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MANUAL

OF

GEOGRAPHY
WRIGHT

Class

Book

CopightN
COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT.

FIELD, LABORATORY,

AND

LIBRARY MANUAL
IN

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
BY
C. T.

WRIGHT,

Ph.B.

Teacher of

Physical, Geography,

Union High School Redlands, California

GINN & COMPANY
BOSTON

NEW YORK CHICAGO LONDON
• •

LIBRARY
Two

of

CONGRESS

Conies Received

AUG 17 »906
opyri£iu E.itry
"

CL
'

X!'«c.

No,

copy'b.'

Copyright,
C. T.

190G,

by

WRIGHT

ALL EIGHTS RESERVED
66 7

lir a Iuh in m iDrrss GINN & COMPANY PROt

PRIETORS

BOSTON

U.S.A.

PREFACE
In offering this manual to the public the author wishes to

express the hope that
ers,

it

may

prove helpful to his fellow-teachit

and that teachers and pupils alike may get from

at least
its

a portion of the pleasure that he has taken in working out
exercises.

The manual

consists of readings

and exercises selected
in the

from those which he has used in his own classes
school.

high

He hopes

that they

may

be of value in guiding others

in their first attempts at scientific investigation

and research.
It is

Physical geography gives the student a broader outlook than

any other science

in the

curriculum of secondary schools.

a proper culmination of the nature study of the

grammar

school,

more technical and rigid sciences of the high school. Its value arises in part from the Its manyfact that it " touches nature " in so many places. sidedness and its alluring bypaths have tempted pupil and
and an appropriate introduction
to the

teacher alike.
be,
it

However

enjoyable the physical side of
it is

it

may

should not ba forgotten that
it

geography.

Its greatest

value arises from the fact that

introduces the student to his

geographical environment and suggests to him
utilize
it.

how he may

and even sociology have paid their tribute to this study. The intimate and necessary relation that exists between physical geography and history is the theme of more than one recent and valuable book. In this manual
history,

Commerce,

economic phases have been emphasized throughout.
In using our eyes we sometimes forget that we
eyes of others to our great pleasure and profit.
to

may use

the

In our attempts

study geography at

the library.
to

none

in

first hand there is a temptation to neglect While the author of this manual would be second ascribinsf value to work done in the field and in the

Hydrographic Office. in class exercises. use of many which to. and thus fur- ther whet the intellectual appetite of the pupil.as nuclei about which he may group the truths of the lesson. the text-book. California. much use has been made of the excel- and inexpensive maps of the Geological Survey. is ful criticism to Principal indebted for inspiration and helpLewis B. pieces of apparatus." which may serve . where he to begin his reading and where to conclude Lest the pupil should read much and remember little. there have been called into requisition. In the preparation of Part II of this manual in it has been borne mind that all " out of doors " ." The ability to read a landscape correctly . Coast and etc. S. In those exercises requiring apparatus an attempt has been made to use only necessary and comparatively inexpensive pieces. several of the latest texts treatises and about fifty authori- on different phases of physical tative and readable geography. has not been for- gotten that the average traveler usually carries a "Baedeker. he believes that there friend. Many valuable suggestions have come from different members of the California Physical GeogFirst of all the author raphy Club.. in this manual lent map correctly invaluable.iv PREFACE is laboratory. . still a place for our old In order that the text-book may not be used slavishly. Geodetic Survey. Avery of the Union High School. all citations is have been made definite. is the real laboratory for the it study of geography but. Redlands. indicating to the pupil it. on the other hand. they are because not referred partly many schools is are not now equipped with them. Weather Bureau. and partly because this a pupil's guide and not a guide for the teacher. To prevent desultory reading and to avoid the disappointment of seeking without finding. at Washington. among whom should be mentioned Professor R. if The wise teacher will use these available. may be is of primary importance yet the ability to read a Therefore. in Part I of this manual. there have been introduced " special terms. are While the author uses and recommends the more complex and expensive.

Professor James F. Los Angeles. University of California Professor W. The author will be pleased to cooperate with teachers in the matter of furnishing lantern slides and other supplies. Ralph S. High . Tarr. Dryer. City Schools. Mr. Charles R. For any defects in ble. Pasadena. Harold W. Berkeley. State Normal School. San Diego Miss Mabel B. Pierson. v State Holway. and Alexis E. Chamberlain. Leslie. has kindly consented to the reproduction of twelve photographs selected from his excellent series of lantern slides.PREFACE . Frye. Normal School. C. WRIGHT Redlands. Los School. California April. High School. T. and Mr. George L. 1906 . California. Angeles . C. Fairbanks. Dr. Dowries. S. Skilling. T. of Berkeley. Albert Perry Brigham. this manual the author alone if is responsi- Teachers will confer a favor they will suggest im- provements. The author wishes to acknowledge courtesies extended by Professors William Morris Davis.

archive.Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2011 with funding from Library of The Congress http://www.org/details/fieldlaboratorylOOwrig .

. Latitude IX. .64 65 VIII. . Animals.. Rivers VIII.. Magnetism vii 76 ..... Man 25 30 32 34 37 39 43 46 XV. II. Humidity . Coast Forms XIII.... 60 61 . .. Light XV.... FIELD AND LABORATORY MANUAL 55 56 59 Magnitudes and Distances The Oblateness of the Earth III.. Constituents of the Atmosphere XL Combustion and Oxidation XII... .. Plants. 8 IV....CONTENTS PART Chapter I. . V..... the Earth's Rotation .. Climate V... Underground Waters XL The Ocean XII... LIBRARY ... North and South Line VI. . . • • .. .. Imperfect Drainage X... Disintegration and Erosion VII.. Weathering and .. of the Earth 15 19 21 Land Forms due to Other Agencies IX.. The Direction of the Axis of IV. ..... . and PART Exercise I..... .. . .. Some Properties of the Atmosphere X.. Evaporation and Condensation XIII. .... The Earth among Planets The Atmosphere Winds and Storms .......MANUAL Page 6 II.... Soils ...... III. .58 . Minerals and Rocks XIV. The Apparent Movements The Moon of the Sun . I.... VII..66 67 68 (i!) 70 74 XIV.. .. . Lengths of Day and Night II. 13 The Structure VI.....

.vm Exercise CONTENTS XVI. A Region in Youth XXXIX. Areas of Precipitation XXIII. Zones of .. . Isobars XIX. 140 142 . Volcanic Peaks. The Drainage Areas of the United States . 105 106 XXXIV.. Tides .. Climate . A Waterfall . Rainfall XXVII. Alluvial Cones XXXVIII. Isotherms XVII. 137 139 Sea Water . . The Assorting Power of Water XXXIII. 99 XXX. Contour Lines .. Plateaus.. A Crater Glaciers . Topographic Forms due . 123 123 . 135 LIIL Veins LIV. 90 91 92 United States . . . and Necks . 77 83 83 86 87 XVIII. 88 89 XXII... 120 . Winds Weather . 126 127 128 131 XLIX. of the Page • « . Contour Maps The Weathering of Rocks 101 . Density and Temperature LV... 93 .. to Glaciation of . .... in a Cyclone . 107 110 112 114 117 . Temperatures in Cyclones and XXIV. . Elevations and Depressions to Scale XXIX. XLVII. Movements of Low Barometer XXV. 96 98 XXVIII. A Region in Old Age XLI. . Observations XXI. XXXVI. Specific Gravity XLV. . 102 105 XXXII. The Barometer . XXVI. 119 . . XXXI. The Migration of Divides XLIV. XLVIII. The Life History of a River XLII. A Region in Maturity XL. Examination of Rock Waste . . Weather Forecasting A nticyclones in the . XLIII. Volcanic Rocks XL VI.. River Flood Plains Meanders XXXVII. 120 122 . . XXXV. of the Earth's Surface di •awn . 120 .

. ... Coal LXVI.. Economic Minerals and Ores . . . Harbors LXIII. cross-section paper.... Headlands. Building Stone . Fragmental Rocks LXVIII... . ... ..... Text-Books 167 List of Reference Books List of List of Apparatus Government Maps and Supplies .... and outline maps ISO Blank paper... Decomposing Agents LXX. . .. .. Limestone LXV.. . Granite . .CONTEXTS Exercise IX Page LVIL Icebergs . . LVIII. Drowned and Elevated Coasts LXII.... ... Barrier Beaches 145 148 150 152 154 LXI. 156 157 159 1G0 1G3 LXVII. . 155 LXIV. Beaches..167 170 172 17? Index NOTEBOOK Instructions to Pupils ... .. . The Sea and Man LIX... LXIX.. . 164 165 List of.111 . APPENDIX ... Irrigation .. Sea Caves LX.

.

. 24. Contour Map of the Dead Sea .. ...130 22. 134 25. .. . 4. .. 6. .. . Mud Cracks Bed of an Intermittent Stream of .79 81 5..lit! 17. Average Annual Rainfall of the World Annual Range 7... . .. . Ana River.. Belts of Vegetation . .. Columns of Basalt.... .113 .... The Canyon of the Yellowstone in the .. 8. Colorado Terrace cut by the Santa . .. . .. Section of a Glacial 21. . . 104 1 1..135 . xi 137 138 141 143 . . Page (il 7G Isothermal Lines of the World for July Isothermal Lh>es of the World for January . 124 . . l'-\.. . North Fork Moraine San Joaquin River . Chart of Ocean Currents . showing no Zones of Vegetation Map Map of the Ancient of the Lake Bonneville Bed of the Ancient Salton Sea . . 103 . .. . . . 136 .. . .. .. 1(1. . Bear Lake... 125 129 20. . 27. California ... .... . . A Bar Magnet (mounted) ... . Tlie Clinometer 2.. . . California . Apparatus for showing the Effect of Heat on Iron ... .. 16.... 18. . . 109 15... The Flood Plain of the Merced River.. .. .. 23. 19. 9. . . about a Pond ..... . .. 29.132 133 . . A A Hypsometric Landscape Hachure Map Contour of the of the Map .. ... 3. Winds of the World for January 30.. 12.. A A Profile from Contour Mai Contour Map of San Pedro Hill. 26... . A Beaker arranged for the Formation of Crystals A Bottle and Siphon arranged for the Formation of Stalactites A Rock with Intersecting Veins . .... A A D6bris Fan at Glenwood Springs. 28. California .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Fie 1.91 97 of Temperature of the Map United States .. .. 115 . between 98 and 99 100 Same Region Same Region 100 101 101 11.. . .

. . 41. Terraces cut by the Sea at Point San Pedro. . 171 Five outline maps of the United Weather Bureau. 45.169 . follow the text. . . 42. 148 149 An Arch Waves . . 43. . Santa Catalina Island.152 153 40. Pupils' Work Table for Physical Geography . . . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 31. Sand Reefs Sand Reefs the Coast of North Carolina the Coast of Texas . 36. Jolla.. . A Double Pebbly Beach A Church built of Coral A Petrified Tree A Young Tree growing from a Crack in A Weir on the Truckee River. . . Teacher's Cabinet Table for Physical Geography .. 39.xii Fig. . States. 38. 35. 37.. Page 146 147 32.151 . . 161 161 . showing stations of the United States . 46. . 156 158 Granite . .. .162 . Sea 34. California .. 44.. . Nevada A Flume near Redlands. A Rocky Headland Caves at La cut by off 33. . ..166 . California . . . California . . . California A Laboratory for Physical Geography .150' off . . Avalon Bay. .

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL Part I LIBRARY MANUAL .

.

Special terms. Hocks and Minerals: 13-17. 187-190. . solar system. The asteroids. 8 . second half of page c. . The earth as a planet. Saturn 153-156. Mercury. 156-159. See List of Text-Books in Appendix. 3 Small letters appearing at the right of the figures indicate parts of pages. EXERCISE Text-books. Jupiter 239-245. . . The nebular hypothesis. THE SOLAR SYSTEM I. 176172-175. Star. orbit. . Davis Gilbert and Brigham. first half of page ft. Outlines of the Earth's History: 33 c -39 a . radius. Cosmogony.. Davis. Mars. Fairbanks. satellite. Tarr. 17-18. circle. diameter. Venus . beginning near the 1 2 : . Elements of Astronomy: 32-34. See List of Reference Books in Appendix. 215-224. Meteors. 9-10. Mars 160-161. . Young. asteroid. . 209-214. earth. . Redway. planet. Uranus and Neptune Jupiter 167-171. 1 Magnitudes and Distances Ele. 232-238. The asteroids 162-167. bottom of the page. 225-230. Elementary Meteorology: 2-3 a The nebof the ular hypothesis. . Shaler. 8-9. 2 Davis. as follows a. Lessons in Astronomy: 204-208. Saturn 215-250. Uranus and Neptune 348-353. Comets. ellipse. 3-6. . The beginning Newcomb. 11-14. 186. Reference books. Venus. 9-12.LIBRARY MANUAL CHAPTER I THE EARTH AMONG PLANETS 1.

rotation. Davis Ele. Reference books. 9-12. Dryer. size. Apparent path of the sun. Newcomb. light. Effects of inclination on temperature. and measurement of the earth 84 c -86 a Effects of the earth's rotation on its form. Newcornb. Tarr. . Redway. 6-9. THE FORM OF THE EARTH II. . cardinal points. . 13-14. Seasons. down. Dryer.. The Oblateness of the Earth Davis. Diur-: nal motions in different latitudes 34-37. Form. in the earth's orbit. Young. as Tarr. uniformly curved surface. tion of the earth . spheroid. 1-6. 14. Motions and seasons. 10-14. Lessons in Astronomy: 78-81. revolution.4 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL 2. 46-52. zenith. 98-99. Davis Ele. Reference books. Changes axis. Elements of Astronomy : 23-28. antipodes.. Gilbert 17-19. Elementary Meteorology: 22-24. plane surface. 83-84. 13-18. 6-8. 15-16. Horizon. INCLINATION OF THE EARTH'S AXIS EXERCISE IV. Lessons in Astronomy: 95-97. Invariability of the earth's rotation 95. Young. Davis Ele. eclipse. Special terms. curved surface. Gravitation. gravitation. 397-401. Dryer. The Direction of the Axis of Rotation Davis. MOTIONS OF THE EARTH III. Redway. 18-20. 1-3.. sphere. EXERCISE Text-books. Lengths of Day and Night Gilbert and Text-books. Tarr. 19-22. Red way. Special terms. Reference Elements . Lessons in Astronomy : 81-82. year. 12-13. day. Inclination of the earth's axis of rotation. and Brigham. 1-2. EXERCISE Text-books. The rota. Brigham. Young. . Gil- bert and Brigham. up. Change of horizon we travel of Astronomy: 80-89. 4. nadir. centrifugal force. Waldo. oblate spheroid. 20-25. 3. shadow. books.

. THE MOON VII. Lessons in Astronomy 134-138. 23-25. Latitude Text-books. 166-169. North and South Line. THE SUN VI. solstice. Eclipses of the moon . The Apparent Movements of the Sun ent motion of the sun Newcomb. The moon's phases : . The heat of the sun. size. . 402-405. Absence of air and water on the moon 118-119. : 6. Davis Ele. 5 Parallel. 2-4. 173-175. The sun's surface. eclipse. Special terms.' 8-11. EXERCISE V. horizontal. Appar103-111. Eclipses of the sun. Telescopic appearance and surface 175-179. Lunar eclipses Shaler. zone. Young. Earthshine on the moon. 123-125. the moon. Rotation of. season. inclination. Chromosphere. Tropic of Cancer. Elements of Astronomy 37-41. LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE EXERCISE VIII. Sun spots. Light and heat of the moon 120-125. Newcomb. 138144. star. Dryer. structure. Disand aspects of the moon 118-120. plane of orbit. Arctic Circle. Tropic of Capricorn. 7. tance. Tarr. width of zone. . 156-161. reflection. equinox. Eclipses of The craters of the moon. 126-131.. Young. . 5. 114-116. 9 (picture). : . Aspects of the Earth: 89 c -92. corona. Antarctic Circle. 388-393. Tarr. EXERCISE Text-books. prominences. Elements of Astronomy 112-116. Phases of the moon. Redway. The sun. vertical. 116-117.THE EARTH AMONG PLANETS Special terms. The Moon Reference books. . Reference books. Gilbert and Brigham. and rotation the sun. Davis. 11 (picture). perpendicular. Phase. pole circle. Lessons in Astronomy : 113-114. great small circle. 117-118.

Fairbanks. nitrogen. prime meridian. Dryer. Height of the 7 b -8. nitrogen. Davis Ele. Davis. XIII. Aspects of the Earth : 204 c -209. tude and time . Constituents of the Atmosphere. Tarr. 122-125. EVAPORATION. transparency. Humidity Text-books. Davis Ele. XI. Carbon. Composition and height of the atmosphere. Special terms. Elements of Astronomy : 52-55. Redway. Waldo. HUMIDITY. Elementary Meteorology : 3-4. 229-232. 223-226. Latitude. density. Evolution and future of the atmosphere 4-5. Mer- Special terms. CHAPTER II THE ATMOSPHERE 8.. carbon dioxide. Combustion and Oxidation Text-books.. Shaler. . Economic aspects of the atmosphere . conical projection. 60-62. 23-24. Reference books. Oxygen and carbonic acid as related to plants and animals 13 b -14. 244-245.. 22-26. . oxygen. cator's projection. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE ATMOSPHERE IX. Constituents of the air. EXERCISE Some Properties of the Atmosphere. X. and hydrogen. Newcomb. Elementary Meteorology : 7-9. elasticity. 273-279. Redway. 214-216. longitude. Davis. 231-233. hydrogen. Gases : in the atmosphere. Measurements of the earth. Rocks and Minerals: 119-121. atmosphere. equator. . The work of oxygen . Tarr. Longi90-97. Composition of the atmosphere 6-7. pressure. stereographic projection. Gilbert and Brigham. 9. 27-29. CONDENSATION XII. Dryer. 280-282. Weight. EXERCISE Evaporation and Condensation. Shaler. 6 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL Reference books. Gilbert and Brigham. 226-227. Outlines of the Earth's History 98-99.

or moisture . condensation. 7 : Harrington. Rain . Thermometers. fog. ice. clouds. 10. evaporation. Shaler.. About the Weather : 92-98. 233-238. Waldo. Shaler. About the Weather 66-72. Dew. Elementary Meteorology snow. 286. Reference books. Dew.. thermometer. saturation. Snow as a pro- Waldo. 162. absolute humidity. 249-250. : 129-135% Clouds'. The hygrometer. 123. Gilbert Davis. 163-165. DEW. Humidity . 242-243. Precipi. Dryer.THE ATMOSPHERE Reference books. 227-230. Storms of 41-47. Outlines of the Earth's History: 156 b -159 a Evaporation and condensation. Moisture of the atmosphere oration. Eedway. hygrometer. CLOUDS Davis Ele. 11. cloud. FROST. 118-121. : 159-164. Harrington. . ball snow. humidity. . Evaprelative Water vapor. Gilbert and Brigham. 38-39. About the Weather: 73-91. 61-64. Elejnentary Meteorology frost. 227. Snow and sludge . : 142-144. 45. 282Tarr. Outlines of the Earth's History Waldo. HAIL Ele. Davis and Brigham. 159-161. and hail. Davis. humidity. tective covering. Text-books. Reference books. 238. tation : Harrington. 285. Text-books. 403-404. 47. 122-124. Humid- 227 c -231. FOG. Shaler. 246-248. 70. Special terms. Elementary Meteorology: 31-32. Outlines of the Earth's History: 207 b -208. precipitation. The thermometer . 230-231. Dew. Tarr. Mountains of California tain peaks . RAIN. wet bulb thermometer. bridge a stream in winter. Dryer. rain and snow 166-173. sleet. SNOW. : Muir. ity. 327. Eedway. . Snow buries lakes in winter Snow banners from moun38. Hail.

MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY EXERCISE XV. 272-277. Davis Ele.. 418-419. 232-233.. Gilbert and Brigham. Redway. the sky . The temperature of the air 187-193. Davis. Text-books. Waldo. 66. Davis Ele. 18. Special terms. Davis. Redway. Mirage b a -175 halos Coronas and 174 Rainbows. spectrum. Davis. mirage. rain- bow. refraction. Isotherms Text-books. Reference books. 27. ISOTHERMS EXERCISE XVI. . 238-252. 277-281. halo. LIGHT Light EXERCISE XIV. 175-179. Temperature. Atmospheric elec- CHAPTER III WINDS AND STORMS 14. 13. Reference books. Davis Ele. 398-399. Elementary Meteorology: tricity. TEMPERATURE. corona. reflection. . : Outlines of the Earth's History 168. . Tarr. . Waldo. Reference books. Harrington. 27-28.. Reflection. . Elementary Meteorology : from the sun. fraction.8 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL 12. Elementary Meteorology : 166-169. 31-35. Magnetism Text-books. 171-174 a . Dodge. Header in Physical Geography : 176-180. Dryer. 293-300. diffraction. Gilbert and Brigham. Rediffraction 170-171 a Colors of 169. Aurora borealis. The weather progress through the day and year. 237. . Shaler. About the Weather: 60-65. INSOLATION. Radiation Gilbert and Brigham. 17-19. Tarr. 63. 274-278. 30. .

Isobars Davis. Movements of the atmosphere 187-191. Elementary Meteorology : 25 b -30. 188. 266-268. EXERCISE XIX. how measured . The . Gilbert and Brigham. 301-304. Redway. 56-61. Dodge. About the Weather: 48-55. 35-38. Text-books. EXERCISE Text-books. Insolation 31-35. Davis Ele. 23-24. 256-258. Prevailing Winds Davis. barometer. Changes in the 223-227 a Barometers. 253-256. GENERAL MOVEMENTS OF THE ATMOSPHERE Observations of the Weather. Regular diurnal change of temperature 50-58. Winds distribution . 9 Waldo. Tarr. Special terms. Isotherms. Aspects of the Earth Shaler. Average daily temperature . : 219-220. : Harrington. : Shaler. . About the Weather: 33-40. 306-311. pressure. Winds. Book in Geology: movements the air. . General circulation of the atmosphere. — their kinds and 98-101. low barometer. Dryer. . Harrington. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE XVII. 24-27. Dryer. 53-58. Weight. Elementary Meteorology : 13-11 Atmospheric pressure and the barometer.WINDS AND STORMS . 287- 292. high barometer. of the atmosphere. General Shaler. . Davis Ele.. 15. 41-47. 258-262. Reference books. Outlines of the Earth's History 101-106 a Currents of . First 212-222. 16. 29-33. Waldo. XVIII. The thermometer 36-39. The Barometer. pressure of the air and pressure of the air . 40. Waldo. Reader in Physical Geography 185- Winds. XX. Air. isobar. 56-59. Reference books.. Measurement of the wind. Gilbert and Brigham. Elementary Meteorology: 101-104. it is .

343. Effects upon the direction of the winds. doldrums. Low Barometer Ele. Cyclones . Text-books. 259-260. 234 c-240. 142-147. Shaler. Shaler. Waldo. Davis. in EXERCISE XXI. 304Gilbert and Brigham. Reference books. Oceanic cyclones. 248-250. Cyclones travel eastward. Temperatures Cyclones and Anticyclones Text-books. 306. Dryer. .. monsoons. 44-46. cyclones. 128- The weather brought by the cyclone. Tarr. Harrington. Outlines of the Eartli's History : 111-112. General . Davis. Trade winds. Winds XXIII. 33-34. . First Book in Geology : 101-102. Areas of Precipitation. Aspects of the Earth 246-250. Tarr. in the United States Davis. Gilbert and Brigham. 317-318. 79. TRADE WINDS Davis Ele. Davis Ele. 250-255. Movements Text-books. 18. : Harrington. Anticyclones.. Reference books. 262-267. 74-81. 30. Redway.. Elementary Meteorology : 216-227% Cyclones Anticyclones. Reference books. XXII. 39-44. 259-260. About the Weather : 117-127.10 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL 17. Elementary Meteorology : 195 c -198 a Effect of the earth's rotation on air currents 208-212. Harrington. . MOVEMENTS OF LOW BAROMETER UNITED STATES of IN THE EXERCISE XXIV. About the Weather: 99-109. 49 c -51. . Waldo. Reclway. Davis Dryer. of the earth's rotation Redway. Dryer. 260. or lows 135. Gilbert and Brigham. 306. Condensation in a cyclone . 218. 312-317. Trade winds. : or highs. Cyclones. 19. CYCLONES AND ANTICYCLONES in a Cyclone. 260. 258-259. About the Weather 136-141. 110-116. storms. Shaler.

Verification of long-range weather forecasts 11-31. Weather maps. Discussion of long-range weather forecasts. 17-32. . WEATHER FORECASTING Forecasting EXERCISE XXV. Meteorology : Shaler. Weather predictions as a remedy against weather injuries 211-222. folk-lore Weather Folk-Lore and Local Weather Signs: 5-28. Gil- bert and Brigham. Redway. 323-325. North America : 209-212. The progress of knowledge of the weather. Weather Text-books. . barometric Long-Range Weather Forecasts: 3-4. Letter of transand general statement 7-10. Garriott. typhoons. 255-259. Elementary Meteorology: 276-282a . Origin and development of the meteorological service. 267-269. clouds. — TROPICAL CYCLONES Davis. 265. 110 b -112 a The daily weather forecasts 115-120. Outlines of the Earth's History : 106 b -110. Hurricanes. 11 HURRICANES. Dryer. stations. Hurricanes and 21. Weather pressure. 265-266. Economic aspects of the weather.. TORNADOES Ele. . 52. Tarr. Waldo. 34. Redway. Text-books. . Tarr. Gilbert and Brigham. 250. Text-books. 81-82. The planetary equinoxes 37-68. 203-210. Winds. Davis. Davis. Long-range weather forecasts 49-153. 269-271. About the Weather : xiii-xvi.WINDS AND STORMS 20. Gilbert and Brigham. 282 b -292. 22. . 259-261. Kenealy. 268-269. Davis Ele. Harrington. Local weather signs Garriott. Charts I-XXI. 38-40. . a science. Waldo. 29-47. Dryer. Hurricanes. Weather predictions. Reference books. . 318-321... Davis 66-67. 67-69. Weather Bureau Stations a/al their Duties: 109-110. Davis Ele. Elementary 229-230. . . prediction Redway. Russell. The duties performed at the mittal . Weather is Reference books.

156-165. Gilbert and Brig- Text-books. Outlines of the Earth's History 112 b -115. Russell. 325-326. 262-264. Story of Our Continent : 130-132. Thunderstorms. Text-books. 256-257. ham. . Tornadoes.. Elementary Meteorology : 262-263. Violent storms of North Waldo. Aspects of the Earth : 234-246. Shaler. 58-60. " Be- twixt and between weather". winds. Thun- derstorms and cloud-bursts. About the Weather: 174-179. Reference books. Land and local sea Waldo.. Outlines of the Earth's History: 118 b -121 a breezes. Periodic 263 b-268. LOCAL WINDS Ele. Land and sea breezes.. 259 b-261. Tornadoes 115 b-117 a America. . 222-224. Davis. 12 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL Harrington. Aspects of the Earth : 194-202. North America : 206-207. Thunderstorms. Shaler. 65. : Reference books. Russell. Elementary Meteorology : 164 b -167 a Thunderstorms. Shaler. Reclway. Redway. : Shaler. winds. 249 -259. Miscellaneous winds. About the Weather : Reference books. Harrington. Tarr. . Local influences of the 223-226. Tor- nadoes or intense local whirls. c 24. Shaler. Waterspouts. Tornadoes Spouts. 44. Outlines of the Earth's History Waldo. 264-265. Shaler. : . 23. Davis Gilbert and Brigham. . Davis Ele. Harrington. Elementary Meteorology : 241-249. THUNDERSTORMS Dryer. About the Weather 148-155. North America: 207-208. Tornadoes. 271.

Elementary Meteorology tion of annual rainfall.CLIMATE 13 CHAPTER CLIMATE 25. 246-250. 231-236. 45-47. Henry. Weather conditions. Reader in Physical Geography . Dryer. Reader in Physical Geography : 171-175. Reference Redway. 33. 287-290. 194-197. Dodge. 26.. Average Annual^ Precipitation in 213. Its Physical Basis and Controlling Factors: 7. 291-298. Reference books. 327-334. 279-289. . IV FACTORS OF CLIMATE 297-298. Weather and climate 7-10. with the United States: 207- two maps. Zones and heat belts parts of the world. Waldo. 180-184. Dryer. 52-53. 275-279. : Gilbert and Brigham. AValdo. Geographical distribu- 27. 70-74. Seasons and climate in different . Climate. Davis. Davis in Ele. 336-348. Moore. Davis Ele. Dryer. Text-books. Redway. Dodge. 270. Davis. Moisture and rainfall. Text-books. Gilbert and Brigham. Tarr.5-336. Elementary Meteorology: 269-275. Data for the period 1871 to 1901.. RAINFALL Rainfall EXERCISE XXVI. 293-301. books. ZOXES OF CLIMATE Zones of Climate EXERCISE XXVII. Dodge. Climatic conditions. Tarr. 82-85. Weather and climate. Basis of climate. Reader Physical Geography : 188-193. Davis. : 148-156. Gilbert and Brigham. Text-books. Reference books.

169-171. The climate of Mexico and 191-194. 291-293. 270-272. Reference books. The climate of northern North America. : Waldo. Gilbert Text-books. Reference books. Atlantic and Pacific coasts compared. 201-203. The frozen north. . and Brigham. Davis. : Tarr. Variations in climate. North America: Central America states. 244 b -247 a . Western United States 249-258. Story of Our Continent: 123-130. Its Physical Basis and Con- 10-15.. Warm weather' at the poles . . 48. trolling Factors : Moore. Climate. The story of coal age. 224-231.14 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL 186-191. Redway. Gilbert and Brigham. 147. Text-books. The climate of the Pacific coast. 194-201. Shaler. . CLIMATIC REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES Dryer. Text-books. Long-period temperature 29. 30. Fairbanks. 288-290. Climates of the continents. Jordan. The climate of central North America. . 298. Coal and the : Shaler. Economic Geology of the United States: 326-331. Causes of a glacial period. Elementary Meteorology 312. 301 c-306. . 330-333. CHANGES OF CLIMATE Davis Ele. 341-346. : Waldo. 143-146. Tarr. The climate of the Atlantic and Gulf Russell. Central United States 178 c -183. . Outlines of the Earth''s History 235. Tarr. Shaler. Elementary Meteorology oscillations. . CHANGES OF CLIMATE IN PAST GEOLOGICAL AGES Davis. Science Sketches : a stone. Climatic zones . Climate of North America. Conditions existing in Carboniferous times. 307- 28. 290-291. Reference books. 171 c -174 a The arid regions 174-176 a North America compared with other continents 176178. First Book in Geology : 46-55.

The earth in its Winchell. Davis. . Redway. ature in the United States rainfall in 335-354.. 20-22. Dryer.. Davis Ele. 19 b -28. hydrosphere. 390. Gilbert and Brigham. Tarr. THE LAND to Scale ' EXERCISE XXVIII. 129-139. Imprisoned heat. Its Physical Basis and Conclimate. Header world as a whole. Story of Oar Continent 2-6. Text-books. 349-364. 93-95. . Dryer. 189-193. Moore. Geographical distribution of and humidity the United States. 1-7. Climatic regions of 322-335. 4-5.THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH Waldo. life. Davis 15-17. Economic aspects of : Shaler. Dodge. Geographical distribution of temper.- Reference books. Our relation to the Heilprin. . in Physical Geography: 4-9. Geographical distribution of winds 81.. density. RELATION OF CLIMATE TO LIFE Davis Ele. lithosphere. hydrosphere. molten mass. 13-19. Relations of climate to CHAPTER V THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH 32. trolling Factors: 15-19. and atmosphere. Text-books. interior. Climate. Sphere. Walks and Talks in the Geological Field: 117-124. 33. 359-366. Reference books. 355-363. 26-29. The Earth and Its Story: 111-116. Davis. Elementary Meteorology 9-10 a The geo. Elementary Meteorology the United States . 5G. THE EARTH AS A WHOLE Ele. centrosphere. Elevations and Depressions of the Earth's Surface drawn Davis. Dryer. Tarr. 38-46. Gilbert and Brigham. 15 : 313-321. Text-books. atmosphere. Special terms. sphere. crust of the earth.

Physi- ognomy . Tarr. Reader in Physical Geography : Reference books. 190-193. The continental shelf of North America. 10-17. Sedimentary rock. Mountains. Earthquakes and mountain building. hemisphere. 35. 34. pole of great land hemisphere. What . Outlines of the Earth's History : 82 b -84. CAUSES OF MOUNTAINS Ele. Special terms. Height. . 188-194. Story of Our Continent : 76-78 a Outlines of North America 148-150. Brigham. circle. Reference books. 180-188. Physiognomy of mountains of rock masses. Fairbanks. Redway. Sea and Land : 169-173. Western United States : 50-59. 23-25. SLOW MOVEMENTS OF THE EARTH'S CRUST Davis. Special terms. Davis 177-178. First land. Dryer. Redway. lateral pressure. The larger features of the continents. : 65-69. Upgrowth of the continents. Physiognomy of continents. Slow vertical movements. Coastal shelf. 16 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL Dodge. Book in Geology : 141-145. Dryer. fossil. Text-books. The Earth and Its Story: 44-49. Reader in Physical Geography : 144-149. Reference History : 114 b -115 a Tilting of the basin of the Great Lakes.. 202-203. Colorado river due to elevation of land.. Common Minerals and Rocks 166-177. : 179 b -180 a Terraces of the . Russell. area. 95-97. : Heilprin. . stratum. Folds . 93-99. Shaler. Faults. Rivers of JSforth America Shaler. strata. The Earth and Its Story 94-99. Geographic Influences in American books. Heilprin. great circle. The ocean trough 185-188. Text-books. 46-48. a mountain teaches . Aspects of the Earth: 1-9. and distribution of the land. bert and Brigham. Slow rising and falling of the Shaler. Davis Ele. Shaler. Dodge. Crosby.. Shaler. Gil10-12. 132.

. Tarr. Reference books. 212. The Rocky mountains 287-289. 69-70. Davis. 101-103. 185-188. Dodge. 149-150. Brigham. Davis. Elementary Geology: 324-328. Outlines of the Earth''s History acteristics of mountains. mountains. Tarr. anti- cline. Special terms.. Text-books. 174-181. The mountains of the Pacific coast. monadnock. : Reader in Physical Geography: Chapter I. Causes and char- Tarr. Aging of mountains. 172-175. The Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountains. Dissection. syncline. Special terms. degradation. 182-185. First 17 Book in Geology: 107-112. How the mountain framework reared. The Appalachian . LIFE HISTORY OF MOUNTAINS Davis Ele. mountains by faulting. 161-171. erosion. Reference books. fault. 183-190. North America : 74-82. contraction theory. fold.. Walks and Talks in the is Geological Field: 139-145. History : 257-259. Muir. : Shaler. THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH Shaler. block mountains. Dryer. Dodge. 204- Dryer. relict. 100-101. KINDS OF MOUNTAINS Davis Ele. 178- 179. 181-183. 37. weight of sediment. Gilbert and Brigham. 187-197. Folds. mountains 122-131. Redway. The Rocky mountains 147-158. 178-185. Geographic Influences in American . Gilbert and Brigham. 268-272. 85-91.. Mountains of California of the Sierra Nevada. Kinds of General description Russell. Folded mountains. Lateral pressure. Text-books. Special terms. subdued. Winchell. Wrinkling of the earth's crust. Reader in Physical Geography: 150-153. 36.

Plains and Heilprin. The Earth and Its Story: 194-196. 105-109. Prairies of Shaler. Tarr. Tarr. pass. Text-books. lacustrine plain. 188-191. 155-167. Dodge. base level of erosion. The Gulf plains.. 175-178. North America: 62-73. Davis. 40. 35-7-359. History Plains.. and 121-123. 139-150. 56-65. Brigham. Story of Our Continent: North America. Gilbert and Brigham. 188-195. 204. 141-158. Tarr. Tree line. sentinel. History: 70-75. Russell. 72-75. Geographic Influences in American coastal plain. Special terms. Davis Ele. Reference books. Reader in Physical Geography plateaus. 117-136. Physiognomy of Russell. North America plateaus. 173-180. alluvial plain. barrier.. 184-186. Text-books. 76-85. Redway. Description of the prairies Brigham. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF MOUNTAINS Davis. Prairies. COASTAL PLAINS Davis Ele. coastal plain The Atlantic The Atlantic from Virginia to Florida. : 250-253. Special terms. treeless plains.. Plain. 72-76. Gilbert and Brigham. Reference books. snow line. Text-books. 151-155. Eedway. Davis. Gilbert and Brigham. : 137-143. plateau. PLAINS AND PLATEAUS Davis Ele. 158-170. plateaus. The Great . Geographic Influences in American 230-239. 18 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY MANUAL 38. coastal plain. Coastal plains of North America 94-99. 39. . : 148-155.

Davis 163-164. 99-105. Reference books. RESIDUAL SOIL. 268-275. . 42-46. contour. Contour Maps Davis. Science Sketches: 232-255. Davis. Tarr. Dodge. Tarr. Weathering. : History: 332-338. Geological Survey Printed matter : on back of map. Tarr. Rocks Ele. Topographic maps of U. 48-53. Davis 134-138. profile. Dryer. XXX. 236-240.. terms. CREEP. worms. roots as weathering agents. Hachures. DISINTEGRATION AND EROSION 41.. Special terms. Book in Geology : 3 b -4. Oxygen. DISINTEGRATION OF ROCK of EXERCISE XXXI. Topographic Atlas of the U. Russell. oxidize. Effects of cold and frost on rocks. tion An ascent of the Matterhorn. Folios 1 and 2 Introduction and Topographic map. Gilbert and Brig- ham. The work 1. Dryer.. Shaler. EXERCISE XXIX. Rivers of North America: 2-3. TALUS Ele. 196-197. Header in Physical Geography : 69-73. 168. Dryer. Jordan. 19 REPRESENTATION OF RELIEF Contour Lines. Davis. 120-121.S. 393-397. Text-books. The Weathering Text-books. Geological Survey. Text-books. Geological Survey.S. Brigham. Mechanical disintegra. 428-430. 43.S. Disintegrate. 265-2G8. Vegetation hastens weathering. Reference books. 38-42. acids. CHAPTER VI DISINTEGRATION AND EROSION 42. 14-16. Frost as a weathering agent 21 -23. 58-60. First b Special. Geographic Influences in American of the U.

Rivers of North America: 13-16 a 1 Reference books. Dodge. Tarr. Special terms. THE LOAD OF A STREAM Assorting Power of Water EXERCISE XXXH. Reference books. 20-22. Redway. : Winchell. Erosive work of running water. soil. . 31-35. Outlines of the Earth" s History Special terms. 50-52. . Common Minerals and Rocks : 14-19. Assorting power of run- rying power. Deposition. CORRASION AND ABRASION of EXERCISE XXXIII. abrasion. Transportation of mate- 240-244. Reader in Physical Geography : 81-88. Sand. Common Minerals and Rocks : : 19-23. residual soil. Crosby. . The Text-books. Elementary Geology : 174-175. erosion. How rivers obtain their loads. Trans- 57-60. 65-67. 61-65. Shaler. Mechanical erosion. creep.20 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL Russell. 44. Russell. Special terms. Shaler. Rock Waste Dryer. 51-52. sediment. Aspects of the Earth : 146-151. silt. Abrasion of river pebbles 12-19. : 322 a Residual . Rivers of North America Shaler. Gilbert and Brigham. Russell. Tarr. Mantle rock. Reference books. Tarr. talus. First Book in Geology : ning water. 107-109. Examination Text-books. 45. Corrasion. Transportation of sediment. Shaler. 52-53. Velocity as related to car20-21. Dryer. Rivers of North America rial . First : 28-32. Book in Geology : 1-4. Source and journey of sediments. Corrasion. velocity. Driftwood. Crosby. Suspension. Walks and Talks in the Geological Field porting and assorting power of running water .

Waterfalls. Canyons of the Sierra Nevada 53-55. WATERFALLS AND RAPIDS EXERCISE XXXIV. The Earth and Its Story Shaler. gully.RIVERS 46. Rapids and waterfalls. Dryer. 119-121. Davis. Common Minerals and Rocks 198-200. Tarr. 164-167. 171-175. Dryer. Walks and Talks Geological Field: 61-62. Tarr. Shaler. 88-42. Russell. Canyons. Outlines of the Earth's History: 191-193 a Waterfalls. BUTTES. Davis Ele. 48. . in Winchell. Redway. 150-152. the Tarr. Ele. Fairbanks. Migration of water- 33-34 a Potholes. Reader in Physical Geography : 96-98. Gilbert and Brigham. The Colorado canyon. . 251-256. Canyon. Shaler. Gilbert and Text-books. Davis Brigham. 21 MESAS. Canyons. Reference books. VII CANYONS Dryer. Dodge.. Table mountains. CHAPTER RIVERS 47. gulch. River gorges. : 10-18. Shaler.. . 95-101. Aspects of the Earth: 159-165. Reference books.. Text-books. Western United States . 84-91. 53-54. BAD LANDS 219 b-221. Elementary Geology 170-173. ravine. Story of : Our Continent : : 188-140. Story of Our Continent: 136-138. Heilprin. 82-83. A Waterfall Text-books. : Crosby. . Grand Canyon of the Colorado 31-40. Waterfalls. 89-98. Brigham. terrace. Gilbert and Reference books. Special terms. 28-33. mountains. 214-216. gorge. : 60-63. Davis Ele. Rivers of North America falls .

The flood plain of the lower Mississippi. Elementary Geology Special terms. Gilbert and Brigham. 50. bayou. TERRACES Ele. Davis. 45-49. 116-123. Davis 199-200. Davis 258-261. Cross profile of . The Earth and Its Story : 59-60. flood plain. Elood plains. Flood. Heilprin. . Dryer. Outlines of the Earth's History plains. History: 180-186. 61-63. 113-115. Brigham.. back swamp. Dryer. migra- 49. Tarr. : 258. valleys. Gilbert and Brigham. : 186-187 a . Heilprin. Redway. 60. and Its Story 196-199. Reference books. . pothole. Alluvial plains. 239-246. FLOOD PLAINS River Flood Plains Ele. Rivers of North America Colorado river and the Columbia. 63-64. tion. Tarr. 51. 54-59. Text-books. escarpment. Geographic Influences in American 88-92. River terraces. fall rock. River flood Tarr. : 178-179. Russell. levee. Reference books. Physiognomy of valleys. crevasse. cascades. Text-books. Shaler. EXERCISE XXXV.22 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL Rapids. 280. 115. 256Tarr. River : Russell. 57-59. Longitudinal profile of valleys 150-151. the Winchell. Terraces. 73-79. Davis. terraces. Walks and Talks in Geological Field: 50-51. VALLEYS Davis Ele. dip. Special terms. 286-288. 52-54. : Dodge. 179 b -183. Natural levees. Dryer. 160-161. Text-books. . The Earth Reference books. Flood plains. Davis. Elementary Geology : 180. Redway. Reader in Physical Geography Russell. overflow. 43-45. Terraces of the Tarr.. ' 196-201. 278-286. Gilbert and Brigham. Rivers of North America: 110-116.. Rivers of North America : 52-54 a Gradient of river bed 145-150.

Redway. A Region in XL. Redway. ing streams. Meanders. Reference books. 152-150. Graded. River sediments. 170-177. Davis. FANS. 261-205. fan. RIVERS 52. Shaler. 265-209. LAGOONS EXERCISE XXXVI. Russell. Delta. 254-255. meander. 04-07. Dryer. 288-290.. 180-186. lagoon. Deltas . 75-76. Meanders Text-books. Dryer. Dryer.. 270-273. Deltas. or moats. 57-00. deposit. Davis Ele. 49-52. Aspects of the Earth: 152-155 a Oxbows. Davis Ele. 02-03. 115-119. Special terms. Alluvial Tarr. Gilbert and Brigham. Alluvial fans and deltas. Outlines of the Earth's History : 180 b-183. velocity. 123-125. XXXIX. Russell. Tarr. Special terms. 53. Elementary Geology: Deltas. Redway.. Gilbert and Brigham. 275-278. Davis Ele. cone. : Tarr. Deltas of low-grade streams. estuary. Winchell. 269-270. Header i)i Physical Geography 92-90. OXBOWS. 23 MEANDERS. 251-252. 158. Walks and Talks in the Geological Field: 54-56. Alluvial cones and : 125-127% Deltas of high-grade streams 130-132. . LIFE HISTORY OF A RIVEE Youth.. distributary. 110-112. Gilbert and Brigham. Reference books. Sea and Land: 1G2 C -10G. Text-books. Text-books. 42-43. CONES Alluvial Cones EXERCISE XXXVII. Davis. Rivers ofNorth A merica 30-38. 241-240. sediment. 246- 250. XLI. 78. DELTAS. 51. 54-57. Shaler. Rivers of North America fans . 101-109. Life History of a River Davis. Shaler. fans. Meander: . 109-110. A Region The in Maturity. bayou. EXERCISE XXXVin. Dodge. 231-233. 237-239. A Region in Old Age. ox- bow. oxbows. 190-199.

ical cycle. The Earth and Its Story : The Skagit river. Reader in Physical Geography : Reference books. 65-66. 68-80. Drowned 58. Heilprin.24 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL Dodge. Dryer. 320-321. . Western United States: 124-132. Migration of divides. 157-158. 246-250. Tarr. 36. 66-73. Russell. Fairbanks. Walks and River. Reference books. 57. tributary. 79-80. 258-260. Special terms. XLII. DROWNED RIVERS Davis. Tarr. Dryer. Shaler. 56. 98-99. Rivers of North America : 46 c -49 b Base level of erosion 300-310. ANTECEDENT. EXERCISE Text-books. Rivers of North America: 247-253. 230. ENGRAFTED. TYPICAL RIVERS Dryer. Stream conquest . Sea and Land : 167-168. Dryer. divide. 260-261. Davis Ele. 121. Heilprin. 55. Text-books. The Earth and Story : 55-59. Gilbert and Brigham. 329-334. 92-101. portage. 325-329. Gilbert and Brigham. Valleys. Field : 60-61. Reference books. rivers. Redway. 173-174. water gaps. 59. 81-91. Its Reference books. Winchell. Text-books. The Drainage Areas United States Davis. 61. RIVER SYSTEMS of the EXERCISE Text-books. 199-205. Drainage areas. river Talks in the Geological system. Results of the work of running water. . 241-243. Gilbert and Brigham. 162.. Base level of erosion. 103-104. Russell. Life history of a river 311-320. CONSEQUENT. basin. . 322-325. Davis. The Migration of Divides Davis. Completion of geograph53. MIGRATION OF DIVIDES XLIII. .

112-122. Western United States: 1-9. Krakatoa 29-36. The eruption of Krakatoa. 126. Its Story : 117-120. Outlines of the Earth's Histori/ of the crater of Vesuvius in eruption . 163-167. 25 The Fairbanks. Stromboli 22-29. Colorado 271-275. Shaler. 289 b -297 a . Rivers of North America: 43-45. . Missouri. Volcanoes . Krakatoa. Gilbert and Brigham. 74-76. of North America : 2-7. Pliny's account of the great eruption of Vesuvius 62-64. Davis. 7-22. Looking into the crater of Vesuvius . 105-109. Shaler. to 1872. Hawaiian volcanoes. TYPICAL VOLCANOES 201-207. 209-219. How removal of forests affects rivers 193-196. 194-203. Tarr. Reference books. Walks and Talks in the 103-111. Fairbanks. Rivers and irrigation. Shaler. Eruptions of Vesu. 298 b -300. Vesuvius. Redway. . Text-books. Dryer. — 59. . The be- ginning of the earth (Kilauea). Davis Ele.Etna.d. Aspects of the Earth: 46-56. Among the volcanoes. . Geological Field : Winchell. Tarr. 196-208. The Niagara.. 185-193. Lawrence. Reference books. Text-books. The Earth and Russell. CHAPTER VIII LAND FORMS DUE TO OTHER AGENCIES 60. The Colorado 275-278% Rivers of the Sierra Nevada 296-298. .LAND FORMS DUE TO OTHER AGENCIES Reference books. Vesuvius . Heilprin. . Typical rivers St. 227-233. work of the Colorado river. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF RIVERS Dryer. 263-266% A near view : 276 c -282. 216-224. Rocks and Minerals: 13-17. vius from 63 a. Russell. Aspects of the Earth: .

Volcanoes of North America: 193-198. 250-257. Dikes. Aspects of the Earth : 77-89. Volcanic Rocks. Russell. 199-201. Reader in Physical Geography : 154-162. volcanoes . Taylor. Most recent eruption in the Russell. Gilbert and Brigham. Dikes. Volcanoes. First Book in Geology : 88-97. Outlines of the Earth's History: 303-304. Volcanic phenomena . 114 b -122. Distribution and cause of . . Volcanoes. 266-271. Rocks and Minerals: 59-62. Causes and distribution of volcanoes. 122-130. Reference books. 89 c -92. Crater lake. Volcanic rocks 148-156. Redway. Shasta. Mt. Shaler. Causes of volcanoes . How the Columbia made . Economic aspects of volcanoes. EXERCISE XLIV. and Necks. Western United plateau was States . 288-289 a 309 b -312. 80-90. Elementary Geology : 329-352. Crater XLVI. 228. Mono lake. California 228-233. Mud Heilprin. Winchell. Mt. VOLCANIC PHENOMENA Gravity. plugs . . sheets. Davis. Cinder cone and lava near Lassen's peak. Fairbanks. The craters of the moon 92-97. 235-236. The Earth and Rs Story : 120-127. Columbia lava flow. : Eruptive rocks . Fairbanks. Crater lake. 63-66. 215-216. Walks and Talks in the Geological Field: 111-117. 226- Dryer. Ele. Lakes of North America: 20-21. Mt. California. XL VII. Different kinds of volcanic rocks. Latest volcanic eruptions in the United volcanoes of the Colorado desert. Volcanic Peaks.26 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL 61. 109-110. 227.. Tarr. 203-209. Plateaus. Tarr. Shaler. Lava sheets. Dikes . 208-209. Structure of volcanic mountains . 83-90. Muir. Dodge. States: 19-30. 70-74. etc. . volcanic necks. intru- sive beds. Shaler. field 245. Mountains of California Sierras. Volcanoes. 241208-217. Frozen seas of lava. 208-219. Specific XLV. 60-69. Common Minerals and Rocks . 96-103. : 11. A Davis Text-books. 225Oregon. California. The story of volcanic rocks . Economic aspects of volcanoes. Rainier. Crosby. 305-309. 127-132.

292-294. Causes of earthquakes. Outlines of the Earth's History: 174-177. Earth: 13-17. 97. Gilbert and Reference books. Land- Shaler. Story of Our Continent : 258-262. Redway. slide filling a lake . Effects Tarr. 117. lava flow. EARTHQUAKES Davis Ele. First Book in Geology : 130-140. Dryer. . 63. fault. Davis. Header in Physical Geography: 163-164. Shaler. 137-142. 108and Brigham. The Earth and Its Story: 132-137. 64. Shaler. Tarr.. Earthquakes. Avalanches of snow. 37P-376. 190Tarr. . pumice. Text-books. 105-108. of earthquakes. Earthquakes. scoria. Aspects of the 39. Phenomena and Special terms. Heilprin. Dryer. Davis Ele. 201-204. Tarr. Text-books. Shaler. Davis... : 104-109. 183-184. Redway. lava. Landslides. Text-books. 27 Crater. ALPINE GLACIERS Glaciers EXERCISE XL VIII. Earthquake waves at sea. volcanic neck. 119-128. 130- Gilbert and Brigham. Earthquakes. 220-222. Construction of buildings to withstand earthquakes 42-45. Outlines of the Earth's History: 367-371. Dodge. 191. Earthquakes. 132. LANDSLIDES Dryer. Gilbert Davis Ele. Muir. 153-156. 168. 62. Shaler. Walks and Talks in the Geological Field: 125-132. focus.LAND FORMS DUE TO OTHER AGENCIES Special terms. 95-100. Transmission of earthquake shocks . 27Earthquakes in the United States 39-42. cinder cone. 193-195. 326-330. Earthquakes. Brigham. causes of earthquakes. Stress. concentric spheres. Mountains of California 40. concentric circles. Reference books. Winchell. Elementary Geology: 353-361. dike. .

life 30-31. Glacial pebbles. . 330-333. 294and Brigham. Gilbert Text-books. esker. Special terms. Muir. Western United States An Oregon glacier. : 24-32. Magnitude of work done by glaciers 26-27. 324-326. 127-132. moulin. . Muir 156-158. 190-205. . PIEDMONT AND CONTINENTAL GLACIERS Davis. Glaciers in the GreenContinental land region. mountain 65. Shaler. Hood. 18-21. 213-215 a The neve. 143-147. 55-62. 75-82. Outlines of the Earth's History: 225 b -228 a glaciers. The work of glaciers. Glaciers . . 215 b -216 a The glacier proper. Davis Ele. First Book in Geology : 8-12. Russell.28 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL Dodge. Tarr. abrasion.. 28-30. A receding glacier. Reference books. 295. . Shaler. Mountains of California: 15. Russell. An imaginary view of the Sierras in the Glacial epoch. Outlines of the Earth's History: 211 b -212. moraine. 117-121. Walks and Talks in the Geological Field the glaciers. alpine glacier. 62-67. Changes in topography produced glaciers by glaciers. 221 b -223 a . . Deposits made by glaciers. The history of a glacier. : 109-127. Glaciers. 290-292. Glacial deposits. Leading characteristics . 216 b -218 a Debris carried by a glacier. 67-69. Snow and glaciers. 80-91. 121-127. Amount of face by a glacier 31-33. Dryer. Glaciers of North America . Glacial . Glacial sediments of Mt. Crevasse. "Milky" water in glacial streams. Redway. in the . The Earth and Its Story: 65-74. 128-132. . 218-221. Heilprin. lateral striae. glacier Tarr. glacier. valley glacier. of glaciers. Polishing of rock sur81-82. The glaciers of Mt. The The glaciers of Mt. . Reader in Physical Geography 41-49. Among Neve. Glaciers of North America : 2-16. . Rainier. Elementary Geology: 195-219. Shasta. cirque. moraine. Winchell. Malaspina glacier 131-145. A trip over a glacier work done by glaciers 103-104. Shaler. An avalanche Alps. crevasse. : Fairbanks. Beginning of vegetation after glaciation 69. terminal moraine. ground moraine. 22-28. 16-18. : Reference books.

DESERTS Redway. Text-books. Organic life in during the glacial period. till. Geographic Influences in American New Eng- land. Our Continent : 64 c -69 a The advance and extent sheet 69-72 a The retreat and the effects of the . life of the desert. Tarr. Arrangement of the drift. the Geological Field : Winchell.. The work of the great ice sheet. Story of of the ancient ice . Gilbert and Brigham. bowlders. The great Ice Age. terms. Redway. 158-162. The Great Basin and the arid regions of the southwest 251-254. medial moraine. 296-298. 66. Fairbanks. The Earth and Its Story: 82-86. Tarr. 280-283. drift. The Heilprin. floods of the Great Lakes. Western United States: 187-197. 115-126. Walks and Tails rocks. 224-227. 109-118. Text-books. Outlines of the Earth's History: 340 b-341. The glaciers. 45-50. Geographic Influences in American History: 245-251.LAND FORMS DUE TO OTHER AGENCIES Muir. erratic. SAND DUNES Davis Ele. Reference books. The civilization of desert countries. 314-319. The Great Lakes during and since Glacial times. Davis Ele. drumlin. Brigham. Changes wrought by ancient glaciers in Brigham. Arid regions. 11-17. Reader in Physical Geography: 132-135. Dodge. 286-289. Mountains of California Special : 29 Chapter II. Lost 17-24. loess. . . kame. Desert sands and Shaler. Davis.. and Its Story: 17-18. 134. . great glacier . Tarr. 295-302. 67. History: 41 b -45. 333-346. Heilprin. Dryer. 86-89. Piedmont glacier. 122- Gilbert and Brigham. Text-books. Davis Ele. The Kettle hole. Shaler. The Earth deserts. 68. Redway. 87-88. Reference books. continental glacier. 132-144. Davis. 148-156.. THE WORK OF ANCIENT GLACIERS Topographic Forms due to Glaciation EXERCISE XLIX. Special terms. 144-150. 72-75.

and Land : 86 b -87. . 160-170. Tarr. First Shaler. 60-62. Tarr. Tarr. First Book of Forestry forests. Sand dunes checked by Reference books. Text-books. . Coral reefs reefs. Booh in Geology 17-18. Elementary Geology: 129-138. Wind erosion. . 217-219. LAKES. Story of Our Continent : 150-152. Text-books. MARSHES EXERCISE L. Gilbert and Brigham. History : 115. 203-207. Heilprin. Reference books. Lakes Ele. Causes and development of sand dunes 18-20. Dryer. Sea : : .. Davis. The wind. The Shaler. Geographic Influences in American of the Great Lakes. Dunes of sea sand. 165-169. Reference books. Science Sketches: 224-228. and Land: 49-52. Eedway. Jordan. Plates and description. 198-202. 177-183. Sand blast. CORAL REEFS Davis Ele. The Province lands 38 ff. life of the coral polyp. Westgate. Corals and coral islands. Artificial reclamation of Cape Cod sands 34-35. 324-330. Dunes. dune. .30 PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHY MANUAL Dodge. Shaler. Sea Atolls. Davis 248-250. 69. The Earth and Rs Story: 138-149. 283-286. Reclamation of Cape Cod Sand Dunes 9-17.: Eoth. Gilbert and Brigham. Reader in Physical Geography : 76-80. Devastation of the established dune areas 21-34. 374-383. Special terms. SWAMPS. Davis. 174- 177. 207 b-209. 150- 151. Dryer. 232-234.. Depth Brigham. . Coral CHAPTER IX IMPERFECT DRAINAGE 70.. migration. Shaler.

169-170. Dead seas. Western United States : 168-175. Death Heilprin. 135Brigham. Lakes of North America : 90-95. EXERCISE Text-books. Reader in Physical Geography : 113-118. Our Continent: 146-148."). valley. Bogs Lakes 331-335. 71. Walks and Talks in the Geological Field: 52 b-54. Mountains of California : 104-108. Western United States: 133-140. 115-123. Death of a lake. peculiar lakes. Outlines of the Earth's History: 198-206. Tarr. Heilprin. Destruction of lakes. Chelan. First Book in Geology: 125-129. Oar Continent: 212-213. Gilbert and Davis Ele. The Earth Shaler. Fairbanks. Redway. Shaler. . 31 The story of Lake The Earth and Its Story: 00-62. The Staler. Tarr. Lakes. 304-314. 283-28. 170-177.. Russell. 72. 163-164. 288-290. Text-books. The its Great Basin and Salt Lake. Reference books. filling of ponds. . Redway. Lake basins and meadow lands. 164-165. Ancient lake basins. 158-100. Muir. Elementary Geology : 188-194. The story of Great Russell. Fairbanks. Tarr. Story of and Its Story : 62-64. Life history of lakes. INTERIOR BASINS AND SALT LAKES Davis. Story of The Great Basin. .IMPERFECT DRAINAGE Dodge. Gilbert and Brigham. Mineral substances in sea water.. Fairbanks. Extinct Lakes Davis Ele. North America: 136-146. 155-160. Winchell. Western United States: 95-105. ENTINCT LAKES LI. Reference books. Lakes. Dryer. Marine marshes. 335 c -340. 149. Shaler.

106. Earth : 98-115. A visit to a cave. Special terms. Mountains of California : 329-330. power of water having carbon dioxide . Caverns and natural bridges. 74. PERCOLATING WATERS Davis Ele. percolate. Gilbert and Brigham. Reference books. Elementary Geology : Tarr. 59-60. Reference books. Davis Ele. Elementary Geology: 140-143.. . Caves. : Shaler. 235-236. First Book in Geology 74-87. Text-books. Tarr. Caves 333-337. 98-100. : Springs and wells. 236-239. Tarr. Davis. 132-134. 32 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL CHAPTER X UNDERGROUND WATERS 73. Dryer. Mineral waters . 135-136. Shaler. 104-105. Underground impervious waters. Redway. : Our Continent 140-145. 91-93. SPRINGS Davis Ele. 234-235. 104- Gilbert and Brigham. CAVERNS LII. 100-103. Story of 256 b -258. stalactite. Reference books. Solids in Solution Davis. 105. 226-229. Aspects of the Muir. Davis. 225-226. solution. strata. solvent. stalagmite. 150. Tarr. evaporation. Dryer. Text-books. 224-225. Hot springs and geysers. 75. Special terms.. Dodge. Run-off. Caverns 255 b -256. Physical Geography 206-212. in it 253-255. saturated solution. of the mountains of California Shaler. The Earth and Its Story : 87.. Reader in Redway. Caverns. . Outlines of the Earth's History 250-251. Stalactites Shaler. Natural bridges.. 105- Gilbert and Brigham. vegetable mold. 139-142. The course : of water under- ground. Solid. EXERCISE Text-books. Heilprin. sedi- ment. Dissolving . 39-40.

Jordan. Text-books. Dryer. 136-138. Outlines of the Earth's History 258 b -259. Artesian wells. Economic Geology of the United States: 418-420. ARTESIAN WELLS Davis Ele. Earth: 123-130. Common Minerals and Rocks : 123-126. Tarr. Redway. Science Sketches: 256-263.UNDERGROUND WATERS springs. 238. 229-230. Veins Crosby. Vein rocks quartz 156 b -165. 106. Story of Our Continent: 253-258. Reference books. Tarr. GEYSERS Davis Ele. Geysers. Geological Field: 93-102. A walk in Walks and Talks in the Yellowstone park. Mineral waters. Redway. Gilbert and Brigham.. Artesian wells. The and its work. EXERCISE Reference books. Rocks and Minerals: 67-70. Tarr. Elementary Geology : 147-149. Reader in Physical Geography 164. Springs. Dryer. 135. VEINS LIII. Artesian wells. Caverns formed by hot Shaler. Economic Geology of the United States: 412-418. Winchell. Tarr. 33 Shaler. Davis. Elementary Geology : 362-365. the Winchell. 239-241. . The structure of veins. Fairbanks. : Geysers and hot springs. 132-133. 76. The story of a piece of . Gilbert and Brigham. Tarr. . 126-127. 77. The formation of geysers. 103-104. Walks and Talks in the Geological Field hillside spring : 32-38. : Shaler. Elementary Geology: 145-147. Reference books.. Davis. Aspects of the. Some varieties of quartz. Dodge. 72 b -73. 78. 103. Text-books. Tarr. Underground water. 71-75. 102-103. Tarr.

Gilbert and Brigham. Office. Sea . Dryer. Shaler. 62-65. The sea bottom. Reference books. Tarr. 105-109. continental shelf. Redway. The Density and Temperature Sea "Water Davis. Sea and Land : 75-80. 298-299. red clay. Special terms. cold of the deep sea. History: 350°-354. 173-174. 243-249. buried at sea. Davis.. OCEAN WATER of EXERCISE Text-books. Outlines of the Earth's History Shaler. Tarr. Davis. solution. Reference books. The work Brigham. 250-255. Sea and Land: 106. and Land: 80 b-86 a The shape of the sea floor. Reference books. 175-178. 286-288. Special terms. 105. Text-books. . ships.S. Tarr. Shaler. Fathom. 61-62. Special terms. 190-192.. Density. Walks and Talks in the Geological Field : 64-70. Mineral veins. of formation : CHAPTER XI THE OCEAN 79. Gilbert and Brigham. LIV. The fate of human bodies. self-registering thermometer. Ooze 108-114. 279-282. 98-99. . Coast Survey and the Hydrographic Shaler. THE SEA BOTTOM Davis Ele. First 66-73. Geographic Influences in American of the U. 67-71.34 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL Book in Geology : Shaler. deeps. The cause of the salt.. Method. dredge. Dryer.. SOUXDINGS Davis Ele. mud. Davis Ele. Winchell. Gilbert and Brigham. 81. Story of of veins. etc. 179-184. 100-102. 213-214. Veins. Soundings. Text-books. Shaler. Our Continent : 259 b -261. calcareous. Ooze. 80.

Tarr. 119-122. Dryer. Lessons Special terms. surf. 260-264. 288-290. 187-190. Gravitation. Tarr. Elementary Geology: 231-234. Trough. 77-83. Tides. : Wave erosion. . 184-187. Outlines of the Earth's History: 126b-132. Elementary Geology: 221-231. Effects of . 197-200. Waves. Gilbert and Brigham. Dryer. low tide. Special terms. 290-293. 294-297. in Ocean currents. Tides. Shaler. Davis. TIDES Tides EXERCISE LV. Redway. Shaler. Tarr. Young. 223-229. Ocean currents. Book in Geology : 122-124. centrifugal force. Tides. 114-119. Tides. neap tide. Sea and Land: 211 b -213 a Tides. Davis. . slack water. Reference books. tides on harbors. Dodge. Davis Ele. high tide.. Reader in Physical Geography: 100-105. 132-138 a Waves. Text-books. Tarr.. 258-260. 264-270. range of tide. Physiographic effects of Shaler. breaker. 109-114. Davis in Ele. 81. Ocean Currents Davis. Davis Ele. Tides. Dodge. flow. 200-205. 83-88. First tides. undertow. EXERCISE Text-books. Redway. Shaler. Gilbert and Brigham. Reader Physical Geography: 111-113. Dodge. Reader in Physical Geography : 108-111. First Book Geology: 102-106. OCEAN CURRENTS LVI. spring tide. Redway. white cap. Elements of Astronomy : 121-123. crest. 190-194. Shaler. Tarr. Text-books. Newcomb. 194-196. bore. Reference books. Reference books. Outlines of the Earth's History 83.. 71-76. ebb.THE OCEAN 82. Gilbert and Brigham. 35 WAVES Dryer. in Astronomy: 181-187.

Walks and Talks in the Geological Field in the sea. The cold 152-156. drift. Marine life (animal) . 86. Tarr. 133-139. 162. LIFE IN THE OCEAN Davis Ele. Dryer. Perils due to icebergs. 271-272. 148-150. ocean currents currents . coral. table life along shore life 90-107. Dryer. Beauty of icebergs . Climatic and physiographic effects of icebergs. Outlines of the Earth's History : 242 b-243. as related to harbors. Seaweed.. Davis Ele. 343-345. 235-237. 102-104. THE SEA AND MAN and EXERCISE LVIH. Shaler. 148-152. sargasso sea. Death of icebergs. 195-198. Life Special terms. The Sea Text-books. Ocean currents. Elementary Geology Special terms. 122-124. 300-301. Eddy. calcareous. Man 110-111. Tarr. (vegetable) as related to and Land: 25-27. Outlines of the Earth''s History 145-148. 88-90. 57-59. Davis. Tarr. 85. bergs. Redway. Glaciers of North America Shaler. Reference books. Winchell. ICEBERGS. commercial value. 73. Text-books. The cause of . stream. : Tarr. iceberg.36 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL : Shaler. 379-382. Special terms. Life in the sea . 15. equatorial current. 299-300. 139-145. . : 69-70. PACKS EXERCISE LVII. 123-132. FLOES. Animal and vege229-243. The Gulf stream 150-152. Shaler. Dryer. 146-149. 97. . 194-195. Gilbert and Brigham. Ice- Gilbert and Brigham. . 270-271. Davis Ele. Davis. glacier. pack. Icebergs Text-books. Gilbert and Brigham. -Formation of ice floes Formation of icebergs. Icebergs. Marine harbors 243-252. Reference books. 315-318. Davis. blind- ness.. Climatic and other influences of ocean currents. 297-298. 83-86.. 65-67. floe. 87. Sea . Specific gravity. Sea and Land : 115-123. phosphorescence. : Russell.

and Brigham. 302-310. Sea pebbles. island. Reference books. Outlines of the Earth's History : 84'-85 a Islands . Reference books. ENCROACHMENT OF SEA ON LAND LIX. Shaler. 314-322. 324-330. 174-177. 87 c -89 a Continental shelf. 46-48. 282-286. Dryer. 89. Gilbert Physical Geography: 100-105. 42-46. Davis Ele. Tarr. 210-212. Changes in the coast line of North America due to waves and currents 40-50. Sand . 93-98.. Islands. 217-219. North America: 1-16. coral reef. Dodge. 222-223. atoll. Sea caves. Tarr. Sea caves. Redway. Dryer. 45. . Reference books. Special terms. 281. Shaler. Wear of the shore Shaler. Sea and Land : 62-66. Davis.COAST FORMS 37 CHAPTER XII COAST FORMS 88. Continental continental island. Tarr. 304-314. Aspects of the Earth: 130-134. stack. . Beaches. Story of Our Continent: 78-81. Wave line. 229-231.. 15-19. Davis. Sea Caves EXERCISE Text-books. Changes due to oscilla38-45. 129-134. shelf. Gilbert and Brigham. Russell. erosion. 22-28. Davis Ele. CONTINENTAL OUTLINES 70.. tion of the land. Davis. on the seashore 86-87. The continental shelf of North America 32-40. Shaler. ISLANDS Davis Ele. Heilprin. The Earth and Its Story: 104-106. Shaler. Redway. 90. Headlands. First Book in Geology: 5-8. . Text-books. Dryer. near North volcanic America. Text-books. Reader in 360-366. . Gilbert and Brigham. 374-383.

91. 313-314. etc. Davis Ele. Marine marshes.. 231- 238. 190 b -192. Shaler. 92. Strong shore line. reef. 243-259. weak shore line." 8-12% Strong coasts 15-20.. Cause of sand reefs. Reader in Physical Geography 105-108. and Land : 49-52. Drowned and Elevated Coasts Davis. natural bridges. sea cave. The Earth and Its Story: 106°-110. spit. Outlines of the Earth's History 138 b -145. 207 b -209. 203-207. bowlder. Barrier islands of the : Atlantic and Gulf coast. sand. Sand reefs . Tarr. Dodge. LXI. Shaler. Davis. sea Special terms. 27-30. Movements of the land. Dunes of sea sand 68-72. Coral reefs 187-197. Reader in Physical Geography 165-170. 95. First Shaler. 366-369. Weak coasts 41 b -46. : Reference books. 317-322. Tarr. Western United States: 75-85. Davis Ele. . . RISING AND SINKING COASTS EXERCISE Text-books. Mud. 227-229. 322-327. 233-243. Coral reefs. Heilprin. Deposition in the sea. Sea reefs The ocean Book in Geology : 20-23. pebble. Hook. . beach. The Earth and Its Story : 99-104. and Land . Sea caves.38 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL : Shaler. Barrier Beaches Text-books. bar. bay. 357. Story of Our Continent: 84-87. Dryer. Sea : . Elementary Geology Special terms. . Gilbert and Brigham. Physiognomy of the coast . dime. . delta. headland. stratification. 369-376. ENCROACHMENT OF LAND ON SEA EXERCISE LX. Tarr. Shaler. Beach wall. Wearing of pebbles on a beach 48. abrasion. as a Wave deposits. 212-220. Fairbanks. : Reference books. Dryer. and land levels . 199-202. line. cliff. Dodge. receiving basin. Atolls . Barrier and sea marshes 86 b -87. 310-313. Inconstancy of oceanic line. History of a coast Heilprin. Gilbert and Brigham. 204-210. The work of the "sea mill.

358-359. Davis Ele. Reference books. : 103-106. Sea and Land : 34 b -37. Shaler. in the Geological An Arabian narrative of rising and sinking coasts. old sea margins 169-173. What makes a good harbor . Silver. 163-165. 93. 145Lead and . 320-322. 162-186. Coast outlines and civilization. . Copper. 408. Tarr. Sea and Land: 154-161. Mercury or quicksilver. 120-122. Tin. Sea and Land: 16P-162. EXERCISE Text-books. 151-153. Coastal plain. Placer mining 150. Gilbert and Brigham. fiord. 159-162. 166-167. 196. : Earth's History 91 b -96. Rising Our Continent : coasts. 368. 315-318. 223-225. Harbors Davis Ele. Walks and Talks Special terms. terrace. Effects of subsidence. zinc. Islands and inlets of northField: 80-81. 203-204. Coal.. 223-225. 94. 170-171. Outlines of the : 39 217-221. 155-158. Reference books. eastern North America. Tarr. Iron. 140-144. Fairbanks. diamond 135-139. Story of 81-84.. EXERCISE Text-books. drowned lands. Harbors. ECONOMIC MINERALS AND ORES LXIII.. CHAPTER XIII MINERALS AND ROCKS 95. HARBORS LXII. MINERALS AND ROCKS Russell. Winchell. Gold . Rivers of North America Shaler. Reference books. Shaler. Text-books. Shaler. Shaler. Rising and sink- ing coasts. 223-252. COAST OUTLINES AND CIVILIZATION Davis. graphite. Economic Minerals and Ores Tarr. 187-222. Rising and sinking coasts. Rocks and Minerals .

ORGANICALLY FORMED ROCKS Limestone. chalk. Coal. 23-26. 215-222. aluminum. 220-224. Shaler. Gold and gold mining 233-240. Book in Geology: 38-45. Gypsum. 178-180. Copper mining. The coal-making time in North America 209-210% The origin of coal 214-219. Salt. 222-224. Walks and Talks in the Geological Field: 145-153. Economic Geology of the United States of iron ore in the United States . 46-55. Chemically and organ- formed rocks. . : . Methods of occurrence of gold . Crosby. Distribution of coal in the United States. The life of the prospector . Gold and silver. 225-226. Our Continent 38-44. 85-86. Production 224-227. Coal. Down in a mine and gypsum. Heilprin. . 223-232. Coal Davis. platinum. Western United States Heilprin. . 181-183. Text-books. 40 Platinum. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL 172-174. zinc. Tarr. : Fairbanks. Winchell. 153-159. Graphite. Tarr. Limestone. sulphur 225. How animals and plants make the rocks . Shaler. Fairbanks. Coal. Production of copper in the United States. Story of in tin.. 209-213. First Shaler. Gypsum. lead . 226-230. 159-165. 102-103. Iron and its geology . Organic agencies in rock formation ically 81-94. : 144-146. Sulphur. Limestone and marble : 26-29. Aluminum. Lime- stone and marble 92-96. Western United States: 212-215. LXV. Diatomaceous earth. Common Minerals and Rocks . Salt 96. : Fairbanks. . 215-220. 224-225. Iron. Copper. 195-196. ooze. 87-91. Asbestos. Calcite and dolomite. Rocks and Minerals help to 79-84. 23-30. . 193-194. 410-411. Rock salt . Coquina. EXERCISE LXIV. The Earth and Its Story: 207-209. Story of . 204-211. Iron . Mercury. : Reference books. Borax and soda. Our Continent : 205-209% Importance of minerals North America 228-231. Garnet. The Earth and Its Story 241-246. .

Coal areas in the : 41 . 22-23. 97. . 173-183. Production of . Shaler. Location of the petrified forests 11-17. Recommendations. Gaseous sunlight — natural gas. Rocks and Minerals: 97-102. 150-153. Tarr. Uses of coal . and Land: 12P-124. Scenic 10-11. First Shaler. . Fairbanks. . 214-220. and gas in North : America. Story of gas . Asphaltum. PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS Fairbanks. Report on features . stone. story of petroleum. Fossils. Western United States Heilprin. Book in Geology: 189-194. Petroleum and rock oil. FOSSILS : Reference books. The Earth : 246-248. Preservation of the petrified forests . Walks and Talks in the Geological Field: 183-189. 347-349. 326-331. Ripple marks. 219 c -222 a Distribution of petroleum. 333-336. Lone burials in the coal lands. Origin of coal . Winchell. How fossils are formed. Petroleum and and Its Story: natural gas. The production of coal. fossils. Shaler. 351 a -355. considerations 17-19. Our Continent: 210-211. Petroleum. Common Minerals and Rocks 141-147. Economic Geology of the United States 321. 321-326. Natural gas . Conditions existing in Carboniferous times 331-333. Forests silicified while buried Ward. Uses of petroleum . Fairbanks. Winchell. Coal 314- United States . 355-357. MINERALS AND ROCKS Tarr.. Rocks and Minerals: 76-78. • 98. the Petrified Forests of Arizona : 9-10. Economic Geology in the United States 340-346. Sea in sand. Fossil imprints in the rocks . Liquid — petroleum . Heilprin. Origin of petroleum petroleum sunlight . 230-231. Walks and Talks in the Geological Field : 166-172. The Earth and Its Story How wood changes to : 38-39. 311-314. 346-347. The Reference books. Geological . Crosby. Solidified sunlight — coal and coal beds.

Gilbert and Brigham. Common : Minerals and Bocks: . 189-197. 33-34. Dryer. Crosby. Common Minerals and Bocks : 30-34. Dryer. Metamorphic rocks. Gilbert and Brig- ham. Text-books. Tarr. Heilprin. 32-34. Granite. Book in Geology : 12-15. 34. Davis. 71-77. First 30-32. shales. slates. Plutonic or dike rocks. Book in Geology : 30-33. Three kinds of sedimentary rocks. Bocks and Minerals Heilprin. Stratification. 29-30. Winchell. Walks and Talks in the Geological Field 44-45. How rocks are made 53-55. and Bs Story : 20-23. IGNEOUS ROCKS Granite EXERCISE LXVI. Overlap. 39-43. 70. Common : Minerals and Bocks: 111-114. Strata and their classification. Sedi- mentary rocks . Walks and Talks in the Geological Field 78-81. Tarr. . Reference books. 100. 72-80.. Text-books. . Monsters of a buried world 99. Fairbanks. Kinds of minerals and rocks. METAMORPHIC ROCKS Tarr. : Winchell. Crosby. Fairbanks. Crosby. 409. The Earth and Its Story Shaler. 406-407. Walks and Talks in the Geological Field : 39-44. How granite decays. Fragmental Rocks Text-books. Lessons from chalk. 411-412. 413. folding. Bocks and Minerals 34-37. 42 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL : Winchell. 74-76. Use : of quartz. Dryer. Reference books. 101. 34-36. Mud stones. Sandstone and pebble . 6-7. 206-214. What we find in granite . 101-102. Sandstone 36-37. Igneous agencies . Reference books. dip First . 35-36. etc. 76-78. rock . Shaler. Fossils . The Earth 47—51. Fragmental rocks 129-137. Flags. 95-108. FRAGMENTAL ROCKS EXERCISE LXVII. . . Sand. 27-33. Conglomerate 34-35. Stratification 137-140.

Frost as a weathering agent 21 b -23. Outlines of the Earth's History 315 b -321". Chemical erosion. Aspects of the Earth Shaler. Heilprin. Book in Geology 3 b -4. Tarr. Decomposing Agents Reference books. Science Sketches: 232-255. An ascent of the Matterhorn. Common Minerals and Bocks: 10b—14. Sea a ml Tarr. Shaler. The Earth and Its Story: 13-17. Building stone. Principles of Agriculture The soil. Gneiss and schists. Mechanical disintegration 236-240. What purposes 383-384. Crosby. 128. Principles. SOILS DECOMPOSING AGENTS EXERCISE LXIX. Shaler.. Land: 21-26. Building Stone EXERCISE Reference books. soil is Bailey. worms. BUILDING STONE LXVIII. What and how it is made. Agents of soil formation. 300-309. 102. Jordan. acids. . CHAPTER XIV WEATHERING AND 10:5. The decay of rocks. The Earth and Its Story: 232-238. The Earth and Its Story: 33-35. Weathering agencies along shore. and Heilprin. Building-stone production in the United States. : Summary of weathering. First : . Shaler. mica schist. . SOILS 43 Fairbanks. as weathering agents. Vegetation hastens weathering. Oxygen. Winslow. Elementary Geology: 109-119. Russell. Rivers of North America: 2-3.'10-35. Rocks and Minerals : 0G-0S. Heilprin. States: 359-360. Economic Geology of the stones are used for building United . Decomposing agents. WEATHERING AND quartzite. Slate. Effect of organic : : life on soil. of Agriculture : 16-22. roots.

Barren soil and abandoned farms of New England. . Economic Geology of the United States or indigenous soils soils . residual. Aspects of the Earth 317-329. Winslow. : Tarr. 50-57. Geographic Influences in American History : 46 c -50. Alkali lands. The composition of 105. Soils. 24-29. Increase and conservation of Brigham. 280-289.44 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL 104. Shaler. 398-399. 80-83. KINDS OF SOIL : Reference books. Fertile Elements which generally fail soonest. The . First Book in Geology Heilprin. Dodge. FERTILITY OF THE SOIL : Reference books. Bailey. soil . effects of The Earth and Its Story 238-240. Our Continent : 183-190. The texture of the . 329-339 r Fertility of the soil. Alkali land. How cultivation injures : . Story of Our Continent 6 c -9 a Fertility of the : Tarr. Principles of Agriculture the soil. King. Clays and soils. Glacial. Kinds of soil and soil zones. . Shaler. soil. : 327 b -331 a Conditions of . alluvial 190-192. Irrigation and Drainage: 269-274. Principles of Agriculture . Bailey. . Reader in Physical Geography : 73-76. Clays. Shaler. Reader in Physical Geography : 198-201. Soils 204-205. Trans- portation of soil. resources of the soil 37-46. 47-50. 35-39. Residual : soil and soil zones. Glacial 399-402. : : : Shaler. : Tarr. Aspects of the Earth : Shaler. gravity in soil making . Story of soils . Outlines of'the Earth''s History : 322 b -327. 25-36. Principles of Agriculture : 77-80. 59 b -63. Principles of Agriculture 22-25. Kinds of soil. 391-394. . Shaler. Elementary Geology 120-121. Transported soils 396-398. Transported soil. Treatment and use of alkali lands. Residual . Dodge. Wearing soil Winslow. Outlines of the Earth's History fertility of soil . 57 c -59 a Moisture in the moisture in the soil soil. Economic Geology of the United States out of soils by cultivation. The 201-203. 343-348. Fertility of soils. Shaler. 394-396. soil.

The forest as a . Meade. 239-241. Fairbanks. The forest as a soil improver 56-58. Irrigation. 328. Irrigation and Drainage: 66-72. FORESTRY AS RELATED TO THE SOIL and Forest Association. Bailey. California. tillage of the soil. 191-198. Diverting river water. King. Variation in stream flow Kinney. 338-344. Irrigation in Asia 84-85.. Irrigation in . Should 18-21. SOILS 45 FERTILIZERS : Reference books. : Gifford. 373-381. Irrigation. . The Earth and Its Story: 240-241. Principles of Agriculture 64-76. Punjab. . Fertilizers. Bacteria and the Nitrogen Problem the nitrogen problem. Lime. Rotation of crops. Bacteria and Tarr. soil former soil 51-56. phosphates. 100-107. Use of animal power for lifting water. 107. The forest as a . How forests prevent floods 22-27. Forests and water storage. Reference books. 108-110. Moore. Europe 77-84. 89-97. 110-112. California "Water the Forests be preserved ? 7-13. Western United States: 259-2G7. Practical Forestry 46-51. IRRIGATION Irrigation EXERCISE LXX. Units of measurement of water 290-296. Orchard irrigation 396-402. Field irrigation by furrows . . AVinslow. 108. Methods of applying fertilizers Cultivation. Principles of Agriculture : 83-89. Draining. India . . WEATHERING AND 10G. Reference books. 88-89. guano. Irrigation in . The Soil: 268-275. Methods of irrigation. King. Subirrigation. : 333-342. Irrigation Institutions : 100-113. Irrigation by flooding . Antiquity of irrigation. Egypt. Summary of extent of irrigation. 296-304. Measurement of water. Redlands. Economic Geology of the United States : 402-412. water. pared fertilizers . 352-359. . Forest and Water: 189. Diverting river 72-77. Measurement of water 229-233. The Heilprin. Artificial and pre. Forestry and irrigation.

ANIMALS. 106-113. 353-354. Dryer. Winslow. wind 349-351. AND 100. How . Plants purify the air. 174-177. tective covering. Animal Life tions of animal life. Forests sheds. Reference books. 71-73. . prevent evaporation. 303-308. 270-275. plants are 344-348. : 55-57. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL 58-63. 336-339. Trees in the forest. The primary condi7-24. A First Book of Forestry : 203-209. Forests enrich the soil. Russell. The forest as a pro236-240. Control of torrents. . Tarr. Davis Ele. Forest and Water: 22. How plants are influenced by heat. Sap.. Redway. Food from soil. . Advantages of forested water78-85. . Aspects : of the Earth : 259-261. influenced by water : The life of a tree Osterhout. 61-62. Gilbert and Text-books. Kinney. The relation CHAPTER XV PLANTS. Underground work of forests. 65-68. Conditions of growth. Rivers of North America Slialer. Roth. The forest as a flood preventer and a conservator of moisture. 91-97. Experiments with Plants: 326-343. to Tourney. selection. Principles of Agriculture nutrition. 332-338. Torrents. Coulter. Forests prevent floods and increase rainfall 290-293. Forestry. Stream Flow: 279-288. : Jordan and Kellogg. Plant Studies: 169-175. How plants are influenced by food 352-360. 46 fixer . Pinch ot. are How plants are influenced by light 348-349. 349-351. Primer of Forestry. How plants influenced by . Forests increase rainfall and conserve moisture 185-186. .. Relation of Forests of forests to stream flow. MAN CONDITIONS OF LIFE 332-337. Part I 25-43. Brigham. The environ- ment of a plant.

Plant 188-213. Water plants . Russell. Life zones. 315-317. 340-343. Seed Dispersal: 4-11. 343-345. 112. 351-359. Redway. 364Redway. 333-334. Tarr. 18-29. Coulter. AND MAN 47 PLANT ZONES Text-books. Davis Ele. Beal. Gilbert and Brigham. 354-359. 319-321. Plants requiring moderate water supply. Bailey. 105-111.. 323-328. 328-331. Davis. Animal Life: 29G-306. The treeless mountain tops. 110. Plants multiply by means of stems portation of plants . Text-books. Life zones of the United States. 309-313. Drouth 324-335. Story of Our Continent : 196-205. Davis. 324-328. 360. Migrations. 345-346. Plants spread by means of roots. 339-344. . Life Zones and Crop Zones of the United States: 18-53. plants 214-220. . Water transj 30-56. Fauna and faunal areas. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS Davis Ele.. Tarr. Russell. Foundations of Botany 307-323. ANIMALS. 54-56. Reference books. Text-books. Animals of North America. 382. States : Bailey. Roth. Merriam. MIGRATIONS AND BARRIERS Davis Ele. 111. : Bergen.PLANTS. 359Tarr. Davis. Gilbert and Brigham. Dryer. Jordan and Kellogg. Botanical geography. Gilbert and Brigham. Shaler. Seeds transported by wind 58-60. 12-17. . societies . Reference books. Plant Studies: 177-187. Dryer. North America 254-257. Redway. Reference books. Some representative mammals North America. Dryer. The woods and the : mountains.. A First Booh of Forestry: 37-40. 360-364. Handbook of Birds of the Western United xxxvi-xxxvii. 353-357. North America of : 264-292. 338-349. Handbook of Birds of the Western United States: xxxiii-xxxvi..

Some reasons for plant migration. Primer of Forestry. How the trout . by animals . The life of a forest.. . Brigham. Laws of geograph. Character of barriers to distribution. Animal Life: 114-122. Burbank's of crossing work with plums daisy tion . 346-348. came to California. Mr. Experiments with corn at the Illinois Experiment Station. First Book in Geology : 195-202. Jordan. How plants are scat- Coulter. Experiments with Plants: 320 b-325. The story of a salmon. Part I: 44-66. Dodge. scattered. The Earth and Its Story extinction of animal forms. Osterhout. 364-365. The crowd of mals and the struggle for existence. : 373-386. Experiments with Plants : ani- 409—417. How seeds are Russell. 283-288. Methods and and selec- 434-441. : 156-158.48 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL off their Plants that shoot seeds . 113. 360-363. Science Sketches: 263 b-266. North America : 292-298. The relation of species to habitat 288- 296. . Gilbert and Text-books. The struggle for existence and the survival of the fittest. Tarr. Davis Ele. The variation and Jordan. Effects of cold and frost on life. Bergen. 339-340. Coulter. Foundations of Botany tered. Migration of animals. Bergen. Pinchot. Heilprin. Man disperses seeds and plants 84-87. Reference books. Burbank's work with the Shasta difficulties 429-434. 335-338. Osterhout. Foundations of Botany : 387-395. How the trout crossed the Rocky mountains into Yellowstone lake 267-278. The struggle for existence. : Jordan and Kellogg. 422-427. 80-83. 272-283. Jordan and Kellogg. Plants that are carried . Dispersal of plants. Science Sketches: 9-19. Reader in Physical Geography : 119-120. Plant Studies : 142-148. Shaler. CHANGES IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS Dryer. Animal Life ical distribution . How species are made. Mr. 61-79. Plant Studies : 112-122. .

pulp. A progression of forms 114. 348- 350. Shaler. game. Enemies of the . Tarr. Muir. railway ties. . Economic ornithology xxxix-xliii. A windstorm in the Pinchot. Use of the forest 136-150. Forest belts of the Sierra Nevada mountains . Sand dunes checked by forests. Domesticated plants of North America. Our Continent : 14-17. Western United States: 278-289. The struggle the origin of species. A First Book of Forestry : 133-134. Sea AND MAN for existence 49 and and Land: 100 b -104. Text-books. Reference books. Relations of the agriculture. The offices of the animal. I: 67-88. 115. Plants purify the air. seeds and mast fish 198-202. Geograj/h ic Influences in American His341 c -346. Redway. 328-331. Shaler. Brigham. National parks and forest 247-254. reserves. 319-323. Life Zones and Crop Zones of the United States: 9-17. posts. Handbook of Birds of the Western United xxxvii-xxxix. 201-207. 174-177. Story of of life. Story of Our Continent: 193-196. Bailey. Merriam. Principles of Agriculture : 106-111. Fairbanks. Dryer. 178-182. etc. Part forest. PLANTS. 349-350. Winslow. United States Biological Survey to practical Roth. . Resin . The offices of the plant . tection of birds. Shaler.. Forestry a federal question Brigham. Principles of Agriculture : 61-62. 385. 365-36G. of the United States Bureau of Forestry. The work . Pasturage. and and turpentine. 317-324. 290-302. Reference books. Firewood. tory : 279-285. Mountains of California: forest. The pro. 352-359. ANIMALS. Primer of Forestry. Tarr. ECONOMIC VALUE OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS Dryer. FORESTS Gilbert and Text-books. States : Bailey.

Use not abuse of the woods fire . Tarr. 315-318. 1-7. 392. Dryer. 349-353. 235. The Atlantic forest North America. 383-385. Story of Our Continent: 153-157. 384-392. 369-375. streams Roth. Gilbert and Brigham. . What cold do for the woods 37-40. 9-16. What 18-24. 352-372. 41^45. Forests North America. Indian civilization. . North America: 215-218. do for the woods 24-32. 346-359. 104-112. Indians of North America. The practice of 38-55. The Pacific forest. Gilbert and Brigham. Primer of Forestry. Part II 7-37. 50 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL : forestry Pinchot. Reference books. Defense. 390Redway. The woods and the mountains . Text-books. Geographical hindrances to Indian civilization Dodge. What moisture does for the woods 32-37. Man's conquest of nature . light and shade do heat and woods What . Protection against . The forests of 219-227. 335-336. A Book of Forestry : 14-18. 214-216. 161-165. 227-235. etc. About the Weather: 1-8.. 364-372. different soils . The Cliff Dwellers and their descendants.. . Shaler. Outlines of the Earth's History 341 b-343 a . Redway. Harrington. takes several forms especially physical. GEOGRAPHICAL FACTORS IN THE LIFE OF CIVILIZED PEOPLES Davis. 157-161. for the 74-88. Work in the woods 56-73. Reader in Physical Geography : 213-221. Fairbanks. 375-380. 117. Some history. : Shaler. . Russell. 238-249. Davis. Shaler. 113-116. NATURE AND MAN Davis. Dryer. Porest plantations on prairies 209-214. The boreal forest . Forests of our own country . Text-books. Story of Our Continent: 112-121. Why of prairies are treeless. 359-370. Western United States : 176-186. Ele. Davis Ele. Civilization has many disadvantages. 195-198. Tarr. The weather and the . The tropical forests 237. 116. Forestry abroad and at home. . 347-349.. First .

grazing centers. Climate of the world Water supply Fairbanks. Western United States: 205-214. . 370-384. Geographical hindrances to Indian civilization 233-245. Physical Geography: 28-32. 246-253. and summary. tory : AND MAN 51 Brigham. Historical distribution of people. valley 24-25. etc. . 262-278. Reference book. . . Natural causes for the development of towns Dodge. Effect of the Appalachian barrier on colonial and Revolutionary history 105-115. 381-383. Text-books. the Innuits. Mohawk 25 b -28. Manufacturing. Agricultural centers. Geographic Influences in American His22-24. Effects of the form of North America. lumbering centers 47-58. fishing. The contact Shaler. Redway. Location of cities of the Pacific slope. The railroads across the Appalachians b . Russell. mining.. 222-227. 250-263. The Eskimos. Horticulture and houses of the Indians of the aborigines with foreign peoples. Importance of commerce of the Great Lakes. DISTRIBUTION AND RACES OF MEN Dryer. Physiography and commercial alle. Tarr. 33-46. The Erie canal. 206-212. 161-165. resources and natural food sup. 336-347. 268-277. ANIMALS. 18-22. Commerce of North America. . Life of man modified by geographical conditions. giance of the prairie country . . Aleutians ply . . Influence of soil. North America : 365-376. . and scenic centers 104-107. Water power for New England cities 86-80. hunting. How physical features influenced the settlement of the climate and West. Transportation and power. 160-172. Geographic conditions favorable to New York city 50 -52. Historical importance of the Great Lakes 126-141. Reference books. the 306-406. PLANTS. Dodge. Reader in Physical Geography: 228-231. Story of Our Continent: 0-12. Railroads in the . Reader in in Colorado. 118. Centers of life. climate. 384-304. 385-300. — seasons . The Indians. The natural conditions of North America which affected its settlement by Europeans 166-169".

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Part II FIELD AND LABORATORY MANUAL .

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000. point to represent this. 2. how much farther would you have to go? it.000 80.000 miles to the inch.000 3.000 34.000.000 67. draw a circle to represent the sun. 36. . .770.000 Uranus Neptune .000 Mars .000 miles distant from the earth.FIELD AND LABORATORY MANUAL EXERCISE I MAGNITUDES AND DISTANCES The following table gives approximately. 4. How long would it take the express train just mentioned to travel this distance? Using the scale of 200.000 93.000 70. in miles. Distance 480. . . find the cirit How long would take an express train to go this distance at the rate of 50 miles per hour? In a similar manner find the circumference of the sun.000 1.000 Sun .000 Venus Earth.000. of the earth given above. Place a dot at the proper drawn Imagine the earth located as you haveand take an imaginary trip from the earth to the surface of the sun.000. 31. . the diameter of each planet. the dis- tance of each of the eight planets from the sun. . at the center of the sun.000.000.000 Using the diameter cumference. The moon about 240.000 Saturn .000 . . . 8. and the diameter of the sun.200 141. Use the same scale and draw a circle at the is center of the sun to represent the earth.772.000 7. After reaching the moon. Diameter Distance Jupiter . 800.000 Mercury. 881.000.000. . . Diameter . .

should not be as large as a period used in Place very small dots to represent the Are there any planets whose you cannot represent ? Why ? Imagine yourself standing on the sun and looking at the planets which is more strikpositions of the other planets.000.56 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL of The volumes two spheres are to each other as the cubes of their respective diameters. How large is the and place a dot to represent the distance between the sun and Mercury. using the scale of 1. as a small stone or heavy bullet. to the sun ? Think this at night when you look EXERCISE II THE OBLATENESS OF THE EARTH Fasten a weight. the sizes of the planets or the distances in space If ? you were to represent the position of the nearest fixed star according to the scale last used. it printing on this page. If light it Light travels at the rate of 186. how many times could long would How earth. Make the dot for the scale .000 miles to the inch. to a string and whirl it with the hand as nearly as you can round a fixed point on the table top or on the floor.000 miles per seccould travel in a circular path. Use the same earth very small . ond. between the sun and Venus between the sun and the earth. How many to earths would it take to make one sun? Jupiter is many earths would it take the largest of the planets. you would need 300 miles of blackboard. go around the earth in a second? At this rate how it take light to travel from the sun to the earth ? long from the sun to Neptune ? At the same rate it would take the light of the nearest fixed star three years to reach the How far is it to the nearest fixed star? This is how of many times as far as it is from the earth at the stars. positions . What is the shape of the path? Trace the path with a chalk line. Does the whirling weight pull on the string. How make a Jupiter? Draw on circle? the blackboard a circle to represent the sun. Whirl it rapidly. Is the strength of . ing.

Indicate by title which form? is which. This force called When these two forces. what kind motion to the may result? Make a drawing in your notebook similar one drawn in chalk. Make a drawing to show the shape when rotating slowly and another to show the shape when rotating rapidly. act at the same time. How do you know that the earth is flattened at the poles? How was the fact discovered? Explain how it may have obtained this shape. Use the rotating machine and brass to rotate slowly. the proper lines to represent the directions of these forces. Cause the rings ? What shape is the form which appears Which moving more rapidly. in this Have we proved theory is that it obtained its shape way? If this the correct one. the part near the axis or the part midway between the poles ? In which part is centrifugal force greater? Cause the rings to rotate rapidly. Place the words centrifugal and centripetal on rings. in it was the mass present form? dition of the earth at the time what conassumed its What name is given to the centripetal force in the case of the earth's rotation? What evidence have we that the earth is rotating at the present time? . What effect has this increase of speed upon the centrifugal force midway between part is the poles ? What change is there in the shape of the resulting Account for this difference in shape. which did not act after broke ? What ? relation does the is direction of this force sustain to the circle centripetal (" seeking-the-center") force.THE OBLATENESS OF THE EARTH the pull increased or decreased? 57 Whirl its it rapidly enough to ? break the string. What becomes What shape is ? of the weight Trace its path path force ? What relation does it sustain to the former path is The which drives along the latter path force. with a chalk it line. Place arrows to show the direction of the motion. called centrifugal (" fleeing-from-the-center ") In what direction with reference to the circumference ? does centrifugal force act on a whirling body What force acted upon the moving weight before the it string broke. of centrifugal and centripetal.

and again several times during the night. What change has occurred ? What is the cause of this change ? Observe the same star again during the night. Are you able to see the whole of its path ? Why ? Observe a star in the north. Carry it around in a circu- it lar path. and again after two or three hours. Carefully balance and cause it to rotate rapidly. Describe the direction of the earth's axis with reference to the stars. and again the next evening soon after sunset. then quickly turn it so that the axis points north and south. Hold it with the axis pointing east and west. Does the axis always retain this direction ? How do you know ? Do you see any similarity between the movements of the earth and those of the gyroscope ? 1 1 The gyroscope may be homemade by mounting a small heavy wheel on an axis. A bicycle wheel with ball bearings is suggested. your direc- are not What relation does the tion of the axis in one position sustain to the direction in any other position ? Grasp the gyroscope firmly by the handle and cause it to rotate rapidly.' What change has occurred? What is the cause of the change ? What is the shape of the apparent path of the star ? Can you see the whole of its path ? Is there a star that does not have this apparent motion? Account for this. What is the direction of the axis at the east side ? when at the south ? side of the circle ? at the north side to be sure that at the west side? results Repeat the experiment accidental. . very near the horizon.58 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL EXERCISE III THE DIRECTION OF THE AXIS OF THE EARTH'S ROTATION Suspend the gyroscope l by a string. Can you readily change the direction of its axis of rotation ? Observe a star or constellation in the east soon after sunset. Repeat this several times.

Compare the period of time required for some point on its surface. Find a place in the orbit the lengths of day and night are equal (first Move the globe from this position through one fourth of the orbit (second position). Compare the relative parts into which the circle of illumination cuts your circle of latitude with the relative lengths of day and night.) What angle does it make with where the perpendicular to the plane of the orbit? Place the globe position). define orbit and plane of orbit. with its axis in this position. Cause the globe to rotate.LENGTHS OF DAY AND NIGHT EXERCISE IV 59 LENGTHS OF DAY AND NIGHT Carry a globe in a the sun. At what time of ence to the first. Be sure that the pasteboard circle of time that it is properly Compare the period pass through the now takes your town to illuminated part with the period required to pass through the dark part. Does the circle of illu- mination parts? now cut your circle of latitude into equal or unequal the Compare "day" part with the "night" part. Adjust a paste- board circle so that tion of the globe it will exactly bound the illuminated por- and thus separate the illuminated portion from the dark portion. year do you find conditions existing similar to those of the position ? first the third position ? the second position ? the fourth position? Give names to these particular times of the year. say your own town. Describe this position with refer- Find a position (fourth position) in the orbit where the relative lengths of day and night are the reverse of what they are in the second position. What angle does the axis of the earth form with the plane of its orbit? (See the text-books. to pass through the illuminated portion with the period required to pass through the dark portion. adjusted. Place the axis of the globe perpendicular to the plane of From the orbit and carry the globe round again. An imaginary circle which does this is called the circle of illumination. Find another position (third position) in the orbit where the days and nights are equal in length. circle round a pupil who will represent data so obtained. .

This line is due east and west. What change in of shadow at 9 a. the position of the post. Do the same in the afternoon. Make a drawing to show the circle.60 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL EXERCISE V NORTH AND SOUTH LINE Set a post in the ground so that the top will be about two feet above the surface. and with a center draw a circle on the ground with a radius of means inches. Do you know of any other method by which you be in a straight line. In what direction does the diameter extend? If this line does not coincide with the other north and south line.3 What ? is the circumference of this circle ? ? How many degrees are there in a circle of this circle What is the length of one degree is taken by the first shadow which is by the post in the morning ? Give direction and length at noon at 3 p. the post. At night observe the north star and place a mark on the circumference so that the mark.m. . it By as plumb line make this post vertical. the length of the shadow occurs in the forenoon? in the What direction cast .m. and the north star shall From this point draw a diameter. Divide it exactly in the middle. 57. Draw a line from this middle point to the center of the post. Extend the last line until it cuts the circumference on opposite sides. Connect these two points with a straight line. account for the difference. What angle does the last line form with the first? In what -direction does the last line extend? Draw a line due east and west through the center of the post. afternoon ? end of the shadow will the point where it just touches the circumference. Use letters to in the forenoon the At some time cross the circumference of the circle. miefht determine true north? . of a A broomstick makes a good post. and the lines. Mark indicate directions.

then departs from CO as much as does from the horizontal. All the angle that a ray of light ])() AB from the sun makes with the plane Set of the horizon. hence angle COD is the angle of elevation In determining the angle of elevation of the sun. and we call the hour noon.") east. clinometer (Fig. hold the clinometer so that the shadow of the pin at A Angle COD is then or at falls on the line AB. . Stand so that the center between you and the point of sunrise. determine of the angle of is elevation the 1.) B your watch by the sun at noon and from that determine the exact times of sunrise and sunset. its direction Make a similar ob- servation for sunset. When it is used to determine a vertical is is pointed at the object of observation. Is the point of sunrise due east? If not. When south the sun it is is due said to be on our meridian. such that it will be in line with the point of sunrise and the post. The Clinometer sun when it our meridian. how many degrees north or south of due east is it? (Should you find the point of sunrise of the post 5 degrees south of due would be read " east. the desired angle of elevation angle.THE APPAliENT MOVEMENTS OF THE SUN EXERCISE VI 61 THE APPARENT MOVEMENTS OF THE SUN Part Use the circle is I drawn in Exercise V. the vertical line DO coincides with the (The line CO. angle on When the clinometer is held so that the line AB is horizontal. Make a mark on the circumference of the circle. From this determine the length of the day from sunrise to sunset. By the use of the 1) Fig. 5 degrees south.

The greatest angle of noon of an observer at that point. direction of sunrise. Consider their direction as parallel to a line joining the center of the sun and the center of the earth. elevation of the sun at noon. Carry a globe in a circular path about a pupil. (/) length of day. tion of the sun to .62 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL observations similar to the preceding every two weeks results. direction of sunset. (d) time of sun(g) time of sunset. perpendicular to the plane of of What then is the angle noon elevation of the Hold a card tangent to sun to an observer at the equator? the globe at 40 degrees north latitude on the side nearest to the sun. Part II When is the day longest? When shortest? When are days and nights of equal length? How many times each year are the days and nights of equal length? Is the sun ever directly over your head ? Is it ever north of you at noon ? At what time of day does the sun shine on the north side of the house ? Explain how this can be. (a) date. During what months do you find the greatest difference between successive readings in the second and third columns of your table ? Compare this with the times of the equinoxes and the solstices. in different (c) Make (b) and tabulate your rise.) Cause the earth to revolve about the sun. giving. What is the angle of noon elevation of the sun at the time of the equinox to an observer at the equator? to an observer at 40 degrees north latitude? Cause the earth to revolve about the sun. Adjust the globe so that the axis shall be inclined 20 degrees from the perpendicular. Note and record any change in the angle of noon elevation of the sun. to represent the plane of the horizon What is the angle of noon elevaan observer at this point? (All the rays of light which reach the earth from the sun are practically parallel. (e) columns. Part III represent the sun. who will Adjust the globe so that the axis shall be its orbit.

Apply this rule to the noon elevations given in your table and determine the true angle of given. sunset curve. difference between the greatest elevations). We call this line the sunrise curve. Place a dot at the proper point to represent the hour of sunrise on the date of your first observation.THE APPAEENT MOVEMENTS OF THE SUN elevation of the sun is 63 made at the time of the summer solstice. inclination of the earth's axis. Give a rule for determining the and the smallest angle (noon is when the angle of inclination of the earth's axis Give a rule for determining the angle of inclination of the earth's axis. Do the same for the hour of the center of the rectangle. In like manner represent the times of sunrise and sunset for that portion of the year not included in your table. leaving the day portion white. Part IV Use cross-section paper and mark out a rectangle 2G squares long and 24 squares wide. having the axis of the earth inclined 40 degrees from the perpendicular. as (Use the almanac. Compare this with the angle given by the books. when you have the greatest and the smallest angle of noon elevation of the sun. Let the line through the center represent noon. Draw the Shade the night portion of your diagram. Let each square crosswise represent an hour of the day. Give the completed diagram the title . Distinguish between forenoon and afternoon. Draw a line lengthwise through Let each square lengthwise repreWrite opposite each line a date from your table of observations. to "Sunset and Sunrise Curves from — — . sent two weeks of time. and make this Compare the same comparison as before. Place figures to indicate the hour represented by each line. What is the difference (in degrees) between the greatest and the smallest angle? with the angle of inclination (20 degrees). Determine and record this angle. Repeat this part of the experiment. sunset. Make dots in the proper positions for all other obser- vations recorded in the table." giving the dates. to make somewhat regular curve.) Draw a line through a many of the sunrise dots as possible. When is the smallest angle made? Determine and record this angle.

64 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL EXERCISE VII THE MOON Refer to the almanac. Give your drawings a title. look again the next evening.) Place a slated globe on the table and whiten the side which would be illuminated by the setting on the globe. illuminated ? sun. always keeping the white side toward the direction of the setting sun. Make a draw- moon as it appears when you first see it. If you do not see it. Make a drawing every two days until the moon is full.of the phase does this represent? illuminated part can you see? What is In which direction from you the the globe when it represents new moon ? Make a drawing to represent the surface of the moon as seen through the telescope. . and seconds from one new moon to the next succeeding. counting from the date of the new moon. giving in each case the age of the moon in days. In what part of the heavens did. determine the date of the next new moon. of the surface is illuminated How much when the globe is south of you? How much of the of the illuminated part can this represent? you see? What phase illuminated moon does when the globe is east of How much of the surface is you ? How much . as given in the almanac.you first see the new moon? What ing of the the direction does the change in position occurs on successive evenings? In what moon move round the earth? How do you know ? In what length of time does the moon make one revo- lution round the earth? (Calculate the exact time in days. and look for it on the evening of that day. Observe moon at sunset two days later and make a drawing. if its light could fall How much Let it of the surface of the globe would be allow one this globe represent the moon and pupil to carry entirely round the room. hours. minutes.

Use the clinometer and take the elevation of the north star.) What would be the sun's noon elevation at the north pole? What would be its noon elevation if you lived 30 degrees north of the equator? If its noon elevation were 50 degrees. What change would occur in the elevation of the north star if you should go toward the north pole? Where would it appear if you should reach the north pole? What would then be its elevation? What is the latitude of the north pole? What is the latitude of the equator? What would be the elevation of the north star at the north star appear to one living the equator? Where would hemisphere? in the southern Where places in does the line of your latitude strike Europe ? What North America are in the latitude of London. what would be your latitude? Give a rule for finding your latitude from the noon elevation of the sun at the time of the equinox. . account for your error. Compare this with your latitude. in face what ? latitude would it pierce the sur? on the opposite side In what longitude would this be Examine the globe to see if your answers are correct. for noon elevations taken at any time of the year? Give a sun is so remote reason for this. noon time at the time of the elevation in degrees? if where would the sun appear at ? What would be its noon Where would the sun appear at this equinox you were at the north pole? (Remember that the from the earth that rays coming to the pole are practically parallel with those coming to the equator. From your table of observations (Exercise VI) determine your latitude according to this rule. If the result Is your rule correct is not correct.LATITUDE EXERCISE 65 VIII LATITUDE If you were at the equator. England? If a straight line were drawn from your home through the center of the earth.

Bunsen burner. Apparatus. Place it again on the plate and . Apparatus. Observe the opening made in the bulb in Part I. Louis. Missouri. Is the glass bent out or in around the opening? What force made the hole in the glass? Why was heat applied to it? Conclusion. Is it heavier or lighter than was before? Has air weight? Part II Aim. blowpipe. Use the blowpipe and blow the flame of the Bunsen burner against the bulb until a hole is made in it. Balance and weights. To ascertain whether air has weight. of an air III To ascertain in what directions air exerts pressure. Remove the bell jar to see that it is not fastened to the plate of the air pump. EXERCISE IX SOME PROPERTIES OF THE ATMOSPHERE Part I Aim. with the addition pump and a bell Procedure. Procedure. to the South Pole. electric-light bulb in which there is no air. of Cape Town. To ascertain whether air exerts pressure. Procedure. The same as in Part I. another town approximately in the longitude of of New York Tokio . Apparatus.66 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL If you were to go clue south from St. over what laud and through what waters would you pass ? Name . and II. Suspend the electric-light bulb from the hook on one pan of the balance. The same as in Parts I jar. Put weights into the other pan until the bulb is counterpoised as perfectly as possible. Is the bulb now perfectly it counterpoised? Conclusion. Does air exert pressure ? Part Aim.

Will air support combustion? Why will the fire in a stove burn better when the "draught" is open? Attach a small quantity of steel wool to the end of a wire. In what directions does air exert pressure ? EXERCISE X CONSTITUENTS OF THE ATMOSPHERE Observe the color and odor of oxygen. what proportion is oxygen? What gas is found in the air in largest . What occurs? Repeat the process to be sure that it is not an accident. What occurs? Account for this. 67 Try to lift it again.CONSTITUENTS OF THE ATMOSPHERE exhaust the air. keeping the mouth of the tumbler under water. What success do j*ou have? Account for this. Would an opening have been made as before ? If you are not sure. Oxygen is sometimes called the supporter of combustion. Insert this into the bottle of oxygen. whole length of the tumbler quantity has been used up of the air is is it ? What proportion of the What proportion of the whole of the air ? According to this. In which direction does this prove Observe the opening made in the bulb and II. Invert over it a tumbler with straight sides. Was it made by pressure downward or from one side? Suppose the flame had been applied to the bottom of the suspended bulb. When the tumbler was inverted it was full of gas (air). Plow do you account for the difference? Attach a small candle to the top of a flat cork and float it on a vessel of water. try it. leaving the end glowing. what proportion oxygen ? According to the books. What occurs? Will air support the combustion of steel ? Compare air and oxygen as supporters of combustion. Does air exert pressure that the air presses? in Parts I upward ? Conclusion. Is it now full of gas? Keep the water line inside and outside the tumbler at the same level and measure the length of that part now filled with gas. Partially burn a match and blow it out. Heat it red-hot in the flame of the Bunsen burner and insert it into the bottle of oxygen.

In the morning again observe the height of the water within the bottle. Of what use is each? EXERCISE XI COMBUSTION AND OXIDATION Part Heat oil. and float the Invert a wide-mouthed bottle over the floating cork and support it with its mouth just beneath the surface of the water. Place three or four such pieces about six inches apart in the bottom of a V-shaped trough. Invert a bottle of carbon dioxide above the upper end of the trough and remove the stopper. Summary. What can you see appropriate in name? . I a small mass of steel wool red-hot. Note carefully the height of the water in the inverted bottle. sometimes this called slow combustion. Give color and odor of each. priate in this ticular oxide of iron? is name ? What The is the common name Oxidation for this par- process which you have observed is called oxidation. Define oxidation. Where do you suppose it went? What change do you notice in the appearance of the steel wool? The new substance which has appeared is called an oxide of iron. Compare the amount of air now in the bottle with the amount there the day before. The part which disappeared was oxygen. what in the rate of the difference would there be Cut a paraffin candle into pieces about half burning of a building? an inch long. Leave it in this position over night. Name the three most important gases found in the atmosphere and give the proportion of each. Incline the trough at an angle of from 20 to 45 degrees with the horizontal. thus burning off all it on a cork. What can you see approPlace cork on water. What results? Is carbon dioxide a supporter of combustion? Is it a heavy or a light gas? Describe the color and odor of this gas.68 quantity ? PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL If the proportion of this gas were not so large. moisten it thoroughly.

yellow. are usually colored with this material. what difference did you notice ? In what respects does decay resemble combustion ? EXERCISE XII EVAPORATION AXD CONDENSATION Place a shallow vessel in one pan of the balances and partly fill it with water. Here it unites with the various tissues. Compare the result with the result of burning wood. or rusty spots in blocks of sandstone or lime- Bricks are usually red because the iron in the clay oxidized in the process of burning. Weigh it carefully and let it stand for sevis eral hours (or over night) in a place where there a circulation first of air. Oxide of iron is the sub- stance that nature has used to paint the rocks red. Account for any change. color of oxide of iron red. Part II What stove plish tial ? is the object of burning wood or other fuel in the Does the combustion of steel wool (Exercise X) accomthe same result ? How do you know ? What is the essen? gas in this process is removed from the air in the lungs conveyed by the blood to all parts of the body. Characterize this oxidation of the tissues as rapid or slow combustion. Is water vapor visible ? ." brown sandstone stone. the oxygen is and breathing? Why? in a Did you ever notice that the temperature heap of decayis ing vegetable matter or about an old rotting log different from the temperature of surrounding objects ? If so.EVAPORATION AND CONDENSATION What is 69 the color of the oxide of iron which you have is observed above? A very common il . Weigh it again and compare with the weight. Examine and describe red ocher. Red and Look is for red. The part which disappears is called vapor and the process is called evaporation. What gas is essential in In breathing.

the watch crystal. warm air or cold? of the heat? What becomes Why EXERCISE XIII HUMIDITY Humidity is the moisture phere contains be saturated. it When the atmossaid to the moisture that possibly can.70 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY MANUAL of water Put a drop on the table top. What sensa- do we wrap a wet cloth around a water jar ? Is it desirable that the water in the cloth should evaporate ? Where does the heat go in such a case ? Where does it come from ? Fill a teakettle half full of water and cause it to boil vigorously. Does the water evaporate? Characterize this as rapid or slow evaporation. Put tion is a drop of alcohol in the palm of the hand. it is sions of the laboratory. How may rapid evaporation be produced ? Place some cold object just in front of the spout of the boiling kettle. until the ether is evaporated. Do you find an area of true water vapor very near the end of the spout? What change has occurred to make it visible farther away from the spout? Why does this change occur? Which is capable of holding more water vapor. Set a watch crystal filled with ether in the water and cause a breeze to blow over Lift it. Take the temperature and measure the dimenRefer to Table A and calculate the . all in the atmosphere. What The Has the water gained or lost heat? change has occurred in the water? Has the watch crystal ether in evaporating took up and gained or lost heat? carried away the felt? heat. What occurs? What effect did the presence of the cold object have on the temperature of the water vapor? What name is given to the process resulting from such a change of temperature? How did this affect the temperature of the cold object? Does condensation give heat to surrounding objects or take heat from them? True water vapor is invisible. by fanning or blowing.

is the relative humidity great or small? Refer to Table B and find the relative humidity in the laboratory. How must the can affect the temperature of the air in its immediate vicinity? Why does moisture condense on the surface of the can and not on other objects in the room? Carefully take and record the temperature of the water in the can. and now you know what per cent of this amount is actually present. until a trace of moisture can be Where does this moisture seen on the outside of the cup. measured in grains per cubic foot. reading of the dry bulb thermometer and record the temperature of the room. Give the weight in pounds. Fill a brightly polished metal cup or can about half full of water at the temperature of the room. You have calculated the capacity of the laboratory. Take the This gives and record it. it. Why is very dry. it there this difference If the air is will drink up the water from the wet bulb very rapidly. Compare ? this Read the wet bulb thermometer with the former reading.HUMIDITY capacity of this 71 is. From this calculate and record the weight of the water vapor now in the room. Does the room always have amount water vapor in it? The amount is actually present. called the absolute humidity. Give the capacity in pounds. Tell how you found it. Observe the wet and the dry bulb thermometers. Gradually pour in ice water. that the amount this of water vapor of it is capable of holding at this temperature. Take the temperature again and record it. Average these two . room for water vapor. is the relative humidity great or small? When the difference between the readings of the wet and the dry bulb thermometers is great. stirring all the time. Allow the can to stand and become warmer until the moisture disappears. What effect will this have on the temperature recorded by the wet bulb thermometer? Will this increase or decrease the difference between the readings of the two thermometers ? The ratio of the absolute humidity to the capacity is called the relative humidity. When the air is very dry. come from? Can you see it before it condenses? Compare the temperature of the can with that of the room.

is the dew-point reached at a high or a ? ture air Is dew-point always at the same temperature low tempera? Does the does always have the same amount of water vapor in it? dew form on some nights and not on others ? .127 10 12 58 82 84 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 14 16 2.934 22. Grains 5. the cup is at the ? dew-point.372 94 96 8.790 20 22 24 1.066 9.142 6.356 13. the relative humidity 100 What does this mean ? When the absolute humidity great.235 1.980 86 88 1.773 1.689 16.626 18.626 12.563 7. Grains . Why Define humidity ity.671 3.032 1.277 26 28 30 32 98 100 102 104 19.480 7.800 4. TABLE A Grains of Water Vapor in a Cubic Foot op Saturated Air at Various Temperatures -a Deg. .634 17.856 .016 2. capacity for water vapor .370 5.646 2. PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY MANUAL The average is called the dew-point The air immediately around Is it at the of the air at this particular time.937 18 90 92 14.745 Deg. Grains 11.766 20.508 9.279 2.355 1.776 .849 3.941 Deg.457 Deg. 34 36 38 Grains 2.128 40 42 13.064 3. dew-point elsewhere in the room in the To will what temperature must the air gather on objects in the room ? room fall before dew is When per cent.009 7.72 readings.623 1.125 .655 10.539 3.685 5.935 44 46 48 50 52 15.917 54 56 4. absolute humid- relative humidity dew-point.483 1.294 6.113 80 10. is the air is at the dew-point.076 4.

96 '. 73 FOR FINDING RELATIVE HUMIDITY Wet Bulb Difference between Headings of the Dry and the 1 ££ 2 2 35 41 46 50 54 3 3 12 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 68 71 73 75 77 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 79 57 80 60 82 63 83 66 84 68 •85 70 8(3 72 87 74 88 75 88 77 89 78 90 79 90 81 91 . 29 33 38 42 45 49 52 55 57 60 62 65 67 68 70 3 10 16 22 7 28 32 36 40 44 47 50 53 56 59 14 19 24 7 29 33 23 37 27 41 31 12 18 7 12 17 2 44 48 35 39 51 43 53 46 55 48 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 91 91 91 96 96 !»('.82 91 83 38 40 92 84 61 42 02 85 77 62 44 93 85 78 71 64 57 51 46 93 86 79 72 65 59 53 48 93 87 80 73 67 60 54 50 93 87 81 74 68 62 56 52 94 88 81 75 69 63 58 54 94 88 82 76 70 65 59 56 1)4 88 82 77 71 66 61 58 94 89 83 77 72 67 62 60 94 89 84 77 73 68 63 62 64 66 68 70 72 89 95 90 95 90 95 90 95 90 95 91 95 91 96 91 94 9(3 19 25 31 36 41 45 49 53 56 59 61 64 66 68 69 72 73 75 76 1 9 15 21 .Mi 92 92 92 96 96 96 96 96 96 92 92 92 93 93 93 84 85 85 85 86 86 86 87 87 87 87 88 88 88 88 89 89 89 89 90 79 79 80 81 81 82 69 64 70 6Q 76 71 66 74 75 76 72 67 77 72 68 78 73 69 82 78 74 70 83 78 74 70 83 79 75 71 83 79 76 72 83 79 76 72 84 80 77 73 84 80 77 73 85 81 78 74 85 81 78 74 85 82 78 75 85 82 78 75 86 82 79 76 86 82 79 76 86 83 80 77 22 27 31 35 38 41 44 46 48 50 52 54 55 57 58 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 67 68 69 70 70 8 13 18 23 27 31 4 9 14 19 23 1 6 12 16 34 37 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 53 55 56 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 64 65 66 66 71 67 71 68 72 69 72 69 73 70 73 70 74 71 28 31 34 36 39 41 43 45 47 49 50 52 53 55 56 57 21 28 28 31 33 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 49 4 9 14 18 2 7 58 59 60 61 62 63 63 64 64 65 66 67 67 68 22 25 28 30 33 35 38 40 41 43 45 51 47 52 48 53 49 54 51 55 52 57 53 57 54 58 55 59 56 60 57 61 58 61 58 62 59 63 60 64 61 64 61 65 62 12 16 19 5 10 14 4 8 12 15 18 21 3 7 22 17 25 20 28 23 31 26 33 28 35 31 37 33 39 35 41 37 2 10 14 17 6 9 12 5 8 11 4 7 43 44 46 47 48 50 39 40 42 44 45 46 51 47 52 49 53 50 54 51 55 53 56 53 57 54 57 54 58 55 58 56 59 57 24 20 15 27 22 18 29 25 21 31 27 23 33 29 26 35 31 28 37 33 30 39 35 32 40 37 34 42 38 35 43 40 37 44 41 38 46 43 40 47 44 41 48 45 42 49 46 43 50 47 44 51 48 45 52 49 46 53 50 47 53 51 48 54 52 49 3 14 17 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 35 37 38 39 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 10 13 16 18 21 6 9 12 15 17 23 20 25 22 27 24 29 26 31 28 32 29 34 31 35 32 37 35 39 35 39 37 40 38 41 39 42 40 43 41 44 42 .HUMIDITY TABLE S3 B.

allowing only a single light to enter through a beam of sunvery small aperture made for the purThis will render visible the path direct the ray of light so that with water a glass jar with straight sides. of the Define refraction. it Use a mirror and will strike the surface of the water at ninety degrees.74 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL TABLE B (continued) Difference between Readings OF THE Dry and the Wet Bulb «« 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 g 2 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 2 13 16 18 23 20 25 22 27 24 28 25 30 27 31 29 33 30 34 32 35 34 36 34 37 35 39 36 40 37 6 9 11 14 17 19 21 2 5 2 8 11 5 8 10 13 15 17 19 21 1 4 7 1 4 7 1 10 12 14 16 18 4 7 1 9 12 23 25 26 28 29 30 32 33 34 35 20 22 24 25 27 28 29 31 32 14 16 18 20 21 33 23 24 26 24 27 25 29 26 30 28 31 29 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 22 4 6 9 11 13 15 17 18 1 20 22 23 24 26 27 4 1 6 4 1 4 8 6 10 6 8 12 10 8 14 12 10 16 14 12 18 16 14 19 17 15 21 19 17 22 20 18 24 22 20 25 23 21 1 4 6 8 10 12 1 4 6 8 10 11 13 15 17 18 19 13 15 16 18 2 4 6 8 9 11 13 14 16 2 4 6 2 8 9 11 13 14 4 6 8 9 11 12 2 4 6 7 2 4 6 7 2 1 9 11 4 6 7 9 3 4 6 1 3 4 EXERCISE XIV LIGHT Part Darken the pose. Draw the apparatus and show the path beam of light. and add it a little soap to make cloudy. of the beam. so . any angle other than Note and record any change in the direction of the path of the beam after is it strikes the surface of the water. Fill I laboratory. This change of direction called refraction.

reflect the rays of the sun. Name in order the seven your eye will be Stand in such a position that What color can you see ? Can you see any other colors from this position without moving the prism ? What becomes of the colors which you do principal colors of the spectrum. What could be done to make the whole circle visible Part Cause a beam of sunlight at II to pass horizontally glass jar filled with soapy water. What color is it? Look at the jar from the side at which the light emerges. What color do you think it is? Another (with those colors which are closely related to it) . The portion of the rainbow which Compare the height which set is visible forms an arc of a ? circle. for the purpose. suffering only slight change in its direction. not see ? Raindrops refract and ing the rainbow. Look at the jar through the from the side which the light enters. in the region of red light. is seen just before sunwith the height of one which occurs earlier in the afternoon. in which direction is the rainbow seen ? What is the condition of the sky back of the rainbow ? Name colors does How many three conditions necessary for the of a rainbow formation of a rainbow. What color is it? What color of light passes through most readily ? There is one color of the spectrum that passes readily through the upper regions of the atmosphere and goes out into space. this substance refracts the light. and let the refracted light fall on a white wall or on a screen placed see. Describe what you How many colors can you see? Which color is refracted most? Which least? This band of colors is called the spectrum. When any transparent substance obliquely from the air. 75 light enters Give your drawing a title. thus form- any one raindrop send forth? How many of these colors can you see from any one raindrop ? What becomes of those which you do not see ? When the sun is in the west.LIGHT as to illustrate refraction. Pass a beam of light through a triangular glass prism. Account for the difference.

) it does repeat- resu l ts . The and did earth is a big magnet acts upon your bar magnet very much as the magnet upon the compass needle. 2. A Bar Magnet mounted on Two Crystals so as to Watch under the Influence of the watch crystals. one end of the needle of a compass. until that is the only color which comes from the open sky to the earth. presenting the magnet to the other end of the magnetic needle. more interfered with. as in In which direction swing freely come to rest? Try Earth's Magedly and compare Fig. and let it come (Select a string that will not twist. balance the magnet on two Fig. Remove Place one end of the it and make a drawing of what you see. but not touching.) Upon what property of the earth does the compass depend? When was the compass invented? To whom is it most valuable ? How did the invention of the compass hasten the discovery of America ? . instead of using the string. is and reflected. or. niagnet near. needle alike? it. color it? Which Why is the sky blue? In the evening and early morning the light of the sun must come long distances through the earth's atmosphere. Why through greater distances than at noon? What colors of light are liable to " get tangled up " in the atmosphere before reaching us? Which one will come through most readily? Which of these will we see ? What color would this make the sky appear to be in the evening and early in the morning? this accord Does with your experience ? EXERCISE XV MAGNETISM Thrust one end of a bar magnet into a box of tacks.76 is PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY MANUAL diffused. 2. Where are the magnetic poles of the earth ? (Refer to the books. What occurs? Repeat. Does it affect both ends of the Tie a string to the middle of the magnet. and give latitude and longitude. suspend to rest.

? What change would there be in the direction of the compass in sailing great circle route from Yokohama to o along o the o San Francisco ? EXERCISE XVI ISOTHEKMS Pakt I the United States The accompanying table gives temperatures as reported by Weather Bureau at 8 a. Determine and record the magnetic declination at the following points Portland (Me. This line will be somewhat irregular. Name the states through which the line of no declination passes. Refer to the map which shows magnetic declination in the United States. P.. In what direction does the compass point at Manila. Marie. and south of the line all places having a temperature higher than 40 degrees. St. Mich. Does the needle point due north? If not.C. Be very careful in selecting the proper circle for towns in the eastern Use your pencil and draw the isotherm of 40 degrees. naming islands near which it passes and telling where it strikes the coast of South America. Washington (D. Springfield (O. New York city.).). m. I. beginning at Sault Ste. leaving north of the line all places having a temperature lower than 40 degrees. May 12. Louis.: ISOTHEEMS 77 Compare the direction of the magnetic needle with your north and south line (Exercise V). Denver. Refer to the pilot chart of the North Pacific ocean and locate the line of no declination (variation). Thursday. does it point east or west of due north? How many degrees ? This difference measured in degrees east or west of due north is called magnetic declination.).). pen and insert the proper figures as near as possible to each circle representing a town. Los Angeles. part of the United States. It will cross . Use a fine-pointed 1904. Refer to the pilot chart of the North Atlantic ocean and trace the line of no declination (here called the line of no variation). Portland (Ore. Draw the line toward the west.

and draw the isotherm of 70 the isotherm of 50 degrees. hilly. or mountainous. broken. in ink. passing back toward the north through Wytheville. Compare the elevation of the two regions where the isotherms bend far south with the elevation of the lower Mississippi.. Part Write a paper about your map. 50. in II which you answer the following questions their farthest point north is ? In what region do the isotherms of 40. Tell between what degrees . where the isotherms bend far north. and Missouri valleys. Continue it through eastern Pennsylvania to the Atlantic ocean near New York city. to Asheville.) (Determine this by actual reading of temThere are two regions where these three isotherms make great bends toward the south. Va. Characterize the lay of the land as level.) Give names to these regions. and draw into British Columbia. Does this indicate that these regions are warmer or colder than the other regions in the same latitude ? (Determine this by actual reading of temperatures. and place large figures to indicate the temperature which represented.. After your teacher approves your work. Va.78 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY MANUAL Begin with Tacoma. gently sloping. It passes degrees.. Give your map an appropriate title. Ohio. Fla. Wash.C. and 60 degrees reach cate that this region Does this indi- warmer or colder than other regions in the same latitude? peratures. N. eastern states. Begin with Norfolk.) What have the elevation and the lay of the land to do with the prevailing temperature of a region ? Take an imaginary trip from west to east across the United States.. This line is very irregular in the through Pittsburg. where it makes a sharp curve. and draw the isotherm of 60 degrees.. (See the map of the United States. Pa. trace the isotherms Continue each at both ends about half an inch beyond is the boundary of the country. Begin with Jacksonville. along the parallel of 40 degrees north latitude. which is shaded to show elevations.

h -a fcD * •S ° Ph 79 .

month during a period of several maps superior to yours ? years. Part It III should be borne in mind that the map which you have constructed and used shows the conditions of temperature as they existed on one day only at a particular time of this day. 3 and 4 are isothermal maps made by averaging temperaare these 3. Figs. In Refer to Fig.80 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL what states of longitude or in you are passing from a . which shows the isotherms for the month of January. warmer to a colder region.) Does this indicate that the land is warmer or cooler than the sea? Account for the difference in North America. tures for an entire what respects of July. In passing from the sea to the land in the northern hemisphere do the isotherms bend toward the north or toward the south ? (Again notice the marked deflection on the west coast of North America. In what part of the world do you find the highest temperature in July ? Is this on the land or on the sea ? ? In what part of Is the world do you find the lowest temperature in January? this on the sea or on the land . 4. according to this map also from a colder to a warmer region. Refer to Fig. which shows the isotherms for the month In passing from the sea to the land in the northern (Notice the hemisphere do the isotherms bend toward the north or toward the south? marked deflection on the west coast of Does this indicate that the land is warmer or Account for the difference in temperature.) cooler than the sea? temperature.

2 * o •§ £ £ 81 .

Norfolk. Tenn Knoxville. Ga. 66 62 62 62 72 Shreveport. . . . Md. Ala Birmingham. Mich. 33 North Platte. Nev. Ont.Y. Paul. Tex. . GO 50 . .C . Miss.. 50 . Ela. Ela. Neb. New York. Mich. . Memphis. Wis.D. Ohio Baltimore. .Y. Montgomery. . W. 44 44 48 48 52 Mont. . 58 50 . Va. 8 a.. ... Tenn. 44 Pueblo. Mont. .. Kalispell. . 42 Tacoma.D. Buffalo. 50 64 Portland. Neb.. . Ark . Syracuse. 34 Havre. . . Ariz Victoria.. . . . 36 36 . Fla. Corpus Christi. Scranton. . Hatteras. Tex. Green Bay. . Eureka. Oswego.C. Iowa . . Cleveland. Raleigh. Pa. Mich. 48 48 Chattanooga. N. 111. 62 60 60 56 Sioux City. Ida 38 Bois£.. Col 44 60 . . Ida 44 Rapid City. . Jacksonville. S. Ohio 52 58 56 66 Toledo.C Charleston. La. Erie. Marquette. Tex 56 Savannah. N. Wyo 38 . Utah. 44 48 58 B. Pa . . Wyo. Ore. Tex Santa Fe\ 60 42 42 62 62 54 . 64 72 Kansas City. Ohio Detroit. Cal. Ga. . Tenn. 60 64 70 76 . Pittsburg. 62 Tex El Paso. S. Pensacola. . Pa.. Ariz. Pa. Cal . Louisville.D. 111. . Tex. Cheyenne. Key West. Fla 62 34 Yuma.. Iowa Huron. . 54 Moorhead. 56 . Ore. D. . Tenn.. St. Thursday.C. . 54 Grand Rapids. 62 62 62 56 Carson City. C. N. Vs Lynchburg. New Orleans.. Indianapolis. Galveston. . Ga. Mich. . N. 60 64 64 Parry Sound. Wash. Cal.. N.J . Flagstaff. 78 Houghton. 62 70 70 Tampa.Va. Macon. Salt Lake City. N. . . KM. 42 Dodge. 36 .C. Kans. 36 Spokane. Okla. Mich. N. 42 52 . . 62 66 64 62 62 Duluth. Nashville. Cairo. . N. 62 Chicago. W. Ore Roseburg. Neb. Mich Escanaba. . . Col 40 . Cal. Red Bluff. .Y. . Springfield.D. Lexington. Baker City. . Richmond. Kans. Amarillo. . Crosse. Minn. Mo. 48 Rock... Washington. N. Little Dubuque. Mo. 42 Lander. 50 38 50 Miles City. Louis.. Va.. . . Va. Sault Ste. Charlotte. Philadelphia. 36 44 50 Palestine. . May 12. Pa.C.Y. 62 . Wash. . Mount Weather. Va... 44 52 52 Ky. N.. Mich 40 . N. 50 52 San Francisco. . Va. 44 Denver. St. 34 Williston. Marie. Wytheville. . . Bismarck. B.m. San Diego..C... Harrisburg. . S. . Wis. Minn. N. Abilene. . N. Asheville. On Saugeen. . . Ga.Y. Helena. 111. Mobile. Iowa Keokuk. Columbus. Iowa Davenport. . Cal. . Pierre. . 62 50 66 64 64 Kamloops. Wilmington.D. Ind. N. . Alpena. . Miss. Ariz Phoenix. THE UNITED STATES 1904 Valentine. 44 . La Vicksburg. Mont Mont . . 56 56 . 52 Los Angeles. Atlantic City. Jupiter. Augusta. Ala.C. Rochester..Y. 64 56 Omaha. 52 54 54 50 54 Cincinnati. 34 Pocatello. Ohio Elkins. 62 62 Atlanta. Iowa Des Moines. . Fla. Minn. . San Antonio. . Ala Meridian. Wichita. . Parkersburg. La.82 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL IN TEMPERATURES AT VARIOUS PLACES At Albany. Concordia. S. Ky. Tex. . . Kans Oklahoma.

M. What happens? Account Fill the 32-inch it in the cup of mercury. of the atmosphere Two glass tubes. each closed at one end. beginning at Los Angeles. Use a fine-pointed pen and put the figures on the map in the proper places. What Account for this. To ascertain whether the pressure can be measured. Wednesday. one 18 .30. beginning at Springfield. Draw also isobars of 30. Find the place having the lowest barometric reading and write there the word Low. Does this mean that the atmospheric pressure at this place is great or small? Draw isobars as follows: 29.THE BAROMETER EXERCISE XVII 83 THE BAROMETER Aim. March 2. 30. Neb. If the pressure of the air could be increased.. Procedure.10. Mo. Cal.60. how would the length of the column of mercury be affected? If the pressure of the air were decreased. beginning at Omaha. inches long and one 32 inches long Fill the 18-inch tube a cup and mercury. of mercury.00. how would the length of the column of mercury be affected ? What do you know of air pressure at high altitudes ? How would the mercury column stand at high altitudes? How high is the average mercury column at sea level? Make a drawing showing the 32-inch tube with mercury and invert happens? tube inverted Conclusion.80.. . in the cup of mercury. and 30. 30. at 8 A. and invert it in the cup for this. 1904. 29.20. Place the figures so that the circle which represents a town shall come in the place of the decimal point. Can atmospheric pressure be measured? ? What name is given to the instrument used for this purpose EXERCISE XVIII ISOBARS The accompanying table gives barometric pressure in inches and hundredths at various places in the United States. Apparatus..

14 Montgomery. Pa. Wednesday.30 30. Fla Columbus. Ont Syracuse. 12 New York.94 29. 30. 30.14 Augusta. Charlotte.18 .14 30. . N. Ont Port Arthur.94 29. Fla Pensacola. La Orleans.. Ind.C Wilmington. Pa . N. Ala Meridian. N.14 30. N.98 30.02 Pa Key West.C Charleston.08 30.08 Tampa. Ark Little 29. Tex Corpus Christi.06 30. 30.C Raleigh. Ga Jacksonville. .30.. BAROMETRIC PRESSURE IN INCHES AND HUNDREDTHS At Binghamton.96 30.. Oregon.C Asheville. N.28 30. Va Norfolk. 30.C Hatteras. 30. N.. 1904 30.14 Va Va Wytheville. D. . Ky Evansville..22 New Harrisburg. N. Tex San Antonio. Mobile. Ala . March 30. N. .20 30. 30.12 30.08 Birmingham. Pa . These will extend through parts of the Atlantic and Middle They will also extend through parts of California.96 Philadelphia. Tenn Nashville.Va. Fla Atlanta. Tenn Palestine. and Washington. N. Ont Saugeen. Tex Memphis. 29.32 2..24 30...98 30.36 30.14 30. . Fort Smith. Miss. 14 W.30 . 30.'.08 30. . .J.. Give your map a title.22 30.20 Lexington.. Va Richmond.08 30.30 30.10 30. 30. Ala N.Y . 30. Ind Cincinnati.14 30.16 30. Fla.Y. Tex Taylor.10 . .20 30.C Lynchburg.32 30.82 29. Do not draw isobars at any place in Canada or Mexico unless there Finish the are figures to show' that they should be so drawn. 30. . Indianapolis. Pittsburg. 29.00 30. . 30.14 30.m.06 29.10 Oswego.C Tex Galveston.18 30.28 30. Fla Jupiter. Ark Baltimore. N. Md Washington..30 30. Ga. S.98 29.Y Rochester.20 30..Y Albany.92 Atlantic City. 30.Y 8 a. Ga Savannah. .18 White River. Ga Macon. Ont Parry Sound.Y . Buffalo. Ohio Parkersburg. . Miss Scranton. . N.08 29.16 30. Tenn Knoxville.32 La Shreveport. .16 30.02 30.10 . Ohio 30.08 30.Y Vicksburg. map by placing large figures to show pressure at the ends of isobars or at some conspicuous place on the isobars.26 Rock.84 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL states. 30. 30.. N. .

90 29. Utah Modena. Iowa Huron. Cal 30. Salt . Ohio Lewiston.ISOBAKS Erie. Lander. 29.08 30.26 .32 30. Col. Lake City. Ore 30.64 Spokane. Tex 29. Cleveland.96 29. 111 Duluth. Ida Boise\ Ida Toledo. 29.16 Los Angeles.52 Tacoma. Kans Concordia.80 29.46 . 111 Mo Yuma. . 29. . . Neb Valentine. Iowa Davenport. Ariz Louis. Wash Portland. Wash Walla Walla. Mich Escanaba. .14 30. Houghton. .86 30. . Marie. Mich. Mont Helena. Ariz Victoria.92 29. Neb Denver. 29.22 29. Cal .28 Springfield.00 29.02 Wyo . Okla Fort Worth.74 Sault Ste. 30.74 29.30 30.12 30. Neb Sioux City.80 . Kans >klahoma. 29.04 .D Moorhead. Williston. Pa 30. Wyo North Platte.28 29.40 29.02 30.80 Tex El Paso.88 Red Bluff.46 29. N. Mich Detroit. 30.82 29. Wis Grand Rapids.10 Mich Alpena.96 30. Iowa Springfield. 30. 29. Tex ( 29.94 29.94 Santa Fe\ N. Col Amarillo. Nev Bismarck.86 29.50 29.70 29. .00 29. Wyo.90 . Cheyenne. Cairo.96 Mont Mont Yellowstone Park.D N. 85 Mont 30. Mich.94 29.08 . S.72 29. .D Winnemucca.68 30.02 29. Kansas Mo City. Nev 29.18 30.00 30.C Wichita. Mo B. . St.C Kamloops.54 29. Ore 30. Utah Grand Junction.30 30. 111 29. Paul.32 Roseburg.76 29. St. Baker City. Tex Abilene.56 30.94 Milwaukee. Cal San Diego. Ida Pocatello. Cal Havre. S. Sask San Francisco. Ore. Kans Omaha.D. 29.00 30. Iowa Des Moines. Wis Dubuque.88 Flagstaff. Minn 29.66 29. Minn Pueblo.12 Battleford.' .7(3 Dodge.78 . B.70 29. .90 29.12 Kalispell. .16 29. Cal Fresno.88 30. Mich Green Bay. . Iowa Keokuk.26 30. .86 29.66 29. Ohio 30. 30.56 29. Ariz Phoenix. Miles City.68 29. .92 30.60 29. 29.80 29. Carson City. Wash 30. Rapid City. .68 29.10 30.04 30. .06 30. Col Minn La Crosse.14 .M 29. Wis Chicago. Mich Marquette.

Make cloudy. and - a table similar to the accompanying table. branches blowing up twigs from the ground. £ d : 3 CD fed CD So g 3 CD O = o b CD b CD CD <! CD >• CD SO o Ha >d CD o o Ha O l-b = c 1 CD o P <<( p = p.. In column 20 use the following abbreviations C. read the instruments. # one half of the sky overcast. 2 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 2 "? so > p P o Ha CD fed S. . gale." etc. or. light. etc. the center of the area of low pressure. blowing up dust. this record each day for one month. H 3 CD td s3 c 1 w CD bd H CD CD >< 3 h o a p. 73 V >-i O CD ! 1 2 CD | o 5 CD CD o i 1 \ > P P a 1 O* = CD CD 4 o Ha n o O 5' 5' «5" o l-i g CD CD •1 1 Ha > a CD CD o d '< -. . In filling column 2. swaying branches. In column 23 name the state in which the area In column 25 give miles per day. or blowing the smoke M. down shade trees. as " Lake region. refer to the weather fill map. let O represent a clear sky. just . write low. H. A change may be indicated by a curve or by a sharp turn. breaking small branches. moving small slowly away from smokestacks B. a o So Date S' a y g ^ o 5' CD Ha T TO a CD B 5' CD §* CD o o O CD SO s CD CD CD ? CD = CD CD CD P 32 So" O P SO CD << 1 . 86 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL EXERCISE XIX OBSERVATIONS OF THE WEATHER Make observations. In column 26 name the region of the United States. high. O o < CD CD Ha SO 5' > Ha SO CD CD so —' So a p o g 1 o o a 3 s CD CD £3 5" Ha O o << O CD -. L. brisk. calm : O moving the leaves of trees. etc. In columns 8 and 19 indicate wind direction by arrows. if we are very near is central. blowing In column 22 give quadrant." " eastern Gulf states. moderate. swaying whole trees G.

Give the date latter. is How is wind direction indicated (See explanation near the lower left-hand corner of the chart. What name is north latitude.) How the percentage of calm days in any region indicated? From what (See the direction are the prevailing winds from 10 to 20 degrees north latitude? What name in blue at is given to these winds? direction are the name printed both the northern and the southern limits of these winds. according to this map. of the map used line in tracing this line. find the same winds ? Why is there a difference between the route of sailing vessels bound from New York to the equator and sailing vessels bound from the equator to New York ? Observe the chart for the North is Pacific. during the given to these winds ? given to this region of calms? (See the text-books. Describe the general direction of this to the from the former point line of the northern limit of northeast trades. 38 degrees north). What is kind of a line that portion of the sailing route which represented from . Observe the pilot chart of the ? North Atlantic ocean.) From what prevailing winds from the equator to the parallel of 5 degrees summer months? What name is Compare the percentage of calm days in the region where these two winds meet with the number in the region from 10 to 20 degrees north latitude.) At what ? time of the year is this region of calms farthest north in farthest south? Where does the north limit of northeast trades strike the L'nited States in December? March? in September? Trace with a pointer an irregular line from the Bermudas (65 degrees west. passing through the points having the highest percentage of calm days. given to this region of calms? prevailing winds from 15 to 20 degrees north of Compare with the What name is From what direction are the this region of calms? and still How far north could you go. 32 degrees north) to the Azores (28 degrees west.PREVAILING WINDS .PREVAILING WINDS EXERCISE XX 87 .

" this Under square write the date. 1904. for the following dates Answer in their the following questions. . taken from the United States Weather Map. What is the shape of the ? path of the winds near an area of low pressure Do the winds movements seem to be approaching the center of the area of low pressure or constantly getting farther away ? Does this indicate that the column of air at the center is ascending or descending ? Why does this column of air move in this way ? Draw four more squares and put the word High in the center of each. Observe the weather maps for the following dates and . The arrows indicate Observe the map for March 5. March 19. Give your completed work the title: "Direction of the winds about areas of low pressure. Observe the United States weather maps. Observe the weather maps and fill in the other squares as you did the first one: March 7. March 30. 1904. What is the direction of the wind in the northwest quadrant? in the southwest quadrant? in the southeast quadrant ? In the first of your squares put at least four arrows to show the direction of the wind about the area of low barometer. 1904. EXERCISE XXI WINDS IN A CYCLONE Draw wide! a rectangle six inches long and an inch and a half Divide this into four squares and write the word Low in the center of each. Account for the difference. is What the direction of the wind in the northeast quadrant? Observe the arrows nearest the center of the area of low barometer. the direction of the wind. 1904.88 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY MANUAL San Francisco to Australia? from Australia to San Francisco by way of the western passage ? Why is there this difference ? Why do sailing vessels from San Diego to the strait of Juan de Fuca put out to sea so far before turning north ? Give latitude of northeast trades in the Pacific ocean from June to September from December to March.

31. March 7. What name do the books o-ive to such a movement of the winds? pressure as clockwise or counter-clockwise. What the shape of the path of the winds near an area of high pres- sure? farther Do the winds in their movements seem that the to be approach- ing the center of the area of high pressure or constantly getting away? Does this indicate ascending or descending? in this Why does this column column of of air air is move way? movement of the Characterize the winds about an area of low Account for the direcmovement. that is. and measure the distance in miles across the region whose winds are influenced by the low pressure. 29. a cyclone or an anticyclone ? Refer to the weather maps of the following dates March 7. March 29. Record the number of cases in which the region of precipitation coincides with the If it : What change What . 1904 . the region in which the majority of the arrows indicate that the wind is blowing in the general direction given above. 16. tion of this EXERCISE XXII AREAS OF PRECIPITATION When a mass of air rises. what will probably result from its rising? In which do you think you would find greater rainfall. in the year 1904.AREAS OF PRECIPITATION place arrows to indicate the directions of the wind : 89 March 4. 1904 is . does the pressure ? or decrease Why ? What change of temperature ? of upon it increase volume does this produce ? effect will this have on was nearly saturated when its capacity for water vapor? it began to rise. 1904 . Characterize the movement of the winds about an area of high pressure as clockwise or counterclockwise. What name do the books give to such a movement of the winds? Refer to any one of the maps on which a distinct low barometer is indicated. 19. 1904. 11. Tell the date of the map from which you take your measurements. Account for the direction of this movement. March 5.

it area of low pressure. but is does not to the nearer the area of low pressure than it is Record the number in which the region of rainfall is nearer the area of high pressure than it is to the area of low pressure. 4. in the year 1904. 16. the area of high pressure or the area of low pressure ? What reason can you assign for this ? What has been the change of temperature during the last twenty-four hours near the area of low pressure ? (Note the more or less circular area inclosed by the line of red dots. 1904. Read words and figures in red. Low or High ? is Temperature Date At low At high Change of Temperature in the last 24 hours Near low Near high . 3.) change of temperature near the area of high pressure during nearest the center of the area of low pressure the same time ? Examine maps for March 2. and tabulate the results of your observations according to the accompanying form Which Warmer. March 3. What is the temperature represented by the isotherm passing ? by the isotherm passing nearest the center of the area of high pressure? Which has the higher temperature. coincide. EXERCISE XXIII TEMPERATURES IN CYCLONES AND ANTICYCLONES Examine the weather map for Thursday. 19. 11. Do these observations justify your answers in the preceding paragraph ? area of high pressure. and record the number What has been the of degrees colder or degrees warmer.: 90 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL Record the number in which.

Refer to the pilot charts of the North Pacific ocean and determine the average path of storms across the Pacific ocean before they reach the United States.m. Neb. it a. Do the same for the maps of March 16 and 10. the isobars for IN THE UNITED STATES 2. March 1904 At what point was the center of the area of low pressure for that day? Where is the center of the area of low pressure on the map for March 3 ? In what direction is it from that of March 2 ? The long line of arrows on the map of March 3 traces the path of this storm center. a small figure 2 placed above the circle indicates that the storm was central there on the second day of the nonth. Where was the storm center in the afternoon of that day? Where was this storm first observed? (Note the first of the small figures.MOVEMENTS OF LOW BAROMETER EXERCISE XXIV 91 MOVEMENTS OF LOW BAROMETER You have drawn (Exercise XVIII). 11.. At Valentine. Wednesday. The following title is suggested " Map of : . in the year 1904. Give your map a title. where ? How many miles did the storm move from the morning of March 1 to the morning of March 2 ? How far did it move from March 2 to March 3 ? How far from March 3 to March 4 ? What is the average rate in miles per day ? Find the average rate in miles per day for the storm marked on the map of March 11. and 19. just below the circle indicate that and the letters was present in the fore- noon of that day. Near what point do the majority of these storms first reach the United States? In what direction do they move across the United States ? Refer to the pilot charts of the North Atlantic ocean and observe the average path taken by storms after they leave the United States. Find the average rate in miles per day for these four storms. Use the blank weather map and trace the paths of storms for March 3.) On what day was it first observed? At what time of day? Can }-ou find any traces of this storm on the map for March 4 ? If so. 16. Mark the dates of each storm track as they are marked on the weather map.

16. and tell the source of the quotation. EXERCISE XXV WEATHER FORECASTING Suppose an area of low pressure is approaching your home from the southwest. make a forecast for your locality for the next twenty-four hours. Tuesday. and the temperature is low. taken from United States weather maps for March in the year 1901. In which direction from you is the area of low pressure? Suppose that on Tuesday the wind is blowing from the south and the barometer In which direction from you is the center of the storm? is low. 11. From which direction is the wind blowing at your home? Is the barometer rising or falling? What change in temperature will probably occur? What change in condition of cloudiness ? Suppose that on Monday at your home the wind is blowing from the southeast and the barometer is falling. and 19. In which direction from you is the area of low pressure ? Read the paragraph printed in red on the Washington weather map. From which direction is the wind blowing at your home ? Is the barometer rising or falling ? What change in temperature will probably occur ? What change in condition of cloudiness ? Suppose an area of low pressure is receding toward the northeast. . Using all that you have learned on the subject. Observe the local weather map without reading the forecast. if any. Compare this with the Weather Bureau predictions and record the difference." 3. Copy that portion which applies to the conditions supposed above for Monday. Suppose that on Wednesday the wind is blowing from the west.92 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL the paths of low barometer across the United States. After twenty-four hours compare both forecasts with the actual conditions of the weather and record results. the barometer is high. and Wednesday.

RAINFALL
EXERCISE XXVI

93

RAINFALL
Part
I

The accompanying
United States.

table gives the average annual rainfall

in inches for a period of

Use the outline map

twenty years at various places in the of the United States and

place the figures, in ink, as near as possible to the circles rep-

resenting the proper towns.

Draw

isohyetals (lines connecting

points having equal annual rainfall) of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and

100

inches.

Shade with blue the various

belts,

making

the

intensity of shading
rainfall

somewhat proportional to the depth of represented. Thus the regions of great rainfall will
of least rainfall will be left

be dark blue, and the regions

unshaded.

Part
Write a paper
rainfall ?

II

in

which you answer the following questions.
?

In what part of the United States do you find the heaviest

Why

is

the rainfall so heavy in this region

(See

Exercises

XX and
5.

XXIV.)

Why

is

the rainfall not so great in

western Nebraska?

Refer to Fig.
Argentina.
this to

Compare the

rainfall of Chile

with that of

What winds prevail in these countries ? What has do with the difference in rainfall? What has the lay

do with the difference in rainfall? What parts world have the heaviest rainfall ? Compare the amount of rainfall along the equator with that about the tropics. What is the movement of the winds in equatorial regions? (See Exercise XX.) What has this to do with excessive rainof the land to

of the

fall ?

Characterize the rainfall as great or small in the regions

of northeast

and southeast

trades.
in

vapor increasing or decreasing
Explain.

water ? winds the region of the trade
Is the capacity for

s

cb

Ph

ft
A3

WL

i

Li...

9

8

i

94

RAINFALL
AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL
Father Point, Que.
Eastport,
.

95

IN

THE UNITED STATES
45
Helena, Mont
Miles City, Mont.
.
.

33
44

Louisville,

Ky
. . . .

15
13
17

Me
Vt

Indianapolis, Ind.
Cincinnati, Ohio

42
41

Northfield,

34
4:1

.

Lewiston, Ida
Pocatello, Ida

Portland,

Me
N.H
...

Columbus, Ohio
Parkcrsburg,
Pittsburg,

.

.

.

38

13
14
. .

Concord,

40

W.Va.
.

43
36
.

Boise\ Ida

Boston, Mass
Providence, R.I.

45 46

Pa
.
.

Rapid City, S.D.
Lander,
Salt

16 13
17
7

White River, Ont.
Port Arthur, Ont,

25 25 38 34
37

Wyo

Albany, N.Y 39 New York, N.Y. ... 45
Harrisburg, Pa.
Philadelphia, Pa.

...
. . . .

42 42

Parry Sound, Ont. Saugeen, Ont

.

.

Lake City, Utah Modena, Utah .... Grand Junction, Col.
Durango, Col Cheyenne, Wyo. ... North Platte, Neb. Denver, Col
. .

8 17

Oswego, N.Y
Buffalo,

Washington, D.C. 44 Richmond, Va. ... 44
Norfolk,

N.Y
.

38
.
.

13
18

Cleveland, Ohio

36 32 34

Va
... ...

50
42 50

Wytheville, Va.
Charlotte, N.C.

Mich Alpena, Mich
Detroit,

14

Amarillo, Tex

22
12 21
.
.

Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. 36

Pueblo, Col

Raleigh,

N.C Hatteras, N.C
Wilmington, N.C.
.

49
63
.

Marquette, Mich.

.

.

32
31 31

Green Bay, Wis.
Milwaukee, Wis.
Chicago,
111

.

.

Dodge, Kans Fort Worth, Tex.
Abilene,

34 24
18

52

.

.

Tex

Charleston, S.C.

... 49
48 50
. .

34
30
.
. .

Roswell,

N.M
... ...

Augusta, Ga Savannah, Ga
Jacksonville, Ela.
Jupiter, Ela

Duluth, Minn
St.

Santa Fe, N.M.
Flagstaff, Ariz.

15

Paul, Minn.
Crosse, Wis.

29
31

24
3
7

53

La

.

.

.

Yuma, Ariz
Phoenix, Ariz
Victoria,

60

Charles City, Iowa
. .

.

29
34
33

Key West, Fla. ... 38 Atlanta, Ga 52
Tampa, Fla
Pensacola, Fla.

53

...
. .

58

Dubuque, Iowa Davenport, Iowa Des Moines, Iowa Keokuk, Iowa ....
.
. . .

.

.

32 35

Mobile, Ala

63
52

Springfield,
St.

111.

.

.

.

B.C 38 Neah Bay, Wash. 112 Spokane, Wash. ... 18 Walla Walla, Wash. 17 Tacoma, Wash. ... 52
.
.

Montgomery, Ala.
Meridian, Miss.

Louis,
111

Mo
Mo. Mo.
.
. .

Portland, Ore

45
.
. .

...
.

58
53
56

Cairo,

Glenora, Ore.

136

Vicksburg, Miss.

.

Springfield,

Roseburg, Ore.

... 35
. .

New

Orleans, La.

.

.

Kansas

City,

.

.

Shreveport, La.

...
.

47 41

Wichita, Kans.

.

.

.

Baker City, Ore. ... 20 12 Carson City, Nev.

Fort Smith, Ark.
Little

.

Omaha, Neb
Valentine, Neb.
.

Winnemucca, Nev.
.
.

.

9

Rock, Ark. 51 Palestine, Tex. ... 44
. .

Eureka, Cal

45

Sioux City, Iowa

.

.

.

Red

Bluff, Cal.

...
.

24

Galveston, Tex.

...
. .

48
28

Huron, S.D
Pierre,

Sacramento, Cal.

.

20 23
9 6

San Antonio, Tex. Corpus Christi, Tex. Memphis, Tenn.
. .

S.D
. . . . .

San Francisco,
Fresno, Cal

Cal.

.

26
51

Moorhead, Minn.
Bismarck, N.D.
Williston,

.

Independence, Cal.

.

Nashville, Tenn.

... 49
.

N.D.

...
.
.

Chattanooga, Tenn.
Knoxville, Tenn.
.

53

Battleford, Sask.

.

50

Havre, Mont

San Luis Obispo, Cal. 21 16 Los Angeles, Cal. San Diego, Cal. ... 9
. .

96

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL
EXERCISE XXVII

ZONES OF CLIMATE
Part
I

What
reach
its

is

meant by the heat equator?

Where
3.)

does

it

reach

its
it

farthest point north in July?

(Refer to Fig.

Where
its

does

farthest point south in July?

About what
does
it

is its

aver-

age latitude for this month?
point south in January?

Where

reach

farthest

(Refer to Fig.

4.)

Where

does
is

it

reach

its

farthest point north in

January?
in

About what

its

average latitude for this month?
for the difference.

Is the heat equator farther

from the geographical equator in July or
Professor Davis says
"

January? Account

:

At

the head of the Gulf of Guinea,
is

most abundant in March and from October to November. In Ceylon the rainfall is greater at the city of in May and October than in any other months Quito, Ecuador, in April and November." How do you explain
west equatorial Africa, rain
;

these double rainy seasons

?

Part

II
?

What

is

meant by range

of temperature

Refer to Fig. 6

and answer the following questions. What point on the earth has the greatest range of temperature? What point ranks next? Are these points on sea or land? Are they densely or sparsely populated? What places have least range of temperature? Do any densely populated countries lie within this belt? Which is more desirable for residence, other things being equal, great or small range of
temperature
trious
? ?

How

does climate help to make

men

indus-

What

are the points of greatest range of temperature in the
?

southern hemisphere

Compare these ranges with those

of the

northern hemisphere and account for the difference. If the earth's

;

ZONES OF CLIMATE
surface were all land, where

97
of greatest

would be the points
?

range of temperature?

Why

are the points of greatest range in

the northern hemisphere not located farther north

Fig.

6.

Lines of Equal Annual Range of Temperature

Part
Compare the
east

III

and the west coasts of the United States in (e.g. San Francisco, Cal., and Norfolk, Va. or Portland, Ore., and Eastport, Me.). How do you account for the difference ? (See Exercise XX.) Make similar comparison of the east and the west coasts of Eurasia (e.g. Norway and Kamchatka). Compare the east coast of North America and the west coast of Eurasia (e.g. Labrador and England).
range of temperature

Part IV

Where
sphere?

is

the belt of tropical calms in the northern hemi-

(See Exercise

XX.)

Is this a

region of high or low
pilot charts.)

barometric pressure?

(See the small

maps on the
?

Are conditions here favorable
XXII.)

for large rainfall

(See Exercise

Why ? How

is

this region of

calms related to the arid
?

regions of the southwestern United States

In what countries

98.

PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY MANUAL

you find extensive deserts ? In what latitude are they? Compare this with the latitude of the region of calms. Do you find deserts in the southern hemisphere
of the eastern hemisphere do

corresponding to the region of tropical calms

?

Southern California
year

is

alternately in the belt of tropical calms

and the region of prevailing westerlies. During what time of What kind of weather would is it in the belt of calms ? you expect in this region at this time ? Give all the reasons that you can for the marked difference between the rainfall on the coast of southern California and that on the coast of Oregon.

EXERCISE XXVIII

ELEVATIONS AND DEPRESSIONS OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE DRAWN TO SCALE
Refer to the
colors (Fig. 7).

map
Use

of the

cross-section paper

United States showing elevations by and draw a profile along

the parallel of 37 degrees north latitude.

Use

a horizontal scale

of 2 millimeters to 1 degree, vertical scale of 2 millimeters to

1000

feet.

Draw

a rectangle around your profile,

marking the
Indicate
the

degrees above and the elevations on the right and
longitude as either east or west.

left.

Below the rectangle write

and water features, such as Pacific Ocean, Coast Range, Valley of California, Sierra Nevada Mounof the principal land
tains,

names

Grreat Basin, etc.

Number

these features consecutively

and place corresponding figures beneath the proper part of the profile. Give your profile an appropriate title, stating horizontal and vertical scales.
Note. Use pen and ink
a very light blue.
to finish drawing. The water may be The land may be shaded with a lead pencil.
left

colored

Space

above land and water should be

without shading.

105 Long-it ude 100 .

.

.

map of the surface as stating that Use the scale it was made you would see it looking from most convenient. 8-11). is two inches from the top of hill. Draw above. Place a block one inch thick on the table and lay a long straight pointer on top of it. hachure map.CONTOUR LINES EXERCISE XXIX 99 CONTOUR LINES Part I Shape a sand hill on the table so that you will have a ridge extending in one direction from the summit. first. until the top of the a reached. and profile (Figs. Part Write a paper Define contour as follows line. in the laboratory. and one or more small streams flowing down the sides. Repeat the hill adding one block at a time. Move the block and pointer around so that a continuous line will be traced. Give your map a title. Place another block under the so that the pointer will be the table. This a contour line. and trace another line around the process. : II A contour interval is the vertical distance between two contour contour lines. contour map. What ? is the contour interval in the the land lie where the where they are far apart? When contour lines cross a stream do they bend up the stream or down the stream? When contour lines pass around a ridge do they bend toward the summit or away from it? of the sand hill map How does contour lines are near together? Part III to Answer the following questions by referring the pic- ture. Move the block and pointer so that the end of the pointer will just touch and make a mark on the side of the is hill. After .

100 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL each answer put in parentheses a word which will tell from which of the four you could secure the desired information. having a uniform grade. A Landscape Fig. (3) How many streams flow Fig. A Hachure Map of the (4) It is Region shown in Fig. (1) Give height of cliff at A. 8. 9. (2) Determine the shortest horizontal distance from A to the sea. large stream ? slope between A and B? forested ? In which direction does the land (6) What portion of this region is . 8 into the sea? line desired to make a road in a straight to C. far will the roadbed be the deepest " cut " be ? from B How deep will above the How (5) bed of the.

CONTOUR MAPS From which of these sources can ? 101 you determine vertical disIn what respects is ? the contour map superior to the hachure map? In what respects In what respects is it inferior is the picture superior to either? tances accurately horizontal distances to either? a Fir. A Contour Map of the Region shown in Fig. 8 ~~ -— =r=: Fig. - i^P Profile "y A drawn from B to C in Fig. Indicate the cardinal points. 10 EXERCISE XXX CONTOUR MAPS Part I Visit a small stream which you can easily walk across. . Use two parallel lines just as close together as you can draw them to of the region. map represent the roads. the roads. buildings. Make a showing the stream. its tributaries. 10. 11.. and other prominent landmarks.

Does your path lead you from zontal plane. the same horizontal scale as II Use is cross-section paper the profile along an imaginary line extending from A to B. Fig. Try to put it through the ring. Let the ball cool and try again. What change do you observe ? What effect has heat upon brass ? Use the apparatus consisting of a freely moving lever. and draw Use used on the map . Part Refer to the map. Levels may be determined by the use of the clinometer. Heat the ball in the flame of the enough to slip Bunsen burner. vertical scale one square to 100 feet.102 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL "Walk across the stream. EXERCISE XXXI THE WEATHERING OF ROCKS Part Use a over it I is brass ball and a ring which just large readily. telling from what kind made. Draw other contour lines both above and below this one. the bed of the stream or nearer to it ? Draw a line on the map. you have not departed from a horizontal plane. Give your map an appropriate title. saying that it was made in the field. map it is Give your drawing a title. using if a contour interval of 10 feet. always keeping on the same horiIn crossing. State vertical and horizontal scales. What change has occurred? Account for this change. 12. do you go up the stream or down the stream? Walk for a considerable distance. When in doubt as to the height of a point. always keeping on the same horizontal plane. tracing the path along which you have walked. with a tense rubber string on the long arm and an iron wire on the . walk to it and compare its height with that of a known point. and put figures in the proper places to Mark of the ends of the profile with letters indicating the proper directions. This is a con- tour line. Make a rectangle around your drawing indicate elevations.

o 103 .

Allow it inches deep. Make Be sure that the water line brine. in the test tube is below the level of the Let it stand until it is frozen.104 other. Examine the test tube. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL (See Fig. 13. . Apparatus for showing the Effect of Heat on Iron Apply a match helow the wire at A and observe the movement of the^lever at B become when subjected to the heat of the sun during midsummer? Do you think the change of temperature from summer to winter would change the length of a rock half a mile in length? Which would be affected more.) Heat a portion of the wire by burning a under it. What has occurred? Account for this. What effect has heat upon iron ? How do iron match and brass act upon cooling ? What effect do you suppose heat would have upon a rock ? How would a rock probably act upon cooling ? Do rocks exposed on hillsides suffer change of temperature ? How warm do rocks Fig. 13. being careful not to allow any of the a freezing mixture consisting of to stand until the brine salt or brine to enter the test tube. layers of rock on the surface or layers of rock underneath these ? Part II two parts ice to one is two or three part salt. Fill a small test tube half full of water and put it in the freezing mixture.

Look one that changes from a steep slope in EXERCISE XXXIII EXAMINATION OF ROCK WASTE Part Examine base of the a rocky cliff I in a place where there has been no disturbing influence which would remove material from the cliff. make a drawing or a map. as you did with the artificial stream ? If so. Why? which the above conditions exist. sand. Into the upper course put slowly some of the mixture of clay. Do you find a deposit of sediment? Do you find materials deposited in order. fills 105 small cracks. circles. sediment. and water. Which of the solids settles first? Let the bottle stand over night and observe again. and distribution of the material. that its upper course to a gentle slope in its lower course. and gravel. Put them in a bottle of water Let the mixture stand for a time and watch the settling process. shape. Which settles last ? Make a drawing of the bottle. sand. When a stream flows into the ocean. Of what is this collection of material made . have upon the rock ? What portion of the rock will it affect the most? Will a stone monument endure longer in a moist or a dry climate ? freezes. Which one is deposited first ? Why ? Which is carried farthest ? clay. Mix and shake well. or angular figures the size. indicating by dots.THE ASSORTING POWER OF WATER Water and enters the minute crevices of rocks. Arrange an artificial stream with a steep slope in its upper course and a gentle slope in its lower course. What effect must this EXERCISE XXXII THE ASSORTING POWER OF WATER and gravel. which part of its load do you think it deposits first? Which part is deposited farthest from shore ? for a stream in is.

II Visit the bed of a stream which has recently contained a Locate a place which has sand and Give the color of the sand and pebbles. and account for. EXERCISE XXXIV A WATERFALL Locate by map or description the waterfall which you examine. What agent has been most effective better. What effect is the flowing water having What aids the water in this work? Has the at this point? What effect will a continued fall? Define migra- Use cross-section paper suitable horizontal and draw the following sections. if carried away by water. Compare the fall rock with the material What difference in structure would produce rapids instead of a waterfall? on the fall rock? fall always been flow of water have upon the location of the tion as applied to a waterfall. using and vertical scales: (1) cross section of the .any difference. Are they clean or dirty ? Are the edges sharp or rounded ? Do you find any vegetable matter mixed with the sand and pebbles? Do you find any very fine particles which you might call silt? Compare each answer with the corresponding answer in Part I. What is the Is it clean or dirty ? Are the edges sharp or rounded ? Do you find any vegetable matter mixed with the sand and gravel? Do you find any very fine particles which. Locate the gorge with reference to the fall. If a stream carries much sand and gravel.106 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL up? Examine the sand and gravel found here. the in making the gorge ? is ? What Which has become of resists erosion the material which has been removed rock over which the water ? falling or the material beneath this rock underneath. might form silt? color ? Part somewhat brisk pebbles. what effect will it have upon the rocks over which it flows ? How will this affect the sand and gravel ? current.

topographic the United States Geological Survey.) What here shown? a What portion of the river? Locate Donaldsonville with reference to portion of this quadrangle the river and the is New Orleans. Give proper titles to your sections and indicate the scale. what is the nature it make any deposit at this time ? of the deposit? How wide is this bottom or flood plain from bank to bank ? the Is Part II Refer to the Donaldsonville (La. How . 107 (2) cross section of the gorge and stream above the fall. EXERCISE XXXV RIVER FLOOD PLATXS Fart Visit a river bottom. What wide is swamp? That part between swamp is the natural levee.RIVER FLOOD PLAINS gorge and stream below the fall. If no waterfall is accessible. to the map.) sheet (topographic map of the United States Geological Survey) and make the sections called for. (3) longitudinal section of the gorge and stream through the fall. or other rounded rocks in the soil? If so. how do you suppose they came to be there ? How high does the water come in the times of the highest floods ? Does If so. using suitable horizontal and vertical Answer as many of the questions as you can by referring scales. In drawing the longitudinal section do not represent the sides of the gorge. refer to the Canyon (Wyo. I Describe color. or from other sources of information. area in square miles of the region represented. and depth of bottom land considered good farm land? Why? How does it differ from the adjacent higher land? Do you find any pebbles. at the map of Give approximately the (See the scale bottom of the river is sheet. bowlders.) sheet. texture. In all sections indicate the nature of the soil or rock by signs or shading chosen for the purpose. soil.

direction of the railroads and the general course What is the principal industry of this region? (See p. Where are most of the houses in this quadrangle situated? Compare the of the stream. 264-265. How long the artificial part? (You can tell by its being so much narrower than the natural levee. An is artificial levee has been built at Nita crevasse. and give the source of your information. Record what you read.108 PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHY MANUAL the natural levee. putting it in your own words.) How can you distinguish a steep slope from a ? gentle one by aid of the contour lines (See Exercise XXIX.) Part Fig. crevasse in Davis' Elementary Physical Geography. 4 of Folio 1. What direction do the small streams take ? Why do they not flow toward the river? Into what *do they finally flow ? Are the swamps of any value to men ? Of what disadvantage are they? Could they not be drained and above the swamp? utilized ? What is the contour interval of the map? (See the bottom of the sheet. Of what kind of material does seem to be composed ? What evidences of fertility do ? you observe How many feet must the river rise in order to is overflow the flood plain? likely to occur? In what time of year this most . pp. Part II. but telling where you obtained the information.) How high above the wagon road is the artificial part? What have you read about artificial levees elsewhere on the Mississippi river? of formation do you find in the What kind margin of the swamp northRead about the Nita east of Nita crevasse? Account for this.) Compare the steepness of the slope of the levee at Nita crevasse with the steepness just above or just below the crevasse. is it measuring across the river? How high What was the active agent in the formation of the natural levee? Explain why it is higher than the swamp. 14 III river in the the soil shows a part of the narrow flood plain of the Merced Yosemite valley.

o Ph 109 .

just south of Carrollton? at Miami? at Bruns? wick ? at New Frankfort ? About what is is the average width How many times does the river bend toward the north bluff? the south bluff? What name given to these big S-shaped . is II Marshall? How far is it from of the Louis ? In which direction does the river flow in the region (See topographic represented on the Marshall sheet? map Measure the entire length of the river represented here. Is the bank precipitous on the inside or the outside of the curve ? Describe the lay of the land which forms the bank on the inside of the curve. Part In what part of Missouri St. following the main channel.110 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL EXERCISE XXXVI MEANDERS Part I In the river flood plains which you visited in Exercise nearer which bluff (right or left) does the river flow? XXXV. How wide is the river bottom or flood plain from United States Geological Survey. it. A stream and still it may be so small and narrow that you can step across may have such curves as are discussed in this exercise. How is near does plain? it approach it this bluff ? Does the river cross the flood Does make ? large S-shaped curves? What name Observe the banks of the river near the sharpest point of a curve.) bluff to bluff. on which side of the curve ? Why does it deposit material on this side ? Will continued erosion by the river tend to make the curve more or less pronounced ? side Note. Of what kind of given to such curves material is it composed ? Near the point of the curve does the main current of the river flow nearer the inside bank or the outbank? Which bank will it erode more rapidly? Does it make a deposit along either bank ? If so. Also measure the distance straight across and compare the two measurements.

III and describe everything you see which is the river forms discussed in Parts I and II of this Fig. Back? and Grand Pass lake formed? Do you think erosion is greater on the bottom or the sides of the channel ? Is the rate of erosion of the stream greater or less than the rate of deposition ? What kind of material do you think is deposited here? Would such deposit make fertile soil? Do you think of any disadvantages that the owner of a farm in the bottom might suffer? Judging by the number of towns and villages. do you think this region is thickly settled? the stream north of the peninsula lake. Is it on the inside or outside of the curve ? On which side of the curve (inside or outside) is the main channel ? At the following bends in the river observe on which side the deposit of sand is found. 14 will the trees affect the rate of cutting of the How bank by the stream? . (3) northeast of Dewitt. from the south side What will be the fate of that portion of How were Davis lake.MEANDERS curves ? - 111 Why does the river follow such a crooked course instead of flowing in a more direct one? Why is it called a meant by base level of erosion? On which side of Prunty island does the principal part of the stream flow ? Observe the sand in this part. and on which side the main channel is found: (1) between Prunty island and Miller island. (2) north of Miami. bone Part Examine similar to exercise. Do you find it the same in each? Did you find it the same in Part I? Why is the sand deposited on the side on which you find it rather than on the other? On which side does the river flow more swiftly ? On which side will it cut the bank more graded river? is What rapidly ? curves? What effect will this have on the size of the S-shaped Observe the sharp curve near the east side of the What will be the fate of the peninsula projecting ? quadrangle.

) Pomona is the largest town shown on the sheet. F. T.) Is the soil at the latter places fertile ? How do you know ? Describe the wash from the mouth of the canyon to the town of Claremont and the A. branching parts ? Account for their formation. & S. and other materials. railroad. From an elevation of 2600 feet down to the mouth of the canyon. This is called a wash. pebbles. line What is the elevation of the base midway between is these two points of crossing? Does this prove or disprove your statement about the convex or concave surface which represented here ? Are river valleys usually convex or concave ? Why is this one as it is ? What name is given to such a land formation ? Of what kind of material is it composed ? What difference in kind of deposit would you expect to find in the wash within the canyon and on the slopes at Pomona and Ontario ? (See Exercise XXXIII.112 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL EXERCISE XXXVII ALLUVIAL CONES by the United States Geological Survey. In what respects is an alluvial cone similar to a delta? In what respects is it different? . How far is it from Los Angeles ? What portion of this "region is mountainous ? In what direction is the general slope in the southern part of this quadrangle? San Antonio canyon is a deep and narrow gorge cut in the southern slope of the mountain range. What name is given to the smaller. How far south of the mouth the of the canyon can you trace the wash? Describe the general shape of the contour lines for several miles south of of. the canyon. Does this indicate that the land convex or concave? The San Bernardino base line crosses the 1500-feet contour line north of North Ontario and is mouth surface again north of Claremont. (2250 feet) the creek has deposited great quantities of bowlders. How is it represented Iii what part of California is the region represented Cucamonga sheet? (See topographic map of the on the map? Account for this deposit.

above ? Name the canyons represented on the Cucamonga sheet. What is the fall in feet r Fig. Where does the water probably come from ? Throughout this alluvial cone much water is pumped from deep w ells and is used for irrigation. whose streams are building up cones. A Debris Fan at Glenwood Springs. What does the author . and near the mouth of the canyon it disappears altogether. 15.ALLUVIAL COSES 113 Near the point where Stoddard canyon enters San Antonio canyon the stream becomes intermittent. Colorado. What becomes of the water? Between Pomona and Chino a little stream rises. Where does this water come from? Determine the elevation of the bed of the stream where Bear canyon enters San Antonio canyon. formed at the Mouth Grand of a Side Gorge river in the foreground from this point to £he mouth of San Antonio canyon? ? What is the average fall in feet per mile feet per mile to the What is the average fall in edge of the map? Which or below the mouth of the canyon from the mouth of San Antonio canyon due south is the steeper slope.

is there here which would lead you to believe that the slope of the side canyon is steeper than that of the fan? EXERCISE XXXVIII A REGION m YOUTH Locate Yellowstone park on a large map of the United States. ? How many miles from Yellowstone lake are the falls falls. Give the part of the state in which it is located. Give height of each of the stone begins at the letter a in the The Grand Canyon of the Yellow- falls. 15 shows a debris fan or alluvial cone formed by a Springs. the rate of erosion or of deposition? Is the.114 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL south- of Folio 2 say about the extent of alluvial cones in ern California and elsewhere? cones.) Measure in miles the length and calculate the fall of this portion of the river per mile.) Into what does this river flow? What is the elevation above sea level of the surface of Yellowstone lake ? (See small brown figures near the printed name.) river at the lowest point What is the elevation of the from the contour line of shown on this map? (Count down 6000 feet. Colorado. word " canyon " How deep is this canyon opposite the ? How wide is it at this point ? Which is Does this river have a flood plain? probably greater. at Glenwood About what angle does the slope of the fan form with the horizontal? What. stream capable of carrying a large load? effect will Give reasons for your answer. What continued erosion probably have upon the width and depth of the canyon? Count the number of tributaries on one side of the Yellowstone river from Yellowstone lake to the northwest corner of . What stream drains Yellowstone lake ? What is the general direction of that portion of the stream which is shown on the Canyon sheet? (See topographic map of the United States Geological Survey. if anything. tributary of the Grand river. Give the conditions of slopes to the formation of alluvial and climate which are favorable Fig.

how would the water level of the lake be affected. Southern California Some of the hest orange groves in the world are located on this terrace remaining unchanged? Lakes are an evidence of uncompleted work or imperfect drainage. What other evidence of imperfect drainage do you find on this quadrangle ? (Look along Pelican creek. all other con- ditions remaining unchanged? If the falls should migrate as upstream as the lake and disappear in the lake.A REGION IN YOUTH the quadrangle. omitting those not named. which flows into Yellowstone lake. cut by the Santa Ana River. all other conditions Fig. would you say it has much or little yet to do? creek. 150 Feet in Height. 16. A Terrace. how far will the water level of the lake be affected. in . and along Slough the extreme northern part of the quadrangle.) If draining this region were the task of the Yellowstone river. distance in miles between the 115 is What the average ? mouths of these tributaries If Yellowstone river deepens its channel at the outlet of the lake.

116 .

Madison plateau (6) Central plateau.) The background represents one of these plateaus. region represented on the large map 2 is Determine and record the average elevation of each of the following plateaus (see large map) (2) Mirror plateau (1) Buffalo plateau : . Give the average distance in miles between tributaries. omitting those without printed names. as 1 Assembled topographic sheets shown on page 170. plateau . Which is highest ? Do you detect any slope away from this plateau? If so.A REGION IN MATURITY The It is 117 a great plateau. If one were standing on this plateau. Count the tributaries on one side it flows into the of the Kanawha below Charleston (see the Charleston sheet. (See Fig. being cut by canyons into smaller plateaus. . 17. Distant canyons would not be visible. (4) Pitchstone plateau . as . topographic map of the United States Geological Survey). Describe the sky line. Compare this with that shown on the Yellowstone canyon sheet. (5) appearance of this plateau? Why is it appropriate to say that this stream and this region are in their youth ? EXERCISE XXXIX A REGION IN MATURITY Part I it is Locate Charleston (W. the higher portions would appear as mere undulations of the surface. Why ? What effects will continued erosion probably have upon the general (3) Two Ocean . What is the contour interval? Are the contour lines near together or far apart? If the contour interval were 20 feet. in what direction? Observe the picture of the canyon of the Yellowstone. Are any of them intermittent ? What would you infer about the rainfall of this region ? Measure the distance along the river from Charleston to the last tributary which is shown. of the United States Geological Survey. giving the river on which located and the distance from the point where Ohio river.Va.).

118 it is PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL on some sheets. The highest point near the northeast corner of the quadrangle is about 1300 feet above sea level. Do you detect a slope toward either east or west? What was in . imperfect? Characterize this region as of soil has this region? level. . How high was the plateau at the south? at the north? Which way did it slope? What was the fall per mile? Does the Kanawha river now have as great a slope as the plateau that you have : . would the lines here be more or in slope less numer- ous ? Would they be nearer each other or farther apart ? ? the sides of the valleys steep or gentle divides pronounced or indistinct? Is the Are Are the drainage perfect or or broken. about nine miles south of Hickory Knob. Its printed in brown just above the name. and make a list of them with their elevations (1) Hickory Knob. which is almost due west of Fork Ridge. Compare this with the elevation of Hickory Knob at the northwest corner. and suppose the original plateau restored as it was at that time. which are nearly in a straight line extending south from Hickory Knob. is How high above sea level it? Find the elevation of the following knobs. Suppose this region was once a plateau as high as the tops of these knobs. In what direction do the wagon roads run? Why? How far across country could one go without crossing a wagon road ? Do you think this region is thickly or sparsely settled ? What kind Part Hickory Knob elevation is II is of the quadrangle and about two miles from the north boundary five miles from the west boundary. Give reasons for your answer. three miles from the east boundary and seven or eight miles from the south boundary. rolling. described ? The highest point near the southeast corner is of the quadrangle Fork Ridge. (3) Sugar Camp Knob. nine or ten miles south of Big Rocks (4) Blue Knob. (2) Big Rocks. How high is it ? Compare this with the elevation of Blue Knob. five miles southwest of Sugar Camp Knob (5) an unnamed knob about three miles from the southwest corner of the quadrangle.

Account for the lake or pond just west of Caldwell. is In this region the average annual rainfall about 20 inches. as it is on the Charleston sheet. this or the Charleston quadrangle The author of this folio tells us that the Caldwell region has gone through the stages of youth and maturity. to the skeleton of a was once just such a plateau as it been changed from a plateau plateau that you now see on the map ? How has EXERCISE XL A REGION IX OLD AGE In what part of Kansas is Caldwell? What is the contour interval of the Caldwell sheet? (See topographic map of the United States Geological Survey. an amount very much rangle. how would the number of lines here or steep? compare with what it is ? Are the slopes gentle Are the valleys wide or narrow? Are the divides pronounced or indistinct? in so How is it possible to build railroads directions do the many different directions? What they? wagon ? roads take? lie How far apart are In which does the land better for farming. Compare Henry Gannett says that we have described.) What is meant by base level of erosion ? Account for the big bends in the Chikaskia river below Argonia. greater if it depended upon In the Caldwell region the underlying and outcropping rocks are of the Charleston region.) If the contour interval were 100 feet. whereas in the Charleston quadrangle covered with dense forests. less than that of the Charleston quadif it In which region would erosion be greater depended it is upon land this alone ? is In the Caldwell quadrangle the surface of the In which region would erosion be this alone? almost naked. What proof of this does he find in the position of the rocks? What is a peneplain? (See the text-books. it it much softer than those if In which depended upon this alone? depended alone upon the steepness would erosion be greater In which would it be greater of the slopes? if Which of .A REGION IN OLD AGE the true direction of the slope of the original plateau this ? 119 with the general direction of the Kanawha this region river.

delta. flood plains. Draw also the divides bounding the following slopes Atlantic. Columbia. meanders. waterfalls. EXERCISE XLIII THE MIGRATION OF DIVIDES What sheet? Survey. Lawrence. or legend. Rub in the colors well.. Great Basin. Colorado. power. 120 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL man modify ? What effect does these conditions of erosion can erosion have upon the fertility of the surface that is being eroded ? EXERCISE XLI THE LIFE HISTORY OF A RIYER Make an (3) outline of the : life history of an ideal river. Gulf of Mexico east of the Mississippi river. J. (3) character of load. canyons. Gulf of Mexico west of the Mississippi river. rapids. Color these regions so that no two adjacent shall have the same color.) (See topographic map of the United States Geological of About how far from Philadelphia is this portion In what direction from Philadelphia? . (8) . Write an explanation of colors. of current. : : Pacific slope. in an appropriate place on the map. swiftness (5) . EXERCISE XLII THE DRAINAGE AREAS OF THE UNITED STATES Use an outline map of the United States and draw the divides around the following drainage basins St. num- (6) shape of cross section of valley .-N. Make it in three parts as follows (1) a young river . (4) cutting . (7) per- or imperfect drainage .) the river? large river is shown on the Doylestown (Pa. fall per mile from source to mouth (9) longitudinal profile (10) presence of lakes. (2) a mature river (2) an old river. : In each part consider ber of tributaries fect (1) steepness of slope . Mississippi.

should move a mile what change would occur in in Which This action of the stream is stream is in danger of being beheaded ? is How large an area in square miles liable to be cut off in this way ? Consider only If these the region shown on this map. affect streams were furnishing power for manufacturing. the result of how might industry? migration of divides the . the course of Tohickon creek? called beheading. all conditions except the slope being equal? What effect will this have upon the size of its basin ? upon the size of the other basin ? In which direction will the divide probably move at the point southeast of Ottsville? If the divide the direction which you indicate. Tohickon or Tinicum creek Near the large bend in Tinicum creek there is a small tributary which enters from the southwest. What the elevation of the point of this stream. which the map ? What is the rate of fall ? shown on the west side of Which is the more vigor? ous stream. which is is shown on the north in feet per mile ? side of the map ? What the average fall Tohickon creek first is a very much is longer stream. This tributary has its headwaters near a fork in the road. flowing first toward the southeast and then toward the northeast. At this point the road is between Tinicum and Tohickon creeks. which flows is into the river at Point Pleasant.THE MIGRATION OF DIVIDES 121 Tinicum creek flows into Delaware river near the northern boundary of the quadrangle. about a mile and a half southeast of Ottsville. It is a crooked stream. level is How is on the divide high above sea the divide at this point? What the elevation of Tohickon creek near this point? How many feet would have to be removed from the divide to make it the same level as the water in Tohickon creek ? Which stream will erode its basin more rapidly. What is the elevation of the first point of its headwaters.

weigh it again. With the stone in the water.) greater. The ratio of the former to the latter is called filled with water. Does it weigh more or less than it did before ? How much? Why does it weigh less under one condition than under the other? If the stone should be removed. the specific gravity. Place the balance and the stone in such a position that the stone will be completely immersed in a vessel of water. Compare the weight of the stone with the weight of an equal volume of water. and calculate according to your rule. At present it displaces the water. ing the specific gravity of a stone. but do not allow the scale pan to touch the water. Define specific gravity.) In writing your notes draw or describe the apparatus. the specific gravity of a stone which weighs less than an equal volume of water? (Give answer as equal to. Give a rule for finding the weight of the water displaced by a stone immersed in it. the space that it now occupies would be Compare the volume which it displaces with the volume of the stone. Give a rule for finding the weight of water equal in volume to the volume of a stone.122 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL EXERCISE XLIV SPECIFIC GRAVITY With a string tie a stone to the hook on one pan of the specific-gravity balance. or less than that of the preceding. The volume of the water displaced weighs just as much as the difference between the two weights of the stone obtained above. . What much as What is the specific gravity of a stone which weighs just as (If in it an equal volume of water? doubt. Weigh the stone. . assume that each weighs 50 grams. You may be called upon to prove this some day now we must accept it without proof. one. The last rule is the Give a rule for findimportant Remember is it.

How deep have you ever known such mud cracks to be? Fig.) In what part of New Mexico is Mt. and dictionary. M. Describe the which have been produced. Structure. Tell what you know of the cause of their formation. AND NECKS Refer to the Mt. porous. of the (See topographic map United States Geological Survey. Method of formation. Taylor? What is the highest point on the moun- tain? Two or three miles east of this highest point there is a stream formed by a dozen or more small tributaries. Anything that does not readily come under the items given above. Taylor (N. Part Fig. 19 shows a lava flow in which the cracks. Remarks. : Describe each according to the following schedule Color. effects EXERCISE XLVI VOLCANIC TEAKS. and vesicular basalt. Give specific gravity. Is it solid. Trace with a pointer the divide surrounding the headwaters of these . between light gray and dark gray. reference books. 18 II shows a mudhole which has dried up. Read text-books.) sheet. fibrous. or amor- phous ? Weight. Distinguish between dull black and lustrous black. crystalline. or joint planes. extend very deep.VOLCANIC ROCKS EXERCISE XLV 123 VOLCANIC ROCKS Part Examine obsidian. especially locality from which your specimen comes. cyclopedias. I pumice. PLATEAUS.

Mud Cracks in the Bed of an Intermittent Stream.000 feet? What the eleva- tion of the river bed at the point flows through the rim of the crater? hill. Southern California side ? This hill is a volcanic neck. What high is the elevation of How is it Near the center of the crater is a circular its summit above sea level ? above the stream which flows near its northern Fig. far is it ? What shape was the crater? to the How from the rim on one side points about the is rim on the opposite side At how many where it crater does the elevation reach 11.124 tributaries.) How is deep is the crater from the rim to the small level area just west of the neck? What the average elevation above sea level of the mesa of the region Sierra Chivato? Willow Spring? 10 or 15 miles northwest of (Count down from the contour line of 7000 . 18. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL This divide is the rim of an ancient crater. How has it been made ? (See picture and cross section on the page opposite the map in Folio 2.

Fig. Columns of Basalt of the from an Old Lava Plow on the North Fork San Joaquin River. 19. California 125 .

Compare the steepness of the lower part of the trail up as far as the first spring with the slope of a straight line from this spring to Crater lake is . up through overlying stratified beds. most easily reached by a wagon road from the south.) PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL How much ? higher is the mesa than the surrounding ? region Is the descent from the mesa abrupt or gentle With a pointer trace the outline of the mesa. it In which direction does extend farthest from Mt. leaving the neck of lava standing by itself. which were much softer than the lava. Could one easily ascend these slopes? Where is the steepest part? See the picture of this steepest part on the page opposite the map in Folio 2. formed by outflows of lava from the mountain and probably from other craters upon says. in a molten condition. of the United States Geological Survey. a volcanic neck more of the Sierra Chivato is than 1000 feet high.) special sheet. These beds." the surface of the mesa. but there is a trail approaching it from the north.126 feet. Taylor? The author of Folio 2 " This is a volcanic mesa. ? is For what is is it remarkable it ? What the distance across What shape is Crater from east to west ? How its large the drainage basin which contributes waters to Crater the lake? lake? What is the highest At what point would point on the rim surrounding the the water first find an outlet if surface of the lake should rise above its present level? What is the elevation above sea level at the surface of the lake? far is this How below the top of the rim which surrounds the lake ? Compare the steepness of the slope on the inside of the rim with that on the outside. have since been eroded away. Across the Puerco river northeast Cabazon peak.) Mazama. How many volcanic necks do you see between the Sierra Chivato and the Puerco river? Volcanic necks " were formed by the forcing of volcanic rocks." EXERCISE XLVII A CRATER map lake Refer to the Crater lake (Ore. (See topographic Locate Mt.

here. 5 minutes. Tell where you EXERCISE XLVIII GLACIERS Refer to the Shasta of the (Cal. square to 1000 feet. Shasta? On which side of the mountain are the largest ones found? In which direction from the summit is Hotlum glacier? In which direction must its ice be moving? Which part must melt fastest? Is Hotlum widest in the upper. middle. or lower part ? How do you think the thickness of the ice in the lower part compares with the thickness in the middle? Give reasons for your answer. Use the same horizontal scale as on the map. What effect must the moving ice have upon the surface of the mountain over which it is moving? What effect does the friction on the sides of the valley have upon the rate of movement of the ice along the sides of the glacier? Note the blue lines which cross the glacier. Shasta which you have not seen on any other mountain that we have studied? How are glaciers indicated on the map? How many do you find on Mt. (Blue figures show depths in feet below the surface of the lake. Shasta. What do you find near the summit of Mt. record it.) special sheet. vertical scale one cross-section paper.GLACIERS Llao rock. (See topographic map United States Geological Survey.) How does Crater lake read ? the author of this folio account for the formation of If you have read anything it else of special interest or value concerning this lake. 127 Observe the section at the bottom of the sheet. use and draw a similar section from nor.) Locate Mt. Let your section extend one mile beyond the lake both north and south.th to south along the meridian of 122 degrees. Which way do they bend glacier probably in ? crossing? Which part of the moves ? fastest What effect will this have upon the texture of the ice How many part of little streams take their rise just below the lower get their Hotlum glacier? Where do you suppose they the area of small supply of water? What does brown dots below .

1 See the large map for answers to the following questions. . or drumlins. What is the general trend of the drumlins along 1 Assembled topographic sheets of the United States Geological Survey. and gravel." of the drumlins? of the What What is the general direction of the trend does this indicate as to the direction ? movement of the glacier Observe the position of the Sun Prairie quadrangle as shown on the large map. There are several small glaciers in the high Sierra of California. Hood." Locate Rainier. but along and under the bed. Some projection of the ground over which it was passing probably checked the current of the ice and made it deposit part of its load. and in the Cascade range are found many glaciers. there are not many mountains sufficiently high to have glaciers upon them.) The Sun Prairie sheet represents a series of glacial hills which are composed of unstratified drift material. were made not at the end of the glacier where it melts. How high are these hills above the surrounding country? What is their graphic general shape? How wide are they? Are their tops sharp or rounded ? " These hills. some of which are of considerable magnitude. and Hood. The summits of Rainier. sand. In the Rocky mountains perennial fields of ice and snow are almost unknown except in northern Montana. will the which makes be parallel or divergent? " In the United States. EXERCISE XLIX TOPOGRAPHIC FORMS DUE TO GLACIATION Refer to the Sun Prairie (Wis. outside of Alaska.128 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL glacier represent? Bolam How does the front of Bolam glacier differ in shape from the front of Whitney glacier? Do you a glacier know strise of any ancient it glacier which was lobed? When spreads out at the bottom. Adams. as given on page 170. Adams.) and adjacent sheets. as Hotlum glacier does. (See topomap of the United States Geological Survey. and Shasta are practically surrounded by glaciers.

the melting just equaled the melting of the glacier remained stationary. the front of the glacier retreated northward. Section of a Glacial Moraine in the Rocky Mountains on the Line of the Great Northern Railroad river? As the great ice sheet moved southward it melted at the southern border. east ( Rock Do you of find the trend from 5 to 15 miles east to be and southeast Oconomowoc the same as that north of Ashippum Fig. 20. ice. From what source do you suppose the material came which makes up these hills southeast of Oconomowoc? region . at a point not far from the southern boundary of the lobe. How do you account for the different directions which they take ? river. also in the shown on the Eagle sheet in Folio 1. When the front of the One of these pauses on its retreat occurred in the region southeast of Oconomowoc.TOPOGRAPHIC FORMS DUE TO GLACIATION 129 the east bank of the Crawfish river. and in others to the south and west. west of Watertown? along and southeast of Watertown? along Ashippum river north of )conomowoc? These drumlins were formed under the Green Bay lobe of the last great glacier which swept down over the United States. When the melting exceeded the southward movement.

130 .

and. Are they rounded or angular ? Account for this.LAKES What name lins ? 131 is given to such a formation? Why what are these hills so irregular? How find does this glacial formation differ from drumof a general trend in the hills If so. 20 shows a section of ? a glacial moraine. seek information from residents of the vicinity. Describe their size and shape. necessary. besides bowlders. What. any indication represented on the Eagle sheet? Do you relation does it sustain to the direction of the trend of the nearest drumlins? What angle would you expect the end of a glacier to form its with the direction of movements ? ? What evidence of youthful drainage do you find If these streams are young. I if make careful observations. how do you account cases? for their extreme crookedness in many They are called consequent streams. Is the water level constant throughout the year? Do you note any changes of the average water level from year to year? If so. Why? Fig. what evidence Account for any change find evi- may have occurred in the water level. do you find in this glacial deposit ? EXERCISE L LAKES Part Visit a lake. do you find evidence that evidence? ? it is higher than formerly? it What that Do you find evidence that ? is lower than formerly If so. Describe the find general shape of the slopes of this Do you any evi- dences of stratification Is stratification characteristic of glacial deposits ? Account for this. what evidence? Is the outlet a vigorous stream? Are its tributaries or its outlet the greater menace to the life of the lake? Of what value to man is this lake ? . Observe the bowlders in the foreground at the left. Do you dence that the lake is being filled with sediment? If so. hill.

Bear Lake. Refer to a map of the United States and compare the number of lakes east of the Missouri and Mississippi rivers and Refer to a Fig. St. which would you think would have clearer waters. How is the great number in one region accounted for? Lakes have been called the is settling basins of the livers. is What there in this name which appropriate? Considering this alone. in San Bernardino Mountains of Southern California so steep that the zones of vegetation are not The banks are marked north of the parallel of 40 degrees north latitude with the number of lakes south of this region. at an Elevation of 6700 Feet.132 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL Pakt II lakes in map of North America and compare the number of Canada east of the parallel of 100 degrees west longitude with the number of lakes in the southern part of the United States. the Lawrence river or the Missouri? How does this agree with what you know of the clearness of the water of the two rivers ? Of what value to commerce are the Great Lakes ? . 22.

the shrubs or the pine trees ? The former outlet of the lake can be seen in the background. Compare the positions Locate the sedges with reference to the of sedges and shrubs. 21. Part IV Refer to the Norfolk (Va. Which occupy drier ground. Accordis ing to the author of this other. grasses. pine wil- water lilies. sedges. which is encroaching on the swamp in this its or the region of vegetation? How soil man this is assisting process? fertility? ? To what does the of swamp owe How is peat formed? How peat sometimes used To what use are men putting Lake Drummond ? . Map What with its belts of vegetation are found around the margin of the Dismal swamp? cypress trees by referring to the picture in the Describe the folio. 23. arrange the following in the order of their natural places of growth. of the Ancient Lake Bonneville Modern Representatives. 13. and read the description in Folio 2. leading toward the right.LAKES Pakt lake. What kind of growth now fills it ? From this picture. beginning with the aquatic plants: trees. the folio. III Examine Fig. Great Salt Lake and Sevier Lake Geological Survey).) sheet (see topographic map of the United States Fig. lows. or from other sources of information.

filling.134 PHYSICAL GEOG-EAPHY MANUAL EXERCISE LI EXTINCT LAKES Refer to the map. thus cut- ting off the head of the gulf. 24. which go of that Great Salt lake in size remnant change do you know? If Lake Bonneville was a fresh-water lake. ? What was to the greatest length of Lake Bonneis according to this map ? Give show this the evidences. about 300 Feet below Sea Level. Was due or evaporation? How mouth its of the Col- orado river from present mouth? The delta was built up. What do you suppose has become of the salt? In what part would it probably be . Would time make this lake more or less salt? Except for an occasional overflow of the Colorado river. this region at present is entirely dry. so far as you a know them. 24. Lake Bonneville. averaging Fig. Map of the Bed of the Ancient Salton Sea. What is the length in miles of Great Salt lake ville. Was made fresh ? newly is lake salt or Rainfall very light in this region. how far beyond its present limit did the Gulf of California extend? How far was the to drainage. Fig. Fig. how do you account for the saltness of Great Salt lake ? According to the map. showing the Proba- . from 2 to 5 inches ble Former Extent of the Gulf of California and the annually evapDelta of the Colorado River oration is very rapid. 23. The river followed one of its distributaries to the lower porthe tion of the gulf.

25. Map of the Dead Sea. Contour Palestine.) How deep its is the water? If should dry up. far how far would bed be below sea level below the level of Jerusalem ? Note any other extinct lakes that you think worthy of ? How special mention. EXERCISE LII SOLIDS IX SOLUTION Fill a small beaker half full of water. is and its account for presence. water is called a *<>lvent and alum is said to be soluble.SOLIDS IN SOLUTION 135 found in the largest quantities? Do you think this part would make good agricultural land? Why? Some remarkably fertile soil is found near the Mexican boundary line and in the southern portion of this old lake bed. Dead is its Fig. Explain why it is fertile. Add a very little powdered alum and stir the mixture. Add powdered . land slope in the right direction to aid in transport- ing the water? Read about Death valley. tell what of economic importance found there. Water tion is for irriga- brought Does the from the Colorado river. Can you see the alum ? What has become of it? It is said to be in solution. 25. Locate the sea. How far be- Western Asia low sea level this sea present surface? (See Fig.

Boil the filtered water in an evaporating dish. but settles to the Continue this until the alum bottom of the beaker. Describe what you see. A Beaker ar- ranged. Let this stand for a day or two. Partly the bottle with a saturated solution of photographers' hypo (sodium hyposulphite). Your beaker now contains a saturated solution. Carefully pour off the water and filter it. Put some of the powder in a small beaker and fill the beaker with water.136 alum PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL slowly. Lead a tube from a carbon dioxide generator into this beaker of water and let the gas slowly bubble up through the solution will drop very slowly — . stirring all the time. with a of the undissolved solid as a sediment in the bottom. Let the beaker stand for a day or two until part of the solution evaporates. it Put it this over the flame of the Bunsen burner and heat boils. Define saturated solu- The tion. as in Fig. What effect have cooling and evaporation upon shown Fig. evaporating it to dryness. little solution is now said to be saturated. 26. Set the adjustable pinchcock so that not more than two drops Allow the process to continue for several days. Remove the string from the solution. per minute. 26. until Is sediment? cold or hot water capable of holding of the What becomes amount it a larger of alum in solution? Make a very strong solution of alum in water and pour into a beaker with the end of a string hanging down into it. for the Forma- a saturated a solution? solid How solution could you tion of Crystals of Alum separate solvent ? in from its Arrange a piece fill of apparatus as shown in Fig. no longer dissolves. Do you find any residue in the evaporating dish? Is marble soluble in water? Put some of the powdered marble in a small beaker and fill the beaker with water. 27. Describe and explain the method of formation of the material which collects on the glass plate below. Crush to powder some marble in a mortar.

also Topic Causes of Mountains.) are rocks fractured ? (See Exercise 16. XXXI . Illustrate by drawings EXERCISE LIII VEINS How 35. and anything else worthy of note.VEINS the water. and evaporate to dryness. structure. color. If possible. stalac- Describe shape. Apply a small drop of hydro- chloric acid to the stalactite and describe Effervesa proof that F* Blow . the result. 137 Continue this process for a day or two. or photographs. p. filter. Do you find any residue in the evaporating dish? Is marble soluble in water which has carbon dioxide in it? Water with carbon dioxide for the is responsible removal of of cav- most of the material in the making erns in limestone. Earthquakes. Examine a tite. p. and then adjust the pincheoek the process of the formation of a stalactite. Again pour off the water. visit a cavern and describe what you see. How deep into the earth do cracks and Topic 62. comDescribe its from the siphon. 27. and fissures extend? fissures Underground water may follow these wherever they . A Bottle and Siphon arranged for cence it is the Formation of Stalactites into the open tube until the solution flows has lime in position.

Illustrate by drawings what you see. . what This is the process by effect will be produced by cooling it? upon water is which cracks and fissures in the rocks are filled. (See Topic 61. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL As water descends it to great depths what change of tempera- ture does undergo ? What effect does this change of tempera- ture have If its ability to dissolve rocks ? (See Exercise LII. showing as many facts . 26.138 go. p. Volcanic Phenomena. as 'possible about veins. A Rock with Intersecting Veins which contains the veins ? Of what kind of material are the veins composed ? Which is harder.) thoroughly saturated with material in solution. ? What materials may be dissolved by water Why are veins of interest to the miner? Distinguish between the manner of formation of veins and dikes. 28. the veins or the rock in which they occur? Which will wear away faster when subjected to the action of the weather? Give the width of the widest vein which you find of the narrowest.) Examine veins in a cliff or in specimens which you have in the laboratory. Are the veins which you find in any one cliff of equal age ? Give reason for your answer. What kind of material do you find in the rock 'JFig.

How of melting under the influence of XXXI.024--) 1. Part According it is III is to the table in Part II. In which is the water warmer during the month of July? Account for this.0228 58. According to this. Part II Temperature Bay Ocean Density Bay Ocean July 77 68 60 1. the water denser when warm ? or when it is cold ? Which has greater density. Boil and Weigh the residue and calculate the percentage of solid matter. Account for this great density. is the of the water in The accompanying water denser in the bay or in the ocean? The density of the water in the Red sea and in the Mediterranean sea is said to be from 1. water or ice ice How do you know? (See Exercise should sink upon freezing.) Suppose would this affect its rate the sun? How might this water? affect the climate of a region near a large lake of fresh . how much common salt in 100 pounds of sea water? evaporate to dryness. From the books determine what part of the solid matter is common salt (chloride of sodium).0238 1.DENSITY AND TEMPERATURE OF SEA WATER EXERCISE LIV 139 DENSITY AND TEMPERATURE OF SEA WATER Part I Weigh accurately about 100 grams of sea water.027 to 1.028. In which is the temperature more nearly uniform throughout the year? According to this table.0230 table gives the temperature and density San Diego bay and in the open sea for July and January.5 1. In which is it warmer in January? Account for this.

Draw a line lengthwise through the center of the sheet to represent 1 centimeter to 1 foot. Use ink and connect these points consecutively. with level all data for the time of observation. By referring to the almanac determine the dates of the moon's phases during the time of observations of the tides. On the horizontal line just above the highest high tide make drawings to represent these different phases of the moon. scale 1 millimeter to 6 hours.140 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL EXERCISE LV TIDES Refer to the United States tide tables. Give your diagram a title.) a line to represent Draw mean sea level. far in feet is How ? mean lower low water below mean sea (See the note at the bottom of the page in the tide table. making a straight line from each to the one immediately following. and the moon at the time of greatest range of At what phase of the ? phase are they lowest tides . being careful to get them in the spaces for the correct dates. What causes tides ? How do you know? . select some port. mean lower low water. Use vertical distances to represent the heights of the tides. moon are the tides highest ? At what At what phase do the tides have greatest range ? What name is given to these tides ? At what phase of the moon do the tides have least range ? What name is given to these tides? Make drawings to show the positions of the earth. at the time of least range of tides. and note the times and heights of tides for a period of one month or more. scale Use horizontal distances to represent Use lead pencil and place a dot at the proper point to represent the time and height of each of the four tides for the first day of your observations. Do the same for the following day and proceed in a similar manner time. is In what units are the heights of tides given ? ? From what the height of a tide reckoned Use cross-section paper. the sun.

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Compare the courses Fig. 16 degrees north. the direction of the ocean currents indicated ? How is is (See the explana- tion near the lower left-hand corner of the map.) Compare its temperature in winter with that of Portland. Do you find indications in the Pacific ocean of a cold current from the Arctic regions ? What do you know of the temperature of Vladivostok ? (See Fig. . Compare the latitude of these two places. 30. North Pacific ocean. off the west coast of Oregon. as shown by the maps. of the ocean currents of the world with the directions of the prevailing winds. as given by the pilot charts. 4. and give the velocity of the current in the region of northeast trades. What do the books give What is the direction in the Atlantic ocean as the cause of ocean currents ? of the current in the Caribbean sea? between Florida and the Bahamas ? What name is given to this current? What is the direction of this current in^the Atlantic ocean at a point 40 degrees north and 50 degrees west? its Trace this current still further and describe is general shape east of this point. this current What the direction of the current off the east coast of Labrador and Newfoundland ? Trace along the coast as far as you can.142 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL EXERCISE LVI OCEAN CURRENTS Observe the pilot chart of the North Atlantic ocean. Oregon. Is it a warm or a cold current? What effect does it have on the tem- perature of the east coast of the United States? What finally becomes of rents of the this current? Trace with a pointer the main curDescribe their general shape. 130 degrees west . 25 degrees west? (2) on the equator off the east coast of South America? (3) from 10 to 20 degrees north latitude in the Pacific ocean? Compare these directions with the directions of the prevailing winds at these points. 29 and Fig. See the small black figures giving knots per hour.) What : the direction of the current at each of the following points (1) south- west of the Cape Verde islands. in mid-ocean south of the Aleutian islands .

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ing down is Suppose that a glacier is passis immersed it in water. (See Fig. Does your pressure ? The force that tends to lift it up is a slope into the sea. p. force What force is thrusting tending to lift it up ? down into the sea? What Explain how icebergs are formed under water? from such a glacier. In how many positions can you make it float ? Suppose one side should melt away. Using the specific gravity first given for sea water. What proportion is above water in each case ? Why should more than one specific gravity be given for sea water? Where do most of the icebergs of the North Atlantic ocean originate? What is the fate of those that float south? How far south do they ever go ? Describe the location of the line marking the limit of floating ice in the North Atlantic. To find what proportion its of a floating object is beneath the surface.03. so that the lower part called the buoyant force of water.024 to 1. ice or water? down so that it is entirely under water. at the temperature of when 60 degrees. is Why does it float ? Which Push it heavier. resist the ice Which has the greater density. divide specific gravity by the specific gravity of the liquid. 255) gives the specific gravity of sea water as from 1. The specific gravity of sea ice is also given as . Dryer {Lessons in Physical G-eography. 30. calculate what proportion of an iceberg is under water. What effect would this probably have upon the position of the ice in the water? Account for an iceberg's with the broadest surface up or down if over and see turning over in the sea. a cubic foot of ice or a cubic foot of water? Define density. using the second specific gravity which is given above.) What is the principal danger to ships cruising among icebergs ? .9175. About what proportion Does it float of the floating ice is ? Turn it you can make it float in another position. Do the same.144 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL EXERCISE LVII ICEBERGS Put a piece of ice in a vessel of cold water.

would it make a great or a small circle ? Does this circle coincide with any circle of latitude ? Compare this shortest line which you have drawn between San Francisco and Yokohama with the route actually taken by steamships plying between these two ports. Heat equal weights of water and rock to the same temperaPlace them aside and allow them to cool. In which direction does this line extend? With what important mathematical line on the earth's surface does it almost coincide? If your string were extended so as to make a complete circle round the earth. How would you find the shortest line between any two points on the earth's surface ? Part II ture. Which heats more quickly? Which gets hotter in summer. In what direction does the line pass? Near what points on the earth's surface does it pass ? If this line were extended so as to make a complete circle round the earth. place the string on the surface islands of the globe so as to connect with the shortest line the Galapagos and the island of Borneo. Connect these points on the globe with a string in such a way as to make the shortest line between them.THE SEA AM) MAN EXERCISE LVIII 145 THE SEA AND MAN Part I Use a globe and string. Which cools more quickly ? Cool equal weights of water and rock to a low temperature and place them in the direct sunlight. as shown on the pilot chart of the North Pacific ocean. would it make a great or a small circle ? San Francisco and Yokohama are in almost the same latitude. land or water? Which is more nearly uniform in temperature throughout the year? What effect does this fact have upon the climate of places near the sea or near a large lake? .

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. If rain the sea salt or fresh? tation be affected? Is water vapor which rises from water were salt. Make from the list of food products of a list which are obtained from the other useful articles which are obtained sea. The Rocky Headland shown The detached rock island is in the Distance in Fig. Part IV Make a sea. how would vege- How does evaporation affect the density bodies of water in which of the water in the sea? Name some this is specially noticeable. 32. Taste the condensed vapor. 31 called Sugai Loaf from sea water by distillation. Do you find salt in it? Ocean passing it steamships are so equipped that they can supply drinking water Fig.THE SEA AND MAN Part Slowly boil a flask of sea 147 III water and condense the steam by through a tube inclosed in a jacket of cold water.

32 Avalon bay. Santa Catalina island. will action of the Describe shape and What effect waves have upon the shape and size of these Fig. is a detail of the same. stantly subjected to the action of the any bowlders conwaves ? After the advance of a wave its waters return to the sea. showing Observe the bowlders size. Sea Caves at La Jolla (pronounced la-ho-yah). Rock waste of what sizes can be carried most readily will finally be the fate of What . SEA CAVES Fig. BEACHES.148 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL EXERCISE LIX HEADLANDS. 38 and account for the difbowlders ? ference. Coast of Southern California The cliff is sandstone How will the waves accomplish this ? Compare these bowlders with those shown in Fig. 31 is a picture of southern California. Fig. the rocky headland at one side of the bay- lying in the foreground. bearing some rock waste with them. 33.

SEA CAVES by the waves ? 149 of material What disposition will the sea ? make cliff thus removed from the shore What ders agencies probably removed from the in Fig. 35. 34. DeFig. Fig. 33 shows a sandstone cliff at La Jolla on the coast of southern California. 32 ? the bowl- shown In times of storm the waves have up bowlders and bear them along. would you think the sea or is deep or shallow ? Is this characteristic of strong weak coasts? Which part strongest coast? bay in Fig. de- It has been from the mainland by the tached attack of the sea. p. Waves. thus cliff. Which would probably prove the more destructive agent. and sand? Observe the rock island. waves alone or waves armed with sufficient force to pick hurling them against the bowlders. Why has their attack been more effective in some parts of the cliff than in others? Sometimes fantastic forms result from the action of waves. Sugar Loaf.HEADLANDS. 31 has the Which the weakest? This bay is what the of the . Tell what you see in Fig. pebbles. BEACHES. Au Arch cut by Waves scribe the effects which the waves have produced here. Predict the effects which the sea will yet produce upon the mainland.) Judging from the fact that but one breaker appears on the shore in Fig. 32. 34. What structure of the rocks makes this arch possible ? What condition of sea bottom is necessary to produce breakers ? (See Topic 82.

books sometimes appropriate in this name ? It is What can you see that is sometimes called a crescent beach. States Geological Survey. How from New York city ? Refer to (Topographic map of the United on this sheet is mainland ? How much of the region How high is it above sea shown level ? Describe the barrier beaches.) sheet. spits. 35. beaches. and that you consider worthy of Fig. pebbles. ? If possible visit Observe sea headlands. sand. Map of of Sand Reefs off the Coast North Carolina Make a map of the region which you have visited and let Illustrate with photo- your description be as full as possible. cliffs. sea- weed.150 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL call a pocket beach. sea caves.J. and other else life along the shore. anything note. Is this name equally appropriate? What difference would you expect to find in the size and the shape of the rock waste at the two the the headland and mid- way between headlands coast.) of the United States. bowl- ders. graphs or drawings whenever possible. marshes. giving their distance from the . EXERCISE LX BARRIER BEACHES Locate Atlantic City on a far map it and in what direction is the Atlantic City (N. bars.

BARRIER BEACHES 151 mainland. 1 ) the of maps of the coasts North Carolina and southwestern Texas. direction of trend with reference to the mainland." Are these bodies of water becoming deeper or shallower? will ? Give be reason for your answer. Compare them. position of bays.) How lie does the land between Atlantic City and the mainDescribe the land? nels. width. height above sea level. (See Figs. shown on . with the barrier beaches and bars represented on the from Beach Also make a comparison of these beaches and the bars or reefs represented on of the Atlantic coast map Haven to Sandy Hook. as Assembled topographic sheets p. 170. What finally their fate What pre- vents the inlets from Fig. 1 ) What do you think is the character of the soil? ence of dunes do you find on this the migration of dunes? (See What evidence of the existmap ? What is done to check the government reports.) has been built up by the sea.) How is it possible For what is Atlantic to build railroads across this region? City famous? In what respects is it well located? Do you think of any disadvantages due to its location? Almost the entire region around Provincetown (Mass. chan- and "thoro fares. and general shape. (See the large map. in all respects named above.) What use have 1 men made of the peculiar shape of the coast line at of the United States Geological Survey. (See the large map. Sand Reefs off the Coast of Texas becoming filled with sand? (Read the description in Folio 1. 35 and 36. 36.

37. in what direction? 1. showing a Rising Coast Estimate the length of coast line between these two points. United States Geological Survey.152 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL Do you think good harbors could be made on reason for your Provincetown ? answer.) How is this accounted for? (See p. California. acterize this coast line as straight or crooked. coast in a straight line from Griffith Measure the length of the Head to Pemaquid Point. (See topographic map drowned What does this mean ? This sheet represents Describe the shape of the inlets and the projecting lands. Terraces cut by the Sea at Point San Pedro. passing around the bays but not entering the broad rivers. the east side of Cape Cod peninsula? Give EXERCISE LXI DROWNED AND ELEVATED COASTS of the a Refer to the Boothbay (Maine) sheet. Fig. Charislands What land forms would result if Linekin neck should sink 100 feet? Is there a Are common on drowned coasts? What is represented on this map? of the hills? of the the shape of the islands general trend land forms? If so.) coast. 4 of Folio .

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37 Compare of from San Diego to San Pedro (Cal.) with that of the coast Maine. What has been the movement of the land of southern California? and drowned rivers ? on the Pacific along the coast (See Figs. How do rising coasts usually differ from sinking ? coasts EXERCISE LXII HARBORS of natural harbors on the Atlantic coast United States north of Virginia with the number from Virginia to Florida.154 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL this region of erosion or more of deposiwas the surface eroded more deeply in some places than in others ? Are the rocks now composing the ridges probably hard or soft? Give reason for your answer. How many elevated ? beaches or former shore the shape of the coast lines can you count in Fig.) Describe what you line see in Fig. Why is it appropriate to call this a "stern and rock-bound Has known more tion recently? Why coast -' ? It is said that a traced through New York former channel of the Hudson river can be bay several miles out into the ocean. 38. Account for the difference in number. Do drowned coasts always produce fiords ? When do What does this indicate as to the movement of the land at York? they not ? Of what use to men are fiords Name two notable examples of drowned rivers coast. in building artificial harbors Define breakwater . of a port with an artificial harbor? What ? are methods used dredge. 37 and 38. New Name another river on the Atlantic coast that has been drowned. How has the number of good harbors affected the growth of of the cities in the Compare the number two regions ? What natural features have been utilized to form a harbor at New York (see map if necessary)? at Philadelphia? at Boston? at New Orleans ? at San Francisco ? at Seattle and Tacoma ? at Manila ? at Liverpool ? Do you know of other natural features which make good harbors ? Do you know some of the .

Diamond. halite (salt). (Do not attempt to find the specific gravity of 8. Fluorite. running from the softest to the hardest.) Remarks. 10. Corundum. gypsum. Orthoclase.: ECONOMIC MINEKALS AND OEES EXERCISE LXIII 155 ECONOMIC MINERALS AND ORES The streak of a mineral is the color of its powder. chalcopyrite. 5. cuprite. . asbestos. Quartz. 7. Hardness. hematite. Examine each of the following minerals 8.) Make and fill a Name of specimen. The second four are forms of one. Can be scratched with It will scratch glass. Calcite. Apatite. Not so easily scratched. 9. but not Tale. copper. Cannot be scratched with a knife. Easily scratched with the point of a knife. 4. gold. calcite. 6. Following the scale Very soft. Where found in the table similar to the accompanying Use. 3. galenite (lead). salt. It will scratch glass. Color. Cannot be scratched by quartz. Can be scratched with the finger nail. magnetite. Streak. The hardest mineral. Cannot be scratched with the finger nail. Specific gravity. (The 1. Scratched with a knife. A series has been selected. United States. 7. 1. malachite. 6. 3. is of ten This called the scale of hardness. : pyrite. Harder than topaz. Gypsum. but not easily. 2. first four are forms of iron. 4. Topaz. as easily as talc. 5. The hardness is of rocks is usually given by number. Some minerals are much harder than others. azurite. 2. limonite. can be scratched easily with the finger nail. difficulty with a knife blade.

a mine. (6) salt works. Limestone has been called the graveyard of the sea. Note. (2) to calcite places and a smelter. Apply hydrochloric acid acid is and describe the is result. (5) a mint. What other specimen have you had which acts in this way when hydrochloric applied? (See Exercise LII.) of limestone Calcite the essential constituent of this rock. 39. EXERCISE LXIV LIMESTONE comes from. visit one or write an account of (3) more of the following what you see: (1) . 39. (4) a shot tower. Hawaiian Islands them. Where is found? Describe color. Tell where it Draw or describe different varieties of coral.156 If PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL possible. describe or draw A Church built of Coral. Make a drawing of one of the fossils. How do you suppose it was formed ? Describe the specimen of fossiliferous limestone. Where are corals found ? Are they found in large to sufficiently quantities be counted as builders of rocks? (See Fig. Give your drawing a title. at Lahaina. What chalk is there in this name which is appropriate? hardness. as it is and marble. ? If so. use. a foundry. Describe coquina limestone. texture. .) Do you know of other fossils which make limestone Fig. Tell where it comes from.

157 Test limestone with is What mineral have you proved to be pres- ent? (See Exercise LXIII. ? How do you account for the gas is presence of impurities What test is limestone used for? What obtained from limestone? to How is this gas sometimes used? fossils in Apply ? the acid marble. it Does the rock entirely disappear? not. Describe the structure of peat. Of what value is peat? Where did this specimen come from? Do you know of any near your home? Examine coal. draw one or more forms which you see. hydrochloric acid. From what places does your local supply of Examine peat. If your own. ? How does marble differ in appearance from limestone sils Do you find any marble How may ? fos- disappear from a rock while it is still underground EXERCISE LXV COAL Give color. structure. Do you find any evidence of the existence of vegetable matter in coal? If so. state where you got it. is not pure limestone.. . and record. For what is it Where is it found? used? Graphite is made up of carbon. Give your drawing a title. and " feel " of graphite. give reasons for adhering to this theory if not your own. Estimate specific gravity and compare with that of peat. How do the books explain the formation of coal? In what parts of the United States is it found? In what part is it found in largest quantities? Name two or three kinds of coal and compare their values for fuel. Give a theory of its formation. coal come? Which is considered best? Why? Describe color. Make a mental estimate of its specific gravity.) of This mineral acid to the essential con- stituent limestone. COAL Distinguish between chalk and crayon. Give color. either your own or that of the books. Add a very small piece of If limestone or to a small quantity of powdered limestone until all effervescence ceases.

little The heat drives off these constituents and there remains but carbon.158 Carbon is PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL found in both coal and peat. What change in color do you note? The most common color of carbon is black. A Petrified Arizona. gasoline. includ- ing kerosene. V'- s :-W > jBBKaHH^^BfcL . 40. and gas.X Fig. Peat is often some color the other than black because constituents are present other than carbon. It is also found in the leaves and stems of plants and trees. . lj& 1 A^i 32S7 'ffiaBwiBHI tt*ys£ X \jfc. and allow to remain ' i . p. constituent of the What change is is atmosphere do you note? What probably uniting with the peat? unites (See Exercise XL) Carbon found in all fuel. Why is a charred stick of it wood black? Apply it heat to the piece of peat until glows. Fossils. know about the healthfulness of this gas? Did you ever hear with the flue ? of a person being suffocated smoldering fire? Why should a gas or oil from the fumes of a stove be connected . Put a piece of peat on a metal plate and heat it slowly over Bunsen burner. / - XV'. 41) thus for several minutes. What constituent of the air with it What do you when it burns ? This forms carbon dioxide. Tree spanning a Gulch in the Petrified Forest of (See Topic 98.

2. How can you distinguish between calcite and quartz? between quartz and feldspar? between feldspar and hornblende? between feldspar and mica? between mica and gypsum of the 7. horna Make and fill table similar to the following. come from ? Black slate owes its color Pulverize and heat intensely hot a small amount of black slate. I of granite. mica.) in the slate? EXERCISE LXVI GRANITE Part Examine specimens blende. of specimen. Structure. feldspar. 5. Name Color. How can you distinguish between kaolin and chalk? Part II Examine and of granite. 6. 4. Hardness.GEANITE What is 159 the color of the soil in a bog? Where does the coloring matter probably to carbon. 3. Which component is found in greatest abundance? Which least abundantly? Is granite found near your Give home ? . Use. quartz. structure. thus burning out the carbon. and components of the piece which you have. Remarks. 1.) When kaolin. what other (See Exercise XI. describe the surface of a freshly fractured piece color. selenite variety? (Note the elasticity of the it flakes. pure feldspar decays makes a very fine clay called Examine and describe kaolin. What is the color of powder which remains? mineral was probably present the If it is red or brown. Other kinds.

shape. and structure of sandstone. Compare the shape with the shape of the fragments of breccia and account for the difference.160 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL Examine crumbling granite. color. what evidence? Test the cement for lime and record the result. These fragments lay at the base of a cliff. iron. The common cements in sandstone are lime. What do you suppose that had to do with the process of cementing the fragments together? Test and name the material forming the cement. Water seeping from the face of the cliff percolated through them. Describe size. Examine the cementing material between the fragments of the conglomerate. Are all the interstices filled ? Look closely for crystals. Examine the pebbles from the beach. Compare the fragments of conglomerate with the pebbles examined above. How many and what components can you discover? How does this specimen differ from solid granite ? What component seems to have suffered greatest decay? Put a small amount of highly decomposed granite in water. In which of your specimens do you find lime as a cement? In which iron ? In which clay ? In which do you find two kinds of cement present? describe color Examine and if Determine. good soil? Does decomposed granite make Does decomposed feldspar make good soil? EXERCISE LXVII FRAGMENTAL ROCKS Describe size and shape of the fragments composing breccia. of . and clay. ponent makes the water cally indestructible ? Which components settle to the bottom? Which commuddy? Which component is practi- What becomes ? of all of the grains of this material when granite decays Look for small grains of mica in the sand of a flowing stream. Do you find evidence of the presence of iron in the cement of any of the specimens of conglomerate ? If so. possible. what kind of fragments it is composed.

42. A Weir on the Truckee River. Nevada. 41. Water used for Irrigation 101 for measuring . A Young Fir Tree growing from a Crack in a Mass of Granite Fig.Fig.

and the materials of which they are composed are furnished by rivers and by the action of waves. 21) would probably be formed nearest the shore? Which is composed of materials that the water would carry farthest before depositing them ? putting that first Arrange the fragmental rocks in a series. 43. (See Fig. which was deposited nearest the shore and the others in the order of their deposition.162 Shale is PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL a fragmental rock.) Fragmental rocks are usually built under the water. for Irrigation California. Which of the fragmental rocks Fig. used for carrying Water from Bear Lake. (See Exercise LXV. . A Flume near Redlands. Can you readily see the frag- ments ? Account for the color of the specimen which you have.

Why? Are the same kinds used for foundations? decoration ? why? What kinds are used for interior ? Could these be used for exterior decoration as well Which Where do of these rocks are quarried or obtained near your home? the others slate come from? for How is used in building? the same purpose? stratified rocks Give reason Could granite be used for your answer. If blocks of were to be used in a wall. gray sandstone. Make and till a table similar to the following. 5. red sandstone. 3. slate. it can be worked. marble. and 1. 4. stone masons. 7. seek : information from property owners. should they be placed with the layers horizontal or vertical? Why? the surfaces Did you ever of the stones see an old stone building with crumbling? Why do they crumble? What kind of building stone crumbles least? Why? Is a dry or a moist climate more favorable for the preservation of a stone building? Do vines clinging to the surface of a stone wall cause the wall to weather more or less rapidly than it otherwise would ? Examine the following rocks granite. Source of local supply Remarks. contractors. . limestone. of stone. 6. Ease with which Durability. Use.) Name Color.BUILDING STONE EXERCISE LXVIII 163 BUILDING STONE What Which is kinds of stone are used for building in your vicinity? considered best? If not. others. (In addition to your observations. 2.

5. glaciers.) . a (If in piece of ? granite with a covering of lichens or a piece without lichens doubt. Examine granite having a growth of lichens on the Which would dry more quickly if thoroughly wet.164 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL EXERCISE LXIX DECOMPOSING AGENTS Part I What cise effect does heat have upon brass and iron ? (See Exer- XXXI. try it. What change of shape do you observe ? Which plate expands more upon being heated? Feldspar and quartz expand unequally when heated. (See Exercise Rivers. (See Exercise XI. Burrowing animals. 2. i Vegetation and roots.) To ascertain whether they are equally affected. heat a bar consisting of one brass plate and one iron plate. 3. Water.) ing of granite ? this aid or retard How will this affect the rate of weatherHow do lichens cling to the granite ? Will weathering? The decay of the roots makes an acid which the water carries into the granite. 4. LII. Will the presence of this acid aid or retard weathering? Part Write a paper 1.) waves. III of the following aids in the telling how each process of rock decay. Oxidation. (See Exercises XXXII and LIX. What effect will change of temperature probably have upon the texture of granite? Will a granite monument endure longer in a climate of uniform or changeable temperature? Part II surface.

3. of storing water for irrigation. Antiquity of irrigation. 1. 5. 8. of Irrigation in the United States. of distributing water for irrigation. 7.) . Losses of water in irrigation. (State books read and authorities consulted in writing your paper. 6. 4. Methods Methods Methods Methods of elevating water for irrigation. 2. of measuring water for irrigation. Extent of irrigation.IRRIGATION EXERCISE LXX 165 IRRIGATION Write a paper on one or more of the following phases irrigation.

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California Water and Forest Association. cents. Davis. Should the Forests be Water and Forest Association. Sons. Physical Geography. Tarr. Ginn. 60 cents. $1. Crosby. A Reader in Physical Geography for Beginners. FYee. Ginn & Company. Elementary Physical In Geography. Geographic Influences in American History.75. Educational Publishing Com00 cents.50. Dodge.APPENDIX LIST OF TEXT-BOOKS Davis. Appleton. Brigham. The Macmillan Company. Davis. to Gilbert and Brigham. Rocks and Minerals. Seed Dispersal. Elementary Meteorology. 1899. Heath. Bailey. Western United States. Plant Studies. 50 Bergen. Co. Beal. An Introduction Physical Geography. Appleton & 1902. Lessons 1901. $1. Coulter. Ginn. Fairbanks.25. 40 cents.50. California Preserved/ ing. Charles Scribner's D. Ginn. Long- 70 cents. Mills Build- San Francisco. Common Minerals and Pocks. Fairbanks. Elementary Physical Geography. . Dryer. Redway. mans. Physical Geography. Foundations of Botany. $2. Ginn. 1904. LIST OF REFERENCE BOOKS Macmillan. 1(57 Heath. Ginn & Company. New Physical Geography. pany. American Book Company. $1. $1. 1900. Principles of Agriculture. 1902.25.

) Free. Macmillan. Aspects of the Earth. Mountains of California. Practical Forestry. $1. Sea and Land. $1. United States Biological Survey. 45 cents. Heath. $1. Free. $1. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL Long-Range Weather Forecasts. Appleton. $2. Muir. 322. Shaler. 75 cents. Scribner.00. Bulletin No. North America. 34. North America. Elements of Astronomy. Lakes of North America. $1. Mead. Irrigation Institutions.50. 60 cents. Shaler. Russell. Harrington. Moore. Weather Bureau Stations and their Duties. Los Angeles. 10. Free. $1. American Book Company. Century Company. Free. Life Zones.50. King. United States Department of Agriculture.25.25.00. cents. Free. Volcanoes of Shaler. Scribner. Kenealy. Parts I and II. Ginn. Reprint from Year Book of the United States Department of Agriculture for 1902. $1. Appleton. $1. Russell. Bulletin No.50. Putnam.00. Climate.168 Garriott. Rivers of North America. Silver.20. - Book in Geology. About the Weather. 75 . Glaciers of North America.50. Kinney.75. $2. Heilprin. $1. United States Weather Bureau.50. Russell.00. A First Book of Forestry. Jordan and Kellogg. $4. Osterhout. Merriam. Macmillan. $1. and Crop Zones of the United States. United States Bureau of Forestry.00. Jordan. Shaler. The Soil. 75 cents. Irrigation and Drainage.50. Pinchot. Bulletin No. United.00. King. Roth. (Weather Bureau. Newcomb. $2. Weather Bureau. $2. Russell. Bacteria and the Nitrogen Problem. Post Publishing Company. Appleton. Bulletin No. Ginn. Macmillan. Shaler. Animal Life. The Earth and Its Story. Russell. McClurg. Experiments with Plants. Macmillan. Appleton. $2. Science Sketches. Macmillan.50. First Ginn. States Gifford. Parts I and II. $1. $1. 24. Appleton.50. Moore. Macmillan. Its Physical Basis and Controlling Factors. Story of Our Continent. Primer of Forestry. Forest and Water. Outlines of the Earth's History.

Jacobs. $1. Waldo. Report on Department of the the Petrified Forests of Arizona. Pupils' Work . $1. wide. 169 Macmillan. 18 inches Ward. Elementary Meteorology. stool.- Young. Interior. Principles of Agriculture. 48 inches length. Fig. Bulletin No. Economic Geology of the United States. (Bureau of Plant 65.APPENDIX Tarr.40. Tourney. United States Westgate. Ginn. Winslow. 45. $1. 24 inches in height Knee space. American Book Company. Reclamation of Cape Cod Sand Dunes. Height. Reprint from Year Book of the United States Department of Agriculture for 1903. Relation of Forests to Stream Flow. 12 feet.50. United States Department of Agriculture. Macmillan. Elementary Geology. 60 cents.) Winchell. Industry. Geological Field. Free.25. American Book Company. Walks and Talks in the $1. 36 inches . . $3.00. Tarr.50. Table in the Laboratory width. Lessons in Astronomy.

) lobe of Madison. . as . showing Cape Cod (Mass. . United States Coast and Geodetic Survey maps (50 cents each). Chatham. as . 170 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL LIST OP GOVERNMENT MAPS 25 cents. North Pacific ocean . Little Egg Harbor. 21 Assembled topographic coast of sheets. North Atlantic ocean. Koshkonong. logical Topographic Atlas. Wyoming. . Water- town. Janesville. topographic map of the United States Geo. Single maps cost 5 cents. 1 Doylestown (Penn. 3 cents each. 3 cents each. Eagle. Assembled topographic sheets. 6 sheets. the Yellowstone National Park. Asbury Park. sheets. Muskego. : Assembled topographic ancient glacier as follows showing Green Bay (Wis. Silver Lake.). showing plateau and divides of . Tide Tables for Pacific (or Atlantic) ports for current year. topographic map of the United States Geological Survey 3 cents. 4 sheets. Shopiere. Oconomowoc. Yarmouth 4 sheets. Atlantic City . Whitewater. United States Coast and Geodetic Survey 10 cents. Milwaukee^ Evansville. sheets. Shoshone. Folio No. United States Geological Survey. Lake . Delavan. follows : or is 1 The Geological Survey uses the term wholesale to include lots of one hundred more maps pmxhased at one time. Sun Prairie. Racine. Folio No. Pilot charts of the and Geodetic Survey 10 cents each. : Barnegat. Assembled topographic follows : sheets. as follows : Gallatin. 2 25 cents. United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. Canyon. 3 cents each. Geneva. Stoughton. Wellfleet. Waterloo. as follows showing barrier beaches off the Sandy Hook. Bay View. United States Coast 10 cents each.) sheet. Survey 3 cents wholesale. Same. The wholesale price of topographic maps given in each case. Provincetown. New Jersey. Map showing magnetic declination in the United States. Waukesha.. Brodhead. Canyon (Wyo. 6 cents each. 1 Same.) sheet. Long Beach.

free. 1902. Teacher's Cabinet Table in the Laboratory Large drawers at the right. . Average annual precipitation in the United States (with maps). Wall map of the United States. free. 5581 San Francisco entrance. . upper drawers at the left. to receive topographic maps (with partitions for mineral and other specimens). 5100 San Diego to Santa Monica. 22 X 10 X 10 inches Weather Bureau publications. 194 and 195 Mississippi river to 171 New Orleans. Fig. 120 New York bay. 22 X 22 X 5 inches. to receive large maps lying flat. a reprint from the Monthly Weather Review for April. to receive larger specimens and the smaller pieces of apparatus. as follows : map from Washington Daily weather map from local station Daily weather .APPENDIX 109 Boston bay.00. 110 Cape Cod bay. United States Department of the Interior: $1. 48 X 48 X 6 inches. 46. lower drawers at the left.

alcohol. maximum and minimum thermometer. sand. chemistry. watch crystals. ice. brightly soap. filter and acid. slated globe. blocks of wood.172 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL LIST OF APPARATUS AND SUPPLIES only such Note. photographers' hypo. Bunsen burner. yardstick. old electric-light bulb. mathematics. wire and rubber band. rain meridian. pneumatic trough. 8-inch globe with movable fit globe. gravel. suffi- number to supply pupils of largest class when working . steel wool. corks. This a large part school. hydrometer. mirror. if is list includes apparatus and supplies as It will are. hydrochloric apparatus for distilling water. paper. polished metal cup. lever with salt. bar magnet. pointer. mercury. the teacher of physical geography can the departments of these things. candle. specific-gravity balances and box of weights. and. wet and dry bulb thermometer. about forty different kinds. triangular glass prism. string. cient in in pairs. pestle. teakettle. alum. test tubes. Lead bullet. mortar funnel. beaker. sand. pasteboard circle to gauge. specifically referred to in Part II of this manual. barometer. rubber stoppers. necessary. ether. same for generating carbon dioxide. apparatus and materials for generating oxygen. blowpipe. adjustable pinchcock. glass jar with straight sides. empty bottles. clay. air pump. mounted magnetic needle. tumbler with straight sides. draw upon and geology for Gyroscope (may be homemade). glass tubing. Rotating machine with brass rings. Torricellian tubes. be observed that probably already in the possession of the average high physics. Mineral and rock specimens. sea water. V-shaped trough. evaporating dish. box of tacks.

152 and 'sinking. 14. 38 . 83-92 of low. 41.) topographic sheet. 91 Clouds. economic value migrations of. 23. 13-15 physical properties of.J. 32. Atmospheric pressure. 68. 40. 9. 70. 7. 5. 48 Coast forms. 9. 57 Assembled topographic 128. 9. 87. 66 Axis of the earth. 117 Canyon (Wyo. Climate. 93 sheets. 47 Canyon of the Yellowstone. 159. drainage. 163 axis. 107.INDEX Abrasion. 6. 13. 23. rainfall of. glaciers. Charleston (W. 29. 7. Absolute humidity. Va. 9. 66 66 changes of. 39 Coastal plains. 46-51 changes in. 21 noon elevation of sun. 4.) topographic sheet. 152 Building stone. 41. 70.) topographic sheet. 150 6. 136. 21 Capacity for water vapor. 10. 119 Basins. Carbon dioxide. 6. 20 Beaches. 159 Apparatus. 14 72 6. 38. 44. 96 Climatic regions of the United States. 38. 158 Argentina. 71 Carbon. 49 47 Anticyclones. 18 Coasts. 59 Clay. to life. 158. 40. 31. 67 Circle of illumination. 93 150 Atmosphere. 117 Chile. 71 Alluvial cones. 37-39 Coast outlines and civilization. 133-135 173 rising drowned and elevated.) topographic sheet. 97. 117. 149. 21 9. 33 Cardinal points. 150 Barriers to migration. 128 Angle of inclination of earth's 63 of Buttes. 24. 98 Animals. 47. 105 Atlantic City (N. 10. 24. 137 Centrifugal force. 121 Boothbay (Me. 6-8 constituents of. 105. Ancient 4. Base level of erosion. 13 relation of. 61 Calms. Clinometer. 112 Beheading of a stream. 83-92 Canyons. 157 movements Barrier beaches. list of. 61 Barometer. rainfall Artesian wells. 20. 48 distribution of. 157. 120 interior. of. 24. 6. 7 Coal. 151. weight and pressure of. 160 87 general movements saturated. 60 Caverns. 170 Assorting power of water. 43. 98 Bad lands. 137. factors of. 57 Centripetal force. 172 of. 97. 58 15 zones of. 114 of.

49 of geography. 30-31. 8. Crevasse. 145-147 of snow. Deltas. 59 of magnetism. 126 Drowned coasts. 76. 96 Currents. 47 of man. 120 Colorado river. 56 4 of crust of. Dead sea. 142 Cyclones. 30 Corrasion. 7 Debris cones. 99 Contour lines. 39. 25 of sand dunes. 4. 49 of rivers. magnetic. 43. 111. 7. 128 Dunes. 71. 75. 88 of irrigation. 29. 23 43. 135 Colors of sky. 24. 15 direction of axis of. 77 of minerals. 118. 91 of coast lines.) topographic sheet. 165 Day and night. 90 winds in. 88-91 forward movements precipitation in. 23. 35. 76 Condensation. 11 in. 29. 19. 131 Continental glaciers. 108. 112 Doldrums. 19 form 1-50 of. migration of. 39 of deserts. 24. 108 motions movements structure of. Dismal swamp. 15-19 Crystals. 6 of building stone. 16 Crescent beaches. 19-21 of topography. 34. imperfect. 99 Contour maps. 126 58 Creep. 87 Donaldson ville (La. 10. 112 Declination. 134. 139 Deserts. 120 Continental outlines. 28 in a levee.) topographic sheet. 29 Dew. 151 Eagle (Wis. 101 Coral reefs. 30 of the sea. 89 of. 19. 45. 49 of atmosphere. 38. 70 Combustion. 152 Drumlins. 4. 50 temperatures tropical. 29 of fertilizers. 107 Doylestown (Pa. 163 of climate.) special topographic sheet. 45 of forests. 36. 69 Cones.1 174 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL Divides. 24. 26 of weather. 72 of soil. 119. 20 Crater. alluvial. 3-0 as a whole. 27 Economic importance of animals. 104 Density of sea water. 129 Earth among planets. 120 Drainage. 4. 133 Distribution of animals and plants. 157 of mountains. 1 . 22. 135 length of. 6. 37. ) topographic sheet. 115 perfect. 37 Contour interval. 28. 68 Compass. glacial. 118 Consequent streams. 136 Cucamonga 112 (Cal. 44 Disintegration and erosion. 26. 23. 18 of plants. 51 120 of volcanoes. Crater lake (Ore. 15. 77 Decomposing agents. 38. of. 45. 67.) topographic sheet. 128 Drainage areas of the United States. 25. Earthquakes. 23. 155.

Frost. 134 Gulf stream. 83-92 Icebergs. 10. 39. 45 High barometer. 29. 7 Forests. 36 Interior basins. 136. 88. 135-188 Gulf of California. 33 Glaciation. 41 Lagoons. 107. 123 Levee. 126 Fans. 128 to. 50 of civi- hakes. 156 45 Islands. 144 10. 93 Great Salt lake. 184 salt. 8 Hail. 113 Light. 142 Gyroscope. Freezing mixture. 100 Fragmental rocks. 127. 6. 140 Great plains. 49 Iron. 104. 107 Flood plains. 23 life Geographical factors in the lized peoples. 134 Limestone. 11 Ice. 77. topographic forms due 29. 58 Magnetic declination. 112 Fertilizers. 70 Hurricanes. 152 Equinox. 40. 105 soil. 30. 82-34. 51 . 41. 127 piedmont. 19-21 base level of. Geysers. 57. 31 22. rainfall of. 28 Lava. 12 Lands. 19. 69. 50 Hachurts. 40 Grand river. 69. 76 Man. 42 Insolation. 134 Extinct volcanoes. conditions of. 68. 20. 77 Magnetism. 131 extinct. 68. 5 Low barometer. 28 on Mt. 05 Erosion. Shasta. 74 Granite. 99 distribution of. 93 42. Evening and morning glow. 7 Isotherms. 42. 69. 83-91' Ground water. 117 Gas. 46-51 and nature. 27. 20 Longitude. 104. 36. 152 Floes. 148 Heat. 101 137 119 Evaporation. Humidity. 70. 9. 123. 83 82 Isohyetals. Harbors. 40. 50. 128 ancient. Forestry as related to Fossils. 37. 108 Life. 23. 41. 37 Isobars. 31 Land breeze. 39.INDEX / >J Electricity. 159 Gravity. 156 Load of a stream. 154 Hardness of a mineral. 8. Glaciers. alluvial.' 31. 8. 6. 128-131 05 continental. 8. 155. 7 Elevated coasts. 76 Extinct lakes. 15 Landslides. Fog. 9 Fiords. alpine. 104 Kanawha river. 8. 144 Igneous rocks. 155 Headlands. 31. 159 Irrigation. 5. 81. 27 Latitude. 45.

71. 7. 18 glaciers. 110 Petroleum. 42 Migration of plants and animals. 47 ancient. Taylor (N. 46. 60 Ocean. 24. 8. 129 Mt. 34 Old region. Profile 37.) topographic sheet. 68 contour. Rainbow. 170 Oxbows. 107 volcanic. 40. Ocean currents. 119 Ores. 127. Shasta. 114 Relative humidity. representation of. 51 of. in. 96. 60 North star. 32-36 life in. 115 changes 47. 24. 119 in youth. 7 18 economic aspects of. 66 Moraines. 101 Oxygen. 23. 117 Meanders. 10. 48 of divides. causes kinds life 16 of. 41 in equatorial regions. 167 Refraction. 75 17 Rainfall. 102 from hypsometric map of United States. 47 Plants. 58.M. 8. 19. 28. Natural gas. 170 hachure. 67 on the Pacific coast. 23. 110 Pocket beach. sand. 119 of Yellowstone park. 100 Marshall (Mo. 61 Norfolk (Va. 150. 117 36 Region in maturity. 23. 110 Merced river. 39-43. 64. 127 Mt. 93. 155 in old age. economic value Plateaus. 5. 120 of waterfalls. 10. 38. 35-142 Ocean water. 3. 30 North and south line. 98-102 . 18 49 migrations and barriers. 50 Nitrogen. 55 Plant zones. 39. 95. 108 Mesas. 151 Reference books. Moon. Mountains. 126 Mt. 106. 48 of. 73 Relief. 140 Pressure. 19. 93. 118. Mazama. 133 of tides. 98 in cyclones history of. 155-164 Mississippi river. 123 from contour map. 128. 123 Missouri river. atmospheric. 23 Oxidation.) topographic sheet. 150 9. 25. 100. 35. 24. 151. 67 Percolating water. 17 and anticyclones. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL 51 Organically formed rocks. 98 Races of mankind.) topographic sheet. Rain. 51 Metamorphic rocks. 41 Marshes. 32 government. 98 Range of temperature. 74 23. 21 Reefs. 140 Rapids. 157 Maps. assembled topographic. 97 Noon. 21 Planets. 6. 13. 25.176 Man. races of. 28 Mature region. coral. 96 Nature and man. 117 Minerals and rocks. 156. 19. 117. 13. 30 Piedmont Plains.

123. 59 moon. 24 Rivers. 77 Sand dunes. 35 . 23. of 4. 42. 122. of. 145 Terraces.) topographic sheet. •water. 123 Snow. caves. 139 38. 57. by 44 forests. 106 Solids in solution. 24 Stars. 8. 49 metamorphic. 24. distances of. 4. 32. 144. Veins. 87. 26. 7 Volcanic phenomena. 33. 155. range of. 177 59 Solstice. 149 encroachment 152. 26 Soil as affected fertility of. 157 Spectrum. 63 Swamps. 19 43-46 3. 134 30. 21-25 Soundings. 19-21. 140 37. 4. 160 Rocks. 123 Volcanoes. 157 volcanic. 75. 42 fragmental. 8. 55 6. 137 evening and morning glow Volcanic peaks. 8.INDEX Revolution of earth. 97 and man. 22 Sky.) special topographic sheet. color 76 of. 5. Storms. 127 Underground waters. Waterfalls. 155 Struggle for existence. 135 Waves. 32-34. 45 Volcanic rocks. 150-154 59 Topographic maps. 26. of. of. 156. 137 history of. 135-138 Valleys. 11 Trade winds. 160 Streak of a mineral. 42. 12 Tides. 42. 3. disintegration igneous. extinct. 35. encroachment on. 31. 121 systems. 76 of. plateaus. 48. 8 average. 154 148-150. and necks. 10. 32. 56 Rock waste. 22 Text-books. 134 Temperature. 7. 38. Sedimentary rocks. 58 Sunrise and sunset curves. from earth. 120 typical. 34. 40. 34 Specific gravity. 123. 12 36. 29 Scale of hardness. 33. 135 River piracy. 126 typical. bottom. 25 kinds Soils. 37. 167 Thunderstorms. 61 Sun Prairie (Wis. 8-12 19 Stratitird rocks. Water vapor. 133 Talus. 105 of. 75 economic importance life 25 Springs. 42 organically formed. 44 residual. 69-74 Solar system. 32 Stalactites. 145 Salt lakes. 34 breeze. 87 Tropical cyclones. Sailing routes. 128 Rotation of earth. 5. 19 Salton sea. 11 Seasons of the year. 26. 21. 170 Tornadoes. 155 Sea. 12-'! Sun. 64 Solution. 160 Shasta (Cal. 88.

44. westerly. 102 and soils. 43-46 > Yellowstone (Wyo. 107. 12 Zones of climate. 87 local. 114 Winds. 87 . 86 Weathering.178 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY MANUAL Yellowstone river. 11. 43. 107. 114 Young region.) topographic sheet. 9-2 Weather maps. 133 13. 114 Weather forecasting. 171 Weather observations. 8-12. 96 of vegetation surrounding a lake.

NOTEBOOK .

all Answer questions. Do not hesitate to use the pronouns Zand we when is necessary. in the present . statements of scientific or general truths. making complete sentences. so make clear reading without reference to the printed instructions. statements of what you did should be in the past tense tense. Your notes should be an exposition that they will of the subject treated. clean-looking page. are asked to do and state in writing what you Your sentences should not be imperative. Do what you did. Make as many paragraphs in your written notes as there are in the printed instructions. . In general. In class experiments the impersonal form generally preferable.INSTRUCTIONS TO PUPILS Make a neat.

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