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Nos. A. LESSONS PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. BY WALTER WELLS. 1861.] WELLS'S SERIES OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHIES. 5 & 7 MERCER STREET. .IREE BOOKS. NEW YORK: PUBLISHED BY MASON BROTHERS. _ [BOOK FIRST. M.

making as are a school-book upon my principle has been to choose such facts only as are broad- est in their scope. have endeavored to bring this little essay within the capacity of such scholars as can read with tolerable proficiency. and get discipline for his understand- memory for ing. practicable. and secondly. let the teacher. Physical Geography it is not a distinct science. short phrases. Side-notes have been placed upon the pages to show the pupil the progress of the thought. by Walter Wells. study the side-notes as a part of the lesson. of or gleaning from many it sciences . with the statement of facts. Instead of point-blank questions. . but a summary . sets forth the causes of and the reasons for the facts. 3. I have presented the rationale of the facts. or Physico-Statistical Geography. 5. in a word. and recitation. for the greater part first. so far as 2. and anthropolog3r An exhaust- ive Physical Geography would exhaust in all natural science. of Maine. 4. The latter two simply is state facts it . in the Clerk's office of the District Court of the United States. as come nearest to being -universal in space and I time. the former. Hence. let every learner But they will be good for nothing unless the scholar uses them. and in the department of Organic Existence. on his part. ology . discussing the Earth and Lands. careful to . getting lost in the book. . and to indicate the bearing of particular facts and reasonings upon the general argument. as well as furniture for his memory. take notice of and remark upon them at 7. combines a discussion of the facts . 2S S4j PREFACE ®t* 1. 6. very generally in the form of short chains of argument. I have written catch-words. They are guide-hoards to keep the scholar from Therefore.Entered according to Act of Congress. Physical Geography must not be confounded with Physico-Descriptive. and to that end have digested the matter into perhaps a too readily receivable form. under the head of Climate. and not as mere statements to be comthus he will use his materials as fast as he acquires them. in the year 1861. borrows from astronomy and geology it contemplating The Waters. it touches upon botany. — most multifarious in their connections and relations. The teacher must be very mitted to have the pupil get hold of them as chains of argument. gathers its materials from universal hydrography. zoology. to compel the close attention of the pupil to the discussion at recitation. to save the breath of the teacher. this subject. simply combines the more comprehensive facts of meteor.

Charts. 5. 2. Showing the Causation of the Tides. two. _-_----_-__-____„ -62 -------------------91 ------------. Lee & Co. by Rev. 3. -----97 gg gij 5*. King. Co-tidal Lines and Ocean-Tempekature. Monsoons. Lake-Systems. Starr pictorial illustrations. 1.." Maps. Distribution of Rain and Snow. MAPS. ----------------------------------------------------87 ----------89 -----«-. Boston. Special Winds.MAPS. i. are from the " White Hills. their Legends. 4. AND DIAGRAMS. 3. Isotherms. 6. DIAGRAMS. River-Systems. namely Chocorua and Mt. and Poetry. Published by Crosby. The Alternate Bands of Hot and Cold Water in the Gulf-Stream. 5. Ocean-Currents. Fertile Soil. ----------59 ------------66 - 1. 6. 8. CHARTS.-23 ---------Page. Representing the Earth in its present shape surrounded by its atmosphere. and Diagrams executed by Rae Smith. Showing the Influence of the Earth's Shape upon its Temperature. iq 10 - - Of the T. The Temperature of the Gulf-Stream at different depths. . Hurricanes. 105 CHARTS. N. Winds. Washington. 1. Desekts. Explaining the Cause of the Change of Seasons. Y. and the arrangement of its waters and atmosphere. 2. Representing the Earth as cubical in form. 2. Landscape. Representing the great Tide-waves on the opposite sides of the Earth. Nichols. Illustrating the Influence of different Slopes upon Temperature. Contour and Elevation of the Lands.-95 -----------------41 -----. Volcanoes. Depression of the Sea-Bed. Illustrating the General System of Surface-winds. 7.

Magnitude of the Earth. Periodical. . The Distribution op Volcanoes. ORGANIC EXISTENCE. The General Adaptations of Plants. Food-Plants. Islands.. 16 Mountains. Adaptation of Animals Plants and to 105 109 to 113 Man Faunas. Temperate-Zone. 84 89 THE ELEMENTS OE CLIMATE. Adaptation of Animals to the Inorganic "World. 5 PART THE EARTH CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER I. Phtsico-Descriptive View of the "Western Continent 36 . Hills. Fitness op the System of Rains. Temperature.—The Tides. VII. 42 PART II.. CHAPTER XVII. The Causes thereof. 16 18 PART III. . and Special "Winds. CHAPTER XIV.—Man's Physical Characteristics. CHAPTER XXII. General Views of Rain. Rationale of the Tides. Physico-Geographical Definitions. Position op the Earth. Distribution of Rivers CHAPTER XVI. Reasons for the Existence op Lakes.. CHAPTER XXIII.— General Views of the Winds. . . The Distribution of Plants. . CHAPTER XIII.. Physico-Descriptive View op the Eastern Continent. Animals. TAGE. The Distribution of Fertility 29 II. CHAPTER IX. The Distribution of Deserts. . 20 V. The Extent of the Ocean. Distribution op Lakes. Physico-Descriptive View of the Constant Ocean-Currents. Volcanoes. The Polar. The Variety of Plants. Deserts. The Distribution of Plains. CHAPTER XXIV. The Stability of Terrestrial Temperature. Co-tddal Lines CHAPTER XII. The Distribution op Mountains IV. Lakes. The Forms of the Lands. T H E "WATERS. Classification' of "Winds. Reasons for the Existence of Rivers. 48 52 56 59 62 66 10 . . .. The Position op the Lands. ..TABLE OF CONTENTS. . Descriptive View op the Races 118 122 125 . . ATVD THE LANDS. Physico-Descriptive View op the Several Oceans. Isotherms CHAPTER XX. CHAPTER XXVI.. 9 The Amount op Land. The Distribution op Islands. Classification and Causation of the Ocean-Currents. 24 VI. Distribution op Rain. 92 95 100 PART ' IY. The Distribution of Animals. Variable. Modifications of Temperature CHAPTER XIX. 13 III. The Saltness op the Ocean. Reasons for the Existence of Ocean-Currents. . The Temperature of the Ocean CHAPTER XI. VIII. Rivers. . CHAPTER XVIII. The Floras of the Several Zones CHAPTER XXV. Plateaus. Soil. The Depth op the Ocean.—The Human Races. and Tropical CHAPTER XXVII. The Shape of the Ocean-Basin. I. . Motions op the Earth. Reasons why the "Winds Blow CHAPTER XXI. The Distribution of Plateaus. Constant. CHAPTER XV. The Shape op the Earth. Plains. CHAPTER X. Man's Intelligence and Position CHAPTER XXVIII. .

Its Surface.DEFINITIONS/ SECTION 1. are sufficiently familiar with these elementary definitions. Is an imaginary line passing center. Is the distance round it. 1 5. Globe or Sphere. and its revolution about the Sun. the The Axis of the Earth. called respectively the North and South Poles. Are 8. I. and terminating A 3. through its center from side to Its rotation upon its axis. 2. surface. . CLIMATE. the ends of axis. The Poles of the Earth. 7. having studied Geog- . measured on a Great Concerning what does Physical Geography teach Circlet 6. The Circumference of the Earth. the * This Chapter be omitted by such pupils as. It teaches concerning the earth and lands. through the Earth's at its The Earth is from North to South. its Is 4. may f A Great Ctrcle is one that divides the Sphere into equal parts Equator. raphy. is a Great Circle. AND ORGANIC EXISTENCE. WATERS. composed of land and water. The Diameter of the Earth. What are the Earth's principal motions ? Is the distance side. or any Meridian.

and West Longitude distance West 21. at the Poles 90°. 20. either North or South. the Tropic of Capricorn. Extends from the North Pole the Arctic Circle.DEFINITIONS. The Eastern Hemisphere. England. SECTION 9. the 28. it means Half of the Earth. II. the Southern. Is called the Arctic Circle. imaginary extending East and "West around the Earth. . The Torrid Zone. The South-Temperate Zone. the Earth. through the Poles of the Earth. "What is Is distance East. The North-Frigid Zone. Are imaginary from East 13. Parallels of latitude. is Hemisphere "West of the Prime Meridian. and dividing the Earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. parallel with the Line. Distance North of the Equator. 18. 23. circles extending round the Earth Lies East of the Prime Meridian the Western to West. Lies between the two Tropics The. The Northern Hemisphere. Low Is half of a globe or sphere when applied to latitudes. circles Are imaginary extending North and South 29. the Soutliern Hemis- The Are imaginary circles drawn round the Earth from it. CIRCLES ON THE GLOBE. Is North Latitude . Is called the the Southern 26. There are The Northern Tropic. in all directions Is distance ridian. High latitudes are near the Poles i. it is 0°. Is Distance from the Equator. at an equal distance from each Pole. 30. Tropics. Antarctic Circle. e. . Latitude reckoned. South of the Equator. In general from the Prime Meridian of Greenwich. 12. The South-Frigid Zone. A hemisphere. South Latitude. . the Equator. Circle. East Longitude. parallel with the Equator. SECTION 22. Tropic. and two Frigid. 17. and intersecting the Equator at right angles. 25. Tropic of Cancer . In degrees from the Equator to the Poles the Line 14. near the Line. Lies between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Meridians. : at Lies North of the Line phere. III. 11. —one Torrid. 16. East or "West from any given me- Extends from the South Pole to the Antarctic Circle. hence it is some- times called the tropics. or Equinoctial Line line ? An reckoned.Polar Circles. . Antarctic Circle. Are Zones. two Temperate. of any given meridian. 24. 180° East and West. divisions of the Earth's surface formed by five the Tropics and Polar Circles. HEMISPHERES. . in all directions to Longitude. South of the Line. Lies between the Tropic of Cancer and the ArcThe Northern tic Circle. . Are imaginary allel lines drawn round the Earth par27. — ZONES. with the Tropics. Latitude. Longitude is the Equator. 23° 28' distant from the The North-Temperate Zone. 23° 28' distant 15. Zones. 19. 10. Poles.

Peninsulas. An a Channels. Asia. Island. melted earth and rocks. An Ocean. As respects elevation above 44. continent. Is an edge or margin of land bordering on the Shores or Coasts. en- 49. 34. Islands differ from continents. Is Continents ? an elevated A Mountain. A Shore or Coast.DEFINITIONS. The land is lofty precipitous 43. Seas. a THE NATURAL DIVISIONS OF LAND. i. SECTION 31. Another Grand Division. body of salt water. definition that is commonly defined. called Oceanica. plain. Bays. Meridian. 40. and mostly surrounded by Land. The waters are divided into. Oceans. Is a ies narrow neck of land joining two larger bod* A Mountain of land. Embraces and Africa. tlie sea. Only in size. Lakes. Straits. A Volcano. A Gulf or Bay. cape is called a promontory. composed entirely of islands in the Pacific and InIs THE NATURAL DIVISIONS OF WATER. divided into. body of land smaller than a surrounded by water. Is a point of land extending into the water . Grand Divisions. and ains. e. A Plateau. Is tirely 39. Isthmuses." a . and Rivers. How many : Grand 46. Geography. of land. The Eastern Continent embraces whatl three Is a mountain that sends forth gas. 38. Is a vast area of land nowhere entirely disjoined 45. 51. Prime Meand the Western lying West of the Prime lying East of the The Eastern Is a mass of elevated land of great height but of limited extent* 47. and are themselves islands. dian Oceans. " A vast elevation more properly applies to a plateau. or broken by the sea. Capes. A Plain in level. Is a vast 50. for the continents are surrounded by water. 37. An Isthmus. 33. 36. 42. ing and broken. flame. A Cape. and Mount- Is a surface of land moderately elevated. Is a body of salt water smaller than an ocean. generally though perhaps somewhat undulat- A Continent. Continents. smoke. from an open- ing called a crater. Gulfs. It is divided into Plains. 32. Islands. Archipelagoes. Embraces two Grand and South America. Is a portion of land almost 41. Sounds. V. The Western Continent embraces what 1 Divisions. Is a part of some larger body of water extending into the land. Plateaus. North America SECTION 48. Two ridian . A Peninsula. Europe. 35. IV. water. added by some geographers. surrounded by water. and lava. A Sea.

ands. An Archipelago. and uniting two Is a 54. surround- ed by land. Is a body of water interspersed with many isl- Is a shallow Strait or Channel. PORTLAND HARBOR. 56. A Lake. Is a passage of water wider than a strait. ME. 57. _j . 52. 55. narrow passage of water. A Strait. 53. upon the land. Is a body of water either salt or fresh. Is a large stream of water flowing -^^^=5#i^^ WHITE HEAD. portions of land. A Sound. separating two bodies of water. A Channel.DEFINITIONS. A River.

MOrXT WASHINGTON. 1. all parts of a mass are drawn How did it get this shape towards 1 its The Earth was once molten with heat. why it | should be globu- a distribution of light and heat. of gravity. Why ought the Earth to be globular 1 Cause of its shape. 2. The Position of The Motions of the Earth.PART THE EARTH AND I THEE LANDS. by which center. of . No other form would allow such ! Reasons lar. I The Magnitude of the Earth. like a drop of quicksilver or melted lead 4. 3. the Earth. 1 It thus became round in virtue of the attraction Globular or Spherical. What /owe made it round 1 What is the Shape of the Earth. and it then became round. CHAPTER The Shape of the Earth. THE SHAPE OF THE EARTH.

899 miles. air and water. 10.l cause both the air and the water would deep enough 8. Diagram 2d. and flattens at the Poles. is The diameter 7. Thus scarcely any part of the Earth would be habas the Polar regions itable. The shading shows how waters sprung upward thirteen miles at the Equator. belie Ko. 7. as would be consistent with the of organic existences. Hence air to breathe over the would have no water at all. The Earth's mean diameter.925 miles. low is the atmosphere which surrounds 1 Yet the cover the whole tropical region of the P al't so thick through as the Earth.* Earth* Also. 9. to drown them. The difference. What makes it bulge and flatten 1 Cause thereof. . plant or animal could live upon the edges and corners. rotation of the just as Earth upon the clay upon a pot- i ter's wheel bulges and flattens in parts correspond- ing to the Equator and Poles. life No 1st. is round. shal- If were not. and the edges and corners of the Earth would protrude beyond them for hundreds of miles. bulges at the Equator. of the Earth from Pole to Pole. a mighty continuous arch spanning from Pole Pole! * See to how and atmosphere would be piled up into ovals. of the Earth is The mean diameter 12. nevertheless can and does cover the atmosphere though only -jg-tr" Globe to the depth of miles above the tallest mountains where. It represents the Earth as cat right clown through thin dark rim. Minimum diameter.* Book Second of Series for a fuller presentation. the waters would Reasons therefor. 1 Is the ? The Earth's sphe- It is spheroidal. Its Equatorial diameter is twenty-six miles greatIt represents the al or square in form. e. 14. of the Earth through the Equator side.10 GENERAL YIEWS OF THE Life EAKTH. 11. 7. 'Nor To illustrate this. spherelike in roiditv. form . THE MAGNITUDE OE THE EAKTH. Why it is the Earth's form spheroidal 1 the center. upon the edges and corners. so that the Earth's crust in the center. whole earth because the Earth plants and animals have ivhole 6. The its axis. and as cut right Earth as (by supposition) cubicdown through the er than is its Polar diameter. and by the shows how it. comfort or even 5. Earth perfectly spherical i. is 7.912 miles. for no air or water would be there. Maximum diameter. The diameter from side to 13. draw and explain Diagram could they live in the middle part of the sides.

our temperature would rise to 29. which now * See Book Second of Series. it. VIEWS OF THE EARTH. THE POSITION OF THE EARTH. Sixty-eight thousand (68. find that adaptation to the wants of the living things that dwell upon the face of the Earth. but would then be over If Why the average we were twice as . waste of waters. in were doubled. and vast a diurnal Rotation upon Rapidity of would occupy the major part of the land. it revolved less rapidly.000 square miles Solid During the Winter of the Northern Hemisphere it is Contents.GENERAL 15. an annual Revolution round the Sun. Principal motions of the Earth. Would miles. living things require an it atmosphere about fifty miles deep. being as now. the atmosphere live would be so deep that no created thing could for all During the Winter we are 3. six- Man even at tion it ty-one times has not yet succeeded subduing the Earth ball. miles. Earth's size just right. If the Earth's diameter In the temperate zone of the Solar System. . it is just right. more rapid than the winged cannonand six-hundred times swifter than the arrowy under the supposiits present dimensions would have a four-fold greater surface. 32. THE MOTIONS OE THE EARTH.000. from the Sun. How deserts 30. ly a cover the entire Globe to the depth of and so our now beautiful World would be on- located. 28. and its axis. just suited to the ne- of the case in its every particular.000) miles an hour. 25. because all it is and animals.000.000 of miles nearer the Sun than during the Summer. 20. lands would be so enormously expanded that Two 81. Other dimensions.000. : The deserts 22. animal. Suppose first. During the Summer of the Northern Hemisphere is one and a half millions of miles farther off from the Sun. and his task in subduing it would be too mighty for him. 200. in . 23. it Suppose. of the Earth in round num- 24. When are we nearest the Sun ? Then everything in it . 17. its revolution. diameter to be halved. however. our average temperature would if half so far to 30° below zero 400° above zero. 95.* So that the Earth is The waters moreover. 16. rain-winds could not reach their interiors. two-hundred. .000. Finally.000 miles. else 27. flight of the eagle.820. distance is as it is. 11 Earth's circumference in miles. man would have too heavy a burden. 196. 19. an hour in 21.000 of miles. When nearer the Sun ? Area of surface. The Earth just When farther off? It can be shown that the Earth's is large enough. As it is. magnitude cessities 18. the length of the year What then of the Earth's magnitude ? Reasons revolves as why it it would in perfect be increased. nor plant could live inhabitants. would result.000 (two-hundred-thousand nearer the Sun by one and one half millions of million) cubic miles. 26. Then. fall Sun. far from the Earth's position just right. and all plants does. Average distance of the Earth from the Sun. exactly that part of it where just enough of to secure the light Then the atmosphere would be so shallow and and heat of its falls upon the Earth comfort rare that neither man. is The circumference bers 25.

activity. If were to revolve it miracle could keep more swiftly. the glare. so that every living thing 37. Why does the Earth rotate at all 1 Both would ter. the drought of the one. same 1 Secondly. each day would be six months long and each night six the heat. to fulfill locity in would enable the Globe to keep on its track spite of the enormous attractive force of the Sun. cannon-ball is . . Why not rotate in forty-eight hours ? World would be would 38. because their natural rest 42. lahor and food-supplies. by an inexorable law it . The plants. the continuous daylight for rest. what of heat and cold 40. no other rotates in the turned into confusion and discord. of deep and sleep-favoring darkness. truly as to animals. times of labor and rest to man. as the blinding darkness and the palsying cold . after subtract- and in the long Winters the ing twilight and the day. would if perish. would find harmony cisely the same impulse. In point of labor. 45. die a death lingering and terrible. rest and thought the other too long for and slumber. most striking the Man alternation their and animals have to hide themselves from of day and night. starved Even prevented from flying would be infringed upon. 33. it the vari- ous functions of their life. be destructively extreme the "Win- doubled in length and augmented in severity. Plants need upon an average twelve hours a day of sunlight and twelve of shade. no plant. nor harvests ripen the food-supplies of the living 44. of the other. reproduction. The year would be shortened. the fact to the impulse of the creative hand no * See Second Book of Seriea. compelled of their constitution. and plants bow heads and go to sleep before sunset. and even vegconstitution . in part is Lastly. no animal. 43. its the unit for measureffect. 41.* Thirdly. 39. mature. for man. broken. off. Sailors are the shortest-lived of men. and plants ness. in mid and in high latitudes. If the Earth were to revolve less rapidly. the one too long for wakeful. cut off. nothing but a from flying from the Sun into and frozen. would be as utterly destructive to all life. . If it di'd not. less than eight hanced 35. times now just in harmony with the length of day of plants. would freeze vegetation to death. and thus everything Both day and night would be too long animals. As to plants also. Thus. We know nothing about we can only refer . ing time. Its physical cause. its -period. This is especially true of plants in low latitudes. The Earth's Rotation. whereas men and ani- chances and the severities of famine would be en- mals require on an average not hours. No man. a trifle less than can habitually wake or sleep twenty-four hours. nothing but the miraculous interposition of God could prevent it from falling into the Sun no inferior ve. plants could not . animals. fall into the Sun. at the Equator. 34. Why not rotate in twelve hours 1 The etable periods of labor would be protracted beyond Because there would be only 44- hours per diem the endurance of the humaiij animal. of the Solar System received prefor length adaptation to their periods of growth and the beautiful other member time.040 miles per The Earth'B rotation and its rationale. in case of a short crop. we say. 36. If the Earth should revolve more swiftly. and the Summer would parch and wither whatever should escape the frosts. and the outer darkness and cold of space. . for the day-time is the time for work to plants as .12 GENERAL in VIEWS OF THE EARTH. Day. Maximum hour that of a called a velocity 1.

1 196. more numerous than Islands. than the vastness of the oceans has delayed that scarcely do 54. So Area of the Earth's surface. CHAPTER II. its Magnitude. it. 47. much of the . The Position of the Lands. diminution of the present to restore that it amount of land tends The vastness of the lands tercourse of by obstructing the inmankind. 57.000 square miles 7. 50. is . has delayed civilization. 49. of the Earth. was covered with water sequently the little con- Is the land all improved % Not one-fourth of the land has been put to use to have more. Long before Adam was created. we want more there so land. 55. plant exposed to a night twenty-four hours long would have a Equator. Secondly. and that the Earth is one noble harmony.000 square miles.000 square miles in the ably will become vastly present. its Posi- The daily variation of temperature would become destructively great. THE AMOUNT OF LAND. AMOUNT OF LAND. . so small a portion of the surface occupied with land. Because so much was needed Not a waste to make any of it At to sight there in would seem having only Earth's to have so land. a continuous tropical sunlight of twenty-four hours would it . be a great waste This point more fully. 13 As to heat and cold. By supposing the Earth to be changed in the above features. even beneath the How have we reached that conclusion 1 What all conclusion do we reach 1 General conclu- That sion.000 square miles in the Continents. because the waters held dominion on the Globe. its — its Shape. however slight the general conditions they might be. The Forms of the Lands. Why : then is much land How much 1st is Because in ages to come. Any "fhe lands as respects civilization. more state of things. and improved. kill every Motions. suited for the present orders of living things. land ? need . 52. because tends to restore the waters to their former dominion.500. and noting what disastrous consequences would certainly result from the changes. Hence what follows 1 f Result of changing the amount of land.THE 46.320. why'? 51. much 56.820. tion. frost at sunrise.820. 48. present land-surface. are consummately adjusted to the necessities of the case. was bog and morass. land there was. The Amount of Land. still would greater waste. all the land there men may actually mankind may and probat 54. and therefore simply involve 53. 47. An first apparent waste.

because nature recogno Eastern or Western Hemisphere. The present lands must have been submerged forages. want of water. not as favorable to the phys- In the Eastern 38. is striking feature in the Position of the immense preponderance of land in the Northern Hemisphere. 21.820. to their health and well- being. .14 THE What lived POSITION OF THE 66. great. to for show Several millions of square miles of land are deserts even oceanic action and marine remains on so vast a scale as they do. square miles 61. the the sev- Hemispheres. * See Second nizes fact.000 square miles. If the lands first. square miles. it The most lands. as ascertained. and moral development of mam as the Temperate Zones. severe. 67. vipers. and could not be materially and essentially changed without detriment. 3. all What is worthy of notice. whereas there would be much less than at present. The : effect of increasing the amount of land. and the World be shorn of one half of its glory and usefulness.000. Thirdly. The effect of diminishing the lands considerably. the nobler vegetables and animals. be to destroy the nobler plants essential and to by removing the conditions their existence. would render inevitable the existence of larger frightful deserts than now exist upon the 69. the lands where they What is then of the present of land 1 ing-place of ihe living things -up- It just such as it things.000 . the effect as respects deserts. LANDS. In the Northern Hemisphere in All other than tropical plants and animals would Land eral in 39.000 square miles. or at least. First It . because Reptiles. for the land would need more rain. but if there were would be Jess rain.* 71. however - ! Would animals. 62. It and more Globe.000 be blotted out of existence. Book of Series. In the Eastern and Western Hemispheres % The Torrid Zone ical. whose climatic extremes tend to be less .000 square miles . in the Frigid. 73. 72.000 square miles.000. In the Torrid. is to overcome vast land-spaces. THE POSITION OF THE LANDS. The How so "i lands had entirely different locations in the ages before the creation of man. Land in the several Zones. and thus retard the march of civilization the hardest battle man has. Southern Hemisphere 15. 60. and more deand hence more deserts for want of amount But what of the present positions 1 They best fit are such on the whole as the Earth to be the dwell- Why are are. Secondly. neither the physical cause the was so boggy and rain-drenched. would obstruct human intercourse. 64. is 65.000 square miles. could not exist upon the Earth at that time. That water occupies that Hemisphere (the Southern) whose Summer-heat and Winter-cold tend to be most intense and that land prevails in the Northern. 63. diminished without disastrous consequences. so far Second. 16.000. Pre-Adamite positions of the land.000.820. this is not a P/iT/sz'co-geographical mental. small and Man. man. upon the land at that time 1 Striking feature. and creeping things.000. Then the rain-supplies of the Earth would Area of land in the Northern and Southern Hemis be inadequate. 59. is needed in the present order of could not be considerably increased or on it. now more land. were all in the Torrid Zone. in the Temperate. Area of land in the several Zones. 70. in the Western. pheres. of nor reason for this fact can be assigned. mand rain. 58. plants and animals. there for rain. 30. 68.

land. put that land to use . and because he could not have done Secondly. THE FORMS OP THE LANDS. Reasons for the forms of the lands. even though suffers the influence of the sea to they are very small and very humble. to give them a chance to 75. 82. tunity because he did not choose it to. What alone is required of each of the lands it winds of the cular. and a dry. and oppor. 78. an irregular coast-line an advantage 1 it It because opens the way to commerce. Americas are triangles. than if they were square or cir- To improve rest. this form. with Europe. as to winds. live. Europe has an exceedingly broken coast. the Grand Divisions have similar contours'! 15 74. and live comfortably. Zones Because imals all Tropical and Polar plants and an- would have no favorable conditions for living. Different contours of the lands. open to the vapor-bearing and climate-tempering sea. parching climate. in the Frigid Why have any land Zones 1 80. They do not. forms a triangle whose vertex is Spain. Is is. . in part. both the General view of the land-forms. Because thousands of animals. talent. Europe and North America have irregular contours or a broken coast-line Africa and South America an unbroken coast . 83. 76. all the lands in Temperate 79. her opportunities for commerce.THE Then why not have T FORMS the OF THE Do LANDS. circular or square. hence Prevailing form of the lands. her temperate and harvest-favoring climate. and millions of to say nothing of myrbirds. Europe in proof. The triangular form . Advantages of Why 1 did not Providence give all the lands a broken coast Eirst. Africa and Australia have scanty facilities for commerce. a greater length of coast is open to commerce than would be if thus secured. 81. and the Earth was made. 1 The interiors of the continents are vastly more 84. also Africa and Asia. and" extend into the iads of plants that have a right to life. and whose base 77. in part because not opened to the sea by a broken coast. and each has superior to its all pe- culiar gifts in point of which it is the . the lands were men For the same reason that he does not give all the same measure of health. the gifts has . or shore. rests on the Pacific Ocean. without a miracle. On the other hand.

How came the lands to be plains 1 Man could not do whatl live . 604 feet higher than feet. upon such a surface itable labors of life ilized.008 Since his calculations were made. submerged by the ocean ." The Plain. 94. at one Cause of the time or other. by it this 92. A Plain in Geography.16 PLAINS. and First. wore away the surface of the lands to * This is nationalized being. . lands rise and sink. Why were the lands thus smoothed down 1 All Geographic measurements of Elevation of Depression are because this alone. and the all the motors of nature. down. smoothed above the lightning. his figure being 1. off to level a the height of that feet wear away the thej' and though would be 1. rains. 93. upon the lands. made from is the Level of the Sea. 88. 90. A surface erally level. complish much. nearly three-fifths Because the intercourse of man with man from one side of the lands to the other would be facilitated.* 86. Mean elevation of the lands. All vertical Geographic measurements. PLAINS. would Reasons why the lands are largely plains. of land moderately elevated. Before the surface of the Earth was thus worn it was undoubtedly like the surface of the be- ridged with furrowed with ravines. The universality of plains. plains. surveys have proved is Evinces the providential care of the Creator. and the dews. Distribution of Plateaus. have helped asperities of the land . and genrolling in undulations. plorations in South Africa have showed the same for the His figure is certainly much too low. Humboldt assigns in his Cosmos . or even tolerably. and the pains he took to render the Earth residence of man. all The Mean elevation of the lands. of all the lands are plains. . All the lands have been. Man could not comfortably. other forces. not subject to variation the the versal labor namely. and exto be true of that region. then. Plateaus. 89. because the great and uniof mankind. and just in the same proportion would civilization be advanced. lightened. but the ocean's volume same from age to age — is the cultivation of the Earth. 85. 95. fit that the whole of western North America an enormous upland. the dissolving action of the could not carry on the inev- waters. Moon. " Such as Creation's morn beheld. Is the prevailing form of surface General view of plains. and rugged. or traversed by valleys. and and the winds. How the Earth's surface once was. . aided by currents and could not become a social. so rolls 87. If the lands were level.612 work slowly. yet in myriads of ages they ac- surface of the sea. precipitous. Moreover. almost yond conception. plains. 91. craggy. CHAPTER Plains. III Distribution of Plains. civ- tides. now. means be greatly And second. though perhaps hills.

109. 108. on the North by the Atlantic and It is East Characteristics of the Great Northern Plain. Constitutes one vast and continpage rivers. This system of Plains consists tered by the sea . on an average about 840 miles area 3. on the South the huge mountain-chains that form the spine of Europe. lakes. the southern none. and the Central Plain of South America. and their mountains of Egypt. The entire bed of the Ocean. 96. lies in The entire center of the Western Continent. its Strongly resemble each other. the southern in the Torrid the northern is the norththe south- Gulf of Mexico. both have sion below the tracts. and Hindoostan. . length 3. 101. the Mountains of Guiana. Germany. breadth 500 miles on an average. Russia. Boundaries of the South-American Plain. North Am'erica.500 miles .000 square miles. from the and 1. .900 miles breadth varying from 900 to 1. France.and whose depresoceanic surface is gions. Dimensions of the Great Northern Plain. 99. also. the ninsulas. Dimensions of the North. Soil good in the West. the Prairies of North America.800 miles. well-watered. the Woods of 43. indentations of the sea. to the 98. Consists of plains extending from the Arctic chiefly.Asia.000. barren in the East. and Hindoostan. Both 17 THE DISTRIBUTION OP PLAINS. 000 square miles. its continuity being area 4. The boundaries of this Great Northern Plain. Its dimensions.000 square miles. whose area is 135.500. this ridge separates the tributaries of the Arctic Ocean from those of the Gulf of On the North are the waters of the Polar Ocean. and on the South nates in a point.800 miles. Another immense plain. Are Zone that the northern plain the Temperate . the southern none . The Eastern Continent North of the parallel of 50°. both being triangles with their vertices pointing continuity is broken by the South. and from the Caribbean Sea to the southern extreme of Patagonia. broken only by the Ural Mountains. dry and excessive in the East. 100. the southern nowhere of two grand diCentral Plain of North America. Consists of a vast plain that stretches It is 2. 105. area 5.500 broad in the North. and laps upon Farther India. through 2. The main points of dissimilarity. Are formed upon surface from East to it by a gentle elevation of its West in the mid latitudes of the Continent. average breadth 1.000 square bounded on the West by the Andes. on the by the Atlantic Ocean and the Brazilian Mountains. Arabia. and the Llanos two miles on an average. 102. These two Plains in point of form. 107. or about 10. it termi- Climate humid and temperate in the West. Mexico. Pyramid. and Siberia. from ocean to ocean. Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. 103. 110. is broken by en- Division of this Plain-System.250.500 miles long . and bases trending Northwest and Southeast. Extends across the North of Africa through Egypt. and vast grassy the Selvas of the Amazon. See Are mighty Map 2. by indentations of the sea. and Pampas of South America. fertile.THE DISTRIBUTION OF PLAINS.American Plain. 97. size.000 in the South. Length over miles. and channeled both have enormous wooded central by re- uous plain. Arabia. the northern has outjutting pe- visions. 190°. Surface so level that not an eminence need be crossed so high as the Great Are. Two water-sheds.500. 104. the northern has enor- mous 106. Ocean ern contains deserts of considerable ern none of any extent .

Table-land is the productions and wealth of a country are en- highly elevated plain. the other South . THEIE DISTRIBUTION. 124.000 square ence of plateaus. and hence of A 117. 120. plants and animals can live upon plateaus as A Plateau Plateau or is what 1 cannot thrive upon the neighboring plains. upon the surface of those primary highlands! . Fourthly. by the Atlas Mountains. They serve as stepping-stones. in general. distribution of rains. in the They gather moisture from bluff borders. Thirdly. whereas the other is barren in the West. rivers 122.000. and fertile the continent. as a plateau. the other dry and hot the one is fertile in the West. 121. PLATEAUS. Climate excessively arid and hot in the West. Why do plateaus exist 1 Whatever reasons there are the for Reasons for the existence of tablelauds. 119. neath the waters. lands during the seasons of drought. humid and hot in the 114. lifted Are piled simply subordinate or secondary uplands large portions of the land to the height of plateaus. First. 113. This Great Southern Plain is Area of all the plateaus. Secondly. or transition-planes facilitating West. The one may and affording easy slopes down which run with measured rapidity. with unusual power. acting in some calities lo- The plateaus be mentioned hereafter. breadth from 200 to same hold good for the exist- 1. are stupendous tablethe table-lands % What produced whose mean elevation above quarter miles. and the Himalayas. to The subterranean volcanic forces Cause of the table-lands. and infertile in the East. Map 2. contrasted with the bed of See 43. the Mountains of Persia.000 to 5. because plateaus are plains . in longitude 105° . together with the additional considera- Characteristics of the Southern Plain. ified largely of plants and animals. feet. the clouds upon their rivers of the low- and so slightly elevated as to be very largely and thus supply the central parts below the level of the sea. human The Northern and Southern Plains compared. In hot countries they furnish cool retreats from the summer-heats of the plains airs for . skirted on the East by mountains. mod- THE DISTRIBUTION" OF PLATEAUS. may be regarded 2. exceedingly productive between lowlands and mountains. Is a vast plain. soil miserably barren in the East. Dimensions of the Southern Plain. in the East. hanced by them. 115. purer such as languish amid the humid sultriness in the East. and drier. intercourse. . the existence of plains in general. a plain if its The Continents themselves.000. transition-slopes. variety of products. summer-retreats. the Mediterranean Sea. Such a Definition plateaus. . 111. thereby perhaps. 116. On Somewhat is less than two-fifths of all the lands occupied with plateaus. . of the lowlands. on the South by the Plateau of South Africa and by the Indian Ocean. % When does a plain become a plateau When elevated so high as to have its climate. tions subjoined. moisture. is North of the great mountain-spine of the one has a climate moist and cool. bounded. elevation equals When lands. page the ocean. the sunken plain of the sea-bottom is that raised the continents from be- Two and a 126. Eange miles.000 118.000 miles area from 4. the North 112. 125. Australia so far as known. 123.18 P LATEAUS.

134. Divisions of the North. Continent. they are noted also for salubrity. to the The Plateau-System of North America.500.000 square . 131.400 miles Table-lands are noted for aridity. area 1. direction. Plateau of Mexico. is a long narrow upland. and 800 miles from South to feet average elevation supposed to be an enormous plateau of 2.000 miles long. Are the Plateaus of Spain. and Spain. Characteristics of table-lands. 132. infertility of soil. Extends nearly the whole length of the continent.American Plateau-System.Mountain Plateau: merely different names to different parts of one vast systhe tem. The Appalachian Plateau. The Grand Plateau -System op the Western The Grand Plateau-System of the Eastern Continent. North. basis rest. The North-American Plateau-System into divided 135. the Pacific Ocean to the Caspian and Black Seas. Forms a Mountains upon which the Andean and Eocky an upland 8. in having a greater width. 350 broad. 136. 128. but square miles. eau. 130. Africa South of the desert-plain of Sahara.500 explorations so far as made. Europe-Asia. and general elevation.540. and the Rocky. which follows the trend of extends Is the coast. and from thence through the disconnected highlands of Turkey. . for long. Switzerland. Atlantic Ocean. the Plateau of Asia Minor . is The basis of the various mountain-chains that constitute the spine of the continent.THE DISTRIBUTION OF PLATEAUS. the Great Interior Basin. 4. point of Strongly resembles the Appalachian and mental constitution of man.500 broad. . The successive links in this chain of uplands. justify the assignation of a still greater elevation. Extends from the Isthmus to the Arctic Ocean bounded on the West by the Pacific Ocean. and the Great Oriental Plattria. the Plateau of Iran. Ausand Turkey . Situated in the eastern part of the United States. 137. Switzerland. length. This Plateau-System forms what 1 miles. . Austria. and for the invigorating influence exerted by them upon the bodily in The Brazilian Plateau. The Plateau-System op South America. on the' East by the 105th meridian area 3. and Extends in a continuous belt of highlands from from 100 to 1. from it only 133. or rather those parts of the prithe highest. and differs mary highlands which were upheaved 127. 129.000 and for excessive heat and cold. 19 the continents .

limited tract of country.20 MOUNTAINS. What is a Mountain-Chain ? In what forms do mountains appear 1 A long line of mountains stretching across a In Groups. IV. ( What is a Mountain-Group ? What is a mountain ? A General features of mountains. CHAPTER mountains. MOUNTAINS. 138. 140. Hills. number of mountains clustered together in a See Geographical Definitions. The Distribution of Mountains. tract of country. CHOCORUA. 46.) 139. . and in Solitary Peaks. 141. Chains. No.

So that mountains are vast comit First. base. 152. 156. But Secondly. acted with very great power at any Mountains are to the continental water-sheds what the ridgepole is to the roof of a house. homes. How 1 does it appear that duced thus Because the land on gradually rises to its all sides of a mountain Mountains disclose to us the hiding-places of the minerals and metals it is hardly possible that we . 157. mountains fertilize the plains. in respect to minerals. the base-line upwards. mountains are gen- Fourth.and their rocky masses down which waterB may run.000 tons is How do mountains do Has been this 1 all of rock-matter. Necessary parts of the great system of drainage is kept from becoming a vast uously.MOUNTAINS. mountains give birth to and nourish them so that- post-heaps scattered over the Earth to keep from running out 158. the crust of the Earth spot. From erally very steep and through the strata lent upheaval. was broken up at that ter made a mountain. . so that its people have greater wealth variety of plants and more numerous comforts. 29. etc. continue to melt Summer. in respect to the water-sheds. 145. Mountains are continually wasting and crumbling under atmospheric influence the pulverized . suitable conditions for living. the force broke through a long line contin- by which the Earth bog. calculated to yield yearly 80. 154. 148. and the What is the height of the loftiest peaks water runs into the streams. a slope of land moisture from the winds. crowded up beneath. The rock showing that 149. at the top of the tallest mountains in the of the same sort as that found deep it Earth. which spread over the subjacent The cold air about their summits extorts the * Water-shed. miles above the level of the Sea. Snow and in the accumulating in all mountain-gorges Winter. Cause of Mountains. a mountain-chain was formed. 155. About Three 143. they are what 1 How were mountain-chains formed ?• When 146. ain About Five and a half miles. materials are carried down by torrents. . 142. 21 Average height of some of the great chains. mountains were pro- Third. on our The commerce and manufacturing carried on uprivers. 147. Moreover. shed the rain. rivers. upon the lands. by a sudden and vioprecipitous. so that it all runs off to the lowlands.002 feet in elevation. "When the force which upraised Second.* the lands from beneath the waters. Fifth. they go not dry during the rainless season. in respect to plants and animals. is And Thirdly. there were no mountains. as if Mountains furnish suitable habitats! for a great and animals within a narrow range of country. came from the depths of the Earth. and the upheaved mat- Therefore. because they set the waters that to running into the sea again. 144. 150. if force that formed the mountain. 153. can flourish. fall given spot. and spread fer- Why do mountains exist 1 Reasons for the existence of mountains. Mont Blanc alone. the loftiest mounton the Globe is Mount Everest of the Him- What advantages result t alayas. f Habitats. snow and ice ice. 1 151. when otherwise nothing What produced Mountains'? could be done. and thus their tility is kept up. as if raised by the same should be able to find those indispensable elements in great variety or abundance. over the surface of the lowlands.

etc. that living creatures Lastly. they supply the deep springs. mountains as respects man's culture. HILLS. The cause of hills. objects of beauty. They are objects of exceeding beauty. the same offices that are per- formed by mountains. They trickle feed innumerable brooklets and streams that through the pasture and field. an ^ mountains uponman's condition. Also. water-supply. watering them abundantly. important. toward heaven. drainage. so can have a more various diet. valleys and plains. 164. 165- Second. Mountains are the alphabet through which God 1 62 Of what use are hills 1 has most clearly written the awful majesty of his They carry out to more universal. have been formed by running waters. as their gleaming spires are lifted. They render more difficult to travel about from . even as the " worm ! moth and the Their flowing fountains wear out the even as the crimson pulse wears by the same force that . 167. MACKINAC. hills help drain the Earth. Various plants grow upon them that flourish will not upon the lowlands. the dust of the perish. so little cause . upheaved they hill?. Both and mountains make in man's condition harder various I Influencc of hill8 m -Ltoare-awooTT. 169. As each scale. and lift it. man !" have gullied out the valleys and ravines Lastly. the mountains and in part mountain-heart. interior mountains. and mountains as respects man's condition. Egypt owes her exhaustless 161. First.— nrl ^q mwucft. First. that out the heart of 160. and that penetrates into their mass.22 HILLS. it AKCHED KOCK. hills fertility to 159. because more power so that they fill the soul with sublime emotions and contemplations. brooks. 163. mountains set the waters to running hills off from from great continents. . 166 Third. results. Hills hills man and intellectual being. and as such contribute to the happiness and culture of as an emotional 168. it to run off tract of country still so that on a smaller but more universally. Thus mountains In part the were upheaved General view of Even as living things. various plants. Slowly dispensing the water that falls upon them. between them. locomotion.

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-iif.WATP W*l.Iity\ do do TnferiJMef i Dotted' do do Deserts L KajLSLe of Oceanic Stu'iace-temperatuJ : V ! .THE UISTH1BUTI©H' ©S Explanation J)oU-k s7uUZirig Lit/lit MESEMTSTC1LCAIM denotes F.

. T. Tmderaiored. tides . tour ofhigh tide.. also o gaAgiq jog^ro ^ iawes >m> ©cjeah^temfkmattdmie JSoteJigura.Rojitetn rutmerate.thus 79" denote the Oceanstempcrcuturc for that region. .on.

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to be regarded as Univerother mountain-systems or in other words. 177. THE DISTRIBUTION OF MOUNTAINS. and . agriculture. the Earth just fit for its inhabitants. and contains the loftiest summits on the Earth. Central System. See 43. our pa- spurs from the Central System. triangle They are indispensable parts of the system of all Runs Northeast and Southwest. Fourthly. of Farther India. page 171. South America. . Thirdly. are simply offsets from this great mountain-spine. all First. and leaves the land a desert on the other 173. drainage. the Ural and Scandinavian on the . — contains the most tremendous volcanoes. we gain South — may be regarded as continental offsets or a victory. the 180- Example. Tnn Euhope-Asian System that bisects the vast continental triangle of Europe Asia. and we cannot conquer them. it . side. us 1 What it of the seeming harm they do whose base stretches 20° from to 60° North Latthe Pacific Ocean along itude it is confined chief!}' to the North-Temperate Zone. breeding pestilence and death. The mountains on the western coast of the Unit- Extends North and South from the Arctic nearly to the Antarctic Ocean. so that it falls the vapor from tem of upon the seaivard side. The Rocky-Mountain and Andean System. . and the care he has taken to make 176. it. We should be vastly worse ters off. In part may be . and compel man to build expensive and devious roads to avoid or tience and endurance are cultivated and strength- ened. thus the damage is twofold. North America. Offsets therefrom. all too dry. avoided or conquered. surmount 170. enough sal. Secondly. Spain. of Greece. 182. 175. of Arabia. the land were level ? 181. extensive Map 2. silver and the richest gold and Yet if mines on the Globe. and gathering at their bases. for then the wa- and bogs would form everywhere. 179. They make farm is due and cultivate the lands him to subwork upon a hilly twofold harder than upon a level one. "What of hills and mountains. renders the are comparatively limited and local. then 1 The Europe-Asian System. their own enormous bulks. ^3 one part of the land to another. of Hin- How so 1 doostan. forms a whose vertex is in the World. leaves them ing whole Earth . difficult for 178. on the If we conquer if the labors and difficulties.THE DISTRIBUTION OF MOUNTAINS. cutting off the rain-winds of the Pacific Ocean from 174. as pertainto the The water running land too wet 172. Sys- Lofty mountain-chains extort the sea-winds. and in 183. the There are only two MountainSystems on the Globe. The Rocky-Mountain and Andean . deserts. The two Systems are. off from the hills. Western Continent and second. Transverse ranges. and in their features they illustrate the benevolence of God. ed States cause the Great American Desert. much more The two Great Mountain-Systems. and Italy. through every variety of climate. would not run The Appalachian Mountains and the Brazilian Mountains in in off. part must be borne to and in either case it contributes Ranges of mountains transverse North the Mountains to this great our discipline and improvement.

the steam and gases are rend and shake the solid crust of the Globe. They give no . may therefore be urged. the Central and the Linear. redaloft for miles from the funnel of their thousands of inhabitants. 188. Earth. . 184. rumblings and terrible shakings of the neighboring country clouds of smoke intermingled with blazes . it comes forth THE DISTRIBUTION OF VOLCANOES. and others are When extinct. and minerals white-hot. and from one-hundred to six-hundred feet in System embraces a cluster of volcanic mountains grouped together in a limited area as Iceland and the Sandwich Islands for examples. . hot stones hurled and bursts of blue and purple flame. and gases in the hot interior of the About 424 185. villages and cities with of fire. 190. Moanings and roarings deep in the ground. they Some some are 186- are perpetually active. How so 1 Whole number in all. In what various states 1 Earthquakes. and that satisfactory reasons for their existence condensing steam. 189. in volumes 1 Volcanoes are arranged fifty miles.24 VOLCANOES. and of an immense amount of property. The destruction of great numbers of living things. How far does it sometimes run. rivers of lava flowing from the crater. 191. THEIR DISTRIBUTION. how produced 1 confined. and forming seas of mud. other volcanoes. 193. and in how great Arrangement of volcanoes. character- Why do volcanoes exist 1 Because they lessen the frequen cy and the fury of earthquakes. intermittent. 196. What do volcanoes thus occasion % 197. 192. Number 290. showers of ashes descending with the 'rain of the That volcanoes save vastly more than they destroy. Islands. Central Systems in general are noted for the fre- quency and violence of istics their eruptions . Are earthquakes destructive! What are the phenomena of a volcanic eruption'! Much more so than volcanoes. Why exist. So that what appears 1 with dense volumes of steam and poisonous gases. 195. fore-warning. Distribution of Volcanoes. and overwhelm hundreds of criminate ruin. in two classes or sys- Sometimes depth. volcanoes probably owing to the fact that they are vents for enormous areas they being far removed from . Distribution of Islands. no place or time for escape they shake the breadth of a whole Hemisphere at once. VOLCANOES. What is lava 1 ? Melted earth. serve as vents or discharge-pipes for the steam. 194. Eruptions of Central Systems. causing what are called earthquakes. of volcanoes. CHAPTER V Volcanoes. They lava. rocks. of active volcanoes. in sudden and indis- the volcano. a river five or ten miles tems. A Central wide. About 187. at times. . General view of volcanoes.

207. irregular crack in a glass globe. where volcanic Russian America. six 208. day and night. and follows the Fox or Aleutian Isles to Kamschatka.000. Chains. about the mightiest volcanoes on the Globe. ands to the Moluccas it here divides. in Mexico. the Mediterranean Sea.) Bay of Bengal. of the larg- The system coast of Asia. sends off a branch to the 8. - The Grand Linear System. are found in Clusters. and pears island in 3. 1. 202 From line Java. 206. noes 201. Formosan. Beginning del-Fuego. ISLANDS. W. and agitated by They tary. Tuxtla. What is an Island ? The bends N. Coseguina. PAGE 25. Japan.* of their arrangement ? of Santorin of in the Grecian Archipelago. been seen in eruption. in Guatemala. into the canic mountains of Sumatra. to Rockall. through Isl- Any volcanoes in North America 1 Where 1 Name some appear t 1 the Kurile. 204. Jorullo. shaken . What composed volcanic . 25 198. upon which peninsula numerous active volcanoes 200. From Alaska. while the main line turns Whereabouts upon Asia does the volcanic line in Thence whither does it lead ? 1 Volcanoes Japan Westward to Java and Sumba- Where does the line branch What remote points does the Southeast branch touch! Trace the course of the Southwest branch. W. Arequipa. ceaseless as the thunder of Niagara. follows the Ancles 199. How this system represents the Earth. "with the From line the Mediterranean. and Antisana. and in cones of vast height have Questions upon the Volcano-Map. from Australia. and passes along the vol- and thence through the small volcanic islands on the N. by perpetual earthquakes and Vesuvius in Italy. How many central systems can you count upon the Map % and their roarings may be heard far out at sea. nothing but vast crowded clusters of volca- 38 are grouped together at one end of Java. . In the Mediterranean Sea ate'? Where does the line termin- Are noes . and Etna in Sicily.. Thence Northward.. through various islands. No. and Soli- continual commotions the Ionian Islands. (See Geographical Definitions. Cotopaxi. They ap- are of every size. and Colirna. in Any volca- Central Asia 1 1 Java and Snmbawa. Where System ? is the point of origin of the Great Linear Volcanic Thence Southward. the system bends due West. in Volcanoes re-appear Alaska. Aconcagua. in the North Atlantic. General view of islands. E. 300 miles West of Scotland. which contains the rods across. debris..THE DISTRIBUTION OF VOLCANOES. 38. Popocatapetl. with its Through Southern and Central Asia. NO. exist.000 square miles. it burning mountains of Terra- The passes to and terminates in the volcanic Northward through the volcanoes. and Philippine : of them. ISLANDS. clusters of islands 205. This Linear System represents the crust of the Earth as broken or rent by a vast fissure. Orizaba. the most celebrated though not * Rockall is a granite block elevated above the surface of the sea. like a long. From this point passes. on the West of Africa. it What of the sizes of Islands ! 203. follows the Any volcanoes in Terra-del-Fuego 1 Any in South America 1 Where 1 Name some est.

The West-India Group. and that the law which makes a To THE DISTRIBUTION OP ISLANDS. uated on islands the Solitary island 1 . in the sea. is Helena in the middle of the South Atlantic the an indispensable watering-and-refreshment place That the area of the islands in the ocean is aboutequal to that of the lakes and inland seas on the continents. Total area of island-surface. 210.. best fishing-grounds in the world. 209. not so much teen of the larger islands and island-clusters have together an area of 5.000 square miles. are shallow . Lastly. sit- The tops of a Chain of mountains whose bases Two-thirds of the volcanoes on the Globe are are submarine. Whereas if there were no islands 1 beneath the waters. 223. oft" are under water. The viz. The Falkland Islands. bound round Cape of Good Hope. What is the broad. to shattered hy the passage of Cape Horn. 226. whose bases The 220. cate What islands really are. it is conjectured that this plateau once it so that man gradually gained courage to attempt formed a part of the continent. 211. Chain around the South or South America and the* Chain. and water the whalemen of the North 218. makes an island 215. For example.000 square miles. that can live on- The tops of a Group of mountains whose bases Hence archipelagoes are the are under water. Three island-systems appertain to the Western The West-India Group. Hence islands have helped edu- They ains the tops of mount- man ! and table-lands. The Falkland Islands furnish harbors to vessels 227. 1 the vast ocean. merged. thus their ravages are compara- What is tively harmless. but whose slopes are sub- In either case. The Sandwich Islands. ? What is a Chain of islands 221. St. . is plateau. above the water. Vastly more destruction would result to living thus particularize the different classes 1 Why things than now. of high elevation. mountain on the land. Continent. bring out the fact clearly that islands are simply the result of the ordinary unevenuess of the Earth's surface.26 THE What are are islands in reality DISTRIBUTION OF ISLANDS. Island-systems of the Western Continent. The Sandwich plies Islands furnish indispensable supto of food Pacific.500. superficial is area of all the islands upon the Fif- They are -exceedingly important not far from 7. flat island flat land. waters in their vicinity Islands formed stepping-stones from land to land. 224. Seem be out-croppings of a submarine plateau for the In ancient times. for vessels 217. cluster Islands sloping of islands 1 gradually into the sea furnish fish feeding-places to multitudes of ly in shallow waters. and that has been .500. Then % these volcanoes must either be on the mainthe bottom of 213. 225. or else belch out their fires at The which top of a broad. The top tion is of a solitary mountain. 214. size. A remarkahle circumstance. 212. Homes for fish. from their 216. whose lower por- 222. Are islands important 1 The Globe Importance islands. the surface of the sea. as their position. 219. of in various respects. volcanoes. on the Northwest of North America.

the Japan Islands. tops of the probably the summits of submarine Alps. frowning. and variety. and Of the Indian-Ocean principal are Islands. 228. Sumatra. of very Comprehends the almost innumerable islands.- 000 square miles. 120. parallel or continuous with the coast-mountains. all Characteristic features. large and small. The Great Oriental Archipelago. Features of the British Isles. among the most favored re- Greenland and Iceland. The Islands of the Eistem 239. likewise Madagascar and Ceylon. and the unevenness of surface which characterizes Asia to Great Oriental Archipelago. 235. glaciers. Tas- acterizes the adjoining continent. which is but little else than a frightful desert of mountains. be continued on the bed of the Pacific. mate. Australia. their Indies yield to no other islands on the is In the vicinity of Greece with numerous Their aggregate area 93. 234. Celebes. 231. ice. and Neio Zea- nels that separate them from each other and from the mainland are shallow. re-appearing as mate delightful. miles. 229. the Balkan Mountains. 27 lowered by volcanic or worn away by oceanic tion. and beautimountains their river- enterprise of its people has made this little archi- are full of precious metals and gems . showing that they once might have been compacted together. desert. and been continuous with the continent. whose areas combined are 264. ful in vegetation flourishes there their . and volcanoes .000 square miles. the chan- mania. are gions of the Earth. indeed. ation of the ordinary surface-formation that char- Are land. in agreeableness of cli- The Are the summits of a mountain-range running under water.000 square miles. 237. antly productive that rare. or 6. their vegetable productions unexcelled in richness Western Mediterranean. Also contains several islands and island-groups. of the island-surface of the Earth. The Chain around Patagonia. the most part . spontaneously and exuberis rich. which stud the Pacific Ocean on the East and Southeast of Asia probably four. is filled The West Earth.000 square miles of island-surface. To account for this archipelago. The . and numerof Europe. climate of most of soil for them is all is perpetual Spring their Aggregate area. Known simply a continu- The Chief Islands of the Oriental Archipelago. hence their wild. snow. result. the Indian Ocean. continuun- Are simply the Andes continued ous with those on the continent. Java. Continent. Papua. is ous islands are an inevitable 240. 230. a climate drenched with rains and damp with humid winds yet the . 241. der water. 236. In point of importance. little account as respects the fifths habitable uses of the Earth. The islands of the Oriental Archipelago have had the treasures of nature lavished upon them. European It is only necessary to suppose the remarkable Islands.000. 238. Together form an area of 886. . The Chain on the Northwest of North America. pelago the seat of the most powerful empire on the Earth. 232. The Archipelago on the Northwest as the British Isles. their soil and the sea. in fertility of soil. precipitous character. The eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. continuations of the southerly offsets from islands in geographic position favorable. their exceedingly fertile. May be grouped Islands or into three systems. 233. in variety of vegetable and mineral resources. a soil naturally of moderate fertility.THE DISTRIBUTION ac- OF ISLANDS.000 square cli- islands. which in favorableness of location.

Solomon. is New Hebrides.400. than 30 fathoms. What What its striking natural feature on its northeast coast % is the area of its 1 1 Papua 1 ~> Height of mountains Of Java 1 Of Sumatra 1 Area of Borneo % Height of 1 How these facts are known. Including the Ireland. Map 2. and also at immense depths in the waters but since the coral insect Of Ceylon Of the West Indies 1 Of Greenland 1 cannot exist out of water. A portion of this archipelago. mountains The bed high is fact of elevation and depression coral is in the sea- Area of Celebes Islands 1 Of the Philippines Of the Japan 1 known from far the fact that sea. Greatest Elevation'? Another area Westward of the foregoing. and . found in Area of the car ? 1 1 British Isles "i Of Iceland Of MadagasOf cliffs above the . beds are dusted with flakes of gold . PAGE 43. including the Dan- gerous and Society Archipelagoes. al it follows that in one case the corin teem with pearls. by 2. New Dimensions of Australia"! Coast-line f rising to greater elevations is still anoth- What occupies ains 1 its interior 7 General height of its mount- er area of subsidence including New met further to the West. the other depressed 242. of the Continents. must have been raised and volcanic forces. Caledonia and the Great Coral-Reef of Australia. 244.000 square miles in area. or at a greater depth New Zealand SB^ . is gradually sub- Questions upon the NO.28 THE DISTRIBUTION their sea-sands OF ISLANDS. siding into the depths of the sea. 243.

Dpfinitionofdesens. brambles. Are any deserts Include all the waste regions in the neighborhood None. VI The Distribution of Fertility. cactuses. the Poles. ferns. 250. and dry deserts. Distribution of Deserts. it appears that deserts from other lands only in their inferior improv- spots on a prevailing desert-surface are called Oases. - -r „--.: ___ DESERTS.to their into classes Classification characteristics. entirely ability 249. 29 Jftga - =. and Causation of deserts. mosses. CHAPTER Deserts. 246. utterly uncultivable ? The cold deserts. those in the vicinity of of the Poles. 245. 248. tamarisks. and their inferior natural productiveness. 247. Deserts are divided according. From what differ and unadtivable. How deserts differ from other lands. Soil. some coarse grasses. and berry-bearing shrubs grow in the cold deserts any . and those elevated upon lofty mount- . waste 1 Deserts classified. Few. and acacias in the hot and the causes which produce them.- THE WATER SEEKER. DESERTS. excepting. perhaps. Are any deserts if Fertile has been said. are deserts 1 Such portions of the Earth's surface as are for the most loaste lanclpart. where cold and darkness so prevail as to What forbid any attempt at cultivation.

1 Tracts upon lofty mountains. and hence are deserts. heat. Sands reflect the sun-heat vehemently. . these are rendered desert rig- Mountains. their surface-soil. Have very washing of More particularly in the Frigid Zones.30 DESERTS. where and tempest. 258. exceedingly slopes of the Andes in low dry deserts are produced by the cutting-off of rains from 256. month before the to grow Harvest moon. . 252. Thirdly. 269. i. Plants cannot flourish upon one sort of they need variety of food just as animals and need it. of nearly all deserts. snows drink up the Spring-heats in their melting. 261. and thus sandy deserts nearly always encroach upon the bordering country. 254." snows fall has time 253.* That sands are carried by the winds. Earth into eternal desert. and terrible with darkness . mountains intervening betwixt them and the ocean. : them. Are far above the cold. warm and the most 264. Added 255. that deadens and cold that palsies everything the A law of vegetation.. by the extreme 260. Are produced by the cutting-off of by powdered. 263- for the sustenance of Sandy deserts. 262. is Their excessive barrenness. 267 The Third Class of deserts. prevailing cold lofty interiors. they quickly filter down through them beyond the reach of most plants. upon sands. Are two 1st. But secondly. and the oceans choked with ice chill the winds. the most completely infertile terrible in their aspect of desolation. Lastly. soil . men Is lo)ig. and therefore they are The physical cause why is they are larger than any fact other class of deserts. Has an infertility influence in causing and maintaining the This last principle. the largest. scanty rain. almost of necessity desert. rook broken into rains fine grains but not thoroughly soil. Are found upon plateaus . for example. lifted Are both surface of the frost. rains fall rains. e. Tracts deficient in variety of soils will not bear anything of importance. Along the western latitudes. Why larger and endless drought The Second prevail. 257. and without it languish and die. Explains the fact that tropical sandy deserts are the largest and most desolate by reason of the fierce * See Map of the Distribution of Rains. and the days are but frosts come " in all day a Accordingly. little soil or of the cold. they are elevated into the region of 268. upon them by reason of the and hence mountain-regions are The Winter long. vehemently hot. In the western United States. due to the ob- Is due and not unfrequently to their not pos- struction of the Pacific's rain-bearing winds by the sessing sufficient variety of elements to be good food for plants." and so nothingman. so that whatever vapor exists in the air is not precipitated because of the heat. and the deserts of the Great North-American Plateau. the rains fail to reach their and therefore they are very dry. unless hemmed in by mountains or by seas. The Summer indeed. Class of deserts. 259. the that sand. and hence only a few tough and deep-rooted plants can live in When The chief causes of these deserts. first The Great American Desert Rooky Mountains. is rains. ains . them by the Andes. the des- erts of Central Asia. In South America. is the most abundant kind of to the fact. 265. 2(56. 251. for example. and 2nd. " Dog-days.

indeed. First answer. Nubia. deserts. heat. it is to live in the Sahara and if liver-complaints that there pre- the fruit of their own choos- other seasons. Desert-winds are exceedingly pure. But these have abused the terms of their probation. Nobody is compelled to live in deserts. The furnished with abundant light. vests. get about as God could not In spite of the deserts. 284. 273. not easily prevented. Nile so long as the Sahara's winds blow across 276. and sinew of desert- If transported to England. and moi°!ure. abundantly as the soil of the 280. and India. for the World has abundance of fertile country not occupied nobody can complain of deserts. reclaim the deserts. Sixth answer. or the their ing. therefore To illustrate. but such an outlay of power never and he never wastes materials bears larger harvests. contain sentials of fertility as upon land recovered from The practical result. how great 1 278. In is Peru. 271. make them magnificently fertile. bone. the blood. and humid winds. soil Light. 277. The World's resources might easily be quadrupled if man would thus turn them to account. Egypt. Green- the South of the Desert. and are potent to remove disease. . all the-deserts. Second answer. food for nations raised the es- In the western United States. would pay or power. Mississippi Valley . is want281. rains 279. but he must soil of Greenland. the influence of rains. be and probably is good. and this The he not only may do. life is the Esquimaux to live in . soils. falling is no kind of but if do not water the Sahara Desert. so that it miracle . The influence of 31 270. do. The sands of the Sahara Desert. In illustration. no loss. or fail in duty. such dreadful wastes to deform and are alone to blame. For example. desert. the aspect of the World. will bear more or less abundant har- If men are ever hard pressed for room by rea- son of the deserts. but heat and therefore harvests will not grow. man more or less abundantly. bear food for 274.DESERTS. liberty- men . 283. The influence of soils in producis ing deserts for there comparatively small. Vindication of the existence of deserts. and dew. Third answer. In the present order of things. penetrating the fertile country on Nobody compels land. or charge God with cruelty on their account. under spirited. in their bearing upon deserts. and have sunk into gross barbarism. 282. Bedouin hard. because the rain that refuses to water them. suffered themselves to be overcome by the How could a benevolent G-od suffer hardness of their country. they can reclaim The sands of the Great American Desert. breathing-places. and there- by seemingly oppress mankind with over-heavy burdens? 275. Fourthly. Fifth answer. May ing. we much prevent the existence of deserts without a perpetual produce. would races have kept humanity from running out. but upon the mountain-slopes South thereof. . laborious. etc. put to flight the legion of jungle-fevers and vail at 285. loving soon. The Plague never The same winds rages along the valley of the it. but the want of moisture makes them 272. Some desert-races. deserts rear what 1 Deserts rear tough. for itself. Have A grand question. Many deserts serve as breathing-places to the populous empires on their borders. waters more profusely the bordering country.

is respectively Is South America light-shaded or dark-shaded 1 3. has done the best he could under the cumstances. and on both sides of the What What sort of deserts 1 are those in the extreme North Eocky Mountains. though not desert correct estimate. Immense waste Western Continent.500.000 square miles. and of Central Asia from the Caspian Sea Pacific Ocean. The Eastern Continent. This the continent of infertility. the of terrestrial deserts cannot fall sum total Great Indian Desert of Hindoostan. 297. of which no account so little is is wastes of Patagonia at one extreme. it There are some tropical deserts upon which does not seem that sufficient moisture could unless Contains at least 8. in the year Summer. save at the very surface.000 s'quare miles of land. DISTRIBUTION OF DESERTS.000 square as he could. to the Total. laws of acting. and 1. fer- Embraces the Sahara. Area of the deserts. What part of North America How is it indica- Sum total. THE DISTRIBUTION OF DESERTS. Contains 2. 8. man or beast. northern British the Embrace here made. or at least. 296. cultivable. and frozen round. 1. mountains of is tracts lie scattered among the The Deserts of the this Continent. 286. Perhaps without 750.000 square miles in Australia At the least possible calculation.000 square miles in Southern Africa. fall.32 THE Tropical deserts for example. unless by a miracle not less amazing than if another sun were set to shine upon them ? 288.000.000 square miles of waste land one-third sterile tracts of gravel crusted here and How light could the Polar regions receive sufficient and heat to make them fertile.700. Are there any deserts in North America'! lie Where'? How 1 Vast tracts of utter sterility along the west- indicated 1 ern slopes of the Andes. short of 11. one-third marshy moorlands. and the reckoning in the smaller desert-areas.700. 287.- 000 square miles . ted on the Map 1 t Areas of the Barren and Fertile portions Sum total of deserts for the Western Continent. for there are no visible natural means of getting enough water to them. 6.700.000 miles. therefore. NO. and And one-third cold and craggy mountain-wildernesses. Also the Polar regions.000 square miles.000 square miles. Questions upon the Desert-Map. 289. 1. any considerable development of vegetable 291.000. without violating his established miles. 500. of Africa. Labrador.700. because total known of them. or all Tundra. Sum total. 2. covered with moss. of Greenland. The "Western Continent Why'! Is any part of South America barren and 1 infertile 1 Any eminently fertile. PAGE 25.. desert . and Russian America at the other.500. 294. finally. the rigor of whose climate forbids agriculture or life. with the before-mentioned.700.000 square miles. has made as much of the Earth as tile God 295. ' the aggregate of whose area at the Their area annot be less than 500. upon which little will is grow for the sustenance of by some mighty miracle.000 square miles. above given America. In addition to these deserts. the Deserts of Arabia. 293. Siberia. there with salt. 292.a combined area of at least 2. cir- The Great Belt of Sandy Deserts.000. over one-fifth of the entire land! But in addition to the foregoing. To the above must be added. surface of the Earth 290.000 square miles parts of North 1 America are barren and is fertile 1 infertile. really beloiv t'he Hence the sum truth.

33 What tile. and iron-bound sea-shores. Ledges heating in the sunshine. All living things. 305. The only exceptions to its universality. Seat and cold. hammers that pound the soil to finer under the name of earth to have given our Globe. and gradually crumble away. both wear the rocks to dust . marl. The have soil.SOIL. Even those elements of Where Africa t is Africa most fertile 1 Area of the Oases of South Derived from decaying animal and vegetable sub- Has Australia any ly desert 1 fertility 1 Any deserts 1 Their area 1 stances. Whereabouts Is the dark shading 1 Is the centre of Asia fertile 1 1 How What is meant by soil 1 any part of Asia infertile 1 All the various kinds of sand. soil for existence. and Are ledges here and tions there. All running streams. In the Polar Zones mountains split and huge boulders burst with the cold. 303. phy first. because all living things depend upon it for existence. Is any part barren is Is England fertile 1 1 and thus the Earth would be a hideous un- How Asia shaded. and cracked them The fact of soil. respectively is How Is Europe shaded it 1 1 any part of desert 1 Why How Depend upon extreme North 1 without soil ? in the there could be no plants. earthquakes. name grains. and Desert. because soil is universal . so 308. is covered. Is spread with soil even to the lowest depths as copiously as the surface of the lands. For the broad backs of the . Area of the erts 1 infertile portion South of the northern des- What was all soil made of? to Area of the central deserts 1 Of the Oases '? Area of the fertile regions on the South 1 Has Africa any fertile land 1 Where ? Its area 1 Any deserts in Africa 1 Where 1 Combined areas Of rocks broken up and ground down der 1 . pow- so that all soil is pulverized stone. down Importance of to boulders and pebbles. and tides Is perhaps the most important 307. part of it is exceedingly fertile 1 1 Area of the Fer- 302. soil. continents. and without plants no animals. are clad with universal. originally 306. for Barren. or dirt with Definition anil constitution of soil. and these are excepbecause soil is so the idle rivulet works so nearly universal.with a garment. a few mountain-tops. 300. crack and seam. earth. came from the powdered the rocks to soil 1 rocks. broke First. During those long periods in which the different parts of the Globe were all under water. and second. loam. and the fails it sounding-lead rarely to bring up soil with it Help make soil. 298. Does the want of heat or of rain make Australia so large- What reduced SOIL. rain-drops are like mil- indeed. fact in the Earth's physical geogra. the fact of soil. which before man was created were more frequent and terrible than now. Soil is universal. light or dark is Why then 1 1 peopled desolation. The bed of the sea. as as to Have helped make lions of little soil . and the it The rains. from whatever depth may reach. the majestic river that drains a continent. The currents of the ocean. its is it. What of the northern part What makes 1 it desert I 1 clay. wore away and crumbled the larger rocks to gravel and sand. forces that made the the great rocks. The brook away that cascades from the mountains. 299. 301. Area of the northern deserts Of the Oases which the Globe 304. lowest level of the ocean-bed. . 309. as hard as the prison-convict at pulverizing stone 310.

animals so far as made to walk upon them The soils. Lichens and mosses penetrate the rocks with and break off atoms from them. were making soil long before man was created. To crush one cubic inch of stone of average hardness requires a power that er 323. they rot the stone beneath feed the deep springs. it. ! that New and as 326. Outlay of powand time in soil. Shows that plants find in soils just what they want to eat. 311. They suffer the wise when the the plants die. and grind it in their stomNearly all of our best soil has The up draw the water from the deep ground So that million in to the surface. finds the * Radicle — i. every drop of rain. get it. 312. Earth. Lastly. Soils are adapted to air. . soil. soil. through as an elephant's thigh. How soon the bright. or wind how nice and critical the adaptato be the food of plants . 321. was every atom of it taken from the soil by plants. in order that the roots of plants been prepared 314. and the plants could not have lived without 320. Little plants. because the stance and its fresh beauty ! air eats away its sub- So that every panful of ashes. little root. at the them. Together with God's there shall be a " is Thus they spoken revelation. years. The atmosphere. ance. speck on the Earth. Like- adapted to water. Soil is making still. Soils are adapted to plants mechanically. the furious blasts of wind can not overturn the tree. e. so that they moulder and rust away to dust. 319. But a storm arising. Ten thousands of and yet they enough to resist the power of air-inmotion.34 SOIL. and river. Thus they allow pass through them . and thus dig graves for themselves. the most delicate likewise the radicle* to 316. ivalk with ease and comfort. making soil for earthquakes. ground has a little suction-pumps working Has been outlaid in making soil. huge root thick to crowd passage Every earthquake. helps make more 317. Have been consumed tion ! 324. A panful of ashes. somber and gray. may in it! reach it. are compact 315." for the new Earth Soils are all continually preparing beneath our feet. When soils the water dries off from the surface. if they had a reasoning soul adapted to animals. of water to the beauty to the soul by its of man. Eats into or corrodes the rocks. in . and luxuriit eye. in these little living grist-mills. and running waters. that So that soil teaches. every ocean-current. every tremble testifies plant whose leaves fitness tation as perfect of and admirable taste. and health. and soil at make considerable of it them so as to same time they hold near the surface where plants can to penetrate water same time. every acre of Enormous power. and in just the form they want it. at all. that soils just right. greenness. Soils are fine roots. 318. and heat and cold. . 322.and earthworm. An adap- For first. They lay so strong a hold upon the roots. Soils In that have been maHejust right. or of as of light to the in the breezes of the World. fresh face of the new-split stone grows Containing perhaps a million grains.. 313. yield or resist just as necessity requires. a dry time. and moss- through their mass. making They so as to suffer the air to penetrate their substance fit it would lift twenty tons. Earth-worms eat achs to finer dust. etc. and rains. 325.

bottom of the . ! Without for nothing. as a general statement. and bugs. Because rocks nowhere came to the surface. The rocks and ledges show what 1 rocks and ledges as clearly discover the or- What justification soil is there 1 ? The dering: hand of a benevolent Providence as does itself. the Earth would be waste and its good the almost universal fact of soil Civilization would 334. and creation . . and he has not yet made his garden. nothing would be left for it to do. . Why imperfect- ly mixed. material. and may And third. Is it not is islands. because with the forces employed. he has many forces at work upon it even now. making soil. the soils already all have been.* " By the would then be wanted 331. covered thick fully 329. and graves 339." 338. tribes 335. through countless ages. That. and worked and waited. the . and the soil for use. Even now plants used. They were not for large tracts 341. food. too. man's probation. The soils have been left imperfectly mixed. labor. numerous burrow and By the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread. a waste to have soil so abundant 1 The Earth is God's garden. 336. without such intermixture with one another as is needed for plants. 35 327. Certainly not upon the lands. t of GodVloving 328. and therefore we cannot expect to find the work already done. Shall till his forces had had time to make the soil. What justification would seem needed ? therein. sometime again be 330. dirt is full ground. so that every spadeful of kindness. Why were any spots if left bare of soil f much power through in so much time Vindication of the existence of soils. not be possible without stone and preservation would be a dead loss of materials and power so soil had to be made at whatever outlay. because when the work was done. the dirt at the and richest need " Therefore. used. in the and shelter." to be and die finding homes. or gravel abound. because though not all now used. and so it would be waste power. Were the soils thoroughly mixed together? . God The lesson of patience. why boiub universal. Justification of the outlay of so 332. and that. and says to man. Power. the finest Soils need culti- For miles live innumerable root sea. so that man might be constrained to mix them. and animals not in it. There in no exception it. innumerable of grubs. vation.SOIL. 337. What lesson is read to us by the soils 1 of sand. and ocean-bed. Not upon the ocean-bed. God's garden 1 whole Globe. The lesson of the soils. sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread. That imperfect mixing means. and bed First. we should be greatly troubled to procure hard and in sufficient and time are so precious that them. Soils need cultivation. Why was the work so imperfectly done'? And slugs. as has already done in bygone ages. The earthworm. with soil. or clay. and board. man then refuse to work and wait ? . continents. What has been said of the universality of soil work could not be thoroughly done and no more force could be put on. is it Because that may sometime come to the light. 340 God enduring building-materials abundance does not allow even himself to squander any of and without extraordinary 333. and find sustenance snails. worked and waited. the But second. at the less depth of herein the soils again say to man. * See Book Second.

breadth. The Grand Divisions of the Western Continent. and 346. exemption from large deserts.000. of its river-systems and lake-sys- Lou. 342.000. A view which embraces only Physical or NatuThird. spectively as . We have 343. Characteristics of the Western Continent.000 to the Eastern with in islands. The continuousness and unity of its plateau-ele- vations. Is about 30.000 to the THE DISTRIBUTION OP FERTILITY. The 355. an enormous length as compared with two The Western Continent is divided by nature into Grand Divisions or Continents.000 of which . its mountain-chains.000. Fifth.36 THE WESTERN CONTINENT.000. The humidity falls. Second. with the design of setting them forth comprehensively. 345. clearly.700 miles in length. fertility of its soil. Lat. 12. The grandeur tems. 3 250 miles in . 10.000. its First. Dimensions of the Western Continent 1 8. Occupies the remaining 12. is. and 54° S. already learned. 348.000 square miles. ands. breadth. Infertile and Barren land. It lies between 72° 1ST. 350.020. W.000 square miles in area miles. round numbers. THE WESTERN CONTINENT. re- CHAPTER Physico-Descriptire VII. and 20.000. known reNorth America and South America. The sura total of the fertile lands. South. Fourth. whose vertices both Its 354. Western Continent 1 352. Lat. fall Western Continent with its its isl- The Area of the Deserts.000 square miles. in their ral features. 4.000 square miles of which fall to the Western and the mainder to the Eastern Continent. The extreme What is simplicity and the vast continuous a Physico-Descriptive View ? length of 851. Form of the Western Continent % of The form point two triangles. least breadth 30 Isthmus of Darien. 344. Position of the proper order. 353. at the 349. View of the Western Continent. the vertex of die one touching the base of the other. of its climate and its heavy rain- 15. 356. general and marked Seventh. and between 35° and 168° 347. Sixth.

in By far the larger part of North America is in 5. It lies between 72° and 10° N. such as Hudson's St.000 . Extensive and fertile plains. Gulf of Mexico.NORTH AMERICA. 359. Lat. 8..690 feet in average elevamiles. and between Vast indentations of the sea. NORTH AMERICA. W.500 mile to each 350 of North America ") square miles of area.100 in breadth. Lawrence. long and narrow plat- .600. Characteristics of North America. together with the large peninsulas Florida and CaliBay. Dimensions of North America. 3. Form 24. whose base on the Arctic Ocean. . Position of 360. rests of an irregular triangle. % In what Zone chiefly 361.600 miles length. square miles in area tion . 37 A WINTER SCENE IN NORTHERN NORTH AMERICA. Cause of the irregularity of its form. 357. 56° and 158° 358. etc. The form 362. the North-Temperate Zone. Gulf of fornia. Lon. and whose vertex touches South America in 10° N. 1 coast-line. 1. North America'! Lat.

Are abrupt. The Pacific Declivity embraces West of the Pocky Mountains. extend from the Arctic Ocean to the Isthmus of Darien. through Mexi1 to co they consist of isolated peaks from high. feet high. The Mountains Sierra-Nevada pf all of the West Coast embrace the The Atlantic Declivity. . Mean feet. The Central Plain extends from the Arctic Ocean to the G-ulf of Mexico. Lat. to the Gulf of St. in the central parts. Elias. 370. 372.38 NORTH infertile AMERICA.750 feet feet in .700 Mountains of the West Coast. each higher than Mt. rugged surface. 373. deemed the highest. a moderately fertile soil. 17. extending est parts in the mile. and great Their loftiest peaks.000 to 6. 1 both sides of the mountains. The Sierra-Nevada. and a rather excessive Their highest peaks are Mount Brown.000 feet total area. of Mountain-Systems of North America. and from the 2 miles Arctic Ocean to the Isthmus. with large square miles . 5. Their characteristics. America. of North The Plateaus of the Rocky Mountains. few indentations of the 368.000 to 6. Consist of the Plateaus of the ains. eaus with a desert or rivers 383. elevation of General evenness of surface a very fertile . l£ miles . Rise from 7. desert-valleys intermingled. running from the southern point of the between the Atlantic Ocean and the Appalachian Mountains characteristics. The plateaus of the Rocky Mountains upon wid- mean elevation in the North. numerous but not large of the sea.000 feet in height loftiest peak.000 miles . soil the Cascade. and the Alleghany or Appalachian Mountains. East of the Rocky Mountains. and from 3. The Rocky Mountains. 371.900 height. an infertile sea. The Mountains op the West Coast. 378. resources in coal. Their dimensions. The Atlantic Declivity. 369. The Central and Mount St. the Black Dome in North Carolina. 12. 16.000 to 9. and from the Appalachian 374. until recently 376. surface. peninsula of California to the peninsula of Alaska. . and copper. Washington in New Hampshire. feet . The Pacific Declivity all Run along the eastern side of the continent. 377. America. 3. Lawrence 1. California. and Mount Hooker.. miles in length . Three The Rocky Mountains. and the Appalachian Plateau. weather. Highest peaks. 365. to the highlands 366.500 . 400 miles Eastward from the mountains. rivers.000 to 8. .476 feet.and the Cascade-Range The Atlantic Declivity embraces the territory of Oregon. and the Pacific Declivity. 6. magnificent climate.000 with snow. and on the West to the Pacific Ocean. the loftiest mountain-summit in North Plain. naked summits covered all Their elevation rises from 2.000 375 numerous and large al rivers and lakes great miner- The Alleghany or Appalachian Mountains. the Grand Division.Range. craggy.000 The three divisions of its territory. over one-third of and active volcanoes in Mexico. 367. : The Plateaus and Highlands North America. . Mount Fair- manufacturing. they lie East of Characteristics of the Central Plain. lead. soil. the Rocky Mount- Arctic Highlands.000 feet. frequent indentations facilities for commerce and Are Mount Hood. from 34° N. and lakes. a scanty rivers.000 feet the gold region in California.500. iron. 364. The Central Plain. surrounded by eleven other peaks. the territory characteristics. 14. 15. lie The mountain-spine about 5.

River-St/stcms of The Graxd Lake-System of North America. mean elevation. and chief rivers. its and 14. 2.150 feet in the East.000 miles in breadth.000 feet. is of South America 1 Triangular. Ontario. and the BlueRido-e Mountains. it is and southeastern The Torrid Zone Form hence South America is emi- portions of the Continent. from the Rocky Mountains at the parallel of 51° N. The Appalachian or Alleghanian Plateau. 39 The Arctic Highlands. because the water-shed mountains (Rocky) lie so near the Pacific as to throw the greater part of the drainage of the Continent into the Atlantic. Three the Atlantic. Superior to 388. 391.250 miles long from the western end of its Lake and thundering 380. the vertex pointing South . in continual avalanches. gorged with glaciers. and the Mississipipi on the South. belt Northwesterly 93. 800 miles. and is York. and 1. the largest river in North descending to 500 feet Northward breadth from America. separates the Atlantic and Arctic A highland Systems. E. Lawrence.600 miles in length. and 54° S. 50 to 100 miles. with the adjacent islands . ? Lon. In what Zone chiefly . . N.000 square miles members of the System. 6. Elevated tracts along the coasts of Greenland. page 390 In detail.500 miles The 395. Atlantic System's chief rivers. and known crowded thick with craggy mountain-pinnacles. Extends from the Great Lakes See Map 4. by far the largest. its coast-line ? elevation. the Columbia and Colorado. Michigan. The Atlantic System. between 35° and 82° 392. nently tropical in character. the whole lying between the ridges of the Alleghany and Cumberland. sea or 394.000 waters to the ocean through the Laiorence on square miles in area. Huron.400 miles long. area bounded by being 1 mile for each 420 square miles of surin total length. Winnipeg. 381. Dimensions of South America The Atlantic System sends the major part of St. the Mackenzie. Erie. and Back rivers. is Extends from North of Alabama to New Drains a basin-area of 1. . Ocean. W. Embraces the central. 1 face. 384. Coppermine. 336.. 382. mouth. and Northeasterly into Labrador. 2. from the oceans that receive respective waters. The St. South America 1 Occupies the territory West of the Rocky Mountains . of moderate Hence what of It is short in proportion to the it. the- The Mississippi. in a North America. 337. page of the United States inclusive. 389. See Map 3. its form but slightly modified either by indentations of the 385. It lies between 10° N.SOUTH 379. Superior. running E.. 3. basca. 2. extent and elevation not Carries off the surplus of the Great Lakes. Lat. 393. . The dividing ridge. Embraces the northern part of the continent chief rivers. .000 square miles. the Paand the Arctic. by out-juttings of the land. Position of 383. AthaThe Arctic System. The Pacific System. Lat. their the principal Combined area of its lakes 150.333. SOUTH AMERICA. and Great Bear. elevation in the South. brings an immense volume of water to the It is ocean.420. eastern. to the Arctic cific. Lat. so called . Slave. 4. AMERICA.

. a and extreme humidity of climate.-. and 403. Are the mountain-spine of the continent 4. 397.944 feet high. Cotopaxi.40 S UTH AMERICA. and Mountains of Guiana. exceedingly level surface. and one mile in the South. 23. an unproductive aridity of climate. The Are- ry The Pacific Declivity.. . The Andean and Brazilian Systems. and fer- two miles in the North. The Mountains of Guiana. 111111111111111 '-' . ': Eg" . .- "'•>' 1 : '. Natural divisions of her territory. als. an Andes. Characteristics of South America 1 Vast and tility plains. quipa. Volcanoes of the Is the giant porphyritic territory East of the Andes characteristics. mid lati- of The loftiest soil. from the latitude of 30° South to the Equator.':. a mountainsoil. The Andes. First. embracing all the territoWest of the Andes. snow-crowned. Aconcagua. 402. snowy. great and vast wealth in precious met- Consist of a broad belt of low ridges running Northeasterly. "'''MJtik '•'.. ' • . small plateaus magnificent rivers. large rivers. deserts. the Extend from the mouth of the Orinoco nearly to the mouth of the Amazon their loftiest summit. The Brazilian Mountains ous and broken surface.". 399.. Maravaca. characteristics. the Atlantic Declivity. . . height * Nevado. enormous volcanoes. Are noted for their for their vast elevation. fertile soil. 401.. parallel with the coast. Mountain-Systems of South America % 404. 400.. embracing . - SS?s- A SOUTH-AMERICAN SCENE 396. small lakes. . all the Nevado * of Aconcagua. and covered with an unfurrowed surface of resplendent snow. breadth from 200 to 400 miles. Antisaiia. three miles in the tudes.. . and chief are And secondly.. numbers.-. tremendous eruptions.. 398.000 feet high. peak.600 miles long.. is 11.

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ot'smkintjSea. .hftUit S outli American Hate au 4.000.00H uq. Shetland - 154O. Uiongitude Sjo West t \ .500ft I SOUT R AM.ERIC*^ •length Is 4.- Area of Continents Area of Pacific 78.820. 23.tHH*stj.m..000.00 Area of the Eaxthi96.4 Area of Lands 54=820. £mad0i.400 jn-lr 350 m.-. 6.00 Ifl „ - 1150ft.000 m.nt.600m.DU. &P ST? 2o3F©]RM & EKVATTIOIf otmt: C< Socielr Is. 'Goast lute Area of Polar Oceans 10.321 s<f. 3.b. O'nxUextlH.500 m.„„ -.000 sqm.' ]>ang*eroiis v -AtcbipfeliiSO An'a 2.4i l 0. jtycjxu/e '^ S o.5444k 14.000 47. Jrea MearvUlevco.. IXemMttn 3.420..

Islands ic 7. Greate/rtFi:-- TMeanJ^evanon of the Continents 1(3.700m.NY.. 15. 4. Greatest Length 6.810ft.Grst-Breadttt 6.602 in.500 'i. J&oaoOOMfm.2 ft- CoasrUme 90Km°5ludel(i> East 12 .0O0.OTKMFg -BEEIEES SIOH of the BE A-1EB 3.394 m-Jrea 2O.600m.Hfr""" •amfftera. JiTKadtti 21. JOenff&l AFRICA sq.000 s<j. 671ft. *W.000 IL-Inland Seas. . . 000000 ?sq. 140()0 PWaters 142000.---.rlitOOfi.000 sa d± j. 170OO7IV. .in Jb-ea 6.. 7.000.500.000 sq^sx. Lakes etc. --. . 20M>0 ft.000sq.000..m.m -Indian 20.\ m EaeSTDiThEngraver&Prniter TUTasaau-St ..m.000 s<£.-DJO 10 5 m m.m.

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How largest river in high is the country along the Atlantic Ocean 1 Next "World. Lat. to the is Amazon. The form and dimensions of South America'? The Lakes small in of South America. and elevated 13. drains an area of 1. and rolls three-fold greater What itudes i. covering a vast extent of country dry season they waste away into bogs. Are ber. Questions upon the NO.900 miles in length. 720 feet deep What is the name of the plateau and mountains in the % near the shores.262. the La Plata. Height of the Coast-Range 1 ? Secondly. Elevation of the Brazilian Plateau in different parts On the loftiest part of the South.500. 170 miles long. 41 Grand Plateau-System of South America. 411. AMERICA. Average elevation of the Alleghanian Plateau to 1 Contains only insignificant streams.SOUTH 405. tributary streams. The Pacific System. 2. to the ocean a 3. elevation of How long America 1 How do 1 its coast-liDe 1 you distinguish Two. the form of North America 1 Is it a regular tri- How The See large is North America North River-Systems of South America.350 miles in length. As before remarked. Height of the Ancles Lake Titieaca.000 square miles in area.540. size. 406. Map PAGE is of the Continents. 45° 1 In the center of the plain. perforated by volcanic funnels. the Amazon. owing the cli- narrowness of the slope and the dryness of the mate. an enormous upland towering with gigantic mountains. Its elevation ? 1 Dimensions of the South-American Highlands breadth. Systems. he Central Plain is 1 What special 1 name given to the northern part of the Gather in the in the rainy season along the eastern base Central Plain ? to the central parti of the Andes. 70 broad. area 1 1 Length. The stream is drains 2. northern part of the Central Plain Where is the water-shed ridge betwixt the northern and I southern part of Lagoons or lake-like marshes.000 square miles in area. Precisely what and 2. page Dimensions of the Central Plain and are chiefly confined to its 93. surfaced with deserts.000 square miles. 2 are there shown 1 ? What two What ang'e 1 dimensions of the lands Ans. Their Extent and Height. . is 4. 43. 410. 20° and 30° N. the the Along the Gulf of Mexico Lat. 4. the Atlantic and Pacific the highly elevated parts on the Map "? Map 3. 1.400 miles long. 350 broad. the most magnificent the World. What river in sions Is 1 occupies the center of North America Its dimen- First. 408. cov- ered with reeds and coarse wild grass. page What What occupies the western part of North America is its 1 extent and height 1 1 The Atlantic System's chief rivers.000 square North America mostly plain or plateau is 1 miles of territory. the height of the Rocky Mountains in different lat- volume of waters than any other river upon the Globe. and few in numSee Map ±. and its How What do you is know the exact height in these cases 1 is navigable to the the height of the North-American Plateau between 1 sources of 409. 412. How do you distinguish the highlands from the plains in different latitudes'? % 1 mountain-regions. and how much shown upon Map No. 407. is forming as it were a gloomy background for the magnificent and smiling panorama of the rest of the continent.000 feet above the sea.American Ta- Height of the mountains upon the plateau'? ble-land.

EUROPE.Asia. and a temper- Sixthly. and the Mountain- Three Europe. its Characteristics of the Dimensions of Europe. in lati- It 27' W. pian Seas. THE EASTERN CONTINENT. tude. Secondly. Italy. narrow limits. Fourthly. the sec- ond. and Baltic Seas. What form so irregular 1 Dimensions of the Eastern Continent. White. smallness of its rivers and lakes.000 miles in breadth Denmark. The Plains upon the North. and the Black and Cas- systems. tex to the trian426.500 miles 3. Lat. In the North-Temperate. Grand .. districts upon the South. The comparative 421. Characteristics of Europe. 414. Lat. and humid climate.800 miles. 1 mile to each 417. 429.000 square miles coast-line 17. .400 miles . . Lon.500. 1 mile to each 156 square miles of area. Natural boundaries between Europe and Asia. it constitutes a sort of ver- immense renders triangle of its Europe. . aridity of its climate.. 415. to 60° 36' E.000 square miles in area. 419. 413. Eastern Continent. Lat. Med- 33.000 miles in length. Position of Europe. a range of 35° in . outreaching peninsulas. 427. First. 533 square miles of area. 424. lakes. The general 423. to 34° 50' S. Thirdly. It extends from 17° 33' east longitudes to 170° W. A plain and ate surface. . short and moderately elevated mountains. CHAPTER Playslco-Bescrlptlve VIII View of the Eastern Continent. Position of the Eastern Continent. mean elevation 671 . N. through all the W. 10.42 EUROPE. a soil considerably fertile. Greece. It presents the form of two vast irregular gles united at the Isthmus of Suez. inreaching branches iterranean. numerous extent of deserts rivers The enormous 422. 416. Spain. Asia. irregularity and complexity of its mountain- In point of fact there are none. area feet in comparatively 418. 8. coast-line 61. the consolidation of land-masses with- Length 3. It is so irregular as scarcely to be comparable to any geometrical figure Form of the Eastern Continent. . very small plateaus. and of upwards of 200° In what Zone chiefly 1 of Europe. Lon.. and Norway and Sweden of the ocean. and of 70° Form in longitude. large proportion of plateaus upon its sur428. Natural divisions of her territory. Divisions of the Eastern Continent.. First. a latitude 425.000.000 miles breadth 2. Lon. Fifthly. 430. and from 78° 16' range of 113° in longitude. The face. upon its surface.. and from 9° Lon. though the Ural and Caucasus Mountains. and Africa. furnish a semblance of natural division. extends from 36° to 71° N. The 420.

Are noted Landes in and France. Seine. Consists of a vast number of lakes situate in the . 'Two the Alpine . Lat. ering the whole interior of that peninsula. . System. 445. the Plateau of Baand of the Valdai Hills in Russia.300 miles area 17. Caucasus and Asia occupies what 1 the Caspian Sea is the highest mountain in Europe The remainder of which 442. and Corea. . 30. Characteristics of Asia. covered with the heath-plant. view of the civilizations upon banks than of and a climate excessive and in- their magnitude. 446. 435. the Elbe.200 miles long the Danube. ers the Volga. Persian Gulf.100 miles long. great elevation. breadth miles long. for their piuturesqueness. 1.600 miles . Dnieper. but and the Loire. 1 ted from 2. The plains of Europe. of the great continental triangle constitutes the vertex.810 feet. heath or with pine Heaths in Germany. immense .ASIA. 438. in a belt of disconnected ranges. gravel. 760 miles long contains for chief streams. and Arabia. 5. 1.600 feet coast. In what Zone chiefly In the North-Temperate Zone. ASIA. 1. 570 miles long important rather in their tumultuously irregular mountain-chains. 15. 5. Asia's position. eleva- and from 443. 433. 440. of the Alps. Lake-Systems of Europe. and the Dow. . 43 431. plants.630 Length from East to West. the Sea's of Okhotsk. .000 feet varia. the Alps of Switzerland. 1. The Southern System Dimensions of Asia. Kamschatka. by out-jut- Northern and the Southern. Are few and small the Plateau of Spain covis It extends from 27° E. covered with sands. . and the System of the Baltic beautiful lakes are found among the highlands of Scotland. . and by a low elevation of the European the Two ting peninsulas. 437. 1 mile to each 459 square miles The Northern System's chief rivers. . Lon. beauty. Extend from the western border of France. . The The Alpine System.000 square miles average elevation. by indenting branches of the ocean. separated by the Alps and German Mountains in the West. local designations of these plains. the Bay of Bengal and the The Southern System's chief rivers. and countries adjacent to the Baltic Sea Sweden and . China. The form of Asia. 436. 690 . through Holland. . doostan. are small and of low elevation. with gravels and occasional The Baltic System. . 2. line. heathsalt incrustations. Finland are complete net-works of lakes The Mountains on the South. 444. Corea.000 to 3. ble small lakes.500. Pyrenees of Spain. Europe's River-Systems.800 miles . of area. Germany. bogs . Lon. Hin- secondly. clining to aridity. India-. The Northern System the Rhine.200 miles long. and Arabia . wiry grass. 439. 432. Steppes in Russia.. 1° 15' to 78° 20' N. the Carpathians of Austria. . Mont Blanc 434. from North to South. through the Appenines of the Balkan of Turkey. 430 Enormously elevated plateaus deserts salt lakes stupendous. to the . and the coasts of Russia have several large and innumera- Extend from the Italy. An irregular triangle modified first. and Russia to the Ural Mountains. Plain in the East. 441. sandy downs covered with . contains for principal riv. Europe The Plateaus of Europe . to 170° W.

and the mingled Plains. Embraces Their characteristics. 450. The Center the North. level surface.i llllffl S . The Plains enormous and lofty plateaus enby towering mountains. and extending from the Black Sea to the Khin-Ghan and Yun-Ling circled Is occupied with Mountains. . A TROPICAL SCENE. numerous salt . Plateaus oe Asia Minor. swamp's. and between the Belor-Tag Mountains on the "West. extending Southeast from the Black Sea to the Great Plain of Hindoostan. uBL WBRHKM THE CACTUS HEDGE. and Mountains op the South. and from the Altai Mountains to the Arctic Ocean. and Persia. 447. what 1 ? Are. with occasional gish rivers. an exceeding low and barrenness. The Plains of the North. Also. of 448.44 ASIA. lying be- fertility. «/ of Asia. Plateaus. 449. sluglakes. and fresh these and an called cold climate plains are tween the Altai and Himalaya Mountains on the North and South. the Plateaus and Mountains of the Center. This Plateau-System embraces what 1 Extend from the Ural Mountains Eastward to the Pacific. intensely Steppes. v: f. Natural divisions of its territory. ' . general The so-called Oriental Table-la\d. 451. Armenia. the 452. and the Khin-Ghan and Yun-Lina: Mountains on the East.

The Ganges. sun-burned wilderness. In what Zone chiefly 1 The Obi.500. 1. itself a salt lake some are in Persia. Salt Lakes of Asia.500 miles. The supposed origin of these lakes. Are dia. the Ner- budda. but der of the year. Geographic position. the Altai. average Asiatic Lakes. abound months in the year. 2. the Himalayas. Arabia. and an intensely arid and The Southern Asia. 457.ASIA. an soil. It occupies not far from 8. Lat. and a very extensive plain in its northern. 456.000 feet miles 1. and covered with a magnificent vegetation Orient.400 miles long. . Contains the Plateau of toe Deccan in its AFRICA. highlands. and tracts of great fertility. Mountains Characteristics of Central Asia.000 square of it are covered with shingly gravel and The Pacific System's chief rivers.530 miles long. The Amoor. over six 465. and . with oases of wondotting its and left left the surrounding re- drous fertility bronzed surface with oc- country crusted with salt-crystals mains. . in Armenia.200 . elevation 3 miles height of loftiest peak. mingled togeth- are in Palestine. Indian' Systems. it has evaporated. roll enormous volumes of water to the ocean during the remain- over nine months of the year." 460.. 463. er in extraordinary variety. irreclaimable desolations. 2. and fresh. the Brahmapootra . the ThianShan. the largest the Altai Lake Baikal. the Kuen-Lun. deserts. the Yenesei. Africa Division of the Earth. 3. 459. Are length loftiest mountains on the Earth breadth 225 miles .900. River-Systems of Asia. Lat. The Central Mountain-Chains. and from 51° 22' E. Three the Arctic. and the united Euphrates and Tigris. 29. page Africa extends from 37° 20' N. which these lakes stand these brine-lakes. the the Yang-tse-Kiang. the highest mountain on the and small in size . 2.200 and the Cambo- Mountains of Armenia. Lon. The Arctic System's chief rivers. Pacific. its waters are clear An immensely elevated and rugged surface.700. .000 square miles in fish. and marine casional verdure. 467. to 17° 32' W. 2. The Indian System's chief rivers. and in Asia Minor Lake Tiberias and the Dead Sea . an arid.300 miles long . In detail.. 2." gles that constitute the Eastern Continent. 468. 2. . the HindooKoosh. channeled by mighty .600 . Are situated about the Caspian. 461.000 to 13.000 miles long. the Indus. the Hoang-Ho. in numSee Map 4. The entire system's area. These are frozen The Grand Torrid Zone. area 15. their 464. southern portion .460 miles long. among . 454. in Afghanistan.000. 469.002 Globe. 458. Hindoostan. elevation from 3. 455. page Everest. The Himalayas. the " Garden of the The second and smaller of the two great trian- and the " Land of fable and song. to 34° 50' S. 1. feet. and the Aldan Mountains. . . the 1 the Iraivaddy. What does Africa occupy 1 rivers. Is occupied with plains. and See Map 3. 462. 1.000 square miles . Mount is Are comparatively few ber. Lon. 466. A salt sea probably once existed in area in the depressed Is an elevated plain covered with driving sands. shifting sands. 45 453. is the most tropical . and the Lena. but are frozen exceedingly barren excessive climate. mountains.

A supposed to extend nearly across entire breadth. and imfeet on the inland side. 476. receives no tributary for 1.000 by indentations of the ocean. rises near Why supposed to be elevated. flows at among the mounttoward the center of . The Atlas Mountains on the North.000 Soudan. flows in the lower part of its course Because the country from the shore inland rises successive terraces.000 feet high. mandjaro.500 the whole region is The chief river of the Atlantic System. whose the sea 477. 11.300. Africa's general form. Map 3. and NieUveldt Mountains on Very immense large plateaus. Africa. the 481. and because observations taken at various points upon the general surface. a broken girdle that encompasses no small 5. 472. and the System op the Indian Ocean. through a narrow valley. Have an average of 3. 485. coast line 14.600 miles. Triangular. the Equator. the Abyssinian. limits not definable in the present state of geographic knowledge. the vertex pointing South. Africa's general characteristics.700 miles in breadth . Plateau of Abyssinia. to the Cape. but what course it takes in the cannot be affirmed with certainty. 475. in 478. miles. considerably removed from the coast is . 480. the highest mountain in Africa. and empties into the Mediterranean after a course of 2. 471. the base resting on the Mediterranean Sea.800 feet Lake Nyanza. from 14° N. 4.000 square miles. 473. elevation above The Nile. an area flints. . is The Niger. page Southward is supposed to be one continuous plateau. a burning and arid climate. The Mountains of Africa. drains the plateaus and highlands adjoining. 479.000 feet above the sea . and the Eanges West. There its territory.000 square miles feet. area.400 miles above its mouth. its Desert Plain on the North. . mean feet. and a coast In addition to these chains. on the and lakes. is closed against the sea. of the land. The whole Lat. The River-Systems of . 1 mile each 623 square miles of area. has an elevation of 7. of Africa from the parallel of 6° N. Form 4. is Are Two the System of the Atlantic Ocean. Dimensions of Africa. See 64. Lupata. 474. covered with slabs.000. is situate upon one of their inland spurs.000 feet fertile which interior 482. 484. the Atlas Mountains on the North. 486. with fountains.000 feet. to 10° S. rises first Lake Ngami 2. A region of though with seaward slope mense lakes lie and dense population its fertile at their and well-watered. Moreover. 20. The Plains of the North. modified neither the northeast point of the Southern Table-Land. 1. a range in the is mid latitudes of the con- Natural divisions of tinent. Lat. and an Enormous Table-Land on the South. small rivers East and South. and fresh with unfading verdure. Kil- great fertility stretches across the continent in mid latitudes. Embrace gravels.46 AFRICA. and yet they the all occujjy depressed areas. waterless oceans of desolation with here and there an oasis-island dewy The Lupata Mountains.800 to The several links in this chain. country on both sides. Are their The Central Belt. nor by out-juttings feet. Examples.000 to 4. the Sahara and Nubian Deserts. and shifting sands.000 mean elevation 1. Lake feet The River of ains of Tanganyika. elevation of about 5. they are bordered by a 483. deserts. the Blacks. not less than 2. 470. Are. indicate an elevation from 2.600 miles in length part of the entire continent. The Table-land on the South.

its and volume abound in is greater. ' What are the dimensions of Asia 1 1 Its elevation ? Greats is 150 miles long. 2. wide. Have been supposed in to be . on the northern slopes of the Great Southern Plateau. .300 miles. What occupies the southern part of Africa Dimensions and elevation of the Plateau of South Africa 1 Lake Ngaml 20° S. Where are the Plateaus of Iran. and small in size recent explorations have shown the Special names given to different parts of the European Plain 1 impression to be not entirely true. and Asia Minor 1 1 A great lake Tanganyika. Dimensions of Europe tion? Its elevation 1 Greatest eleva- The lakes of Africa.. 10° Lon. Tchad. for it never rains in the of an immense What plateau in the North in the ? Its area ? and elevation ? rived entirely What mountains North Their height? Central ranges and their altitudes ? region of the Lake. 490. 850 Its waters are fresh odiles. Dimensions and elevation of the Plain of China 1 or Nyassi. stretching feet Height of the Himalaya Mountains ains? 1 Of the Ural Mount- North and South. 1 course of 2. Dimensions of Africa 1 Eecently discovered. 489. 491. 300 miles -long. is the largest lake in Africa. 90 broad feet . the Oriental Plateau Its dimensions and alti- and hippopotami. . 30 broad. 33° E. Length of Map 4. stretching North and South at the foot of the western slope of the mountains. Lat. Lake Maravi S.AFRICA. 33° 30' E. a Map PAGE of the Continents. Lon. What bank water upon at the southern point of Africa 1 Depth of it ? In Lat. is Lon. etc. 492. through a magnificently tile fer- country. 47 the continent.800 sea-level. navigable for 900 miles.. 22° E.. Name the principal mountain-chains and their altitudes 1 The largest known till recently. elevation feet. What 487. 2. few See 93. Lake Nyansa. Questions upon the NO. 43. Where 1 The vertex 1 Is the Zambesi. has been discovered Area of the Plain of Hindoostan Plain of Arabia"? Dimensions of the to be a chain of lakes. depth from 8 to 15 Where Where tude 1 is the great Northern Plain of Europe-Asia? 1 Its save in the wet season.600 feet in elevation.. 488.000 feet. est elevation above the sea.000 feet Mean elevation 1 Chief elevation % 1 1 Dimensions of the Plain of North Africa Its elevation ? conjectured to be the 493. in 2° 30' S. is is the form of Europe-Asia the base of the triangle 1 The chief river of the Indian System. of the Plain of Mantchooria 1 ? In Lat. croc- dimensions is Altitude 1 1 fish. and thence to the Gulf of Guinea. Elevation of the Plateau of the Deccan Lon. above Height of the Yun-Ling and Khin-Ghan Mountains 1 The country all about it is 3.. Armenia. above the sea. and elevated 1. Lat. when clear. 60 miles long. is 4. Its waters are defrom the wet-season floods of the mountains on the North. Its elevation above the sea is Coast ranges and their altitudes ? . 14 What Plateau vation 1 in the northeast part is specified 1 Its ele- a shallow reservoir for the surplus waters interior area. 90 broad. page coast-line 1 number.. Name the chief mountain-ranges and their elevations. and has been main source of the Nile. 300 miles long. Their combined area Their respective elevations 1 % Has 30° E.. recently been discovered in about 6° S. Dimensions.

THE EXTENT OP THE OCEAN.000 square miles 7.A.000. T ID R AN OCEAN-SCENE. for II. land that amount it is. (Chap. for they are complements of each other.000. of The oe^an just large enough. IX. 142. Ocean-Hasin. Proportional extent of the Ocean.000 in lakes and : It is not. 494. . .000 in the Ocean. THE ICEBERG. CHAPTER The Extent of the Ocean.000. fourths of the entire surface of the Globe. 496. and 135. Is it ? not waste to have so much of the Earth's sur- face. water Total area of waters upon the Earth. 495. II. The Shape of the The Depth of the Ocean.) is it has been shown the inland seas.PART TH . just right as it and is therefore follows that the amount of water just The Ocean occupies somewhat less than three- right also.

Why take a deep-sea sounding 49 were to be increased. the deep "boot-shaped" area South- Newfoundland. . is all the present surface needed. a greater depth would destroy them. It is diffi- cult to determine when the plumline were diminished. and here shall thy proud waves be stayed. replete with minute forms of life that can live only under the depth of water now Between east of six and seven miles in The furnished maximum icean-depth.* The extent of the ocean and man's culture. " Hith- and abundantly. as before shown. is The sea-bed Greatest known depth of the ocean. is it difficult to % Then to the tendency its climate too moist. and to augment the number and size of deserts to increase the severities of climate by lessening the tempering influences of the sea and thus to . 498. own weight. 505. 504. subtractions. it is . the tide-waves. lessen the aeration and illumination of the of these living the lands. if the sea ent. smaller surface. and thus earthquakes would be might not pass over. *See Book Second of Series. and steamers like floating the present order of things. 502.* Making shoals. without having a the same same time much 509. and these elements . If the waters favorable to the no- the sea. " set a the hot interior of the Earth much more frequently When God erto shalt thou bound to the waters that they to the ocean. or being carried out by submarine currents. and life Because the its line is apt to part by Deep-sea soundings. ." and said more numerous and 508 It destructive. lia- Amidst this uncertainty." he displayed consummate wisdom of adaptation not less than omnipotence of power. but it cannot be less. bility to destructive storms have compelled man to for all purposes required deep construct great ships. conditions of the Earth. Secondly. First. 500. or by the heave of remove the conditions of bler plants and animals. were much deeper than at presall water would in probability leak down into In conclusion. 499. would be to make the Earth's surface wet and boggy. within limits to set the average depth necessary to the health Two miles may be greater. found at the surface a diminished surface For at and it for the diminished depths near would waters things. OCEAN. and of waves engen- dered by earthquakes. and have thus helped make him a thinking To show this more fully. worlds . 501. THE DEPTH OP THE OCEAN. its 506. or cated to it by the motion communiby currents. the undulations of Average depth. 507. met has touched bottom.THE 497 If the waters DEPTH OF THE 503. as to living things. could not be much deeper with at the amount of water. What of the average depth of the sea 1 . show that Besides. is what is certain % The vastness of the ocean and consequent That the sea to fit it of just the depth in Sea just enough. the run out of its continuing to The tendency would be to render land-climate too dry. as well as toiling being. own weight. come but no further. the depth of the mid-ocean cannot in Everything that are lives the sea needs air and be less than Three miles. light in greater or less measure. exercise a disastrous influence upon the habitable Soundings. Thirdly. marine life. have compelled him to the exercise of his faculties. as to diminished surface. whereas.

" and he certainly would not make in the God " cause during the existence of the Globe. T £„"> of the solidity of the Globe a volume demonstrably just right. and become ex- the same will continue under water. 519. climate would be lessened for the shallow ocean If the seaward slope of the continent be gradual. as to climate. and a breaking-up and distortion of the The reasons for these irregularities. in oceans etc. That the continents rise from the bed of the sea indeed. and only Unevenncss of marked by irregularities. freeze over in cold regions. ITnevcnncss of the sea-bed. It would be thought a very shallow puddle that ! The the causes of these irregularities of surface. magnitudes or very slight. inasmuch as that shape essential to the comfort is Why basin it is. these submerged areas have come and may again come to any mistake measuring ! and the same conditions of surthere be necessary as are now and then would face necessary upon the lands. 2ttW 514. the life of myriads of organic existences. being at the great- The hills. and more than diminished by half. upon the sunken ter- plain of the sea-bed. 513. the light and air . be- low of his measured the waters in the holhand. 510. sea. Total volume of the ocean. Second modification. Are as strong as for the same on the lands. 523. THE SHAPE OP THE 516. shoals. might indeed be expected. reefs. as — 522. The tempering would influence exerted . so that the sea-bed is a stupendous and even sunken plain. surface. of the breadth of the ocean. it will continue abrupt underwawill would cover 511. . . mountains. that diversify the surface of the land. 270. and A shallow puddle. 517. a diminished depth. as off the western coasts of the Americas. and only one inch deep and yet such depth of the 515. areas. less.50 THE On SHAPE OF THE OCEAN-BASIN. since when he made up the Earth. from the interior to the be found not far from things. the sea-lied. Why the ocean-basin is shaped as it is. ia the oceanshaped as of the sea. 512. should be 166 feet across. by the sea upon 518. all the habitable portions of the lands. First modification of this general form. General shape of the ocean-basin. Lastly. is the ratio of the breadth to the ic Are same as the irregularities of the land. thus the comfort and per- depths will be found only at a great distance from shore ert.. be abrupt. so perplexed with bars. shallow- the continents are nothing but highlands planted Comparative depth of the ocean. rocks. as to navigation. destroy these living if If the slope of the land coast. and great ceedingly warm in hot . and great depths shore. referred to in a previous chapter volcan- forces producing upheaval and depression of strata. in Would the first place this. The reasons for the present shape It sinks gradually and in long descending slopes from the shore-line downward to the middle depths of the ocean-basin are exceedingly strong. ter. 521. surface all of the the sea-bed is est only -jijW h of the Earth's diameter. plains. Moreover.000. OCEAN-BASIN". haps the life of marine plants and animals would be as off the western coast of the Sahara Des- destroyed. the other hand.000 cubic miles. So that what appears 1 Navigation would be nearly impossible the ocean then would be on account of ness. plateaus. The depth restrial of the ocean compared with other is 520. its as with as various degrees of abruptness as do highlands from the general level of the lands .

from tall. known to be two or three cause Shipwrecks would be vastly more numerous. of the inevitable difficulties . the and serving mals on the 527. slugs. laid upon those who go down Their classes. mud so abundantly spread found to be charged with organic forms. uses. lands rose with vertical faces from vast Some idea thereof may be formed from shells of only the fact depths. vertical shores. and in part they constitute a share ers flourishing at the depth of miles. because the waves rolling full in upon the land with mid-ocean magnitude. so that man could why the shape of the sea-basin should be as not contrive to shape any better. Are part avoidable bjr proper caution and watchfulness. Plants. life bring up traces of it from whatever depth may reach in any part of the ocean. Moreover. sea- successive furlong of the sea-bed. SHAPE OF THE OCEAN-BASIN. ru- That the marine basin even if shaped in perfect ac. . from the shoreline gradually to its shore-line.THE 521. Animals. in cise conditions furnished by these ing only where a high tide some livcan reach them. different species of living things are solitary rocks. the bed of the sea the rising beShape of the to navigation. The shape of the ocean-basin and navigation.. in higher parts. that enormous plateaus in the sea are composed of the minute species of shell-fish . fine sea-mosses to giant Secondly. and covering square roods of ocean with resplendent crimson and purple leaves secondly. and vastly more destructive of life and property. 531. Common marine blue mud. 532. 533. If the is and As to their numbers. important and ani- land. comes shoals. beit would be impossible to ascertain the bear- and from the fact that the fails to ings of the lands with such certainty as at present sounding-plummet rarely organic. over the sea-bed. because the ship and its contents wonld sink at once into unfathomable depths. by giving diata. man. If the shape of the marine basin were changed con- siderably. cordance with the necessities of the case he had the power to modify it it. 534. and eaten as plants in turn. information of danger during the darkness of night. and snails. These can exist in only the pre- These dangers. and othslopes . bed with respect numerous and found. seaman learns from soundings where he where his dangers lie. to the sea in ships to in either case furnish- ing a salutary discipline algse. would raise so terrible a commo- tion that nothing could withstand their fury. etc. and rebuffed by the acteristic color 529. reefs. It is perfectly well ascertained that upon each First. which expose ships to great Where only they can different species peril going to and from live. in the event of storms near the land. 51 What organic existences 1 530. First. What therefore do we conclude is 1 The consequences could be no otherwise than inous to these living creatures these . port. 528. 525. by nondecillions as — eating offices through soundings. downward to the central deeps of the ocean. 526. and the fury of tempests .500 feet : The existing form of the sea-basin becomes a great security to ships near the land. etc. becomes a reason of the preservation of incalculable moment it is. and smell. and jelly-like ra1. 535. the presence of which gives it its charThe common blue is Vastly more ships would founder than at present.

. etc. sul Physical cause phate of soda. surface being continually upheaved and broken. such an antiand contributes largely to the pu- ing that geologic period hot. which help maintain by gradual melting. the waters thereof salt. 540. 539. . CHAPTER The Saltness of the Ocean. though a larger proportion of decomposing matter salt exist in the its is It is very probable that mines of contained in their waters. The Temperature of the Ocean. why the tropical ocean so salt. carbonate of lime. Jg-* part. and when the Earth's salts Nevertheless. contained in its upper strata to their must be remembered that lakes remain pure from age to age without any considerable saline intermixture. In other words. 545. and hence its is salineness the ocean is diminished. salineness * Antiseptic —anti-putrefactive. 536. -J ' the tropical ocean k T part by weight. too. ture the tropical ocean evaporates The proportion of oceanic salts. X. The ocean not saturated. It it is is with the decomposing animal and vegetable mat- How did the ocean become salt 1 ter floating therein. from two to very nearly four per cent.52 THE SALTNESS OF THE OCEAN. or 537. and boiling water that the salineness of the sea pre- vents it from becoming corrupted dissolves forty per cent. sulphate of magnesia. 546. and therefore contains a larger residuum of salts. not improbable that its got the dur- marine salts. Origin of the impossible to determine it What cannot be questioned. bed of the sea. What of rivers also 1 All the rivers that flow into the sea carry salts The fact of the saltness of the ocean. when the waters being rity of the ocean. No with six part of the ocean contains so much salt as it 544. That the saltness of the sea has greater part of saltness septic * influence. salts. in the Temperate Zone oceans and in the Frigid about Ty h part. of the Whereas the extra-tropical ocean. etc. ex- posed the action. is generally thought Reasons the ocean at freezing-point dissolves thirty- why is salt. in other words. Water its First. no partis saturated salt. of the entire weight of the ocean consists of 538. with them. 541. 543. and of course becomes and is Salter. more freely than the extra-tropical. lakes. but pure water from the sea. THE SALTNESS OF THE OCEAN. and since evaporation takes up nothing The fact and deof uceanic The such oceanic waters are impregsalts gree saltiness. and that. in hot climates. had great solvent power.. Why it salt"? can dissolve. Receives through the rains a large portion of the fresh water evaporated from the tropical ocean. of sodium. especially in hot climates. is nated with various chemical as must of course become and remain 542. resisting putrefaction. of weight of salt. per cent. Iii common salt. and alIt As to mines of salt. the chief saline ingredient is chloride By reason of its high temperaCause of the different degrees of saltness in different parts ocean.

and thus suitable conditions of living for tropical would be destroyed. and the different degrees thereof. this is is means evaporation from the hot oceans kept within bounds. or plants and animals 557. does not the whole ocean become at last too Why tem of among the indispensable the World and therefore . for example. and deluging rains are pre- These salts enter into the structure and are eslife vented from swamping the lands. As to the internal heat of the Earth. The salts would as if all suffer in proportion to the diminution just and the salts ocean-currents. and bring back the under-saline to waters. palatial mansion while living. Salt has an attraction or affinity for water fore since salt will not evaporate. and secreting them from its pores in the form of a hard shell or skeleton. It does not affect the temperature of the sea. its kingly Then the tropics would be drowned in enormous mausoleum when dead. dwelling in the sea to all of them. any . are sooner or later exposed to the atmosphere. and over-saline. would not be heat enough of the salt for the water. salt izes But water is evaporates. overcome the Absorbs the salts of the sea into itself. is and hence the not so high as more slowly than fresh. Because the marine existences that need salt are much more numerous in it than in the extra-tropical oceans. water vapor- Evaporation 59|° a cooling process. the whole ocean were not Salt- er than the frigid oceans now are. 556If. absorbed and used up by the various plants and an- In the fact of the oceanic saltness. 553. taken up than is needed. nevolence of an we more 551. they want. because the mean all temperature of the atmosphere at the surface of the Earth . they are 558- In conclusion. salt? chief elements. or polyp. TEMPERATURE OF THE OCEAN. 559. saltl The mean temperature of the ocean. 554. 555. and parts of the sea Thirdly. absorb the salts. need them. were as salt in all parts as in the tropics. there560. Because as imals which salts. the salts evaporation. Why does the tropical ocean have a double share of The mean temperature ocean of the to would be expected such is be Average temperfltureof the ocean. 59|°. its on the other hand. The marine rents are are among the most efficient . the extra-tropical regions to for there affinity The coral insect. These myriad forms of life would all perish. mix with the 552. for all 548. If the sea sential to the of innumerable animal and vege. 53 The salts and marine life. not less than the beall-lovino- Why God. the precise figure is not known. land-creatures would perish or would suffer. or were less saline than it is. 549. and need much more and -of the salts. Because the ocean-currents carry the saline saline warm over- mix them with the cold underwaters. so that no more moisture By 561. average temperature of the ocean . the more abundant the and in the various means emdiscover the salts better the living things thrive. . THE TEMPERATURE OF THE OCEAN. Evaporation checked. If the sea rain-falls resulting from over-copious evaporations were not saline. does not the tropical ocean become too salt 1 the hand of a wonder-working. builds up huge islands in the ocean.THE 547. in Then evaporation would be question in quite out of the . . and the ployed to keep that saltness just right. fast as the salts accumulate. table forms fact. the air about its them were to be deprived of any producers of the ocean-currents the ocean-curparts of the sys- one of 550. the marine salts are indispensable parts also.

in . 562. and their extremes are mitigated. and the more heat is * See Book Second of Soriee. The fresh water evaporating. Since marine animals have no such power. this fact. 566. temperature feet. Surface-temperature in the Frigid Zones. any elevation of its temperature by evaporating. which a uniform and constant temperature may be found. nests. and hence sinks to the bottom. by burrowing.* effected even to the depth of 7. so that all are comfortable. Eanges from 70° as 89° to 89°. is Water temperature of 40° denser and 571. ble effect its brought to bear upon copious evaporations. and the ice serves as a blanket and the cold out. exceedingly small in view of the fact that the total range of climatic temperature 568. climes. 574. and . on the other hand. however. either in of providing against the severities of ocean 567. in all lat- itudes. the it resists sensible may be regarded as zero. resists water perature as would raise its temperature. itself. The physical cause why the range is To secure the comfort of these creatures so small. displacing water either hundreds of feet 1 warmer or colder than 564. leaves an over-salt and highly heated stratum of water upon the surface this sinks by reason of its salineness. The Gulfs of Mexico What power do all land-animals have 7 and G-uinea alone exhibit so high a temperature . building etc. Temperature of the deep-sea. like atmospheric. preserves 570. the average temperature of the tropical The power climate. from 28° to 36° the . the melting ice above 28° at any consumes the Summerrise rise Is the fact of the uniform temWhy sea is and thus prevents any above 28°. so that they commingle. is a sufficient reason for having the deep-sea temit is. 565. and using up the heat that First. is about 80°. to (salt water). and rising to 36° in or less above the temperature of the under-ocean. in for it can be shown that temperature it is. The temperature does not season heats. The physical at the cause of this. . the heat in Temperature of the under-ocean. hence marine is temperature. Sow does the ocean become heated to the depth of heavier than at any other temperature. sinking to 28° in Till the whole surface-ocean becomes heated more In the tropical ocean is the Winter. it. and ages.54 THE TEMPERATURE and as in and measura. Carry the hot water to the cold. . of temperature perature of the deep-sea in all Zones the deep- and ages . 573. 563. 575. will heat of the Sun and of the fixed stars. Varies | Surface-temperatures. The temperature of the waters of the Polar Oceans surface- The process continues. as weighty consequences hang upon Oceanic surface-temperature the tropics. carries the heat with 572. OP THE OCEAN. hiding dens and caves. Third. the ocean-currents. 61° from 28° to 89°.200 For the greater part. it. 569. The grand fact of ocean -temperature. Water turn to ice rather than cool below 28°. some elevation of are cleared of ice by currents early in the season. more by more more than of the land or atmosphere the case of the latter two. keep The entire under-ocean. Total range of oceanic temperatures. determined by the Secondly. is They have been placed purposely in an element 289°. Summer in those portions of the ocean which or 40°. the one uniform temperature of 40° on the scale of Fahrenheit. . and the cold to the hot.

just as all the temperature of the Atlantic Ocean for each 20° of latitude as Indian. The surface-waters being icy-cold to run his fish. Questions upon the NO. Gulf of Guinea'? . and the creature 578. To food. then. What is the surface-temperature of the Polar oceans'? of the deep-ocean in all latitudes ? Average temperature ? 582. or training. How far South does ice come in the North How far North in the South Atlantic ] What is Atlantic 1 the temperature of the Gulf of Mexico 1 Of the and happy. What of certain species of marine animals t 577. is that they choose 579. Of the other creatures have . and vigorous than any other uniform deep-sea temperature. are just what is needed to give the dwellers in the sea a salutary physical discipline to make them hardy. as for the existence of the more healthy. 580. and Which ocean the warmest What do signify 1 the underscored figures with degrees attached. endurance. healthy. are verest of the surface-extremes of as the Some species require extremes. and the same conditions that make a fish make him a well-to-do and thriving walrus. animals. or steaming-hot. and the seal. little They love and flourish in the se- Whose temperature food . the surface of the sea after and air. 584. then. men. in the tropical oceans.THE 576. temperatures. and there they are exposed to all the extremes and severities Why there are surface . be in As strong reasons obtain for the existence of water of temperature alert. The fisherman has deep water to find any in the lines all down into These species cannot live in any other temperaor hottest waters for they congregate ture than that of the coldest comfortable deep-sea temperature. fish caught in cold waters. Give its temperature is in the different 1 ject to the suffering. therefore. to furnish these creatures with a home. the narwhal. privation. What is the range of oceanic temperatures These surface-extremes. TEMPERATURE OF THE OCEAN. are sub- is the oceanic heat-equator Trace the course of oceans 1 it. but makes healthier and happier in the main.extremes of temperature. the good food. PAGE 1 What like shall be said to this t What insects. Fish. law of labor. Name Fish have a physical probation. The surface extremes needed. In other words. a probation that sub- jects them them to somewhat of suffering. birds. a sufficient reason for the surface-extremes of ocean- But the majority of fish have to come where 1 ic temperature. porpoise. and light. and when in in it. most palatable. 55 Does it secure their comfort . the dolphin. the sweetest. 25. of Oeean-Temperature. Therefore. varies but from 40°. the flying-fish. of oceanic surface- Map 1. 585. reasons. showing it. Their only chance for life. temperature. shown upon the Map. Of the Pacific. 581. whale. . Polar . are these surface-extremes. It appears to this for fish in general prefer to . 1 583. Moreover. and wholesome for temperature in the .

596. comes round beneath : again in the tide-wave entering in great volume the wide-mouthed. but not the Character of tidmotion. and the other by islands and submarine plateaus. as a slack rope upon being shaken. 50 minutes . and compressed at waves on the Earth at once. according as the tide is rising or Cause of the flux and reflux near the coast. but the top of the toave 590. in some localities to 70 feet in others. have only a very slight tide because the oceanic the form moves onward. XI Co-tidal Lines. the sea rise for would reach c. 591. this inflowing Flood- Earth. What is of tidal motion 1 Converse example. THE 58G. and the tide a would and low tides would be at the points a and b. tides. in the center the ward tide. The waters run falling. the shore. representing low tides. and thus makes is The round marked E line . rolls in waves. hence. 25 minutes. A spot shore. force of is momentum. move forward out 595. Rationale of the Tides. The waters of about six hours. In six hours more. and fall in 12 hours. Cause of the difference. 25 minutes. completing the rise 592. . part. TIDES. there being two tidewill Bay of Funcly. The amount high tide b would reach again. left representing high tides at c and d they are de- Then the waters on the shore are . or wave-like al the Mediterranean Sea . of rise. of the hand. undulation is broken by the acclivity of the seashore-ward by the a current tocalled the bed. upper 589. high tide follow high tide every 12 hours. and back again. It The Gulf of Mexico and tide-wave is undulatory. CHAPTER The Tides. passing from it The configuration of tunnel-shaped its the Example beneath the Moon. toward the shore like a river. Draw and explain figure the diagram. higher than pressed. When the great tide-wave retires. from none 588. however. tide a would come round to a. those out at sea and hence the former flow out . the waters bulge. upon the Earth's surface. obstructed from entering the one by a water. 24 hours. "When the great its tide wave approaches rolls the coast. in c Near the land. The high d. making low tide at c and the and In mid ocean 2i feet near the land it varies Tidal time. rises to the height of 70 feet. . and then subside for about six. the dotted face of the waters at a b c d represents the sura and b. tide b d. 597. but does not narrow mouth. 587. 594. 593. Six hours after the time above supposed. General phenomena of the The reach Facts and features of the tides. b.56 THE TIDES.

about one thousand and low tides exist on the river Amazon. be drawn sented in half a million individuals and blue-shelled in- up by attraction and at b a by the flying-off tendency. farthest from the common cen- taken. Will remain stationary. and E.. Gis whereas at a the it flying-off ten- small. and thus prevent them from becoming pools of corruption. Cause of the tides. shoals. marine Consequently. a_nd enforce. river in succession. illustrate. of sea-weed. 607. along the channel of the mid ocean.— 60. The action of the Moon upon the Earth the Sun also has considerable influence. revolve about centre of gravity. the Earth. the flying-off tendency on the Earth great- upon tracts swept semiby the tides . 57 latter. Half a hundred species etc. to restore the level . but it will not be considered in this moves about five hundred miles book. Whereas the solid mass of the Earth. numerable for multitude 608. Secondly. because is nearer the common Upon the same acre. Velocity of tidal As motion. will might be found repre. the Ebb-tide. a. and leaving at that a score of little ones behind for each grown one At dency b. and breeding pestilence. Draw and the explain the diagram. the tide-wave moves very slowly at once fast several high Is greatest at the Equator. shores. this outflow- 600. a tide . . Why are there tides 1 M. centre of gravity. tre of gravity. it cannot be done fully in the book. The tides carry out into the open sea the impuri- ties that * accumulate . and cockles. and snails dotting the leaden- hued mud with their pink and brown dwellings.000 clams of average size have been dug from one acre diurnally Where is of clam-flat in a single season. At which is near the Moon. mosses. has so great a velocity. ft G M 602. away from each tracts 603. their common them Moon. before several others enter 601. only the great primitive tide- one tide not moving enough to get up the it wave. in the shallow waters of bays. an hour. In shallow waters. A secondary tide-wave propagated from the great primitive tide-wave. The Atlantic tide-wave. nels. miles an hour. because attraction and the flying-off tendency balance each other.THE toward the ing is TIDES. and rivers .* 606. harbors. G. marsh-grasses. 604. on banks. 599. that which keeps beneath the Moon. 605. and in river-chan. tide will be thrown up muscles. 598. because it is . millions beyond reckoning Reasons of vegetable and animal forms can exist only why there are tides. est! to each other. The teacher must explain. and would fly other but for gravitation that at- First.

and New- harbors They wear away the embankments that protect they wash out or pile mud upon anchor. it is —a upon the flats left bare most momentous fact to chance for life. Where and what is the Cradle of the tides ? What is the assumed hour of high tide in the Cradle on the Map 1 Would not any other hour answer as well ? What are those curving lines called % What are co-tidal lines 1 x What do the Roman numerals signify 1 What points on the western coasts of the Americas have CO-TIDAL LINES.wave. To In cold the Northwest and South. 1 Is it Follow the line and Are lines tide at the 615. and thus toward Asia. is in the eastern part of the tropical Pacific Because our great commercial cities are situated upon these shallow waters. is bow-like in form. 1. trebly dangerous. high tide at 4 o'clock. for 612. archi- in harbors and ports. rapidly along . because their small ex- loading and unloading vessels. the in Africa. The undulation from that point. and thus contribute to his discipline and improvement. and therefore are not drawn up at to the risk of severe strains while aground at low any particular point into a heap of tide-wave. their only The Atlantic tide. 609. seems. LINES. Cradle of the tides. shift their positions panses are attracted at all points at the same time constantly . and empty all their sewerage into them. 620. 610. by the Thus when the land reason of the greater depth covered with snow. ends. 613. with the bulge the birds. drawn through places that have high same hour. etc. and make the entrance into and the exit from harbors perplexed with rocks. Moves most is its central part. the same cause. they subject them with equal force.* water. to be deeper in ice that The forms tides break up and carry off the those directions than to the East across the pelagoes. from forming The Indian tide-wave. .000.000 cubic yards of sewerage into the Thames annually. NO. 617. Man toil PAGE 25. because the Pacific seasons and countries. is tion. age-grounds they greatly increase the labors of causing them to Have only a slight tide. 611. but not without their exercise so that the difficulties compel him to intelligent labor. How do 1 tides contribute to man's discipline as a work- ing being Has the same form. from West Indies. and thought. lags behind at Millions of birds find food by the retreating tides. London pours 126.58 CO-TIDAL This the more important. Co-tidal lines. lakes. Cape Blanco Inland seas. Ocean. 614. as assumed on the Map 1 one and the same What wave 1 points have it at 6 o'clock see. Questions upon the Tide-Map. What is the shape of the co-tidal lines in the Indian and % Atlantic Oceans The Or point from which they radiate in every direc- * See Book Second of Series. All these difficulties. by the absence of islands. struct navigation by bringing warm waters from also prevent the ice the open sea they to great thickness. and would greatly ob. So moves that places on the west coasts of the Americas have their tide later the further they are from the Line. 619. 616. . and but for the drainage of the tides the whole river "would soon come to reek with all the odors of a cess-pool. 618. can overcome by the exercise of combined . foundland have high tide at the same time. It moves most rapidly.

.

.

often very strong. off "Will produce a current . Bright sunshine. . ces will disturb the oceanic equilibrium. TEMPORARY CURRENTS. these temporary currents near the land are cause it will raise the level thereof. 622. on either hand. Slough rents . because the rain-water is fresher than the sea-water. and both circumstan- upon. hence other currents equilibrium of the waters. periodical winds. because they add fresh water to the salt waters of the sea. the waters set back toward that part of the ocean whence they have been are induced. Bay ] of Fundy'! What Bay is the depth of tide in the Mediterranean Sea In In the CHAPTER Classification XII and Causation of the Ocean Currents. and because they cool the surrounding waters. Periodical Currents.. 621. because they cannot be reckoned and secondly. Snows and melting ice. thus forming a current. driven. Those which occur at a regular Causation of periodical currents. and are peculiarly embarrassing to the navigator. and the waters Classification of Temporary. and hence cannot be guarded against. forming still other cur- given part of the ocean first.TEMPORARY Where does dle. 627. and Constant. cool and contract . Will cause currents. period of the day or year. snows. A heavy rain-fall. are induced by tides. periods of sunshine or clouds. 626. 624. or OCEAN CURRENTS. and by periodical variations of heat and cold incident to the change of seasons. or North Seal In the Sea of Corea 1 In the Gulf of Okhotsk 1 In the Bay of Biscay"? In the British Channel 1 In Baffins. Those which are temporary in duration and variable in direction are caused by rains. Expands Three kinds of ocean. winds. in the mid- In the % In the Arabian Sea 1 In the on the borders of the oceans Why 1 1 Gulf of Mexico the What at the other points have high tides on the Atlantic Ocean same hour with Newfoundland is What the depth of tide in the mid-ocean German Ocean. in any beCausation of temporary currents. These currents meeting land. whereas clouds cut off the direct sun-heat. Periodical. Temporary Currents. Winds induce temporary currents. 625. when the winds stop bloioing.currents. 628. hence currents are induced from the one region to the other. melting ice. 623. Bay of Bengal % 1 59 the tide-wave move most 1 rapidly. and in both cases disturb the oceanic equilibrium. ocean-currents. or by whatever circumstances temporarily disturb the Driving the surface-waters before them. the waters by heating them .

60

CONSTANT
Tides in their

OCEAN

CURRENTS.
635.

629.

ebb and

flow.

Thus are produced.

Cause

in

the passages of channels, in straits, and

Currents from the Equatorial to the Polar oceans,
flowing in general upon the surface of the sea, be-

harbors, periodical currents of great velocity and

power
tor,

,

and peculiarly embarrassing to the naviga-

cause of the warmth and consequent lightness of
their waters.
636.

because he has insufficient sea-room to take
to advantage.

them
630.

Return-currents from the Poles.

Induced by winds,

— examples.
by the Monsoons

The

cold waters about the Poles, in general as

Periodical currents are induced
of the Indian

under -currents, flow down to the Line to supply the place left vacant by the heated waters; thus solar
heat accounts for the flow of the waters North and
South.
637.

Ocean, by the Etesian winds of the
"

Mediterranean, and by the

Northers " of the Gulf

of Mexico; these are mostly surface-drifts overly-

ing the stronger movements of the constant currents.
631.

The Map shows what

1

The Map

of the Ocean- Currents

As the Sun moves North and South.
variously heated and cooled

The ocean becomes
according to
rents forth
its

exposure, and consequently, cur-

shows that the currents do not of the Earth produoes currents. flow due North and South, but bear East and West the easting and westing are due to the rotation of the Earth.
638.

How

rotation

rium

;

and back are induced to restore equiliband of course, they will be periodical cur-

Explain more fully.*

A
Earth

body of water
in its rotation
;

in Lat. 60°

moves with the
upon flowing

rents.

500 miles an hour, at the Line

632

Not

readily distinguishable.

1,000 miles an hour

and

therefore,

This

last class

of periodical currents are not dis-

down

to the Line, the

water must receive 500 miles

tinguishable to observation amid the complexity of
the oceanic movements, but
that they exist,
it is

an hour more of motion.
639.

nevertheless certain
scale.

As

to receiving the

motion

at once.

and operate upon a vast

The water
at once,

will not receive the additional

motion

and hence it seems to fall back, forming a current toward the
inertia
;

by reason of its own

CONSTANT CURRENTS.
633.
Constant Currents.

West.
640.

The general bearing
the

of Equator-ward currents.
it

Those which are constant in duration and generally uniform in direction

Causes of the constant currents.

Erom
the

foregoing reasonings

follows as a

general statement that all currents setting toward

and

force, are

due to Solar
sea,

Equator bear Westerly; hence the great
all

heat, to the

Rotation of the Earth, to Constant winds, to the Salts of the Evaporation.
634.

Equatorial Currents, whose waters have come from

and

to

the Polar oceans,
641.

bear West.
to

The body of water flowing back from the Line

How

solar heat produces currents.
is

Lat. 60°.

The

tropical ocean

constantly
it
llavr. solar heat produces currents.

Must
will

lose

500 miles per hour of motion, but since
it

heated above the temperature of
the extra-tropical oceans
ters
;

not lose the motion at once,

will

seem

to

its wabecoming lighter by expansion, rise above the level of the general ocean-surface and run off to the lower levels at the Poles,

urge forward, forming a current toward the East.
*The teacher must
question.

illustrate

and explain

;

an

artificial

globe or substi-

tute therefor will greatly assist the pupil in comprehending the point in

CONSTANT
612.

OCEAN

CURRENTS.
647.

61

The general bearing of Poleward

Currents.

Secondly.

As

a general statement, all currents
;

setting

The

over-saline masses of the

warm

oceans,

and

toward the Poles, bear to the East
in general, the currents resulting

as, for ex-

the under-saline masses of the cold oceans, tend to-

ample, the Gulf-Stream, the Japanese Current, and

ward each

other, to intermingle
;

and restore
force.

saline

from the breaking-

equilibrium

the force which operates

in this

case

up of

the Equatorial Currents at the western shores

seems to be a chemico-mechanical
648.

of the oceans.

The amount

of power.

643.

The

Trade-winds.

"With which the unequally saline masses

move

Accelerate Equatorial

the

motion of the

Currents

toward

the

Causation of cur rents by winds.

toward each other,
degrees of saltness

is
;

proportioned to their different
in

West, blowing constantly over a
breadth of 30° on both sides of the Line.
644.

as the Gulf-Stream, the

a volume of ocean as large moving force from this cause

alone
649.

is

myriads of horse-powers.

The westerly bearing

of the Trades.
Evaporation.

due to the same cause as the westerly currents but air moves more freely the bearing of and hence the Trade-winds are more water, than rapid than the currents, and therefore accelerate
Is itself
;

Produces currents as follows enormous volumes of water are taken up from the tropical oceans, and are precipitated upon the extratropical
;

Causation of cur rents by evaporation.

them.
645.
tudes.

hence currents from the one to the other

The strong and

prevailing west winds of

mid

lati-

are set in motion to restore the level.
650.

More

specifically.

Accelerate the easterly bearing of
currents in those latitudes.

the

ocean-

Thus, the Gulf-Stream

flows with

much

greater rapidity toward Europe

The whole surface of the ocean in the Tradewind region is lowered " fifteen feet annually by evapenormous deficit is made good by amount of seven feet at least, the remaining eight feet being furnished by rains.
oration " and this
;

during a westerly gale than during an easterly.
646.

currents to the

The

Salts of the Sea.

Operate

in

two modes
;

for the pro-

duction of currents

first,

as

shown
heat-

Causation of currents by the marine saltB.

651.

Combination of the different currents.

before, they are the

means of

The

currents induced by evaporation and the ma-

ing the sea to considerable depths,

rine salts, in general unite

and are one with those
these several causes co-

and thereby disturbing equilibrium, and establishing
currents.

produced by solar heat

;

operating for the induction of currents.

62

DESCRIPTIVE

VIEW

OF

THE

OCEAN-CURRENTS.

CHAPTER
Physico-Descriptive

XIII

View ©f the Constant Ocean-Currents.

PACIFIC CUR.BENTS.
652.

657.

This counter current.

Unites with the current setting
The
largest current of the Pacific Ocean.

down from

the

Antarctic Ocean, and called the Antarctic Drift,*

The Pacific Equatorial Current flows Westward across the Equatorial region of the Pacific from ten to twenty miles a day breadth, 3,500
;

and they united both as
flow

to directions

Northeast to the

western

coast of

and waters, South

America.
658.

miles; depth, like that of the other equatorial currents, not yet

known, but understood to be hundreds

Upon

striking the coast of South America.

of fathoms.
653.

On

the eastern coast of Asia.

This current divides into two branches. One flows North along the coast of Asia, East of the

The combined volume of waters divides, sends one branch round Cape Horn called the Cape-Horn Current, and the other up the coast of South America, bearing the name of the Peruvian-Coast Current, or Humboldt's Current.

Japan

Islands, sends a

branch through Behring's

Straits into the Arctic Ocean,

and

is finally lost

to

observation in the ocean on the northwest coast of

North America.
654.

INDIAN CTJBKENTS.
659.

Name and

characteristics of the northern branch.

Passing into the Indian Ocean.

The northern branch
Current
per day
go-blue.
655.
is

of the Pacific Equatorial

The Equatorial Current
draws
its

of the Indian

Ocean
in

called the

Japanese

Current, or the
velocity,
;

waters

in

part from the Pacific Equatorial

Pacific Gulf-Stream;
;

maximum

120 miles
indi-

through the East-Indian Archipelago, and
east from that ocean
tralia.

part

temperature, 75° to 80°

color,

deep

from the Antarctic Ocean by a current setting North-

by the western coast of Aus-

Disposal of the southern branch.
660.

Course and disposal of the Indian Equatorial.

The southern branch

of the Pacific Equatorial
It crosses the

Current in part forces passage through the EastIndian Archipelago into the Indian Ocean, and in
part flows Southeasterly
Pacific
656.

Indian Ocean in a broad stream,

by Australia into the South-

and Antarctic Oceans.
The
latter portion.
-

which divides East of Madagascar, and sends one branch to the Cape of Good Hope on the East of that island, and one branch through the Channel of

Mozambique, called the Mozambique Cue-

rent.

Re-crosses the ocean as a counter or return current,

and

is

called the

South-Pacific Countee

* For the explanation of the fact that the Antarctic Drift, though a very
cold current,
is

CjEEElTT.

a surface-current,

—see Book Second of Series.

• .

.—T- £" MAP NfS.? it 01 r-Vel /iffzirvs iieiir 1he m-ows.C&CEAF-CXTOLEIf EXPLANATION. 7mrt«H Monsoon aviwi/.'• to Wocity. Jbitei uncertainty •?.

by to?y jnarfts dejtole Engraved &. Prime d by Rae Smith.SYSTEMS shown b » >w» <?t\y y ? pei' in miles.NevYoTk- .. & vntfr BIVEB...

.

having first united with clown from the Antarctic ocean near Europe. 669. cross- miles a day. VIEW OF THE 667. and turned back as a counter current Indian Ocean. and emp- At the Narrows of : Florida. too large to find passage for its whole volume over the banks hence a portion of it is into the Atlantic. disposal of the Agulhas Current. where the waters are all commingled in a vast complexity of inconstant and irregular currents. and of slight depth. OCEAN -CURRENTS. and is gradually lost to observation about the latitudes 30° to 35° S. half of the year It is it During the other flows back again into those seas. Its velocity. down the western coast of Africa toward the Line. falls into and in part composes the South-Atlantic Counter Current. under the Enns America. and attempt to double the Cape of Good Hope. with the Mozambique Current. bends the Eastward. doubles Cape That portion of the Agulhas Current which Good Hope. unites with waters flowing from the Ant- ebrated Gulf-Stream. tic Drift. es the ocean with an average velocity of 47 miles per day. follows the coast of to the Bahama ATLANTIC CURRENTS. This current. drift from this current continues to erly . This South-Indian Counter Current. 664. off till The two torial. 668. or nearly sis miles an hour. 670. under the name of Ross's Current. and unites Follows the coast of South America Southwestits volume is small. A move South. 663. At the southeast point of Africa. crossing Flows along the northeast coast of South America under the names of the Guiana Current and the Caribbean Current pours into the Gulf of Mexico. Indian Ocean as a counter curand in part flows up the western coast of Afit Name and rica. is The Mozambique Current in the ocean. and finally empty into the arctic . named after the Agulhas Banks at the southern point of Africa. abar Current. Ocean the combined volumes flow Northeast toward Australia. from two to five fifty- ties into the Atlantic Equatorial Current. The central current of the Atlantic. the one on the East and the other on the West of Madagascar. flows one-half of the year from the of Bengal and the Sea of Arabia. gathering its running in the narrowest part 139 waters both from the South and the North. Indian Equatorial Current. waters setting flows Ocean. spreads its waters over the whole Ross's Current. flows Northward between the Islands and Florida. the so named because it issues from Mexican Gulf. and cel. A periodical Bay current induced the Indian Ocean. Southeast from the coast of South meeting and uniting with the Antarc- name of the Agulhas Current. and called by the Monsoons of the Bengal and Mal- The southern branch. The Gulf-Stream. in part enters the rent. 63 Velocity of the Mozambique Current. the United States. 662. 666. the swiftest current The Atlantic Equatorial Current. into the Atlantic Equatorial Current. unite.100 miles from the Narrows. and the rest down by the Azores 672. is The northern branch of the Equatorial.the southern point of Florida in the rapid. point of Brazil. 671. its flow is weak. the ocean. crosses North Atlantic. The South-Atlantic Counter Current. and divides into two branches at the east Joined by a periodical current. into the south part of the Disposal of this counter current. currents arising from the Indian Equa- and flowing. General course of the Gulf-Stream. powerful. and issues from the Gulf round. 665. miles an hour 1.DESCRIPTIVE 661. . sends some of them into the Arctic Ocean round North Cape. moves Northeast toward South Africa.

rine. Between the Gulf-Stream and the United-States coast. Permanence of the bands. peratures are from 5° to 15° lower. Its temperature. and furnishes fish. the blinding fogs. crowded up from the deep-sea by the acclivity of the seabed and its own momentum and accordingly it is . It gives to the east winds of the United States their peculiar asperity. 677. is Between the Japanese Current and the Asiatic coast a cold drift exists. lines. 681. our The depth to their brine to of color is undoubtedly owing largely . in The warm water allel along streaks alternating the G-ulf-Stream is known to be charged with multitudes of these microscopic creatures. The same rel- equally remarkable called The bands for its deep-blue color. which causes the terrific temfish- pests " saltmakers it of the Gulf-Stream. The Gulf-Stream . by reason of its saltness. The cause of the streaks . Kuro Siwo. The warm and cold lies streaks. Its effects.64 DESCRIPTIVE a VIEW OF THE OCEAN-CURRENTS. perfectly distinguishable from the ordinary sea-green or ultra-marine color of the ocean in mid and high latitudes. visible at the surface as far as the mid latitudes of Florida where it clips down beneath the overflowing waters of the Gulf-Stream. At The color is by some ascribed to the presence of . Is a deep indigo-blue. exceedingly flourish in water. These are its 3. hence their darker hue. a drift of cold water moves slowly Southward. minute animal forms that Summer or highest temperatures . but mountain-chains on the ocean-bottom beneath are supposed to crowd' up the deep. correspondent in every respect to the Atlantic cold drift . at 1. in its course East so that the stream vibrates or oscillates North and South with the passage of the Seasons. with the axis or general course of the stream. hence it is by the Jap. of the Gulf-Stream. ative positions at all periods of the year. but in "Winter 4° South of it. markets with the sweetest and best of 685. 674. are permanent. What oscillations in T The inshore cold drift. Another explanation of the Narrows. 679. be getting strong when turns blu- ish . and hold the The Japanese Current. and the . infusoria. 673. anese the are though they move with the whole body of the stream in its oscillatiotis North and South. salt thirty miles a day. cold waters from below toward the surface.000 miles from the Narrows. 682. the harsh winds.100 miles. 684. much warmer and or Black Stream Salter its waters than those of the adja- cent ocean. Summer flows close to New- foundland. of a deeper hue than the extra-tropical. the saltness of the waters know The Asiatic inshore drift. call five miles day. navigators its the Indian Ocean the Black Ocean. The warm and forms the water occupies the intermediate strikes the Gulf-Stream at Newfoundland. the native hence the excel- * See Book Second of Series. It is a continuation of the Arctic Current which giving rise to the cold bands. and becomes subma. 86°. originates the violent con- trast of temperatures Causation of the color. but it is not known that they are of a sort to ly in warm water with streaks or bands of cool water. warm 678." the tropical ocean. 3. Asiatic Gulf-Stream is 675. color. and therefore dark. bands. lent fish. 1 683.* The color continuous with the rest of the cold current which underlies the Gulf-Stream.000 miles 78° the . extending par- color the water indigo-blue. Is not well-known What this drift is. waters being very 680. 81° at at the Azores 74°. 676. its Winter-tem- and more especially and abundant.

not lower than 82°. 697. Southwest. Not peculiar to the The same rotatory tendency observable in the 694. where from West. . 686. the Equator. When upon soundings. because the latter is The surface deep-sea movements are often lifted to the so hemmed in by land by shoals and shores. 693. rent. These are driven by the northward-bound under-current. Are known to They flow out of Currents of greater or less rapidity and volume exist universally in the for universal the Mediterranean and Eed Seas . the particular cases specified . driven in about three years. of course. masses of the under-ocean. showing that the cold waters up upon and urged over the submarine plateau by the deep-sea movement. exist in various parts of the ocean. pushed up the acclivity of the sea-bed. are simply the uplifted Currents from the Arctic Ocean. the shallowness of the water a high temperature alwaj^s might be expected. A deep-sea lead. edge or hem of the great submarine movements. and strike the GulfStream East of Newfoundland. a drop supposed to traverse the entire compass thereof enormous icebergs are frequently seen in the GulfStream plowing passage to the Southwest. the navigator nearly surrounding ocean finds a temperature 5° to 10° lower than that of the The Horse-Shoe Bend. and is the terror of the navigator. 65 ravaging pulmonary diseases of the eastern Asiatic coast. 689. 691. for the mean is temperature of the atmosphere at the Equator SUBMARINE CURRENTS. by the in-pouring Polar currents . through surface-ice ten feet thick. from the Polar oceans to exhibit so low a temperature. deep-sea soundings. is resistless momentum of the moving mass of under-ocean.. other oceans. In proof. Current strikes off Northwest from the Atlantic Equatorial in Lon. Sometimes brought to the surface. Southward to Labrador. Even beneath waters must have come. OCEAN-CURRENTS. The cold inshore as to confine the whirl to definite limits. precipitated from the humid Gulf-Stream. have been lifted it is the receptacle of in- numerable icebergs . Submarine Currents. against the outward-bound surface-current. in a perceptible cur- and even breaking passage for scores of miles. egress therefrom the Arctic Currents that flow. further 687. 690. Dropped down through the Gulf-Stream Circuit of rotation. and the other on the Even though in the tropical ocean.DESCRIPTIVE VIEW OF THE 692. deep-sea movements are required to complement and make face-movements . The watei's that flow into the Arctic in Ocean find 695. invariably reveal a temperature from 40° downward to 30° these cold . another underlies the Gulf-Stream. 30° and Hows to Lat. moves cold current setting It will tic is be seen that the whole of the North Atlan- by the toward the Caribbean Sea. but not so strikingly as in the North Atlantic. another flows beneath the Japanese Current. currents before mentioned. Enormous icebergs are seen driving up Baffin's Bay The Northwest-Branch Current. The Horse-Shoe Bend is an enormous flexure made in the Gulf-Stream off Newfoundland. one on the East of Greenland. carried forms a vast circuit or whirl of waters . North it becomes lost to observation. by the North Atlantic. is overhung with dense fogs air of the 696. Moreover. into the waters beneath. intelligible the universal sur- one flows into Baffin's Bay. The Nortiiwest-Branch "W. Submarine currents universal. 20° N. 688.

The proper distribution of heat and cold through the oceanic mass is First argument. fall in- Their temperatures. but in very high latitudes the colder currents are at the surface. are kept from freezing over. and no other instrumentality that distribution can be effected. . because the former are Winter-tem- discussion. What does represent 1 1. 698. Book Second given in the text 1 of Se- Several small counter-currents have not been noticed in this brief Ans They are not . peratures. They will be fully presented in Book Second of Series. in genethe Chart at the beginning of Chapter XII. . How are the high temperatures denoted 1 The low ? Why are there submarine currents 1 "What office and duty they may have in the depths What is denoted by the figures with degrees attached 1 Do they denote the deep-sea or the surface temperatures 1 What are the different temperatures noted in the line figures off South Carolina % of of the sea we do not know. Questions upon Chart No. while the latter are Summer-temperatures. to confusion and the whole system would and ruin. Measons for the Existence ©f ©ceaii-Ciwrents. Submarine currents are sometimes warmer and sometimes colder than the surface-waters ral the . How coast 1 do you account for the low temperatures near the as high as those and without them the surface-currents could not ful- Are the temperatures marked on the Chart *I or a fuller exhibition of these under-currents. above are cited merely because they have been observed and studied. but they are indispensa- What temperatures off North Carolina 1 ble parts of the great system of oceanic circulation. there is whereby 701.66 WHY THE OCEAN -CURRENTS fill EXIST. As to the amount of heat carried in a single current. their duties. warmer currents are at the surface. or eight The formed in the cold oceans is carried by rivers as hot as molten iron * ! currents to the warm. see ries. which they certainly would do The first but for the currents. and the latter from greatly overheating. 702. carries into the extreme Northand Arctic Oceans heat enough to keep one-hundred and eighteen rivers as large as the The Gulf-Stream Atlantic More ice Mississippi flowing continually boiling hot. definitely. CHAPTER XIV. WHY 700. reason for the existence of ocean-currents.* 699. effected by the ocean-currents. and the tepid waters of the tor: rid oceans are carried to the cold thus the former * See Book Second of Series. OCEAN-CURRENTS EXIST.

.

.

so that comfortably habitable even will in warm it is were no currents. 20°. but for interchange of temperatures. how amazing and beneficent the dispen- No rhetorical exaggeration. and whose high temperature would render them unfit for the residence of marine life 707. this 60° N. some of them two miles round and fivehundred feet high.000 cubic miles of atmosphere 50° is . because the sea near Norway is Arctic Current.000 cubic miles of atmos- phere 50^ sation 711. and genial climate. Icebergs. the torrid oceans. therefore these oceans tend to be- . is The capacity of water for heat . stracted from the burning torrid clime reduces the whose prodigious evaporations would drown the adjacent lands. ! . temperate. cold. Borne away to the Frigid Zones. Stream. Stream waters. and every living thing smothered and frozen. ly a blessed thing. continents. through the agency of the ocean-currents. the salts tend to accumulate in the warm oceans. 705. 713. current on the coast. Is rendered vastly ate 709.000 of tons. and weighing singly upon computation. Are re-distributed from the reThird argument. the salts of the sea. 10. the heat thus ab- Would turn to sweltering. because equal whether there 708. EXIST.000.000 cubic miles of tropical ocean heat up 50°. be- cause the neighboring seas covered with the Gulf- and through the iinder-oeean pours an almost icy temperature into the steaming boiler of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. 20° colder than if no cold current were there. and First. 712.000. Even Norway. temperature of 5. 710. the climate of the Earth. steaming caldrons.000. so that all For example. and waves with harvests. from surface to in them would More generally and universally. Is clad with green. inevitably freeze into glairy bear the hardier grains even so close beneath the cold oceans would the Polar Star. in the latitude of South Greenland cased and horrid Five-hundred icebergs have been counted at once in the with eternal ice. The warm water borne away gives out its to the Polar realms. it is a 5. that of air Secondly. or solid blocks of ice bottom perish. Thirdly. reduces the temperature of thousands of square leagues of ocean through a range of 15° or Though North as Canada and Labrador. bearing down into the Gulf- covered with waters brought by the Gulf-Stream. from the sea sweeping over the cold is 716. on the score of heat rhetorical exag. and raises the temperature of and cold not.000. 704. intensely dry parts of the sea left over-sa- The climate of Chili and Peru are kept sufficiently saline. Enjoys a climate softened by the diffused waters of the Pacific Gulf-Stream.000. and no part is line. also. Franco and England. . rendered quite tolerable even because the air in the Summer-heats. so question of life and death to nearly all marine life that the subtraction of heat in the one case to its addition in the other. alone.WDY THE OCEAN-CURRENTS 703. more temperSecond argument. 706. temper the 711. 715. 6Y As to the amount of cold.000. and agreeable by the dispersion of heat and cold from region to region. The foregoing statements are no therefore. shall be currents or and it in both cases equalmillions of crea- makes Secondly. As before shown.000.. Where the salts accumulate. geration. as far The Arctic Current alone that flows down by Labrador. possess a humid. tures comfortable and happy. so when 10. but are capable of rigid demonstration heat. If there Northwestern North America. gions of accumulation by the oceancurrents. 500 times great- er than. Lat.

Newfoundland's grand restaurant George's Shoals. first. and rotting on the flood would poison species whereas in the cold oceans they would the skies with stench suffer from deficiency of salt. New- made to set currents in motion. If there were no currents. and so God keeps the currents moving forever. walruses. gry fish. Inasmuch as the distribution of the salts does not Analogous office of aqueous and atmospheric cur- touch our immediate interests. navigation. it. the reasons for the existence of currents 720. ! and the predatory would starve to death. as a sea of 726. over-saline. according hills for the dust of the multi- as the currents are taken to advantage or disad- tude. fit North America and for the same reason. much as the warm oceans their great- diate animals bred by billions. and actually would turn to brine. however indifferent we may be about 721. under-saline oceans. though to a certain limit they thrive better the more salt there is . in schools forms that absorb the insufficient. 718. so do the ocean-currents bring to the hungry dwellers in the sea the food they love . crowded pil- Perhaps. just as er share. them. 722. we shall probably but to millions upon millions of plants and animals it is a matter of life Just as the winds bring to the hungry millions of plants the carbonic acid which is sweet food for thus do even and death. vantage. 728. second!}'. rents. come chards and herring crowd the voracious armies British Channels. Fourthly. which draw off from the warm oceans their over-saline waters. currents obstruct the navigator rent that aids with hungry cod-fish. a curhim going one way. whales. — all seeking the food-treasures Nature endeavors storing: the to correct the tendency. and brought to them by the Gulf-Stream. seal. The vegetables and animals in the warm oceans 725. 724. Without the currents. First correction of the tendency. plore the warm fire ! oceans for food. Therefore. for they cannot ex. so that pour them into the both are kept 719. salts The Japan fisheries fisheries." little salts to the colder oceans. is In the form of infusoria in borne Fourtli 727. and cold. food for fish. Is powerfully influenced by the Fifth vast swarms of creatures and fish like currents . and block up the passages of the Azore seeking the " sea-nettles. because the Kuro Siwo brings into the shallow depths of that archipelago enormous foundland's are to food-supplies for the congregated millions of hun- for plants and animals to live in. but the correction Gather Isles. underrate the importance of it . which need their less gelatinous ra- share. Whales. is . and perhaps die from overmuch salt. then. the motions of the dead elements illustrate God's loving kindness. . along the borders of the Gulf- because it fails to restore their share of Stream. the warm currents tD feed the living in ment. voyages may be greatly argument: the cold oceans. Nature manages so adroitly that the surplus are The of Japan are to Asia what . How strong. warm oceans with vegetable and animal salts . 723. Their general effect. would suffer. in general. hungry millions of mackerel swarm upon the hungry more than they help him for at best. will delay him . since it is to them The real importance of this office. argu- Furthermore. Examples. The various species preyed upon would die where they are bred. by is brought them by the Gulf-Stream. were not the tendency corrected.68 WHY THE OCEAN -CURRENTS EXIST. lengthened or shortened. their and whitings cram the German Ocean with 717.

. What does resent ? 2. upon the great waters. Where Its the Indian Equatorial Current ? ? Its velocity ? The conclusion of this argument. are the high and low temperatures respectively de- noted ? The reasons for the existence of ocean-currents Is the warmest water at the surface. to devious to every living thing its tedious by-passages. shoals. is is ? the Northwest-Branch Current the Guinea Counter Current ? ? Its velocity Lastly. Where in Sixth argument. Map 3. PAGE Where is the Pacific Equatorial Current its What 730. Questions upon Chart No.. com- Where Australia the Japan Current 1 Its velocity ? them to the highest exercise of their faculand making their occupation dignified and Bearing of the waters among the islands on the North of ? is even sublime. 733. Where work down the Earth. 1 and skill the passage of the Narrows "of Florida is more dreaded by the navigator than the crossing of the whole of the wintry Atlantic. etc. entire upon the Earth. and its throughout the whole period of More particularly. water. or compel him it. the present lands depth What becomes and the currents swept over them. 64. as now over the bed of the sea. rasping away the roughness thereof. rep- of the Earth smoothed off beneath his feet. and air. is velocity ? Is it as rapid its along the edges ? ? Probationary agencies. vast rents and chasms and abysses have been filled by these tireless workers. 734. reefs. What currents strike the Gulf-Stream from the North at ? Newfoundland Whence flow the Arctic Currents'? into J)o any currents flow the Arctic Ocean ? Where ? The duration of the work. and make him a thinkSo that in this matas well as working ins: o bein°\ o es ter of navigation. they expose him cast- to the greatest risks encountered on the ocean. and so man finds the surface . to avoid 729. those benefits extend more or What is the lowest temperature noted ? The highest ? . help educate him. 69 the other. the name ? of the current in the Northern part of the Indian Ocean Why a double-headed arrow ? and in others by laying more responsible duties upon him. throughout compass of land. a twofold reason obtains for their How car ? swift is the current at the northern part of Madagas- Velocity of the Mozambique Current ? ? What current at the southern point of Africa ItsTelocity ? Breadth of the Atlantic Equatorial Current ? Its velocity 1 ? existence. 732. have been covered with water. or deep ? in the sea 1 are as strong as the benefits arising from them are less directly To what depth are temperatures represented great. Near islands. breadth is The currents help the navigator in some What instances. ing him upon the rocks in spite of his watchfulness Questions upon the NO. the Chart at the beginning of Chapter XIV. 731. duration. of the Ocean-Currents. How Conclusion of the whole argument. ' Why called CountMexico ? ? The currents have done more to a suitall er Current than any other single agency Is there a regular current in the Gulf of working down the Globe able What ? current runs out Velocity? of the Gulf of Mexico of it ? Its condition of surface.WHY THE going in OCEAN-CURRENTS and EXIST. The work began thousands of ages before man was created mountains have been worn away. perhaps . What shows the direction of flow Its breadth? So that the ocean-currents impose upon those What do signify ? is the interrogation-marks near some of the figures that do business the sternest part of their physical probation pelling ties.

or still more exactly. portioned to the size of their basins. and anchors Every be. the bed of a river the gut- ter or depression filled by its is waters at their ordithe line of greatest deep-keeled navies on its shallows it — nary volume. »„ RAPIDS OF THE ST. The magnitude. toward a line of lowest depression . . and infiltration. XV. upon the and secondland after evaporation and ly. and of whatever magnitude. RIVERS. river in The basin etc. — the subsidence or " settliDg" of water into the grouDd. LAWRENCE. the channel depth 738. with the surplus of evaporation * Infiltbation. . from the brooklet that scarcely can moisten the gills of a minnow. CHAPTER Rivers. is . of a river. 737. ' . no river is because happens to be. The two causes of rivers. Distribution of Rivers. the line will be Rivers the effect of causes. or volume of rivers. a slope of land tending downward from two sides First. to the stream that drives back the tides of the ocean. whatever region it TItj causation of l'ivers.70 RIVERS. is may The it basin of a river its the entire area drained is by and tributaries. is the effect of in the bed. the channel of the river. but varies with the humidity of the climate. 735. a surplus of waters remaining infiltration. Reasons for the Existence of Rivers. * As a & general statement. proMagnitude of rivers. causes 736.

all space is wasted . The Hoang-Ho pours out 2. an hour renders . where its mouths . . ly twice would cover 363 square miles to the depth of 1. 748. examples.EIVEKS. a cataract. through forests. and under rainy skies hence the dispropor- In general. The the upon delta annually The annual volume of waters discharged by Mississippi a mass of sediment that would cover 122 square miles one foot deep. 744. basin. Among tropical their mountain-sources.000 cubic feet of Yellow Sea . sandy country. their resem- work no better. God's machinery blance to the Greek letter Delta. and by heavy non-periodic rains occurring at 742. * Riparian.' still more abrupt descents. 740. examples. of the La Plata. of the Amazon. whereas the tion. planed off from the floor of a hall 1. Volume varies just as required. . it is not attempted by reason of the small amount of water hence. extra-tropical any season of the year. 749. and there it does ri- Constancy of magnitude. up- waters are both evaporated and filtrated away . its Amazon is to that of the Nile .452 square miles to the same depth. renders a river unnavigable it a steeper inclination a rapid. 743. volume to that of the Nile as 10 to 2 ness of declivity from their sources the Nile flows through a dry. 544 square miles. by reason of the small surplus of evaporation and infiltra. by the Spring snow-melting. In a straight. narrow compass. so that no Kiver-bars. wet land. in of an inch thick. pertaining to the hanks or borders of rivers. Wet-Season. proaching the 747. . a descent of twenty-six feet to the mile . or rapidity of rivers. smooth channel a descent of three More definite statement. The as 3 to basin of tho 2.000 feet wide. on the straightness and smoothness of their channels.000. Amazon flows . The deltas of rivers. their lower portions are more favorable to navigation at once from greater volume and slower flow of waters. or a volume eighty-two times into the greater than that of the Great Pyramid of Egypt. and secondly. The flow. to their first. 746. no harm. a shaving 24 inches wide and ~\ lh Nearly rivers deposit mud at their mouths . apvertical. is much smaller than its might be anticipated The flow most rapid. upon the abruptThe flow of rivers. Mississippi deposits The volume of rivers. the most perfect hydraulic en- ginery managed with the most consummate could do the skill from the sediment borne along by they are called deltas from . ^ its The amount of mud. 745. is turbid color and hence the name of that immense Universally the volume of rivers into a comparatively compressed estuary. 1. 750.000 feet. would leave a depression represent- greater or less quantity in the form of bars the mud is deposited at the mouth of the river because ing the ratio of the Mississippi's bed to the breadth of North America. always works to perfection. of the case as to carry off every gallon of sur- about their mouths are deposited the stream plus and no more. also. mud every hour hence the No space wasted. inches to the mile gives a velocity of three miles The large surplus of evaporation and infiltration makes the Amazon larger than would be expected from the size of its basin whereas the Nile. where 1 from the extent of 741. Eivers swell and shrink so precisely to the necessities Enormous accumulations of mud Deltas and bars. The Ganges discharges near- as much. Depends. and navigation is not obstructed. for the hardness of the land prevents parian for * Rivers are rarely constant in volume rivers are swollen in the ravages . I 71 739. Example. tion.

a river. it and the water has not force along. after age do their work The ocean the heart. 754. to drive No other means of drainage. The mean Since the volume of rivers made up of such at- waters only as evaporation cannot take into the be lowered twelve mosphere. Thus rivers are continually at work. is 751. and never where they are not needed. river-commerce And in time its basin becomes a bog. rivers. and an inland er its The waters would of the Mississippi Riv- thus binds civilizations and nationalities together er if obstructed. a lake. no other possible means whereby these surplus wacan be got out of the The lands without way than by rivers. and that age 753.000 years by this agency. and never get out of order . in three years suffice to covin- with closer entire basin to the depth of one foot. 755. are the arteries of commerce. as strong as the habitable necessities of the World can make them. perfectly. that always are found where they 756. enough . PASSAIC FALLS. and rivers Second argument. the sediment dispensable are rivers to the habitability of the has time to settle. since it is peculiarly imporopens to the center of the lands.72 WHY RIVERS EXIST. "Wearing down the lands to a level of the lands is calculated to level. so ties. or lakes. WHY 752. is are needed. Rivers and commerce. there ters of the ocean to be raised three inches in the same time. the waters flow slowly at this point. Without rivers to drain them. mutual with . nor infiltration draw from the surface is inches in 10. and Dam up sea. Earth. or tant. drains Rivers and the Earth's drainage. or seas therefore the reasons for the existence of rivers are First argument. drains that dig themselves. RIVERS EXIST. take care of themselves. the lands would become uninhabitable morasses. and the bed through the secret passages of the ground. and enriches and cultures them intercourse. Rivers are the of the Earth.

and does a vast amount that could not otherwise be done at all so that whatever man loses in one way is made up in the other. granaries. with multitudes of innocent Thirdly. rivers are objects of various and exceeding beauty.WHY RIVERS 757. and as yet Alluvial regions not now inundated. 767. have. in estimating its full importance. The ive . into the account not only the advantages that have resulted. adorned has only 758. whether rolling voluminous masses from the in silent River-inundations. or Affect man's interest in two ways. EXIST. 10 . because such rivers are the that scarce brakes and sedge can grow favorite sites of manufacturing. of its merchandise yearly. former ages by the overflowing waters. the fur- has to guard with sharper vigilance. ers obstructed with impetuous rapids and broken Rivers objects of beauty. the labor of years. and because without them manufacturing would lack a cheap motor. majesty across the channeled his by an immediate increase of resources and second. . and in so far have benefited him. and untiring These labors. borders with beautiful beginning. dering them. 73 Example. upon him a heavier burden of labor and 763. rocks. tion for the 762. not his discipline. alone . create and rivers. or foaming in tor. . 760- upon them. made a Such are not in alluvial tracts on the borders of rivers as Till within a few years. fulness 768. millions and hundreds of has cities. subdued pi tion. and direct his labor for manufacturing . were deposited Man has reaped comparatively few advantages steam-navigation. nished it is the cheapest bulwarks erected on the borders of rivers at countless cost. indeed. breadth of mighty plains. Man for commerce. interior of a vast continent. marching and their results. and sometimes sift vile sand or barren clay upon fertile acres. etc. 765. the Mississipciviliza- has created a vast and swiftly growing carries The annual overflows of the the Amazon. to a higher exercise of his 761. 764. rapid and easy so that we must from take Secondly. we Sometimes hurt the lands. he would probably have just as many ral probation. the power thus with profounder skill . leaping in airy cascades. now subject to inundation. In what would otherwise be the remote and un- they benefit him. manufacturing. inundations destructive. rapids. brink of precipices in the many-voiced cataract. and owe from river-commerce. care. ruin the crops of a season.. First. so falls. the Orinoco. labor The more better it is unfit a river may be with more urgent industry. 769. Have compelled man faculties. back and forth upon dollars in its waters hund- enormous fertility of the countries bor- reds of thousands of travelers. flourishes upon unnavigable rivers on this very account some rivers were left unnavigable through to civilizer Next ing creatures. barns. and of many other sustain the Nile. his di- If man were make the World over exactly to riv- rectly. by laying . overflows of rivers are often terribly destructin but those also th it may result river- sweeping away sudden and indiscriminate liv- commerce 759. for can make it their fertility to this fact. commercial facilities lost. with tumbling cataracts as deeming the manufacturing power thus gained ample compensaare : now "Whether rents trickling from their cold fountain- springs. commerce the greatest Third argument. River-overflows first. houses. The matter could not be to bettered. relieves and maintained only by toil. 766. hence the vast levees and sleepless watch- and most available man has him and the working animals of an immense amount of toil. They sometimes carry off the choicest soil. but through tempo- his mind. The loss and the gain. Against these mischances.

74

THE

DISTRIBUTION

OP

RIVERS.

THE DISTRIBUTION OF RIVERS.
772.

Rivers

classified.

Eivers
classes,

may be

divided

into

two general

Oceanic and Continental; the form-

er discharging their waters into the sea, the

1
Bj
pf lU
jfe

latter into inland lakes,
773.

swamps, or

deserts.

Classification of oceanic rivers.

Oceanic rivers are
into Systems

classified
Oceanic river-

named

after the
re-

ysteuie.

oceans that receive their
spective

waters.

A

river-system

embraces

both the contained rivers and their combined
basins.
774.

Extent of the Atlantic System.

The
W*-

Atlantic System embraces upon the

several

Grand

Divisions

and upon various
19,425,000 square
of the longest

islands, an aggregate of

gj#

miles.

The combined length
its rivers,

twenty-three of

35,000 miles.

The

largest three rivers on the Globe belong to
it,

the

Amazon, the La

Plata,

and the Mis-

sissippi.
775.

What makes

the Atlantic System so large

1

Pirst, the position of the

water-shed mountall

ains of the Americas, that throws nearly
their drainage into the Atlantic
;

and second,

the inter-penetration of the Eastern Continent

THE AMERICAN FALLS BY MOONLIGHT.

by branches of the Atlantic Ocean, securing
to that

ocean a large part of

its

drainage.

770.

The

fact accordant with God's general plan.

776.

Extent of the Pacific System.
Pacific

The same Power
brilliant dyes, that

that clothes the ground with

fresh, bright verdure, that paints the flowers with

System embraces upon the several Grand Divisions and upon various islands, an ag-

The

kindles the clouds of morning

and evening with

ineffable splendors, has with a like

its

gregate of 11,125,000 square miles; total length of principal rivers 15,000 miles; the longest three
are the

exquisite adaptation to the sensibilities of the hu-

Amoor, the Hoang-Ho, and the Yang-tse-

man
tiful

soul,

— ministers to our higher
To sum up the argument.

made even

the drains of the Earth beauculture,

Kiang.
777.

Extent of the Indian System.
in the

771.

The Indian System embraces
far

In proportion to the benefits direct and indirect
accruing from rivers to the World, are the reasons
strong for their existence.

from 5,450,000 square
its

miles,

aggregate not about one-fourth

part so great as the drainage of the Atlantic.

The
;

combined length of

chief rivers 9,040 miles

the

.

THE
largest rivers

DISTRIBUTION

OP

RIVERS.

75

are the Ganges, the Indus, and the

miles of North

America, and 270,000 of South

Brahmapootra.
778.

America, are inland drainage.
783.

Extent of the Arctic System.
in

Aggregate of the Earth's river-drainage.

The Arctic System embraces
about 7,400,000 square miles
;

the aggregate
its

Inland drainage about 11,420,000 square miles;
oceanic drainage 43,400,000 square miles
tal
;

combined length of
;

sum

toall

principal streams, 12,595 miles

its

largest rivers are

54,820,000 square miles, which

is

the area of

the Lena, the Yenesei, and the Obi.
779.

the lands.

Combined areas of

all

the oceanic river-systems.

43,400,000 square miles

;

of which 4,500,000 are

upon
780.

islands.

Questions upon the
NO.
or inland
3,

Map
PAGE

of River-Systems.
04.

The

largest system of continental rivers

drainage.

How many
a boot-shaped area of not
Continental er-systems.
riv-

different river-systems are there in

North Amer-

Forms
less

ica'?

How
What

are they designated or represented to the eyel
are their several areas
"?

than 5,000,000 square miles in

the central part of Asia.
pian and Aral Seas
stretches
781.
lie

The

Oas-

Is there

any inland drainage

in

North America

1

in the ankle,

and the toe

Eastward

to

Lon. 120° East.

How many drainages are there in South America^ How are they respectively designated to the eye 1
Their several areas
1 1

A

second vast system of inland drainage.

Where

is

South America's inland drainage

Is situated in northern Africa, extending far

down
What
river-drainage occupies the western part of the Old

into

South Africa.

The northern

portion

is

rather

a riverless region than an area of inland drainage.

The southern
ceptacles

part contains several large lakes, reIts total

World 1 To what drainage does Europe

chiefly
1

belong

"!

of the surface-drainage.

area

How many
drainage
1

drainages has Africa

Has Africa any inland
?

4,450,000 square miles.
782.

Area of Africa's several drainages

Australian inland drainage.

How many
What What
tralia 1

drainages has Asia
f
t

1

Name

them.

Their respective areas

Another vast system of inland drainage occupies
the central regions of Australia, an area of 1,500,-

drainage has Australia

areas have the several drainage-systems of Aus-

000 or 2,000,000 square miles.

200,000

square

76

LAKES.

WHY LAKES

EXIST.

CHAPTER XVI
Lakes.

Reasons for the Existence of Lakes.

Distribution

of*

Lakes.

LAKES.
784.

reason of the dry climate, and

infiltration

great on

No lake an
lake,

accident.

account of the sandy
790.

soil.

Every

whether swelling to
rides
to

Lake Torrens
a basin of

in Australia.

The causation
of lakes.

the vast inland sea upon which the

With
little

unknown but

vast dimensions,

is

commerce of an empire
is

and
the

better than a

swamp

for a

large part of the

wrecked, or

shrinking
is

pool which

a

year, through the
791.

same causes as above.

thirsty

ox might drain,
;

the result

of antecedent

Salt Lakes.
those whose waters are im-propor-

causes
785.

no lake

is

an accident.
lakes.

Are
remaining upon the
;

The two causes or antecedent condition of

pregnated with so large a
tion of salts as to
line to the taste
;

First, a surplus of moisture

be

distinctly sa-

land after evaporation and
ly,

infiltration

and second-

the

waters of all lakes contain

a slope of land descending on all sides to a point of lowest depression the point will be the bed of
;

more or
792.

less of salts.

The

largest salt lakes.

the lake.
786.

Situated in western Asia about the Caspian Sea,
rivers.

Lakes resemble

itself

a salt lake, and in the western part of the Unit-

In

all

the conditions required for their formation,
line,

save that the waters of the river converge to a
those of the lake to
a.

ed States, seem to be the remnants of evaporated seas, from the fact that the whole adjoining country
is

point.

The same
;

principle of
is

thickly strewed with marine remains.
793.

drainage operates in both cases

in fact, a lake

Smaller

salt lakes.

nothing but an obstructed
787.

river.

Owe their
or masses of
the tract covered

salineness to local accumulations, mines
salt,

The

basin of

a lake.

or to

its

general diffusion through

Comprehends the whole country that contributes
to
its

the soil of the adjoining country.

volume

;

the bed of a lake,

all

by

its

waters.

788.

The magnitude of lakes.
794.
in-

WHY LAKES EXIST.
Are lakes of any importance
in the

Is in general proportioned to the size of the basin,

scheme of na-

but depends on the surplus of evaporation and
filtration
;

ture

1

hence the largest basin

may

not have the
smallest

First, lakes help

drain the Earth.
is

Wherever
still

a

largest lake, nor the smallest basin the
lake.
789.

river

is

not practicable, and there

a surplus

of water, the surplus runs

down

to the lowest point

The Caspian Sea

or Lake.

in the whole region, gathers into the smallest com-

Has an enormous

basin, yet its

volume
is

is

com-

pass possible, and thus getting out of the

way

as

paratively small, because evaporation

great

by

much

as

it

can, forms

a

lake.

and constitutes lakes. By thus giving up a few square miles to the col- The same lected waters. but evaporation limited accordingfor the Small lakes have their uses. 11 The practical result. that lakes are found most Lake-Systems. Lacrine commerce important. God has seen fit to create. that lives in or evaporation. because enormous amounts of rain fall in such. Lake-Zone of both Continents lies most part in the mid and high latitudes. The commerce of the Great North-American Lakes vastly exceeds the entire foreign commerce of North America. for use. and boggy 796. is especially important. Therefore a lake-system is by no means synonymous . The Lacrine commerce cause it is geographic distribution of lakes. every sharp-edged bulrush. humid winds from the around a tiny pond. Because the aggregation of its waters in lakes makes the region a lacrine system and their ultimate collection into rivers makes it a river-system. being shed by the rocky surfaces. perhaps ten thousand square miles longs to a lake-system and a river-system thus a are brought into and kept in an improvable and habitable condition. OF LAKES. considerable . 798. — Atmospheric moisture precipitated in the form Lake-Systems. 802. snow. the two most Lakes are frequently found What a system not. tract of country not unfrequently be. 800. every one of which is full of comfort and happiness. 806. that large part of the country occupied by the Great would otherwise be too wet Lacrine System of North America belongs also to the Arctic and the Atlantic river-drainage. every fresh-water Why so ? every green-coated frog. For two itudes. and yet it has not reached a hundredth part of its possible greatness. perhaps millions of is lit- tle lakelets. becomes an argument existence which cannot be gainsayed. and remote from the ocean. or Lacrine Systems. every spire of watergrass. . be- in the center of regions generally desti- tute of great rivers. We have thus accounted for what 1 THE DISTRIBUTION OF LAKES. Every snail. 805 Because of the good they do. is lake- general and comprehensive facts in the distribution of lakes. accumulates in the ravines and gorges below. Gomhination of lake-system and river-system. There is no inconsistency in this. Moreover. 797. DISTRIBUTION 801. 804. of rain. clus- and in numerous in the mid latmountainous regions . him who made them. and in- Lakes are most numerous along those parallels of latitude in which aqueous deposition ly the * is Geographic dis- from which the ordinary means of commercial tercourse seem in a measure removed. The local distribution of lakes. and being to is essential to the very life of .THE 795. for its tropics bring great quantities of vapor to be deposited in these latitudes. tered together in considerable num- and is bers over quite extensive regions these clusters with their basins are called * Aqueous Deposition. tribution of lakes. myriads of living creatures creatures whose well- thus visibly an object of care and concern Lakes are numerous in mountainous localities. universal geographical facts . etc. every fragrant lily. silver-sided minnow. 803. Because in these latitudes the preponderance of cold weather favors aqueous deposition and checks every trailing-leafed willow. and being prevented from flowing off by the roughness of the country. which. 799. flourishes Commerce upon large lakes. with inland drainage. namely.

and Ant- ready reference convenience of description.78 DESCRIPTIVE VIEW OF THE OCEANS. Arctic. The names thereof! Indian. The Atlantic often called the Western Eastern Ocean. divided into five oceans. or . and ocean is subuniversal the to different parts thereof. How mariy oceans are there fact. 807. ? 808. SEA AND SHORE. is In point of there is only one ocean. CHAPTER XVI Physico-Descriptive Ic View of the several Oceans. Pacific. but for for Atlantic. the Pacific the Oriental. arctic Ocean.

811. the fields often one hundred miles long and from ten to forty feet thick.DESCRIPTIVE ATLANTIC OCEAN". 810. depth varies from to sixty feet on the 816. Ea- to the "Western Continent.000. the disturbance half-way across the ocean. and the violence of equator of heat. 813. Summer time. which makes the disturbing influences of the land felt The line of greatest average heat in the waters lies for across 819. hence its greater range of tem- The Atlantic is noted for the irregularity of its its winds. The Atlantic is noted. than the Pacific because The Trade-winds prevail tropical parts pretty generally over the . Comes Atlantic's basin.Weed. and pilchard fisheries are pros- ecuted. Polar currents upon both the North and South. South than in The form of the the North Atlantic valley the bergs and fields of the latter.000 square miles . for its great length as compared with its perature its tropical part warmer. moreover. Temperature of the Atlantic. from the Arctic Circle to the Antarcand from the Eastern Continent Westward whale. 1. 814. . open to Thirdly. Polar ice. Atlantic as respects in 79 815. The North and South fish. than in the other oceans . in the tionale : latter. North Atlana cific. hence The Trade-wind hara Desert in the is felt of the Atlantic turned back to temperatures in low latitudes are high. herring. but over six miles. 9. secondly. or " Gulf. is to increase the sa- Salter same account the North Atlantic than the South Atlantic. it The Atlantic is Salter . but return-voyages occupy forty days. Its is . and islands. the North Atlantic has more banks. the On preponderate that voyages to Europe are made in twenty-three days. moreover. the main part of the Equatorial deflected into the least width. Soilness of the Atlantic. the most part 5° North of the terrestrial Equator. The dimensions of the Atlantic. stretching Circle to the other. a characteristic itself owing to the narrowness of the ocean. is and the southwest Eeturn-Trades of the North-Temperate Zone so of this ocean remote and general influence lineness. the It extends tic Circle. The ical Atlantic . . winds. In spite of these irregularities. 817. cod. grows in the water. an area colder than the corresponding parts of the Paits of several million square miles in the tic. is characterized by extremes of temis First. 8° nearer the Line in the . 812. its extra-trop- breadth . the North In the former. 84°. - The boundaries of the Atlantic Ocean. only the whale fishery. receives more is rivers the immediate and local effect its of rivers to diminish the oceanic salineness. shoals. 5. as no other ocean perature. Eationale : land preits The Atlantic Trade-wind. from one Polar average height . 820. its entire breadth. upon and about which fish find feeding- grounds Length. Current all its is North Atlantic with food-supplies. for example. gales ." nental climatic extremes to be more it sensibly felt is sort of plant that 818. Fish are more abundant and various than in the South Atlantic. extreme width.750 miles in . for the Sargasso Sea.000 miles 27. former are larger than of the Is that The bergs of an immense longitudinal of are sometimes ten miles long and one hundred feet in quite uniform breadth. and naturally supply the strong draught setting toward the Sa- bring the thermal equator of this narrow ocean considerably North of the Line. depths unfathomed.000 miles area . Banks of Newfoundland. VIEW OF THE OCEANS. narrowness causes the influence of conti- covered with Fucus nutans. ponderates in the Northern Hemisphere. is of this ocean. 809.

9. In point of importance.000. The is Pacific's ice-drift. that they are PACIFIC OCEAN. freedom from the disturbing influences of the lands. is entirely incorrect. moreover. its extra- Horn. of the ocean. called sometimes classed together as a separate Grand DiBoundaries of the Pacific Ocean. to the upon which alone extensive lie and tides . Oceanica. VIEW OP THE OCEANS. the regularitj' of cur- 821. is characterized by uniformity of upon the round Cape temperature its tropical parts are cooler. eastern part. forming an immense depths are along a line running Northeast and Southwest in its volcanic semi-circle. its vastness makes it Also the notion that Cape-Horn tempests are the severest known. 824. this characteristic is itself this ocean. The common Temperature of the Pacific. The archipelagoes of the Pacific are so extensive. It is comparatively shallow over the whole of the Great Oriental Archipelago. temperature atures. eminent among the oceans. 831. other oceans. its and tranquillity and hence the name 830. The South Pacific re- There no Polar the shallowness About which pests prevail. volcanoes. extends from the Arctic to the Antarctic Cir- chipelagoes might be anticipated. 12. and are composed of islands so vision. cause it upon its slopes. and narrowness of Behring's Straits and the opposing current preventing the ingress of ice from the Arctic Ocean. ping plateaus and mountains. and of course does not suffer from them. enormous masses from the Antarctic Ocean. the greater number of out-crop- the Eastern. for the regularity of its winds. Salineness of the Pacific. currents. Its greatest its area. . 827. its The ocean irregularity and violence of the winds of the rents effects a more uniform distribution of temper- Atlantic are probably over-estimated. The Pacific is noted. Whereas the Pacific Gulf-Stream. is more completely and hence less variable in groundless they may seem so . based fact of the constant current level in the The tropical Pacific . receives the waters of so many mighty Hence navigation upon the seamen for its ease Pacific famed among and thus draws into and civilization of commerce the resources the World. be- cause commerce does not frequent the region. ice-drift in the North Pacific. is equally terrible and frequent tem- ceives 828. Secondly.80 DESCRIPTIVE The Atlantic winds unduly estimated. of the Pacific. 832. and not so salt as the Indian Ocean by nearly one- fourth part of the average oceanic saltness. and especially because that commerce is brought in contact with the furious tempests of the Gulf- Stream. Rationale oceanic.000 square miles. because the great habitable plains of the Earth First. owing empires can find room. not at all notorious for them. 822. Two popular errors. since the larger the and from the Western Continent Westward to ocean. the Pacific. arms. its consequent reaches into the continents with so many rivers. volcanoes that stretches like a burning belt around eastern and -western coasts. vast.000 miles The its Pacific is noted for the stupendous chain of breadth from North to South. because this is the thoroughfare of the World's commerce. The Atlantic Ocean is and always must be pre- 829. The Pacific is not so salt as the Atlantic.000 miles. and of the higher Gulf of Pana- warmer than the corresponding parts of -the : ma than in the Gulf of Mexico — . The dimensions Thirdly. cific inference that the waters of the Pa- are higher than those of the Atlantic. The the existence of these ar- It cle. archipelagoes. 823. 78. and be- immense expanse of and is . Greatest length from East to West. or peaceful. 825. 826.

miles. 6. Its precise area. how much within the Arctic Circle 3. of vastly more importance as respects commercial uses than it now The country about . China is the only region on the Pacific Ocean where an expanded empire can establish itself. salts left in the is process of evaporation. Ocean always will be of vastly lence to the high temperature of the atmosphere less importance on the scale of civilization than the At- over this ocean. breadth. for the high its Hence temperature and saltness of waters. of course. Greatest length from East to West. and for its tremendous hur- As respects importance. rain-falls. called Secondly. Pacific These hurricanes owe its their peculiar vio- The lantic. and but very few harbors and more especially upon the bordering lands.000. first.* or indentations. 6. it possesses enormous re- THE INDIAN OCEAN. The prodigious rain-falls received upon this ocean. its First.000 Boundaries of the Arctic Ocean. Hence.DESCRIPTIVE to the navigator VIEW OF THE 839.000 square miles out of the 9.266 The mean temperature it is of the Indian Ocean . perature of 86°. and from the Indian Archipelago on the East. OCEANS. It extends from Asia to the Antarctic Circle. and 81 who has just come from the Trade- Rain-falls saltness. are put to comparatively little on the West.394 miles. 836. whereas the East- waters.Winds. and 2° higher than that of the Atlantic. and no broad and fertile country back of them. and to position with respect to It has few harbors on the American coast. is e. it . soons or Season. 838. 837. Monsoons. because it is closely hemmed in by tropical lands. Ocean. exceed 3. and seas. for its im- Hence the the Eastern Pacific. It is situated within a circular area. .841. has been already implied. and gigantic rivers pour into it its winds are quite constant and are very strong no part of it is barred sources .266 miles in is Temperature of the Indian Ocean. it it . but its commercial capabilities use. 20. The Indian Ocean might be made is. i. 3. are due to the high temperature of the waters. Dimensions of the Indian Ocean. have been determined actual exploration to be ocean. As respects branches The Pacific has no considerable indentations on the Western Continent. from both geographical and is mense evaporations and heavy 841.. square miles. open to Polar currents only on the South and secondly. also. the extreme saltness of its thereon suitable for commerce ern Continent sends out into peninsulas. As respects importance. owing to the large in numerous and large enormous indenting residuum of 840. as other name. its greatest length or breadth cannot. 3° higher than that of the Pacific. this serene ocean. by * See Book Secoud of Series. the ocean of the Eastern The Indian Ocean ricanes. to Africa by rigors of climate . 835. and the consequent copious evaporation. and is therefore swept by winds of very high temperature. 11 . wind regions of 833. because land lies cannoi be ascertained . the adjacent sun-burned continents. Its equator of heat has a tem- Is unknown.000 which are contained within the Circle. commercial connections and considerations. numerous harbors open upon the ocean. and receives gulfs 831. noted for its system of Mon- Continent. Boundaries of the Indian Ocean.602 miles greatest THE ARCTIC OCEAN. area. higher than that of any other ocean because 844. 813. The Indian Ocean noted. * See Book Second of Series. diameter within the Arctic Circle .000.* 842.

exploration. 849. and to a large extent even 846. 845. ing state of things. These oceans are indispensable The indications as to land. and for continents ? ! What island-systems at the southeast and northeast points f Why larger than those of the Arctic Ocean fields % of the Pacific Because the bergs and of Antarctic ice in have fewer obstructions to overcome reaching the * See Book Second of Series. and formidable for terrible rigor of climate. 854. main ocean. owing to the influx of warm waters from the Gulf-Stream. the maiyvtenance of nature in centered of them its present conditions and the removal and of the exist- Are that a large triangular continent would herald and necessitate the destruclife. warm current setting through the Inference from the Antarctic's icebergs. at the South Pole. open by the Straits. navigation in them is rethe change. make icebergs. famed for the tremendous and almost boundless fields and packs of ice floating from it into the oceans on the North. 855. and therefore present themselves the form of its in floes. North of Bearing's the Straits also. after blubber-bearing Boundaries of the Antarctic Ocean. the surround the larger masses ice-islands have been repeatedly taken ice that . are icebergs formed % North of Europe. and hence the precise area of the ocean unknown. Where is the most easterly tract of sinking sea-bed 1 What is its area 1 What surrounds New Caledonia 1 Are the Solomon's Isles rising or sinking 1 for earth-islands 851. and growing or flowing out over are more or less broken 853. and water commingled. The ice escapes. what of the Polar Oceans. noted. It lies within the Antarctic Circle how much is monsters. naviga- and native magnitude not having so many shallow and crooked channels through which to their full .82 DESCRIPTIVE This ocean is VIEW OF THE OCEANS. but whose general contour cannot be determined by reason of the 850. the sea. that forbid its fields. Where and how the land only . quite a large area is kept On ice. and from the number of the bergs there must be considerable land to afford space for the making of them. and man's immediate interests suffer little from Walled in by ice. Notwithstanding all this. or " land is situated in the South-Polar Zone entirely search for Northwest Passage" or an " Open Ocean. For the enormous ice-masses in broken ice. and have been encompassed for months in the wilderness of This ocean floes Dimensions of the Pacific Ocean Where Where is is the line of great depths % the Great Archipelago? Do you 1 understand the depths to be very great in this archipelago and broken in fact. must be land in it. it follows that there these being the only channels of egress for the are choked and covered therewith the year. 43. Such is their size that ships have skirted their borders for weeks. Map PAGE 1 of the Oceans. and bergs. From 847- the fact of icebergs in the Antarctic Ocean. snow. . and not on the North On of Asia in the Summer. By the currents setting out of this ocean between Iceland and Greenland. the projecting vertices of which tion of the present orders of have been outlined. tion. off in vast bulks that immense masses of fill up valleys near it. As respects importance.* In regard to the Antarctic's is ice. OCEAN". and down all Baffin's Bay ice. force passage. 852. duced to a precarious chase . This ice is not found. ice. Both of the Polar Oceans might be displaced by land. is to ." to a life-squandering a is unknown. Questions upon the NO. 2. glaciers. THE ANTARCTIC 848.

there 83 known depth ? Where 1 What What Depth on the Does it ? Depth. What. Southeast ? of South America Questions upon the Oceanic Ice-Drift. 15° South.DESCRIPTIVE Dimensions of tbe Atlantic Ocean Greatest ? VIEW OF THE brings is OCEANS. PAGE it 25. Lon. 22° West? Grand Banks ? Depth South of Greenland ? At the Azores ? Depth of the Gulf of Mexico ? Of Baffin's Bay ? Depth of the Mediterranean Sea ? Of the North Sea the Black Sea ? Bend ? What makes it? down the eastern side of the Atlantic ? Why not Which way do the currents set on that side Does any ice come from Baffin's Bay ? the Horse-Shoe ice float ? 1 Does ? ice float through Behring's Straits into the N. determines the ? ice-drift chiefly ? it South does ice float in the North Atlantic ? From which Polar Ocean does ? appear that the ice can To what point does most of come escape most readily . Pacific set ? 1 Of Why not ? Which way does the current Of the Bay of Biscay ? How Dimensions of the Indian Ocean ? ? far North does ice float in the South Pacific ? Depth of the Red Sea ? Of the Caspian Sea ? Where does it come farthest North ? What brings it so far North at that point ? Dimensions of the Polar Oceans Why do we not know their exact size What throws ? the ice-drift line toward the Pole. Lat. What What What soi't of a current is there. cold or warm ? Africa ? carries the ice so far down toward ? repels it Southeast of Africa MAP How far 1. then.

animals. or of the atmosphere at great elevations. 863. the stars. Winds. Modifications of Temperature. III. at. as here used. moisture. more. and therefore the temper- has no reference to the heat of the land. That into mass no longer sends forth any heat the atmosphere. First. 859. The Causes thereof. The three most ond. TEMPERATURE. its internal condition in point of heat. Definition But the Earth has cooled its so much. and the surface of the The word. 858. Why most important 1 While the Earth was all molten. but at the surface of the Earth only. at- perature % The temperature atmosphere Earth. THE ELEMENTS OE CLIMATE XVIII. and are would proportion . all organic life. and their equitable distribution by winds. winds. can temperature be said to 1 depend upon Why s dwell upon the temperature at this particular that internal heat point or level If the mass of the Earth were fall in to cool down yet its sur- Because plants. 857. amount of heat received from the fixed Temperature. How. elements of mate. etc. causes of the temperature of the Earth. 861.PART CHAPTER Temperature. sec- rains. or water. or heat of the 862. storms. the third. ature of the atmosphere has ceased to be sensibly and actively modified by the Earth's internal heat. then the temperature of the Earth at face are exposed to this particular temperature. so that the tempera- . and Rains. its suitableness for comfort and The its climate of a country. Because the habitableness of the Earth largely Its surface-temperature was of Earth's internal and chiefly dependent upon heat and moisture. What determines the temperature of the Earth 1 respect to heat. Definition Is prevailing condition with and cli- 860. course like that of a glass-furnace. and man. 856. thermal condition. is important elements of climate are amount of heat received from the Sun. dependent upon life. Precisely what is here referred to by the word tem- because of the volumes of heat poured forth from the melted matter into the mosphere. then.

heat. Earth's temperature. The heated is bodies raise the temperature of the . latter. reaches the lower. 867. which indeed. 874. the How much received yearly from our Sun Earth would be heated 1 to at least 212° vegetation would all Heat enough measured above. indicate the temperature of 212°. in the direct sunlight. What seems curious in this matter 1 from the Sun and fixed the temperature thereof. somewhat by immediate contact but the temperature is raised chiefly by the heat radiated from air First. and every animal be to melt a stratum of ice over the feet thick .* its That more of ed in direct heat from the Sun is receiv- the higher strata of the atmosphere than many thousands 865. stars shine What then becomes of it 1 and covering the Globe. and measurably modifies and alone as determining the heating the atmosphere on in space. heated the surface of the Globe. Enough melt a stratum of entire 83i feet thick. then bodies at the surface of . ? is radiated from This solar-and-stcllar heat does what the heated bodies. whole Earth one-hundred and three or otherwise. 869. The heat received from the Sun Heat from the Sun and fixed stars. warming the atmosphere on its passage that which is absorbed. 871. immediate contact. and the How much to is received yearly from the fixed stars ice 1 rest is absorbed. sensibly. that some heat What stopped cooling must be detained 1 in passing through the atmos- phere. heat is rect sun-heat. and consequently raises should raise the temperature of the atmosphere so much more than the direct heat of How is this fact known 1 the same heat when coming from Sun and passing through the very same atmos- phere. 876. so that henceforth we shall consider it Thirdly. not heated by but the same plate of glass hung . upon the top of Teneriffe the A plate of to pass glass suffers the direct heat of the itself readily. the heated bodies. 873.TEMPERATURE. and with full perpendicular force upon all parts of the Sphere. Sun is through it the glass * See Second Book of Series. about one-fourth of the heat that attempts to come down is through the Earth's atmosphere stars. and therefore. ture quiescently depends upon that internal heat. and. enough to raise the tem- The remaining three-fourths of the the Earth . follows the reflected heat. are suns themselves stellar 866. killed with the sunstroke. 870. On the top of lofty mountains the the Sun is considerably greater than of the Earth. at midday. That which is reflected passes off from the Earth toward the etherial regions. 868. How the Sun and star heat raises the temperature. How the Earth's temperature raised. Is there anything analogous to this 1 Thus. 85 thermometer. It actively. . 872. still be boiled to death. perature of the Earth from 60° below zero to 59^° Reach the surface of immediately reflected some of it is from various objects. The practical importance of this fact. it is not actively modified by ? it. Has the Globe stopped cooling This fact shows what 1 ? The Earth has twenty-five not cooled down any for at least hundred years. so that If the atmosphere did not detain any of the di- heat is solar heat. having . is dispersed elevates the temperature of the Earth. so that . at the surface 877. 875. That the heat radiated from terrestrial matter detained in the atmosphere. hence the amount of their heat. and the fixed stars. The day and night alike. and probably none for of years. its passage. will even though 864.

86

MODIFICATIONS
body heated by the Sun,
and
will

OF

TEMPERATURE.
and
shall also consider

before a

not suffer the
itself,

called Varieties of Climate

;

heat, radiated

from that body, to pass through

the physical causes of those modifications.
885.

but

will detain the heat,

will therefore itself be-

The

first

modification of terrestrial temperature.

come
878.

heated.

Arises from the ovalness of the
The atmosphere,
like the plate of glass.
its

Eartlis

orbit, in virtue

of which the

First
tion.

modifica-

Permits the direct sun-heat to pass through
mass, and accordingly
is

Earth

is

3,000,000 miles nearer the

not heated, but detains the

Sun

at

one season than another.
In consequence of this fact.

radiated hent at the surface of the Earth, just where
it is

needed, and

is

heated thereby.
this quality.
is

886.

879.

Importance of

The
exceedingdetain

direct,

mid-day, mid-summer heat of the
is

This quality of the atmosphere
ly important, for
if

Southern Hemisphere
sphere,
887.

greater than the direct,

the atmosphere could
it

mid-day, mid-summer heat of the Northern

Hemi-

the direct heat so that

could not reach the Earth,

by about

one-fifteenth of its

whole

intensity.

or could not detain the radiated heat, and

become

But, a shorter Summer.

thereby heated,
880.

we should

perish with cold.

During the Summer of the Southern Hemisphere,
while the Globe
it is

Earth's temperature raised in three modes, then.

nearer the

Sun than

the average,

First,

by the
;

direct passage of heat through the

moves faster, and thus the
is

Summer

of the South-

atmosphere

secondly,

by
;

radiation and reflection
thirdly,

ern Hemisphere

shorter than of the Northern

from the Earth's surface

by the

direct con-

Hemisphere, by about eight days.
888.

tact of the air with heated bodies.
881.

Consequently, what of the Summer-heats

?

To what

point

is

the Earth's temperature raised

1

In consequence of this unequal length of

Sum-

The temperature
Globe at
age
59j-°
its

of the whole
is

mer, both Hemispheres receive very nearly equal
Average temperature of the Earth.

surface

on the aver-

amounts of heat during that Season;
the direct heat of the

for although

above zero on the scale
This has no reference to the temper-

Sun

is

more

intense in the

of Fahrenheit.

Summer

of the Southern Hemisphere, the
is

Summer

ature of the lands or of the waters, but of the atmos-

of the Northern Hemisphere
889.

longer.

phere at the Eartlis surface.
882.

How

is it in

Winter

1

The

total

amount

of elevation of temperature.
is

The Winter
for

Experienced by the Earth,
59°
is

119° above

about 119°

;

er than the

Hemisphere is longWinter of the Northern, so that its exof the Southern
;

60°, the

supposed temperature

tremes of cold tend to be greater
this

but probably

of space about the Earth.

tendency

is

corrected

by

the overplus of

Sum-

mer-heat, so that on the average of the whole year,
the one Hemisphere gets as

much

heat as the other.

MODIFICATIONS OF TEMPERATURE.
890. 883.

Amount

of the modification in question.

what have we
sources

considered thus far in this chapter

1

and amount of the heat received by the Earth, the modes of its operation, and the average temperature produced thereby.
884.

The

ture

The total by the

effect exerted

upon

terrestrial
is,

tempera-

ovalness of its orbit,
is

that the direct

Summer-heat
sphere, and

greater in the

Southern

Hemi-

the extremes of Winter-cold likewise
in the

What

shall

we now

consider

1

tend to be greater

same Hemisphere.
all.

But

The

modifications of that average or general tem-

the average of temperature between the two
ispheres
is

Hem-

perature, which result in or rather constitute the so-

not affected at

MODIFICATIONS
891.

OP

TEMPERATURE.
In

87

The second modification of

terrestrial

temperature

March and September,
and hence
be
it

it

appears that the Sun

Arises from the inclination of the

shines just to the Poles, he will therefore be vertical
Second modification of the Earth's
average temperature.

Earths axis to the plane, of its

orbit :

at the Equator,

will

be

Summer

there.

an important modification, amounting to the entire production of the

In June he

will

vertical at the

Tropic of Cancer,
therefore have
vertical at
will

and the Northern Hemisphere

will

Change
892.

of Seasons.

Summer.
the change

In

December he

will

be

Cap-

Draw and explain the diagram illustrating

ricorn,

and the Southern Hemisphere

have

of Seasons.

Summer.

^V

893.

The

third modification.

895.

Draw and

explain the diagram illustrating the influits

due to the shape of the Earth. In consequence of that shape, when
Is

ence of the Earth's shape upon
Third modification.

temperature.

the

Sun

is

over the Equator, eight-

thousand rays
as

fall upon a given area beneath, whereupon an equal space at the Poles, only five rays

are received.
Accordingly, the temperatures.

894.

If the influence of the

shape of the Earth alone

be considered, the temperature at the Poles would be to that at the Equator as 5 to 8,000, or 1 to So that it appears that the shape of the 1,600. Earth modifies or tends to modify its temperature
very greatly,

S

N represent the

Poles

;

E Q the

Equator
;

;

the

dotted line the height of the atmosphere

AB

and

88

MODIFICATIONS
falling respectively at the

OF

TEMPERATURE.
902.

C T> equal beams of heat Equator and in Lat. 45°.
896.

Seat also mitigated.

The

water,

by absorbing

the heat of

Summer,

What

it

shows.

tempers the oppressiveness of that Season, storing

It

shows that the beam

AB
C

falls

upon a smaller

away 'for use the burning heats
tudes of living things.
903.

that

would other-

surface than the
will

beam C D,

therefore the space

AB
hot-

wise be sufficient to distress and even destroy multi-

be hotter than the space

D

;

hence

it is

ter at the

Line than in Lat. 45°.

Moreover, the

So that oceanic or sea climate.

ray that passes by the North Pole barely touches
the Earth; hence the extreme cold.
897.

Is

noted for
;

its

equableness, for the absence of ex-

tremes

it is

the real temperate climate of the Earth.

Accordingly, small islands situate far out upon the
Moreover, depth of atmosphere.

The beam C

D

and the ray

greater depth of atmosphere
er cause of cold

P N pass through a than A B hence anoth;

ocean

in

some cases experience an annual range of
;

temperature of not more than 10°
Islands, for example.
904.

as the Society

at the points

C

~D

and N, or

in

Lat. 45° and at the Pole; the ray

PN

penetrates

Sea-board countries.
prevail, tire in-

a forty-five times greater depth of atmosphere than

Over which winds from the ocean
climate
905.

A

B, and

is

diminished

in intensity

thereby about

variably characterized by equability of climate; the

one-thousand three-hundred times.
898.

may be warm
Example

or cold, but

it is

uniform.

The fourth

modification.

in illustration.

The

fourth modification of the
Fourth modifiis

The annual range
cation.

of temperature in western Eu-

Earth's general temperature

due

rope, over which the southwest winds of the Atlantic prevail,
is

to the various distribution of the

only 70°, and that, too, in the very

Earth's surface into land and sea.
899.

same
range
ter

latitude with Central Asia,
is

where the annual
oceanic, the lat-

130°.

The former has an

Land exposed

to the Sun.

a continental climate.
Further example.

Land when exposed
heated upon
its surface,

to the

Sun becomes rapidly
906.
it is

but upon the withdrawal of
at

the Sun, the heat speedily escapes because

The yearly range
the United States
is

of temperature on the coast of

the surface only, and the temperature falls suddenly

90°

;

whereas
is

in

the same

lati-

and to a low
900.

figure.

tude

in the interior, the

range

120°.

Hence

continental or land climates.

907.

The

fifth

modifier of terrestrial temperature.

Are noted

for extremes, for a heat in

Summer and
They are the The annual

Is, elevation

above the level of the
Fifth modification.

a cold in Winter, alike intolerable.
real excessive climates of the Earth.

sea.

Since the atmosphere detains

the heat at the surface of the Earth,
the temperature
level;
is

range of temperature
tral

in central

Asia

is

130°, in cen-

higher there than at any other
feet,

North America 120°.
Water when exposed
to the Sun. its

upon ascending 300
;

the annual temperfeet, 3°
;

ature falls 1°
901.

595

feet, 2°;

872

etc.

Instead of heating upon

surface alone, be-

908.

Mountains and table-lands.
at the

comes, in the manner shown in

ed to considerable depths

;

Answer 571, heatwhen the Sun withdraws,

Even
filled

Equator mountains three miles high
Highly elevated
table-

are covered with eternal snow, and their ravines are

whether for an hour, for a night, or for a Season, this heat is frugally and slowly dispensed, and the severity of cold is thereby mitigated.

with frightful glaciers.

lands are notorious for cold.

Thibet, whose averis

age elevation

is

12,000

feet,

pinched with dread-

909. Is. remain stable supply of heat. raised. total and entire effect of the modifications general temperature of the the sources and Earth. Sixth modification. of the Barbary States flowand nourishing the tropical in Draw and explain the diagram illustrating the effect of slope upon temperature. 1 914. The slopes of the Alps. in the latitude oil. three grand sources of heat I Stability of the before mentioned. is when the northern slope coated with ice and hence an Equatorial temperature whereas the dotted at the Pole. and the heat of 12 . the warmest exposure. or the it aspect which presents to the Sun. ing in wine and snow for half the year. amount of the heat it. the heat of the Sun. CHAPT The Stability XIX Isotherms* of Terrestrial Temperature. line falls induced . The beam C waving with growinga period of . We have considered the modifications of that general temperature. modifications. is to the Southwest. the internal heat of the Earth. simply to vary the distribution of that heat. is point to which the temperature 913. How far have we discussed temperature first. 89 fill frosts. because upon the former the Sun shines perpendicularly as at the on the northern slope of falls upon the Sahara's sands. and thus to produce all the varieties of climate found which determines the modes in upon the Earth. 910. upon the latter same angle as on the snows of Nova Zembla. the coldest to the Northeast. duce them . together with the causes that pro- from age to age . D falls upon the Equator-ward as Looking toward the year Italy. The Secondly. TEMPERATURE. the mountain at the same angle as a ray nearly and hence a Polar temperature prevails. the slope of a country. STABILITY OF TEMPEBATTTBE. Sole and total effect of the modifications. 912. or slope. at is beam AB falls upon the surface of the Equator. and the 915 Stability of the supply of heat. In the Northern Hemisphere. which that heat raises the temperature. are slope of the mountain as perpendicularly the corn and rustling with vine-leaves. The sixth modifier of terrestrial temperature.THE and buried STABILITY OF TERRESTRIAL 911. is though palm. and have thus shown the origin of the Varieties of Climate. We have considered the Re-statement of is The facts.

What are isotherms 1 climate. the western coasts of the Eastern Continent.ocean be reduced only 12°. and the not less intolerable cold of extra-tropical deserts : — they sink sink re- on the highlands of Central Asia. from average Polar to . 103° 50' E. modify 925. ISOTHEEMS. and upon the land for want The extremes are . 917. e . Lon. from the terrestrial Equator. marshes. rise very high on claiming of deserts renders climate less excessive. the Earth's temperature. and it would turn to ice. tion. The limits of the range of temperature. then.* The changes most. the draining of marsh- the reclaiming of sandy. In detail. in Summer. and 149° 29' W. and all it. forests. . hence the intolerable Deviate from the parallels as follows consequently the heat of tropical deserts. most that man can mere trifle. Absorb heat give out heat the climate . are we sure of? way infringe upon effect is a scale. Its chief deviations Lagoons. the general char- Of the present average temperature upon the acter or stability of terrestrial temperature. Orinoco. and. the Let the temperature of the Earth fall so far that average temperature of the under. i. Occur over the land-locked. things perish.90 ISOTHERMS. shade the ground from the the escape of heat in having the same average annual temperature. and in no thus induced are very limited at the What. For example. more highly heated portion of the Indian Ocean. Lines drawn round the Globe through places Forests. hence the removal of forests makes both the heat and the cold hotter. how great 1 trial TEMPERATURE 916. STABLE also. bogs. Winter. — 120°. *See Book Second of Series. heats of Summer. and rise on its western coast. The Globe. over the sandy deserts of Africa. : dinary cultivated surfaces . Notwithstanding the stability of extreme to extreme. 82|° for the year. A particular case of climatic instability. both in of rain. . the rise or of terrestrial temperature through Precisely what is meant by stability of temperature. particular country. It is not . Therefore IS the fixed stars. 924. temperature ranges both above and below the average point. and the plains of the both heat and cold more 921. and check more The thermal equator. only one score of degrees disastrous influence would exert the most upon the vegetable and animal That the average temperature of the Earth of heat and cold will not rise above and will not fall below the average occupants of the Earth. etc.. the clearing of forests. — the Summer Or line of maximum heat. freezing in Winter. now experienced upon the Globe. the severest coid Total range from The climate of a. and excessive. intense. severe. 920. renders the temperature exceedingly high. 927. 928. it follows that terres- 922. meant that there are no varieties of temperature upon the Earth for in fact. ever noted in the Polar regions. measured a fact of unspeakable importance. the cli- average Tropical temperature. for example. es. deserts. and consequently hence the draining of them makes e . the reverberation of heat by whose sands On the other hand. not coincide with the terrestrial Equator save at two points. 919. 80° i. 289° to 80°. desert tracts. Desert tracts heat and cool more rapidly than or- The isotherms of the Northern Hemisphere. the Sun shining upon tropical-desert sands 918. so long as the present constitution of things continues . does and the "Winter colder. 926. The changes. again on the eastern coasts and lofty highlands of America. 169°. from 0° mate of a particular country may cultivanot always be the same . since fall upon nature's gigantic 923.

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but the to be in 78° 932. rise or sink over the eastern part of the Atlantic its Why ? Explain oscillations % North and South as it crosses the Western Continent Western is thought N. but the intensest cold ever noted the eastern pole on the was near Siberia. not the greatest Range of temperature on the coast of the United States 1 Rauge of temperature on the northwest coast of Europe 1 Where has the greatest heat ever been observed 1 Where the greatest cold 1 * See Book Second of Series. Is clue to fall the influence of warm currents . Lat.* 934. . Are they on the land or sea about them 1 1 The shape of the isotherms What is said on the 1 Map of the average temperature of the several Zones cold. The average temperature of the whole Earth 1 What is the total range of natural temperatures near- 1 Have not yet been located they probably lie er the poles. snowy wastes of 930. rise. the The eastern rjole js f higher temperature than the to the influence of vast bodies or high elevations . On ac- Where are the poles of cold Their temperature respect- warmer over the Arc- Ocean than over the lands situated to the South of it. are found in 100° W.ISOTHERMS.. What is its mean temperature 1 Where does it rise farfrom the Equator 1 thest Where cross the Equator in the 1 Trace the course of the isotherm of 60° The Poles of maximum cold. Annual range of temperature Annual range of temperature in the Western Continent 1 terrestrial Pole than the Arctic thermal in the Eastern Continent 1 Precisely what do the poles of cold indicate ? The greatest cold for the year . western. Lat. The cold for any single observation during the 91 929. . * See Book Second of Series. Lon. tic it is latitudes. Their latitude is not precisely ascertained. warm cur- why it recedes from and again approaches the Equator. Lon.* of land facts easily understood in connection with what has been already presented in foregoing chapters. and the Eastern in 74° N. The Antarctic pole or poles of . Northern 1 Hemisphere it 1 Why does it sink over Central Asia 1 Does In the Northern Hemisphere. first. plain Ex- ond. by sinking toward the Equator over the cold currents which set up the western coasts of the Grand Divisions. and 95 J E. PAGE 92. and hence the poles of cold fall upon or near the land. and also over the lofty highlands of South America and secDeviate from the parallels. Map of Isotherms. The isotherms of the Southern Hemisphere. year. 933. 931.. by rising toward the Pole over the rents. Do the isotherms of the Southern Hemisphere rise or sink 1 They deviate from the Pole of the Earth. . Questions upon the NO. on the western borders of the several oceans Why 1 1 By reason of the frigorific influence exerted up- Why ively 1 do they fall on the eastern borders of the oceans 1 on temperature by land in high count of that influence. 4. Trace the course of the atmospheric thermal equator.

rises. myriads of and ages before man was made. . The velocity of wind depends upon what 1 ? Wind simply The winds being so boisterous and turbulent. 937. upon the difference betwixt the density of the air the hot air and the density of the cold First. rent thus induced. GENEKAL VIEWS OE THE WINDS. trude themselves upon our but in the or- der of nature they are simply consequences of variation in tJte temperature and density of the atmosphere. and characteristics of wind. its and colder place . air Definition. blow with the greatest rapidity. upon mountain-tops and the ocean. obattention. A portion fied of air becoming rare- by heat. the swifter the wind. XX. Secgreater the difference. constitutes wind wind. Causation of wind. and through every nook and great World. Their universality in time and space . HURRICANE AXD WATER-SPOUI HAPTER Geneva! Views of the Winds. why the Measons Winds Blow.92 WINDS. 936. is air in motion. upon the absence winds hence. a consequence. blowing over land cranny of this sea. 938. 985. The leading feature of the winds. then. . rushes in to take the cur. causation. path its in obstacles all of ondly. they have been blowing ever since the Creation.

poisonous exhalations ac- 950. ferent Zones. Ranges through every Four miles rate of motion." and with the best 949. both and stagnant. to ventilate the Earth and First reason. Are calities noted for vigor and high health for ple. Why do the winds blow at all ? toughness. heavens. . of the other.600 falls upon the regions beneath than . Hot-house plants. 1. a very higli twelve miles. " In the Botanical Gardens of Paris the occurring only frequently enough to ful for the make us grate- ordinary rates of the wind's motion. Is proportioned to the square of A carried by the winds to feed the growing vegetation ten-mile breeze strikes with the force of half-a-pound to the square foot . as vast . The velocity and force of wind just right. We trate how it is possible for winds to pros- mighty forests. cattle and horses pasturing in high. one Hemisphere would become and the four-hundred and 911. canes and tornadoes. the exhalations thereof are velocity. are carried over the lands and are absorbed 951. 939. and is absorbed by vegetables. spirit. wind. and to sweep up water from the sea till the air becomes another ocean to tear ! Every plant needs more or less agitation or exercise to keep in good health: the oak in the open pasture and the ash on the mountain-side owe the whalebone toughness of their fiber to the winds that keep them constantly in motion. from that scarcely perceptible to three-hundred miles an hour. How does this appear 1 for any great length of time. dead calms are rare. 918. sixty During the long nights of Autumn. gives out a amount of carbonic acid. amid growing in The winds blow every to diffuse the difSecond reason. a violent gale. and and precious trees them. dier hues. the velocity and force of wind are precisely proportioned to the For want of exercise are morbid growths. 910. which is poisonous in the lungs of animals this is carried by the winds to the tropics. bronzes with deeper tints and glows with rudare remarkable for strength. twenty-five miles. and winds are needed to clear 911. Secondly.WHY THE WINDS BLOW. are ails. The vegetation of high latitudes. wind. fifty pounds to the square foot. In general. . of the exhalations % per opposite climatic extremes tant that without cal its . wants of the World . afresh breeze. the air in vitiated. one- their food. the streets of mighty cities heat and cold accumulating in cranny of the great Globe. or . subject to a thousand and rarely live long. times more heat Because when the Sun is on the Equator. in in forests. First. 946. plants in the other would suffer for food. not frequently enough to impair the habitableness of the Animals exposed to World. But for this arrangement. 912. an hour constitutes a gentle breeze miles. to rend the cordage of ships. an office so impor- What becomes performance neither the Tropi- They for food nor the Polar regions would be habitable. a three-hundred-mile hurricane. higher rates. In like manner when the vegetation of one Hem- The force of wind. 945. up rocks and tons of earth from the solid ground. 93 Velocity measured by miles. BLOW. cumulate crops. 947. a brisk wind. by the various kinds of plants so that the atmosphere never becomes vitiated in the mass. examwindy lo- WHY THE WINDS 943. and Man's complexion when exposed to the wind. Plants need exercise. Hence the perceive effects of wind. destructive gales. so as thereby to tem- them out. as to heat and cold. more delicate are shaken every day to exercise results. its isphere dies and decays. hundred miles. hurri- The vegetation of a Hemisphere.

600 to 1. . so that water may be as universally to land. 952. 954. it removed from the and shed it . no good would result. lakes. human these have enough rain. that move wound. they sometimes blow to speed the pestilence. doing good to all. of the death-angel gration . for never asks anything for . . whereas the land needs it. currents of air bear the dwellings. this Evaporation that it if so abundant in the fall in end constitutes no small part of zation. Even in this The winds blow it to distribute moisture over the Earth. to waft age of steam. speeding the march of material and intellectual civilization . rivers. than from the land . the vapor should up- on the sea again. no keel could Thirdly.94 WHY THE WINDS 958. Without this upon equal spaces at the Poles and unless the heat were distributed. so of beneficent effects resulting from them. impossible. the works. get a share to wreck the freighted ship for the higher sea. that the winds are not responsible for their aridity. not a twentieth part of the World's commercial work could be profitably done if the cheap power of the winds should fail us. . for so long as they are. tributed as 953. Let the winds stop blowing. and the whole magnificent system of water-supply established over the whole Globe. 960. a grand victory for man. it is dis- 959. tireless. and deposited in extra-tropical regions . man's physical and temporal proba. co-existent with its Contain a vast amount of moisture. fall Evaporation more abundant from if all The winds and man's temporal probation. and cheap as it is ever-active like the Deity. for the reasons are co-ex- dry deserts. to haste the destroying confla. The winds blow in tion furtherance of Fifth reason. and to waft the wing and to whelm Even the far interiors of the continents. mighty and its services universal. 957. sea. universally needed. as to commerce. its stagnant expanse. 962. To particularize all the reasons why the winds should blow. nothing but cold is duration. universe has no harder workers than the winds. would have more than enough according!}' great quantities of vapor are borne away by winds. the ocean 981. as to moisture. and the tropics none too industry and civilization would receive an irremedi- much. agent as the wind. However of moisture. Fourthly. have plowed Third reason. men in upon even the central table-lands and mountains whence arise springs. The Fourth reason. from sea to and from Zone Zone. Would be The winds of hot. because one of the mightiest forces the World's labor would be stricken out Land and sea is as respects evaporation. Moreover. 963. The winds no idlers. motor. invisible. and the lives of the tornado's ruin. tensive with the Earth's expanse. are so that Taking no other able result into the account. his material civili- the vapor were to rain . BLOW. they work. In vain during the ages past would the ocean have spread from clime to clime. The winds have wafted the sails of commerce for thousands of years. it. and without price tial. of being. obtains 955. and through the agency of winds. work impar- without money. a motor it omnipresent. the adaptation of means to Torrid Zone upon that Zone. from the 956. It has been to subdue to his use so fluctuating an Evaporation is in the Torrid Zone. the temperature would be as 1. and numerous as the infinite multitude needed to make it fall in abundant rains .

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95 CHAPTER Classification XXI. XII. above stated. Cause of the Calm-Belt. however. . 965. sides of the Equator. direcforce. CONSTANT WINDS. their line of for their directions as 973. lies the Equatorial Calm-Belt. Variable. in accordance with the law exhibited in Chap. of Winds. Season of the year. meet North of the Line. Lat. . passing. only over the oceans. is caused by the mutual opposiand counteraction of the Trade-winds rushing together from opposite quarters. to 5° 969. The supply rent of air of heat being constant. is winds are constant.CLASSIFICATION OF THE WINDS. breadth of latitude. The most remarkable constant winds. according to the North and from either hand to supply the partial and winds rush vacuum. the Calm-Belt move North and through 17° or 18°. and Variable. 964. moving forth and back with the Sun from 12° N. Periodical. Constant. Constant. Is from the Northeast on the north side. and Special Wind*. vertical (up-and-down) currents for the progressive and or exhibit but comparatively little motion of the Trades ground. and the cold 971. air sinking from above. The cause of the Trade-winds. The Trade-winds South of commerce prevail on both The hot in air along the Line rises. combining the motion toward the Line with the bearing toward the West. the rising curconstant. These currents setting toward the Equator. Constant winds. 970. The Equatorial Calm-Belt. 972. the hot air rising from the variability in these respects at different seasons. On the lands it seems to be largely produced by the substitution of The Calm-Belt tion Are tion.* Between the Trade-winds and along junction. The Trades and South with it S. . we account to the . for whenever the Sun verti- quent high temperature in low latitudes hence the any given place on the lands. and of course the in-rushing also. 968. Their direction. 967. Periodical. however. Classes of winds. Tropics. those which are constant in duration. they are constant. * Let the teacher be sure the pupil gets hold of this. the regular course of the Trades is observed to be broken up this is true as far North and South as the : winds setting toward the point of greatest heat. bear West. from bend- the Southeast on the south side of the Line ing more and more to the "West as they approach the Line. 966. further to the On the cause of this inequality vibrates The Calm-Belt cal at across a still greater is land in North than to the South of the Line is the predominance of the Northern Hemisphere and its conse. 6° wide As the Sun passes North and South. the lands. The bearing of these currents. from 20° to 30° thereof.

to . 982. . as elsewhere remarked. These surface-winds ultimately reach the respective Poles. upper regions of the atmosphere. 977. in other words.96 CLASSIFICATION What becomes of the air OF THE WINDS. west Return-Trades. Cancer and Capricorn at these points the air is supposed to It is .the continual draft of the Trade-winds and the rest of it passes into and traverses the Temperate Zones as a Poleward-tend- over any other wind so that. 983. just This surface-wind on passage toward the Poles * bears toward the East in accordance with the principle might be anticipated from the accumulation of Whereas it stands low at the Equatoair therein. Immense volumes of . and form the Calms of Cancer and Capricorn. the pressure being diminished by the rising tendency of the whole mass of the Calm*Do not fail to see that the pupil understands this. meet upper currents setting toward the Equator from the Poles other. the prevailing wind will be a Northwest wind. in other words. pheric levels at the Poles as upper currents. their calms Their ultimate destination. with the Sun through several degrees. In the Tropic-Calms the barometer stands con979. the inclined plane of bed. in the ratio of it mid Temperate latitudes and estwo to one . Return-Trades.— the Northwest Particulars respecting these Calm-Belts The Calm-Belts of Cancer and Capricorn have an average width of 6° they move North and South . yet in the accumulating in these they prevail calms 1 pecially on the ocean. the The air there accumulating constitutes Polar Calms. The Horse-latitudes. its stantly higher than elsewhere as upon the Globe. — the so-called South- supposed as far as the Tropics. Its direction in the the opposing currents stop each Southern Hemisphere. Barometric indications of the Calms. rial exhibited in Chap. on the same principle current of a river flows its In the Northern Hemisphere the motion toward the North and toward the East results in a motion down 975. namely. bank up. The bearing of this surface-wind. Its It rises into the and flows off on either hand to the lower atmosthat the consequent direction in the Northern Hemis- phere. 976. quarter of the Winds are named from the compass from which they come cur. 980. calms. the at these points. rents of water. Though What becomes of the air not so constant as the Trade-Winds. voyages to the East in those latitudes are shorter by one-third than voyages to the West. and the two systems banking up. XII. of Cancer on the Atlantic are known seamen as the " Horse-latitudes " because vessels bound from northern ports to the West Indies have not unfrequently been compelled to throw The Calms the Tropics again as upper-currents as before shown. . overboard from want of wa- the voyage being greatly protracted by the Whether the Return-Trades are constant. that all Calm-Belt. from the point to which they flow. and from them flows down to . 981. the prevail- How far does it continue to he an upper current ing winds will be Southwest. are drawn away toward the Equator to supply. 978. 984. upper currents meet with upcurrents from the Equator. In the Southern Hemisphere the motion toward the South and toward the East results in a motion toward the Southeast. . their cargo of horses ter. 1 toward the Northeast. ing surface-wind. emptied into the Calm- bodies moving from the Equator to the Poles bear Belt? toward the East. 971. are not so complete and unbroken as those of the Equatorial Calm-Belt. Belt atmosphere. form the Tropic Calms.

nite and over its whole expanse the defiand limited Calm-Belts of the other oceans are not found upon this. 990. what appears 1 That the northeast Monsoon blows while southern Africa is intensely heated by the Summer of the southern Hemisphere. 985. PERIODICAL WINDS. 993. Land and Sea breezes. and accordingly flows out upon the sea. constituting the southwest Monsoon from September to April they blow southwesterly from Southern Asia out upon the ocean. Whenever a region becomes periodically heated cold with winter. Monsoon April During the day the air over the land becomes highly heated. From the April to September the winds blow from Land and sea breezes. . . and cooler air from the sea flows in and displaces it. During the Winter blow from the snowy Periodical Wixds. Monsoons of the Indian Ocean. 991. As 1 97 JVJ^aJfas- 988. and their causation. . what appears That is it prevails while southern Asia intensely heated by the Summer of the Northern Hemisphere. the from the cold to the hot region causes the Mon- soon or Season-ivind. and while southern Asia is comes quickly cool. Desert they are simply a strong draft from a colder to a warmer region. 986. to sea during the night. Asia. Causation of both the Monsoons. setting from the North toward the hot Sahara DIAGRAM OF THE CONSTANT WINDS AND CALM-BELTS. and while southern Africa and the southern part of the Indian Ocean are cold with "Winter. 995. as prevail regularly atDefinition and causes of periodical winds. The calms of the Indian Ocean oc- cur at the change of the Monsoons. blowing from sea to clay. 992. 994. warm waters of the Gulf with Are such certain periods of the day or Sea- sons of the year. and displaces the warm air thereon. either for a longer or a shorter time. northeast and September are months of calms and dreadful tempests. constituting the They originate as follows. to the southwest Monsoon. save the Calms of Capricorn. Universally. As to the northeast Monsoon.CLASSIFICATION OF THE WINDS. there a period- ic . Calms in the Indian Ocean. land during the and from land Indian Ocean Northeasterly upon southern . in Are common to all coast-regions the Summer. The Etesian Winds of the Mediterra- nean Sea. The " Northers " of the Gulf of Mexico. Prevail during the Summer. air setting In both cases. at night the air over the land be- 987. conti- nent out over the unparalleled fury. 989. partially.

they fre- quently rotate about each other over immense This wind not poisonous. First. respectively. that the winds of these Zones are exceedingly variable. that and blow to mitigate extremes would otherwise become intolerable. and hence Temperate-Zone surface-winds and upper currents. sin in Egypt. 999. by causes peculiar the Samiel in Arabia. drive them back.arcross Guinea. year. uniform and constant. What must 1 That this drift of the is upper and lower currents it is SPECIAL WINDS. ical ivind ivill bloiv. situate in hot countries. 1001. of the Polar rnjinns. to these Zones. Is it poisonous ? is pose the surface-winds. Such as are inconstant as to duration. 1007. the Sirocco in Sicily and they modify each other. rious offices devolving not be understood upon the winds. the Kham- Examples of special winds. in fact. The winds Also are variable in that they are inconstant as to duration. and tueir causation. either for its purification. Italy.* sons enfeebled by fatigue. ity. for it is the fact these currents so modify each other and are so modified Called the Simoon on the Sahara. and each place upon that coun- the great heat thereof sometimes overpowers per- have the wind blow from every quarter of the compiass in succession during the period of rotatry will tion. and force. This is very well. or at least uncomfortable and unhealthy. the variation in the length of day and night. rather the prevalent and general tendency. 1002. 997. The upper and lower currents are modified and Is a draft rendered inconstant by causes peculiar to the Temperate Zone. 1003. exhaustion. but they are feeble . it is Because in those cold regions not necessary whereas their upper currents in general set to have great agitations of the atmosphere. Winds from mountains Are dreaded * See Book Second of Ser'es. the hot tropics which in the Winter sets from the Sacool and hara. out over the highly heated It is waters of the Gulf of Guinea. and to wither vegetation to dust. The Black-wind of the . It is. but that The wind of the African Deserts. and force. or are driven back by them . the currents are modified. Cause of the calms.98 CLASSIFICATION OF THE WINDS. though so reputed or breadths of country. from the atmosphere. on the one side and the cold Polar regions on the other. 1004. 1005. is characterized by extreme heat and arid- The upper currents descend to the surface. a Winter-monsoon. Variable Winds. for the terrible contrast of temper- atures caused by them. prevalence of calms is due to the constancy of temperature in those regions. op- which are so intense as to cause great distress to animals. or still otherwise. the winds are weak. its 'general effect upon anifavorable by removing dampness and ma- laria Secondly. prevail chiefly in the Temperate Zones. "We have already seen that the surface-winds of the Temperate Zones in general blow with considerable constancy from the Equator toward the Poles . long and deep cairns prevail the greater portion of the VARIABLE WINDS. or devitalized illness. 998. such as the change of Seasons. life is by plethora. direction. 1006. but during the nine cold months. or for the fulfillment of the va- with considerable constancy from the Poles toward the Equator. direction. winds arise from variations of temperature . variations are rare and slow. The Harmattan. mal 1000. healthy. The Variable winds.

Mauritius Hurricanes in the Indian Ocean. 97. and inclemency. Called West-India Hurricanes in the Atlantic. are tempests of such awful ve- Questions upon the NO.CLASSIFICATION Alps. Map PAGE of the Winds. 99 Pampero of thirty miles. height of gyration from one to five the Andes. and hence their fury. Gyratory or Eotating Tempest to the rotatory motion. are winds of this class. breadth of lull from five to * See Book Second of Series. How are the Indian-Ocean Monsoons designated ? Where does the Simoon prevail 1 The Samiel 1 The Khamsin 1 The Sirocco ? Where does the Pampero Mow 1 Where the Gallego 1 The Black-Wind 1 The " Northers " 1 Where are the hurricane-districts 1 How are they desigWhat is said of them on the Map 1 nated on the Map What systems of winds lie exterior to the Trades 1 What is said on the Map of the Return-Trades ? What of the Polar winds 1 "? . as Cyclone. 5. the OF THE miles WINDS. blown hundreds of yards by them. 1 locity and power that masses of lead weighing thousands of pounds. and at the same time . age of the winds from the Polar regions over expanses of icy ocean. the Gallego of the Pyrenees. soons 1 move progressively along the surface of the Earth there is a lull or dead calm at their center. 1009. . a characteristic due to the pass- Other names. and for the dreary storms that accompany them . 1011. Their dimensions. and Ty- phoons in the Pacific. . Whole length of course from one-thousand to three-thousand miles breadth of whirl from fifty . are notorious for chilliness. and whole forests have been licked up from the ground. and to the existence of Polar currents close along the shore. they are two hurri. alluding The hurricanes of the tropics. mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. 1012. to one-thousand miles . and are noted for their fury 1008. etc. How are produced 1 Northeast winds. 1010. They of air in On the eastern shores of both continents in the produced by the conflict of vast bodies motion in a word. have been How are the Northeast Trades designated or represented . leaving scarcely a vestige behind. are Monsoons Where is the largest system of Mon- They rotate about a center. The Southeast 1 How What What are the Calm-Belts represented is 1 said of 1 them on the Map 1 1 Where What is are they 1 said of the Trade. canes in conflict or in combination.* 1013.winds Their motions. Are applied to them. Eevolvingall Storm. and iron cannons.

in other words. hence can rise to the height of three miles. GENERAL VIEWS OP RAIN. AFTER CJeneral Views of Main.100 GENERAL VIEWS OF RAIN. What is from boiling water very rapidly. at 212° expands to one-thou- sand seven-hundred times the bulk of the water. 1018. How far will vapor rise in the atmosphere 1 invisible like gas. To Vapov forms at what temperature ? heights varying with the temperature at which the vapor is was formed. Vapor from water from water at 40°. 1015. Expansion of vapor. is rain % watery vapor. RAIN AND INUXDATION. System of Mains. sepin sand times lighter than water. XXII. precipitated from the atmosphere in the form Rain of drops. heat. 1017. hence from ice and snow it makes very slowly. three-thou- Vapor consists of minute particles of water. The Fitness of the The Distribution of Main. expands to three-thousand times is What is vapor ? the bulk of the water. 1014. General views of evaporation. arated so far from one another by heat that the mass they are 1016. . it Vapor from boiling water At all temperatures from below zero to boiling its as light as atmosphere at the height of three the rapidity of formation is proportioned to the miles.

1026. . forty-seven and two- Can higher still. rise just the same. The Calms are broken by frequent spasmodic tempests of short duration but of unparalleled fury so that the passage of the ror. air. encircles the Equatorial regions of the Earth. for the pressure of the checks evaporation. the vapor rising with the ascending is most abundant. and wind. and to to mean height of the clouds. thousand square miles to the depth of one its these are formed of the vapor freezing-point. this therefore as fast as the vapor makes. from water at 40° can rise five miles because as Weight and volume of the evaporated water. Calm-Belt or tropical rains. but simply "mechanically mixed with the atmos- phere. two-thirds of one . powder with mustard-seed. be blown about in every wind under heaven. 1 Enough water yearly evaporated in the Torrid Zone to cover its entire surface to the depth of about nine and one-half feet. total weight raise it is about the sixty-five trillion and even below zero. Almost constant rain. 1031.THE Vapor formed rise DISTRIBUTION part . Proportional amount 1034. is in the Frigid Zones the Calms. falls amid tempests of thunder. indeed. " not lilv or the hollow tube of the grass-spire! chemically combined with the atmosphere " ." like grains of 1023. The particles of the vapor repel one another. 1021. t tons . What tempests lightning. Calms is always the terand frequently the destruction of the navigator. because it is lighter vapor it is thirds parts. 1022.* 1028. The annual amount of evaporation in the is Temit is The Calm-Belt Ring move North and South with Cloud- perate Zones tivo feet. the particles That enormous volume can thus be last lifted crowd one another up the phere. and at deposited How does the vapor exist iu the atmosphere'! it is in tiny drops that refuse to break the stem of the It " is is not "dissolved in the atmosphere. The cause thereof. not less than fifteen feet an- nually from the Trade wind portions thereof. a broad expanse of what Zone steaming ocean. 1020. so that a perpetual oscillating very small. What makes the vapor rise into the atmosphere would require about three-trillion horsepowers. for the whole Earth. 1032. miles high into the atmosphere. Extra-tropical evaporation. Range of the Calm-Belt rains rains. 101 1019. Zones. OF RAIN. for the several Zones. fol- May lows : be expressed with tolerable accuracy. working ten hours every day. at lower temperatures. The Cloud-Ring * vibrates or spreads across a Torrid Zone. The water yearly evaporated five How high does the vapor rise % of the Globe would cover one-hundred and eighty- The highest clouds are seven or eight miles high. 1027. THE DISTRIBUTION OF RAIN. Annual amount of is currents reaches the cold air above. condensed. 1033. bring immense quantities of vapor into the In the Torrid Zone. and 1025. Cloud-Ring's range greater than Calm-Belt's. because there heat is Calms. The vapor is chiefly raised from the ocean . to supply the rains rare as atmosphere at that height. ten parts. thirty-seven parts Temperate Compare with 1049. 1021. or much more atmosphere Prevails at the Equatorial CalmBelt. Evaporation most ahundant in Evaporation iu 1 The Trade-winds sweeping the different Zone?. 1029. as . 1030. how much not very definitely known. Frigid Zones. and interstices of the atmos- Wonderful adaptation. tropical evaporation. Even if there were no Vapor would freely. evaporated below mile.

1039. On the land in particular. Varies from ninety days low latitudes to two hundred Tropical rain-fall on the lands. because 1042. Cloud-Ring overhead. duration. and hardly ever at night. greater breadth than the Calm-Belt. firm- ture along with them. vertical there Amount of rain-fall for the whole World. . thirtj'-four inches more than is evaporated. one-hundred and fifteen inches fall annual- Occurs during only two or three ly in the tropical parts of the six in the tropical World. Character of tropical rains. the surplus being brought from the tropics by winds. going forth is South of the Line. and amount quan- of fall . to the North than a year are experienced. or eight feet. but winds carry it away to be deposited in other inches. The Calm-Belt and oceans Zone.102 THE DISTRIBUTION Erst. 1036. twice every year. the till 4 P. because the Sun. 1041. 1038. dry seasons more abundantly and extensively to the 1046. rents setting en are opened. tropical both in the periods. several degrees North of the Line. suffice in general for the deposition . and longer in du- The average annual tropical rain-fall is ninety-six More than this is evaporated. our midsummer .. receives twenty-nine ing our midwinter . and the form of 1035. the Sun being vertical at the and the North-Temperate thirty -nine inches. M. occurring for each place at the occurring at any time of the day. amount is very inconsiderable. ical in character. seventyparts of the Old World. is of rain for the whole perate Zones in the lower latitudes the rains are sixty inches. the Cloud-Ring vibrate across Eighty days a greater range of latitude on the land than on the so that nearly all is of tropical rains their violence it compensates for the all the land in the Torrid shortness of time. and deluges descend the clouds disperse. Accordingly. when the 10 A. tropical rainy day. The follows tropical rain-fall on the lands : is modified as 1048. if watered at all. The fall fall in different latitudes. Tomperate-Zune rains. and therefore its waters fall situated. Ring rains. more irregular as to periods. it Hence period follows that tropical rains are period- Are night. is of the swelling-out or intumescense of the vapors The morning clouds gather till cloudless -till carried aloft . in high. Rain in the Frigid Zones. therefore. M. watered by the Cloud- very rarely rains day. tivo on the average. OF A RAIN. tity. or year . in Zones. . in the higher latitudes they are less in Amount of tropical rain. Rains at the Tropic Circles. Places at the Tropic of Cancer have their rains in 1045. New months and its in the lower latitudes Frigid-Zone rains. dropping on the way in the Sun breaks till out. ament glows 1043 clear and serene the next day. 1047. ration. is and when. at the Tropic of Capricorn dur- The South-Temperate Zone inches. The varies in different latitudes of the . Near the Equator two rainy and and back from Tropic to Tropic. rain. Tem- The average annual amount Earth 1040. Temperate-Zone variable. then windows of heav. the cause of the difference belt is as follows : the rain- Two rainy and two dry seasons. is or non-periodic . is Tropics at those periods of the year. when the Sun is vertical thereat. because the upper curPoleward. Quantity in each Temperate Zone. 1044. Average number of rainy days. rains. and secondly. the number of rainy days. their average fall . or five feet. carry a part of the moisit 12 M. the 1037.

rainless regions of the western coast of A comparatively short time should suffice. much rain as the coasts. What can be shown all 1 That these characteristics are severally. of hot sunshine to mature and needs if too. prebe. : Thirdly. and affluent vegetation. where vegetation is so profuse. Plateaus are gen- erally arid. 103 amounts for the several Zones. tropical rains. and Al- highly elevated regions are above the rain- bearing stratum of atmosphere. Example second. amount time. would otherwise fall to neighboring countries the winds of the Sahara often wither to dust the vegetation ot adjoining regions. in portions of Peru the land. to the vapor-laden Trade-winds of the The Whereas winds from deserts. Wet Season is the true tropical Sum- mer or vegetating time. Wet Season. 1053. is drenched with enormous Even tion . and compel them fall . in the of the mountains Brazil rain-falls. is The is general distribution of rain modifies Modific^tion of the general distribution of rain. Thus the Himalayas cut oft' from the all to parched deserts of Central Asia the abundant vapors of the Indian Ocean. its exuberant vegetation. geographic position. skies. titude. cisely as they should to be in adaptation to the necessities of the case. be expressed as follows thirty-two parts Temperate-Zone rain. upon the Plain of Hindoostan hence its humid voluminous rivers. Por tropical vegetation requires a great it. a country. would swamp by the mountains . the rain being deposited on their lower A slopes. and much of it of a sort requiring abundIs absolutely necessary in the tropics. Mountains modify the distribution ting it ol rain by cutit off from some countries. forty-seven and two-thirds parts. accordthe ingly *Compare with 1027. .THE 1049. Frigid-Zone rain. riors of the continents do not receive more than one- Total for the Earth. The South during the rainy season. moist climate. the inte- one-sixth parts. Torrid-Zone rain. amount it. The elevation or altitude of What modifies the general distribution of rain"? The elevation of a country above the sea greatly its rain-supplies. thus tropical South America owes rains. it scarcely once a century. rain-clouds not probably over one mile. Mountains. drinking up all the moisture from the face oi nature. for a single example. 1052. First. 1061. fifteen and . its its FITNESS OF THE SYSTEM OF RAINS. mountains. one-half part. were America are produced by the cutting off from them rains could not have sufficient sunshine rains. : as rice. May — The geographic fects the position of a country largely afrain falling amount of upon it. but long. sea winds. if and be- of the vapor-bearing Trade-winds of the Atlantic heavy long continued.than due to it from its lati- tude alone . First. OF RAINS. hence Geographical Position. whereas on the other side Hence only a few hours a day.* 1050. Proportional FITNESS OF THE SYSTEM 1055. country swept by moist sea-winds receives a is larger share of rain. Greatly diminish the proportion that at a regular period of the year. we have seen. abundant Atlantic. 1058. Reasons why are distinguished for a great of deposition in a short of rain . its 1054. it the rains . and accumulating upon others. ant moisture 1060. where heat and evaporation are so great. Secondly. great deposition. 1057. half or two-thirds as 1056. The mean lifted height of the modified by Winds. sides. Characteristics of tropical rains. 1059. 1051. are occupied in deposi- the Sunshines blazing-hot the rest. and the tropical rains are as they are.

for the vegetation of these Zones requires rain-zone lies North of the periodic rain-zone is 1 frequent though moderate waterings through the ivhole period of 1066. 1064. 1062. order that vegetation 1063. and any rain could do it no good. etc. and to latitudes Why the Frigid-Zone rains areas they are. and S. The Temperate-Zone rains are distinguished for would do the minute vegetations of the Polar realms no good at any time. occurring non-periodically. hence the intense dryness of that Season. for heavy rains Characteristics of the Temperate-Zone rains. OF RAINS. Duration of the Temperate-Zone rains. Deposition in the the two months of Summer. R. mean ? Where do they have heavy S. in this growth. any part of it zone The and characteristic vegetation of the Temperate rainless ? What 1 1 Zones. Where do they have W. rain-fall. R. The Frigid-Zone light. and in the lower latitudes where something grows. because tropical vegetation. the land could not get rain enough unless the rains were long. 1 Winter Rains any part of t. What Is it are the quantities for the different latitudes specified 1 rainy in Hindoostan 1 1 In Arabia 1 In Brazil 1 In Florida . R. What What Is rain-zone of its lies South of the periodic rain-zone 1 ' ? rainy days. like other. etc.. may rest the better. 6. the grasses and grains. the delicate shrubs tree-foliage. In the Temperate Zones moderate deposition suffices. with good reason. The Temperate-Zone following reasons 1067. NO. regular period of the year for rain. Where is the darkest shading upon this Map 1 and why t What title is given on the Map to this dark-shaded zone"? What does it say respecting the number of rainy days. it rainless 1 What What do the letters W. Non-periodicity. its said of the number of rainy days. flourish better What does the rim of shading about Australia signify under a sky humid What sort of rains prevail in the Polar regions 1 At what time of year 1 Probable average quantity ? What does the line of figures stretched up and down the left of the Map show 1 with protracted rains. 1065. Temperate-Zone rains being of necessity very light. Is necessary. and would be damaged by them. ? of time during the year for their for this the may be urged. and continuing a great length of time. in this First. needs a period of rest. 1068- Secondly. than one parched with protracted droughts. etc. vegetation. R. Temperate Zones. in son.104 THE A FITNESS OF THE SYSTEM 1069. Why Questions upon the Rain-Map. and has it in the Dry- — are rains are very confined to a short seathe loioer Season. 1 How much Is there rain in the tropical in New World 1 this In the Old ? 1 no rain this Where does zone 1 Where zone reach farthest North 1 any part of Is an essential characteristic of Temperate-Zone What What zone Is 1 rains. OPPOSITE PAGE. and since their vegetation does not need very heavy rains at any period. save in moderate deposition. rains occupy a long period fall . since heat the Tern perate-Zone rains are as they are. and evaporation are moderate. all Characteristics of the Frigid-Zone rains.

.

.

PART

I

OEGANIO EXISTENCE.
CHAPTER XXIII
The General Adaptations of
Plants.

The Variety of

Plants.

Food-Plants.

PLANTS.
1070.
this

1074.

Our business

in this part of the

book.

What we hare

considered in the

first

three Parts of

Is not to consider at length the structure, functions,

hook.
far in this
The World
on
in-

and habits of organic beings, but

to

show
sj's-

book we have considered the Earth and Lands, the Waters, and Climate.

Thus

the adaptation of those beings to the general
complete without
living things upit.

tem of the World, the facts of the distribution of those beings, and the means by which that distribution has been

and
is

is

effected.
%

1071.

What

is

true of all these

1

1075.

What

a plant

That without living things to use and enjoy them, they would be comparatively useless therefore we are prepared to find living things upon the Earth, and to find them adapted to the above physical facts; namely, to the Earth and the Lands, to the
;

An

organic

body

destitute

of
Plants and their adaptation to the World.

sensation and spontaneous motion,

that lives chiefly upon carbonic-acid

gas and mineral substances.
1076.

Waters, and to Climate.
1072.

The

principal parts of plants.
;

Living things

classified.

Are
each
General
cation of things.
classifi-

the root, the trunk, or stem, and the top
perfectly adapted to the other,

All living things are
in the
all

summed up

is

and

all

to

term Organic Existence, and

living

the inorganic world which

we have thus

far sur-

belong to one or the other of

veyed.
1077.

the following classes, Plants and

The

root, for

example.
fibrils

Animals.
1073.

Subdividing into numerous delicate
organic.

or radsoil,

The term

icles, is in-

perfectly adapted to the nature of
'

be-

Means possessed

or composed of organs or

cause the radicles find passage through the pores of
the
soil,

struments suited to the performance of certain duties thus the lungs, head, stomach, or roots, branch;

penetrate to

all

parts of
in

it,

and have

little

mouths with which
food to the plant.

to

suck

a part of the

soil for

es,

and

leaves, are organs.

14

106

THE
These
little
little

VARIETY

OF

PLANTS.

1078.

mouths, and water.
in ivater for the plant
;

sary to the growth of even a single plant, and that

These

mouths drink

they
plant

all
;

are therefore perfectly adapted to every

as well as absorb earthy matter

so that the root

is

correspondent^,

we
,

perceive that plants are

adapted to water as well as to earth.
1079.

as admirably adapted to the foregoing inorganic

Hence we see one

elements, as they to
reason.
is

Why water is

them so that the adaptation mutual and perfect throughout.
1085.

so universally found in the surface;

matter of the Earth

namely, because plants

may be

The sura of the adaptations.

everywhere, and wherever they
tainly

may be,

they will cer-

Is as great as the entire

number

of plants that
live

want water
until

;

for

without water they starve as

have

lived, that are living, or that
all

may

upon the

well as choke, because they cannot absorb the earthy

Globe, multiplied into
these plants

the possible relations which

matter

water has dissolved

it,

after

which the

may

hold to the inorganic elements.

roots drink in both together.
1080.

The

concentering of the roots.

The

roots, like brooks,
;

center into one channel,
1086.

THE VARIETY OF PLANTS.
How many
distinct species of plants are

the trunk, or stem
arteries

composed of innumerable along which the sap flows; it is compacted
this is
it

known

1

together very strong so that
es

can hold the branch-

125,000

different

species
classified

have
;

and leaves up to the light and heat, and sustain them against the ivinds and rains ; thus the trunk
is

been discovered and
since there

but

The variety of plants awl examples thereof.

are extensive regions

adapted to the inorganic world.
1081.

which have never been botanically
explored, undoubtedly thousands more exist.

More about

the

leaves.

These are very thin, and are large in surface or in number, so that the influence of light, and' heat, and air, may be effectually brought to bear upon the sap moreover, the under sides of the leaves are full of pores through which the watery part of the
;

1087.

What

is

a species

1

All the individuals of a kind, that are and remain

permanently
points
species

identical, unchanged in all essential by time or circumstance; in other words, a

comprehends

all

the individuals springing

sap escapes, being driven off by the Sun's influence.
1082.

from a common parentage.
1088.

The pores

absorb also.

What
if

of plant-varieties

?

Through these
the oxygen
is

pores, also, large quantities of the

Nearly

not quite every species of plant con-

carbonic-acid gas of the atmosphere are absorbed torn from the carbon and expelled,

tains several varieties, or sub-species,

much

resemit
;

bling the original stock, but not identical with

the carbon unites with the sap, and
ing, substantial food for the plant.
1083.

makes

it

nourish-

thus

hundreds of

varieties

of apples,
exist at

potatoes,,

pears, of rice, maize,

and wheat,

one and

Sunlight and sun-heal are necessary for plants.

the same time in different parts of the Earth.
1089.

For the
carbon,
plant.

light

and heat turn the water and the
sap fitted for the nutriment of the

Probable number of

varieties.

etc., into

If each species be

supposed to embrace only ten
moreover,

or laid

The light and heat, moreover, are secreted away in the plant when the plant is burned,
; ;

sub-species, the supposition involves the existence

of 1,250,000 plant-varieties;

each suc-

the light and heat are set free

hence the glow and

ceeding age sees
tivated,

new

varieties introduced
;

and

cul-

warmth when wood
1081.

is

burned.
see
1

and the old dropping out of use
or at least, indefinite,

in fact,

an

What now do we

infinite,

number

of varieties

That

earth, water, air, light,

and heat are neces-

can be produced by culture.

FOOD-PLANTS.

107

1090.

Moreover, no two plants.

1094.

That these reasons are both good.
fact, first,

Even

of the same sub-species are exactly alike
infinite

Appears from the
ists

that not a plant ex;

hence an

multitude of diversities

arise, for

that

is

not food to some creature

and second,

the diversities will be as numerous as the individuals
;

that each limited tract of country has

some plant

a variety more wonderful in view of the fact
all

upon
else.

it

that flourishes better there than anywhere

that

plants feed

upon and are composed of four

elements, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen.
1091.

What

question here rises

1

POOD-PLANTS.
Question concerning the varity of plants.

In view of the astonishing varie1095.

What

is

& food-plant

?

ty of plants, the question

irresisti-

bly

rises,

why has

so

enormous a

Any plant that constitutes or
nishes

furFood-plants,

variety heen created ?
1092.
First, animals.

food to

man
is is

;

in

general

terms, every plant
for every plant
less

a food-plant,

and their adaptation to man's
wants.

eaten more
or other.

or

The majority of animals reckoned by species, and a vast majority reckoned by individuals, feed upon
plants,

by some creature
The
staples

and the

different

species relish

and require

1096.

of man's food.

different sorts of food;

hence the variety of plants

Eirst, the grains,
oats,
roots,

rice,

wheat, maize, barley, rye,
;

to

meet their wants.
1093.

and

millet,

— potatoes, yams, the arrow
Third, tree-pro,

all

produced by grasses secondly,
-root,

and the ma-

Secondly, the vegetating power of the Earth.

nioc from which cassava and tapioca are prepared.
1097.

The vegetating
and under
ture
;

capacities

of

the

Earth vary
soils,

greatly in different regions, climates,
different conditions

seasons,

and systems of culhence the need of variety in plants to meet

Dates from the palm, bananas from the plantain,
the cocoa-nut, the bread-fruit, and sago
;

in the ag-

these various capacities.

gregate, the food of hundreds of millions of men.

lack of variety especially since numerous addi- . has Likewise. the staple that flourishes any cli- bor . Bice and millet and the fruit-staples flourish healthiest man's food-plants required ages for growth. growth. the tropics. in hotter parts of the Temperate Zones. in grateful 1106. how much man's labors would be increased Different climates. but for husk. and cooling fruits abundance. husks and leaves for food to animals. man climes in the main alike. 1105. second. produced.ility. and the attacks of worms and parasitic inThe food-plants of different cjimates. give food in those regions by the side of grow the capsicums and hot spices needed to them sufficient tonic and invigorating qu. man ples : can need vegetable food. the predominance of fruit over stalk. In the Temperate Zones. 1103. and rice. well-keeping tritious fruits mer. In illustration. and palm grow the at hand purgatives counteractive of the astringent quality Whereas in the Polar Zone. in ness . wheat. he nowhere suffers from . the and had to be gathered like the acorn or the ! these walnut. yet in all food. 1102. . Suppose the food-plants to be changed. in 1099. so as to meet the necessities of the varying Seasons. and for Sumwholesome vegetables. juicy. substantial grains. 1100. Are favorable to different food- and to guard man against the malaria of the Wet Season. yielded only a small share of If fruit. the rapidity of their In general. grew to a vast size. 1101. First. their abundant yield in return for third. and barley in succession. but every climate in which sects. man's food stinted in variety 1 Although the since the wants of staples of man's Variety of man's food are thus few are in number. nearly to the Polar Circle. rye. or leaf. at least one of the staples. and the alternating extremes of climate . the suitableness of their the best staple. then wheat. Is and nuand roots for Winter. and their suitableness. maturing. 1104. fifth. their small size and general manageablela- Each staple suited to the climate. and none is wanted there man craves no other food than flesh and blubber and oil and blood.108 FOOD-PLANTS. grains are the The main staple of human food . and they alone suffice his needs. 1098. maize in the By the side of the cocoa-nut and millet in tamarind and the croton. Man's food-supplies are characterized by remarkable variety. on the whole. plants. is No proper food-plant . furnishing close of those articles of food. maize. and the}' constitute. rice Examthe tropics. fourth. the latter growing Five characteristics of food-plants. particular. so that each region has not only one staple. and speedy mate it is best fitted for human food in that climate .

1112. the winds. all require constant and root. are of this sort How carry hence takes the winds of plants are. exceedingly ini- no concern about them. size. These accessories. nute. 1114. and probationary needs of mankind. ble kingdom. contributes Man's office. The main agents in the distribution of plants are 1115. This is not all. 109 are furnished by shrub and witJwut cultivation. acrid and pungent labor and care soil.THE tional articles of food DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS. animals. management and development This high vocation of the vegeta- Favor shown man. God has made It is still weighty though salutary for were a special revelation of dence. to the end. and the chances of famine from It appears. birds. dwarfed in in flavor. that he might be able to look after his intellectual and spiritual interests. thus man's are lessened. waters. The fully entire matter of the food-plants has critically been care- and adjusted to the convenience. the deep as well as the surface-soil. So as it what of man's burden true that a 1 that even in the plants we eat. and require but toils the wild potato. 1108. grow upon trees and large live for . how raised 1 Not only must man cultivate. his power and provi- burden rests upon him. probably. The seeds of the great majority expect any care at his hand. — a supplying his bodily wants have been purposely and In conclusion. calls to exertion of Thus we perceive that man's cares and toils in body and mind exertion which makes man stronger. BCeds. Still. and better being. for in their wild state of food. so that only a little force is required to move What agents have distributed plants them from r place to place. and man. to his necessities. and plum. In particular. . 1110. peach. 1111. and cannot therefore . The Floras of the THE DISTRIBUTION OP PLANTS. but also domesticate and develop the food-plants. the species are perpetuated even though man plants themselves. Size of the The seeds of forest-trees and of such plants as seeds of plants. ne- cessities. 1109. indulgently lightened. are not used for food by man. the crab-apple. XXIV. of these collateral articles they yield a very meager and unpalatable harvest. are examples. 1113. for example. then. as the Many fruits. and nearly care and laborious attendance. the native pear. as compared with the the. but also his tastes and appetites are tree gratified. no food-plant flourishes CHAPTE The distribution of Plants. so that not only are the wants of man supplied. several Zones. shrubs that little many years. wiser. that in the man is co-worker with God casual droughts or floods are diminished. 1107.

Minute seeds semble smoke. The seeds of multitudes of plants. so that the long immersion does not destroy their cover more seeds by far than man. the season when the seeds Seeds floating upon the waters of ponds and lakes and inland seas. it into the soil. ported to South America. The winds of Autumn. the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico the seeds that ripen on her shores. West Africa. is all alive with flying seeds. dry times. are driven inland by the winds where they can take root. Birds and mals. some are so minute as to re- as. contribute to the rapid plants. the long and dismal rains. grown the Senegal. by the Gulf-Stream. and carry them to others near their terminus. grown near their fountain-head. Very frequently sends over to Brazil and even to Man has been instrumental in difStan's agency in diffusion of plants. How far they are carried. puff-ball — and vitality. or on the banks of her great rivers . Autumn-winds. those of the common 1126. are furnished In their inundations. on the sands by the lowering of the waters How first they are planted. the rigor of mals are favorably situated for germination and to a the climate. In this particular case. and then the pattering drops it The Why the seeds are not killed. but with great thor- Cape. Inland seas. oughness. the plant is good degree protected from being browsed upon during the early and tender period of its life. or in of Autumn 1118. particularly of the humbler and less-esteemed sorts. terests and his opportunities and upon the banks of was cast ashore in capacities contributing to this end. are notably strong and continuous. Migratory birds. leave upon the ground the seeds of plants with wings. etc. not perhaps with great rapidity or Europe. The more effectually. with some leaves and withered 1123. . DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS. Graminivorous animals. hammer . Feeding by myriads upon the ani- the seeds of multitudes of South-American plants are wafted to Europe. 1124. cast ashore left are set adrift. both his in- some years ago an immense tree. the air by breakers. the cold and stubborn 1122. diffuse plants West Indies are carried by of Help through the means of the millions to the northwest coasts seeds thereof. Above any other animal. so that the seeds are well distributed . over the the Earth . . winds cannot help doing 1117. and very extensive diffusion of The ocean-currents. — are carried across the oceans by winds. seeds of plants flourishing in Waters carry the The the 1127seeds. are covered with compact or dense integuments. and African seeds are trans- seeds of plants. and especially those left to the about with dirt the rains of Autumn mercy of the elements. or impact plant and Very many shells. and take up the seeds of the overflowed region. and especially foodplants. 1119. and by the fact of its position. 1129. shower of rain that wets the plumy vans of the seed. upon 1116. Without avail. fruit it. and traversing hun- dreds of miles in a few hours. indeed. and even to Norway and beyond North over extensive ranges at once. 1125. 1128. 1121. seeds. Guiana. etc. fusing plants. 1120. for example. the so. feathery or hairy appendages. or so that if sails. the seeds never come to Because the seeds growth in the droppings of the ani- anything because of the uncongeniality of the vegetating conditions of those countries. Rivers. soil. or water-proof husks. nothing else will carry them about. bears it to the ground.110 THE Feathery appendages.

mosses. stunted firs. and cedars. beand moisture. and barley to the frozen bogs of Lapland. means above shown. constitute the chief 1139. those populous countries by the cheapness of labor. not by any climatic or physical necessity. and regard- ed as a whole. species of grass. Wheat. countries adjacent. The Temperate-Zone flora. Coffee. The original distribution of plants. 1135. firs. to the remotest islands of the Pacific Ocean. to consider the facts of that distri- man to nearly every region where it can flourish. meagerness. barley. beeches. is now raised in every latitude from one Polar Circle to the other. Exhibits a grand advance upon the Polar in the cies. and the use throughout is development of and in their more light. etc. poplars. 1133. Americas. Its forests. indigenous in western Asia. Original^ found America. vegetable food. the larger size and higher individuals. in Having considered the means. ted thence by the interested hand of man. flora ? That grows spontaneously only along the western Andes in South America. Rice has passed from its native swamps in Hindoostan to the peninsulas of south Europe. etc. 1140. Each plant supposed to have been located at a Numerous and leaf. but its culture confined to cause: the more heat. its graceful forms. 1134. and to have spread from it by the so tender in fabric. it Ill Maize. thence have spread to nearly every clime larches. The flora. and now produces its aromatic berries in nearly every tropical meridian where the lands have displaced the ocean. Yet it is ample for all required purposes. drenched and water-logged clays. FLORAS.THE 1130. since there are very few animals in the cold Zones that can eat From Arabia or India has followed the Sun around the Globe. all cultivated fruits and flowers of the originated in western Asia. bution in other words. is 1142. reeds. birches. human family. and even cause heat. rye to Norway and Finland. and in every sort of soil. all Are Temperate Zones. rushes. heavier foliage. Grasses. 1138. stately and magnificent. spruces. number of its its spe- Tea. and rye. of the Polar Zone. elms. with a few running vines and berry-bearing plants. from parched sands slopes of the to The flora of a Zone or country is all the plants of that Zone or country taken together. and nutritious in qual- . Zones is thus stinted. and deeper coloring. 1132. and have been distribu- intermingled with evergreen pines. Is very limited lichens. The flora of the . Polar regions. The potato. POLAR AHD TEMPERATE-ZONE FLORAS. 1137. From time immemorial raised in China. in Temperate-Zone flora. Over sis- hundred million bushels are yearly raised in the United States. wheat from Hudson's Bay to the Equator. 1141. dropping their leaves in Winter. lindens. What is a. abundant dispensation of and moisture to the Temperate Zones. Fruits and flowers. coarse grass.. 1136. consisting of oaks. and pines. to the moist lowlands of both members Cause of its thereof. 1131. for example. are scantily dispensed to those Zones. The flora of the Frigid light. so delicate in stalk particular center. has spread in the civilized world . "Wheat. Nearly the richest and most valuable of the maples. hickories. hemlocks. the grand stimulants of vegetation. has been carried by now remains . to survey the floras of the and now forms the main the greater portion of the staple of food to perhaps several Zones.

stupendous in size and variety. long-continued heats of the Dry Season. tremendous affluence of vegetation. the clove. The time of growth. their foliage The ing. melons. 1145. the lance-wood. flowers of the Temperate Zones are remark- streaming upward like arrows shot ! able rather for delicacy than for splendor of color- down from heaven 1151. 1144. . the camphor. heavy . longest-lived of trees the fragrant sandal . aromatic gums and bal- sams. the frankinThe flora of the tropics. cense. and of a richer and stronger perfume there being single flowers of the genus lily. Spices. in the numbers. of abound. cover the forests with their growth. ity. touching the height of sixty feet in the growth of a single year. . also the THE TORRID-ZONE FLORA. the lem- on. etc. Fruits. and of the deepest coloring. the iron-wood. and grapes which ripen their clusters full perfection beneath a Temperate Sun. Fruits. etc. here comes to perfection. which is at once fruit. same plant the year round the orange. are Zone are more gor- quired amounts during only a part of the year. sugared the olive. in vast reeds twenty feet variety . and crown them perpetIntall ually with resplendent and fragrant blossoms. that turns the edge of steel as ore . the richly scented oils Vastly excels the combined floras of the other cense-breathing essences juices of trees cal — are and in- elaborated from the tropi- Zones in variety of species. Vines.112 THE FLORAS. apricots. the fragrant and costly resins. 1152. honeysuckle. an annual period of of fallowness. These delicate. and meat. because heat supplied in re- larger than those of the other Zones. peaches. palms. and wholesome of 1146. among violet. and of the most luscious flavor. etc. plums. 1149. the most common are the rose. succeed one another in perpetual rotation. butter. the fig. to blossoming and ripening on the . clothe the Temperate Zones almost universally. To the unaccustomed eye are fearful for their where the country 1143. all need and the ground a season geous in coloring. eatable grasses are the distinctive and characteristic product of the Temperate Zones. and canes especially the flavor or extraordinary richness of variety the apple. their foliage immense in volume. . pink. all Are pears. In indescribable abundance and variety. the banana. the fruits. for the plants rest. three feet across. keeping well. The cinnamon. The trees are enormous in height. not grow in the tropics by reason of the The banian. is not preoccupied with forests. The Temperate-Zone flora flourishes is during only The characteristic flowers of the Torrid a part of the year. In addition. the baobab. Tropical flowers. the nutmeg. Characteristic growth. towering to the height of three-hundred feet. most beautiful. sizes. the teak and the parching. strength of perfume. they will 1150. king of fruits. as to be excellent food for graminivorous ani- Tropical forests. 1153. prodigious rains and inundations of the Wet Season. lily. or largeness of size Vines and grasses. the pepper. and by the wondrous chemistry of high development of individuals." rather than for lusciousness . 1147. . 1154. narcissus and aster. mals. gums. 1148. This is just as it should be. constant. spreading to a forest . the king of grasses. . heat and moisture. elastic as whalebone and Flowers. In the Temperate Zones fruits are noted for " stead of slender grasses. Trees most noted. bamboo. the allspice. the pine-apple.

for sooner or later it The flora of the Torrid Zone is thus abundant. may be made of the greatand as little wasted as possible. of species of animals . Adaptation of Animals to . sub-species. tropical vegetation should be as it is. sensation and voluntary motion. or Adaptation to air. is possessed of plants seem 1161. The ficient tropical flora is because heat and moisture are then most lavishly dispensed. varieties. cheap as they are. God will not squander water and sunshine.000 are of flies Every animal uses water in greatsome drink it. some ab. to have sensation tion. Some is Two grand adaptations. it.flan. either wholly. Adaptation of Animals to Plants. feel. est avail. Sis hundred different species of district ten have Ger- been noted in a miles square in but not one.000 to 320. Adaptation of animals to the inorganic world. therefore all animals are adapted to Every species of animal has several varieties. without water. resembling but not identical with the : original stock hundreds of varieties of the horse. GENERAL VIEW OF ANIMALS. 156. can live many. of species. 113 Cause and growth-time of this profuse vegetation The magnificent vegetation of the tropics is due to the prodigal out- Rationale of the Torrid-Zone flora. The number cies are well sects. 1159. great or small.000 150. sheep. VIEW OF ANIMALS. pouring of heat and moisture upon it . Number Adaptation of animals to water. the fish in the mid. 1162. Adaptation of Animals to the Inorganic World. and individuals alike. Secondly. exist upon the 1 An organic body that when living Earth. or in part.— species. by animals high order that the light. dog. and ox. secondly. 777/. it from the air however dry or husky it may look or sorb .GENERAL 1155. Animal*./ The supply is is none too great. 15 . and irritability. so freely to that Zone. 1160. and of these 120. and the power of voluntary mo- All animals. 1158. accordingly its growth-time is the Wet Season. but their contractile power due simply to are adapted. heat. 1157. is variously estimated from 150. er or less quantity some eat it in their food. 1163. first to the inorganic world. Every animal needs and uses more or less of air the reptile in smothering mud. to other parts of the organic ivorld. in different countries and climates. hog. and moisture vouchsafed or low. Varieties. 1 thus abundant to furnish suf- quantity and variety of food to the innumer- able tribes of animals that inhabit the Torrid Zone-. CHAPTER XXV. What is an animal and at different periods.000 spein- known. in eaten.

wool. by the Sun and mellow Autumn The eyes of all animals are adapted to light little. that end are shod with horny hoofs. or whatever grows in the vegetable kingdom. all are fitted to the various degrees of heat in which different animals live. their way softer climes. the tough leaf of the the pungent tuber of the wild onion. shells. the bright. . those ears are perfectly adapt- man . through the warm Sum- mer Adaptation to the tender young to are reared and fed. dense . the term graminivorous is here used in its most compre- and shade. make up the larger number of animals as respects the number of both species and individuals. Adaptation to heat. the nightshade. Such as eat grasses. The a mile ears of all animals are adapted to sound the 1170. . wild windy mountain. bark. roots. therefore 1164. cherished air . pain-proof and elastic. scales. grains. Further statement that no plant escapes. so comprehensive is the adaptation of animals to plants. the lichen on plates of shell. some in the clefts of trees comes. the noxious dog-wood. among sea-weeds at the depth of two miles support myriads of microscopic animals of the Polar regions. hardest tree. hare and the rabbit hear the tread of the huntsman off. hair. mid heaven. quills. their adaptation to plants will first be ed to sound. ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS TO PLANTS. 1167. and to 1172. and content do the various tribes of living creatures compose themselves to rest upon the approach of night. Adaptation to day and night. but in so far as either ed to other parts of the organic world. the graminivorous tribes embrace only the ^rasaeating animals. some tained glass-bead optic of the mole. animals that without it. beasts seek out lairs and dens. or pointed like tle jelly-like creatures living upon mid ocean has litit and eating it and strong like the horse's. Adaptation to sound. the haddock scarcely perceives the roar As remarked and to Answer 1161. to pick passage rocks. all or the condor in air. the swamp-su- mac. selves. need air as well as the goat on the Spring approaches birds build their nests. gelatinous eyeball but all find the Seasons long enough and none of the shark. 1171. to bear the shock of weight and speed or else they are slippered with tough integuments. it home and food to little would be homeless and foodless. hide. leaves. feathers. hensive sense. the heavy. the " red-snow " plants fine as though still dust them- smaller. No plant escapes. so that they all can walk comforta- the mountain-peak furnishes bly upon 1168. The coverings of animals. fur. some some hide in the and rocks. Adaptation to the ground. all Nearly like the animals walk upon the ground. fur-cur- ground. staring orb of the owl. prickles. . the in the heart of the Adaptation to the Seasons. the wing die. 1165. animals are adapt- of the thunder. die depths of the sea. considered. tough thin membrane. thistle. 1173. Graminivorous* animals. The second grand adaptation in of animals. insects prepare cells are adapted to light. are all that all creatures are adapted to day and night Jn their order. wherein to lay their eggs . Beautiful and mutual adaptation! various and varying intensities. wide-splayed earners. support creatures . — bristles. . to The solitary speck of moss in walk the sand. fronting eye of the eagle.1U THE ADAPTATIONS worm OF ANIMALS TO 1160. and the sunbeamare adapted to light in its too long. PLANTS. or soled with the goat's. 1166. or the exploding cannon. and with what freshness and alacrity greet the return of' day! so tranquillity With what The monkshood. to plants has ears. and to the sweet alternation of light * Strictly speaking.

to the teeth for biting stomach for digesting. desperate. Without particularizing further. and constitution of the animal. The adaptation extends and grinding. they are armed with talons. the air of rapine and bloodshed. lifted class of animals is adapted to another in a remarkable man- The special and adaptamutual tion of graminiv- ner . fangs. 1175. short and very The ocean is. by means of all which he secures and reduces to his wants a great amount of food. HiiSKss The sheep. twenty thousand attack wheat. the graminivorous animals are The horse being which he owes high upon long legs. claws. much One The horse and the hog. and there not one second of and short-necked. a sharp-pointed nose.000 species of plants but contributes speed. example sharp. and a number of stomachs. to another. : whereas the hog delights for hence his legs are short that he is may be The adaptation how extended is in range 1 near the ground. with dividual of the 125. and of with the arts of ambush. for lips. in rooting and the carnivorous are made needs and has a long neck wherewith to reach the so as to devour the graminivorous.THE preyed upon mals eat the " ADAPTATIONS am and OF ANIMALS TO PLANTS. projecting Has broad front teeth. and his neck strong. The adaptation intended. ground food . in it lying wait to Is long-limbed kill others. The ox. large grinders. strength. his food. there creatures is is not a in The spadeful of dirt but has elephant. suited to be the food of carnivorous. all course the animal adapted to the plant as well as the skill and power of dar- the plant to the animal. to the to the lips for grasping. 1182. rocky pastures in which delights. The adaptation of graminivorous animals is to in- For the predatory species can live only upon plants extends to this —that there not a single animal food. and with ing. habit. The vegetable-eating animals adapted to the flesh- to the rough. to the support of sovie animal is . 1178. to the whole form. full one vast scene of slaughter. Extent and manner of Uie adapt- ation. in a 1176. 115 . with courage and patience of pursuit. . ^535? word is it Has lips. nimble sure-footed and active. forty species of common nettle. is adapted so 1180 eating. and murderous assault. appetites." 1174. to orous and carnivorous animals. his fleetness and special usefulness. 1177. and accordingwith which to reach the time in the year when the note of distress might its ly has a long proboscis not be heard from some creature rendering up life ground and 1179. rapacity of temper. 1181.

furnishes 1189. and so God has chosen it for him. The physical qualities of animals. . rabbits. their size. danger of extinction ring. are in perfect adaptation to the necessities of power a stupor deadens and that the pains of laceration are the faculties. elephantine in Many all . Even yet it the natural dread of death would pre- vent the animal from choosing the violent death. and that they are conTestify that while in their . Thus larger. even while being torn The domestic animals also. animated nature those species most preyed upon are in no . 118(1. Secondly. On bulk . of graminiv- orous to be the food of carnivorous animals. the rabbit and hare are as hap- only precarious subjection. if wild animals were much stronger. so that they can The preservation of themselves and their young them. . and happi? Even ness prevalent through 1184.. her- The first answer. and worms. and thus prevent much suffering. they would be antagonists too mighty for man. swiftAdaptation of animals to man. Flexibility py as the flying-fish as mouse as happy as the cat. for the —Why carnivorous animals exist? the ideas are Paley's. and of carnivorous to devour the graminivorous. 1194. of constitution. the over-increase of animals. and rats. cod-fish. the death of violence would certainly seem preferable. it involves the a beall nevolent adaptation on the whole and in view of the circumstances. and adapt themselves unto every region in which man wants constitution. scious of but in pieces. . 1195. ness. manageable. namely. 1193. If possessed of the 1187. and has become the winged courser that outstrips the wind. and mackerel. . supposed qualities. . and thus permit perpetual anguish distress to mingle with the content all No danger of extinction. would be would be in Therefore violent death not anticipated or subdued with more and could be kept dreaded by them . or violence. and grown to the huge-dray horse to Iceland. 1183. swifter. The adaptation in question. so that the Earth could not support them the carnivorous tribes restrain this over-inif * The author the question. 1185. 1191. Our conclusion. strength. 1192. has employment to the species preyed upon the toils of hunting and watching are sufficient employment to the carnivorous tribes. the 1188. are as numerous as ever.116 THE What question ADAPTATION 1 OF ANIMALS TO MAN. little suffering. stunted to numbers.* Even if if not chosen. scarcely felt observation would seem to show that the same is true of animals. is less handy. millions would How and could a benevolent God suffer such crea- die in the lingering agonies of starvation. and tougher than they are. would avoid much suffering by the choice. species of animals tend to over-increase of on the frosty hillsides of Norway. The ox. flies. tures to exist. and serviceable difficulty. man. every There is no immortality in this "World animal must die by slow decay. all animals need employment. the happy as the dolphin. and since animals cannot receive the attentions which soften the sufferings of lingering disease or decay. animals cannot reflect. is being speedy. fox. 1190. because least of distress. Thirdly. ADAPTATION" OF ANIMALS TO MAN. flexibility The domestic animals have great of Fourthly. go into. Thus the horse has gone to England. the fat pastures of Belgium. Fifthly. is responsible for only the language of this discussion of crease. Such as men rescued from wild beasts. disease. and has dwindled to the pony to Barbary. Every animal has to work hard for his living. is forced upon us super-fecundity were not checked. mice. etc. bugs. and the sparrow as happy as the hawk.

leading loants of mankind. the horse. for thought 1202. tolerably 1197. and finds The number of domestic animals. fierce. and converts them does eat. good food! qualities of animals. and the . every man is the all adaptation of animals toman. awj animals. off all the work alone. gaunt. 1200. and lend help in a thousand situations where no machine would answer a zebra. innumerable uses. like like a dog. can be cultured to to taking down. civilization would be out of the question. first. and swift as an antelope self to his condition. they combine so docility. • Consists in the subduing of animals to his uses. the offal of seals and whales. the horse. the domestic animals are few in the number of species the ox. In different regions. upon all frogs. If wild animals knew more than they do. mast. If the domestic animals knew more. Ill . . all suitableness of flesh for food. hound and haired bearing a fleece like a swine.reindeer are the most important. can be domesticated. the camel. bid defiance to man. perfect adaptation to the necessities of Yet there is no need of more. and thus he accomplishes vastly more. and camel for draught and speed the ox. for own requirements. they would not submit to the yoke of man. 1206. reindeer. coarse-bristled. The mental in as the sheep. and evermore sleeping Universally. intelligence. snakes. into pork which man can and and vermin. and fleet as animals that plow and harrow the ground. In his native forests a formidable beast. winds. is born ivild. 1203. and would mock his assumption of authority. velop their crude and narrow native capacities to the full compass of his If man could not subdue to his use any animal could not do it whatsoever. manioc. in deep content the purpose. yams. sinewy. tle in — has shaped himIceland cat- gets time and saves strength for higher activities. such animals. that such animals can be domesticated. no animal will work for Two main facts The most admirable adaptation of animals to fact. nothing but man's superior intelligence makes him securely lord of the lower creation. millet. and second. and and for mental culture. the they could with even their present physical capabilities. 1207. ox for strength. haul out timber. for he does not have their help without labor and painstaking. and of parts of their bodies to upon fish. can be converted into the Suffolk pig. in the animal 1205. Man subdue has not only to train and his helpers. man because ties.THE a steer ADAPTATION OF ANIMALS animals. The higher the The domestic off animals. 1201. The wild hog. 1198. Thus a sheep gaunt as a grey- man he could not lay waters. The qualified favor shown man. . civilization. — many useful qualistrength. buried in fat. universality of distribution. 1199. on the pampas of South America. and upon inanimate forces. and bread-fruit swiftness. the hog. First. such helpers. and on fatness Accordingly man's first step from barbarism. for these suffice the Are man. molluscs. but a qualified favor. that any animals at Develop them also. man. The hog. So adapt- Secondly. fattens upon maize. owe the high development of . Like the staple food-plants. In Norway and the Winter thrive upon frozen is fish. TO MAN. and hog for food and in part for clothing. amiability. fact in the man unless compelled to . sheep. able the constitution of domestic animals to the The domestic animals are peculiarly valuable to necessities of 1196. but also to de- Man has to develop the domestic animals. in giving Great favor has been shown man him The strong point of adaptation. heavytusked. cocoa-nuts. cunning. 1204. etc. draw dirt and stone. from the camel to the cat. So much the more labor does man lay upon without exception.

DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS. so in respect to his faculties. it The distribution of domestic animals. The ox. thence in par- The domestic animals. but to the exercise of it is salutary. management of man. man is co-ioorker with God. The ox. The original distribution of animals. in one species or another. and carrying dicious 1208. work where God it their admirable qualities to the painstaking ing up the it leaves is it. This burden compels will not let indeed weighty. and Tropical Faunas. and him be a mere plod- domestic animals. is still found in Poland and Lithuania . The Polar. auroch. 1209. 1211. have spread by their locomotive power into such . 1210. THE CORMORANT.118 THE DISTRIBUTION and ju- OP ANIMALS. to perfection. have spread into every clime this universality is in which man lives. The Distribution of Animals. tak- ding. though in part to their pe- located at particular points or centrer. and from them culiar flexibility of constitution. Man's position. unthinking being. for man As in respect to the food-plants. CHAPTER XXVI. mainly due to the care exercised The to different species are supposed to have been by man in their behalf. . the original stock of the domestic regions as are favorable to their reception. Temperate-Zone. has spread throughout the whole World .

Characteristics of the Polar fauna. As a even if placed in those Zones.. 1213. is snowy plumage . speinTemperate-Zone fauna. The most important animals. 1212. once companion. living The sheep. Life in the Polar oceans. even the fish are pale-hued. 1218. now almost as The Polar fauna how supported'? little man himself. A fauna. with a tusk like the weaver's beam by POLAR AND TEMPERATE-ZONE FAUNAS. that he universal as 1215. 1223. wolverines. lives upon the food supplied by the its Natural enemies subdued and reconciled by man. The Polar-Zone fauna. turn by carnivorous animals. the cod-fish. of the Polar seas are replete with liv- — the whale in seven different species. Either directly or remotely nearly every aniin this have been with him so widely and so long. upon fish. shine with no splendor on their scales. and Thence he has emigrated so widely under the guidance and care of man. and sheep of the at The horse. of quadrupeds in . slave. general statement. America. odorous with lasting The original stock of the horse . and animals belonging to that Zone or country. and the cat harbors in many varieties in the copses of Europe and Asia. Consists almost entirely of car- nivorous animals . South Africa. 1216. ermines. more graceful forms and move The Polar bear. the narwhal. graminivorous little Polar-Zone fauna. of wolves. Thence all it has spread to all number of species but of and throughout meridians. of a Zone or country embraces all Here the are bred the migratory fish that go forth The fauna millions. the shores of the Polar waters. mollusca. of brighter colors and more brilliant plu gaunt with famine and' hunting packs . 1221. — the camel. In the Summer. in lustrous sables. the walrus. together with cormorants. feeding the nations as they march. under the name of the musmon. and all are noted for The hog. skuas. packs in The waters ing creatures. line penguins. huge-horned. Since the lands yield food.Z NE FAUNAS. The fauna uniformity . perfume. The fauna of the Temperate Zones.THE ticular. unknown . 1220. and devoured in The original stock of the domestic sheep is found among the mountains of Corsica and Sardinia. the herring. the sword-fish. and covers its grassy plains by millions. multitudes of sea-birds. 1219. the haddock. individuals enormously great. of the Polar regions the is is noted for small. Exhibits a greater cies. nimble deer 119 South America. etc. still snowy North wanders wild . its animal. and the shark. and beavers. carried to POLAR AND TE M P E 11 A T E . the pilchard. and food to man. . ton. 1217. the glut- mage. upon the steppes of Tartary thence transferred to all parus of the Earth. the fauna of the The dog and cat. and sea-weed. and the dog. Polar Zones sea. clad furs. Birds. cow. the dog runs wild 1222. —-ducks and geese. the species has gone wild again. the reindeer. that their native country in is mal fauna owes living to the ocean. the whiting. it has become the invaluable Vast droves of horses thrive in recovered native freedom on the plains of South servant of man. swift-footed latitudes. a fierce. slayer of the . the musk-ox. the wolves and foxes in gray. their light coloring / the bears are clad in dubious in his original Is still found freedom and fierce- white. otters. number of with a smaller number of animals could find but to eat dividuals in each species. foxes. toughest ments. the seal. 1214. the animals are of a higher type. the sea-birds in ness among the forests of the German mountains.

etc. . dor of their plumage. 1226. The tropical fauna. the hyena that feeds upon rankest carrion. and strength the brown . the black bear of America. the incarnation of majestic render them formidable. more terrible in their combined numbers than the lion the wise fox. 1225. the panther. activity. the moose or elk. Tropical graminivora. the cougar. and canter for miles with a buffalo between his jaws. the jackal. wolves. voracious as a swine.120 THE Temperate-Zone carnivora. grizzly bear. . the goat. 1229. the chetah. sleeping in mud and ooze day. and the tap of whose paw break in the whole broadside of a horse's ribs ! wasting the fields of a province in a day nosceros. . " the arrow" still more feet. THE RHINOSCEKOS ' THE JUNGLE KING. the deer. The ness. in the brilliancy of their colors. 1230. The tiger. the elephant in troops. . and the crafty subtle as a serpent. whose spring is like the arrow's flight. Tropical carnivora. Assume proportions and characteristics which the rhi- At the head. that can spring a reach of forty devouring in the cane-brake or the corn-field night. and the splen- and treacherous. Wild cattle. Teraperate-Zone graminivora. a which shows how favorable these Zones are for grazing purposes. 1228. Follow in order. in the in its vast variety of Jaguars leopards thirsty agile and beautiful. and cased in a hide as thick as an oaken plank all . 1227. but blood- high development and general per- fection of its individuals. Surpasses both the others species. the puma.' THE TORRID-ZONE FAUNA. the hippopotamus. the numerous varieties. terrible for tough- TORRID-ZONE FAUNA. in the elegance of their forms. and terrible beauty. and trampling and all sanguinary. bear of Europe. the ounce. and robs the sepulcher of its dead. The ox in sheep. and chiefly the bison fit inhabitant and monarch of North Amer ica's majestic plains all feeding upon — — grass and chewing the cud. the lion. since prairies of the the congregated millions get no food or care from man. 1221. lynx. Vast herds of wild cattle and horses thrive upon the savannahs and grassy fact Temperate Zones. the swing of whose tail will knock down the strongest man.

and inconceivaforests individuals. Tropical serpent-tribes. with speed. boa of Africa. as a coal toads of monstrous size and aspect ants. TORRID-ZONE 1234. and to a strength that can crush a . with a poison so violent and rapid as in two or three hours to rot the flesh of the victim from off his . horned snakes. *Hooded serpents. The venomous 121 The horse. . swarm and with them . bright green of the emerald. the rattlesnake here reaching the banded a serpent. examples the os- alligators. variety. species. liz- Are trich. spreading a irised tions . splendor of plumage . acme of destructiveness . all-devouring centipedes. Add to the foregoing. etc. leave their maternal duties to be performed by the sun-heat. the " slayer of na- strong as a horse the condor. triangle-heads. crocodile. FAUNA. each hour of the day and night gives species. alligator. Cause of this abundant development. as Zones . the famous Egyptian snake. humid climate of the Torrid Zone. 1238. 1233. etc. each with its peculiar buzz. the giraffe. since the new-born eggs unhatched are not killed young and by a moment's negliin other gence on the part of the parent. . like the ostrich. . cockroaches. the zebra. Are almost numberless bly numerous in in species. the cobra trigonocephali of the Antilles. The softness of the climate tends greatly to the increase of numbers. crocodiles the locust. swift as the flight of a and the camel. . the cerastes of Africa. many of them envenomed tamable as beautiful. 1239. the antelope. and venom. new rible for deadliness of bite. The horse the in perfection. and spiders covered with hair and tinted with the most baneful coloring. their ards. aspics. malignancy of temper. but not fist 1232. and the anaconda of South America all growing to thirty feet in length. are represented in the 1237. First. outspeeding the simoon of desert." fifteen-foot stretch of pinion the peacock. ingloriously distinguished. 1236. Embrace nearly all the various species most ter- place to sting. but worthy to be crowned the real king of beasts for usefulness. the . Aspics. bones * ! 1235. a terribly poisonous reptile of Guiana. The insect-tribes. The constrictors. di capello of India. unass. the profuse vegetation of these regions furnishes inexhaustible food-supplies close at hand . Thirdly. Preservation of the young. host less lovely .THE 1231. distinguished for size. A Tropical birds. Triangle-heads. ugly to behold. Abundant food-supplies. the tropical fauna owes the hot its high development to and Causation of the high development of tropical fauna. . buffalo to death. the Horned snakes. and the bird of Paradise. lustrous with the yellow hue of the topaz. . such as clothes himself like Hooded serpents. Elaps. that secure their prey by squeezing them to death. the elaps. and the with rainbow-splendors . and great size. more and for the : scorpions big as one's and black . together with the wild the buffalo javelin . the python of India. and insects innumerable. hence thousands of species. because in such a climate animals can breed all the year round.

000 species of animals. it. appetites. or linger along unable to rear young. MAN'S PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS. which in the other Zones would starve to death. Man'ssize adapted to the ease 1243. and moisture so lavishly poured stir out upon the juices of plants. domestic animals. and gather crops. than other so. or be of less than the highest possible light. man. What is of man's size ? Man a very large animal. Man mon an animal because he has the structure. His size appears to have been very carefully adjusted to the labors required of him in his present condition . and the mass of his body would fill a cubic measure sixteen inches on a side.122 MANS PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS. the 150. in order that the magTor- Why ical the tropiis nificent vegetation of the rid fauna as it Zone may not run to waste. for of ' if every man were it as large as Goliah. in this THB LOCUST in all " THE SLAYER OF NATIONS. to graft trees. may do something more than may be beneficent in the highest degree. Siz 6 of man - how difficult would be for him to take care of the animal. and al- upon and to the end that they may contribute to good go hand hand in equal proportion man's physical probation. 1241. Why ? is the tropical fauna so abundantly developed First. His size adjusted to what 1 composition. because they have more material here to work . 1240. Man's Intelligence and Position. and to ply the numberless petty arts is on an average five feet eight inches weighs growing out of civilization ! . avail. tall. instincts. in accordance with the law that the in evil . What is is man I 136 pounds avoirdupois. and mul- so that millions of creatures thrive tiply. CHAPTER XXVII. and passions comto animals. Man's Physical Characteristics. Are more numerous Zones the . secondly. to reap harvests. 1242. 1244. far the greater by number are vastly smaller than he more definitely. the . Animals that harass and destroy. in order that the heat.

about thirty years.MANS PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS. is thoroughly master of the World. . with the outlay of comparatively and due. to the perfection of his of life and conduct. compared with the majority of animals. rendered inevitably hard by ? How man comes to be the constitution of nature 1246. hope. as and In so far as his delicacy results ness. The . sev- physical energies alone. higher aniMan'B toughness. smelt and forge and by putting to use the various appliances about him. first. In consequence of this misconduct. that son Man's longevity. for angels have no scope for the exercise of mals of his size and weight. secondly. delicacy of Man's is durability or longevity. vir- wear clothing. ed Man's tempera- in Yet this disability has resultmuch good. are not liable to sickness so much as man. ture. it is the fruit of man's own misdoings such as gluttony. careless exposure to heat and cold. is Earth. and errors Man the most effective working animal on the effect due. all refractory ores. such . respects toughness. but the average age of man is 1252 In that case. 1253. it loosens the bonds that bind us here. hence man. . very few animals enty. miscalculations. The temperature of the human body. a result due to man's extreme fragility at that period of life. so far as regards the exercise of his nobler capacities. negli- would always have remained a mere savage. a very large part of his knowledge of the properties of plants and minerals. exceedingly delicate. . and general exposure . which the generality of animals will undergo withThis applies to man only in his natural condition for by the exercise of his reason. In a few weight. and to mismanagement and of. ox. in comparison with what he has his reason. resignation. being utterly unable to bear the heat. his weight. is Man bulk But secondly. bear inevitable toils of life. Providence. accomplished by the exercise of In point of strength. man is in part designed of he may be compelled to use his rea- Man a long-lived animal live longer. A still higher good. and thus gradually prepares us to exchange the present for another state of being. in a word. how. or rather a mere beast. obliged to 1255. up under the other animals. to his intelligence. cold. The average would be still higher but for the vast numbers that die in infan- cy. having no adequate natural covering. seeking for remedies. pain. 1215. how cut How out detriment. man has got more Is 98° upon Fahrenheit's scale. than angel Man compared with other virtues. Sickness cultivates the noblest and loveliest 1250. and strong as an would have been tempted to rely upon his times lives one-hundred years frequently. how cultivate the stubborn soil. patience. disease. him to accomplish little much .' wet. he can out-endure 1251. avoidable sick- remarkable cases he can lift four or five times his weight. but in vastly the majority of instances not and untimely death. intemperance. without regard to health and temperament Notwithstanding his weakness. which enables 1254. an- other tribes of animals together. If every 123 man were small as Tom Thumb ? could he brave and conquer the winds and waters. drain marshes. and could have accomplished but little He gence such as no other animals are guilty 1247. in weak in proportion to his Man's strength. and thus has become 38|° higher than the average temperature of the Globe . tues. delicate. power Man a sickly animal . all the Man a sickly imal. He some. marriage-alliances . an structure. is with a number- loss catalogue of vices. more than twice 1248. man's misdoings. which enables him to lay out his power most judiciously and economically. he had he been tough as a bear. down great forests. 1249. As is. unrestrained passions.

domesticated. imply the need of an intelligent animal. and passions. a reason- — power. proves that Thus. distinguish between 1259. 1256. By his soul man is fitted for his position. and the innumerable every- animals the rough casts of the in man's life. a few can reason. did food-plants need cultivation to and and will . the winds would blow in vain so far as respects their noblest uses . through all the ages. or bound up in dense conglomerates. by reason of may be developed and perfected can cultivate . appetites. in like science. man is lord Soils all require cultivation that their capacities of the lower creation. 1257. to- gether with intellect. The organic world. 32. 1263. therefore they imply the ing intellect wedded to moral sensibilities. all * See Book Second of Series. erned by a conscience. makes him suited so true is gent animal to put them to account. 1268. Chiefly. in man model is seen manufacturing. allying 1260. the waters. position. all the actual and possible uses to which they in the arts type. 1261. Thirdly. him God. even if telligent animal soils. secreted in Our definition of devious veins. 1258. soils. even the inorganic world implies in leading fea- The they domestic animals imply the same need. All the nobler animals are made this after a certain is By tion. Although other animals may be swifter or tougher. to the live-oak. therefore soils no other circumstance be taken into account. which ness of beauty. : precisely ichat . the uses of all animals in the offices of eiviliza- . why lord of the world. From bramble all mushroom life. care. to his situation this that its Proved by animals. run not to waste. the only "one in whom the instinctive and the physical are subordinated to the intellectual and the spiritual. to beasts. The organic world. and in distinguish- him from the offices of imply the need of an all other "animals. imply the need of an in- model are seen. An animal gifted with a — Definition of man. The only intelligent animal. metals. First. and govin va- need of an 1265. 1267. Man is the only intelligent animal. in naviga- column. that may be subdued. the leading feature of which a vertebral may be put day offices of and sciences. and from the intelli- As man's intelligence es is to the banian. yet 12 Man's position eviuced by his bodily structure. him for his position. MAN'S INTELLIGENCE AND POSITION. none but an in- the perfection of his structure. tures the need of an intelligent animal to be its Man's lord and master. moral sensibility. Without an intelligent animal to use their motive Man's chief claim to be lord of the lower creation rests upon his possession of a soul. did not an intelligent animal exist to conquer them with fire and forge. soul. Animals bave mind evil. Secondly. man's intelligence fits manner. but not one can The various minerals and in the good and man. allying him to and compel them to their various uses. and care.* man is touched to full- telligent animal that these uses 1264. rious degrees. come nothing without cultivation and care but no God other than an intelligent animal can bestow cultivation more for man than vitalize him when he breathed into him a living soul. and in in full perfection . More specifically. Hidden depths of the ground. possessing instincts.124 MANS INTELLIGENCE AND POSITION. and developed. and con- 1266. so it Man's intelligence fits him for his position. intelligent animal. or backbone. the winds. The uses the of all plants. would have been created all in vain.

1275. sustains him. the petty cares and labors life. man from the sot. fail tween varieties of same species of to exhibit the del- plants and animals. * Tor a fuller discussion of this subject. . and high-strung nervous 1276. been miserably disproportionated to his mighty ulties . steam. 1273 icate organization. have been pressed into his service. the glutton from the anchorite. and customs. to achieve splendid triumphs over nature and the brute crea- Had it his intelligence been greater or tion . the pro- ences. faculties and keep himself master of Iheworlcl. earth. see Book Second of Series. ization Man's measure or degree of intelligence. his slender physical organwould not alone have enabled him to mainEarth. his intelligence. and in the lifetime of one man . 125 imply the necessity of an intelligent animal to fac- bring those uses into exercise. The belong to one and the same species. the peasant transmits to his his since the difference be- dull rude muscle. a ted in the offspring. modes of living. electricity. 1270. in different regions. 1272. ent races should be as they are. air. Man tain his stand as lord of the has just the right measure Man's amount of intelligence just right. THE HUMAN" RACES. his coarse features children of the scholar rarely and iron nerves. 1269. the chastened form and features. had it been less. sensibility of the parent. 1271. CHAPTER XXVIII. of intelligence. Cause of degree of government. his tween different races is different no greater than exists bethe bones. and Had been angelic. education. manners. Differences perpetuated. have enabled him fire. The Human Races. water. fessional man is readily distinguished from the la- Mankind one borer. supposed to be the influence of different climates. diet. These children differences are well known to be perpetuaheavy-jointed the simply varieties of that species all startling. as well as plants and animals. The cause of these varieties. or races. and Different It is in an almost absolute necessity that the differ- short of a totally diverse life. the temperate species.* of face and person. which inevitably make up the sum of would have magnetism. make Man's triumphs. Descriptive View of the Races. this appears because he can by the exercise of it all. his 1274. His present less. religIs ion.THE tion HUMAN RACES. exceedingly diverse in characteristics. because of the universality of so unlike influ- It is well known that different modes and condi- man and consequent exposure to tions of living will greatly change the expression for example. It is acknowledged that mankind varieties of mankind and their causes. not his strength. and that the position not at so-called Races are . even in a single generation. diversity.

a line from the tip of the ear to the No race less cheerful and unreflective could have and thence to the eye. characteristic color ebony-black. Are lithe as follows : the person is tall and slender. and the Esquimaux of America. jaw projecting. intermediate between that of " wheat and dried orange-peel. are the Caucasian mountaineers —takes precedence. and from the swarthy of the Greek or Spaniard. reasoning. Their physical characteristics. and imagination. the features in The Ethiopian all race. and because the finest specimens of to prehends the populations of Asia (except those of the Caucasian race before mentioned). large and strong. the facial angle f large. and passions . Low intellectuality in all the higher departments and easy in motion. the forehead projecting. 1282. thrived under the bondage of so many ages. 1284. Sahara and of Abyssinia also Australia. a cheerful and happy tem- development of the reflective. and has alleviated tThe facial angle. Borneo. in Europe. to the deep brown and almost black of the The Negro race. obtuse moral and emotional and ambition. the attributes. of the other races in both physical and mental capabilities. hair all coarse and woolly 1288. The races are called. com- Ethiopian. Nations of the Caucasian stock occupy southwestern Asia as far as the Ganges Africa. 1287. Their mental characteristics." 1285. 1277 Names of the races. formed by teeth. the forehead low and sloping. flat. the eyes flat. Indian. . emotions. The Mongolian race. 1278. center of the race is Mongolia. Finns. Lapland. hardships. and highly organized faculties. Europe parts full. the nose except Turkey. emotions and sentiments. keen susceptibility to the finer A high perament. inconsiderable spirit right-angled to the line of the nose . reflection. . all The body 1281. As it has rendered it possible to subject the ne- moral gro to slavery. Varies from the fair and florid of the German or Englishman. 1283.126 DESCRIPTIVE VIEW OF THE RACES. So named because the seat and The Mongolian race. Mongolian. The characteristic color of the Their physical characteristics. So called because it is conjectured The Caucasian have spread from the vicinity of the Caucasus mountains as a geographic center. the lips thick. Low intellectuality with very strong The menial characteristics of this race. of the eyes turned upward to the temples the complexion a tawny-yellow. Turks. Complexion of the Caucasian race. because its finest and most characteristic specimens are found in Central Africa or Ethiopia. the eyes and the whole countenance expressive. of America settled by Europeans. and conceptive powers. 1280. The Caucasian race. the hind-head protuberant. and Finland . the axis of the eyes of reason. DESCBIPTIVE VIEW OF THE RACES. so has it enabled him to bear up units der that slavery. also the Lapps. the upper . and several other The race is so named islands in the Pacific Ocean. race a fresh blonde with red cheeks. The head is oval. and well-proportioned throughout. Arab is or Moor. This mental constitution. susceptibilities. features imperfectly discriminated the outer angle . . and straight the face broad and . Caucasian. Hungary. and a distaste for labor of mind or body. the hair coarse. general fine-cut. 1289. The Caucasian race in point of distribution. the limbs crooked. is The person short and thick-set . 1219. Their physical characteristics. the race. and Malay. and the north of Their mental characteristics. Occupy Africa south of the . 1286. so far as regards mere physical black. and Hungarians. black and expressive. sensibilities.

is Occupy all America except where The Indian race. 10. beard. nor the materials of Inhabit the islands of the Indian elegance. to manufacture. Sum srowina. and food-plants without cultivation. low sensibilities cold. is compelled . with considerable energy and spirit of enterprise. black hair. 1300. - Man soon learns that mental discipline conduces to success in even the the Malay.000 25. developing themselves in cruelty and debauched habit of life reflective Low In his unavoidable labors upon the minerals. strong emotions and passions. top of the head narrowed . 1302. 1293. Origin of society. the Ethiopian. phlegmatic temperament. and steam to machinery to help him in a word. society. and so is obliged to harness the winds. — man Because nature yields only raw products. and luxury. straight. AND CIVILIZATION. A fair and emotions. 490. power. Phys. the Caucasian and Mongolian races have displaced them. enough alone to work up the raw material. the esall nor the art. . though the latter often looks like old mahogany.000. Physical characteristics.000 50. and life. the face somewhat wider than the negro's the hair and complexion black. and union of effort is not possible save in 1295. never cnsping or curling . 1291. . Archipelago and of the Pacific. or line draw the tution of nature that union of effort success. geog. civili- take the primary and principal steps toward 1297. and scanty Under the above heading what is to be shown? Phys. waters. civilization.000 1. 127 The Indian race. not be fruitful. strained to unite in society. a copper-colored complexion black. Man is compelled to commerce. athletic frames coarse.000.000 425. Origin of natural science. or of raiment. He fact is compelled to agriculture by that universal soils will —that Their mental characteristics. - ployments. metals. man gathers much and exact knowledge of their qualities and capabilities. Their mental characteristics. This classification unsatisfactory. Man is compelled to agriculture. all unconquerable hatred for labor and civilized 1292. MAN" 1296. ments of nature. This classification factory. very quick perceptions. degree of intellectuality. nor medicines. total.000.000 - the Mongolian. for such man is is con- the constiessential to dations so insensible that almost impossible to to specify their distinctive features. and That man compelled by the — . excepting those occupied 1299. which reduced to system constitutes the rich treasures of natural science.000. Physical characteristhe body slender. geog. metals. Of Of Of Of Of the Caucasian race. . 1301. 1290. the Indian. The Malay race. by the Ethi. and cannot use raw products he has not strength . thus education is necessitated by the physical geography of the earth. Tabular view of the World's population. 1294.000. The Malay race.000. Because no single region will yield sential articles of food.000. will not flourish 1298.000 commonest every-day emis power and capital . is at best vague and unsatis- The races pass into one another it is by gra- In the prosecution of his labors. and the various ele- treachery and cunning. Man is compelled to manufacturing. as before shown. piercing eyes high cheek bones broad face. opian race as before noted. and the labors —that a well-trained mind it. Origin of education.MAN AND CIVILIZATION. physical geography of the earth to material zation. out of . and intellectual civilization. is of demarkation between them. but sinewy and active the tics.

1303. or the Greek islander on his sea-girt domains. The system of policy suited to the Switzer or the Circassian in his Both yet assumes varieforni shapes in adaptation to the physical conditions of those regions. is the natural religion of a physical surroundings are so different. or the Tartar. cool winds. Peoples separated by oceans. though one and the same in essence. as on the plains of Persia. petual verdure. 1306.<« . Moon. and people living Sandwich snows. and in its special ordinances. must vary with the physical conditions of different regions. Even Christianity. as Egypt. 1304. and who is their crown and consummation. The worship of serpents and beasts is Final conclusion. mountain fastnesses. poetry. when compacted together by surrounding consolidation . it form and spirit. by extensive . Religions modified Are largely dependent upon the physical geography of the region which they inhabit. of the Earth as a mighty assemblage of adaptations. and illustrations. the Finn. forms and symbols. regions in its parables. with all sensual delights. India. sensuous tropical one nationality man. splendent in beauty. and as practiced in different The government of in its general nations. the Islander. or to the Malayan.128 MAN AND CIVILIZATION. 1309. it mountains or deserts. because their Stars. Mohammedanism. 1307. the natural religion of the ardent. W&h K> u $* . and all Africa. per- We perceive that Physical Geography takes knowledge of the whole System of Earth and of Man . and with houris reseas. the worship of Sun. The manners and customs of a people. the maimers and customs. The formation of nations. or the Greenlander amid his Zabaism. and of Man to whom all these adaptations tend. they tend strongly to national so that physical geography modifies Breathes of the East where originated. or the Greek. . the habits and fashions. must differ from those of the Arab. in its the formation of nations. 1305. natural in regions where life is continually in endangered by their venom and voracity. or deserts. is and lofty mountain-chains. 1308. under a cloudless sky glowing with the luster of almost supernaturally brilliant constellations. in whom they center. senti- ment. the entire national and individual life of by physical geography. For example. fills its That heaven with running streams. rarely coalesce into by wide-expanded but seas. would not be adapted to the Chinese or the Hindoos inhabiting vast and fertile plains.

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