

cos(α ) cos(λ ) − sin(α ) sin(λ ) cos(γ )

cos(θ) = sin(δ)sin(λ)cos(α) - sin(δ)cos(λ)sin(α)cos(γ) + cos(δ)cos(λ)cos(α)cos(ω) +

+cos(δ)sin(λ)sin(α)cos(γ)cos(ω) + cos(δ)sin(α)sin(γ)sin(ω) (9)

Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov • Vol. 2 (51) - 2009 • Series II

4

Fig. 1. Thematic maps of aspect and slope gradients for the Valea Băii watershed

30

25

Area Percentage (%)

20

15

10

0

< 10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90

Equivalent latitude

16

14

12

Area Percentage (%)

10

8

6

4

2

0

-10..0

0..10

-90..-40

-40..-30

-30..-20

-20..-10

10..20

20..30

30..40

40..50

50..90

Equivalent longitude

Fig. 2. The classes distribution of equivalent latitude and longitude in V.Băii watershed

Using in equations (7) and (8) the The equivalent longitudes are

arrays of slope and aspect values, with indicating the “time change” in the solar

the Image Calculator module of Idrisi, radiation daily regime, respectively the

the equivalent latitude and longitude moment of maximum incoming energy.

were calculated for each cell. The From figure 2 results that the equivalent

percentage distribution of watershed longitudes are more evenly distributed

area on categories is shown in Figure 2. within the catchment. Anyway there are

more cells with positive corrections due

3. Conclusions to the general orientation of the

watershed.

The equivalent latitudes should not be These parameters are useful for

considered as indicating climate con- comparing the meteorological data

ditions comparable with those at the measured at cell level and determining

same coordinates on Earth (raster cells the spatial variation pattern. On this

with low equivalent latitudes are not in basis it is possible to evaluate the impact

tropical conditions) but offer a sound of the possible climate changes at local

basis for analysing the differences level.

among various elementary areas. On the

hillslopes the solar beams are heating Acknowledgements

the land more than on similar horizontal

surface. In Figure 2 we can observe that The researches presented are part of

almost all the watershed is characterised the project PN II Idei, ID_206, funded

by equivalent latitudes lower than the by CNCSIS-UEFISCSU (contract

real geographic one (45o). 310/1.10.2007).

PACURAR V.: Mountain Areas Solar Radiation Spatial Distribution Analysis…

5

References 2006.

3. Savabi, M.R., Young, R.A.: Winter

1. Nicks, A.D., Harp ,J.F.: - Stochastic Hydrology. WEPP Documentation,

generation of temperature and solar N.S.E.R. Laboratory, U.S.D.A.,

radiation data. In: Journal of 1995.

Hydrology, 48, 1980, p. 71-82. 4. Stull, R.B.: Meteorology Today for

2. Păcurar, V.D.: Utilizarea sistemelor Scientists and Engineers. Second

de informaţii geografice în mo- Ed., Thomson Learning, Brooks

delarea şi simularea proceselor /Cole, 2000.

hidrologice. Ed.Lux Libris, Braşov,

- DiffUploaded byjuncos0729
- 2011 Trig Star Sample TestUploaded bylsudhakar
- Ch 7.1 Area of a Region Between 2 Curves.pdfUploaded byAtin Fifa
- Practice Problem No. 2Uploaded byAaRichard Manalo
- Presentation on GISUploaded byali_saify52
- Direction-based Qualitative LocationsUploaded byGRUNDOPUNK
- High Dive Unit Problem- Can We Save AndreUploaded byivykiddo
- Bowen 2009 Prelim Am p1Uploaded byJASON_INGHAM
- Engineering Mathematics Dec 2007Uploaded byAbilraj Purathetharayil
- 11 01 Fourier SeriesUploaded byJohn Bofarull Guix
- Math Stats Booklet 1Uploaded byKoh Boon Hao
- Ex 10 1 FSC Part1Uploaded byBilaljaved92
- 64 Trigonometri Equations Part 1 of 1Uploaded byGovind Sai
- Spring 12 Math 106 Sample Key 3Uploaded byAli Jonson
- Mathcad - CAPE - 1998 - Math Unit 1 - Paper 02Uploaded byCathleen Kriste
- MaxMinUploaded byGeorge Protopapas
- Solution Set 4Uploaded bycatchall99
- 2010 Euclid SolutionUploaded byวรวิทย์ เผ่าพืชพันธุ์
- Holiday Assignment for CLASS XIIUploaded byPeter Robinson
- 9860_pact_t02_01Uploaded byArturo Licona
- Specialist34 Exam1 QuestionsUploaded bySaman Aravinda
- Math H Formula Booklet 2016 WebsiteUploaded byAmeena Lundquist
- 2013specmath1 wUploaded byGarrison Liu
- chapter 4Uploaded byapi-352709549
- Pre Calculus ReviewUploaded byRocket Fire
- 119436473-Question-Maths-for-class-8.docxUploaded bySantosh Aryal
- List_of_Formulae_updated_.docUploaded byjiahui
- Class 11 Mid- Term 2018 - 19Uploaded bySandhya Shashidhar
- Fiit jeeUploaded bynaksh
- FormulasUploaded byGarence Go

- NICOLAE Paper 18-05-2009 Tane N Buletin 09[1]Uploaded bymihaela_neacsu
- Nazaru Paper 14-05-2009 Nazaru Ana Maria- Articol BuletinUploaded bymihaela_neacsu
- GRUIARomulus Paper 5-05-2009 Gruia R Buletin 2009Uploaded bymihaela_neacsu
- GACEU Paper 18-05-2009 Gaceu L Buletin 09Uploaded bymihaela_neacsu
- Florin Paper 5-05-2009 Articol Buletin 2009 Final FlorinUploaded bymihaela_neacsu
- Daniel Mihai _paper__11!05!2009__Lucrare Buletin Danila D 12Uploaded bymihaela_neacsu
- Bratucu Paper 5-05-2009 Articol Buletin 2009 FinalUploaded bymihaela_neacsu
- OLA_paper__7_05_2009__Ola Daniel 2009Uploaded bymihaela_neacsu
- TOADERVasile Alin _paper__5_05_2009__TOADER_2009Uploaded bymihaela_neacsu
- Rostislav Paper 15-05-2009 Regarding the Sizing of FlexiblUploaded bymihaela_neacsu
- Ioan Clinciu@Yahoo.com Paper 4-05-2009 Lupascu-Cercetari pUploaded bymihaela_neacsu
- Ioan Clinciu@Yahoo.com Paper 4-05-2009 Buletin Clinciu PetUploaded bymihaela_neacsu
- Dutca Paper 15-05-2009 the Impact of Afforestation on CarbUploaded bymihaela_neacsu
- Derczeni@Unitbv.ro Paper 4-05-2009 the Impact of DifferentUploaded bymihaela_neacsu
- Campu but 2009Uploaded bymihaela_neacsu
- Vorovencii Paper 15-05-2009 Template Seria IIUploaded bymihaela_neacsu
- But 2009 Lunguleasa Seria II CorectatUploaded bymihaela_neacsu
- LAURENZI Paper 14-05-2009 Laurenzi, Maret - Program for NoUploaded bymihaela_neacsu

- QualityUploaded byanyak1167032
- eeo410 at2Uploaded byapi-282427738
- MIKE21SignificantFlodryGuidelines.pdfUploaded byAlejandro Canul Turriza
- Remote Access Information System for Analysis of Chemical Engineering ObjectsUploaded bySEP-Publisher
- WHAT IS A GISUploaded byocmain
- The Development of VISAT - A Mobile Survey System for GIS ApplicationsUploaded bySantiago Tejada
- unit 2 abstractUploaded byapi-134134588
- 202_Chap_2-2-1+2+3_SLOPE_STABILITYANALYSIS_USING_GIS_TECHNIQ.pdfUploaded byabimana
- Enviscreen-Operix 2016 System SoftwareUploaded byMohd Zulhairi Mohd Noor
- 3rd CUAHSI Conference on HydroinformaticsUploaded byConsortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc.
- JICA Ortho Moldova PrintUploaded bynomadus
- TD_Nereus_06_2015.pdfUploaded byAhsan 13
- Gis for TelecomUploaded byMagno Junior
- Rolta Corporate BrochureUploaded bysaloni panse
- Morphological and GIS-based land use Analysis: A Critical Exploration of a Rural NeighborhoodUploaded byHourakhsh Ahmadnia
- Airports Authority of India_Esri_IndiaUploaded byblue_l1
- Data Warehouse Whitepaper_WEC10.5Uploaded byDamilola Sonoiki
- GIS local authorityUploaded byViola Anne
- SocStudies Standards 2008Uploaded bymarisakendall
- Draff of the FundamentalsUploaded byHung Cao Duc
- geoserver-2.8.0-user-manual.pdfUploaded bynomadus
- Morris 06Uploaded byKatrinaDocs
- GIS Pattern Recognition and Rejection AnalysisUploaded bycesius
- ISSP ApprovedUploaded byRonald Salmo
- Geosfm Users ManualUploaded bySeye Agunbiade
- BIBI !!!!!!Uploaded byHershey Cordero Briones
- Storytelling With Esri Story Maps Kerski WorkshopUploaded byhenataa
- Studio di simulazione del Reddito di cittadinanza in EuropaUploaded byAndreaPauri
- CrimeStat WorkbookUploaded byDhaval Patel
- Gis&Cad Lab ManualUploaded bymahesh

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.