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CONTAINING A UESC K I'T ION OF THE NATURAL FEATURES OF THE LAND AND WATER THE PHENOMENA OF THE ATMOSPHERE. A TREATISE ON THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE d/m. TO WHICH IS ADDED. C PHILADELPHIA: WPERTHWAIT & 1856. H. AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL LIFE. UiWED STATES. BY JAMES YOUNG. DRAWN EXPRESSLY FOR THE WORK II. AND ILLUSTRATED BY SEVERAL COPPER-PIRATE AND ELECTROTYPED MAPS AND CHARTS. C 0. warren. c5^^^. .A SYSTEM OF I PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

H. and has been announced as Mitcliell's Physical Geograph}'.. howcAer. and to ask for the present work so much patronage as its merits entitle it to receive. that it should form a part Circumstances. of the building in which an important for the press. and the expectation of the it puljlishers of this book. COWPEETHWAIT i.Entered according to the Act of Congress. Co. PRISTBD BY SMITH i PETERS. <^^'' b PUBLISHERS' ADVERTISEMENT. it is of Mitchell's Geographical Series. It present volume. (2) . June. part of our manufacturing Avas carried on. which have occurred since that announcement. and the public with less familiar presented to names upon the title-page. FiGAN. The it. We have also to ask the indulgence of our friends for the long delay which has attended the publication of the control. Philadelphia. and the names of the persons who have been engaged upon reader is are stated in the Preface. STEBEOTIPED DT J. for the Eastern District of Pennsgloania. reasons which induced the preparation of the -work. had it not been for the destruction. —a dela}' which has been caused by circumstances entirely beyond our would have been published. by fire. to which the attention of the respectfully invited. hoAvever. in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the lyted Slates. have rendered a change necessary. by H. COWPEETHWAIT & Co. It was the tlesigu of the author. in the year 1856. at a time when the work was ready We take this opportunity to express our thanks for the liberal support extended to our School Publications generally. some time since. 1856.

this desire Iiy many teachers induced Mr.vmes H. mountains and plains. adapted to the use of schools. In short. would have been very imperfect without the aid oljtained ftxuu the investigations of Lieut. to use the language of another. Principal of the Chapman Sclmol. a very wide I'irculation and the attention of the ])ublic. and have been engraved under all his supervision. or better fitted to elevate and expand the mind. that. tliat a work. which have materially increased the value of from original designs by !Mr. . and entirely original in its Much of the information on which is based was obtained from the "Army Meteorological Register. invisiVile to ns. The articles arrangement of the latter authors has been generally adopted in this volnme. no error . is lifted — it draws our attention to the atmosphere. in late years. Most of the engravings." It is believed that no subject of instruction will be more attractive to the young. o-lobc adaptation of the earth for the abode of man . and explains that wonderful process. D. The on the Ocean. The frequent expression of of the present volume. which direct are specially designed to illustrate the text. in addition to those already enumerated. are G. The The tlie admirable works of such writers as Hiimlioldt. Dr. P. — it describes the diversities of the surface of the — its divisions of land and water." Interesting deductions on the Winds of the Northern Hemisphere have been drawn from the work of Professor Coffin. Mr. . especially of teachers. M. White. brief allMsinns to this subject fcmnd in ordinary text-books on Geography appear to have l)een considered far from satisfactory. have obtained. W. have been the The iirincipal authorities relied upon in the magniticent Folio Edition of Johnston's Physical Atlas. which are also especially intended to ilhistrate the text. (Alexander Keith Johnston. Maury. especially on the Currents and Navigation. the Compiler this indebted for many suggestions. Much care has been taken to test the accuracy of every statement but should any errors be discovered. tlie seems to have been directed thereby to the science of Physical Geography.) Geography the history of Nature presented in most attractive form. and sulijei't. School. than that It treats of the imtural its of Physical Geograidiy. be found. at Providence. exclusively devoted to this siioiild be ])repared. Young. the author will gratefully acknowledge the kindness of his friends tliev niav who may furnish him the information bv which be corrected. in a work like this. and drew the maps illustrating is Mitchell's Series of School Geographies. and the nearest point to the is North Pole attained by arrangement. to undertake the prejjaration He has derived much valual)le assistance in this labor Arthur Sumner. and comprising such a multiplicity of facts. of the Rhode Island State Normal and from Mr. Young originally prepared his critical all the matter. embracing so great a variety of will subjects. to designate treatise it on the map the location of his winter quarters. preparation of the present work. Somerviile." and the "Eei>ort of the E. one of from Mr. his The on the Physical Geography of the United States new. gathered from numerous and often conflicting authorities.xplorations and Surveys for tlie Pacilic Railroad. Warren. Geoi!(1e book. and Mrs. is which turn sustains animal its life. and the works of Petermann and ^lilner. thence to be distributed over the land to form lakes and rivers. by which the water of the ocean in its into the air. the exponent of the wonders which the Almighty Creator has scattered so profusely around us. were drawn by Mr. the l)ubli^^ers. furnished to the world in his " Sailing Directions. desire has lieeu very u'enerally numifested. The maps. and to give " Physical life to vegetation.PREFACE. Boston. Guyot. published by the Smithsonian Institution. and to accuracy and extensive geographical knowledge. and in some cases their language has been used. Bartlett. Ansted's Physical Geography. J." It would be presumptuous to state. Kane has kindly furnished the information by which we are enabled recent Expedition. ]\Iaury.

GEOLOGY. according to Zones of Climate and Moisture Distribution of Plants in a A'^ertical Direction 64 Chart showing the Geographical Distribution of the Principal Tidal Chart of the AVorld.— MOUNTAINS AND VALLEYS v. SNOW.— TEMPERATURE III. 16. ATMOSPHERE 39 INDEX TO THE MAPS AND CHARTS. 38 38 Human Race 77 METEOROLOGY. the Mean Annual Temperature OF the Different Parts of the Earth's Surface . SO 82 84 86 METEOROLOGY. Chart exhibiting the Depth of the Atlantic Ocean.— MOUNTAINS III. FOGS. also the Regions subject to Storms 47 Physical Map of the United States. 15 13. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES. the Mountain Chains of Central Europe.— MOISTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE — DEW. 1. Ac S7 (4) . showing. OR TABLE-LANDS VI. and. POSITION AND EXTENT — PENINSULAS.— CONTINENTS III. Plains.— VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES ORGANIC L— BOTANICAL GEOGRAPHY IL— ZOOLOGICAL GEOGRAPHY IIL— ETHNOGRAPHY LIFE.. IV. I. LIFE. Rivers.— ISLANDS I. 48 54 57 GEOLOGY.— PLAINS VII. Oceanic Currents The Connection of the Orinoco and Amazon by the River Cassiquiape. OF THE LAND S AND HAIL v. the Ocean. Plains.— LAKES IV. Plains. 20. 3.— CLIMATE.— SPRINGS 27 28 31 IL— RIVERS III. 64 and Fruits.-THE OCEAN v. Ac. showing the Progress of the Wave of 35 38 IS. 8. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES. &c. Western Asia. RAINFALL. Grains.— CLIMATE VL— ELECTRICAL AND OPTICAL PHENOMENA.— THE WINDS 40 12 PART L— GENERAL STRUCTURE II.— RIVERS AND LAKES v. AND PRODUCTIONS. showing the Distribution and Varieties of the 69 71 19. exhibiting the Principal River Basins. 9. AND ISLANDS II. 7. and Northern Africa Chart exhibiting the Continents. HYDROGRAPHY. 10 11 13 16 18 PART IV. Chart showing the Distribution of the Winds over the Surface of THE Earth.- 53 53 53 56 ORGANIC 26 15. AND the Regions visited by Earthquakes exhibiting 12. showing its Mountain.— OCEANIC MOVEMENTS — WAVES. Chapter Pairc Chapter Page INTRODUCTORY— DEFINITIONS 5 II. 5.— MINERALOGY 32 TIDES.?. Islands. Chief Mountain Ranges. 21 21 21 Chart of the Distribution of Rain and Snow over the Surface of the Earth Rain Chart of India Sketch of a Part of the Glacier of Chasiouni Climatic Chart. IV. Isothermal Lines.— PLATEAUS. 60 66 73 21 PART II.TABLE OF CONTENTS.— THE III. on the Coast of the United States and the West Indies Mammalia Chart showing the Geographical Distribution of the Principal Birds and Reptiles Ethnographic Chart of the World. by Isothermal Lines. HYDROGRAPHY. AND CURRENTS 33 L— GEOGRAPHICAL CAPES. 14. 10.. 6. High Water prosi East to West Hydrographic Chart of the World. 4. 78 79 PART I. and other Ditersities of the Land Surface of the Earth Chart of the Mountains. of India Chart of the Principal Mountains. 17. Page Page 11. VI.— GENERAL SURFACE OF THE COUNTRY IV. Map 2. of South America Chart showing the Distribution of the Principal Active Volcanoes. Chart showing the Distribution of the Most Important Trees. RAIN.

these points ecliptic are called the solstices. It thus follows that the axis of the earth. is the rotary velocity of the earth about lUOO miles an hour. its surface on globes or maps. It will thus be seen that the distance through the earth from East to West. In exact numbers. that the earth it was stationary. may Physical. is 41. on the contrary. and sailing constantly in the The term definition derived from two Greek words. having reference is form. Illustration of one of the proofs that the earth is On the 21st of June. would produce this eS'ect. perpendicular to the direction these are the equinoxes. IV. No other suppositiim accounts for the bulging of the earth at the equator. in the of a ship coming into harbor are always seen before the hull. Twice is in the year. 2. dropped from the top of a high perpendicular tower. the terms variously denominated terrestrial bull. that this is highly probable. " to describe. I. in popular language. The social condition earth has two motions — the it from North to (laili/am\ the i/rarli/. The length of a degree was found to increase as they is approached the poles. though it always points in the same direction. its once in 24 hours. motions of the earth the universe. are from AVest to East.000 miles. The polar diameter is 41. the centrifugal motion. A stone. On The proofs that the earth is bringing the Northern Hemisphere the most under the influence of his rays. Southern Hemisphere the most under this influence. — "What is its correct form — Give some of the proofs of the rotundity of the earth. will which moves more rapidly than the base. and . size. earth is 24. ^Wliat is Geography? Under what three divisions may the subject be Of what does Mathematical Geography treat? ? Physical Geography? — ? — — — Geography is ? What the earth? — State some of the names by which it is called. The Earth It is is that planet which we inhabit. 2d. from measurements of an arc of a meridian at different stations on the globe. The angle of inclination is about 23i degrees. is demon- expressed as round. owing to the flattening at the poles. nearly round. —a More correctly speaking. tower. however.709.3. ami That the earth is slightly flattened at the opposite sides has been demonstrated by eminent French and English astronomers. — DEFINITIONS. I. Mathematical Geography . will always fall a short distance to the east of the base the stone has the motion of the top of the . on the 21st of March and 23d of September. assuming a difierent position towards the sun. The . causing the succession of seasons. and Political Geography. iis revolutions upon its own axis. 3d. the phenomena of the atmosphere." and be considered under the three divisions of Mathematical. the 21st of December the South Pule leans towards the sun." and the great variety of subjects comprehended in this general have at length arrived at the place from which they started sh. among Any part the other bodies of of the circumference of a circle called an arc. The equatorial diameter.548 feet. and of the inclination of the earth's axis to the plane of the ecliptic. Political Geography treats of the extent and population of different countries. treats of the form. The axis of the earth to South. apart from scientific : ball bulging out in the middle.899 miles. equal to about 7926 miles. its of its position circles. 1.849. (equal nights). the earth's being tlattened at the poles. The daily motion of the earth is its revolution on its causing day and night. is 2(ji miles greater than the distance through and the civil and o. At the equator. revolves. The circumference of the earth is about 25. of an oblate spheroid the two opposite sides. The form of the earth.\tentof the circumference of the earth? ? is ? it ? ? (5) . — What — Of the diamelerof the earth? — How many the axis of the earth motions has the earth. same direction. starting from a given port. The northern extremity of the North Pole — the southern extremity the South Pole. is — State the evidence of the e. This supposition alone account for the equatorial current and the trade winds.adow cast by the earth on tlie moon is always circular. and flattened at proof. it was generally supposed and that the heavenly bodies revolved about That the earth.642 equal to about 7899J miles. and what are they — What probable the earth revolves — What conState some of the reasons which render clusively proves the annual revolution of the earth — Explain the succession of seasons QcESTioNS. to its sji/iere. of tlicir inhabitants. Navigators considered Political Questions. its diameter is about 8000 miles.PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. carefully computed. INTRODUCTORY. axis. — both of which South. feet. The annual motion of the earth round the sun is conclusively proved by astronomical observations of the phenomena known as aberration of light. and the disand land tribution and arrangement of organic life. and r/lobe. the axis of the sun's rays . the yearly motion is its revolution round the sun. signifying " the earth. is at every period of its progress around the ecliptic. GEOGRAPHY is is a description of the Earth. the equatorial circumference of the Physical Geography treats of the natural divisions of water. The succession of the seasons is the result of the annual revolution of the earth round the sun. bringing the nearly round are: 1. is is an imaginary line passing through the diameter on which the earth the axis is is its centre to from North and supposed MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY. The tops of the masts 2. turn. appears from the following consideration 1st. divisions by and the representations of the whole or portions of III. Until the beginning of the sixteenth century. shape is that strable by astronomy. (sun stands). II. the North Pole leans towards the sun.

the South Temperate between the Tropic of Capricorn and Antarctic Circle the Torrid Zone is 5. or about 690 miles from it. Polar Circles. called great circles. From the 21st of December to the 21st of March. These are the equator. — What ? is the ecliptic ? — How great ? is the velocity of the earth m its revolution round the sun Fur what purpose are imaginary lines employed — Name these lines. ^nd a line encircling the earth from east to west. — As many of the principles in this treatise have reference to the it foregoing definitions. . On . before is recommended which that they be carefully perused commencing the chapters follow. the days increase in The Latitude and Longitude of a place being known. its length is the proceeding from the equator towards the poles. It is then spring in the Northern Hemisphere. therefore. is about 09 miles . passing through this place. its it is easy to length in the Northern Hemisphere. imaginary lines are employed. through Greenwich and the North and South poles. 6. Equator. the Tropic of Capricorn 233 degrees it. can never exceed 90 degrees. The tropics. and spring in the Southern. The Arctic circle is 23i degrees south of the North pole the The Meridians are Antarctic circle 23} degrees north of the South Pole. As the earth continues its revolution round the sun. Why have geographers adopted the measure of a degree ? What is the Equator? What are the Tropics. The length of a degree. formed by the tropics and They are five in number two Frigid. Zones are divisions of the earth's surface. which divide the earth into different secticms. . as a degree of Latitude. and decrease in the Southern. It is the path in which the sun appears to move round the earth. the number of parallels is unlimited. and shortest in the Northern. is the meridian of Greenwich. and parallels divide the earth into unequal parts. miles an hour. one half of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres is turned towards the sun. Longitude is capitals of their own countries. Meridians. from March 21st to June 21st. and the days and nights are of equal length throughout the entire globe. through the poles. polar circles. the parallels. on small circles. is south of . on French maps. great circles (meridians). and the polar circles. puted 180 degrees in each direction. Every circle is divided into 360 equal parts. On the maps in this book. it is understood to be 10 degrees north of the equator. east or west. Longitude line passing is computed from the meridian of Greenwich. and are 4. in its revolution round the sun. There are two tropics and two polar circles. It is then mid-summer south of the equator. The explanation given on the preceding page will be more clearly understood by an examination of the annexed diagram. between the Tropics. while it is mid-winter in the Southern. For purposes of geographical description. and in consequence the North Pole is turned from it. Different nations usually reckon Longitude from the meridians of the Thus. is about 1200 The ecliptic is the orbit in it is is so called because the circle in Places north of the equator are in North Latitude those south of it in South Latitude. polar circles. Tropics. on a great circle. and mid-winter north of it. All places east of this line are in East Longitude. — . from the 23d of September to the 21st of December. two Temperate. Longitude is comparallel. or 69 miles . north or south. The Tropic of Cancer more than four English miles. The velocity of the earth. called degrees. and Parallels? — What are the Meridians? How many arc there? What is Latitude ? — Longitude? What are Zones? — — — — . and and distance from other places. . the North Pole is more and more turned towards the sun. it is 00 miles circle extending east and west. is the 21st of June. south of the Antarctic Circle the North Temperate Zone is between the Arctic Circle and Tropic of Cancer. groat circles extendiug round the earth north and south. . is equal east to west. in England. Kute. It is then mid-summer in the Northern Hemisphere. If a place is said to be in 10 degrees North Latitude. given meridian. polar circles. the South Pole is more turned towards the sun. Zones. the length of a degree varies with the size of the circle. The longest day in the Northern Hemisphere. Longitude is distance from any determine relative position autumn in the Southern. because the length A German mile. Latitude is distance from the equator.INTRODUCTORY. and are called small circles. the length of a d. As the earth still continues its course. The equator and meridians divide the earth into equal parts. for example. to Geographers have adopted the measure of a degree. The longest day in the Southern Hemisphere. and the South Pole is in consequence farther turned from it. the equator. On the 30th on the 60th parallel. Explain the diagram.ay in the Northern Hemisphere decreases. in West Longitude. 23* degrees north of the equator. The equator encircles the earth from Tiie tropics. the poles. and the one Torrid. which the earth revolves round the sun. parallel with the equator. their number is unlimited. and Polar Circles. A on any same Parallels. at equal distances from and parallels are small circles extending round the earth. 34J miles. As the earth still further continues its course. round the earth. It which eclipses occur. autumn in the Northern Hemisphere. until on the 23d It is then of September the days and nights are again of equal length. A degree of Longitude may be measured all west of it. is the 10th parallel of Latitude. of a mile varies in different countries. and shortest day in the Southern. is the 21st of December. until on March 21st they are again equal. the meridians. it diminishes with the size of the circles. The distance from the equator to the poles is 90 degrees Latitude is measured on Latitude. therefore the length of a degree must be about C9 miles. reckoned from the meridian of Paris. On the 21st of March. and in the Southern it increases. The North Frigid Zone is north of the Arctic Circle South Frigid.

. or a description of the water . Hydrography. and c. 4. Volcanoes and Earthquakes. These subjects will be examined in this work under the general divisions of: Ist. and of the plants and animals which belong to the globe. Its outsiih composed of land and water. General Structure of the Land 2. . — general structure of the Earth beneath the surface. the atmosphere. Surrounding the earth. part. Geology subject will 1. t \ar ' TAUT 1. Continents 3. or Table-lands G. is the atmosphere. Plains . The science of Gcologi/ jiroj'C}- treats of the formation and be considered under the several divisions of: . 4th. or a description of the land . Meteorology. Physical Geography treats of the natural features and laws of the land. Under what general divisions Of what does Geology treat? ? Of what dues the science of Oeoh>'/i/ jn-opcr treat ? Stiite Physical Geography treats? — Under what general — will the subject bi' divisions will these subjects be examined ? considered — . the subjects of which Geography. GEOLOGY. Organic Life. the signification of the term is limited to a description of the more immediate land-surface of the globe. as the form of the land and the diversities of its surface. and its phenomena. Geography which The . Geology. or a description of the atmosphere life. the water. and 7. Plateaus. or surface. 2d. or an ol)late splieroi<l. Islands Mountains and Valleys 5. od. and of the changes the globe has undergone but as a department of Physical . or the arrangement and distribution of vegetable and animal '"'"'«' lirMgo in Vi«'°^*' ' Ciants'Cauee""!' • tt I \.\ten<ling to the licight of about 4r) miles. is that department of Physical treats of the natural features of the land of the Earth. PHYSICAL The matter of wliicli the Earth is G ]-: GRAPHY — is composed is collected into a mass of the form of an orange.

or consolidated. and is called vegetable mould. Stratified rocks are found to form of beds or layers. and to have an average depth of eight or an example) . or lime. extend so far below the level of the sea as that of Minden. or ele- ment. generally very limited. V. found be composed of one. many feet. surface. some knowledge of its VI. alone arrest the downward progress of the water which falls in rain. hard. through the different earths which lie at the we come to hard or consolidated materials. while they thus form this basis or bed. varying in depth from the thickness of a sheet of paper from the solid rocks which form the crust of the earth. is and A simple substance. too dry and hot for vegetation. which.. which has an absolute depth of 3778 feet. no part of the land or water. were only silicious earth there could be no vegetation. On and immediately below generally speaking. or Aqueous. or. compound substance is formed by the combination of two or is applied only to the more compact and solid it portions of the globe. to the more simple substances The entire or elements. they are of the same materials as the earths general structure will be found useful. and form the fertile soil of our gardens fields. and rounded stones W^hat is up through the What difference do it? stratified rocks. The wearing away of enumerated. first. found. constitute the Earth may bo that in the earths the materials are loose. The . calca- ten miles.ands. and scarcely 2000 is found combined with other substances. forming the basis or bed on which the others rest. to III. though not now worked. silver. ^ye built. no glass could be made nor could houses of brick or stone Without clay. and bear the names respectively of the minerals which enter most largely into their composition. . but frequently discovered in a pure. 2. by rubbing and grinding against each smooth and rounded. as well as to the limestones and granites. in Bohemia. II. for Calcareous earth it is too porous to retain the moisture. number of elements yet discovered sixty-one. reous earths If there . generally speaking. A one which cannot be separated into other component parts. When these earths. Thus. As As As Stratified. when earths are composed principally of called silicious earths (sand is silex. they are frequently pressed from which are formed the gravel. or clayey rocks. At CHAPTER I. — Argillaceous earths. we have just described : the only difi"erence being. The deepest mine in America is the silver-mine of Valenoiana. but when subjected to the rolling of waves rivei's. they are surface of the earth. Granite and limestone are compound substances. should have no springs for beds of clay. and these occur rarely. on being submitted to the analysis of the chemist. and argillaceous earth is too wet and cold." and. 3. in the regular which have been worn The other earths are composed principally of particles oiF by the atmosphere. are mixed together in due proportions. Unstratified rocks are irregular masses. — PHYSICAL GEOGKAPIIY that are seen on the sea-shore. thus forming the reservoirs from which springs flow. they correct and improve each other. rain. the labors of the miner having extended to but comparatively a short distance below the surface of the earth. — Could there be iiny vegetasilicious earth? — AA^hy Of what should we be deprived if ? — — you observe between the substances is at the surface of the earth — j — What the difference between the popular and geological signification of the term "rock?" — How far below the surface does our knowledge of the formations extend — How may rocks be classified — What nre rocks and those below ? all ? stratified ? there were no silicious earth What are unstratified rocks ? . and not to Physical Geography but before proceeding to the consideration of the form of the land and the diversities of its surface. pebbles. may be classified — . for sand is a necessary ingredient in mortar. Large fragments are frequently broken oif. near Guanasuato. which are These rocks form what is called the " crust of the called rocks. After diggina. These are called mineral earths. the winds. on the beach. which are called earths. All rocks 1. at Minden. 1844. of rocks is estimated to occupy about nine-tenths of the land or flint. Probably the deepest mine in the world. earth. however. Sandy deserts are examples of tracts of is land composed almost wholly of silicious earth. be . IV. has yet been feet below the level of the sea. discovered. they become sxibject of which this chapter treats. argillaceous earths. Popularly. does not. from the mouth of the mine. VII. is composed of different combinations and no mailer pertaining to ths earth. or to the action of running water in other. or unconsolidated in the rocks. but geologically extends to every formation . belongs to the science of Geology. loose the surface of the land will be or unconsolidated materials. in June. is composed principally of decayed vegetable and animal substances. and copper are elements. no plant or animal. constituting in many places the to the soil a simple substance ? What is a compound substance ? What name is given which occupies the immediate surface ? What are mineral earths ? Describe were only — silicious earths. and lime adds to warmth. is and clays. no particle of air. unmixed state. It . of eighteen of these elements probably the bore of the new salt works. Without sand. The various substances which divided into simple and compound. the lowest of rocks. these fragments are rough. Metamorphic. or Non-fossil iferous Igneous. is solid rocks. or Unstratified Fossiliferous. the term " rock" loose s. gravels. The greatest depth below the level of the sea yet reached by man is Nearly all the matter of the globe . I. strictly speaking. reached the depth of 1993 feet. usually occupying the immediate surface. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF THE LAND. however. which has a depth of 1887 feet yet the bottom of this mine is more than 5000 feet above the level of the sea. and in the beds of rivers. The first in order. and the VIII. in Mexico. Gold. of wliich only Our earth positive knowledge of the formations constituting the interior of the fourteen are found in nature in a pure state. is not that of Kuttenberg. by the influences already IX. This class but oftener inclined at various angles to the horizon. These beds are sometimes arranged horizontally. or some combination of two or more of the sixty-one elements first mentioned. and in very limited quantities. . tion if there — Calcareous earths. all not confined exclusively to the particles which But form mineral earths. and when of argilla. and its Sand corrects the stiffness of clayey land. 2231 is feet. when of calx. Prussia. which. or clay. Stratified and Unstratified Rocks.

mountains. so small that he estimated that forty millions of them would be required to form a cubic inch. unstratified deemed to be of the most recent formation. beds of expect to find the latter being an older formation . and they are often several thousand feet in thickness. They do not probalily occupy more to IX. but having been suppose they constitute the internal parts of the globe to a great deposited near the place where plutonic rocks were generated. summits of lofty mountains. Hitchcock infers that two-thirds of the surface of the existing X. the ocean.are volcanic rocks — — now are Metamorphic rocks supposed to have been formed? the products rocks appear to have been formed ? What is said of the order of succession maintained by Aqueous rocks? — How do Aqueous —What of the AVhat does the theory of the igneous formation of rocks presuppose? changes going on in the crust of the earth ? — Recapitulate the subjects of this chapter. some time formed part of a living creature. their age. Aqueous rocks constitute by far the greatest portion of the exposed The various kinds of soils. Elirenberg. Recapitulation. Of wliat is ? it Into what two classes are Igneous rocks divided ? supposed Plutonic rocks were formed? Of what . The fossiliferous rocks are stratified. — — 9 supposed to . Volcanic rocks are the XI. Plutonic rocks. stone. without losing mains of plants and animals. lying nearest the . fire . that with the exception of the metals. arc regarded as the oldest those containing the remains of animals similar to those now living. is a sea of fire. compared with those the ocean." Fing. containing or. sometimes in small. Metaniiir[iliic rocks are have been formed in than one-tenth part of the earth's surface. if an older rock is at the surface. but often in enormous quantities. M. pre-supposos the earth to have been originally in a melted state. Igneous rocks. we have reason regular beds or layers. much expense. formed by deposits of sedimentary matter according to And their origin. into numerous groups and orders. in rocks of this formation. Aqueous rocks appear or less to have been formed by the gradual continents are composed of fossiliferous rocks. form and position. are They are and non-fossiliferous. Groups found at the greatest depth. of the sediment of water. According FiDgal'a Cave. It will also be seen that the crust of the earth is At this rate of increase. were formed of melted matter. into lying in horizontal or inclined layers. the re- have become as highly crystallized as granite their regular form. into Igneous. and rivers. made up of the shells of minute animals.— GENERAL STRUCTURE OF THE LAND. sandstone. at intervals of time. . their character has been changed by the immense heat. are sub-divided into Plutonic and Volcanic rocks. in water. which geology teaches us must have taken place for the abode of man. proof by observation in the case of volcanic rooks. They Prof. stratified. volcanic eruptions elevate enormous masses of matter. is composed. evidence of this is found in the fiict. . constant changes. probably not a particle of matter exists on the surface of the earth that has not at fossiliferous. a heat sufficient to melt all known rocks undergoing would be reached at a depth of between 40 and 50 miles. excluding a crust only from 20 to 50 miles in thickness. especially in New England. The quantity of fossil remains is so great. con- The theory of the igneous formation of rocks. Gneiss. coal. 1. by internal heat and direct agency of pressure and Aqueous. limecrust of the earth. The quantity of microscopic shells discovered deposit of sedimentary matter in water. 2. in a petrified state. 1. sometimes forming new islands in the midst of Yet these changes are trivial. is constituted of a comparatively earth the of which — limited number of simple elements is . 1. at great labor and with for coal. and some of the older rocks. The atmosphere. That the crust of the earth according to their centre composed of rocks arranged. to fit the earth It will thus be seen that the matter XIII. to their character. and under an enormous pressure. are agents constantly acting upon the land. " a stair. and 1. clays. into fossiliferous.al's Cave and the Giant's Causeway are familiar examples. unstratified. we may be assured none Thus. From their frequent arrangement in the form of steps. containing the remains of the earliest formed animals. or those which are supposed to owe their fire. cooled and consolidated at a great depth. a very common rock in some parts of the United States. 2. and removing its particles into the sea while. but depth. . Granite and its varieties constitute the principal plutonic rocks." from the Swedish trappa. The crust of the earth is undergoing incessant change. bored into. origin to VIII. and they itself. and then thrown up by the elastic force of internal heat. and often so nearly resembling granite. XII. and that its centre now. and some slates. Fossiliferous rocks contain. In one place in Germany he discovered a bed fourteen feet thick. which has become more hardened into solid rocks. as if to compensate for this gradual wearing away of the land. that the temperature of the earth regularly increases one degree for every 54 feet of descent beneath its surface. are the principal rocks of this class. Additional formed by the formed Metamorphic. yet this slate has been products of ancient volcanic eruptions. 3. of which we have positive taining no such remains. They are stratified and by the great Prussian naturalist. they are often called " trap rocks. Vn. 2. 2 .Describe the Foseiliferous rocks. ganic remains of plants and animals and non-fossiliferous. griivels. All stratified rocks maintain a regular order of succession that is. coal underneath strata of talcose slate. part of the non-fossiliferous rocks arc stratified —a A fire part are stratified. is a metamorphic rock. sands. as hardly to be distinguished from it even by a practised eye. no geologist would of later formation is underneath it. Shells not larger than a grain of sand form entire is most wonderful. it is supposed. and unstratified. They are variously subdivided by different geologists with reference to and the depth at which they are found from the surface. in search Basalts and green-stone are among the principal volcanic rocks. and non-fossiliferous.

The great Eastern continent extends through upwards of two hundred degrees of longitude. Expedition in 1840. to the Straits of Magellan. from What are contiDents ? Describe the great Eastern Continent. View of Cape Horn. The eastern sea-board of South except the Gulf of California. Externally. the its area. The Western continent exhibits a simpler outline than the Eastern. but left unsettled the question whether there might not be vast tracts of land in the frozen regions near none of consequence appearing on the Pacific coast. whether the respective districts are continuous. at the water more than 1300 feet below the surface of the Mediter- ranean Sea. Area in Square Miles. The two continents have some points of resemblance. upwards of one of braces from Point Barrow. from Cape 3. Its area may be stated at about 31. A striking dissimilarity appears in the general contour or In the Eastern continent. coast-line deserts. Africa is more than 2. and the existence of such tracts America 1.980. one of which occurs in the islands They differ from Eastern and one in the "Western Hemisphere.000 17. In the Western continent it is directly the reverse. Its greatest depression level. 54° south.500. in the mark the contrast. is the coast-line most deeply indented? — In which .000 14. of wliicli Cape St. But it has not yet been determined Of all most deeply indented by in the following table. inferior in size. 72° north. and the proportion of square miles of surface to one mile of coast for each of the gram? coast-line. the outline of the two continents. Its highest elevation. a Of mile below the culminating point of the Eastern continent. It embraces upwards Severe North America . to East Cape. Roque.— Its greatest depression. and great Asia and Europe exhibit repeated examples of deeply-indented shores. The Western continent. 1. to Cape Prince of Wales.. difi'ers in many respects from the other portions. III.000 square miles. however. II. Greenland. the south-western member of the continent. coast-line. a comparatively unbroken a deficient water communication. constructed in the interval of time between the discovery of the South Seas and their navigation by Captain Cook. an South Pole. 78° 16' north. This continent has a maritime coast-line of more than its 60. V. This question was settled by the United States' Exploring the South Pole. and. 35° west. the most II. its less than one-eighth of one-half.500 31. 1. the divisions of the globe.000 16. now known not to be a part of the main land of America.000 13. and Asia about three times. What portion of its area does Europe comprise? Africa? Asia? In what respects does Africa differ from Europe and Asia ? Both terminate in pointed projections towards the south. South America . in size? — State the its two divisions compare State division some of the points of dissimilarity between the two Continents. both being entirely surrounded by water.of the Cape of Good Hope.. from Cape Verd. hundred and twenty degrees latitude. stretching out from the Antarctic regions. but speculative geographers believed that such a mass of land must exist in these regions. may be the projection of an Arctic continent extending around the North Pole.000 miles. westerly point of Africa. or from south-east to north-west. VIII... extends through upwards of a hundred and thirty degrees of longitude. . Name of Divisions. Miles of surface to one mile of Coast-line. Europe is was satisfactorily proved. Proportion of Sq. to balance the greater known quantity of the Northern Hemisphere.. 17° 33' west. to Cape Agulhas. America. the land here reaching the enormous height of nearly five and a half miles. and hardly equal to Africa ana On many maps of the world. is also comparatively unbroken. those great masses of connected land. Its entire area there are only two on the earth. E. generally ranked. with extent of its — — — — — — — How do — Its highest elevation. The entire conextent than Asia. VII.000 square miles.760. The researches of Captain Cook banished the dreams of those who immense continent. This is strikingly shown which exhibits the area. This continent has a maritime coast-line of about 37. 2. entire area. and filling the under the name of Terra Australls Incognita. and the British Expedition in 1841.000 10.300. among less in North and South America. and Asia more than four times. the size of Europe. and gulfs. with the rocky precipices of Cape Horn Describe the Western Continent. in Siberia. regarded as a continent. and both are abundantly supplied with great river interioi-. the culminating point of the globe. miles. CHAPTER I. 190° east (170° west).000 6. (unknown southern land).— 10 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. what may be seas.500 Its greatest elevation is nearly four and a half miles. 168° west.. south-west to north-east.000 7. the eastern extremity of Asia. which. only in their greater extent. the two divisions of the continent. by some geo- former comprises about five-ninths of tinent is graphers. prevailing direction of the land is from east to west.000 24. Extent of Coastrline.— State the extent of its coast-line.000. .930. VI. systems. Africa. 3. Its maritime coast has a less proportion of inden- expected to find here habitable countries. more correctly.500. the extent of divisions : In the Northern Hemisphere.S. is is the shore of the Dead Sea. so as to form called an Antarctic continent. It emthe most westerly point of North America. the most northern point of North America. on account of It is great size. figures Europe combined. its The island of Australia. IV. Asia Africa of a hundred and ten degrees of latitude. Continents. 84° 50' south. islands. in Brazil. are may be stated at about 14.000 221 332 481 526 781 Vostochnoi. or. No evidence of the existence of such a continent could be adduced. Africa Europe comprises somewhat more than one-third. and attains greatest elevation in Central Asia. tations. bays. is. Africa. Of the three divisions of the continent. CONTINENTS.

or group and the Falkland Islands. Helena is another example. and the projection of the Brazilian shore is opposite the indentation of the Gulf of Guinea. Indies. in Central America. which is effect would be to raise the surface 518 feet. A great number of islands are of volcanic origin. or above the level of the sea. Continental islands are those which lie . It can hardly be doubted that Britain has been detached from the main land of Europe. 2. the sea cutting its way through an isthmus which once connected England with France. ing nature of the coast-lines of the land. CHAPTER ISLANDS. Dover. a granite block. and variable climates. Helena. the connecting parts being at a lower level. that the two continents onee formed an undivided territory. lakes. II. nent is almost isolated St. three hundred miles west of Scotland. Ascension an example. of 1. North America 750 feet. but usually form groups and archipelagoes contiguous to the main land. and Helena. racter of many islands? — — — — ^^'here are volcanic islands most numerous? — What is said of the formation of new nental islands? — Pelagic islands? islands? . forming dangerous shoals . 1450 miles from the coast of Africa.adagascar. rendered insular by the incursions of the ocean.ISLANDS. and 520 miles from the Island of St. The geographical islands render it position and geological character of many highly. III. in their raise the land and the Alps. Those which are found form. of islands: East of the southern part of each continent is a large island. east of Africa — of South America. little known.Japanese. Paul's and a subject investigated by Humboldt. they are most numerous Though distributed of Jan Mayen. are in the midst of the the able creations have entirely disappeared beneath the surface of the sea others have slightly subsided. Solitary isles are is Island land. Ascension Island being its nearest neighbor. commonly. are remarkable exceptions to the general characteristic of solitary islands. with their extre- and Pacific Oceans. State — "What may be observed with reference to the coast-lines of the land on the two sides of the Atlantic Basin? What bold conception has been entertained from their peculiar outline? — Relate the results of Humboldt's observations on the mean height ? of continents. is a phenomenon of which we have mities pointing towards each other. coasts of continents. I. 080 from St. (belonging to the sea). The bold conception has been entertained from this peculiar outline. others are tracts. wide expanse of ocean. we find the northerly projection of the Peninsula of Jutland repeated in the Peninsula of Yucatan. and plains. about 22 feet while the plateau of Spain would produce an average elevation of 70 feet. Matthew. and just rising above high water mark . Of this class are the . is repeated in Africa by the Gulf of Guinea. generally of a West St. is their average elevation situated in the Atlantic Ocean. while others again have continued permanent. Comparing the two sides of the Atlantic Basin. disposition to unite IX. with somewhat surprising results. average above the level of the sea of 920 feet. 72° north. and forming the Straits of Thus the crystalline mountains of Corsica same direction. Both these islands are of volcanic formation. of which they undoubtedly form a part. generally that And an important member of eaeli conti: commonly small. and Pelagic. and Sardinia extend in the and are of similar formation to the maritime Alps. X. also in the Atlantic. are solitary islands? Give some examples. some of the points of resemblance between the two continents. 2. greatly varying in size.as M. entirely They rarely occur alone in the midst of a surrounded by water.able. Some islands are simple masses of sand deposited by the ocean. Descending to detail. well-authenticated records. creating the Atlantic valley. Some of these remark- other islands that extend along the coast of Asia the British Isles. and uniting North and S mth America. Rockall. 1. The mean height of continents. 1. to the Antarctic from the island Land. The remark. or a general scarcely C feet mountains. and the sea. have nearly the same latitude. and the average elevation of Europe is 070 feet. Their limits to the north of about 70 degrees. and 1200 from the shores of Africa. which some Island of 3. To what do some islands bear a general resemblance? What is rendered highly prob. plains. in the Indian Islands may be divided into two classes: Continental. Islands are masses of land. The Japanese Islands are a continuation of The West India Islands seem to have been the Peninsula of Kamtschatka. a mutual may be observed in the advancing and retreat- The great projection Western Africa is opposite the indentation of the Gulf of Mexico.able fiords or crevices of the coast of Nor- way. its 11 Table Mountain rising to the height of about 3500 feet.along the They are generally long and narrow. probable that they were formerly a portion of the neighboring continent. IV. having a general resemblance. on still some of which the volcanoes are active. . South America 1130 feet. as upon the tablethe Pyrenees were spread over Europe. plateaus. and Asia 1150 feet. east . they would . The deep bend in the western coast of South America. He finds that the mean height Rocks. though of rare occurrence. ocean poured. and submerged by water. 1. seven hundred miles east of Brazil. What are islands? — Into what two classes may they be divided — What are Conti- Of what origin. upon the mountain-chains. . He estimates that if more or less extensive. are repeated on the south-west coast of South America. scarcely a hundred yiirds in circumference. great convulsion separated. and spread over the plains of South America. the only important exceptions to the southerly direction of peninsulas. the nearest point of 2. 1. rivers. its Omitting Africa. The formation of new islands by sub-marine volcanic action. from the geographical position and geological chaIllustrate your statement. St. and many . and of volcanic origin. a narrow isthmus connecting Africa with Asia. through all latitudes. depends not so much lands. south-west of Peru. If the Andes were pulverized. 1800 miles from the coast of Brazil. into which the Helena. round or elliptical Pelagic — as Sandwich Islands. V. III. St. to the adjacent continent. Name some remarkable exceptions.

The depth of water in shape. the lagoons ranges from 100 to 300 feet. are confined exclusively to the Indian and Pacific Oceans. it rises with little inclination from a fathomless ocean stretches upwards of 1000 miles along the north-east coast varies in breadth from 200 yards to a mile. These rocks. and formally claimed by the court of the sea regained possession of the 3. which rose to the height of 3000 feet. In 1813. It attained imagined without having been seen. but immediately lining the shore. IX. and Barrier-reefs. or ele- 150 to 200 vated by volcanic action or other internal forces. Coral Islands. after a time. the fury of the breakers. coral belt is commonly at the distance of Indian and Pacific Oceans. waves — — or or that they are masses of sand washed up by the action by the or that they are of volcanic or coral formation. — — VII. ." the height of 300 feet. : . The tropical waters of the Eastern Atlantic and Eastern Pacific appear to be and in the The atolls are variously circular. nor at a greater depth than It always commences building its stony habitation on subfeet. by which vessels enter the interior ocean. Externally. surrounded by a lagoon. among the Bermudas. site. or of a large island. and was in great activity emitting vast volumes of steam. in describing AVhitsunday Island. and its height 107 feet. but gradually subsided. The . and in the Red Sea at S0° north. is presented below: — "The immensity of the ocean. or Island arose in the year 1831. and ceases its labor in an upward direction on reaching the The occurrence of coral below the depth mentioned surface of the water. 32° usually less than a quarter of a mile in breadth. various changes took place. 4. and all are beaten by a tempestuous sea and occasional hurricanes. or atolls. can hardly be 1538. north separated from of water it by some convulsion of nature. east of the Society Islands. marine land.— 12 The following localities 1. as far north as reefs. was about a mile in circumference. and wholly disappeared by the close of February. Atolls. Caledonia has a reef of this kind 400 miles long. Says Mr. Darwin. frequently at a considerable distance from the land. and in December it entirely disappeared. Coralline Formations are distributed into the four great classes of Lagoon-islands. is a fine example an island rising in mountains 7000 feet high. there were 500 feet of water at the spot. consist of a belt of coral enclosing a lagoon. vary in extent from a few square miles to enormous areas. when the temporary island of Sabrina rose off the coast of St. 1812. comprises 60 groups of atolls about 1000 miles in length. from half a mile to three miles broad. where they find excellent harborage. while all the coral above the surface has either been washed up by the stormy swell of the ocean. has openings or channels in its circuit. of New Guinea. enclosing no lagoons. both in the case of atolls and encircling reefs. in Mediterranean and Red Seas. . the 19th of July. Denmark but in a few months to this group in the year 180C. The coral. and in distance from the shore from 20 to 70 miles. The growth of coral reefs and islands is chiefiy confined to the Torrid Zone. are well-authenticated accounts of such creations in different taken from Beeohey's Voyage. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. when its circumference was about 3240 feet. Coralline islands. 4. Which Lagoon growth of Coral chapter. or vacant space of the ocean. it formed a shoal with 210 feet of water upon it. that would not Fringing-reefs occur exclusively among the West India Islands. vegetation springs up coral islands . Michael. and exposed to the atmosphere. These little creatures secrete from their food and from the surrounding sea-water a mass of matter which beccrme rocks. nent. subject to strong curreuts and squalls. — To — Recapitulate the subjects of this what Zone is the and the preceding . Encircling-reefs. is The surf ia said to beat on them with such violence as to be heard for a distance of 8 miles. islands ? — Name — Describe the formation of are Describe Encircling-reefs the four classes of Coralline Formations. and 200 feet deep. among the most interesting and wonare tbe work of minute animals. the principal of the Society group. elevated to the surface. be perceptible at a very small distance. — surface of the earth . or New Island. Aleutian Isles. the crater of the volcano On View of Whitsunday Island. and are also found in various parts of the Indian and Pacific waters. but the grandest example of coral formation known is the great Australian reef. 2. ashes. is an assemblage of 80 atolls. Coast of Sicibj. which formed it had arisen a few feet above the level of the sea. The Caroline Archipelago. oval. upwards of four geographical miles in circumference and a second appeared Both in 1814. — New islands appeared in connection with this group in the smoothness of the bright green water within the lagoon. Tahiti. Coast of Iceland. which is separated from the out-lying ocean by a reef of coral. In a few cases. Recapitulation. 3. and dust. a sketch of which. It thus appears that all the land on the arranged in the form of Continents or Islands that the continents have many points of contrast and resemblance that the islands are either portions of a continent occur singly and in groups. then slightly subsiding. from New The coral insect cannot exist if left dry. The lagoons themselves. Encircling-reefs differ only from the atolls in having one or more islands within the central expanse. chiefly confined? — Barrier-reefs — Fringing-reefs. From August until October. like an enormous moat. which is everywhere safely navigable. Barrier-reefs. have since remained firm. the largest of all. and 1720. was erupted in 1783. contrasted with the lowness of the land and The Azores. but for its vegetable clothing of cocoa-nuts and palms. become fitted for the habitation of man. and irregular They entirely destitute of coral formations. Give some examples of new islands which have arisen. In 1846. Barrier-reefs extend in straight lines in front of the shores of a conti- seeds and plants. and thus. in that year. Encircling-reefs. can only be explained on the supposition that the foundation on which the insect commenced to build has subsided. The coral above the surface of the water it is 15'. Many of the islets are inhabited. Fringing-reefs are mere ribbons of coral. 1587. Lagoon-islands. or enclosed spaces. 1. Dangerous Archipelago. to which their Indian name of Atolls is VIII. mostly circular. Many are of great size. which exist in countless numbers in the tropical parts of the derful operations of nature. 2. and so low. are broken up by the elements. and Fringing- waters of the Gulf Stream. it has been observed beyond the Tropics. but the best-known example occurred in 1811. — The island of Nyiie. The island increased in all its dimensions from that time until August. as in the warm generally applied. by which ships enter the lagoons. There are many openings through the reef. VI. The winds and the currents convey to them from a distance numerous two or three miles from the enclosed shore. —A new island was added — Ilotham Graham .

and only one sixteen-hundredth part of its diameter. but the highest mountain known. consisting of alternate ridges and depressions. Though making many curves and angles. Mountains are the highest elevations of the earth's surand with reference to their height. is only one five-thousandth part of the earth's The impression to greatest circumference. is a natural one. The surface of the earth is greatly diversified by mountains plains. be derived a very correct idea of the general formation of same general each other. quite precipi- usually correspond in their prevailing direction to the line of greatest extent in the tracts their descent in the direction of the valley of the Mississippi of country in which they are situated. rising above 28. In mountain ranges of low elevation. on an ordinary globe.000 feet. and when they do thus occur are usually of volcanic origin as Mount Etna. between the ridges are often the elevation of 20. ranging between 10. the third. those betAveen 2000 and 10. may be considered as IV.MOUNTAINS AND VALLEYS. find their way towards the reservoirs into which they flow. class. all inferior elevations being styled hills and they are frequently dreary. their descent towards the interior much more is gradual. the culminating point being near the centre. The mountain ranges gentle and gradual.s. hills. Italy. CHAPTER I. — continued line or succession of mountains constitutes termed a mountain chain or range. gentle slopes towards the interior. of the first class — Second — Third. and having an apparent connection with common mountain chain. It is through these depressions that rivers. The extre- V. the depressions forming three classes. Jamaica. and Porto Rico. A mountain system consists of a number of chains or ranges extending in the III. . as the AUeghanies. — The Andes are an example. feet. or from brooks trickling the mountain side. Alps. and long. and AtUs belong to the second class and the AUeghanies. of the islands of Cuba. Mountain chains are rarely simple. The culminating point of a mountain chain is its highest elevation. A single hair. direction. would fully represent the elevation. mities are usually of low elevation. Secondary lines or spurs branch off at various angles from the main chain stretching far away on to the plains. and nearly parallel with each other the whole constituting a grand chain. IV. — Which side has usually steep What eff'ect have mountains upon the spherical form of the earth? — Of what origin — Give some examples to illustrate your statement. They rise is abruptly f^'om the Pacific. and face valleys.000 feet. The popular idea of a mountain chain as consisting of a single elevated ridge resembling the roof of a house. in higher chains. and Mount Egmont in New Zealand. and upwards the second. and not a sphere. extending in the same general direction. and II. the entire mass of land being greatly elevated above the surrounding surface. — — How many usually are solitary mountains? — What constitutes a mountain chain? and give examples culminating point of a mountain chain? declivities? — What — What is the is a mountain system? Describe the general formation of a mountain chain. down from the melting snow of the mountain. that the mountains on the earth cause it be an irregular body. AVhite Mountains. and Kamtschatka are good illustrations of the truth of this general law. fed The Himalaya range and Andes are of the first class the Rocky Mountains. . but usually consist of distinct.000 feet . inhospitable regions. Pyrenees. the mountain chains The ascent of the AUeghanies from the Atlantic tous is . A what is LEVEL" OF THE SEA. MOUNTAINS AND VALLEYS. and those of the peninsulas of California. The above diagram from which may is a representation of a section of the Chilian Andes. and often short ridges. classes By what is the surface of the earth diversified? — What may they be considered as forming ? State the are mountaiDS? elevation. Mountain chains have usually steep declivities on the sides towards the ocean. The first class includes those rising to .000 slopes. Mountains are seldom found in plains remote from each other. and Appenines are examples of the third . . is far from being correct. the Peak of Teneriffe. A mountain chain is frequently hundreds of miles in width. those beautiful valleys . unfitted for the abode of man. 13 Mount Ararat. table-lands.000 and 20. as the fertile and Himalaya and Andes.

1-t PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. and the Balkan moun- The Grimsel Pass — A Scene among the Alps. it frequently comprises two or three different parallel ranges. through Mexico and Central America. which extend north-easterly along the Atlantic coast. Give a general description — of each of them. as in the Tacora Pass New World. conSome of the peaks of nects that chain with the Rocky Mountain system. This system includes several parallel ranges 5. The California 1. It is a fact chains constituting this system worthy of observation that most of the gold and silver hitherto discovered has been found in mountain ranges. sist of IX. Lawrence. the principal ranges extend —A in the direction of the line of the greatest length of the continent. from the southern extremity of the Peninsula of California nearly to the Peninsula of Alaska. The principal mountain systems of Europe and Asia connumerous nearly parallel ranges. be found that. Andean system.500 miles. considerably influences the climate of the extensive regions through which it passes. constitute the central European chain. 4. to — south-east coast of Brazil in several parallel ranges. is considered as forming two systems. tain chain The mines of the Andes. this chain is not continuous. the last zilian system. or Apalachian System. — Which two of them constitute a connected chain? — In what general direction do the principal mountain chains of the Old World extend? Name the mountain ranges Describe the grand central system of Europe and Asia. the separates 900 miles. Although constitute a conneoted chain. stituted the conline boundary intermixture of high table-lands and lofty mountains. The BraThe first three are in North America. a distance of more than 4500 miles. and AUeghanies. assuming the name of the easterly direction to the 38th parallel In ancient it continued in the same general direction to the Isthmus of Panama. 28. be i-egarded as the grand central chain from which secondary ranges of greater or less importance diverge at various angles. west of the Rocky Mountain system. varying point with It reaches its culminating width from 500 to 2000 miles. The California System. 1.000 miles. The Rocky Mountain and Andean systems extending along the Pacific coast from the Arctic Ocean to the southern extremity of South America. about midway between the Equator and the North Pole. — the Cevennes. which occupy the north ern and central regions of Asia. The Andean Sy. extending from east to west between the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers. VII.item. . The mountain systems of the Old World are much more New but on examination it will . The Sierra Madre. from about the 34th parallel of latitude to the Gulf of St. The Eochy Mountain System. The entire length of this range may be stated at 5. follows The Alleghany. The Rocky Mountain system. or Apalachian system. by from 1000 — 1200 miles in length. Their average elevation may be stated at 3500 feet. to the Himalaya range in Asia. The situation of this vast mountain band. the Alps. extending a distance of in grand little less than 8000 miles. the Andean system contains the loftiest ele- vations upon the globe. North America. it at the present time. — constituting the central European chain. X. and forms a separation between the warm. in Europe. the California system are of loftier elevation than any of the summits of the Kocky Mountain system. Next . countries of And. The mountain chains of America are fewer in number. from the Isthmus of Panama to the southern extremity of South America. The ranges are spread over a tract of country 350 miles in width. and the less genial northern countries. north-east to Cape St. at varying distances from the Pacific of from 25 to between the civilized na tions of the South and the barbarous the North. For convenience of description. the most eastern range of the California system. and in others of several parallel ranges and stretches along the Pacific coast. under about the 70th parallel of latitude. The system of the Parime. This system comprises all the mountains of 2. Humboldt extending in a northerly and southerly direction. The Andean system comprises the grand mounwhich extends in an unbroken line along the Pacific coast. and have an average elevation of perhaps 3000 or 4000 feet. Mount Kunchinginga. North of the Equator. the chain is times. system. the system 4. Ural mountains. 5. 6. rarely more than 3000 or 4000 feet in height. The Brazilian System. are found? In what direction do the principal mountain chains extend. from the uncivilized hordes . is an irregular Sierra Madre. which is reached at the low elevation of about 300 feet. * the Sierra Nevada. : The various ranges may be considered system. It consists in some parts of its extent of a single chain. and the highest point of land upon the globe. — The Rocky Mountains extend from near . extending from the as constituting one eastern shores of the Atlantic to the western shores of the Pacific. The average width of the mountain 3. constituting the coast-chain of Venezuela and Cumana. strikingly Australia and California gold in recent discoveries of confirm the truth of this general law. more simple. yet it is sufiiciently so to three in South America. of elevations. gold and silver the verified by this fact as first called attention to VI. The Cantabrian mountains. at various distances from the ocean of from 20 to 80 miles. and more readily traced than those of the old world. this chain. may be stated at from 00 to 150 miles. the longest upon the globe. The 3. in a southhere. The Brazilian mountains extend along the 6. a spur from the main chain extends in a north-easterly direction along the coast of tlie Caribbean Sea. a peak of the Himalaya range. though its average elevation is not so great. the Arctic Ocean. the low range of This system consists of a series The Alleghany. Roque. — consists of but a single chain north of this latitude. in which gold and silver Name the six mountain eystems of America. the Pyrenees. as 2. at various distances from the ocean of from 30 to 300 miles. South of latitude 20° south. complicated than those of the VIII. tains. from the river Uruguay. many of the higher peaks being active volcanoes. a distance of more than 2000 miles. "\ lew in the Andes. They may be considered as constituting six distinct systems. A spur from — more civilized nations of Persia and India. fertile regions of Southern Asia. Tlie System of the Parime.176 feet high. a distance of more than 10.

The various branches of the Describe the secondary ranges which diverge from the central European chain. The Ghaut mountains of Ilindoostan. a series of disconnected elevations. and from the great Alpine system numerous branches extend northward into central Europe. Elburz. which borders nearly the whole of the northern and eastern frontiers of Hungary. South of tliis 15 cuiitral cliaiii. — Describe — Name the mountains constituting the central the four grand Systems extending to the Pacific from the mountain knot of Hindoo Koosh. The most southern of these systems. the system of the Kuen Llin. which separate The entire north-western part of Africa. are little known. forming the northern boundary of the fertile plains of India. Mountain Chains of Central Europe. to the Pacific is a distance of 1000 miles. connecting these various systems. Between the Nile and the Red Sea commence the mountains of Abyssinia. e&l Irum ±_AJ_i±tk^:M > gitude Las in W ash n gton 9-. The rugged and is lofty mountain systems knowledge of them in this There are probably other grand division of the earth. The principal mountain systems of Africa are the Atlas Sneeuw mountains of South Kong is mountains. near the Equator. and is probably continued through the Kurile Islands and Japan. extending north-easterly from the Atantic a distance of 1500 miles. a distance of 1700 miles and the Scandinavian mountains. continued through China to the Pacific by the Nanling mounFurther north. Kuen LUn. system. which separate Europe and Asia.— Describe each of them. Tartary and Siberia. and Hindoo Koosh mountains.— no means satisfactorily determined. whence the central chain is continued to the Pacific in four distinct mountain systems. The chain of Mount Jura. from Thian Shan. are the principal ranges of these regions. and whose course may be traced from the northern extremity of Nova Zembla. Western Asia. to about 75° cast longitude. to make China one south. Italian. though the existence of such a range is by Many secondary chains of importance diverge at various angles from the main chain already described. upon the globe. is the highest mountain in Europe. The Caucasian system. are the only mountain ranges of note in Europe and Asia unconnected with the great central chain already described. are spurs of the system of the Himalayas. in a south-easterly direction. is the Himalaya range. reaches the Pacific near Behring's Strait. which extends southwardly Balkan mountains. this central chain is continued in Asia. and the XIII. and taking a north-easterly direction.— Describe The one between the Rirer Nile and Red Sea. XI. and Asia not connected with the central chain. the one north of the Great Desert the two mountain systems of Europe — . the culminating point of this a length of about 700 miles. The Sierra Morena and Sierra Nevada in the Spanish Peninsula. Which ! are the principal secondary chains of the central system in Asia? — Name Where are the Caucasus mountains? chain in Asia. and the chain of fripni Mount Pindus. enclosing the great desert From the same mountain knot branches ofl' to the of Cobi. between Europe and Asia. The lofty elevations of the Hindoo Koosh form a mountain knot or group. and Grecian Peninsulas. The Solimaun mountains are an important range. among the grandest and most stupendous The Ural mountains. are the mountain ranges of the Spanish. which are supposed to be continued at a considerable distance from the African coast. extends in a southeast and north-west direction. are supposed to be among the loftiest elevations of this extenThe system of the Sneeuw-bergen or Snow mountains comprises sive chain. forming the northern boundary of the tains. South of the Equator this chain has been long recognized by geographers under the name of the Lupata mountains. the Africa. Crossing the slight interruption of the Dardanelles and Sea of Marmora. range. and the Carpathian mountains. iiiiJ more ur luss di^ti^Ltly coniiocteil with it. nearly to the southern extremity of the Peninsula. as a ridge . protecting its vast plains from the chilly winds which sweep across the low lands of the north. table-land of Thibet. a number of ranges extending across South Africa from ocean to ocean. North-westwardly from the Cevennes. are the most important. which are believed to be at least 20. and the other ranges of the Indian Peninsulas. continued by the Peling mountains. in a southerly direction.000 feet in height. branching off to the south from the mountain knot of the Hindoo Koosh. the Auvergne m^ iintains extend into the centre of France. and Northern Africa. north-east the vast system of the Altai mountains. There are probably many secondary chains extending north and Altai. the "Xorigitude V\ which separates France and Switzerland. but our • very limited. by the Taurus. the Appe- nines in Italy. which extend from Cape North to the southern extremity of Norway. is occupied by the Atlas range. The recently-discovered Peaks of Kenia and Kiliraandjaro. which contribute of the most mountainous countries on the globe.MOUNTAINS. Belor range first takes a northerly direction.— Which are the principal mountain systems of Africa. but continued in an easterly course by the Thian Shan. the Abyssinian mountains. between the Great Desert and the Mediterranean Sea. and Himalayan mountains. between the Black and Caspian Seas. A branch from the Altai system extends through Kamtsohatka. through Mount Elbruz. XII.

earth may XIV. which be crossed. roads : From the Mexican Gulf it is only accessible by two carriage. — RecapitulaIt thus ap- ries render it doubtful if the position assigned to them be correct. Chains of mountains are variously intersected by valleys. OR TABLE-LANDS. but slopes towards of the Solimaun MountaiDS. that solitary mountains are usually more frequently they are narrow of volcanic formation. is a Land having an as table-land. the term Table-Land applied? — De— the Great Basin of Utah — By what Basin known other name Describe the Great Mexican Plateau. account of having been first explored by Lieut. 500 miles long. having a comparatively level surface. direction of the line which form two leading chains. several parallel ranges. south of the Kong mountains. parallel. the interior. tain hills valleys. with a considerable area of elevation of less than 2000 feet. The surface of this Plateau supports several high mountains. and Hie Great Mexican Plateau. extending in the XV. and serve as a platform for lofty mountain peaks acter is that of but its prevailing char- South of the Great Basin of Utah. Fremont. an dlonc igentie View of the Bolan Pass— A Transverse Valley the in Transverse valleys are sometimes gradual and gentle depressions in mountain ranges. North America. They are so drawn on the authority of Ptolemy. makes the existence of such a chain a matter of great uncertainty. which divide it into separate and distinct plains. but decline by a gradual slope towards the encircled on every side systems. CHAPTER I. with an elevation of from 4000 to 6000 feet. of considerable width. is PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. verse. The Kong mountains They are of inconsiderable elevation. many of which are volcanoes. to the II. chains have usually steep declivities on Valley of the Sacramento and San Joaquin in California. are of this class. is The table-land of Anahuac is from 6000 to 9000 feet in height. the sides towards the ocean. ginia. dered as constituting distinct by elevations rising rarely moi-e These elevations have a precipitous 3000 feet. The Valley of Vir700 miles in length. and or Table-Land. are sometimes scenes of great magnificence — Atlantic Ocean. be traversed may con- most part a desolate region. and is also traversed by several well-defined ridges. through which only can high mountain chains Such are the Passes of the Himalaya and Andes. between the Rocky Mountains and the coast-range of the Pacific. on 1. It appears. lowing sections : — This region may be divided into the fol- PLATEAUS. 8L by mountain . and. A Plateau. thirty miles hroad. so celebrated for gold. also. What a Longitudinal valley? — What is — the the — is a Transverse valley? of each. as the famous South Pass Oregon. is plain surface. parallel with the northern coast of the Gulf of Guinea. that. the Mountains of the Moon are represented as an often of appalling gloom and peril. ridges. It is for the — vated land. The Plateau of North America extends from about the 50th parallel of north latitude. The Cameroon mountains are a group of volcanic formation. so noted for its fertility and beauty. ofthegreatestlength of the district in si- and extend in the same general direction with them. and extend in an easterly direction from the and frightful gorges. doubtless a continuation of the chain bordering the eastern constitute another African system. extends from the 44th to the 37th parallel of latitude. — Recapitulate the subjects of — Give an example this chapter. ? — is is ? this . pears that the mountain chains indeed. the ancient Egyptian geographer but recent discoveeasterly continuation of the Kong XV. and a healthful Plateaus of the Western Continent. Transverse valleys cut the ridges at right angles.— 16 This system coast. mountains. The principal table-lands of this region are the Plateaus of Chihuahua and Anahuac. and the which they are tuated. the other by is Saltillo both of which were made Where are the Kong raouutains? On what authority have the Mountains of Moon been represented on Maps ? Where are the Cameroon mountains? Describe — mountains of Australia. What a Plateau? this scribe the Plateau of is Above what elevation Where North America. one by Jalapa. that these systems usually consist of low lands of the centre of the island. The table-land of Chihuahua. it is like a range of high mountains. — and generally fertile region. on the western upon the be consi- coast of Africa. is the Great Mexican — an elevated region. The descent from it is very steep on all sides on the east especially . The Great Basin of Utah. than 2000 or ascent from the water. south-easterly through the central part of Mexico and Central America. — Describe each of them. and extend in Longitudinal valleys are frequently of great extent. extending south-easterly to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. On most maps of Africa. it is so precipitous. . but is Australia appears to have no central mountain range. — that the an opposite direction from the longitudinal. termed longitudinal and transLongitudinal valleys separate parallel ridges of mountain classes. and is bounded on all sides by mountain chains. — Which are the principal Table-lands of Plateau. also called Fremont Basin. Isthmus of Panama. seen from a distance. tion. not usually regarded barren region. north of the 24th Plateau. V. is an extensive tract of It ele- This Basin. a more particular description of which will be found on page 2.

.000 feet. of which these are the enormous ramparts. and This table-land comprises on the west the cold. Western Ghauts and the Vindhya mountains. from about longitude 81° East. IV. Its Plateaus may be divided into the table-lands of Central. and in the centre consists of extensive salt wastes and immense seas of sand. strength. (page 81): of the Cobi. 21. Southern and South-iccstern Asia contain the table-lands of Hindoostan. and even 8000 feet. in the north. a distance of about 1000 miles. 3. and " Ilan-hai. Middle. teaus of South America. but most elevated having an average height of about 3000 feet. — Which — What table-lands are found in Southern of them are Hindoostan? — Describe the Plateau in Brazil. The country rises westward from the low hills of the Isthmus of Panama to the height of 5000. Its surface is for the most part of shingly gravel. palace. or nature ever exhibited. III. in Upper Thibet. being only from 200 to 1200 feet hin-h. which is in itself three times the extent of Switzerland. and from the plains of the Euphrates and Tigris. 4 .330 feet. between the parallels of 37° and 48°. A singular valley. comprising an — area nearly four times as great as that of the State of New York. the Indian Ocean. and SoutU-western Asia? of Iran. Lieut. leaving only the Caspian Sea. The Plateau of Bogota. Bogota. in Persia. and Popayan. or narrow cleft in the earth. and rising in some places to more than 7000 feet. the table-land of Mysore. The table-land of Thibet occupies the space between the Kuen Llin and Himalaya mountains. and immediately adjoining it. rather of Iran. though there is an extensive tract . comprising . " there will be a single stream flowing through what in future ages is Lake Titicaca . 1. and Costa Rica. The territory.^-!gl*Sg*i?^ View of Nevado de Sorata. with an average elevation of 13." also called by the Chinese "Shamo. are to the now removed times currents of hot air of so high a temperature as to produce a similar effect. Gibbon's Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon. "the south. table-land of Deccan. The table-land of Lake Titicica. 220 miles long. Titicaca. Looking to the south. "a naked desert. 4. nearly to the Indus River. but having in some places a breadth of only about an eighth of a mile. in his volume. This Plateau is divided into three sections the most southerly of which. — of shifting sands near the centre. The elevated land occupied by the city of Popayan is a Plateau formed by the main trunk of the Andes. The British soldiers. by from 30 to CO miles in width. 2. into the low marshy plains of the Madeira and Paraguay Rivers. the capital. and of Arabia. between the parallels of 15° and 30° of south latitude. surrounded by lofty mountains. and include the three Plateaus of Guatemala." " Finally. and glancing towards the north. 1.in area of about 4000 square miles. and Little Thibet.000 feet high. The Great Desert of Cobi. Asia contains a greater area of table-land than any other grand division of the globe. and of Southern and South-western Asia. wt-t shore of Lake Titicaca. In the central region it sinks to 2400 feet. Central Asia. the boundaries of which have been defined above. and the desert tract of Plateau Despoblado Plateaus of the Eastern Continent. at an absolute elevation of 13. OR TABLE-LANDS. stands the city of Mexico." says Humboldt. in New Granada. a length of about 140 miles. and is 500 miles long. Lassa. lies more than half the size of Lake Erie. The within the may be called Titicaca Valley. of Asia Minor. " there is one of the most enchanting prospects the human eye ever witnessed. Less elevated and less extensive than the great Plateau just described. is shown by the cultivation of plants which cannot thrive without a certain degree of heat. — Describe the Plateau of Quito — Bogota — Popayan What Plateaus are included in the table-lands of Central America ? What divisions may the Plateaus of Asia be considered as forming? — Describe at ? length the different Plateaus of Central Asia. The table-land of Brazil extends westward from the coast-range of the South America. treeless though not less grandly environed by magnificent heights." 3." This region includes the plain of Cuzco. and is divided from east to west into Upper. enclosed by a barrier of rocks. when debilitated by service under the : triangle formed by the Eastern and — tropical suns of Hindoostan. eleven mountains covered with perpetual snow present themselves. the name signifying in the Mongolian language. Its mean elevation is 4000 feet." Cold winds blow over this desolate region from the mountains on the west and south-west. there are in Asia. South of the table-laud of Titicaca. with an average altitude of 2000 feet." says he. so keenly as to chafe the skin when exposed to them yet there are some. but has an average elevation of nearly 9000 feet.000 feet. than which few parts of the globe can be more uninviting. where one boundless uninterrupted Plateau was formerly imagined to exist. and the table-land of Brazil. the loftiest summit being the Nevado de Sorat. crosses this tract The Plateau of Iran. being 9590 feet above the level of the sea. — stretching along the tops of the Andes. speaking of the city of Quito. the highest city in the world.280 feet above the level of the sea. at an elevation above the ocean of 7430 feet. is the highest Plateau in America. frum tb. — Name the Pla— What are the divisions of the great Plateau of the Andes — Describe each of these divisions. is an extensive tract of land called Despoblado. Brazilian mountains." — Thiau Chan mountains is He states that the country north-west of the lowland. It contains the and basin of Lake in the south. — Taken from even true lowlands. is a great mass of table-land from 3000 to 12.a. is doubted by Humboldt. has a level surface.'" in Hindoostan. exhibits a varied surface. comprising an area estimated at more than half a million of square miles a territory more than ten times the extent of the State of New York. is the table-land " From the terrace of the government of Quito. The common opinion that the whole of Central Asia east of the Belor mountains. instead of being sent home to recruit their high lands of this Plateau. and has an average elevation of about 11. "That outside of the Thibetian Highlands and lie also states.— PLATEAUS. 5." the dry sea. Yet the mountain ridges and elevated peaks which form its boundaries rise to double its height. Potosi. "uninluxhikd. lies between the Thian Shan and the Kuen Liin mountains and stretches in a north-east direction. a narrow border of lowland along the Persian Gulf. Nicaragua.L:2^^SAi. Gibbon reports that it is gradually filling up that "the water is getting shallower every year. by 30 broad. stands on the southern end of this Plateau." 2. is the smallest. The great Plateau of the an enormous mass of lofty table-land. the elevated position of which gives them a temperate climate in a torrid zone. while towards the wall of China it rises to the height of 5800 feet. extends from Asia Minor. sinking gradually towards the west. between the Altai and Himalaya chains. The Tahh-lands of Central America extend from the Isthmus of Tuhuantepeo to the Isthmus of Panama. the elevated plains of Quito. The surface is much broken by numerous the mountain chains. It is of limited extent." tJie sea of sand. On one of the plains of this Plateau. their bases apparently resting on the verdant hills that surround the city. from north to south. points of attack 17 by the Army of tlie United States during the recent war between the two nations. plains of Armenia. — The Plateaus of South America Andes is consist of the great Plateau of the Andes. considerable depressions and /^-^. "Aspects of Nature. to the eastern extremity of Chinese Mongolia.

. — The its Forest Plains of the Amazon. Amazon. H. On the south. bottom.iin. — — — — . is 2220 feet above the level the Peninsula. and rivers. American Plain. V. is — The only European Plateau worthy of mention division of the great South American They are so level and so vast.— 18 The Plateau chains which of Asia Minor.astern and Western Continent. Martin's description of the Northward slope. rivers. possess — — — Name and describe the principal European Plateaus. mountain ranges. animals. South America. — This table-land may be considered as constituting three which rise distinct Plateaus. The first of these Plateaus a well-watered and soil. — The entire country of Abyssinia may be considered as one by lofty It rises precipitately half the distance around the globe. Table-land rise at is sterility and desolation but with which seemed almost extinguished. marshes. west of Norway. A Plain is a tract of land comparatively level. the capital.anoouver's Island. more beautiful and more vigorous." The climate For eight months in the year the entire country \i is extremely severe. America. of the La Plata. is beasts. along by the winds. and the prises the entire Peninsula east of the of the systems of the Brazilian Brazilian table-land. the return of the rains. and the rivers and ponds. fertile is The Northward or Arctic slope includes the greater part of country. H. which in the hot season is impassable to man and deserted by Table Mount. The principal divisions of this great Plain are the Llanos of the Orinoco. presenting nearly the same elevation over the whole group. fifteen feet in depth. R. the and the barren wastes of Patagonia. supported by the mountain chains which approach the coast. is — The interior of Arabia little elevated above the surface of the ocean. a stupendous mass of rock 3500 feet in height. the whole central part of ocean. lakes. The term is not very little usually applied to land rising to the height of more than 2000 feet. bordering the Nile. " It is difficult. nearly equal to half Madrid. Describe the Plateau of Asia Minor Of what Table-lands in Africa do we Describe the Plateau of Abyssiniaany reliable information ? South Africa. guarded elevated peaks. Europe. as if the ocean had been suddenly petrified while heaving its huge billows in a tumultuous There are. and excessive heat of the climate of this region. North America. succeed rich pastures. the sea-coast of that peninsula. fidence of the character of surface. see page 81. 1. Name the principal divisions of the Describe the Llanos. several spots adapted in some respects foi swell. are frozen to the 2. where range a multitude of and the country a gloomy scene of . The only table-lands of out its which there is any thing like certain information. extending as far as the region of periodical inunda- as well as continents. few and fat between. known. occupy the not unfrequently characteristic of islands lower part of tion. for a full description of which. Martin. Basin. entitled "An Account of the Hudson Bay Territories and V. are an example. swamps. called Selvas." says Mr.000 squai-e miles. the second contains extensive tracts of barren and the third a clay desert. North cessive terraces. " under the same parallel. I. and on the northwest sinks away gradually towards the low lands. covered with snow. slope comprises the great Valley of the Mississippi The Southward and the fertile lowlands bordering on the Gulf of Mexico. but it is supposed to consist mainly of barren table-lands. and supporting many from the Red Sea. but they are like oases in the desert. 2. divided from each other and from the maritime lowlands by parallel mountain ranges. springs up To the powdered sand swept again. sliirt PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. life. doubtless. — The Plains is {Llanos. Plains of the Western Continent. IV. South Africa. great S. Llanos. II." " it is difficult to convey an idea of the physical aspects of this vast region. VII. are those of Abyssinia and South Africa. Africa. and Southward slope. barren hills and hollows. produce an extraordinary luxuriance uf animal and vegetable life. of the Western Continent stretches nearly from Pole in and that of the Eastern an opposite direction. CHAPTER PLAINS. Arabia. and from the It comprises a Northward III. covered with numerous salt lakes. towards the north from the ocean in three sucis Rocky Mountains to the Alleghanies. The moisture. Eepeat R. treeless prairies. European settlements.) of the Orinoco. Repeat Guyot's account of the Selvas. the limits of this table-land are undefined it may extend beyond great table-land. which the height of 2000 feet. where Africa presents only parched table-lands. the distinction between Plains and Plateaus being the difference in their elevation. Plain. 1. those What is a Plain? Give the extent of each of the great Plains of the E. north of Canada and the United States. — This grand division of the earth has not yet been sufficiently explored to permit geographers to speak with conits The Eastern and Western Continent each contains throughentire length a vast though not uninterrupted Plain. heat." says Guyot. VI. situated at the southern extremity of this Plateau. bays. — The great Plain of South America comAndes. or Anatolia. — The great central Plain of North shores of the Arctic Ocean to the Gulf the Equator. once to The Faroe Islands. Arabia. Selvas. is enclosed -within the mountain It has an average though some of the summits of its mountain height of 3000 or 4000 ramparts far exceed this elevation. of the Mediterranean. those boundless virgin forests of the Basin of the Amazon. continually reminded of the smooth surface of the During the dry season these Plains are parched by the scorching is which consists of a series of lofty plains. with the exception and Parime mountains. as also of the Atlantic slope. The Plain to Pole. in his volume. and but having no visible outlet. that the traveller that of the Spanish Peninsula. America extends from the of Mexico. almost Abyssinia. " Behold. constitute the northern VI. 2. Name the two slopes of the great North American Plain. The whole territory consists of inland seas. tossed together in a wave-like form. This table-land is driiined by the rivers which flow into the Black Sea. 1. but there is an extensive tract north of the Taurus mountains. the Selvas of the Pampas View of Table Mountain. ? fined to Continents — Give an example — Are Plateaus — — — exclusively con- to prove your statement. and totally inapplicable for extended colonization. feet. The Plateau comprises 93.

Plains of Europe consist? soil — Give a particular description of the European division of Plain. interspersed with These Plains are sterile numerous large boulders. soil. Continent View of the City of Turin. infinitely varied. and to the . almost unbroken. V. while parts of surface are arti- the eastern extremity of the Continent. that the swamps. boldly uplift their heads 150 or 200 feet above the ground. or forming but there are also considerable quantities of waste lands. referring to the character of the surface. viz. Its eastern section lies between the Arctic Ocean at the north. — The Plains of Europe — consist of the European division of the great Northern Plain. Above the region of periodical overflow. and the Black Sea and Caucasus Mountains at the south further westward. The country around the eastern and southern shores of the Baltic abounds with lakes. The greater part of this Plain is exceedingly level. is west of the Pampas . Pampas — The Wastes of Patagonia boundaries of the great Northern Plain of the Eastern Continent. rich pasturage for numerous herds of is Lower sists of Steppes. or with a species of heath. Irtysh there The land is is ramparts. and the country north of the Gulf of Guayaquil. Tliese Plains. The Pus/zas of Hungary are deep sand. and the abundance of pasture and capable of supporting a numerous population. This Plain comprises a large extent of land composed of the richest vegeand there are wide tracts clothed with natural forests of pine fir. afford — Sea and the River Ural. (see page 13). on the Plains of Lombardy. renders it of salt steppes. or masses of rock lying on the Ocean. stretch the desert Plains of tracts. — Muchof the surface of Denmark and Northern Germany con— a desolate region of sand. 2. — The Plains of Asia Iped of a great sea or inland lake. are the Pampas or Plains of Buenos Ayres. or to the nature soil. it is limited on the south by the Carpathian Mountains and the mountains of Germany. Climbing-plants. called Landes. extends from the foot of the Ural Mountains westward. The Northern Plain comand Indei)endent Tartary. Certain of the 1. and of the Plains of Eastern and Southern Asia. Hungary. Denmark.: PLAINS. Northan extensive tract of country. or clothed with heath and pines. which lies north of the central mountain band. habited. and of the Plains of Southern 1. the great Northern Plain. Holland. 4. and the country around the Caspian and the Lake of Aral considerably below the level of the Mediterranean. boundless cold is Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Sea. Between the 32d parallel and the Rio Negro. Bohemia. And what luxuriance of vegetation! The Palm-trees. France. surface. but more generally covered with pine woods. — The only by the fertile banks of the mountain-torrents which rush to the sea. The most extensive tract of low land upon the Eastern is the great Northern Plain of Europe and Asia. Europe. — Give — Of what do the the What Europe? the Steppes? — Name the principal Plains of Asia. The Steppes of Russia comprise a great extent of country bordering on the Black Sea. which indicate by their appearance that they were once the IX. and lakes of salt and fresh water. covered with sand and gravel. Thus the sea is kept out of Holland by Arctic Ocean. The Ural Mountains form the line of separation between the Asiatic and European divisions of this Plain. many. to the ports of the 1. The rocky hills of Valdai. sea-coast of Bolivia is occupied by the desert of Atacama. which are for the most part extremely fertile those of Hungary and the Lower Danube sending vast supplies of grain . being about 200 feet above the sea. and Odessa. Selvas. number. From the its soil. The principal Plains of Southern Europe are those of Lombardy. by their and Southern Russia is equally productive. near the source of the Volga. twining lianos. from 10 to 100 miles wide. these Plains are called the Higher Steppes. Poland has long been called the granary of Europe. abounding in lakes and salt marshes still higher. which has an uncommonly large proportion of fertile contains also in the south vast sandy downs. nine times the area of France. The Patagonian Andes rise abruptly from the sea but to the north. with their what vigor 19 — slender forms.— This term break through with success. mixed with salt pools. near the shores of the Arctic. all is a wide-spreading desolation timber-land. stretches from the foot of the Ural Mountains to so low that at Irkoutsk. and the Turkish Provinces of the Danube. and from the Altai Mountains to the below the ficial is level of the ocean. On the banks of the River a district twice the area of the British Isles. VII. which ia never rains. Wastes of ratai/onia. — What divisions does the Northern Plain comprise? — Describe the great Plain of Siberia. woodystemmed. and combine them in a solid mass of vegetation. relieved . — State the character of the of this — The Pacific Slope. though the richness of and covered with heath or sand. Dantzic. This great Plain. without reference to the character of the soil. Laiides. //ea^/is. which are either wholly barren. — Describe the Pustzas. surround them with their flexible branches. by their height. wheat grows in great luxuriance. the elevation is but 1240 feet. this region is a sandy waste. of the Rio Negro. From the Carpathian to the Ural Mountains. names are given to certain districts of the European Plains? Heaths? Landes? Which are the principal Plains — — — — Where are of Southern . Asia. The spongy soil is perpetually frozen to the depth of several hundred local feet. forming the most gigantic wilderness of this kind that exists in any Continent. prises Siberia 1. and extending to the Caspian Step2)es. or low shrub. The Northern Plain. and contains extensive tracts of marshy land. Black Sea. almost unin- table mould. over a length of more than 1500 miles. Plains of the Eastern Continent. southward to the Black Sea. of the Plain. and by the majesty of their foliage. through North Ger- VIII. is the most important interits The Plain of Siberia ruption to the uniformity of this great Plain. and Belgium. a narrow strip of land. either swamps and morasses. and form part of the rich wheat district of Southern Russia. VI. we 3. on the Baltic. on the Black Sea. and extending from the foot of the Andes to the Atlantic Ocean. near the southern limits the highest elevation of which is only 1100 feet. covered with a heavy growth of grass. again appear rich grassy meadows." find vast plains of rich grass. Farther north. — South sandy tracts. Describe the so intense. sometimes entirely naked. and domineer over all the other trees of these wilds.c. and at the head-waters of the Madeira and Paraguay Rivers. a distance of 1500 miles. lies between the ocean and the foot of the mountains. is generally applied to treeless plains. T/ie Pacific <S7oj. The eastern section. impenetrable to man. being among the greatest grain sea-ports in the world. districts of western shores of France. called the cattle and droves of horses. West of the River Don. consist of the Asiatic division of the great Northern Plain of the Eastern Continent. which the axe alone can districts in the European Plains receive local names. and extends from the Bay of Biscay and the North Sea to Behring's Strait. there is scarcely a rise in the ground. Painpas. nor wet by moistened by dew. 3. Europe. Except in Chili. and extending from the foot of the Andes to the Atlantic Patagonia. display their own flowers upon the foliage.

north of the Table-land. recently been explored They report the . is the extenIt is a region of great fertility. and terrific waste upon the globe. the southern its and contains bound- ary of this Plain are undefined. This region. from Siberia. vated and most populous tracts on the globe. and in the Western also. extending from the shores of the East and Yellow Seas to a disIt is well watered. conthe general desolation. 3. In the north. or Independent Tartary. — — —What are Oases? — Describe the Plain of Egypt — The Plain — State the result of recent explorations in South Africa. — From this and the preceding chapters. is the The Oases of the Desert are fertile spots. is a Plain of limited extent. are the Sahara or Great Desert. and comprise by far the larger portion of the earth's surface they lands and low lands. the inhabitants are chiefly devoted to This vast region is in general almost destitute of water. and camels. other smaller sections. that during the rainy season the rivers overflow the country to such an extent that is commu- carried on X. and most parched. and is only productive to an extremely limited extent. of the river. separated by mountain chains 1. The Plain of Hindoosian separates tlie table-lands of Southern India from the region of the Himalaya Mountains. Where is the Plain of Independent Tartary? Name the principal Plains of Eastern Where is the Plain of Mantchooria? Describe the Plain of and Southern Asia. They were informed by by means of canoes. — The Valley of the Nile. The Eastern Continent its is remarkable for the extent of waste land. extends around three sides and the sea. it possesses great natural fertility. as the interior of Africa and Australia are yet only imperfectly known. appears that the land-surface of the earth consists of high extending around the head of the Persian Gulf. well watered and highly fertile tracts. near the banks of the Amoor. They ference of the globe. has by zealous English Missionaries. — What supposed be the character of the surface of the interior of Australia? — For what the Eastern Continent remarkable? — Kecapitulate the subjects of and the preDescribe the Sahara. Central Africa. the natives. south. it Recapitulation. or like the Llanos of South America. goats. agriculture. though it is now very thinly inhabited. though not wholly barren. from 750 to 1200 miles in width. 1. XI. Describe China The Plains of Farther India. A great belt of desert stretches across It is Northern Africa into Central Asia.20 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. and is afertile lowland. ficient — The greatest cities principal Plains of Africa. or salt-marsh. extent. explorations of the interior confirm these suppositions. and some of them are of considerable extent. The Plain of Tiirheslan. Its area is about half that of the State of Maine . several hundred square miles in extent. a dreary zone of sand. which occur here and there amidst They are usually at a lower level than the face of the country around them. and extends over nearly one-third of the circumTracts of desert land occur in are The Plains of Faj-ther India skirt the coast of that Peninsula. Central Africa. conKirghis Steppes support wandering tribes of herdsmen. and its average elevation is about 1500 feet above immense number of horses. in the lower part of its course. Iran. and South and that other large tracts. sist — Geographers possess That it is . The Russians have lately taken possession of the northern part. The principal Plains of Eastern and Southern Asia are — XII. but towards their mouths. accuracy to attempt their description. further east. yet in former times entii-e supported a population one-third as great as that of the 3. containing the and sterile tract. but of inexhaustible fertility. it in Egypt. extending to the mountain region of the Syrian coast. to of Central Africa.- — South of the Sahara. — — — — — Tehama? — Name the principal Plains of Africa. taining a dense population. called the of the Arabian Peninsula. which extends nearly to the banks of the River Indus. whose wealth sists in their The SaJiara. and contains an area of more than 800. Australia. and stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to the Valley of the Nile. : : are the scenes of man's highest civilization. The Plain of Mantcliooria. and China. Where is the Plain of Hindoostan ? Where is the district of low land called the the Plains of the Tigris and Euphrates. in Bokhara. —A portion of South Africa. extends from the 2. dry. Its area is equal to four-fifths that of the United States. United States in 1850. called the Great Indian Desert. low land. and have established fortifications and a naval arsenal near the — interior of the great island of Australia. a dense population. Africa. south-western part of Siberia to the northern limits of the Plateau of land. Mongolia. between the mountains Tehama. and densest population. and the Plains of Egypt. Many 4. . To the west of the Plain of the Ganges is a sandy tract. This is a The high lands comprise Mountains and more than 2000 feet they are always found in immediate connection. The low lands are elevations less than 2000 feet above the level of the sea. 2. Africa. the also much that is well adapted for pasturage and tillage. gravel. is Kong Mountains . discovery of a level Plain. The Plain of China embraces the north-eastern part of the country of that name. is drained by the waters of the River Amoor. or Sea of Sand. its of Lake Tchad and a part of the country drained by In the western part of the sive Plain of Central Africa. have only a scanty growth of grass or heath year. waters a very fertile tract. — Near the XIV. it is this ceding chapters. At the the sea. Immediately to the west of the Euphrates begins the Syrian Desert. The attentive student known with suf- has not failed to perceive that large tracts of the land have not yet been explored. as portions of Asia and South America. sheep.000 square miles. watered by many nication large rivers. and and Euphrates. 5. watered by the River Ganges and its tributaries. . . a distance of 3000 miles. This river. is inferred from little It is the sluggish movements of the rivers of country. and including the inland basin the Niger. and is one of the best-cultitance of 500 miles inland. other parts of the Eastern Continent. The limited mouth 2.-y^-pe^ View on the Plain of Turkestan. southern limits South Africa. Plain of Egyi^t. are stripped of their vegetation during a part of the The Plains of ilie Tigris is these rivers the country upper courses of mostly bai-ren. Plateaus. knowledge of the supposed to conlow land. but has desert of tracts extensive contains region vast This or Persia. barren. of a vast barren plain. 4. — This immense Desert extends from the Atlas Mountains southward to about the 15th parallel of north latitude. from the small that it is a barren tract number of those rivers. XIII. and include all elevations of A narrow belt of hot.

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Give an example also of the amount of lava thrown out at a single eruption. its stream of lava from Vesuvius. and 40 miles in length. and the thickness to which they have fallen. pro- ceeds slowly. that they were eleven seconds in falling. a few inches below the surface and smoke vras observed to issue from it in 1827.22 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. in 1783. distance. furnishes an additional illustration of the immense subterranean power which causes the eruption. mud.000 feet. north of Quito. and are carried out by internal disturbance through crevices. 473. but simply Pompeii and Ilerculaneum. most strikingly displayed IV. To what was the putrid fever at Ibarra ascribed ? Give examples to show the area over which ashes have been strewn. jets of lava having the appearance of columns of were thrown up to the height of at least 10. VII. or forty thousand to millions of tons . in 1804. locally known by the name of "prenaabound in the under-ground reservoirs of the district. guages. which gives an elevation of 2000 feet. and even small fishes have been observed in the case of the Andean volcanoes . The amount of lava thrown out by a single eruption is often enormous. in 1759. was thrown from Cotopaxi a distance of nine miles. In 1815. its ashes. The ashes. a. was ascribed to the quantity of dead fish ejected from the The fish. steam-power appears be a perfectly adequate agent. Name some other substances ejected from Vol- in the elevation of great masses of land constituting islands (see page 12. weighing more than 200 tons. water has flowed copiously from Vesuvius during its eruptions. the sun was obscured. lated at nearly twenty thousand millions of cubic yards. The energy of volcanic action is with a mountain rivalling in height the Peak of Teneritfe. sixty-eight years after its ejection. 472. The crater of a volcano is the funnel-shaped issues. and height to which stones have been thrown." The term their is derived from Vuloanus. and vast quantities of They are aptly styled in various lanashes and melted lava. at a distance of more than a thousand miles. Stones have been observed to ascend from Vesuvius so high. that buried the cities of but the interior retains time. mouth through for itself which the melted matter III. and still in so heated a state that a cigar might be lighted in any of the crevices. dillas." to be ranked with proper volcanic phenomena. CHAPTER I. forming a stratum two feet thick. which indicates a Sir W. The lava emitted from volcanoes generally forces a passage through the sides of the mountains. if accumulated. A putrid fever which prevailed in 1691. forty-five years afterwards. in Sumbawa. During an eruption in Teneriffe. The surface soon cools and acquires a hard crust. and remains fluid for a long mass of lava. heat. and Egypt. the ancients gave imaginary god of The area over which ashes have been strown from volcanic eruptions. Hamilton says that in the erup- tion of Vesuvius. So far as relates to the eruptive force. but these are not VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES Volcanoes are mountains whicli send forth from their summits or sides columns of flame and smoke. x'^K^' Mount Etna. Syria. Discharges of water. and even for days. name which of pools. in Mexico. which. the fire. and dust ejected diu-ing an eruption frequently darken the air for hours. by Humboldt. feet. thrown up from the volcano Jorullo. and sudden evolutions of it will explain the fits and starts of volcanic action. "burning mountains. the overflows the top of the crater. and in some places amounting to 600 feet. in 1779. Perhaps the most prodigious fiery flood on record was that which proceeded from one of the volcanoes in Iceland. with the water and mud volcano of Imbamburu. The mass has been calcu. a distance of 300 miles. The lava flowed in two opposite directions 50 miles in length. Boiling What are Volcanoes? What is the crater of a Volcano ? Through what part of the Give an example of the mountain does the lava generally force for itself a passage? length of time required for the lava to cool. at Ibarra. It was not a ejected. by 12 or 15 miles in width in one. They were found floating in the ocean to the west of Sumatra. 500 feet thick. in 1798. would cover the city of New York V. How else is the be an adequate agent to produce these eruptions? energy of volcanic action displayed ? .) and the formation of new mountains. the mountain Chahorra threw out stones which occupied from twelve height of from 2500 to 3600 fire to fifteen seconds in falling. with an average depth of 100 feet.— Give examples to illustrate the weight. hence it Ashes from Vesuvius. and the streets and houses in Java were ftrewed with ashes from Tomboro. — — — — — — What appears to canoes beside lava. by 7 in breadth in the other. d. hut sometimes it Upon its first emergence. stones. lava has in general about the consistency of honey. a mountain town. VI. A The height and distance to which stones and other projectiles are thrown from volcanoes. fell in Constantinople. A block of stone. through which vessels with difficulty forced their way. indicate the enormous quantities II. . was found smoliing.

and A. 19. Central America. as the volcanic chain of South America. latitude 71° north. at regular intervals of aliiiut a quarter of an hour each. discharging ashes and scori. Bonin Sima Islands 2 13. the Monte Kossi. Phillipiue Islands. 190 belong to the islands VIII. 15. the mountain of Jorullo.work. which. Nearly all the active volcanoes upon the globe are Many are found limited to the immediate vicinity of the ocean. Volcanoes may be distributed into the two great classes and Linear systems. Land Total 36a 1832. Volcanoes are most numerous in the Torrid Zone yet they occur in all latitudes. A Linear system consists of several vents extending in one direction at no great distance from each other. such as the Peak of Teneriffe. one of which usually serves as a common point of eruption. LisEAn Class. Terra del From the period of the earliest historical records to a. North-west America 10 7 1 1 Mexico Central America -West Indies 17. In 1GG9. had been at rest for two centuries. 6. in The volcano New 15.Vo. The volcanic mountains are either active. and has been appropriately named " the Light-house of the Mediterranean. now experiencing a long state of inaction. 3. a low mound. of 1 System. 450 feet was thrown up on the slope of Etna. XI. Indeed.atka 21 11. Volcanoes. Sandwich Islands Galapagos Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Easter Island Extinct volcanoes are those which have plainly once been the outlets of fire. The following ence: table gives the number of volcanoes of each system. Vesuvius (Naples) Lipari Islands Thian Shan Mts. and lying many thousand feet lower than interior subterranean The foi'ces. S. There are fifty-five recorded eruptions of Mount Etna between the years 480 b. in South America. tains being generally theory of the cause of volcanoes. a volcano of Equador. ages beneath enormous areas.) in and Ilochow (burning mountain. arose out of a plain to the was thrown up in 4. as the Peak of Teneriffe for the seven volcanoes of the Canary Islands. Antarctic 4 2 laneum and Pompeii were destroyed. of . and two miles in circumference. had been long considered extinct. forming as it were chimneys along an extended of Central fissure. favorable to eruptions. in San Salvador. on islands. Some of these may really belong to the intermittent class. Volcanoes. of Isalco. To what reason is — — — vicinity are nearly all of the volcanoes ? assigned by Humboldt for this fact your statement by examples. mittent volcanoes. Since then it has been at least eighty times in action. stant state of eruption. d. (Central 2 Stromboli. Equador Peru and Bolivia Fuego and South Shet- 42 20. in Italy.) 1500 miles from the ocean. c. 11. No. Iti. Imbamburu. Between the commencement of the eleventh century and 1845. 19. in 1538. or extinct. paxi. sites. It includes active and extinct volcanoes. Mount Vesuvius seems have been inactive. Grenada. others in chains of mountains extending along the line of the coast. This theory is supported by the fact that the temperature of the earth increases regularly at the average rate of one degree for every fifty-four feet of descent below the level of the sea.S hours. others at the base of such chains between them Give examples of mountains which have been formed by volcanic agency. the simplest and best founded that the centre of our earth is a vast sea of liquid fire. and covers a tract This volcano is in a conof land which formerly constituted a fine estate. now from 1500 to 2000 feet high. 1. 5. of which 270 are active. 16. covered with water. (Greek Islands) Asi. Mount Etna. . but whose activity has been suspended for ages. tlio 23 that coast lands are simply Neapolitan district. has arisen within the last eighty years. of Tolima. to which the volcanoes serve as vents. Jan Mayen Iceland Azores 2 2 Red Sea 2 8 2 7 1 1 1 7.\." 4. 1 17. high. The volcano principal exceptions are the Volcanoes of Pechan (white mountain. Western Asia. 6. 79. of these. Kamtsch. In 1759. and Formosa 37 8.— VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES. because they form the sides or edges of the deep sea-basin. the Jlonte Nucvo. 16. Humboldt conceives and iSOOO feet in circumference. Aleutian Islands 35 5. The number this vast ocean in both classes there have been twenty-five outbursts of Mount Ilecla. To what What is the does the frequency and character of volcanic eruptions appear to relate 1 Illustrate difference ia the character of the eruptions of high and low mountains? seems to amounts to 407. Peak of Teneriffe. In bigli. be almost surrounded by a great volcanic chain.. sometimes amounting to centuries. A Central system consists of a number of vents grouped together. Spice Islands. on the contrary. Ladrone Islands 7 12. 14. 10. 13. 1 1 12. 1. 1C95 feet in height. Japan Isl. when a violent outburst in 1827 showed that the internal forces were still at . and Coto- 2. D. Of is all the reasons which have been assigned for a general VII. and and shores of the Pacific Ocean. The most northern volcanoes known In the opposite are those of Jan Mayen. little more than 2000 feet in height. 14. when to Ilereu- land Islands 22. offer less resistance to west of the city of Mexico. have periods of rest. Kurile Islands IS 10.ands 23 9. — What are extinct volcanoes? — Give examples of inter- By what fact is theory of the cause of volcanoes? two classes may volcanoes be distributed ? What is a Central system — — What AVhat upon the globe limited? reason is assigned for a general Into what this theory supported? ? — — — — What a Linear are active? system? — What is the number of volcanoes of both classes? — How many . 3 4 1 Friendly Islands 2 Australasian Islands 13 Sunda Islands S\} 7. intermittent. in Iceland. Canary Islands Cape Verde Islands Ascension Island Tristan d'Acunha Island Traverse Islands Trinidad Island Mauritius and Bourbon Islands. Western Asia Total 3 18. 9. and some perhaps of doubtful exist- Centiial Class. This sea is may remain at rest for more frequent and less violent. X. 3. Etna (Sicily) 1 1 System. when in the year 1691 it overwhelmed a large tract of country with mud and water. 4. The frequency and character of their eruptions apThe eruptions of low mounpears to be related to their height. both of which are about IX. Chili 38 10 17 12 22 21. has been uninterruptedly active from the earliest dawn of authentic history. but liable to be locally excited and uplifted by the force of compressed vapor. tSantorini 2. in Sicily.n) Lofty mountains. 440 feet and the coast.

the earth is slightly shaken. so terribly shakes the crust — — — Iceland. The roar of the large tubes could be heard for a mile or more. of the same extent. miles distant. gives the following account "On the 8th of October. the largest of these springs. — in 4. and even entire continents shaken. The town of Bakou is on the south-west coast of the of Bakou. and there now followed a thick all that had been spared of the face of the country. in diameter. in former times. sulphurous water poured down its slopes on every side. even from India. Leopold von Buch. which warn the specThe water in the basin boils furiously. approach of one of them in Java. and even entire houses carried with them into the sea. The agency of volcanic action is evinced China by numerous Hochans. hills had arisen. They are chiefly confined to the volcanic regions of the earth. about sixty feet In the centre of this basin is a well. Fires They are small ally various gases. situated amidst the region of eternal ice. and south-west of the Caspian XV. of theearth. within twelve degrees of the South Pole. which occupy an area not exceeding twelve acres. about one o'clock in the afternoon. muddy water lasted but two hours. This flood of hot. in the valley of the Pluton River. and no part of the earth are the eruptions more terrific. or mud volcanoes . which. every dwelling. rhinoceroses. from one to two hundred openings. the basin is emptied. which utterly destroyed . ten feet in diameter. burns with a blue flame. has been recently in a state of eruption. south of Lake Brie. antelopes. XIII. tigers. and a vast number of human beings had ceased to live. In what part ? Where do Mud Volcanoes occur? Describe the Fires of Bakou. : — The mountain was immediately shrouded in a thick cloud of smoke. the celebrated geographer. where he found. and the mountain was seen onoe more. a frightful noise was heard in the neighborhood of Galung Gung. ashes at Fort Vancouver. "to rush out with impetuosity. or fire-hills. 1. is Ghebers. In what country are there Fire-Hills and Fire-Springs? Describe the Geysers of What is said of the Pluton Geysers of California. Caspian Sea. in a XIV. full of fissures. The term is derived from the Icelandic word geysa. the Fires of Bakou . rumbling sounds. Several of the mountain peaks of the north-western secand smoke The Geysers of Iceland. In no part of the globe.24 PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY. and a few still find their way to it. terminates the explosion. 3. in New York. and burnt up all the trees." or gys. yet these were enough to lay in waste a whole . in Iceland. "At five o'clock all was at rest again. or fire-worshippers of Persia . And during this short time." It is a hollow expanse. cattle. as situated deep defile north of San Francisco. through which the boiling water rises clear as crystal. sending up dense columns of vapor to the height of 200 feet. are volcanic phenomena. about its vicinity. . Between grand eruptions there is an interval of a day or more. Hills Salses. 2. when lighted. At three o'clock it rain of ashes and pumice. muddy. of the United States are there Volcanoes — owe their origin to the same cause as that of volcanoes. producing a blue flame. resembling in shape a saucer. and the agitation increases. . had ceased. St. Helen's. the vents of the latter appearing to act as a kind of safety- when pent up. are there so Out of eighty assigned as in the island of Java. There was then an awful sight in Badang the river Tschiwulan sweeping down vast multitudes of corpses of men. and Moising. on the summit of which is a basin. fire-springs. slightly covering the country in There are indications of volcanic action. and a column of steam rushing up with great violence. or The latter yield an inflammable gas. This Bpot was formerly one of the most celebrated " shrines of grace" among the Repeat Leopold von Buch's account of the volcanic eruption in Java. and ashes are said to have arisen from them at different times. Fire-Hills and Fire-Springs. system of the Sunda Islands. A similar spring occurs in Fredonia. in Washington Territory. many volcanoes to the Linear XII. Mud Volcanoes occur in Sicily. at about the distance of thirty-five miles from Mount Hecla. north of the Columbia River. • hemisphere. and giving off great clouds of vapor. tator to retire to a safe distance." province. in many parts of this region of country. every village for many miles round. Earthquakes. The Geysers are an extraordinary collection of about fifty hot springs. gradually filling the basin. and sis or seven feet deep. hillocks. and undoubtedly Sea in Asia. 1822. in a space of half a mile square. tion of the United States are supposed to be volcanic. till at length a column of water is suddenly thrown up with vast force and loud explosions After playing for a time like an artificial to the height of 100 or 150 feet." The Great Geyser. the gas from which is used for lighting the town. and cinders from fifty this mountain fell In 1842. forty-three belong in to Java . Prof Shepherd describes the " Pluton Geysers" of California. and 70 feet deep. in Java. through which the steam issued with violence. Mt. which just before had been level plains. Their is announced by hollow. the Fire- and Fire-Springs of China and the Geysers of Iceland. and streams of hot. an active volcano in Victoria Land. The shocks are usually most severe valve to the elastic force which. and about ten miles from it is situated the remarkable tract called the " Field of Fire. "to rage. in places some distance removed from active volcanoes. and carried before them every thing they met with. undoubtedly owing their origin to the same cause as that of volcanoes. fountain. Mount Erebus. and is made of much practical service in evaporating salt water. Earthquakes are those terrible convulsions of nature by which towns and villages have been swallowed up. What are Earth- — — — quakes. had been covered with mud in places. hot water. and sometimes columns of fire. from which are discharged occasionmud. Mount Erobus. great cities destroyed. wells of fire. is a circular mound. from which an inflammable gas continually issues.

shocks have been States. A striking and unparalleled instance of subterranean noise. During its continuance. XX." . suddenly sunk. linear one. in Jamaica. rush of the receding waters.arning. its more than 500 paces from scattered inhabitants here flat-boats and there visible among which surrounded us on heard !" ruins. Vincent's. in New Grenada. and short. like the clanking of chains.Madrid : — common and and sinking of the earth the to the most harmless. during which 00.an incredible slaughter of the people. on the clear moonlight night of the 0th of in the direction of February. abated as gradof thunder. is extracted from a volume published in 1757. — ^Vbat are some of the effects sounds — — State some of the permanent attendant upon earthquake action. who sent out the military to force them back.— — VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES. connection of volcanoes and eartbijuakes. it seemed to the inhabitants as if heavy clouds lay beneath their from which issued alternate slow. on the 9th of January. and during which several crash of the falling trees. every direction. with It continued in all about six minutes. in Italy. or as if vast quantities of glass were broken in caverns underneath the ground. In circular earthquakes. dismay fled from the city.irthquakes. from the mouth of the to is Amazon to South Carolina. or rotatory. by which. the most consists of an alternate rising New " It . which was limited to a small space. Sometimes. to w hich an immense concourse of people had fled for safety from the falling ruins. in noise. but at the same time a tract of land. and in some instances no sound whatever is perceived thus the great earthquake of Eiobamba occurred without any . are noticed. Rotatory movements are rarely felt. felt 8. the new quay at Lisbon. when there came a frightful crash. in the winter of the years 1811 and 1812. and rows of trees are turned from their parallel direction. had an interval of subject to slight tremors at distant intervals of time. in 1783. Feb. rumbling noises. church. so that many of the tallest edifices fell that instant. feet. and every building was tossed like a w.000 of inhabitants. Feb. flowed rushing back. is thus described by a gentleman who had secured for the night the fiat-boat in which he was floating down the Mississippi. (luring wliich 40. with all Lisbon. and instantly followed by countless flashes of lightning. on the opposite side of the river from that on which the town is situated. They cause a whirling movement of the earth. and most of tlie great earthquakes of recent date have been followed by eruptions. 5. where earthall quakes are most numerous and destructive. shortest in their duration. nothing was ever afterwards nearly one hundred thousand persons perished. that many disputes afterwards arose as to so far shifted its position. up like the water in a boiling cauldron. and thundering down. The noise bog.ake at Lisbon. which laid in ruins almost every house. N. It was about twelve o'clock. to distinguish it from artifi- mounds. gave the name of Ullah Bund (the Mound of God). and the town of New lay Madrid. however. for the first space of seconds. Stromboli. and in pome parts sixteen in width. XVI. 1812. The mine-like 1797 . the city of Port Royal. the inhabitants. on the Island of St. The undulations of earthquakes very distinct ways : are propagated in two in a linear direction. Beyond the limits of the volcanic regions. XXII. was disclosed us. The principjil — and which destroyed the city of Caraccas in South America. From the 13th to the IGth of 1842. and at Caraccas. whom the property should belong which had XXI. except a rumbling noise. 1812. rolling sounds. the w. which were felt in the Azores. The vibrations of the Lisbon earthquake extended over an area fjur times the size of January. shock which devastated the town. of the production of stupendous effects The most severe are generally the in very brief intervals. The great earthquakes of Lisbon and Calabria were of this character. in Equador. on the morning of the first of November. the vertical action from below upwards. with a large tract of adjacent land. occupied less time. sounds like the discharges of cannon. XVII. a distance ofoOOO miles. without tlio least w. and North-western Missouri which had been quiet for nearly a century. the Valley of the Mississippi. In of land are occasional attendants upon earthquake action. — Repeat the account of the accoinpanyinjx earthquakes? New Madrid earthquake. In 1755.000 persons lost their lives. During the earthquake of 1092. in March. the progress of the shock may be compared the ring-like waves produced on the surface of still water when a stone nied by any trace of an earthquake. the inhabitants in great ually as it had begun. quick claps The noise. Observation gives us little 25 March 20. was most 4. immediately preceding. 1784. what two directions are earOuiuake movements propagated? Repeat the account of the Lisbon earthquake. Of twenty and their crews this terrible night. Earthquakes furnish the most striking examples with which we are acquainted. a town and large tracts of country were submerged at the mouth of the river Indus. killed 10. three great shocks shattered the city. room to doubt tlie intimate '. like thunder close at hand. 1812. vated Mexican Plateau by the thrown in. The face of the country was so completely changed by the movements of this earthquake. not unlike the artificial thunder at our theatres. XIX. and may be likened undulations of the waves of the ocean. from Cincinnati on the east. and overflowed with some of its to three-fourths of its extent. sunk into the sea. It These sounds are described as greatly diff'ering: dull. vertical. scarcely a perceptible pause. frequently in various parts of the United The great convulsions of the years ISll and 1812.agon driven violently over rough stones. Feb. by the terrible eruption of the volcano Morne Garou. Such were the movements of the great earthquake of Calabria. in and one destructive earthquake has been experienced that of New Madrid. the nature of the motion changed. in the AV'est India Islands. 1783.000 persons perished. except in the most disastrous and appalling catastrophes. while the forest trees The and the stream near which we lay came cracking strikingly manifested in the earthquake of Riobamba. destroyed. was a was along a right line from CO to 70 miles in width. Earthquake shocks are often preceded or accompanied by various sounds. 1755. our gaze . Europe. on the oOth of April. The movements The horizontal movement the movement.an about midnight. Describe each. sunken. and public liuilding.and give examples of eacli. is of the ground during an earthquake on the west. felt countries are Slight time upon the reoord of history. the hundred feet high. and its place is now occupied by water a hundred fathoms deep. . to if when the bodies of many of the inhabitants were thrown upon a •and the fierce flashes of lightning. at are described as being either horizontal. buildings are turned round without being thrown down. and the they would never end. hill.in thunder" of Guanaxuato. across the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. convent. seemed as the whole terrible scene At little sunrise. and continued for a month. was elevated aliove the plain cial . two years after the catastrophe: "At thirty-iive minutes after nine o'clock. to this tract. repose immediately preceding the great earthquake of Cahibria. and only returned when compelled by the city authorities. in some cases. fifty miles in length.Tme the three movements of E. a most dreadful earthquake shook by short but quick vibrations the foundations of Then. The permanent elevation and subsidence of great tracts The following brief account of the great earthqu. which destroved over two hundred towns and villages. fifty In the Most of tlie great eruptions of modern times have been preceded by earthquakes. were followed. The its desolation of Caraccas. In 1819. unaccompais the phenomenon known in the elename of the " Roaring and the Subterrane. Describe .aves growing wider and fainter as the distance increases. XVIII. Mississippi foamed explosion. like a sudden explosion of artillery. This fearful 8pect<icle lasted for several minutes. and covered the province with ruins. sometimes extending and sometimes from a centre almost equally The earthquake of Guadeloupe. Thus the coast of Chili was permanently elevated several feet by the great earthquake of 1835. and extended through the Mississippi Valley. the sound is heard after the shock.

northern volcano known. sytems that they may . intermittent. so called in South America.ecapitulate the subjects of — Where are they common? — How are slight — What supposed to be the cause of volcanoes is this chapter. Etna? — Which would : —What kiu. earthquake shocks a year. owe their origin to the same cause as Volcanoes that the movements of the ground which accompany Earthquakes are either vertical. XXIII. horizontal. in ments of the earth to be regarded there with scarcely more attention than a hail-storm in the Temperate Zone. Recapitulation. — Are they more numerous the tropical regions than the Temperate Zones? volcanoes. the Central and the Linear .\re in ? ? ? recent formation ? XXIV. that nearly are near the ocean the active Volcanoes on the globe of the world? that eruptions of mud. and Earthquakes materially modifying : Do earthquakes occur in the regions where there are volcanoes. cause foint movehas.' of a — the may wonderful natural phenomena are attributable to the same cause action of the internal fires of the earth . and steam. or in districts remote from them ? Where are they usually most severe near the volcano.— 26 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. — According it Do to the preceding account most the eruptions of lofty or low volcanoes occur most frequently? terrific: is — Which are the ? the bursting forth of lofty volcanoes. also be divided into active. where such QUESTIONS ON THE CHART. but long habit. are thrown down. or rotatory. all of Bakou? — What are they? Where are there mud volcanoes? — Where are the —Where are the Geysers — The Pluton Geysers —-Are there any springs in the United States which yield an inflammable gas — Are there similar springs in any other part fires ? ? ? and extinct. or some distance from it? Are the shocks of an earthquake usually accompanied by any noises? Has any part of the United States ever sufi'ered from the shock of an earthquake? — : — — Give a description of the most destructive earthquake of which you have read? severe shocks of earthquakes ever been experienced in Europe? — Have — In South America? What are the so-called Tremblores in ? earthquake shocks regarded Lima? the configuration of the land. will be seen that both of these that Volcanoes volcano Stromboli? — Cotopaxi? — Mt. probably be most destructive the eruption of Mt. and earthquakes? — P. occur almost every day in Though walls are sometimes split. — Name the most — The most southern. Hecla? —Vesuvius? —Mt. and the very prevalent opinion that dangerous shocks are only to be apprehended tvro or three times in the course of a century. — In what part of Name any islands on which there are more than America are volcanoes most numerous? — there any the United States? — In Greenland — In the West Indies — In Europe — Can you name any volcanoes of — Along the coasts of the Indian or the Arctic Ocean? in five — Are they most numerous along the Atlantic or . on forty-five Lima an average. or in the interior? — Name any volcanoes in the Pacific coast? of a country. little and objects numerous : near the coast. or of low ones?- of Volcanoes and Earthquakes. Cotopaxi. Tremblores. or that of Stromboli be divided into two classes. and that both these agencies perform important functions in the economy of nature Volcanoes affording the natural opening through which the imprisoned gases make their escape. they are dreaded by the inhabitants. certain seasons. . Where are volcanoes most intei'ior tremors of the surface are common. hot water.

or by means of tissures in rocks. or devoted to the purposes of animal and vegetable life. destitute of smell. and nearly without taste. CHAPTER SPRINGS. when the continued pressure from . which renders its further progress it to Springs are fountains of water. flowing from reservoirs underneath the surface. which gush forth from the ground. : — Different bodies of water their color. by weight. according to the supplies has received. is a compound of two gases hydrogen in the proportions of eight parts. one of the most abundant substances in nature. oxygen and Water. page 40. to one of the latter. hail. Lakes. The subject will be considered under the general divisions of Springs. Other peculiarities bo described in connection with the general divisions already enumerated. others salt. II. The remainder enters the ground through porous beds. so considerable as not to be materially affected from any cause. They may be classified as perennial or constant. snow. chemically considered. upon the globe vary in their composition. the Ocean." and "to describe.PAKT II. larger or smaller.) in their temperature. and continues to sink until arrested by strata. sive . being variously and colorless liquid. or again returned to the is drained from the surface atmosphere by evaporation. (some being fresh. signifying "water. Perennial springs show no diminution in a long-continued The reservoirs of such springs must be very extendrought. it is a transparent It is rarely found. Of what does Hydrography dered ? treat? — What is the chemical composition of water — Under what divisions the be consi— In what do bodies of water vary will suViject ? What are Springs? ? Springs are formed.ordew. HYDROGRAPHY. affected by different matters with which it has come in contact. and periodical. of the former. Apart of the water thus deposited I. Hydrography. in a pure state. intermittent. ]. — How may they be classified? — State — What are Perennial Springs? the manner in which . When pure. into streams or rivers. which is again deposited on the earth in the form of rain. and will in The subject of temperature will be considered in the article Temperature. (from two Greek words. Springs derive their supplies from water raised into the atmosphere hy evaporation. Rivers. impossible . and Oceanic movements.above forces it gush forth as a spring.") is that department of Physical Geography which treats of the water upon the earth. however.

So slight is the elevation of the water-parting between the lakes which form These wells are sometimes of great depth. in dry weather. The water-shed between the basins of the Mississippi and St. and D E F strata into which the water that falls on the surface penetrates. and sinking a tube until a subterranean reservoir of water is reached. which are very rich. depend entirely upon the prevailing They gush abundantly after heavy character of the season. What — — — — What are Rivers? water-shed of a River water-sheds. one VII. thence into the Gulf of St. W. which supplied through crevices extending from the surface. sometimes in jets many feet in height. which flows a distance of 180 miles into the Rio Negro. If the sources whence this reservoir is supplied are at a higher level than the surface of the well. its lowest level. its It is a hundred yards wide where it States and Europe. means of communication to a much larger area of country. at Paris. Lawrence Rivers are connected by several canals. the pressure another called its water-parting. where they have long been in use. or another river.28 III. especially since the discovery of steam navigation. is exhausted down to the line It will then cease until again filled example. The water of most springs is fresh. that water. thence into the Gulf of Mexico Let P P represent a bed of clay impervious to water. and often completely fail. and continue until the formation of the river. the waters on the west of which flow into the Pacific. elevated district. If. the water-sheds are low. or They are important aids melting of snow and the ice of glaciers. Lawrence is a slightly-elevated ridge. channels of communication between to civilization. or water-shed . are Intermittent Springs? Periodical Springs ? E. II. pipes be sunk at a b c into the strata D E F respectively. The most remarkable case of this kind. Rivers are streams of water flowing in a channel on land. falls on one side flows into falls the Mississippi. Arabia for example. rivers are frequently united Where thus promoting navigation. States. then. reach the Atlantic . The greatest river-basins are rill. Intermittent springs PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. is the bifurcation of the Orinoco. and extensively evaporated for table-salt. especially in the United Amazon. water can be obtained in abundance from underground reservoirs by sinking these wells. The importance of Artesian wells can scarcely be over-estimated. brook. which flows through Winnipeg Lake and Nelson's River into Hudson's Bay. have their source in the origin in springs. creek. and 550 at junction with the Rio Negro. flows into the St. I. Siloam The Periodical springs flow only at regular intervals. and preventing that rapidity of currents Kentucky. is the whole extent of country drained its highest point in the fissure. a lake. and enormous quantities of water flow from them. being natural inland regions. of in the : . rains . Among the the Orinoco. is the entire tract of country included within a line to the line a b. not far from the chain of great lakes from which There are numerous examples. in whatever situation seek is placed. in America . Such springs are common in a gently rolling. The far-famed Pool of an example. affording in general very winding : a wise most noted York . into the ground. A water-shed some- from above will force the water times a lofty range of mountains. Red River of the north. leaves the Cassaquaire. from the ancient Artesium. United States are Saratoga Springs. The Mississippi and St. and near the Kanawha River. high as the line a to flow. AB C be a the is syphon-shaped reservoir in fissure leading from the ground. Lawrence. is IV. which flows into it. or flow from lakes. in Virginia. III. the Orinoco sends of the branches of the off' a branch to the South. in Europe. and for a limited time.— What are Artesian Wells? E. (modern Artois. The course of rivers provision of nature. The ridge of the is roof of a house is a familiar illustration. in the Western the St. Possibly a series of Artesian wells might diminish the perils of the passage of the Sahara.xplain the principles on which they are sunk. — What advantages result from the winding course of most Rivers? — What the basin of a River? — What do you understand by the — Give examples the difference the elevation is ? to illustrate in of . The famous well of Grenelle. while those on the east up the tube. II. 744. is Such springs are rare. of Virginia and the Blue Licks. and throws up. the water will by it that all the region which contributes waters to the for commence reservoir c d. but in many it is salt. long deemed by geographers impossible. and boats may pass from one to the the sources of the Mississippi and the other. is 1686 feet deep. which are much resorted to for medicinal purposes. or stream. which would render navigation impracticable. always tends to They have their toward the ocean. which should pass through the source of each river. The Erie Canal. V. Lawrence. that after a heavy rain the country is overflown. even with the The . D E. that water communication subsists naturally between two primary streams. Artesian artificial wells. The basin of the Hudson River.xplain the principle on which Periodical Springs flow.) are springs constructed on the principle of natural springs. flow uf springs of this class may be explained on the well-known it principle. but flow feebly. the pressure from above will foroe the water up the tubes to the surface. in New York. VI. and affording great facilities for commercial intercourse. basin of a river is. of buildings so situated that the rain which . by canals. strata through which water cannot pass. The margin of country which separates one basin from is The annexed diagram of a supposed section of country will represent They are formed by boring the theory on which Artesian wells are sunk. while that which on ABC the other. in 24 hours.490 gallons of water. RIVERS. There are numerous springs. as When this reservoir is filled b. the waters flowing from this line in different directions. the most important work of this character in the world. or moderately CHAPTER. as the Andes. There are examples of river-basins so running into each other. In the Plains of Esmeralda. Lawrence flows. connects Lake Erie and the Hudson River. a province of France. in New the Sulphur Springs. The most important in the United States are those at Syracuse. Give examples of Salt Springs and Mineral Springs. It has been proved that in some desert regions. variously impregnated with mineral matter. but more frec[ncntly a slight elevation which turns the water in different directions. let In the figure at the side. the smallest.

Ganges. AVhen water has once received an impulse. which connects Lake Erie with Lake Ontario. Cataracts depend for their effect upon the height of the falls. tourists. however. \l. numerous rapids is usually indicated and at its mouth. were it not for the friction of the sides and bottom irresistible torrents. The Volga has the least of 2850 feet its entrance into the Caspian Sea. than a mile. when the water is is low. for 400 miles. between Quebec and Montreal. 83 fall of any extensive river feet below the surface of the ocean. but mainly upon the magnitude of the volume of water. The velocity of a river depends upon the form of cliannel. which have a perpendicular descent in an unbroken sheet f 240 feet. . the bed of a river difference between its level at its source Mississippi. navigation is carried on through the canal which lieu. caused by inundations or the rise of the tides. Lawrence. of lOG feet. occur in the Piiver Niagara. has two cataracts not from Seringapatam. by the The Lake Itasca. 17 feet in height. and others 150 feet height. Name some Rivers which have large deltas. may be mentioned. an affluent of the Nile. has a descent in rapids. a sublimely picturesque in beautiful scenery. gives a velocity of about three miles an hour. The Amazon has a fall of only Of other Falls more inaccessible. receives its name. New Jersey. the rain-protlucing character of the climate. causes a cataract. VII. This circumstance gives importance to many rivers which would otherwise produced by different slopes in the beds of Rivers some of the principal cataracts and water-falls iu the world. at Louisville.. if great. some of which are 100 feet. The Falls of St. would become The most rapid and powerful rivers are those deep streams which have a very direct course. 7650 feet. Trenton Falls. The size 29 OCO janls wide." its numerous cataracts. deposited as the current slackens. in two perpendicular bounds of 574 feet. some rapids disappear. RIVERS. its and the volume of water. The and connection with mountains St. perhaps the grandest natural spectacle on the globe.a river in Canada East. Goat Island separates the Falls into large deltas. locality at covered with eternal snow. On what does the velocity of a River depend ? By what is the fall in the bi'd of a River indicated ? — — — j What i describe I — — Name — What ? and the is . and but few rapids. The Mississippi. The rapid of Riche- from in The Tecazze River. there being no data on which any very accurate calculations can be made. deep.762 feet while the Mississippi has but one precipitous and cataracts descent of 17 feet. by far width. course . and Ganges. 47. the Mississippi about three times . has a descent of only one-third of an inch in a mile. IX. a fall of three feet per mile makes a niciuMtain torrent. about twelve times as These estimates are to be considered as mere approxima- tions. motion being in proportion to its its volume. in New York. Lawrence. produces a rapid a greater inclination still. The alluvial soil transported by great rivers is gradually flat. This fall is described by Humljoldt as "an assemblage of every thing that is The a fall of the river Bogota. The slope of the bed of a river. the great Falls of the Missouri. in less and the quantity of matter brought down considerable. the sea. known from is its the most magniticent. in which the navies of the world might ride. : . rivers. VIII. -Many rivers have no deltas. and 150 feet high the American . "the terrible. of their beds. by following a descent. 800 yards in shape as the Ilorse-Shoe Falls. Passaic Falls. and the river is cataract of Tequendama. A very slight declivity is sufficient to give the running motion to w. near Quebec." the principal river of Southern India. deltas are formed at their mouth so called from their resemblance to the Greek letter A (delta). appears and disappears with the ebb and flow of the tide. forming a scene only inferior to Niagara. are much visited and greatly admired by . rapids of the Ohio River. View of Trenton Fulls. which descend by cascades 312 feet in two miles. at an elevation of 550 feet above the level of . are navigable at high water . At high water. descending 300 feet in 17 miles. the St. straight channel. and Nile. in Nebraska Territory. and unobstructed channel. near Bogota. Anthony. The The Cauvery. and 87 feet in perpendicular height. The river. . the slope of its bed. delta of a River ? effects are two parts : the wider. has a fall of 1575 feet. The Danube has a fall the Rhine. the mightiest of much. the great river — 12 feet in the last 700 miles of and the La Plata. in cut around the rapids. A cloud of mist puiiits out tlio a great distance. the extent of their basins. Indus. the simple pressure of the particles upon each other is sufficient to keep it in motion long after its bed has lost all inclination the pressure and rate of . before reaching Lake Ontario. are estimated to discharge annually about an equal quantity of water the Nile and Yang-tse-Kiimg each about two and one-fourth times as much. near Patterson. and the Amazon. is branch of the Magdalena. far navigable. length of their course. On what does the size of Rivers depend? Givo examples to illustrate the comparative amounts of water discharged by different Rivers.»ter. and its continuous roar is heard for many miles of rivers depends updu various causes : the Fiills. from its source in The Ganges falls 13. The fall ii. and the other 400 feet in height. These are a succession of rapids and cataracts 20. of extraordinary grandeur: one 350 feet. When the coasts are The Falls of Niagara. have . 70 feet high and the Falls of iMontm<irency. of about 50 feet: and a still further fall afterwards. V. Three inches per mile in a smooth. being only 633 feet lower than its source. approaching the perpendicular. are IGJ feet in Ijeight. but empty themselves by a single broad. Moun- tain streams. Lena. it has. before making its final plunge.

includes not only those rivers which flow directly into the ocean. The greatest river inundations are annual. Orinoco. The Amazon. the Indian Ocean. The Ganges. country as the Atlantic.iriation is that caused by the tide. Mississippi. . irregular or periodical. . Arctic System. The Atlantic system. in the Thames 70 miles. The Hudson. Petersburg. and Indus. and has repeatedly threatened the safety of the city of St. In the lower parts of their course. and about half the extent of that drained by the Atlantic. which are either Irregular changes Dwina and on the Western. — XVI. The principal rivers of this sys- for 3000 years. tributaries are estimated to exceed 50. By what are daily variations caused? Semi-annual and annual? Give examples of each. and Danube. The Pacific system. and second. The System of — flow into the Indian XII. Rivers? — What sections are drained by the Indian Ocean — What are Continental — Give examples of Rivers of . contribute to the in and frequently overflowing The Volga. an extent of country does the Atlantic drain? ? — — — Rivers (lowing into the Atlantic cific — Name the principal Rivers of — For what are the remarkable? — Name the principal Rivers of the Pathis sj'sthis class. The Mississippi rises twice in the year: first in the winter. and the Caribbean. daily. largest rivers of the Atlantic system . from rains and the melting of snow in its upper sources. drains only about one-third as great an extent of Semi-annual and annual variations distinguish the rivers of tropical and of countries bordering on the tropics. and Sea of Aral. the Gulf of Mexico. Describe the Rivers of the Arctic System. which includes the rivers flowing into the 2. The American course. In Fremont Basin. The Atlantic System. The periodical changes in the level of rivers are semi-annual. erly wind blowing from the Gulf of Finland raises the waters of the Neva. on the Eastern Continent. — The Atlantic Ocean receives the This system occasioned by peculiar -winds. The rivers which fiow into the Atlantic are not less remarkable for their size. is the which flows from Lake Titicaca. Dead Sea. or the rivers which flow Arctic Ocean. which is not affected in its level by rain or drought. each of which drains extensive regions that are little known. Lena. and drains more than one-third of the entire land surface of the globe. in Bolivia. the Columbia and it Colorado . are 300 miles. it. to which Egypt by the testimony of antiquity has been regular indebted for its fertility. Rivers nental. the Obi. Utah. . namely The Arctic system. Brahmaputra. and Great Fish or Back's Rivers. in the United States. are the largest upon the Eastern. VS V- - li>'- *°°\/jlfOFTirS OF T0^ Delta of the Ganges. regions. Name the different periodical changes. To what changes of level are Rivers subject? By what are irregular changes produced? Give examples of such changes. The Amazon begins to rise in December. and be regarded as of an inferior order. in lakes and swamps. Most of the continental rivers are The rivers which flow into the in Central and Western Asia. X. The principal rivers of the Arctic system. from periodical rains. Niger. is The inundation of the Nile. river Desaguadero.. is waters of the largest rivers in the world. The heat of the sun. or they are XV. sudden and heavy rain sometimes magnifies a small stream into an A strong easterly wind causes a rise in the St. into the Atlantic. covering the Llanos tlu'ough which it 14 feet. The rivers which Ocean drain the southern part of Asia. and Hoang Ho. the Mississippi the tidal influence is not perceptible. Continental and lost in rivers are those which never reach the XrV. all these rivers are frozen for more than half of the year. Yenesei. 4. extending over 600 miles in length. thus the navigable waters of the less Another daily variation is that in the upper course of streams which descend immediately from snow mountains. ceptible 550 miles. after a southerly course of about . est height in The flood of the Orinoco is at its greatAugust. but flow into lakes unconnected with Plain of Europe and Asia. A daily v. Baltic. receives two rivers of From the Western Continent it only any considerable size. — The rivers of this system drain the principal part of the northern slope of the great North Plain. which these desolate sands of that desolate region largest of them. Oceanic rivers are those which flow into the They may be 1. and for the extent of country drained by them.000 miles. Yang-tse-Kiang. and is least in July and August. considered as constituting four distinct systems. and occupies 120 miles of coast. and are the effect of periodical rains. according to the cause. The system of the Indian Ocean. and Mediterranean Seas. is lost The Humboldt's River. and the greaterpart of Australia.000 square miles. from periodical rains. Black. LawA strong west^ rence. A but those also which empty into Hudson's Bay. That of the Ganges is 60 miles in length. and Thames. They are all remarkable for the extent of their deltas.000 miles. Gambia attain their full elevation about the same period. attains its greatest elevation and about one-third greater than that drained by the Pacific. are continental. there are numerous examples of considerable rivers which lose themselves in the continental formation of the extensive marshes regions abound. in November.: 30 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. are such as are produced by a casual heavy rain. Into what two classes may Rivers be divided? What are Oceanic Rivers? Name — — — — — — — How great system. though much the largest ocean. a narrow strip of land along the eastern coast of Africa. Lawrence.and some of them for nine months in the year. tem are the Ganges. are examples. In afford for inland navigation its . XVIII. from the Eastern. They are the effect of regular changes of the season. which occur at exactly opposite periods north and south of the Equator. 280 miles in length. from March till about June. which drains an area of 580. which irresistible torrent. 3. by melting the snow. La Hudson 150 miles. Rivers are subject to changes of level. Amour. by from flows to the depth of 12 or 60 to 90 miles in width. — The Pacific. situated upon its banks. Irrawady. tem. XI. or become absorbed sandy deserts. may be classified as either Oceanic or Contisea. Niger. produces high water every day the increase being greatest in hot days. ocean. Amazon and and those of the Missis- sippi and its branches are estimated at not than 25. The entire region watered by these rivers is XVII. are the upon the Western Continent and the Nile. The Pacific System. the four systems of the Oceanic Rivers. and the larger portion of the great Northern They have in general a sluggish their banks. than for the immense facilities they Plata. and annual. is the largest river upon the globe. The more In the direct the course it is of a river the higher the tidal influence extends. Caspian Sea. the Mackenzie. XIII. in England. in March. receives the waters of the rivers The Tigris rises semi-annually: first in April. from the melting of the snow in the mountain regions of its upper sources and secondly. in the Amazon per- and St.

. which have an outlet. The Nile is remarkable for not receiving a single brook from its junction with the Toeazze to the Mediterranean. I. ^'icw on Lalie Ciourge. as Great Salt Lake. and have no outlet. by land. Lake Sir-i-kol. a fact without a parallel rivers with V. The Oceanic waters contain about 3| per cent. and and it may stillbe proved that such is the fact. in New York. Some salt lakes are termed seas. in diminishing rapidly. The meeting of great strong oceanic currents and tides frequently occasions a violent disturbance of the waters. That the Lakes comprise four classes the first class embracing those which receive no running water. as the The first class embraces those which receive no running water. or periodical. instead of from it. occupy a great depression on the earth's surface the Caspian Sea being 83 feet below the Black Sea. in Switzerland. A Lake is a collection of water nearly or quite surrounded consi- The water of most lakes is fresh.600 feet above It forms the source of the river Amoo. and Lieut. which water. Lake Superior is an example. and particular rivers remain to be mentioned. Dr. from which fishermen and mariners terrific hore flee in great dismay. oceanic (flowing into the sea). those which receive running water. by far the most numerous. including the Sea of Azov. Recapitulation. but as yet we are possessed of little information with reference to it. and the surface of the tributed into Springs. but receive no running water in the such lakes derive their supplies The waters of many purest azure hue : same manner as the first class. in Lake George. it — From this. though it receives through its 70 mouths the majestic volume of the Volga. is 15. impossible that waters should flow into that river. Great Bear Lake. They are commonly of small extent. extinct volcanic craters — and They commonly occupy hollows — receive their supplies from springs which burst forth from the bottom of the lake. It is said to be without an outlet. III." and have no outlet . is estimated to contain CHAPTER LAKES. The dreaded prororocea of the Amazon. more water by The Sea of Aral is The Caspian Sea. and all was supposed that is lakes of this class were salt. yet that of a derable number is salt. 29 per cent. as also the Ural and other large streams. . Collections of water of this character are most extensively distributed in northern latitudes. and which is now supposed to have no it it is known to be outlet. and the two preceding is dis- The principal salt lakes of the Western Continent occur on elevated table- appears that the fresh water upon the globe land. 1. half the fresh water upon the surface of the globe. the fourth. 3. in South Amewaters through the river Desaguadero but sometimes the river reverses its course. decreases. the Dead Sea. usually discharges its . Lawrence forms the outlet. on land). the level of the sea. south of the Equator. but have no outlet. the most elevated lake known." Lake Titicaca. Captain Stansbury reports with reference to the region of the Great Salt Lake. Lakes may be divided into four classes. Some streams : the Mississippi is no broader after receiving the great The water of most of these lakes is much more salt than that of the ocean. on the contrary. or continental (flowing into Lakes Salt lakes generally appear to be decreasing in size. The channels of main rivers are not always increased in width by the additional waters of tributary peculiarities of river systems 31 XIX. in Central Africa. are occasioned by such collisions. and "twice as large as the Black Sea. That the Springs are That the Rivers are Dead Sea being more than 1300 feet below that of the Mediterranean. the zealous African missionary. situated rica. that " There must have been here at some former period a vast inland sea. of which the River St. extending for hundreds of miles. comprises those lakes which both receive and discharge streams of water. and of the Such lakes are not numerous. instead of increasing. VII. volumes of water from the Missouri and the Ohio: of course its channel is deeper. The only is exception. as reported by the learned missionary. III. chapters. and the of the Hoogly. and receive no outlet the third. What is the difference of elevation in Lakes of the third class on the Eastern and Western Continents? What recent discovery is reported in Central Africa? Describe Lakes of the fourth class.. as the British America. those which have an outlet. and Lakes. thus rendering it on the Great Plateau of the Andes. VI. is salt. Lake Elton furnishes more than two-thirds of the salt consumed in Russia. The great chain between the United States and Canada. IV.: LAKES. of salt. that the water of many Springs and Lakes Name other peculiarities of some Rivers. The fourth class. Rivers. and Nile. The third class includes those lakes which receive streams of water.aters. II. their waters are usually salt. a body of fresh Lake Tchad. Rebmann." The outlines of this great sea. 2. losing evaporation than is supplied by their tributaries. Recent explorations have proved that has no connection with the rivers flowing believed to be at a lower level than the its westward into the Atlantic. and flows into the lake. . Until very recently it lakes of this class are very transparent. This was the case for thirty days in the year 1846. are traced on the Hydrographical map . — Is thewater — — of Lakes of the third class generally fresh or salt? — Give examples of them. the largest river in Europe. Gibbon reports that it is " gradually filling up. 2G per cent. and Lake Elton. those of the Eastern Continent. and have no the second. intermittent. if Lake of Geneva. also. exception there be. in the Great Basin of Utah . Caspian Sea. a distance of 1500 miles elsewhere upon the globe. The waters of this lake are brackish. The second class comprises those . What is a Lake ? — Into how many classes may Lakes be divided? — Describe the first class the second — the third. running water : . Great Salt Lake. Lakes Superior and Huron are much admired by tourists for the clearness and purity of their w. in Asia. 20 percent. reports the recent discovery of an immense inland sea or lake in Central Africa. charge streams of water. Recapitulate the subjects of this and the preceding chapters. those which both receive and disIt appears. off the mouth of the Ganges. size. perennial. and often form the sources of rivers. — — — .

now glowed with a pale light. are known respectively as the North Atlantic and North Pacific those south of . at some seasons. and to the melting of the ice in the Polar regions. The average depth of the Atlantic. " -. and represents the elevation of the land above the level of the sea. These appearances are permanent." 32 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.000 feet deep. is Ocean. while a larger area is thus prevented from being ice-bound. white in the Gulf of Guinea. Maury. What is is the certain knowledge that the The boundaries here assigned to the diSerent oceans are those agreed upon by the Royal Geographical Society of London. By what plateau. CHAPTER I. more buoyant than fresh water.-^ A. is the Ocean 1 parts are its waters less salt? — What the character of the water of the Ocean? — In what — What the general color of the Ocean? — What the is is the bed of the Ocean diversified? — State the Oceans. of the Panama is no appreciable difference in the mean elevations of the two oceans. proportion of common obtained from Different parts The annexed diagram. than in other parts.. but how deep it may be." Lieut. and apparatus invented. which prevents waters from becoming 5. " the blue water. " at the bottom of this Sea. north of 10° South Latitude. off the Arabian coast. on opposite sides of the Isthmus . and Indian Oceans. from the to the eastern shores of about three-fourths of II. table-lands.00O- . The saline ingredients render sea-water a representation of the bed of the Atlantic Ocean. The vessel drove before her bow two billows of liquid phosphorus. IV. and in the Arctic Ocean. is > 10. Maury. The Arctic Ocoan is north of the Arctic Circle . The level of the ocean the surface of the is not everywhere the same.000-H^ "E u< 15 stagnant and corrupt. Strait on The Pacific Ocean extends from Behring's north to the Antarctic Circle on the south. bed of the ocean. Maui-y reports the Atlantic Ocean. which during the day is seen as foam. is The great circle distance between these two shore lines 1000 miles. but for con- separated into five divisions — called IV. »o fo •"0 60 I. which presents owes its origin to the same cause. (the Atlantic THE OCEAN. north of the Equator. which is already known as the telegraphic plateau. salt water at the temperature of 28J°. on one very dark night.^E. Atlantic. and so distinct. 10. like the land. in a line extending southeastwardly from Mexico to Africa. or Sea. a remarkable plain. It is drawn to a scale. Darwin: sailing a little south of the La Plata. is of the ocean vary in the amount of salt found in their waters. and covers the Atlantic. - . than 6000 feet. The color of the ocean is which becomes clearer and brighter towards the coasts. Lieut. and the sea along The water of the ocean salt is and by evaporation a large it. 1 » o - ^ 1 ^ -a _rt 1 ascribed to its constant motion. '. the Arctic. and towards the Poles. is diversified by mountains and valleys. as well as the depth to which the ocean sinks below 100 it. probably owing to the abundant rains at the Equator. and every part of the surface.000 feet. and plains. Fresh water freezes at the temperature of 32°. These diiferent tints are occasioned Red Sea. the crest of every wave was bright. as varying in depth from 6000 to 25. The Atlantic Ocean stretches from the Arctic Circle As the result of these recent and correct measurements. for a distance of from 75 to 150 miles is less on the north to the Antarctic Circle on the south. the Antarctic Ocean south of the Antarctic Circle. Newfoundland western shores of Ireland. and from the western shores of the Western Continent on the east to the eastern shores the from the coasts of the Continents. location of the telegraphic to is cause of the peculiar colors of some tracts of the Ocean of the pho. show that there but recent observations made by Col. As far as the eye reached." could be accurately determined. copied from Maury's Sailing Directions. ? — What — Repeat Darwin's description — Is there any difference in the level of the firm your statement. in Newfoundland." says Lieut. in Ireland. by which the depth of the deeper parts of the ojean. in 1845. It has There was a fresh breeze. Another result of the recent correct measurements of the depth of the North Atlantic. by myriads of minute insects which the ocean. ft __ - 1 Ti 1 Level nflhe Sea - § =^ ^ -r i ^S=^^= J^ __ = . Pacific." sented a wonderful and most beautiful spectacle.:: ^ ^. .-- ^=^=sr^77^ ^4^^. Totten." says Lieut. its entire surface. in connection with the deepest blue. A that great extent of water which company is now engaged with It is the project of a submarine telegraph across surrounds the continents and islands of the Earth. The Ocean. the route is probably nowhere more than 10. higher than that of the Mediterranean this supposed to be owing to the peculiar shape of this sea. ParThe sea is ticular parts of the ocean show peculiar colors. The phosphorescence of a magnificent and imposing spectacle. there venience of description it is is but one Ocean . is salt.. generally of a deep bluish-green. and Cape Clear. " is extends from Asia southwards eastern. hills.ephoresceiice of the Ocean. ^B 1 u '^^^^ III. proposed to carry the wires along this plateau. 1 1 1 1 VI. the depth varies from 0000 to 12. levels of the Pacific been long supposed that there was a considerable difference in the and Atlantic Oceans. « u^ ^^ -A ^^^^ bF " T i. appears in the Persian Gulf.ouffitude 50 40 :o 20 ID West fruin Greenwich.. and in her wake she was followed by a milky train. yet remains for the cannon-ball and sounding-twine to determine. black amid the Maldive Islands. " The deepest part of the North Atlantic Ocean. Antarctic.^ir--4 i — asissJ ^'~r^~ "^ " 1 ' 1 1 . — Name the Ocean? five difl^erent is the depth of the North Atlantic? — On what authority are these boundaries stated? — Give examples con— Give the boundaries of each I . : considerably swarm in these waters. VII. and from the western shores of the Eastern Continent on the east to the eastern shores of the Western Continent on the west. Properly speaking. of them.000- i^ ]j.^^^^ — : . as the South Atlantic and South Pacific.000-3 ^= rt 4 The healthfulness of its the ocean m MS ii S. - - - •- \ and has a reddish appearance near the peninsula of California. and the sky above the horizon was illuminated from the reflected glare of these lurid flames." The portions of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. ^=i •^ —""' 5. It is only quite recently that methods have been adopted. and k consequently better adapted for navigation.000 feet. and to the influence "AVhile This beautiful phenomenon is thus described by Mr. is is Thus same time. the Equator. V. that ships have been seen partly in blue and partly in green water at the £.) between Cape Race. Antarctic Circle and Africa its western boundary. the sea pre- — of the prevailing winds and currents. and consequently in density. For a further dis- of the Eiistern Continent and Australia on the to the west.000-. -^ _= . " There is. of Panama Railroad. probably somewhere between the Bermudas and the Grand Banks. Green water. The Indian Ocean Australia forms its tance of from 200 to 250 miles. The ocean is less salt near the This is Equator.

and in the case of a strong continuous wind. They are chiefly remarkable for the vast fields of ice face of the ocean but they arc not really so. but in the fury of the gale were twisted After the gale had subsided. who sailed on it from America to the Ladrone Islands. an earthquake occurred at Simoda. to which the keeper had attached a hawser extending from the structure. and Currents the causes of which are inde- pendent of each other. The effect of the feet. Tides. when it was discovered by Vasco Nunez de Balboa. reached Latitude Latitude 82° 45' North TS° 10' South: being the two nearest points to the Poles yet attained to the Poles. reached but thus far without success. OCEANIC MOVEMENTS. and this observation immediately followed a very severe gale. in 1827. The rate at which waves travel. — — — . where he discovered a great open sea stretching in the distance as far as the eye exaggeration. The Atlantic Ocean. The Arctic and Antarctic Oceans are supposed to be same size. . The highest wave noticed in the Mediterranean Sea was 10 feet off Austr. The force of the waves Light-house. beyond the depth of 200 III. the Gulf of Mexico. On to the the side. The movement of the tides is regular and periodical. which they contain. Bache constant flow. though botli have been only partially II. I.mb1 nit of Bengal. 20 feet and in the Bay of Biscay. corresponds North Atlantic. enclosed by islands. and caused by the attractive influence of the moon. . it will be seen that while the forward part of is rising. 5 the 23d of December. rarely it extending branches into the land. in their deep in the solid part of the rock on which it was situated. though only about one-third the extent It is the of the Pacific. see Meteorology. abandoned his vessels.: OCEANIC MOVEMENTS. Japan. Scoresby. and.alia. are like great rivers in the midst of the sea. and proceeded northwards. Dr. in deeply indenting the coasts.Si|Bfr „4. and for number of its islands. was 43 feet. These were strongly braced together. TIDES. The wave movement is of an inconstant and transitory character. If the formation of a single wave be carefully it is Many navigators have attempted to press through the ice of these oceans observed.James Boss. On the Asiatic side. principal highway of the larger portion of the world's commerce. Minot's Ledge Liglit-Housc. and Hudson's Bay. The common saying of "the tvaves ruiiniinj mountain liiyh" is a popular The highest wave observed in the Atlantic by Dr.. What are the nearest For what are the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans remarkable? man? "What discovery was made in this Ocean by Dr. VIII. and Sir James Ross. and for the huge icebergs which proceed from them into the warmer waters towards the Ef^uator. from CO to 03 feet which was ten inches in diameter. on sledges drawn by dogs. AND CURRENTS. except in shoal water. XI. in consequence of the calm and de- X. gave it the name of Pacific. in 1841. then the island of Niphon.«. Waves appear . remarkable for its hurricanes and monsoons. afford immense facilities for navigation to the countries whose waters they drain. which were frozen fast in the ice. which sometimes creates a current. occasioned principally by winds. was found to have been washed 400 or 500 feet towards the shore. Minot's Ledge on the coast of Massachusetts. i)age CHAPTER V. is by the following circumstances narrated by " strikingly exhibited Prof. YelloWj and Japan Seas. the hinder part falling. 30 feet. and firmly imbedded The Ocean is subject to the three great general : movements of Waves. from the summit of a mountain near the Isthmus of Panama. The the great ^ lightful weather which he experienced while navigating American its its surface. penetrating far into the land. during two voyages made across it in 1847 and 1848.\tlantic and Pacific. On — distances to the Poles yet attained by — — For what is the Indian Ocean remarkable ?— To what three general movements is the How high are they?— What are Waves? Describe each of them.. modified by that of the sun. Captain Parry. It was not known to Europeans until 1513. The China. are strikingly similar to the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. on The harbor was first emptied of water. strongest gales does not probably extendi IX. Kane. At a compara. carried away and its great branches. . storm of the 17th of April. the Persian Gulf. Ocean subject ? Give an example to illustrate their force. shut in by the West Indies.. by man. surface. is of far more importance to man. twenty miles from Boston. as measured by Sir . each of five feet This famous structure was composed of nine iron piles. Kane? State some points of resemblance between the . The currents are the effects of various circumstances. 1851. Magellan. 1854. The great in gales of wind is tremendous. the intrepid American explorer. an account of which. The Indian Ocean has for This ocean for is its princijsal branches the Bay . as far as 82° 30' North. in height. the Pacitic corresponds to the South Atlantic. while furious tempests are agitating could reach. block of granite. in his recent Arctic expedition. tively bmall its depth the ocean is tranquil. Pacific Ocean is remarkable for its vast size. WAVES. 4-3. to be an onward flow of the water of the sur- explored. piles IV. The most important eastern branches of the Atlantic are the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas the principal western branches are the Caribbean Sea. and the Arabian and chiefly Red Seas. of about the 33 Wave. estimated to weigh seven tons. a huge oir as if they had been made of wood.

is The greatest rise of the water does not happen at the moment when moon is directly over it. the greatest influeuee in producing Tides. bodies towards each other. and let le represented in the annexed diagram by E. . At the times of b and o. The earth. and then commences to rise again. vents all tidal about three times the power of the to illustrate the sun. at the Sandwich Islands. where the tides are interrupted. marked the time at which the waves arrived. the ebb and flow are least ference between Neap and Spring feet . It is only on the coasts of inland seas. moon. on different coasts. and the water is accordingly elevated same at a. are connected with the phases of the moon. At or St. which indicate any disturbance in the level of the sea and these gaitges. Tides do not rise to the is the open ocean the rise small. and so on alternately. but sea. greater than at other times first : : these are During the and last quarters of the tides. they are often sixty or seventy feet . or forced around a headland. which again receded. Here it remains at rest for about ten or fifteen minutes. there are self-acting tide-gauges. four thousand eight hundred miles from the scene of the earthquake. a great tidal wave created. of course. In Thus. and at Brest. : 34 PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY. On all coasts of the all times. they sometimes reach an amazing height. is and the fall of the ebh called Spring tides. IX. tide rises maybe Spring tides and hio-h very plainly seen water at a and and low water b and or upon a stake fised in the sand. about it is only about two and a half feet On coasts. Neither the movements in such bodies of water. the moon. it the tidal movement height to which the Tide rises tides. . the new moon.l surface of the ocean. fifty feet Malo. at Boston. it is high water and Neap . as the Baltic and bays. us suppose the earth to be a globe entirely covered with water. which occur regulai'ly twice in every day. Helena. of the earth When. — Explain figure — In what 2. and low water at a and d. and these changes directions tides at Figure 2 represents the moon and sun as attracting the earth in different the moon's influence being greatest. France. V. the strongest on that portion of the earth which is nearest to them. into the land. and drowned. or up a narrow bay. and of the full moon. also. ocean where tides are felt. Tides are alternate risings and fallings of the water of the Fig. . To understand is this influence. therefore.. some "time being required for the water to run up and form a wave. of attraction necessary. however." clearly the influence of the moon and sun in producing tides. are sometimes overtaken by the flood. in height. not always the same. by reason of cise its estimated to exer- canal-shape of the Atlantic. and the peculiar the moon. of sufiicient extent is VIII. but occurs a little later. the water is in restless motion at even when m-xsm- there is not a breath of wind. in the Bay of Fundy. by the revolution ocean is demonstrated the influence of these bodies in producing upon its axis. same height on all coasts. and thus several great waves were formed. The water then recedes for about sis hours as gradually as it rose this is called ebh tide.2 . — Describe and Neap Give an example speed witli which "Waves travel. VI. however. feeding on the shell-fish upon the beach. this part of the is brought them. the highest tides rise forty and. and at St. The numerous islands and coral reefs of the Pacific. sea-beach. Their influence is. on the northern coast of France. the great Newton ocean south of Australia. the sun or moon ? part of the ocean do Tides originate? prevents their formation in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans? seas ? — In — Explain — What inland lakes and —What causes Tides ? . VII. S the sun. which penetrate far and Black Seas. This was repeated several times. the small extent of inland lakes and seas prethese great oceans. on the coast of water. Fi!!?. the more easily lifted particles of the sea. and a b c d the water covering the earth. is nearest to the moon. To explain let it The others followed at intervals of about an hour each. which is called low xoater. sun. or at the rate of nearly four hundred miles an hour. : This figure represents the moon and sun as attracting the earth in the direction. then will represent the M moon. Tides. For about ten or fifteen minutes the water will be at rest this is termed Mgli water. each wave advancing higher and higher: this rise is called the Jiood tide. difierent tidal is not a sphere entirely covered with It has at New York. some knowledge of the laws Attraction is that power which draws The moon and sun attract the earth lesser distance. three feet. prevent the origination of tides in either of So. and the peculiar conformation of the land causes a very movement from that in the case supposed. called Neap The about diffive tides. The perpendicular height to which the upon the surface of a rock on the beach. drawn thither from b and c. The highest tides of the principal ports of the Atlantic coast of the United States. leaving the harbor dry. gulfs. would be observed on a sea-beach. vary from three to twelve or fifteen feet. The water is also raised at d. The height to which the tide rises at any given place is It changes every day. Explain the terms as — —W^hat are Tides? — State the Sjiviiig (idea Which has figure 1. moon combined. the first The connection between moon and sun was known to and depth to admit of the formation of a tidal wave. Figure at I represents c. however. and this is caused by the entire solid matter of the earth being drawn from the water at d. At San Francisco. the flood rises higher. that tides are not experienced. two feet feet. The first one travelled across the Pacific in twelve hours and sixteen minutes. about eleven been ascertained that the only part of the the tides and the place of the ancients. as a gradually sloping we shall notice for about sis hours a continued rise of the water up the beach. If a convenient place be chosen for observation. thus producing the same effects as if it had been raised by the direct action of the moon and d. nor of the sun and strong enough to disturb the solid matter of the land of the earth but either is sufficiently powerful to raise attractive influence of the is an enormous ^Yave rushed in. advancing with such rapidity that swine.

called co-tidal.ake tlie tidal wave from St. until finally forms a great equatorial current setting towards the west while the tradewinds. Currents are caused by the heat of the sun. tides. The combined action of these two forces causes large streams to descend from both Poles towards the Equator. Therefore. as it would do if the earth's surfiiee did XL of sea its The currents movements. Currents. XIV. M. it : waters from the Poles to the Eipator. waters of the Poles move towards the Equator. which blow in a general westerly direction. where the surface of the earth revolves with great rapidity. indiis When the water leaves the region of the Poles. and flow in one direction throughout the year. or temporary. an onward flow of the water. : — The spaces between the cate the progress the tidal co-tidal lines. its movement is much map less The heat of the Torrid Zone occasions a more powerful evaporation at experienced anywhere else immense quantities of water are constantly rising from the surface. Helena to the Cape de Constant Currents — E. p. but near the laud rapid. : 4-3. What By what are the Currents of the ocean like? ? lines? — How long does Vcrd Islands? — Is it In what direction does the tidal wave flow it ? — Wliat do you to flow understand by co-tidal — By what ? are they caused ? — What are ? t. (See article MoNSOONS. it flows directly north and south . it canand consequently it is left behind not at once acquire the same velocity — . Periodical currents are occasioned by tides. high water to miles an hour. Were it the waters of the ocean. bearing adopted — to be the one most generally Like other waves. such would be the uniform and constant flow of The presence of the land interrupts tho regularity of the earth. but as it advances towards the Equator. of ice. in addition to that caused by the heat of the Torrid Zone. and as the rotary motion of the earth is more rapid at the Equator than anywhere else. The rotation of tho earth promotes the movement of the Polar water The waters of the ocean towards the Equator. follows the apparent westward course of The following theory seems : entering from the south the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. coast of If Tasmania at 11 o'clock. the Equator than is : The progress of a tidal wave is represented by lines on the to be high at the tnp of the page. at 1 o'clock. : we suppose it A. not for the land. and by peri- periodical. called monsoons. A. and near the In the deep and open ocean its velocity is a thousand land. The stood. These currents are freijuent in the eastern seas one flows into the Red Sea during six months in the year. the saltness of the sea. They are constant. Constant currents are those great ocean streams which have their origin in permanent causes. in the following manner are impelled towards that part of the earth's surface which revolves with the greatest rapidity. the rotation by winds. the melting of this great or south. XV. the waters of the Polar regions thus receive an impulse towards the Equator. from one ocean to another. and out of it during In the Persian Gulf. instead of running north and south. because colder.— OCEANIC MOVEMENTS.M. in the form of moisture. except over shoals. where the rotary motion wave makes in two hours. caused by this circumstance. and are borne away by the winds. and XII. this order is reversed. the wave will have 11 o'clock. it is not all the coasts it visits. nature of these causes is yet imperfectly under- Australia. and velocity.) XIII. it will have passed the Cape of Good Hope and advancing rapidly in the deep waters of the Atlantic. it will reach Newfoundland at . odical winds.\plain the generally-adopted theory of the cause of Currcllt^ hi^'h water first at the Cape dcVerd Islands or the West Indies? are the Periodical Currents occasioned . by various minor circumstances. of the ocean are among the most important — transferring They its are like vast rivers in the midst of the it flows in an oblique direction towards the west. the heavier. the remaining six. because they connect places which have high water at the same time. 35 X. and westward movement of the waters. The tidal wave wliich first receives its impulse south of the moon.. to supply the vacancy at the Equator. sending them to the north also occasioning temporary and periodical currents. combine to increase its not turn round. slight. reached the southern. — water on the east at night. at 11. or in '21 hours from the time it started from Tasmania. point of the peninsula of Ilindoostan next morning. proceeding from east to west.

America to Newfoundland. and in an opposite direction to There ple it. another current. many striking points the Atlantic. with a breadth of 3500 miles. and au under-current in another. and is gradually reaches the Azores An important branch leaves the Gulf Stream. completes the entire circuit of the Northern Atlantic Ocean. This great stream flows westward. Ore branch. in the triangular space is between Sea. — — Current and the Gulf — Stream. and a counter-current running British Isles — part of it flowing towards the western shores of France. 8. with which perhaps its waters finally mingle. There are strong local currents produced by tides. reports this current as being well known to the Japanese.ay. westward Cape Current. : — 10. and in Along what coasts flows the North African and Guinea Current? Describe the SarThe Arctic Current. 2. which runs at the rate of fifteen miles an hour. it flows between Florida and Cuba. Between Florida and Cuba it flows with great velocity. between Borneo and Anam. inside of the Gulf Stream. Just such a basin is the Atlantic Ocean to the Gulf Stream. It then moves northward along the western shores of Africa. entering the Pacific from the Indian Ocean. not unlike the Sargasso Sea of the Atlantic. and the islands of the Indian Archipelago bat . To the seems substantial enough to walk upon. pursues 5. bends towards the western coast of South America. it still retains throughout its entire course a higher temperature than that of the surrounding ocean. while the greater body flows Physical Geography of the Sea. thought it marked the limits of navigation. nection with the Gulf Stream. State some points of resemblance between the . its course — Antarctic Current. rents round the adjacent island. there it has remained to this d. it eye. St. and forms the Equatorial current of a part forces its way between the islands.for a thousand miles along the northern margin of the Equatorial current of the Atlantic. Let us trace the course of the great system of constant currents. — Commencing off the coasts of Ireland and Spain. in the course of time. until its progress is interrupted by the shores of China. occasioned by the meeting of tidal cur- " Roost" of Sumburgh. principal branch of the Equatorial current of the Atlantic takes a north-westerly direction. DeThe Equatorial Current of the Pacific. while the other flows down the coast of the United States. Japan Curi-eni. Passing down the coasts of Greenland and surround the North Pole. To and rushes along the coast of Brazil.adagascar. and sweeping around the Gulf of Mexico. inside of this northward current. which corresponds to that between Florida and Cuba it flows north-easterly along the coast of Asia. These local currents sometimes meet from opposite quarters. and masses of floating sea-weed occur in the Pacific. In what direction does the Southern Connecting Current flow? Along what coasts docs the Guiana and Caribbean Current flow? Where is the Gulf ." Matiry's divided : a small part rounding Cape Horn. — Temporary Currents caused? Give examples of such Currents. and its out along the other. XVIII. and of a deeper blue than those through which it passes. 3. — The current flowing southward down the coast of Asia. there is a cold warm . of 4. . countei'-current is a stream which runs by the side of. or beneath. there is a southward current along the coast of California and Mexico. by the out- This system has different names in the various : parts of 1. in concurrent. after sending a stream through the Straits of Gibraltar. and by gales of considerable duration. at the south Covering an area equal in extent to the Mississippi Valley. which it enters as an under-current. it reaches the Gulf Stream on the coast of Newfoundland.— 36 . extending back for fifty years. and Columbus first found this the Sargasso Sea is the centre of the whirl. and there it takes a southerly direction." north. Here assure us that its position has not been altered since that time. and has a high temperature. flows through Mozambique Channel. the Sargasso promontory of the Shetland Isles. be put into a basin. After passing through the Caribbean Sea. where there is the least motion. This stream originates in the masses of ice which 9." in East River. that every current in the sea has its counter-current * * * for wherever one current is found cai'rying off water from this or that part of the sea. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. with such rapidity and course is but little affected by the powerful streams of the Amazon and Orinoco. like the long-celebrated Maelstrom on the coast of Norway. Southern Connecting Current. In the Indian Ocean and China Sea. lost in the Atlantic Ocean. that quarter. oceanic circulation. reaches Cape blue color. corresponding to the continuation of the Gulf Stream depth. North African and Guinea Current. and around the Cape of Good Hope. near Newfoundland. or else the the would. This powerful stream passes north-easterly along the Gulf Stream. Thus the North African and Guinea current runs. this stream Roque. corresponding to the southward current of our eastern coast. it of the Indian Ocean. until turning suddenly to the west. through the various deviations occasioned lines of the land. setting towards Great Britain.Stream? are By what — — — — gasso Sea. that its by the North African and Guinea current . where it turns to the east. Lieut. it is it and became alarmed. or black stream the name being undoubtedly given to it on account of its dark Lieut. attached to . Roque complete the resemblance. while its depth and speed diminish and although losing much of its heat as it proceeds . Grassy Sea. where distinguished by their warmth. and Cape de Verd Islands. a great oceanic stream flows northward Driven by the westerly winds which prevail in from the Antarctic Sea. Bent. flowing through narrow channels and projecting coasts: as "Ilurlgate. Here it divides one portion flowing south to the Caribbean Sea. if of the weed are always to be seen floating along the Gulf Stream. Equatorial Current of the Atlantic. the Azores. another branch to the coasts of Norwiiy. Labrador. seven miles from New York. St. — In consequence of the natural tendency of the Polar water towards the Equator. It is divided by the 6. assuming the name of the Gulf Stream. and cause a whirlpool. and certain observations as to its limits. north along the coast of South America. weedy sea in his voyage of discovery. or a surface-current running in one direction. — and joins the equatorial current Passing round the northern end of M. it is so thickly matted over with Gulf weed that the speed of vessels passing through it is When the companions of Columbus saw it. the waters are driven alternately backwards and forwards by the monsoons. — This stream stretches directly across the the Atlantic to the Cape of Good Hope. or any floating substance. ^^Moving westward. who called it the Eu7-o siwo. alongside of the Equatorial XVI. XVII. Patches Now. — What are Counter Currents? — Give examples of them. and the This current. Canaries. Counter Currents. Moreover. in Brazil. Equatorial Current of the Pacific. more salt. until it is turned aside by the coast of Guinea. waters can be readily Maury remarks : "We may lay it down as a law in the system of The waters of the Gulf Stream are warmer. cease for want of water to supply it. course into the Indian Ocean. Farther India. from off Cape Guiana and Carihbean Current. — who was Commodore Perry's late Japanese expedition. Here it divides into two branches. and assumes tlie name of the Southern Connecting Current. it is lost in the Equatorial current of the Pacific. Temporary currents are caused by tides. at a little distance. is turned towards the east before reaching the mouth of the La Plata. all the light substances will be found crowding together near the centre of the pool. melting ice. to the same part must some other current convey an first equal volume of water. — This is a current which has been lately investigated. and a circular motion be given to the water. as compared with the adjacent ocean. — . and it imparia a warmth and moisture to the Aleutian Islands and the northwestern coasts of America. bits of cork or chaff'. — "Midway the Atlantic. —A coast of North — a current is scarcely a strait joining running in along two seas that does not furnish an examone shore. as the Gulf Stream follows the line of the American coast. its breadth becomes greater. moves down the coast of Africa.Japan scribe the Antarctic Current. bearing of resemblance to the Gulf Stream of the Atlantic. Of the Atlantic. this current. 7. As it proceeds north. similar to the efl^ect produced by the Gulf Stream upon the western and northern shores of Europe. . and passing 200 miles south of its This current pours a stream water through the China Sea. where the water has a velocit}' of six miles an hour. setting southward along the coast of South America. they often much retarded. Arctic Current.

flow forth into the Atlantic. producing an important effect upon the climate of Chili. Repeat Maury's description of the approach to the coast What Current in the Pacific resembles the Gulf Stream in of New England in winter. XIX. transporting seeds. vessels are frequently met by gales which mock the Lieutenant Maury attributes the cause of this open sea.ttend far ^ down tlie into the depths ature of the currents is either higlier or lower than that of the surrounding ocean. from sailing directly across the Caribbean Sea. State some other important offices performed by Currents. are encased in ice. Arctic Ocean. and Poles. Their velocity varies at different points of their course. led to the discovery of America. In a little while his bark becomes a mass of ice. pouring out a vast flood of warm water over the surface makes the climate of northern Europe mild and moist while the shores of Labrador. the warmth of its waters ? and are the habitation of man. and.Sea. washed by the cold waters of . which left at the same time. by baffling winds and currents. and thus unknown appearance. depending upon permanent causes. and set at nought his skill. even in winter. and that of some currents. The Gulf Stream. wliich flows soutliward inside the suggested Columbus the idea of land beyond the another example. Coral islands thus become clothed with vegetation. Gulf Stream." — Lieut. influence upon navigation. The is ITnlted States current. is a great boon to navi- No part of the world affords a more difficult and dangerous navi- gation than the approaches of our northern coast in winter. ten degrees warmer than the surrounding ocean. The temper- up in the air. •Jamaica to the Lesser Antilles In the West Indies. according to the heat of the climate in which they have their origin. and almost at the next bound passes from the midst of winter into a sea at summer heat.^g^ i^^^i^ _js^ the bases of which e. \i renders the temperature of the Equatorial current three degrees colder than that of the adjacent waters. north of Greenland. the Arctic. while the return passage. on their way an Gulf of Mexico. brought to to the Good Hope. and is . Western Ocean. ocean is Recapitulation. He supposes this current to come to seaman's strength. fore. had for supposed phers.ated and refreshed by the genial warmth about him. This difi'erence amounts to from 10° to 30° Fahrenheit. and velocity of currents have an important influence upon climate and navigation. Navigators report that there Atlantic into the Arctic Ocean. Vast quantities of timber are Repeat Maury's description of tlie cfTects of the under-current which flows into the Give To what docs he attribute the cause of the open Polar Sea? Hive examples to illustrate their examples to illustrate the velocity of Currents. chiefly to the under-current of water flowing to the north. In the waters near the Equator. waters are of vast importance to man that great salt water. of course. extent. and counteracting the numerous causes of pestilence. he dient only to her helm." says Maury. "They ^^ a powerful under-current flowing from the describe. and of most currents. Under Currents. which covers about threeand that it is subject to the three It appears great movements of AVaves. evidently in search of a milder climate. a vessel going China from is prevented. animals. to rise to the surface near the communicating its warmth to the waters of those regions. warm waters shores of of the Gulf Stream. — It has thus been shown that the of the current alone. The difference between their temperature and that of the surrounding waters is greatest in winter. modifying the Lieutenant Maury states that very recently a fine frigate took a hundred intense heat. and must go round through the ocean. being twenty and even thirty degrees at the Banks of Newfoundland. when beaten back from the inhospitable ports Madagascar. through the surface-ice or against a sur- The waters of the Equatorial current again face-current. 37 in the Polar . and Currents. performed the same voyage. in thirty days. In makinothis part of the coast. in the same latitude. and off Cape Hatteras. which is supposed be free from ice. are inconstant. and under the name of the Gulf Stream. directly across the Caribbean Sea. west of XX. Where a powerful is current flows through a labyrinth of islands. The put away for the Gulf Stream. Kane. thereobvious that a knowledge of the ocean currents is of the utmost importance in navigation." The existence open sea at of of the Atlantic. with tops high the waters of the Poles and those of the Equator. by the aid of the thart of the currents. Thus. and Azores ))y the Gulf Stream. from the United States to Rio Janeiro. the heat of summer. in the become heated into the Polar basin. It is. Ocean currents carry on a constant exchange between beneath the surface with immense force and velocity. a vessel may be carried hundreds of miles by the force days to sail the great currents of the ocean play their. that the movements of the oceanic promoting navigation. navigation this is the case in the often rendered very difficult and dangerous: Seas and Indian Archipelago. body of fourths of the earth's surface . Now the ice disappears from her apparel the sailor bathes his stiffened limbs in tepid waters feeling himself invigor. part in renewing and invigorating the life of the globe. also. from the warmer regions of the Equator.. On the other hand. is ready for a fresh endeavor. Tin' thrown upon the islands plants of The bodies of men. . while another vessel. temperature. an opposite direction suutlicrn connecting current forms a counter-current to the stream which flows westward around the Cape of to it. with their summer off the New England. What effects have Currents upon the temperature of difl^erent countries? Illustrate your statement by examples. The waters of the Gulf Stream preserve. where long calms prevail. the Arctic currents bear their cold waters to the coasts of the United States and to the shores of the Caribbean Sea. " The presence of the heat in midwinter. in the Arctic View Ocean. Maury's Physical Geoympliy of in the the Sea. XXII. — — — — — — — — . . that the birds and animals of the Arctic regions are found at certain seasons migrating to the north. some time been by hydrograIts existence was also inferred from the well-known fact. — Many of is the counter-currents flow XXI. of ocean. on the African coast. fitted for moderating the severity of extreme climates. in the Northern Pacific seek refuge warmer waters of the Japan Current. dependent upon local circumstances while the flow of the tides. — one region Vegetable matter and the seeds of plants are transported by currents from to another.OCEANIC MOVEMENTS. outside of the Caribbee Isles a voyage requiring several weeks — . terrific with force and awful The Antarctic current pours a cold stream along the western coast of South America. Recapitulate the subjects of this and the preceding chapter. " huge icebergs. This inference has recently been confirmed by the explorations of Dr. Tides. that the wave movement. gation. — So the ice-bound ships of Kamtschatka. . Near Cape Corrientes. It appears. which he has so graphically described. The average velocity of some of the great currents is 60 miles a day while at some points it is 120 miles. violence. is made in as many days. ripping and tearing their way. After a few hours' run she reaches its edge. the l-oles. a velocity of 139 miles a day has been observed. is constant. and thus diminish the extremes of heat and cold in every Zone. and in various other ways contributing to his happiness and enjoyment. who actually reached the margin of it in Latitude 82° 30'. with her crew frosted and helpless she remains obe. north of the dreary wastes of ice in the Arctic Ocean.

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1. was not verified until the commencement of the seventeenth century. Electrical and Optical Phenomena. though it had been surmised much earlier. The mercury in this instrument regularly falls as we ascend above the level of the sea. is The atmosphere has weight. METEOROLOGY. Of what does Meteorology treat? Under what general divisions may the subject be ^\'lint is the Atmosphere ? Of what is it composed? of this instrument as a weather-glass. Dry air is formed of two simple substances or gases in the proportion of 20 or 21 oxygen and nitrogen ]«arts of the former. especially in subject ^^ill its relations to heat and moisture. —-'fe/^ Meteorology (from The 4. The Atmosphere. Jloisture of the Atmosphei-e — Dew. who invented the barometer. The atmosphere was formerly supposed to be a simple element. and naturally colorless. Fogs. 5. but demonstrated by his pupil Torrecelli. and 30 inches high . the Greek. 3. one inch square. hence the value tion to be at least one per cent. thus rendering it easy to determine the The mercury in the barometer is usually high in calm and fair weather— it falls when it is wet and stormy. be considered under the general divisions Hail. height of mountains. The amount of the vapor — — uf water in the atmosphere fluctuates to : in the dryest weather it is supposed The pressure of the atmosphere was noticed by Galileo. of. a simple instrument. II. and 34 feet in height. "a ?o/i'?/ discoxirse") is that department of Physical Geography which 2. or has a weifiht. THE ATMOSPHERE. treats of the phenomena of the Atmosphere. and which or a column of water. 6. and The Winds. considered? — — What properties has the — invented the Barometer? Atmosphere? — What — Of what practical use is the amount of its pressure ?- -Who is this instrument? (39) . very elastic. but the investigations of modern chemists have shown it to be composed almost entirely of dry air and the vapor of water. to 79 or 80 parts of the latter. — that fluid which we breathe. thus showing a decrease in the atmospheric pressure or weight. The amount of its fall indicates the elevawhich we have ascended. The Atmosphere is The fixct that the atmosphere has weight. of about fifteen to the pounds on every square inch of the earth's surface which is equal weight of a column of mercury. one inch square. consisting of a column of mercury. Snow. I. Rain. Temperature. It is now known that it exerts a pressure. balanced or pressed upwards into vacuum by the weight of the atmosphere. CHAPTER I.PART III. entirely surrounds the earth. Climate.

vailing currents varies. sea CHAPTER I. and between these points. o. during eight months In summer. certain depth. marked oif in degrees indicating the different temperwhich the mercury is exposed. slowly warmed and cooled so that it does not undergo any very rapid or violent changes. From the is At a TEMPERATURE. The temperature of the ocean depth and the latitude. . II.xplain the construction of the thermometer. will be considered in connection with glaciers. 20° Reaumur is equal to 77° Fahrenheit. The temperature of the change that it globe. Fahrenheit's. and sometimes have an area of 100 square miles. below. because the lower portions receive the pressure of the air above. a limit of water in the deep reached which has an invariable temperature of about 39°"5. Arago has demonstrated that the of the internal heat have not affected its mean temperature one-tenth for thousands of years. and the Centigrade. under the Equ. 40 III."'^'"-r-'^ with mercury. A much greater mass. it reaches the surface. is filled The =- — "" ' . The greatest variation in the temperature of is the open sea throughout the year. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. latter. it reached at the is dis- In the Polar regions the ground perpetually posed to extend upwards. rises Below the line of invariable temperature. and in many scientific works. that most generally used in the United States and England. One degree of Centigrade is equal Reaumur is equal to 2}° Fahrenheit. Thus. fixes the two Sheet ice resembles that of lakes and rivers. its ? invariable temperature? At what depth from the surface of the solid body of the earth Does it become warmer or colder below found the line of — this line? depths from the surface of the ocean at which fioes. in most common use in Germany. about 50 miles. if you wish to change the temFahrenheit. this limit is IV. receives and throws off the heat of the And 20° Centigrade is equal to 68° Fahrenheit. on the contrary. until at about Latitude 56°. the standard in France. and returning to its original volume when the pressure Its density is not uniform. describes the blood as bursting from his nose and ears and Captain Gerard. — State the difference between the three in most common use. the rarity of the air sensibly diminishes the intensity of sound. taking care manner. on being exposed rises in the tube. Chimborazo to the height of more than 19. a limit the temperature foot is is reached at which not more than one below upwards. if In the same to add 32°. Neither the heat of the sun nor the of cold are experienced beyond a moderate depth and at a tance rarely exceeding 50 or 60 feet. — How does the temperature of the ocean compare with that of the land? . rising from two to eight feet out of Smaller sheets are called floes. surface. you wish to change from Reaumur. perature from Centigrade to to 1'8° Fahrenheit . becomes so rarefied as to be incapable of one degree for every 54 feet of descent. . Temperature is Equator toward* the Poles it rises. and the boiling Reaumur's. in temperate climates. and iron would melt at the depth of twenty-four miles. such as the pre- and the melting of the Polar ice.fields.^A. is 20 = 36 + 32 = 68.asses. are covered with ice. though open. Thus. is is In the Torrid Zone. and the fragments crowded together. presenting a generally level Sheets of ice. The height of the atmosphere portion not known. which. and add 32°.ator. speaks of the great physical debility and mental dejection there experienced on the least motion. of a degree for 2000 years. and the height of the mercury marked on the graduated scale will denote the freezing point of water. the mercury much less distance it life. the difference in the freezing points. fixes them at 0° and 100°. is according to the This variation not uniform. fixes the freezing point of water at 32°. when broken the water. being greatly modified by various local circumstances. and contract with cold. as a whole.-. expands and the tube is which is the top of i'iagram representing the Oceanic Limit of Invariable Temperature. points respectively at 0° and 80°. At this rate of supporting increase. in some cases to the depth of 300 or 400 feet. it is found. — What is — To what height sup— State some of the rarity at a produced by Temperature — E. ature to Above. but it is sup- from the surface and tance of about 60 or 65 feet. multiply the degrees given by I'S. invariable from year to year. is the quantity of sensible heat which a body ^ S rt rt s Ihe Ocean rf s ^ possesses. and if the bulb be inserted in boiling water. cording to depth. renders respiration diiEoult. At the Equator this temperature is found at the depth of 7200 feet. and packs. and the standard adopted in this sheet ice and icebergs. receives from the sun . — E. work. These floating masses ore of two kinds The which are of fresh water formation. and often drifted by winds and currents far into the heart of the Atlantic. the sea is What is understood by the elasticity of the atmosphere? effects posed the atmosphere extends? high elevation. The temperature of the its solid body of the earth . forcing out the air to the action of heat. as indicated by a thermometer. where the temperature of the water is 39°'5 from this parallel it sinks again. are by no means clear. . but exhibit immense icy m. yet it is very in the ground. being . and Antarctic Oceans. depth of two miles. with a bulb at the bottom. III. floating to and fro. vai-ying with the latitude.'iplain — State the the terms ice. at any given place. water In ascending high mountains. affected to only a moderate depth. and the instrument ready for use. 20 X X 2} = 45 -f 32 = 77. possessing II. who ascended the Himalaya to a height even greater than that reached by Humboldt. only 10 or 12 degrees. The atmosphere is in a high degree elastic. the height to which the mercury rises will indicate the boiling point of water. frozen. are called ice-fields. Accordingly. is within 15 or 20 miles of the earth's surface Yet by far the greater and at a .. their waters. therefore. physical strength. has undergone no sensible effects The earth throws off into the air all the heat while M. the graduated scale is then sealed up.000 feet. Fields and floes. varies aceffects dis- the property of occupying less space under the influence of great pressure. multiply by 2 J. as follows: — The temperature of the surface of the ocean is more uniform than that The rays of the sun penetrate to a greater depth in water than of the land. parts of the Arctic in the year. Reaumur's. It consists of a small tj Si u'face of cvi The thermometer gkss bulb a very simple instrument. is warmed. The greater There are three kinds of thermometers in common use in various parts of the world: Fahrenheit's. and one degree of up. fe - tube. form what is called a fack. when of great extent. who ascended Mt. where they are dissolved in its warmer waters. attached to a graduated scale. : point at 212°. but diminishes from is withdrawn. While the surface of the ground. while that of the land is sometimes 160 degrees. and at Latitude 70° it is found at a depth of 4500 feet. and the Centigrade. thus: 1-8 — is it sun's rays with great rapidity. Let the bulb be immersed in melting ice. filled it . IV. boil at the would and causes a great loss of Humboldt. constructed on the principle *-: that bodies expand with heat.

Fresh watei' but ranges between points far removed from each other.. the mean temperature of the year. imparting a greater The temperature of a place is dependent upon its vicinity The ocean is warmer in winter and cooler in summer to the sea. I Places. the power of the sun's beams. of the United States' Exploring Expedition.. and Since. nearly or quite to the boiling Their temperature depends upon that of the reservoirs point. to the is accumulated power of the sun's rays that the the month of July warmer than . Utituilc. Difference. than the land. though feeble from the obliquity of their direction.ays in June of heat imparted to the earth during the day is greater than the amount lost by radiation during the night the hottest day. 32° . with a temperature of 207°.. C0°. 13th.. deep lakes. owing to this fish can live in them kind provision of Nature. in 1840. and on its elevation above the level of the 1. is very slight. This is the reason why it is warmer in our latitude at mid-day than at sunrise or sunset. the mercury rose to 102° on July was 140° higher than on the 0th of February following. direction of the sun's rays affect the temperature of a place ? — r. The temperature of a place depends upon the direction and continuous time in which the sun's rays fall upon it. 23° 0° Temp. l°-7. month of June in our latitudes. will be frozen to but comparatively a slight depth. during the same time. the temperature rose Thus. The atmosphere over it. in the celebrated northern expedition of Captain Parry. over which the sun is nearly vertical during the whole of the tho surface of the earth at that place. and sometimes produces in sheltered spots. the lowest. notwith- VII. and the quantity sun's r. effects which Commodore Wilkes. which. stocked with the finest to the fish. or fell short of it more than 2°'9. becomes heaviest at the temperature of 31)°"2. partaking of its temperature. about eighty in number. summer. mercury fell to 45°-4 below zero and for more than three months the mean temperature was about 0°. 30° 10° 39° 14° The temperature of the wards the Poles increases. was 51°-6. accumulates in the long days. at a distance from the sea. the difference being only 4°. or thrown the atmosphere. and warmer at night. on its vicinity to the sea. with a temperature from 200° to 210°. as in the equatorial regions.ays fall — — upon tho temperature of a place has the continuous time which the sun's Illustrate your statement.— TEMPERATURE. for 20 years. air decreases as the distance from the Tropics to- Thus. the troops were exposed to to 114°-8. in the most rigorous climates and severest seasons. are never frozen to the bottom. the . it In The temperature not. mean tomperature reaching 85°-10. 1819-20.July. Springs appear at the surface of the earth at all temperatures. are abundantly quently no . or are first absorbed. In the equatorial regions. the mean temperature is the highest. was 50° below 0: . niFFERESCE BETWEEN SOME MIXIMUM AND MAXIMFM TEMl'ERATCRES. ^7 . is : the maximum effect of this accumulation. Pitch h. and then radiated. the Gulf Stream bearing thither the warm waters of the great Equatorial current. and are either directly reflected. the maximum daily temperature at Jlelville Island. from 1796 to 1815 inclusive. cooler tlian the land in 41 N. the air is about 83°. wby deep lakes in the Polar regions are not frozen to the bottom.. the maximum and minimum points being 110° apart. then. These facts are illustrated in the following table:— Mean Jlean Mean Summer Temp. on the 17th of . Switzerland. that of tropical Asia is 82°'94 and that j-ear. variously affected by contact with the heated rocks of the interior. describes water. Its temperature. from which their supplies of water are received. that is. Tfrnjerature. VIII. however. on the prevailing winds to which it is exposed. When the sun is most nearly vertical to any place. Places. consewhile the deep lakes. VI. ranges as follows: Give the renson — JIoscow Falkland Islands 53°. the variations from the sea. gives to them a more uniform temperature than to those 2. which wandering tribes of these sterile regions. since the days and nights between the Tropics are of nearly equal length. In June. During the Russian expedition to Khiva. mio-ht be — Humboldt describes a spring near Porto Bello. the greatest standard mean never exceeded it more than 3°-4. Winter Temp. also.. or the ocean. The temperature of a place depends upon the direction The variation in the mean annual temperature at any one place. oozing up through the gravel and sand of the beach on one of the Feejee Islands.— Uow do the mean annual temperalui-es upon it ? vicinity of the ocean upon of places compare from year to year?— What effect has the What effect — — the temperature of a place ? 6 . the heavier water will sink. If it be lieated above or cooled below tliis point it will rise. the Oulf of Mexico extends as far north as Latitude 2cS°. in the course of a few months. Quebec 6S°. The mean equatorial temperature of the Tropical Africa is the hottest region on the globe. at the subjoined places. water cools very slowly. The Oceanic warmth Equator. V. than to any difference in the annual supply. from year to year. and the character of the soil through which it passes to the surface. was 00° above while the minimum.as been melted at Quebec. Thus. on the loth of February. 1849. But earth. The first strike the surface of the earth. Warm and hot springs derive their supplies from waters which have ascended from a great depth. 46°-9 — and amount of the sun's rays. a variation of 100°. "0° 47' N. Thus. the highest mean annual temperature in Geneva. is not affected by the internal heat 6f the earth. 7. like that of the land. The variable produce of our harvests is owing more to a change in the distribution of heat through the different months. affording almost the entire means of subsistence At Franconia. Lat. of the Year. in the years between 1803 and 1813. N. the temperature during the year is quite uniform. North Capo Irkoutsk Reikiavik (Iceland) 43°. accordingly. The Hot Springs of Arkansas. It is owing. 33° 39° 40° 47° 420 of America. Shallow lakes in the Polar regions are often frozen to the bottom. 80°-0G. The temperature of the atmosphere chiefly depends upon the amount of heat received from the land and water. and borne by the winds to places situated on or near the coast. more naturally expected in the Torrid Zone. At Paris. is for line of greatest heat of the surface of the most part to the north of the geographical Equator. On what docs the tem|ierature of springs depend? On what does the temperature of the atmosphere depend ? On what does the temperature of a place depend ? Why docs the Illustrate your statement. 30° 40° 4C° 70° 47' is 72°. or of the sun's heat sun's rays is absorbed by the air before it reaches the off into generally observed in the latter part of the month of July. There are greater differences. from that of freezing. Rome Copenhagen Paris 73° Prague I 109° 90° 108° Petersburg 117° 126° | Moscow in the The high maximum temperature observed tudes is extreme nortliern lati- the result of the continuous time that the sun's rays fall regions. it is also cooler Cairo than the land during the day. have a temperature averaging from 135° to 100°. grapes sometimes ripen in the open air— on the sides of ships and the summer temperature is often quite oppressive. and warmer in winter. in South America. II. upon those During the brief summer of the Arctic regions. Difference. when it is nearest to being directly over head. 53°. Moreover. uniform. little standing the greater length of the days and the smaller inclination of the the days are longer than the nights. 52°- Philadelphia (Juebec Melville Island 42°. number of his rays reach amount of heat than at other times.

powerful currents carrying them at the rate of a mile region of perpetual snow. What has the elevation of a place upon its temperature? Recapitulate the subjects of to illustrate the effect of the — — Give — What named? tions? is \7'ind? —What is is rents of air created by heat. (Lat. continuance of the sun's rays. ature of the ocean varies with the depth and the latitude that the temperature of the atmosphere chiefly depends upon the latitude. At the same time. The rate of decrease is about 1° for each The inhabitants of the island of Barbadoes. the principal cause of winds? — Give an illustration of cur— In what respects are currents of air and water differently — What proof there that winds at different elevations blow in opposite direc this chapter. Vincent. by a disturbance The air of its equilibrium. it is 79°'2. heavier air rushes in to fill the space occupied by the ascending air. he would find the climate of spring in the same Zones at 12. in the streets of Kingston. near Lima. the air above it becomes heated also.000 feet. — It thus appears that the temperature . are often seen moving towards a point of the compass opposite to that indicated by the weather-vane. causing an upper outward current. at New Archangel. in would find on the plain at its base the luxuriant productions of the tropics. while on the western coast. examples effect winds upon the temperature of a place. and the trade-wind at the surface was blowing to the west. In the Pacific Ocean. The mean annual temperature of Nain. The motion of the air is produced and the principal cause of this interruption is heat. any portion of the earth's surface is heated more than the surrounding districts. . the temperature is C0°"2 while in the same them. CHAPTER I. Currents of air receive their names from the direction they blow.— 42 The guous cui-rents of the sea materially affect the to PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY. these changes are often strikingly marked. and becomes heavier with cold. observed. It follows that the heat of the land and the water. one day. hold the candle near the floor. only a few stunted shrubs would be found growing and at an elevation of 15. in balloons during a complete calm at the surface of the earth. Wind is air in motion. who should ascend one On the 25th of February. when at an elevation of . in the island of Jamaica. the shores of Peru to the cold sea current which flows along that coast. at different elevations. Recapitulation. who have ascended feet. and transported island. have 4. the colder. .) is O^'S helmv the freezing point. vailing winds to which The temperature of a place depends also upon the preThe effect of a change in it is exposed. imparted to the atmosphere. Kingston is 700 miles in a north-east direction from the volcano. is The temperature of a place depends upon its elevation above the level of the sea. a few thousand a minute. the direction of the wind. currents of water from the direction which from towards which they flow. When. have frequently encountered.000 or 16. which is situated directly west of their The ashes had been launched high into the air. in the West Indies. by reason of the sudden veering of the wind to the north. is amount of heat received from the land and the water. a shower of ashes fell from the sky. in the opposite direction to the 352 feet of ascent. to proximity to the ocean. 1835. 3. to their astonishment. and the coast of Norway. and an oppressively hot atmosphere at an elevation of GOOO feet. therefore. determines the temperature of different places upon the earth and that they vary with reference to the direction and : a subject of common observation. direction . and rises. in Guatemala. he would experience the warmth of summer in the Temperate Zones at the height of 10. from west to east. and the current of cold air pressing in will give the flame an inward direction. to the direction of the prevailing winds. A traveller. in Labrador. expands and becomes lighter with heat. The repeated observations of aeronauts and of travellers who have ascended high mountains. he would arrive at a tropical America. III. THE WINDS. Winds.) it is 12° above this point. 57° ?>'. the current of warm air passing out will give to the flame an outward effect of a A very simple experiment will illustrate the ature in causing currents of the atmosphere. Iceland. The occurrence of upper counter-currents following circumstances : very decisively proved by the established the fact that the temperature of the atmosphere decreases according to the perpendicular height above the surface of the earth. trade-wind blowing below. 57° 10'. frequently blovv' in oppois site directions. out of the current. (Lat. of the land of the earth varies with the depth that the temper. The Gulf Stream moderates the severe cold of NewfoundHumboldt ascribes the coolness on land. mercury fell 34° in sixteen hours. at a high elevation. . This manifest from the fact that clouds. This came from the volcano of St. producing a lower inward current. II. in producing a change of temperature. temperature of places conti- IX. contracts. .000 feet.000 feet. . change of temperLet a lighted candle be held near the top of a door opening from out of a heated room into the external air. observed that the the level of the sea. In the higher latitudes Captain Scoresby. III. Aeronauts. State the influence of the currents in producing a change of temperature. the ashes emitted from the volcano of fell Cosiguina. It is undoubtedly owing in a great measure to the warm south-west tradewinds that the western coasts of North America and of Europe have a higher temperature than their eastern coasts. of the high peaks of the Andes. and to the elevation above while in the neighborhood of the polar ice.

being hottest through the day. a breeze from the land commences. taken from . and the South-east trade-wind in the Southern. but their limits vary considerably in ditferent parts of the ocean and being The limits of the influenced by temperature. measure of and are gradually turned ft-om a direct northerly and southerly into a north-eastern and southand. The air West of Australia. and that of the sea rushes in to supply its place. The North-east Monsoon. AVhat are Constant Winds is ? ? ? In the open sea. two and three o'clock in the afternoon. and those of the Southern Hemisphere south. " blow perpetually. westerly currents called prevail from July to December.) maintained. The extension of the Equator. a northward and a southward current are created in each hemisphere the one flows near the surface of the earth. The origin of these winds may be easily The equatorial regions are the hottest on earth. are stated in the — Trade-winds in the Atlantic Ocean. — W'hat Why do is do you account for the Land and Sea Breezes where does the North-east Monsoon prevail? — The South-west? — The North-west? — How — What are the Monsoons —"When and it ? ? is ? The South-east? . and towards it at night. un- on the coasts of tropical islands. and extend across the Pacific to Australia. Soon after sunset.— THE WINDS. which retains a greater amount of heat. during the summer. especially is The able. and extend The South-west Monsoon to prevails north of the Equator. for the current of the Mississippi Kiver. a breeze from the sea rienced a few hours after sunrise. they are continued over the southern part of Asia. Winter 28° N. . is in the oppo- It The term the Commencement of the Monsoons. the land The wind from the Poles. Etesian Winds. — The Monsoons are The average varying Physical Atlas : limits of tlie different seasons. — Of the South-east Trades. Periodical Winds.5° East. rises. fall behind. The masses first it is it the earth's increased rotary velocity. and after being interrupted l)y the high lands of the American Continent and the islands of the Caribbean Sea. If the earth were at rest. the same wind seldom lasting Where the North-east and South-east Trades approach each other. (. from about This wind is caused by the distance from the South American coast. North-east trade-wind advance with the sun to the north. by the difierent temperature of the land These breezes are caused and water . but increases till expe- surrounds partakes of its motion.Johnston's winds which prevail in the Indian Ocean. the African coast." and maintain nearly the same direction variable. causing the South- The numerous east Trade-wind islands of the Pacific. about Longitude 145° East. a!id rate 43 is however. The air over those regions. prevails north of the Equator from about is Ocean to the region of the Monsoons. the surfacewinds of the tropical regions in the Northern Hemisphere would be north. of the Trade-winds further to the north than to the south the place of the warmer currents constantly ascending. blow across the Pacific Malay \iovAMoussin. in the region of the North-east Trades. becomes heated. on account of the continued ascent of the air caused by the excessive heat. south. which would be almost perfectly so. warmth of the land. were it not for the frequent violent rains which disturb the equilibrium of the atmosphere. periodical. and retreat with it towards the Equator. Periodical winds are those which regularly prevail in various parts of the earth at a certain Variable winds pretime of the day or year. and Constant winds. 30° 45' " 2S° 20' •' 24° 45' " 5° 45' N. : may be accounted for by the greater quantity of land in the Northern than in the Southern Hemisphere. however. from summer to winter. nearly to the coast of Africa. north and north- much the character of a Monsoon. Northern Limit. on approaching the Equator. from winter to summer. and by the additional warmth furnished by the northerly course of the warm Equatorial current. — Where the region of Calms of the Trade-winds. dying away to a perfect calm at sunset. This is the region of calms so much dreaded by sailors. also. a short distance from the African coast. they tend to produce a purely eastern breeze. " The North-east and South-east trades.South-east Trade being its many successive days. Lat." The Trade-winds extend generally about 30° on each side of the Equator. The limits of this region of calms at different seasons is given in the tiible the southern limit of the North-east Trade being its northern. occasioning sudden squalls and storms. revolves from west to east. perceptible. as the monsoons. — On At the sea-shore. 11° 20' " 10° 50 45* « 3° 16' " 3° 15' " 2° 30' " Unknown. to the in the region of the Indian Ooe. they commence again a short the middle of April to the middle of September. are called "trade-winds. blowing part of the North-east Trade-ttind.. on its way to the Equator. and are as steady and constant as the example. are of VII. by reason of friction and other causes. earth. Thus. between the meridian of the Mar- west Monsoon. Southern Limit | SouTu-EAST Trade-wind. to acquire the full mid-day. the direction of the trade-wind iviida rales (rainy winds. flows over the colder masses on either side towards the north and V. which east Trade-wind. alternating with the trade-winds. there is a breeze from the lake by day. Winds may be distinguislied as constant. 1° 30' N. and a north-west wind from about the middle of the Trade-winds extend further north of the Equator than south of ? —AVhat Periodical — What Variable — Explain the cause name given to the one north of the Equator? — AVhat given to the one south of the Equator? — Give the extent of the North-east name Trades. and the other some distance above it. prevailing witliin the tropics. takes the name of the North-east trade-wind in the Northern Hemisphere. those in the northern part of the United States for Maury. — The Land and Sea Breezes.an. 139° W.. year in one direction. at a speed of from 10 to 20 miles an hour. same reasons. they form the great eastern direction easterly trade-wind which sweeps round the equatorial regions unceasingly. about Longitude 14. and Northers of Mexico and Texas. and continues till morning. a south-east wind prevails from about the middle of March perature causing a change in the direction of the wind. and coolest at night. vary also with the seasons. give to the South- South of the Equator. Land and Sea Breezes. being heated more than that over the ocean. in the Caribbean Sea. this class. and rising. Trade Winds. quesas Islands. is and scarcely strongest between light . at annexed table. throughout the entire year. but this is not perceptible. the middle of October to the middle of March. Around spacious lakes. j Northern Limit. explained. the variation in the tem- west of Australia. vail in the regions beyond the tropics. and south of 10° S. always moving in the same direction. gouthern Limit. and over the great plains of the Amazon to the foot of extending from the coast of Africa greater Interrupted by this lofty chain. signifying a season. and the east coast of Australia. middle of October. Mon- soons. a continuation of the North- The South-east Trades commence with the Andes. it and the atmosphere which of air from the Poles.) VI. IV. VIII. and the northern limit of the .See page 35. from which directions the colder air rushes in to supply — southern boundary. across the Atlantic." says Lieut. therefore. u derived from The North-east Trades commence in the Atlantic Ocean. Monsoons. than the sea. So. ti and part site one.

on the lished 1. perature of the sea and land. north-west. on the coast of Brazil. They are also more serviceable to navigation from the change in their direction for a ship sailing with one monsoon to a distant : nearly the whole of Europe. more than four or five days in succession. They are cold winds. They are called by Lieut. and those from the Torrid Zone are hot. XII. Nubia. 142 stations situated in this belt. east of the Mississippi. the occurrence and character of low lands. though not so decidedly. the vicinity of bodies of water. 1. a passage across the sea in With the aid from Europe to Africa the north." This name was derived from the fact that vessels. Those from the Polar regions. They are more powerful than the winds from the Poles. may be aided on the return voyage by its successor. On the ocean. or Samiel. or descending from snow-capped mountains. north-west. and situated within Out of this belt. and most of the northern half of Asia." as they are called. hurricanes. are here subjoined: — In the Arctic regions of North America. yet by no at means have the constancy of the Trade-winds. W. of these winds. Describe the Simoom. The Monsoons are much stronger than the Trade-winds. lying to the south of the Mediterranean. of winds. these regions are well defined. most severe in the months of December and January. breadth. engaged in carrying horses from New England to the West Indies. lying within the Polar Circle. Northers. except the extreme southern part. however. N. frequently amounting to gales. by the in the The North-west Monsoon. mean direction of the wind is about N. The Simoom. Etesian Winds. however. same current rarely continues many successive The prevailing direction and may be easily Those of the Northern Hemisphere are south-west. It is changes in the prevailing direction of the winds. the 2. 117 have the mean direction of the wind port. N. X. rarely blows with force and regularity except months of December and January. They prevail from October to March. Those blow- much quicker than the return. of these winds.. Winds may be divided also with reference to their phy- Sahara. The Northers are violent winds from summer is ing from the ocean. were often delayed by the baffling winds of this calm region. descends as Trade-winds. 3. clearly defined. Persia. South of this region we find a Zone of westerly winds. The point other is which the winds from the Equator and Poles encounter each a region of calms. and Solano. pubby the Smithsonian Institute. The cause Valleys strikingly modify the direction of winds. south of 10° South Latitude. and from the middle of September to the middle of October. sical characters. lying in this belt. those from deserts. since the The winds of the temperate and polar XI. into hot and cold. seldom continuing to blow with severity. from the equatorial regions. bend towards the east and in the Northern Hemisphere are south-west winds in the Southern. IX. are among the reasons which will account for mateWhat kind of weather prevails during the int«rvnls between the establishment of the Monsoons?— Which are most serviceable to navigation. of the Southern. known its The Pamperos and Bora are and Syria. is — days. derives name from its temperature and supposed pestilential character: Statfrthe cause of these winds. explained. are moist . and the cause of them being the unequal temPacific coast of Central America . are dry. Jlonsoons prevail also. which is caused heat of this large island. and thus become the prevail. Variable Winds. The Calms of Cancer have been long known to mariners as the " Horse Latitudes. and blows off towards it cools. — State some of the physical characters — . extent. 30°. here encountering the currents proceeding from the Poles towards the Equator. During the intervals between the establishment of the two monsoons. about 23J° in It embraces the southern portion of British America. calms and light breezes alternate with furious gales. annual or seasonal. Khamsin. For precisely the same reason as that which causes the winds from the Poles to bend towards the west. Some interesting deductions from the elaborate work summer in Australia.) to periodical winds which blow strongly from the Mediterranean South of this belt the mean direction of the winds is easterly. Equator. south of the when it is winter in of Prof. or from about the middle of March to the middle of April. summer. blows regularly throughout the year. or large bodies of water. until their stock of water was nearly exhausted. especially those of the Northern Hemisphere. Maury the Calms of Cancer and of Capricorn. there appears to be a Between the parallels of Latitude 60° and 66° belt of easterly or north-easterly winds.— The Northers. countries north of the Equator. The Simoom cold winds.— 44 September to the PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY. similar to that existing between the trade-winds. moist and dry. assigned for these winds the intense heat of the Desert of XIII. regions. Sirocco. The direction. Winds of the Northern Hemisphere. all have the mean direction of the wind westerly. The south-east wind is a continuation rial of the South-east Trade-wind. advancing to the north and south with the change of seasons. and approaches the surface of the earth at about Lat. and all important changes in temperature. entirely encircling the globe. 5. A Sand-Storm in the Desert. : ing winds . are noted hot winds. which has been already explained. and they were compelled to throw some of the horses overboard to save the others. Coffin. all of the United States. or the interior of continents. which. and violent thunder-storms. 4. these " Return air rises The hot which the north and south.ailing direction of the winds of the Northern in the deserts of Arabia. Harmattan. are properly classed as variable. are cold . Out of 251 stations in North America. the north in — The ancients gave Sea in is this name (signifying from some point between north-west and south-west.— Why are the winds of the Temperate and Polar regions called Variable ?— What is the prev. — Where are the Calms of Cancer? — Of known to By what name have name ? the Calms of Cancer long been Capricorn? mariners? Why this — AVhat conclusions with reference to the winds of the Northern Hemisphere are Coffin ? Hemisphere? — V/hat of the Southern Hemisphere? drawn from the elaborate work of Prof. all but six have the mean direction of the wind westerly. and elevation of mountain ranges. The eight stations of Asia. middle of April. XIV. the Monsoons or Trade-winds ? —Describe the Etesian Winds. — which sweep the prairies of Texas and the low plains of Mexico.

and buildings destroyed. which occur in certain localities at particular seasons of the year. Ci'iitinuing at intervals for a period of somewhat more or This will be than fifty days. raging most furiously in the vicinity of continents and islands. Redfield. a hot a well-known hot wind of Greece and wind of Spain.noia. In the Chinese Seas. which blows in Egypt. regions. and the Chinese Seas. 25 in September. most furious. When these storms occur upon a grand scale.. then the arrows will show the direction in which the wind revolves. Typhoons. turn yourself 90°. leaves. Whirlwinds. '% j| 'o/-. April. from 50 to 500 miles in diameter. are revolving winds. Meteorologists are not agreed as to all the causes of these terrific storms. is XVIII. Reid. sometimes so furious as overturn horses C represent the calm centre of the storm. once liut and iiuIsdiiohs. just before a shower. They seldom approach nearer to the Equator than 8° or 10°. advances along a definite line upon the globe with a velocity varying from two to thirty or forty miles an hour. and Tornadoes. continues usually from one to six days. XVII. therefore. variously named Hurricanes. will. ' . vicinity of The Tropics. — Sirocco. at the plough. 70° W. In the Bay of Bengal. 36 in August." In the Indian Ocean. are noted ocean-storm regions. They are most frequent in Janifary and March. nearest it is this the navigator. round to your right. it had drifted with the stream several hundred miles to the north-east. 1831.li dai]}. full in the . the Indian Ocean. But tliou. tlio 45 to Anibic iS'tnHHfn signifviiig at Samii!. State the rule by which a navigator of greatest danger. or opposite to In the Southern Hemisphere. and the region of the Gulf Stream. the the movement of the hands of a watch." will find let Now.c'rous. objects are raised uj) into the air. and sweep with great violence over the level Pampas of Buenos Ayres. revolving around a calm centre.June. though has been known to last is A fog or haze always accompanies so dense that the sun only visible for a few hours at noon. XVI. sail in the opposite direction from this centre.ai ^ . hot wind. designed to represent a West India Hurricane. the whole face of the country was laid waste. 39° N. trees being torn up. it ap- pears that these storms may be regarded as great whirlwinds. from 1493 to 1847. and wind's eye then. though The storm calm centre . wind is from left to right.^' S L ANDS The Bora. stand erect. to a distance of 1800 feet. but before the vessel was abandoned. 15 occurred in July. — Bora. continues for days. and 5000 were wounded. . 6. and immense quantities of rain. meanwhile. fifteen days. who the wind there to be due north turning one quarter round to the right.THE WINDS. or place of greatest danger. There are three well-known hurricane regions West Indies.. who finds himself within the limits of doubtful if large vessels have ever been destroyed by them. the direction of the whirlwind is from right to left. especially on a warm summer afternoon. or with the movement of the hands of a watch. The Turks call It means poison. in this region. the experienced navigator knows what course to take to avoid it. In the Northern Hemisphere. : us suppose a vessel at a. August 10th. The nannaitan is a very dry. and St. of course. and someits pestilential and deadly attributes may be regarded Tlie To enable him Manual: — do so. during the season.'. (hough the condensation of the vapor of the atmosphere. caused by sudden changes in its temperature. due east from his vessel and. lieat«. and February. 1853. are January. ho has the direction of the calm centre." oppressive as the Simoom. beyond the It was in one of the terrible gales of the Gulf Stream region that the ill-fated steamer San Francisco was lost. surface of the water. or one quarter of the circle. terranean Sea. It first encountered the gale at Lat. the typhoons occur at about the same season of the year as the West India hurricanes. and rarely extend beyond the tropics. direction of the Cape Horn. The force of the wind may be estimated by the fiict that a piece of lead. are whirlwinds generally caused? — Harmattan. — By what — What the principal cause of tropical storms? — is — Explain the diagram. Describe the Khamsin. many small whirlwinds. which blows from the Sahara over the coast of Guinea. AVater-spouts are occasioned by whirlwinds near the They are much dreaded by sailors. they often prevail in May. Sometimes twelve or fourteen may be seen at once in the Medi- the hurricane. It generally occurs three or four times it it. Simoom blows only occa. not so facing you. The Pamperos are cold south-west winds. on the eastern to shores of the Gulf of Venice. Of 127 hurricanes The only months in in the : the West Indies. (fifty. — By what are water-spouts occasioned? . and 27 in October. finding it impossible to regain the O Let shore while they raged. the "stands erect.. they are accompanied by much thunder and lightning. The Sirocco.. 3. January. which no hurricanes have been known and May. -wliicli likewise times fatal in its effects. caused by the conflict of two winds meeting at an angle. Tropical Storms. and. knowing its direction. recorded in 354 years. from the end of April which is until June. great damage ensues. a north-east wind. So sudden and violent are these winds. was lifted and carried description of the hurricane at Barbadoes. — The Pamperos. made more clear from an examination of the annexed drawing. is undoubtedly the principal one. are usually ascribed to the Italy. and other light — along which the storm advances.) is sure that you are within the limits of a Cyclone. the chief period of the occurrence of hurricanes is from November to . Solano. From recent investigations by Mr. most dangerous. and others.~»> VS 5 I IP " wwi^t'. in December. 400 pounds in weight. 5. Cyclones. 2500 persons perished. that persons bathing in the La Plata River have been drowned. "By this awful visitation. if possible. and looks full in the wind's eye. may know in what — Name the direction to find the place three principal hurricane State the result of recent investigations into the character of tropical storms. the following rule is given in the London Admiralty as an Oriental fiction. and the vicinity of the Sahara. We often see in the streets of our cities and towns. in the same manner that eddies and whirlpools are formed in water by two currents being obliquely impelled against each other.sionally during intense look as and seldom it lasts longer than fifteen or twenty minutes. The place of this centre. When the winds thus meeting are powerful. and AB will represent the lino XV. by which dust.) and ycm will have the centre of the hurricane The Khamsin the name given less to a hdt south wind. (if in the Southern. but are most numerous in October and November. often occa- Some idea of the immense force of these storms may be derived from the sioning immense destruction of life and property. Col. common is in Dalmatia. " When much to your left. 4. They are generally commander. during the months of Decemlier. which originate among the snow of the Andes. and Lon. if in the Northern Hemisphere. though some- times 2.

in 91. Roque at about the meridian of 32°. and how to profit by them when found. and return via Cape Horn. — It has thus been shown that a change is sary as soon as possible to enter the zone of the trade-winds.i > Horn. After doubling Cape Horn. that a knowledge . in order to enter the region of the South-east trades at a great distance have made it in 107. England to the United States. and thence to India. the average time of a sailing vessel from England to now the same voyage is often the United States was sixty days . gradually taught them where to seek for winds. and direction of the Winds is of vast importance Give examples locality to illustrate the importance to navigators of a knowledge of the and direction of the winds. but though he proceeded nearly to the Line in the course westward must be shaped in accordance with the position of the and after sis weeks of ineffectual struggle between the north end of Madagascar and the Equator.4G PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. The knowledge of the locality and direction of the March the route must. according to Lieut. and very often came back in utter helplessness. the voyage west. and Maury's Sailing Directions. | farthest north in September. therefore." The properly-trained seaman of the present day knows not only whore "It to The vessel is then within the region of prevailing westerly winds. the time required for voyages " The average passage out from the Atlantic ports to San Francisco. he could not port to be attained. Once in the region of the trade-winds. where he lost half of his crew by sickness. in the temperature of the atmosphere the principal cause of and 1. by which a pretty accurate knowledge of the currents of the air and sea The reason of this is. had better go by way of the Cape of Good Hope. — [Selected from •Johnston's Physical Atlas. Gieneral Principles in Navigation. whose eastward current would still farther oppose their passage. the voyager has the choice of several routes. a ship had only to steer from England to Madeira. and getting into the North-east trades. On trial. If we a fair wind. he would have found a south-west wind which would have taken him. to India and China.) it is — South of the Calms of Capricorn. The is. south-west." the shortest route . in order as soon as possible to reach the zone of the trade-winds. to endeavor to keep outside of that zone in sailing from west to east. and then fancy that such must be the best course to follow. Roque. chapter. winds and currents is of the utmost imjjortance in navigation. the object is to steer south or foregoing. ascribe this great success to the information vv-hich they derived from these charts as to the winds and currents by the coast. and farthest south in of course. in sailing from east to west. XIX. of the locality in navigation. is favored by the Arctic Current running southThe above is the route pursued by the steam and sailing packets from England to our northern ports. which require no Map of the World." says Captain Basil Hall. And yet this is very much what our ancestors actually. and make for the Cape of Good Hope. The Gulf Stream advances and recedes north and south with the sun. VesRoque. this experiment always failed for. until time. way. and trace on to port is entirely in the region of prevailing westerly winds. expect the existence of the prevailing winds at the different seasons. and the whole object of his mission was If this officer. If the ship is bound for Australia. is-a general rule that. directly into the port which he wished to reach. be adapted to this circumstance. State some of the ducted under the direction of Lieut." says Lieut. India. did. take a globe. pass the Canaries and Cape de Verdes. also. "who was ordered to cruize Mozambique Channel. while that of the oppoThe passage from west to east has been accomplished in site voyage is 40. has been greatly shortened. especially. — In sailing from Winds. 2. as these sea. or were driven towards that of the Brazils. before attempting go south. according to the prevailing winds. too complicated for the purpose of work. these winds are passed. search of a north-west wind." for the Isle of France. Maury. XX. The southern route from Europe to America. the Constant and Periodical Winds prevailing and Variable principally within the Troj)ics. 90 days and their masters. and she would thus be retarded in passing around Cape St. According to this 'rule of thumb' sailing. that if she were to steer directly from New York to Cape St. see AVind For the locality of many routes between various ports. From the Cape of Good Hope ye. made " I in less than half that time. neces- XXII. by which she may sail directly into port. the Equator. vessels are much retarded by westerly winds. Europe to China. Roque. and Austr^tua. as if they were bound to C. particular description. Having passed inside of the Island of Trinidad (opposite Rio Janeiro). between Africa and Madagascar. and was compelled to bear up at last for the Cape of Good Hope. and then make a direct course to the Cape. and the Variable in the regions beyond the Tropics. " sels usually make for Cape St. Periodical. distance to be traversed. It has been shown. which blow around the Cape in violent puffs and gales. — Recapitulate the subjects of to east? to this What is the general rule to be observed in sailing from east to west. the ship to must eastward to about the 60th meridian. 3. at the season of the year he was ordered to sail defeated. ilie From United States — the Gulf Stream 13 days. The return to Europe is favored by and by the prevailing winds. but how to turn them to the best advantage in prosecuting his voyage. the course till north-west. the best course is to pass about 1000 miles south of the Cape. and repeated trials. however. the North-east trades would carry her too far west. in 96. After reaching the meridian of 60°. and passes Cape St. Maury. Formerly. Recapitulation. and multitudinous failures. sailed to the northwai-d. on getting near the Equator. from the winds blow with much greater force and regularity far out at After crossing is than when within the disturbing influences of the land. in the day. following the directions of these charts. had taken a southerly course from Madagascar. to find From the United States or — is one of the chief points of a seaman's duty. she takes the North-east trades as soon as possible. to Europe. The passage around Cape Horn is the most difficult part of the voyage.ar. the vessel must sail far to the west. a series of calms and squalls put a stop to this rectilinear scheme." says Captain Basil Hall. which prevail in the proportion of two to one. Maury. — results of the observations con- — Describe the course be taken in the various chapter. explanation of these routes however. At the time appointed. Newfoundland. but vessels with these charts on board in . on to the northern shores of Brazil. in the selection of which he season of the this must be guided by the and the consequent direction of the monsoons. Navigation. the westerly winds prevail with great regularity entirely around the globe in the Pacific. knew an officer. he make a bit of easting . From New York sail to San Francisco. XXI. " is upwards of 180 days. . The average passage for sailing vessels from New York being only 23 days. Vessels. A series of careful observations have recently been con- ducted under the direction of Lieutenant Maury. in 97. until a certain and then to proceed to the Isle of France. and the result has been furnished to navigators in the form of sailing-charts. to know where rent. he was obliged for want of water to run for a port in Africa. have been obtained. that are bound from Europe and America to Australia. In the navigation of the great oceans by wind-propelled it vessels. By Thence her course along the coast inside of the Falkland Islands to Cape Horn is quite direct. we shall be very much mistaken. they blow almost with the steadiness of triide-winds. The route thence 4. owing to the westerly winds of that quarter. They must also keep to the north of the Gulf Stream. After passing the Banks of . being to From Europe America. and the mariners of old were then forced to toil along the coast of Africa. and where to it fall in with a favorable cur- by sea to India. and from west routes enumerated in this . in fifteen or twenty days. after making allowance for the and even improved models of their ships. — On leaving New York. although much longer in the is by some authorities reckoned preferable to the On quitting Europe by this route. and that they may be classified as Constant. they can then taks the westerly winds and Southern Connecting Current.

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This is the case in England. hollow globules of water. called Hoar-frost. They are suspended at a considerable elevation in the atmosphere. causes water to disappear depend? — When and where does the capacity of the air to — On what does evaporaamount? — On what receive vapor depend? — What Dew? — Explain the if exposed to the open air? will evaporation be greatest in is Frost? What is HoarState the circumstances most favourable to the deposit of dew. lakes. which is of very rare occurrence. Dew If a vessel be filled is most abundant in with water. The atmosphere over the land becomes cooler than that over the water. in the form of numerous small drops of water. these fogs are clouds. VIII. Travellers. soil is In countries where the The average annual evaporation in the Temperate Zones is estimated at from 36 to 37 inches. will entirely disappear. except in position. is frozen dew. and exposed to the open air contains a great amount of moisture. Rain. taken up as its temperature will permit to receive. instead of being confined to the surface of the earth. and as water is less abundant in the interior of continents than in maritime regions. and by the dif-as soap-bubbles and dust are borne to great heights and ferent winds — IV. — the open air after sunset. and a fog ensues. and decreasing with cold. that. Clouds range from 150 feet to five miles in height: their average elevation being about two and a half miles. and the evaporation very great. I. This moisture is the vapor of the atmosphere which has been condensed by the cold surface If. they supply the place of rain. apparent that it will he greatest VI. Clouds are masses of visible vapor. are masses of vapor resting upon or near They consist of an immense number air is saturated. which prevail in the vicinity of the island of Newfoundby the great difference between the temperature of the atmosphere and that of the warm waters of the Gulf Stream. soon after sunset. moist and warm. What tion distances. III. is is clear. bodies by which its vapor is condensed . Mists. — goes on from the oceans. we farther supply floats in a state of cloud or mist. because bodies cool much more rapidly on such nights than on CHAPTER IV. in the bodies. fogs sometimes continue during a considerable portion of the year. in it is V. the amount of evaporation will diminish from the coast towards the interior. The dense fogs land. and as the is When. the quantity of the fluid will soon diminish. the vapor of the cooler air which presses in to take its place is condensed. in precisely the same manner that dew-drops are condensed by plants and other bodies.alf the year. and the air moist and cold. What are Mists? What is the cause of mists or fogs? Where do fogs occur — — — — most frequently? — What are Clouds? — How do they differ from fogs? — How are they cause of dew. Hoar-frost. perhaps all. too. frequently speak of their view being intercepted by fogs below. by not permitting the remain long enough in contact to be cooled below the dew-point. frequently observe fogs hanging over the rivers and lakes. Fogs of an ordinary density are easily dispersed by a brisk wind. day. amount during the hottest season of the year and the warmest part of the of exceedingly small. Clear nights are most favorable to the collection of dew. latter. still nights. and quickly disappear before the rays of the morning sun. cool their temperature falls dense its more rapidly than the atmosphere when below the dew-point of the adjacent air. Clouds. bodies exposed to The explanation is simple. Most. Dew. in the vicinity of London. gently rises. form of small drops of water. the surface of the earth. the air said to be at the dew-point. Fogs. or White-frost. Since evaporation depends upon heat. air surface of the bodies on which collects is cooler than the dew- point of the surrounding atmosphere. which are deposited on their . air. When it much has been is . difiering in no respect from fogs. in South America. on the summit of high mountains. Lima is often covered with a fog h. they are supported by the ascending currents of heated air. by bringing a greater portion of the atmosphere into contact with the cold MOISTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE. rivers. cloudy ones. or into a fluid condition. The difference in the quantity of evaporation between hot and cold seasons is shown by the fact. on the surface of plants and other Its deposit takes place on clear. It is apparent. and in regions where the The average annual quantity estimated at a depth of five inches. also. and falls to the surface of the earth again. In Autumn. while that of January was less than half an inch. supported in the atmosphere? . the dew is abundant that its effects are almost like that of a gentle shower of rain. the outside of it will be covered with moisture. thick and frequent fogs maybe expected. the soon after being converted by the heat into cases the water is evaporated So evaporation invisible vapor. II. or fogs. and Hail. Detv is the moisture collected during the night. that the quantity of vapor will decrease in proceeding from the Equator towards the Poles. clear day. Though heavier than the atmosphere. air above. This capacity depends upon temperature as : increasing In some parts of the equinoctial regions. and permitted to stand for a short time. (the freezing point. while to the inhabitants in the valleys surface. the amount in June was 3| inches. On the coast of Peru. especially in the morning and evening. and in the other its temperature being increased both preventing the condensation of vapor. on a warm summer day. and moist ground of the entire globe. They are caused by the more rapidly than the water. Snow. when the it being warmer. while strong breezes air to utterly prevent this deposit. are caused The air is only capable of receiving a certain quantity of its vapor. Gentle breezes facilitate its deposit. but in minute icicles.) the vapor no longer appears in the form of drops of water. and after a time throughout Great Britain Tropics. while is free from them. and are formed same reason. or the point of saturation and any resolved VII. confined to the expanse of water. generally become dry plants covered by the In all these sun has begun to shine upon them. they convapor into small drops of water. the least decrease in its is cooling temperature followed by the precipitation of moisture. where the sky so maritime countries. When the objects by which the vapor is condensed are cooled below 32°. warmer air near the surface being condensed by the colder and made visible. and diffused through the air. the morning dew. for the when the the and generally when the moist . Within the The stones wet by a summer shower.48 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. has been already stated that the dew-point is that temperature of the atmosphere which will admit of no decrease without parting with some of its moisture. a pitcher be filled with cold water. That of the Torrid Zone probably amounts to from 90 to 100 inches. Humboldt relates that with heat. soil and bodies of water are warmer than the atmosphere the vapors of provided the temperature is the same. of the pitcher. on a the adjacent land soil fine. It In the -one case the being kept in constant motion. the atmosphere is satui'ated.

1828). They are subject to the upper currents of wind. The truth of this general law. The quantity of vapor than the sea. . Clouds have been divided. tion. on two successive d. than of any variation in the annual mean. increasing in size. ami by sailors the Cats /ail. the fall is 15 inches rain. and last but a few hours. — 49 MOISTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE. The Kimhxis. Into what three distinct classes are clouds divided — Describe each of them.Johnston's Physical Atlas (Folio Edition). reaches its greatest magnitude in the hottest part of the day. 292 313 XII. in Portugal. (Folio Edition. Rain. Tropical Africa. as the island of Sitka. has 111 inches of at Ekaterinburg. 4. at 34 inches.ays (the 22(1 and 23d of August. The following are general laws relative to the tion of 1. The average annual fall of rain on the top of the Observatory at Paris. white threads.) usually seen in the form of avast hemiIt Bpherical heap of vapors. in French Guiana. It is composed of thin. The distribution of rain of the year. that fre- quently arrange themselves in parallel bands. the year . They are supposed to indicate a change of weather. British India. on the north-west coast of North America. JIatouba. however. fall The annual number tance from the sea. at 113 inches. — to tlit-ir foi-m. Gu. of rainy days also decreases with the increased disthe eastern coast of Ireland it On rains 208 days in to the earth. into The Cirnm (also called the Curl-chud. ? at Irkoutsk. Cirrus. and Rainy days are more numerous in the Temperate Zones than in the Between the Tropics. upon the top of a building than upon the ground? The second. On comparing sever. Tropical America. Prof Dove states that the yearly amount of rain which falls on the roof of the Royal I'alacc at Berlin.. of the other varieties of clouds may change Nimbus. have an annual average of from 30 to 50 inches.ain or snow did not fall. east In Poland and Russia. in Siberia. to tjje night. for ten . and the small globules of water. Admiral Roussin collected 10 inches in 10 hours. most frequently occurriug during that season. Peterinann. much more dense and heavy than to the especially in the case of others. I The absolute greatest annual fall of rain is reported as follows: — Inches. Stratus. that of the Eastern Continent. because the laud supplies The Stratus cloud and belongs consists of horizontal earth. to their great elevaIt is 'J'lio rain which falls to the ground is not all derived from the higher clouds which float in the atmosphere but also from the lower regions. Johnston's Phy. — forming is at sunset. IX.) 280 Johnston's Physical Atlas. Tropical Asia. rain decreases as we recede from the breaks up towards sunset.S03 . 2. and has a dull grey or leaden hue. in the court. San Luis de Maranham. coasts to the interior of a continent. is 18 inches in depth while that on the pavement below. like the annual amount of heat. sink to a lower level amount is still less. becoming larger. which the origin of vapor and the cause of rain. among below. 2. the annual amount of rain. . because heat. — What I | Give examples to illustrate the first amount of rain which falls in some tropical places. and at different seasons The quantity of rain falling in a single day in tropical regions is often immense. . that of the Eastern (Europe). Mjibabaleshwar. and resembling a mountain of snow. Place. the fall was 20 inches and at Cayenne. it these clouds that circles around the sun was 2221 inches. mountain chains. Coimbra. Johnston's Physical Atlas (Folio Edition. densation. long-continued droughts and excessive is found to be remarkably uniform moisture being more the result of unequal distribution. or It is rain-cloud. rain : — distribu- It decreases in quantity is from the Equator to the Poles. and resembles a lock of liair. is XI. creases. from 1817 to 1827. amounts to 20 inches. Cherrapongi. France. in Sierra Leone. lighted up by the sun. or a white feather. Brazil. called lialox. bands near the surface of the and breaking up at the less sunrise.adeloupe. X. has been abundantly proved by Europe and the United States. form drops of rain.sical . Equatorial regions. resting on a horizontal base. between them and the surface of the earth.al years. the clouds. fringed at the edges. or a — As the quantity of vapor change in in the its temperature causes atmosphere inmore rapid con- coasts of Great Britain. . Tropical Asiii. The average annual Continent is fall of rain in the tropical regions of the Western stated in . Any many observations in though there are many exceptions to it. a hundred feet and moon. Owing ice. 2. and Portugal. there have been years in which there were only furty days during which r. or a cloud being seen while in some places in the Temperate Zones. and in the interior of Siberia. or flakes of snow.\tlas. was 19-88 inches . very unequal — the amount varying greatly between different places. decreases in the same direction. may be called a summer cloud. Nimbus. name full is given ? to the rain-cloud? of rain — Why does less rain — What changes fall occur in the atmosphere to cause the State and illustrate the general law with reference to the distribution of rain. It begins to form early in the morning. often but a fesv minutes. it is 13 inches The western . British India. are formed. 4.) uccupies the higliest position in the atmosphere. weeks and frequently months pass without a drop of rain falling. The Cumulus (heap or pile. Thus. is same authority at 39 inches . is 3. of which they are composed.) West Indies. (Folio Edition. . the of the Ural Mountains. Cumulus. which. 3. stated on the The average annual quantity in the Temperate Zone of the Western Continent (United States). only 57 days. growing more heavy. during the dry season. they must consist of minute particles of years. 1.) 610-3 1 Petcrraann. Authority. at 79-7 inches. Sierra Leone. according tlirce distinct classes: 1. .

which falls on table-lands and low plains. therefore. contributes a much greater amount of the Northern Hemisphere. Southern. The tradewind belts and region of calms advance with the sun to the north in summer. ocean. is at an elevation of about 8000 feet. . to all places. Peru is situated in the region of the South-east trade-winds. where seasons of excessive moisture are followed by months of entire absence of rain. — What sections have two rainy seasons during the year? eo:i?t ? ? . The Southern Hemisphere contains three times as much water the amount of evaporation. and draws from them nearly every particle of their moisture . near the Equator. those north of deserts. 63 inches. The fogs and copious dews. the South-east trade. In the Temperate Zones of both hemispheres. be- cause the mountains arrest the clouds. mountain ranges of the British The annual rain fall 43 inches and on the Great St.abundantly watered. but so rarely. and the Orange and Zambeze. prising 3. . month in the tropical regions than during the most parts of the Temperate Zone. including the Table-land of Thibet. Why does more rain fall in the Northern than in the Southern Hemisphere? How How may that falls ? — the surface of tho earth be classified with reference to the quantity of rain . which prevail along the Peruvian . in the Temperate Zones. the eastern coasts. . From April to when the sun is in the Northern Hemisphere. north. and the North-east flowing to the When they afterwards descend to the surface. October. especially those of the New World. some parts of these regions there are two rainy and two dry seasons annually. brings abundant rains and to all which and from the south to the places which it passes twice during the year. High mountain ranges sometimes occasion an excess of moisture on At Bergen. in Norway. on the contrary. in others. experienced and thunder is coast. 29'7 inches. passes on it way from it the north to the south. are highly charged with moisture. 1200 miles wide. Bernard. and their cold summits and another Himalaya Mountains. on the eastern side. but generally lasts from three to five months. brings two rainy seasons. across the . table-land of Spain. — The rainless districts of the New and World comprise a of Mexico. The fall . at Berne. . and 1. 5.a. and extending in a north-easterly direc- More rain falls in mountainous than in level districts. Rainless Regions. . are barren and nearly all the moisture is withdrawn from them. they consist of an enor- fall of rain on the west side of England is 45'5 mous tract of country. The length of the rainy season varies in difier- ent districts. classified as comRegions of Periodical Rains.On the coasts of Spain and Portugal. There is a striking similarity in the character of these rainy days. not a drop of rain falls. the rain ceases. part of Mongolia. also. so that. the Sierra Nevada of the United States arrests the moist south-west winds of so that the Pacific. Mountains. Rainless Regions. Europe. from the greater number and larger size of the rivers in the former than in the latter if we except the La Plata. Lower California. The region of equatorial calms it is one of almost constant precipitation its . on the contrary. falls on elevated table-lands than on the low plains. These winds bear abundant moisture across the plains of South America to the foot of the Andes climbing this high chain. the clouds disappear. and recede with it towards the south in winter. their moisture is all precipitated on the eastern declivity. is strikingly illustrated in the Spanish Peninsula. a part of Central America. which. than the North-east to the of the Equator from October to April they prevail south of it. The and entire area of the rainless districts is estimated at six and a half millions of square miles. and the highest meteorological station in the arising from which disperses the clouds that the moist winds from the Atlantic and Mediterranean cause to blow over it — a decrease in tempera- ture being always requisite to the fall of rain. The clouds brought from the Atlantic by the prevailing south-west winds are arrested by the mountains. however. sometimes heard.ire ? it — — — Which the principal rainless districts — Why does not rain in Northof Peru — Where do Periodical Rains ern Africa? — In Central Asia? — On the occur — Describe these rains. and a tion. exposed to the prevailing westerly winds. In Where the two trade-winds meet. inches 4. Red Sea tract nearly as large. at long intervals. 27'4 inches: on the west side of Ireland. wind bears away a much greater amount of moisture than the North-east. more rain falls upon the western coasts than upon the eastern. only known and in very small quantities. west of the Scandinavian one side of them. it is only 21 inches. at the foot of the Alps. 2. 47 '4 on the east side. tries does the quantity of rain which falls upon the western coasts of different councompare with that which falls on the eastern ? How does the quantity which falls on mountains and table-lands compare with that which falls on the plains? Give examples. 33 inches. and the Table-land On the Eastern Continent. is 37 that of the Southern Hemisphere. Regions of Frequent Rains.PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. and not a drop falls during the night. and on the coast of Peru they are cool and dry. depriving them of nearly every particle of moisture while California is . Southern Africa. as stated by Johnston (Physical Atlas. is very limited during some years. in a Occasional showers are. the average annual rain fall is 82 inches while at Stockholm. because of their exposure to the trade-winds. because they are — The surface of the earth may be 1. being rain to more moist.aya Mountains. rain falls in a single entire year in More — . it is In some parts of them. on which scarcely a drop of rain falls. . In like manner. because the mountain chains which usually form the boundaries of table-lands draw from the clouds the greater part of their moisture. . 3. each other. the Great Basin of Utah on the east. in the as the Northern The South-east tradeformer is much greater than in the latter. clouds appear and at noon the rain commences frequently pouring in torrents for four or five hours: at sunset. : The average annual fall of rain in the Temperate Zone of the Northern Hemisphere. it is only 10 inches. tract of country along the coast of Peru. passing over the Within the Tropics. indeed. receiving but little rain. Periodical Rains occur in the tropical regions. is mainly a barren desert. 24'51 inches. in the central part of More rain falls in the Northern than in the Southern Hemi- sphere. they prevail north . the South-east current proceeding to the north. . near the Atlantic coast. Maury . . they rise into the higher regions of the atmosphere and cross south. the Desert of Gobi. though the countries south of this range are it among the most abundantly watered upon the globe. Much less rain. no rain falls. therefore. The average annual inches. and in the western part of the United States between the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains. Periodical rains follow the apparent course of the sun. The sun usually rises in a clear sky a little before noon. Lieut. the annual rain fiill is from 25 to 35 inches on the The diiference in the quantity of rain great degree compensate for the absence of rain. 2. on the low plains of Patagoni. This lofty range arrests the naoist south-west winds which blow from the Indian Ocean. are more moist than the western. The quantity of rain in the centre of Australia. in South America. that more rain falls in the Northern than in the Southern Hemisphere. commencing nearly to the River Indus in Africa on the east side. lying north of the condense the vapors which these clouds contain.50 . in South Africa. assigns the following reason for this fact. The rainless district of . inches It is evident. the intense heat The average annual Islands is of rain among 40'59 inches on the plains. that such occurrences are noted as shocks of earthquakes are in the United States. Folio edition). rainless district of Northern Africa is a desert region. there is scarcely a river of any magnitude in the South Temperate Zone. The rainless districts of Central Asia lie to the north of the Himal. XIII.

;

MOISTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE.
In the countries bordering on the Indian Ocean, the
of the monsoons extends to the
rior of China.
fall of

51
it

rain

is

depend-

and descends
The

in the

form of rain, while at the same time
contains

may

ent upon the monsoons, and nut upon the change of seasons.

The

influence

Himalaya Mountains, and

be snowing at a greater elevation.
colder the atmosphere, the less moisture
:

far into the inte-

During the prevalence of the South-west Monaoon, from the middle of

rarely falls on very cold days

neither
as

is

summits of very high mountains,
pared with that which descends
that
it is

thi'

March

middle of September, the western coasts of the peninsulas of Southern Asia are washed by abundant rains, and the eastern enjoy fine
to the

Snow, therefore, which falls on the Himalaya and Andes, large, comit

the quantity

to

a lower level.

Tlie

common

expression,

clear weather.

When

the North-cast

Monsoon blows,

" too cold to snow,"

is

quite correct.

the eastern coasts of

Southern Asia, Africa, and Madagascar are visited by coasts of the Asiatic Peninsulas are dry.

rains, while the

western

Flakes of snow,

when

collected on objects of a dark color,

and examined,

are observed to be of a beautiful and regular form, similar to the annexed representations.

The western
rains
rain
is

— the opposite coasts by light summer
almost perpetual
days.
:

coasts of Patagonia and Chili are watered
rains.

by heavy winter
the

Around Cape Horn

hei'e in forty-one

according to Johnston, 153'75 inches were collected In California, the rainy season is during the winter
is

and spring.
3.

In Oregon, rain

most abundant

in winter.

Region of Frequent Rains. In countries beyond the Tropics, rain is not confined to any particular time of the clay
or season of the year.
In the region of Frequent Rains of the year, and the rains are probably as

day

;

whereas, within the Tropics,

may rain during every day common during the night as the during many months, not a drop of rain
it

does or

falls,

and even
in

in the rainy season the nights are generally dry.

The

rain

in this region is not

Thus,

always equally distributed throughout the entire year. Southern Europe, more rain falls in winter than in summer.

fall of the entire globe is estimated by " Within the Tropics, the mean annual fall in the Temperate Zones, 3-05 feet of rain is about 8*50 feet 1-25 in the Frigid Zones, feet." and

XIV. The annual
:

rain

XVI. Snow never
Tropics
tions,
;

falls

to the level of the sea

between the

Johnston as follows

but from the Equator to the Poles, at different eleva-

;

forms a permanent covering of the earth's surface.
limits of the fall of

The northern and southern
sea, are indicated

snow

to

the level of the

by lines on the rain-map of the world. It may be stated as a general law, that from the northern limit thus indicated towards the North Pole, and from the southern limit towards the South Pole, the quantity of snow, and the number of days on which it falls, increase.

The number of days in which snow falls in Europe increases in the folRome has one and one-half snowy days lowing order from south to north: in each winter; Venice, five and one-half: Paris, twelve Copenhagen, thirty;

;

and

St.

Petersburgh, one hundred and seventy-one.
It

XVII.

has been already stated that the temperature deIt is evident,

creases in ascending above the level of the sea.
therefore, that in all latitudes,

and at all seasons of the year, a limit may be reached, above which the moisture precipitated will all fall in the form of snow, and constitute a permanent covering
:

to the earth's surface
South
L.Tlitii<1e.

this limit is called the snow-line.
Norlli Latiliidf.

30,000

^

=/

g^f^^%^S,
South Poles.

1

!

Diagram rcpr

the Elevation of the

Snow Line between

the North

and

'CUDERBACk -mTB/'hii

A Snow

Storm.

If we suppose a line representing the limit of perpetual snow to be drawn from the South to the North Pole, in tlie direction of the Andes and Rocky Mountains, wo shall find that in the Polar regions it corresponds with the
level of the sea

which is the frozen vapor of the atmosphere, falls when the temperature of the air is at or below the freezing point. If the air near the surface is sufficiently cold, the snow reaches
the earth
;

XV. Snow,

3700

in the latitude of the Straits of Magellan, 53° South, it is above the level of the sea; in lat. 43° South, GOOD feet; lat. 33°, 1° 14,700 feet in lat. 15°, about 15,000 feet; and in the Andes, near Quito, South, where it attains its greatest elevation, 18,300 feet from this point it
;

feet

;

:

but

if it is

too

warm, the snow melts near the surface,
Ocean?

descends gradually towards the North Pole.

On what depends

the

fall

of rain in eour tries bordering on the Indian
fall

— Re-

Under what circumstances does snowfall?
portion of the earth's surface
of d.ays on which
is

Is

it

ever too cold to

snow?
the

pent Jotinston's description of the ditfereni e in the

of rain in the tropical regions,
r.ain fall

permanently covered with snow?
cities of

— State

— What
number
under-

and reg »ns beyond the Tropics.
ot"

— What

is

Johnston's estimate of the annual

snow

falls in

some of the principal

Europe.— What

is

the

(

otire

globe?

stood by the ''snow line"?

;

52
The
actual height of the snow-line
is

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
variously affected by local causes:

but

is

a mixture of

ice,

snow, and water.
has a green hue

The lower part of

such as the vicinity of the sea, the prevailing direction of the wind, and the amount of heat radiated from the adjacent table-lands. Thus, on the southern slope of the Himalaya Mountains, the snow-line is reached at the elevation of 12,982 feet; while farther north, on the northern slope of the same
range,
it

glaciers contains the

most pure and
it

solid ice.
;

As

seen through

the numerous fissures,
tinge
;

at the bottom, a blue

but the entire mass frequently exhibits every variety of blue.
scientific

rises to 16,630 feet.

the adjacent plains

This is owing to the radiation of heat from and plateaus of Thibet, and to the remarkable serenity

The observations and experiments of many
often

strated that glaciers have a regular descending motion,

of their atmosphere.

XVIII.

Glaciers.

— Intimately connected

with the fields of

perpetual snow, and dependent upon them for their origin, are They are found in all latitudes. In the Glaciers or Ice Rivers.

pushed below the limit of perpetual snow. and that of the Lower Grindelwald 5000 feet, below the snow-line. Thus reaching the warm cultivated grounds below, they are wasted by the increased temperature, and are of essential service in supplying water to the surrounding lands they form also the sources of rivers.
1500
feet,
;

men have demonby which they are That of the Aar descends

Polar regions they form a permanent covering of the earth at the sea level; receding through the Temperate and warm Zones,

found to depend on the elevation until in the Equatorial regions, they are permanent only on the summits and in the valleys of high mountains, at an elevation of
their hold

on the earth

is

;

15,000 or 16,000

feet.

snow precipitated at once into the valleys, its sudden melting would overflow and devastate the surrounding countries congealed in the form of glaciers, it is held suspended, and forms an unfailing supply of water during the protracted droughts of summer. The Rhone issues from the glacier of Mount Furea; and the Ganges flows at once a rapid stream, 40 yards broad, from a huge cave in the perpendicular front of a glacier.
the
;

Were

by their enormous onward pressure, break oif masses of rock from and bottoms of their valley-courses, and carry along everything that is movable; forming large accumulations of earth and stones in front, and along their sides. These accumulations are called moraines.
Glaciers,

the sides

XXI.

Icebergs are huge masses of fresh-water
glaciers in the Polar seas.

ice,

broken

off

by the waves from the

They

are of

various dimensions, from a few yards to miles in cii'cumference,
rising hundreds of feet out of the water.

They have the appear-

ance of glittering

chalk-cliffs,

towering aloft in fantastic shapes,

and presenting a most sublime spectacle.
the Atlantic Ocean.

Great numbers of icebergs are annually drifted by marine currents far into As they slowly melt in its waves, they cool the water
is

sensibly for 40 or 50 miles around, and lower the temperature of the air to

such a degree that their approach
in sight.

plainly perceived long before they

come

They are

often encountered in such

numbers

that the sea

is

covered
vessels

with them as far as the eye can reach.

In the spring, the Arctic icebergs
loss of

come within the routes
View
of a Ghui'-r
nii

of navigation,

and occasion the

many

the Northern Coast of Greenland.

(Drawn by

every year.

George G. White, from a Slietch by Dr. Kane.J

The

principal localities of glaciers, besides the Polar regions, are, in
;

roll

America, the Andes of Chili and Patagonia in Europe, Iceland, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Alps, the Pyrenees, and the Caucasus Mountains in Africa, the in Asia, the Himalaya, Kuen LUn, and Altai Mountains Atlas range. The extent of surface covered by glaciers has not been defiIn the Alps alone there are 1500 square miles of ice, nitely ascertained. from 80 to 000 feet thick ninety-five square miles of snow and ice clothe Mont Blanc. Some of the glaciers of the Alps are from 15 to 20 miles in Dr. Kane, in his recent Arctic Expelength, and three miles in breadth. dition, discovered, on the northern coast of Greenland, an immense glacier 500 feet high, which he followed along the base for 80 miles.
;

are large masses of snow and ice which down the mountains, and sometimes cause fearful destruction. They destroy houses and villages, break down whole forests, and
rivers.

XXII. Avalanches

sometimes even interrupt the course of

In 1478, sixty soldiers, in the district of St. Gothard, in Switzerland, were destroyed by an avalanche. In 1595, the course of the River Rhine was so

much
rose,

;

interrupted by the fall of a great avalanche across and drowned many men and cattle.
is

it,

that the water

XXIII. Hail

frozen rain.

It is usually

formed at a great
its

height in the atmosphere, and appears to owe

origin to the

XIX. Glaciers may be compared to the icicles which hang from the eaves of a snow-covered roof. As these icicles owe their origin to the melting of the snow upon the roof, so also the glaciers are caused by the melting of the snow which perpetually
covers the mountain peaks above.
In elevated mountain valleys, glaciers are formed by the
fall of

sudden condensation of vapor, caused by the meeting of winds Its fall is generally accompanied with of different temperatures. thunder and lightning, and frequently occasions much damage. Ilail-stones sometimes fall as large as hen's eggs.

XXIV.

Recapitulation.

It

thus appears that heat

is

the

chief cause of all those conditions of the atmosphere which have
snow,

amount by immense quantities precipitated from the adjacent mountain peaks. This mass is subjected to alternate freezing and
which
is

increased in

been described in
It is

this

chapter, viz.

:

Dew, Hoar-frost, Fogs,
amount of heat which the is the same from year to
is

Clouds, Rain, Snow, Glaciers, Avalanches, Icebergs, and Hail.

body of

thawing, until, in the progress of centuries, the valley becomes ice constituting the glacial formation.

filled

with a

an important

fact, that since the

globe annually receives from the sun

XX. The
less

ice of glaciers differs

transparent and more porous.

from pond or river ice, being It is not formed in layers.

year, the annual moisture caused by that heat

unvarying, not-

withstanding local changes.
What
lanche?
chapter. are Icebergs?

State the principal localities in which they occur ? To what What are Glaciers ? may they be compared? — How are they formed? How does the ice of glaciers differ

— What

is

Hail?

— In what — How

ocean are they often found?-—
is it

What

is

formed?

— Recapitulate

an Ava-

the subjects of this

from other ice?

p

^

' 1 1^- ' i * ^Jl Is ^ .^ '^'h -J-- :.\ = J /t— /'V: %: -7^ ..U -r *- CJtt-iS.

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including the country of the east places on earth are not those in show that the most inhospitable which the mean temperature is the lowest. the at the cities of Mexico. softening the tropical heat. feet. chiefly from the warmed surface of the earth the heat which is so radiated diminishes with the distance from the general surface. between the heights of where oaks. tree ferns. while the tropical valley or plain in its is oppressively hot. have a and Bogota. ences in determining the climate of a country.) that the A change in the position of these mountains and plains would produce a Ocean. the irregular surface of the land. sugar. so that places situated far above the level of the sea. if on isolated mountains. in Mexico. partake of its moist and equable climate while those which are removed from this influence are commonly dry. while marshy land.a What influence have the mountains and plains? What do you understand — illustra- by an Oceanic climate? them. while they are prevented from reaching Central Asia by the immense mountains and plateaus of that region. either of land or water. the atmosphere. — forest-trees. of similar character. complete alteration in the climate of the various countries. on account of hot. The Andes. affecting climate. — By a Continental climate? — — Give examples of each of tions of the effect of elevation above the general surface. the slope of the land. the decrease of the mean annual temperature from the Equator to the Poles would be uniform. occasion the dryness and sterility which chiefly amount of rain or snow are its dependent upon temperature. though in and that in the same the same latitude. So. where there are low coasts. Mean temperature. moisture to the shores of California. same mean annual amount of heat m. A familiar example of this fact is afforded by the superior fertility of a field which lies upon the The opposite sides of valleys or mountains often present south side of a hill. the southern peninsulas of Asia receive the warm winds from the Indian Ocean. . a continental climate. Hence. summers ripen an abundant harvest of wheat and rye. ature the elevated region is of great extent. and oaks disappear. II. the tropical mountain. the tains Thus. In the article on Temperature we have seen that those regions which are open to the influence of the ocean. to climatic districts: 1. are also important circumstances. and plains. the Sierra Nevada cuts off the Great Basin of Utah from the south-west winds which bring warmth and plains in the northern regions of both continents allow full . 2000 and 5000 feet. climate .bout 77°. which raises the temperWe have seen the effect of this circumstance in the snow-line of the Himalaya Mountains. : characterize a large part of the Pacific coast. obvious that countries which are at different elevations. and pines occur. does not supply but those in which the summer warmth sufBcient for the and west shores below the height of 2000 feet. other instances might be stated. situated on elevated plains. and imparting that character of humidity by which South America is distinguished. Numerous circumstances.— 54 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. Tierras Templadas. tains of Asia removed to the shores of the Arctic Were the mounwe should no longer see those striking contrasts which now exist. southern side.) it is evident that if the earth had everywhere a level surface. 68° to 70°. same height. places which have the subject to great excesses of heat and cold. however. the country has a radiation of its IV. Tierras Frias. disturb this uniformity. a. The vicinity of the sea is one of the most powerful influ- much higher than that of an isolated mountain chain. CHAPTER CLIMATE. must have diiferent climates country there may be great diversity of climate. For the same reason. temperate regions. and the nature of the III. beyond wheat In Switzerland. the continental climate has a great advantage over the oceanic. diversities in the surface of the land affecting climate. a few thousand feet above it. to 8000 feet high. mixture with noxious gases. have for the most part disappeared at the height of 6500 2. between the bleak and barren plateaus of the interior. and the tropical peninsulas on the southern margin. and the position of the moun- sweep winds from the Poles the southern shores of Europe are exposed to the winds which blow from the burning sands of Sahara. Elevation above the General Surface. — The cold regions. growth of plants.aj' difi'er greatly in the nature of their . The most important diversities in the surface of the land. so as to absorb and radiate heat equally. high table-lands. indigo. and Thus. V.ill part of the warmth thus imparted. What Slate Upon what is climate chiefly dependent? does the word Climate signify? Name the some of the circumstances which disturb the uniformity of climate.while cold winters and hot summers characterize the continental. and grains. : and devoid of vegetation. and cotton flourish luxuriantly. Where the land is so inclined that the rays of fall directly upon it. orchards. there are distinct and well-defined though short. cool summers while at Yakoutsk. striking contrasts in the character of the vegetation. from 5000 3. moisture or di-yness. — the vineyards. The nature of the dering the climate of a country. — — most important — Give — country. warmer climate than they would have climate.. or — According to the laws of temperature. raises the limits of perpetual snow higher upon the northern than upon the table-lands. from must not be disregarded in consiBarren sand is dry and hot. —We have seen (page . (see page 41. Climate is the sun The Slope of the Land. The Position of its Mountains and Plains. Thus. The articles on Winds and Rain exhibit the influence of wind in transferring the temperature and moisture of one region to another. Popayan. The abundant moisture and luxuriant vegetation of South America would be in a great degree lost by the transfer of the Andes to the Atlantic coast. Nova Zembla has the same mean annual temperature as Yakoutsk . The -word Climate signifies the condition of the atmosphere uith regard to heat and coUl. by opposing the further progress of these winds. as any Polar island. Quito. however. the beautiful vegetation in the valleys and on the plains at the foot of the Alps. healthiness or unhealthiness. this island its is quite uninhabitable. is as cold vegetation. 42. are the elevation of a country above the general surface. and ground covered with forests and rich vegetation. Give an illustration of the effect of the slope of the land upon the climate of . where bananas. and mouncovered with perpetuJil snow. soil V. of the surface. and may be loaded with luxuriant vegetation. where the heat imparted to the northern slope by the table-lands of Thibet. the amount of and the clearness of the sky. When. I. the heat is greatly increased. 3. too. and the grains of — The Mean temperature. temperature of the atmosphere decreases according to the height above the This is owing to the fact that the air derives its heat level of the sea. the great plains of South America allow the moist winds from the Atlantic to sweep over the face of the country. receive but a sm. rising In countries lying far to the north. by which winds. viz. according to the elevation It is . Cool summers and mild winters are the conditions of the oceanic climates . soil. are cool and moist. electricity. — The hot regions. however. Those regions which are near the sea may be said to have an oce<anio and those in the interior. cypresses. Europe and the United States are encountered. and the The purity of in a great measure determined. the vicinity of the sea. fruit will not ripen. The low for the cold tains 1. — Many Tierras Calientes. 2. which limit the climate soon becomes rigorous._as in the case of own. and as bare of nevertheless. higher regions.

The climate is generally moist and unhealthy. In the south. beginning of the present century. to the prevalence of south-westerly winds. which require a high summer temperature. swamps. riant vegetation. Bufi" confirms this opinion by stating that in Cairo and Alexandria. The healthiness of a country the nature of the soil. in consequence of the extirpation of the forests. the same influence as the sea. climate.— CLIMATE. and permits the growth of trees.almost as fatal. -^Thxs region has many of the characteristics of the it is marked by a greater variety. is closely connected with The 60°. lines are drawn through are called isothermal lines (lines of C(jual heat). owing to the influence of the sea. has attained his highest civilization. The winters here are very summer days are often oppressively hot. VII. Torrid Zone. the The Eastern Continent.and the most dangerous reptiles. is much warmer than method of representing the extent of the different Zones. containing tracts of luxuriant vegetation and numerous extensive deserts. . some extent. has a more oceanic climate than the Northern.— Th\s Zone is bounded on both sides of the Isothermal Equator by the Isotherms of 80°. it is stated that. if it were covered with forests. however. and a much milder climate. 'I'he immense extent of ice which covers the numerous bays and inlets in the high latitudes of Nortli America. ripens a few of the Africa and South America are much w. . pendent entirely upon latitude. the escape of the water is hastened. the deviations of these lines from the parallels are sometimes 20° of latitude. in corresponding latitudes. Many plants. What effect \q". therefore that the ordinary Of the three Northern Divisions. and Europe. in mitigating the cold of winter. . Asia has the most continental climate. Tem- perate. The not Zone.armer than North America. Yet the Pacific coast of Central America has a very agreeable and healthy climate. would have much more rain than it lias at present. Hot. in is all ages. and the only vegetation to be seen is a few mosses and lichens which are sometimes found in sheltered places. " that the climate of Germany was for- An examination of the map will show that. drier than the Western. What are Isothermal Into how many Zones of climate mny the surface of the earth be divided? — — — Describe each of these Zones. could not grow two thousand ye. the eastern shores of both continents are colder and drier than the western. and which often remains through the entire summer." " It seems too. hottest. — It thus appears that climate is not de- climate of . prove a barrier to the settlement of many extensive The eastern and western coasts of Africa have such pestilential airs that any extensive settlement by whites seems impossible and this is one of the obstacles to European exploration in that country. In the Northern Hemisphere. the duty of every State to make careful provision against their reckless destruction. 8. Mr. The superior warmth and moisture of Western Europe and the western shores. places which have nearly the same mean annual temperature. The low lands on the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea havs a character ." In the time of the Romans. and that in winter it often rains for five or six days The neighborhood of the Arctic regions is much colder in North AmeEurope and Asia. is Asia. . The climate is less humid and unhealthy. most hardy grains. — Recapitulate the subjects of this chapter. in consequence of this. Recapitulation. and Frigid. Cold. and the cutting down of forests. Germany was covered with an almost unbroken forest. In building the Panama Railroad. now suffer from drought. by the Tropics and Polar Circles. The excessive heat and moisture produce a luxulies — which decays and to in a decomposed state upon the ground." "P/ii/sks of the Earth. They together. and more severe than at present. though subject to great extremes. In the dreary ground is perpetually covered with ice and snow. — To render the various irregularities all at the . VII. Warm Zone. and by the removal of the excess of moisture has improved the climate. 4. the southern limit of per- IVie Cold Zone bounded on the north by petually frozen ground. from its greater proportion of water. fntal to districts. the Torrid. The Southern Hemisphere. It abounded in swamps: its atmosphere was moist. Impairs its its forests. there can be no doubt that Kgypt.ars ago in places where they are now thriving since the clearing of the forests has favored the draining off' of the water. the Divisions. very little rain fell but that " since that time the Pasha has bad many millions of trees planted there. South America has perhaps the most moist. 2. VIII. of climate apparent to the eye. Isothermal Lines. Grand as a whole. By the draining of swamps. which blow North . viz. and. produce fevers which are so region. therefore. The Torrid Zone." by Henry Buff. Here are found the most luxuriant vegetation. the foreign laborers emplcjyed upon the work perished by hundreds. by diminishing the moisture of a Some countries which formerly enjoyed a mild and genial climate. man. and extensive forests. fertility. South America.Vmerica are owing to the warm and moist upon the The Gulf Stream and Japan Current contribute very much Pacific coast of mild and genial character of the climate. though in the 3. (i. merly may be : divided by the Isothermal lines into six Zones of climate. and enhanced the fertility of the soil. G. tracts to the north. accounts for this rigorous 7. North America. — — What effect illustrate the lines? Give comparative views of the climate of the two continents. Warm Zone includes the countries between the Isotherms of 70° this favored region is and The climate of such as to permit the growth of both tropical and temperate plants. Torrid Zone. the reindeer and elk were numerous in Germany. numerous lakes. severe. The Frigid Zone of the Northern Hemisphere includes till the land north of the southern limit of perpetually frozen ground.5.and low-lands of tropical countries are often extremely un- healthy for Europeans. and at the same time a greater extent of the ground is exposed to the immediate influence of the sun. The sea-coast . Thus. the Temperate Zone is the region in which are produced the most Viiluable articles of food. and man here attains a much liigher civilization than 2.u climate has the cutting effects of upon the climate of a country has the nature of its soil ? down of the forests? Give examples to the character of the soil upon the healthfulness of a country. Warm. The Temperate Zone. the largest and most savage animals. This explains the gradual change in the climate of countries which have been inhabitc'd for thousands of years. to great abundance of water in a country. and now. . it includes an extensive . does not convey a correct idea of the and that Zones of climate climate of the regions thus bounded are more correctly shown by Isothermal lines. and in lowering in turn the heat of summer. This Zone comprises but a small portion of the Southern Hemisphere in the northern. Comparative views of the climate of the two continents : 1. 4. the continuous heat of the short summers thaws the upper surface. It comprises the hottest regions of the earth. they have from thirty to forty rainy days in the year. In the time of the Romans." says this writer. IX. though now confined to the more northern parts of Europe an additional evidence of the former severity of the climate of Germany. It is. in which the moisture of air is re- rica than in and gradually dissipated into the atmosphere by evaporation. — 1. The climate is cool and bracing. 3. exert. tlie marsh-lands. The noxious gases thence whites as arising. and Africa the all X. though the This line corresponds generally to the northern limit of the cultivation of the bread plants. The surfiice of the earth different. Though it does not exhibit the extraordinary size and vigor of animals and plants which are found within the Tropics. In this and in the 5. in the Northern Hemisphere. "Any tained. Yet the complete removal of country.

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Chalmers Nov. The same interchange frequently takes place between a cloud and the eartii.ELECTRICAL AND OPTICAL TIIENOMENA. of averting its — Dr. with great facility: such as niet. an attraction for each other. path. its passage is more difficult. objects raised above the surface. there midst of a plain. times. the most common form. b. at Venice.als. rapidity of the movement its of a flash of lightning condenses the air is ELECTRICAL AND OPTICAL PHENOMENA. a fluid. follows the best conductors.jag lightning? — Sheet lightning? — Glolnilnr lightning — What heal lightning? the cause of thunder and li'. the positive and sometimes produces There arc two kinds of electricity: Mark's tower. be- Some ning. causes excite it good conducting surface. There arc three kinds of lightning and globular. or blue. is one of the most complete non-conductors known. l)r. Other circumstances is of course greater safety on a non-eonducting than on a particular objects seem to be especially liable to strokes of lightSt. visible. because sound travels slower than The louilest thunder can scarcely be heard at the distance of ten miles . ndling iilong on the surface of the water. illuminating whole clouds. especially when it is dry. trified. such as heat. we have the phenomena of thunder and lightning. the most destructive effects. and the atmosphere. Tliere is a certain class of substances through which plants. an interchange takes place in the flash and explosion which follows. if they are highly charged. 4th. causing a flash and l)odies thus differently electrified are explosion. its rush brick again into the partial vacuum The lightning is perceived first. that it is a mighty force. at about three miles distance. electricity called. body. Mr. VI IV. trees. white. electricity passes and the human Through other substances. Tluindi'r is caused by the violent displacement of the air produced by the passage of the lightning. occasioning very frequent but weak discharges. Phenomena. as glass. It has been struck nine and once entirely consumed but in 17G6 a lightning-conductor was put up. often dis- plays tremendous power. V. Franklin. charged with differpnt kinds of electi-ieity the other with negative — liave — one with positive. water. trees. (especially solitary ones. appears to exist in every substance in nature. is an expanded flash. are their ? means and is less intense. The subjects of this chapter are in . offered to its further progress in that direction hence the lightning darts from side to This is called zig-zag lightning. have been often seen. not usually treated Physical Geography yet. When comes thus roused. on board the ship Montague. These are therefore stj'led conductors. iinmediately in advance of side. and men on high points of land. and receives from it in return an equal quantity of the opposite kind. All — of the ship. also invented the destructive power.iitning? — AVho invented lightning-rods? . who — What first discovered that lightning and electricity were the same. This lightning is sometimes attributed to the reflection of storms below the horizon. friction. III. whether good or bad and chemical action totally igno- conductors. . bouses. animals in the but we are rant of the reason these why it. in Heat lightning (lightning without thunder. both solid and fluid bodies. being equal. 80 as distinctly to show their entire outline. is an example. Fi-anklin's Experiments with Electricity. light. and created. The latter are called non-conductors. which has since protected it. Two bodies. the sake of convenience. Lightning. attaching itself prin. Liqhtning Rods. he observed a ball of blue fire. differently elec- approach within a certain distance of each other. This interchange is effected with immense rapidity.) is to be attributed to the moist state of the air which favors its conductibility. When two 'V brought into each other's vicinity. since works upon they Sheet lightning.) the masts of ships. 57 : CHAPTER I. this electricity begins to When accumulation has become sufficiently intense to over- come the resistance of the non-conducting atmosphere between. and the negative. Eleetrical them in this manual. with a fearful explosion. as largo as a mill-stone. — If two clouds. Hence. Thunder and Lightning. so that great resistance . silk. may after metals to damp substances but inferior conbe chosen which present to the fluid the most direct route to and the earth. are peculiarly exposed to the stroke of lightning: as churchsteeples. 1749. cipally to metals. therefore. When it had come within forty yards properly belong to the department of Globular lightning. the ball rose perpendicularl}'. and shattered the we know of the nature of is.alls of fire. for It main top-mast to pieces. tliere? What do we know of Electricity ? How many and what kinds of Electricity are What do you understand by conductors ? — By non-cunductors ? — What is — — How many kinds of lightning are there? names? is — What causes zif. . their accumulate on the sides nearest each other. The atmosphere. Tlie tlie zig-zag. sheet. course. in ductors its and may be roused from its repose by a variety of causes. it will not be out of states that on place to refer to II. in which case the lightning passes upwards and downwards. The color of lightning is orange. or I Meteorology. than the report from a piece of heav}' artillery. the one imparts a portion of its electricity to the other.

never occur. to the distance of three or four inches. a circle having a diameter of sixty feet. is When the sun is near the horizon." a remarkable exception.aller is the proportion of a circle presented by the rainbow. shutter. spray of a cataract. which. with the sun shining at his back. Metallic rods are attached to the building. a summer. at the Equator or the Polar Latitudes? — Describe the Mariner's Light. and to (jf refraction. and the absorption of all produces black. and. thunder is seldom heard. from the Equator to the Poles. within the Tropics that thunder-storms are the most frequent the frigate Cornwallis. slightly projecting above " and in direct eomnninication 'vrith the ground. It increases The sky was suddenly covered with thick clouds. Optical Phenomena are those singular appearances which produced by Light in its passage through the Optics is atmosphere. he felt sharp pricks on his forehead. the colors of all objects. — When vapor has been condensed into liis drops of water. or of a yellowish hue. and the shower of an artificial fountain. Mariner's Light. quivering on the kind was witnessed by Mr. or Northern Light. A ray of light.. and then from the rear side of the drop. at great heights. as observed by him in 1696: — Lunar rainbows are sometimes seen. The thunder-storms become fewer and less violent as we recede from the Tropics. as by a prism. Elmo's Fire. on account of the feebleness of the moon's light. and the gorgeous plumage of tropical birds in short. — Wbiit the cause of it? — Describe the Aurora the cause of this phenomenon? Borealis. of such brilliancy "that they The is coast-line of Peru. he had scarcely executed this order. of CamReturning home at 11 o'clock at night. the bow forms a perfect semi-circle to an observer on the plain but the gi^eater the height of the sun above the horizon. he sees the glorious vision of the Rainbow. a second bow appears outside of the first. often illuminating the whole northern heavens with brilliant. but fainter. There is a class of quite harmless phenomena caused by When the air is highly charged a strong degree of electricity. it. Elmo's Fire. This phenomenon electrical action is VII. across attention The Northern points of non-conductors or of insulated conductors. in some places in the Polar latitudes. When he was aloft. which is forty feet wide. the rays of light is the bending or distortion from a straight line. are of great practical utility to the natives of high latitudes. the lightning passes harmlessly to the earth. At the Faroe Islands. The quantity of electricity in the atmosphere diminishes. and lightning is never light of VIII. where thunder and lightning could see each other's faces on deck. accompanied by discharges of electric sparks. in the light : That endless variety and combination of tints displayed by the skj. when the fire quitted it. and the spectator has face to the showery is is cloud. the yellow. on entering a rain-drop. — What is Where are the Northern Lights most brilliant? — What are Optical Phenomena? What was Sir Isaac Newton's discovery with reference to Light? What did Sir David Brewster prove? — To what are Optical Phenomena due? — What do you understand by What is a Lunar Kainbow? the refraction of light? — How is the Rainbow formed? — — — . 58 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. seen at night streaming up from the known to do any injury. one of them occupied the vane of the mainmast. The reflection of all the rays causes white. however. heard across the bridge. relieving their dreary winter night. phenomenon of this description. Henry Ware. It was snowing fast at the time. are sometimes IX. Optical phenomena are due to the The refraction reflection of light. Hence. he saw electric sparks streaming from every The sound was distinctly point. though they are of rare occurrence. are entirely unknown. often remarked by the ancients. and compensating for the long absence of the sun. omen. bridge. to us merely an object of curiosity and fascination. or medium — as when the sun is near the horizon. There were more than thirty St. variously-colored shooting flames. the flowers of the fields. if sepa- rated into reflected its primitive colors. and with the order of the colors This secondary 'oow is produced by reflection from the first. — X. The inverted. through a hole in the which he inserted a prism (a three-sided solid piece of glass) which shone through this glass consisted of seven different colors. like heat and is light. During the occurrence of an Aurora. In our latitude. and placed itself at the top of the mainmast. Lights. his was attracted by a loud hissing noise Cambridge from the lamp-posts. M. often exhibit the phenomenon of the rainbow. Massachusetts. Does the quantity of Electricity increase or decrease from the Equator in is to the Poles ? — Where do the most thunder-storms occur. north towards the zenith. Sir Isaac colors. with electricity. When the rain is copious. '/X'fifMir'ii''- St. upon the wires of the telegraph has been observed. the sm. po rainbow is visible during the middle of the day in . and the sun is shining brightly. it and violent. it sometimes be- doubtless owing to atmospheric electricity. arise from their varying capacity of absorbing or reflecting certain rays. and was about nineteen inches long. On raising his hand to the rim of his hat. Newton discovered that light is a compound of several different He admitted a sunbeam into a dark chamber. A good lightning-rod will protect VI. On examining the lamp-posts. Fearing a gale. whence it could not all possibly be removed." with the distance from the surface of the earth. in the Admiral Smyth describes one observed by him in 1807. becomes luminous. or St. as in storms of snow and rain. which they undergo in passing through a dense in water.ance. I ordered him to take off the vane. Forbin thus describes its appear. to its its separation into the primary colors. They fvre commonly white. The Aurora Borealis. comes visible in the form of pale-colored flames. he heard a noise like that which is made when moist gunpowder is burned. is a flickering varying intensity. the science of light and vision. I had the sails reefed. Elmo's Fires on the ship. A phenomenon of this bridge. usually reckoned by sailors a fortunate It was noticed during the voyages of Columbus and Magellan. Sir David Brewster has since proved the seven colors to result from three primary rays the red. I sent a sailor to fetch it. XL fluid The Bainhow. the rich hues of the autumnal woods. and the blue. is As they offer an easier pas- sage to the fluid than presented by the miiterials of the building. while on board Bay of Panama.

What is the Arabic term for Mirage? — — — — parts of the world. the landscape at a So perfect is distance assumes the appearance of a pure transparent lake. ." is Siirdb (vapor of the desert. faith- fully imitating every gesture. that it was with difBculty I could persuade my companion. The chain of the Himalaya has been transiently beheld from a point in the plains of Bengal. which were once regarded as supernatural beings. with moisture . The most corded. has been caused The vision of troops of horses and armies. tlie With takes the Arabians it is common emblem it actions of the unbelievers are like the Sarah of it what we call mirage. are bmught within the range of visibility and low coasts assume a bold and precipitous outline. strange illu- sions occur with regard to objects upon the surface of the earth.self below A ship was even surmounted by the horizon.ab guides pointed to another SarAb formed . The Ignis Fatuus. and the shadovTy figures made a similar movement. fnr water. it because the atmosphere is overcharged that hence. are produced by natural objects. At such times. arches. in which the eminences and objects around seem inverted. In the Polar regions. peculiar to places where putrefaction and decomposition It appears in battle-fields and marsh lands. whose extreme thirst made him long to reach the water. In certani conditions of the atmosphere. He pointed out the to his companion. which the atmosphere charged. When the sun has heated the sandy plains. and appears like an extensive sheet of water. The image of a ship thatw. towers. marching and counter-marching in cloud- by some animals pasturing on an opposite Ignis Fntuus. Above distant ships their own image was seen inverted and magnified in some cases. is very common for extraorter- dinary and unequal refraction to play fantastic tricks with restrial objects. in the space over which we had a ridden. Some days later. the sun XIV. and reflect the image of tlie sun XVIII." says Admiral Smyth. by radiation. Coronse.as it. XVI. but the peculiarity of this was the distinctness of the image. The mirage (delusive appearance of water. or Glories. in his work upon the Mediterranean Sea. there truth in the common remark. watching the sun set in the west. " the illusion which I witnessed was so perfect. said to occur in calm.) common in the plains of Asia and Africa. the distance to which the spectator may see is greatly enlarged. are colored circles . and immediately one of the figures was observed to strike the other on the shoulder. we saw that we were then thirty miles apart. was seen for several minutes. and two lines of coast mountains are presented in the air with wonderful precision and magni- — — ficence. I distinguished When we the details of the rigging.) the Arabic term for of deceit. en- larged and distorted by peculiar reflection. height. oppressed with heat and thirst. and moon. from decayed animal or vegetable matter. "On one occasion. — What is the Ignis Fatuus? — By what is -t caused? . XV. The spectacle continued about a quarter of an hour.ages of all the objects existing on the as castles. IS22. is deceived into the hope of speedy refreshment. land. What are Hnlos ? By what other names are they known ? Where are Mock-suns and Mock-moons most common ? What is understood hy Mirage ? Repeat Admiral Smyth's description of the delusion. and point towards them. that the traveller. waved their hats. it was very high above the ship. and the ground is highly heated. As two travellers were standing on the summit of Ben Lomond. trees. Strange real figures in the air. Mahomet says " The plain he who is thirsty : . by which the rays of the sun are unequally refracted. It is remarkable effect of irregular refraction re- is the celebrated Fata Morgana of the Straits of Messina. and the coast suddenly appeared to come fourteen or eighteen miles nearer. multiplied im. sultry weather. and recognised it as my father's ship. . that on looking at this image through a telescope. far beyond the limits of distinct vision. two ships.) are quite common in the Arctic regions. a flickering. in Scot- land. and finds to be nothing. They phenomenon meteor. when the tides are at their highest. is a wandering apparently stiinding on an enormous pedestal. and It is thought to be caused by gases arising speedily vanishing. When the weather is calm. Captain Parry. is a well-known instance. where minute crystals of ice and snow float in the air. with are going on. and the great distance of the ship it represented. a few feet above the ground." which it had never been seen before. the illusion. JLiIos. Give illustrations of the effect of Mirage in various Describe the Fata Morgana. fnini "a dense halo portends rain. and. on the edge of the horizon. When the state of the air favorable to extraordinary seen around the or bending of the They are owing to the inflection rays of light by the globules of vapor with and moon.ELECTRICAL AND OPTICAL PHENOMENA. it XIII. Repeat Captain Scoresby's description of the spectacle seen by — — — him in the Polar regions. Mock-suns [Parhelia.June 19. the attention of one of the party was arrested by the appearance of two gigantic figures pictured on a cloud in the east. Captain Scoresby gives the following details: — ". When these circles are small is and clearly marked. unseen before. is is refraction. one in the right position. and then it was always smaller than the original. Its outline was so well marked. houses. and objects are magnified as if seen through a telescope. unsteady motion.) and Mock-moons [Paraselcnx. animals. XIX. the other inverted. the clear blue sky is reflected." was very hot. Mountains. the most curious phenomenon was to see the inverted and perfectly distinct image of a ship that was below our horizon.sun 59 is sometimes XVII. XII. during his winter sojourn at Melville Island. afterwards compared our log-books. that the supposed lake was receding from us as we advanced until our amused Ar. We had before observed similar appearances. saw one that continued from noon till six o'clock in the evening." This phenomenon is caused by the different density of the layers of air near the ground. or Will-o'-the-wisp. or travellers quietly pursuing their journey. the air above them.

and Exogen. Botanical Geography treats of the different divisions of the vegetable kingdom. the botanists compute that there are not above thirty Under what three divisions ' I Endogenous (inEndogenous plants have stems increasing from within. in the They occupy the summits of the loftiest mountains. The number BOTANICAL GEOGRAPHY. and the dark vaults of caverns. RGANIC LIFE. lichens. as trees. in Spitzbergen. ferns. and the Plicenogamous (flower: ing) plants. properly so called. and sea-weeds. species. the greater. and as large regions of the earth have not whole number upon the globe is undoubtedly much The number of species decreases from the Equator towards the Poles.PART IV. They live in the extremes of heat and cold. and their geographical distribution. Indian corn and the sugar-cane are Endogenous plants. while in CHAPTER I.ous (increasing from without). Polar and Equatorial regions. also decreases Jamaica there are about four thousand. I. known to botanists exceeds one hundred thousand yet been explored. fungi. comprise the mosses. (60) .xogenous plants increase by coatings from without. where the growth of each year forms a circle of wood around the pith or The Phoenoganious the creasing from within). and Ethnography. as the numerous grasses. surface of the earth. E. plants comprise two divisions : number of different species of plants . and the palm family. The plants which have no flowers. Organic Life is that department of Physical Geography which treats of vegetable and animal life. Thus. far below the No part of the globe is known to be entirely destitute of animal and vegetable life. The entire II. Vegetable forms are divided into two great classes the Cryptogamous (flowerless) plants. The subject may be considered under the three general divisions of Botanical Geography. may does Botanical Geography treat? — What the subject of Organic Life be considered? is — Of what ? Into what two great classes are vegetable forms divided? plants? — What are Cryptogamous ? the entire known number of plants — Phcenogamous plants? — How are the latter divided — Describe each of them. Zoological Geography. Plants and animals exist in the bosom of the ocean as well as on land. from the level of the sea upwards. lilies.

and extending in the Western. its existence fact. 52° 30'. tropical plants disappear.inian Tree. flowers of the most brilliant colors.ition of the vine. to be almost is a line running along the extreme north impenetrable. 46°. who advances with axe in hand. The B. centre of tlie 61 stem. Some of them are more Twentythan 300 feet in height. and formed a spacious room in which was beech. has leaves in the form of an umbrella. the northern. age. eighteen feet across. occupy a solitary district containing an area of about 200 acres. The mammoth trees of III. cessful cultivation is it is cultivated as far In the United States. magnificent forests fir and pine tribe prevail as in Canada. and an army of 7000 men has rested beneath its shade. and 100 feet in circumference. M. A Banian tree.i\iii7.ition receding fur- ther from the Equator ? . and finally all wooded vegetation disappears. a native of Guiana. in 1133 being be over 2000 years old. England. but in Germany. all of which A The northern limit of the forests I'ine Forest. Africa. on the Atlantic coast. aiul forest. above described. and seats for forty persons. reaching the ground. Gradually. of the Eastern Continent. 32°. the trees dwindle to mere dwarfs. the helmet-shaped flowers of which are of such dimensions as to serve the children for hats. an histurical IV. Sm . of Senegal. even to the explorer Give tries. It its natural form in San Fran- which cast their leaves maple. Lat. the cereal grains and the vine come to their highest perfection. and most floiv- The Fan Palm. where the summers are warm. new stems. succeed penetrable jungle. an East India species. till a single tree multiplies almost to a forest. and a flower fifteen inches in diameter. Tliis class is by far tlie most numerous — including the trees of the the most perfect in its orj. was arranged in cisco for e. these huge trees. and several trees common to the Temperate Zone are no longer found. take root and form India. as higher latitudes are approached. abounding wth grasses which form the im- tender herbs. to be 5150 years. Central Russia. rarely more than filly feet. and climbing plants in great number and variety combined present so dense a mass of vegetation as . one feet of the bark from the lower part of the trunk of one of California. Proceeding from the Equator. trees to the tall rigid Instead of the towering ever-green forests. These are specimens of the vegetation of the Torrid Zone.. VI. the northern part of the United States. The vine is less aflectcd by a cold winter than by a cool summer. is described as covering an area 2000 feet in circumference.BOTANICAL GEOGRAPHY. appear. The magnificent lily. and successfully cultivated in hot-houses the United States. the southern limit of its sucLat. or Baobab. in winter. It hiig 350 large and more than 3000 small stems. and the winters colder than on the coast of France. ering shrubs and herbs.mge is noticed in the veget. Here placed a piano. Lat. Humboldt describes a plant growing on the banks of the River Magdalena. has a trunk sometimes thirty-four feet in diameter. and new forms of vegetation mark the change from a hot to a temperate climate. A Yew tree at Fountain's Abbey. Adanson eatimatcd the age of the Baobab which he saw in Senegal. is supposed to Yorkshire.xhibition. and the countries bordering on the southern shores of the Baltic. examples of the vegetation of — Describe the What change occurs in vegetation proceeding from the Equator? — State the limits tropical coun- of the cuUiv. the northern limit of its successful cultivation on the west coast of France is Latitude 47° 30'. — What ch. eighty or ninety in V.acifie. 42°. The Banian Tree of India sends out shoots from its horizontal branches. Bright green meadows. number. — Give and age of some Exogenous plants.xogens furnish examples of gigantic size and great The Adansonia.atii)n. though attaining no great height. Vegetation is most luxuriant in tropical countries. near the River Nerbuddah in which. Some of the grains cannot of the : be cultivated there. is known to be more than 700 years old. One of the mammoth trees of California. Receding further from the E(iuator.^^: on the P. in Victoria llef/la. from Hudson's Bay. as the oak. In Europe. has leaves fnmi five to six feet. north as Lat. illustrntions of the size vegetation of tropical countries. The E. There an abundance of moisture combines with light and heat to produce trees of an enormous size.

and many animals. — What changes mark the ascent above the level of the sea? — State the character of the vegetation of the — What are the principal natural agents in the diffusion of plants? endowed most food-plants? Give illussome of these plants. and amount of heat and It is Its native abundance of moisture. are found. Thus distinct vegetable regions are observed from the Equator to the Poles. a bird of the grouse family. Which are the principal food-plants A^'here is Rice grown? Bananas? of the Torrid and Hot Zones? With what peculiar properties has Providence trations of the diffusion of — — — — . and Sago. — Here grow the vine. rose indicates the importation of that beautiful and the microscopic forms that cover the snow. Bread-fruit. localities IX. by man to regions remote from their Some to plants appear to be confined to their original locality. From 6270 to 11. that on some of the natives of India being told none was — produced in Great Britain. and the fruit trees of From 2748 From 4350 iZ^Ofeet. Seed? are borne by these agents from their natural locality to other sections of the globe. There are many varieties of these plants. as saxifrages. 70° 40'. country into principally produced within the Tropics. and other plants similar to those of the of 1248 is — of the same latitude in Africa. to (>2'I0 feet. however. on a rock in It was observed the little island of Amorgo. Thus. except lichens At last. were introduced into Europe from Western Asia by the Romans. flourish during the brief but hot five fruit trees. peach. Here are found a species of broom. Some plants are confined entirely to one continent. which furnish food to the goats that run wild on the mountain. gentians. is the last tree found on drawing near the eternal man as articles of food or of luxury. Trees. 5. rye. where the plant takes root. appears be restricted in its growth to the mountains of Syria. summer . to Behring's Strait. defined by the Isothermal lines. Lat. it grows in sheltered hollows between the mountains. Yams. Cocoa-nuts. there are upwards of 300 species of heath spread over the Eastern Continent. rigorous climate. for example. Above this elevation there are only a few lichens and mosses. New World The extreme northern regions of America produce a species of lichen. . — This is the region of pines. VIII. from the Cape of Good Hope to a high northern latitude while the Western does not produce a single native specimen. banana. cherry. This change of vegetation tains. A variety of the plum (the damson or damascene.) was obtained from the vicinity of Damascus. Dates. the fertile level districts 2. a mere bush. a few perennials. In the Polar Zones. Cassava. It was introduced America by Columbus in 1493. pear. The dwarf birch. Near Hammerfest. which inhabits the . 1. the Cactus. requiring difi'erent degrees of temperature for ripening their fruit. but was probably Southern Asia. Thus. the most northern town in Europe. which are not found in nature in the Old.. and chick-weeds. most strikingly exhibited by isolated mounis an example. as the apple. in temperate regions. whence they have been brought to the United States. The New World contains many families. the northern limit of forests ? Polar Zones. but has never been found elsewhere. seen. tion in various climates tended. and the potato the two latter of which beings. Bananas and Plantains are now cultivated in the tropical regions of The principal natural agents in the diffusion of plants are the winds. to In return for these the . to This lichen is much which the name of iripe de roclie has been given. and on difi'erent soils may be widely exSuch plants have been transported by man to regions very distant from those in which they were originally found. Banana 2. divided_by Von Buch into five botanical 1. where they are even eagerly sought as articles of food. Various species of fungi. that their cultiva- snow of the North Pole. if not absolutely poisonous. of sacred fame. Indian corn. the sugar-cane. and New.62 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. would yield one hundred and thirty-three times as much nutritive substance as a similar extent of wheat. region from to feet. A species of Marjorum was discovered in 1700. 60°. the height of the elevation corresponding to distance from the Equator. Wheat. and some low flowering plants. wheat. never rising higher than four or inches from the ground. also accommodate themselves to this and orange. gifts. — This — known as the region of laurels. The Peak of Teneriffe. form a shelter for the ptarmigan. or transported original station. were brought from the Old World to the VII. which is often a very limited area. esteemed by the Canadian hunters and voyageurs as an article of food. which are highly injurious.061 feet. Bananas. The vegetation similar to that of the regions near the northern limit of trees. oats. no development of vegetable life is flower from the The name of the damask same quarter. is Rice is the chief food of perhaps one-third of the its requiring for successful cultivation a considerable is human race. appear to lose their pernicious qualities in cold climates. rivers. trailing on the ground. 3. Similar changes mark the ascent above the level of the sea. eighty years afterwards on the same rock. they spoke of the inhabitants as objects of wondering how they could possibly exist without rice. some low flowering annuals. has supplied the Old with tobacco. its Many evergreens and a species of oak characterize 4. pity. in countries beyond the Tropics. in South Africa. the height to 2748 Europe. This mountain is districts : is unknown. flower. the currents of the ocean. is limited to a spot on the Table Mountain. fig. Theregion from the level trees. Providence has so endowed those plants which are of most value to Lat. extensively cultivated. is vegetation. the Cedar of Lebanon. Most of the finer rice most northern districts.i9i feet. In such estimation is this grain held in Asiatic countries. olive. in its efiects upon vegetation. now furnish sustenance many millions of human XL The principal food-plants of the Torrid and Hot Zones are Rice. one of the Grecian Archipelago. crossing the Mackenzie River at Lat 68°. to about the height of a man and its branches. Humboldt estimated that a given space of ground. The beautiful IHsa Ch-andiflora. All plants appear to have been created in certain specific from which they have been diffused by the action of . X. Lat. 28°. planted with the banana. and becomes established in regions sometimes thousands of miles fram its native home. and tlie summit is entirely destitute of vegetation. nature. Tlie Here Palm of the sea to a height of V2. and not by the parallels of Latitude. What is both hemispheres.

where no grains are grown. It is estimated that three trees are Bread-fruit tree . the pith mixed with water. . Mandioe. and seen only upon . the fruit yields is countries.ses to which the Cocoa-nut What are Yams ?— What is Cassava?— Reneat Schouw's statement. Barley. two or three feet. growing to the length of manner. by boring a hole trunk is cut down and tree divided into several pieces. and during the rest of the time. though witli great difficulty. is said to taste like wheaten bread. which. and corresponds very nearly with the Isotherm of 32°. and Greenland. and destruction of In failure universal famine. Oats was formerly the principal grain of Northern Europe. Tree. Thus. These roots resemble the potato. this plant is poisonous. Cocoa-nut palm. however. that the pith is ripe. accordHumboldt. Oats. and containing palm trees. and. the failure of the crop of a particular plant the cause Thus. when cooked. we imagine a it may be line called the drawn." beyond the Tropics. but it generally supposed to have been Tartary or Persia. The tree is a native of this region. Dates. as we hew feed one human being. where Sago grows wild in the woods. Mountains? Why ?— State the u. Congo.in barley. or animal is Cocoa Kuts. and strained for use. in 5. many — — and rice to Europe and South America and the countries upon the Baltic and Black Seas send wheat to Norway. Thus. In some of famine. formerly regarded as a luxury. Sun-god. 12. The The meal prepared by washing and bruising the root of the 7. Now. The trunk wood . Both the date and cocoa-nut palm occur in Florida neither of them. which form entire The ease with which the natives may !-uiiply themselves with food. If and Pacific Oceans. This tree does not appear to thrive our firewood. but its deleterious qualities disappear with heat. In these countries. like that also. — Name the principal food-plants of the — cultivated ?— Rye.sufficient to 63 in the trunk. — XIV. like other plants peculiar to the temperate regions. a man goes into the woods and cuts his bread. and bread baked from it is eaten. but it is grown in the tropical regions. is a common is article of food for other classes. has a more northern limit th.irests in a more dense population. and France. a its scanty rice crop causes is the occasion of great distress. is which is sent to regions less favored in this respect. Where does country soiitii the Bread-fruit tree of the Atlas tree is applied? — AVhat name is given to the grow? Describe it. a large surplus of grain collected. Labrador. nor where there is a difference of more than 10° or 12° between the temperature of the summer and the winter. Barley. In the Hot and — The potato supposed it Torrid Zones. and often weighing thirty pounds. which produces this well-known Wast Indies and the tropical islands of the Indian of this tree furnishes food substituted. the fruit is prepared like dough. is only found at an elevation where the climate corresponds with that of It the Temperate Zones. ami bears large fruit. Its culture now extends. rigorous climate than wheat. bearing fruit. 3. wheat is rapidly taking the place of and wheaten bread. and in the Faroe only an inconsiderable cultivation of barley. rye displaced Rye. Thus. 2. on an island in Lake Titicaca. and endure a more Barley is found as far north in Lapland as Lat. and Oats have a further northern limit. the United .ture<l from the fibres which surround the shell thatched with the leaves. Yams. This tree yields fresh fruit for eight or nine months in the year. but is also cultivated in tropical regions." It is represented on the map the kernel. China receives rice from India . 4. have no bread-plants Islands there is . XII. ing to to be a native plant of Peru and where it still exists in a wild state. however. it is a native plant of America. and houses are manufu. being cultivated in Iceland. 1. States exports wheat. and milk. is thus "When the native has stated in Schouw's "Earth. and Potatoes. The fruit of the Date-palm is the most important article of food most parts of Northern Africa. bread must be obtained from more favored lands. and arc cultivated in a similar They are sometimes of immense size. where the soil fertile. and LTows in such abundance between the Atlas range and the Great Desert. C. though they are principally produced in the Hot Zone. Iceland. Plants. in India. They are much used fur food in Aft'ica. and in the fjast and West Indies. It has leaves 3.BOTANICAL GEOGRAPHY. and Guinea. prepared from Cassava. around the Inca's Temple of the Sun. perate and Indian Corn (also called Maize. Like the potato. — The in the fruit. in 1847. Great Britain. is abundant oil. and that the corn grown there might be distributed throughout the nation a single kernel raised near the temple being regarded as a noble and fortune-bringing object. 70°. Wheat is cultivated throughout the greater part of the Warm and Tem- perate Zones. The principal food-plants of tlie Warm and Temperate Zones are Wheat. Dates are that the Arabs name the country Beled-el-Jerid (land of dates). and may afford 500 or GOD pounds. In South America it was grown. the tables of the rich.795 feet above the level of the The Date-Palm 4. of the bread countries. is many of the bread countries. a shrub which grows in Brazil. caused a frightful human life. sea. grows to the height of forty feet. corn. — and >'iOO there is A commonly yields pounds. Tapioca 8. At rye it. Cassava. The first wheat sown in of Cortez. from the extremity of Africa to Lapland. Indian Corn is an important bread-plant of these Zones. is Barley. and the population comparatively sparse. and Oats Corn?— What substituted for Warm and Temperate Zones ?— Where is Wheat ?— Of what country is the Potato a native ?— Indian bread in Siberia ?— What countries export breadstuffs? . the is scraped out. The climate of some large tracts of land upon the globe such that no bread-plants can be cultivated. Chili. the shell is used for household utensils. cloth (page 04). r. Potatoes. dried fish forms the chief substitute for bread among the inhabitants of the northern parts of Siberia and America. a later period. is AVe have no certain knowledge of its native country. and is much used in those countries for food. is — failure of the potato crop in Ireland. to furnish a sacrifice to the . The resembling those of the fig. where the population is is dense. separating these regions from the bread "Bread lini. the climate is favorable. North America consisted of a few grains accidentally found by a slave among the rice taken for the support of the army. is called CasIn its natural state sava.) is principally cultivated in the TemWarm Zones. Rye. and Man": Sago the pith of several species of of the Spice Islands. — XIII. it has been widely diffused throughout the different parts of the earth. cultivated to some extent in the Warm Zone of Southern Europe and Southwestern Asia. Sago-nmal perfectly ready satisfied himself.

60 .^ S f E V{.iKi.fe ''"'"^>"'"=' 20 m\^^^^ O Q Is RE AT '-''' '''^^•:.. are Cotton. and Flax. 140 —120 -t I 100 1 80 1 60 40 2 20 4 60 80 1 00 1 20 140 160 ^-^J^ SO Longitude West from Greenwich Long tude East frcm Greeowicli % NORTH \tY F A R T A L I.J^^'Tussock Gtasa M '^^f 140 120 SOUTHERN 4ff ZONE 20 40 OF 60 FREQUENT Loiigilude East from RAINS .S.. [. Peach „„. E R..y^Brcail Frull ^^ F '.- -. O EASTERN HEMISPHERE 10 10 20 30 -JO SO 6( lat. India is probably the native country of the cotton plant. .M. as furnishing mate- XVI.'^A E^.\ cultivated? What Zone genous ? produces Tea.1 R Of OROANIC LIFEr^^Rce I I ' jft p I c A L __ o-*'-'"*R A I N ' ^' _\ '"^- . The tea shrub is an evergreen plant.^. "^'/i^l^lv & "'p'if'il T"t "i *''W.. it the third year of .^^.7ViMj5^'iVORrH£RW J-fitTZT TREES .ui Sarato .n S *" Ct- .S U MMB t: R: K V E O a F. RICHNESS I &L.. though it is now most extensively cultivated in the southern part of the United States.ii^n I'MaEgrove :. the West Indies. //VfV/.-—..D^LT«.-I'm 3*"^:- CHART SHOWING ^ ]^^ §[] ^ ° "'* ^ r a i- i m SVi-S'th'"-i"t"'W'hriVr"Hy"e-''i"id NiVVh'eVo whea'v.^„^ . Sugar-cane.. LVm'i't "r"Tf"'ri.N ir y^ Ejy: Z ti E t ^ "^ : '^ "^ y'^^^V^ :i:«~.'.. SHRVBS ^tSi^'' '-'W^^asih^'^':/ J.e''W-."^» V- •-' '!5 wheal p '!k --. Greenwich moGi^ 100 80 60 20 100 120 140 160 -/Gor^ 10 20 30 40 30 20 10 ZiuncIn'iiguirftL DISTRIBUTION or PLANTS icouca^. and Thibet on the west. ~ Apples c. 10 O 10 20 30 Lat-S.SLAKD8 Camphor 8 40 CLIMATE Sandwicli Is ___ O c.^I7^^--}i"--^'-^^S^'''-^-?L^.'.^ u t'ii"J.^ Tropic of Cancer 20 J.^^^^ S o A* -t* /'/:' it) Pine AND A Wheat jji O RAIN SELDOM INDIOENOUS: :. The value of the cotton exported from the United Stales for the year ending June 30. Cotton. t Wjl.c4P"„. ^ -'-"^^~^r—--£2!^'"'"' BAKANAS ..E.-. -AiV^ tiv=^ L™„ n(. The plants of most value to inan._ir M-E-A-D-O-W .'/ Cork >^:'. the countries south of the Baltic. principally cultivated in the Hot Zone..-.?<"i-'^ /~^ft a / 1/ / 1 'I ft Aln-s l! 'I * GO 50 _ Lat.^^°''S '"'" I A Flax Onta I? 5r 3 ^.'J *''^'' BeechC l?»'S/i''^VValnut __^ A . Whatplantsareof most value toman -What was the value of that exported in clothing?— Where is Cotton most 1851?— Where are Hemp and Fln..N. for grows generally only five or six feet. It is cultivated to some extent in other parts — but the tea used in this country is all brought from China..?. the East India Company presented the King tion. Its leaves may be used after but in order to secure a good crop.1^S ''. . ..rA.^„.. 'i/iRopJATlC ' PLAKTS. the tea plant may attain a height often or twelve feet.h^i. but in cultiva- tvrelve millions of dollars. In 1664.|^"Ear PLAN E:krT/HELV' XBSBWT... '"^:%Marqi. Coffee.i™. Great Britain. IN amies of 'I Hiliiiucniljiiro \ Hunalaya M'* An(lcs/!i.i^/iJ t^iP.'X g= F^ T.j*_ fc- ^'e Ap. Sugnr. indigenous Upper Assam..^"BiVl jivladagasear ad agasear 20 CLIMATE 40 OF EUROPEAN CbtUilalm"-^"" ThjBllo vin'r"^-' £/^{- ~ AND ~U{ty. Egypt. SNOW U w » $ S E S IN IVE D L /?|[/f t'^f-ffk TO W.ionr -— 'c^^'''"^&^^^^^Mf^^^S^)''':M^ 20 - ^ .gp|aAPAN. 1851. Coffee.-&i. Mexico.?. A TERTICAL DIRECTION".'/ 5yi. Tea was first introduced into England about the year 1660.D D :.'?:. was one hundred and — I.'..^'-'V^ Upmn Flax ^'''^•j^'. :'--^ Siberian Pine -.'.' ? /! R D C A L . the plant its growth The limit of its profitable is usually replaced at the end of the seventh year. AloeJ^v .'-^My^ " 'V o ? i^. and Cocoa trees are in rials for clothing. and Southern Asia."--- tBP ^.N. 1. Tea. i A C T E R .™ . [llji TROPICAL " . „„„ ^ f.a'^' E UROPEAN co*^" AN_ " •Sa^T^^eiiii/ OP T R O^P iCAL C A L I ^* ^ GRAIN \:\j^^Affl^^^^^'^ (?''. SocietyM^V. and Cocoa its ? cultivated? — State the limits of — In what countries is Tea indi- successful cultivation in China. 2.-* AN D.' 64 ^160 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. China and of the world.r- '^^~ --A^^ -^J ^ Paraguay Sou'liern L'^liLei.'\^''^jf f=f~:-. ^P^Tn »_ D E S X T Ey S T-VE I'VE .'t oi Arcc Circle j^^.e > 'o"^'- t'ire'""GV"o 'wtb"""o"f t h'e"' Vine 40 »tlicr .^A Ifiuitffe ^dl'ia^ll A )^/^-^r^H lSi.'.Yl€ "'' °'""'e. iO 40 30 ^ 20 Lat... and are extensively cultivated in the United States. J '-''''^i. cultivation in China may be considered the parallel of 25° on the south. A T \ > PER t R P I Vq^ f|*WU O X K '^m ^^ A * L •a A ICE ' <^ A N . 30 WESTERN lU 20 HEMISPHERE Hemp.S^ugar . •~- j^\ w i^ 40 N.Wj'--"---v!a V.S. 33° on the north..esas •'«*^"-- VX fl/ETV \cherimovtt— Gum Elastic rnri'i'3 ^VJr*^P E *" ^j'' >>. The Tea plant. V A-S T ( Maple Bircb '*«.iLjJioaui -y^y f. . i:M t ! Birch W'^p^9e\^ud ^'j. XV..~^. and is an important article of culture in tropical South America. If left to itself.— -- •:. and on the great plains of Russia. Hemp and F/ax are productions of the Temperate Zone./!\ofPem / :i| Popocatepetl »> iaiirli Stlle I „ -Jt ij I 1/1 k I lr«^» . / X 1 P R A O B 8 IMATE OF MOS ' ' Limit -f. O ^'^^•^^^ r^^^^^^^"''^^ ''tea Great Des npomlV.y. -'^i'f-l^^X^y.-*'' l>' 60 I.* V' t- J^y F':P^^.-'I „ .' Lone'tude West from Greenwich.'* '/^Heatb.^- ---^.j^'%9 F ^.>^ ''^'^^^^''-^~.^^^^^ _„^A=^l^.-:..3font S 7T1 Blanc IS 000 U 10000 \ Aa A\ Trevw'tt^Fmk. It has been grown to some extent in Southern Europe.

and in some countries. Coffee. as prevalent as a sinia. and also in many of the islands of the Pacific Ocean. when the plant becomes useless. who was himself a coffee-drinker. the West Indies. Spain. It is used by all. one of the Spice Islands. Ceylon. Nutmegs. became the excitement. art' principally produced in the Torrid Zone. •James I. that it in the West fruit. is a native of the highlands of Southern Abyswas taken to Southern Arabia in the fifteenth century. Male. is 2. however. India. producing reddish-brown beverage. and now successfully cultivated in Tropical America. Arabia and Java. Cuba. The first coffee-house in Paris was established in 1072. each of countries of South America. in the tropical regions and that similar changes in its character are observed receding from the Equator. 2. Siam. Cinnamon. indeed. to Turkey. The plant was found wild in several of its production. It is it is cut down from the top most luxuriant at the level of the sea. Indies. 2. are susceptible of being widely diflused. It has been introduced. in the truest sense of the word. Xtt/me//s are the seeds of a tree thirty feet high. in great is all abundance in the It is the dried leaf of an evergreen tree which grows dense forests of the northern and eastern pro- vinces of Paraguay.Java. Cloves. of America by Columbus. where the mean temperature is about 70°. Cayenne pepper it is is principally produced in Guiana. that while some plants are confined to narrow limits. wrote a book against its use. and Italy. constitute the black pepper of commerce. did not prevent its continued and increased use. principal narcotics used in different parts of the earth are Tobacco. prohibiting its culture. — . was nearly seven millions is X^'1I. Central Vanilla. India. 18. growing chiefly — The which in Ceylon. and is cultivated there. the Governor of Mecca prohibited : on the ground that was injurious to health but his decision was overruled by the Sultan at Cairo. and Vanilla. It was first introduced into England in 1652. taken without sugar or milk. that they collected in a mob. is a native of America. 4. others. a zealot of Cairo preached against eoffee-drinking. parts of the United States.a. the West Indies. — The pepper plant is a climbing shrub. Hot Zones.). The shrub was found wild on the Malabar coast of Ilindoostan. . and the custom of so using them similar use of tobacco in the United States.')4. — Where its is Sugar-cane principally cultivated? Name the spices in common said of use. the plant is a tree fifteen the islands of the Indian Ocean. — This well-known aromatic produced America. Betel plant is a climbing shrub which grows in Ilindoostan and Sugar has been known in India from very early times but it was used by the Greeks and Romans only as a medicine. Cliarlcs II. Cinnamon. the Sunda and Philippine Islands. dried. and British India. ? y . whence XIX. in Sumatra. and ascending above the general siu'face. the British King. and esteemed a great rarity. but also cultivated in the tropical regions of the Eastern Continent. It appears. The use of coffee became general it in Egypt about the time of the discovery it. Cloves.— . tea. Mexico. Recapitulation. and Malacca. parts of America. Banda Islands. including the greater part of those may spread and bear more in blossom. So serious. X'^' Vi. In 1019. Chocolate is — — — — — — — — — What is Wlicre is M. a national Itpper. (who brought it to England in 1586. The leaves are chewed is in combination 3. These attacks. Bourbon. it was again established in public favor. and destroyed the coffee-houses..ite Coffee ? — Where is it used? is . United States for the The value of the tea imported into the year ending June 30. 3. and some sections of Europe and Asia. also. — Which one of them — From what plant Cassava prepared? — Where Sago — Do Yams grow on trees — In what region are Dates culmost used — What tivated — Where does the Bread-fruit tree grow? — What tree produces Cocoa-nuts? Name the principal food-plants of the Torrid and is it regarded as most important? ? is \s is ? ? ? What in the • — are the principal food-plants of the Warm and Temperate Zones ?— Name those immediate vicinity of your own residence. Japan. grown ?^What said of historj? — Where is Cocoa cultivated? narcotics? — What is Tobacco? — Where are they produced — AVhat are the principal — Recapitulate the subjects of this chapter. The spices in common use in the various countries of the globe. extensively used in the southern and eastern which contains one seed. of cinnamon of commerce is the inner bark of a which island it is probably a native. constitute the principal sources It A Sugar Plantation. as Pepper. in South America. What countries export food-plants? Name some others which import them. They are usually gathered twice a year. with snow. — The coffee tree it with the Areca nut. Persia. It may be raised In as for north as latitude 30°. berries. Opium The prepared from a species of poppy. Twenty years after. France. Holland. and when white and sweetrscented flowers resemble a plant covered most importance to which are of man. and the islands of the Indian Ocean. was introduced into Europe in \r>5'. though it is properly a tropical jdant. It is cultivated most extensively in the Southern United States. and other tropical regions. XVIII. and is now extensively cultivated in Brazil. BOTANICAL GEOGRAPHY. from the Kmperor to the common people. thirty or little forty feet high. Mauritius. its an evergreen tree. 3. — The eocoa tree and imported. or Paraguay tea. Tobacco was found by the Spaniards in America when they landed. Brazil. and the Betel.) and other young men of fashion. The covering of the nutmeg is is the mace of commerce. where the best coffee is produced. The 1. Through Sir Walter Kaleigh. a sliip received orders to bring of dollars. by being transported to Lisbon as a medicinal herb. — Cloves are the dried buds of a small evergreen is tree. and continuing till about the twentieth year. now grown in chiefly on the 5. of England. that the Chief •Judge called together the wise men of the city. and so violently enraged his hearers. and even to China and Japan. the custom of smoking spread rapidly through England. Name some of the plants thus exported — — Cocoa. — It thus appears that vegetation is or twenty feet in height. who deciding that it was both allowable and useful. 1 In China and -Japan. home 100 pounds. Siif/ar Cane is grown beyond the limits of the Torrid Zone. at meals. commencing with the third year of the growth of the shrub. Mexico. laws were passed. 4. and has been so for at least a thousand years. 65 with two pounds of tea . cultivated almost exclusively on the tree. and at all hours of the day. island of Amboyn. but has been transported is — What plants are important as furnishing materials for clothing? Where do they grow? AVhere is Tea cultivated ? Cofff e ? The Sugar-cane ? What kind of plant produces Where does it grow ? From what island is Cinnamon obtained? Do NutPepper? megs grow on a tree or shrub? What is Mace ? Where are Cloves produced? Vanilla? to other parts of the world. . In 1511. These berries. prepared from Cocoa. Opium. and is very extensively used in China and Turkey as a narcotic. and Brazil.. Brazil. and in 10G7. QUESTIONS ON THE MAP.

and to procure proper food. from the resemblance of some species to plants. sheep. The coral insect and microscopic animals belong to this division. dolphin. Folio-wing the classification of the They 1. 3. the passage from Greenland to Iceland on drifting Man persion of animals. The ourang-outang. planting future visitors. CHAPTER I. The winds and currents have animals. squirrel. often been the means of widely dispersing some Thus. their range and having extends from Central America to the in the Pampas of Buenos Ayres no skeleton snail. kangaroo. Reptiles. Division — Ariicnlaied Animals. Rodentia (gnawers). are divided into the following orders (four-handed). In the all New World. Vincent. The chimpanzee. formerly roamed in great numbers through Central Europe. as been transported to the 2. whale. and 2. not many years since. to their ability to endure Malacca. Cheiroptera (animals with winged arms). — Carnivorous animals include all the land mamspe- remote islands of Oceanica. armadillo. Malay language. however. 7. " wild man of the woods. the southern part and mussel. are the most perfect of the They diifer greatly in appearance and habits. 2. sible heights have been long occupied by a race of monkeys. 91 of which belong to America. &c. rats them. insects and birds have been transported by the winds from The White Bear has repeatedly made ice. . to the disThey have spread domestic species throughout the AV'ith civilized world. and is subdivided into four principal families. the wild ox of Europe. Fishes. Baron Cuvier. and the islands of the Indian Archipelago. — Animals consisting of a number of : of Asia. the Grizzly Bear to . bear. have most troublesome animals. and their geographical distribution. has largely contributed. worms. Marsvpialia (pouched). the mountains in the north-western part of the United States and the far- famed Bird of Paradise to New Guinea and the adjacent islands. IV.- Vertebrated Animals. ox. the continents to adjoining islands. Wolves and foxes have often been seen on great cakes of ice far out at sea. 1.sloth. cies are. Zoological Geography treats of the different divisions of the aninial kingdom. and thus probably have frequently been transported from one land to another. III. Ruminantia (chewing the cud). — Give examples of the the order Qiiarfi-iimaiin. as the cat. families. II. them on lonely also. and are more gentle and They are most numerous in the forests of Brazil and Guiana. and readily learn to walk. or plant animals. 4. coiled round the trunk of a cedar tree. I. generally furnished with a stony covering or shell as the oyster. Division — Molhiscoiis Aimnah. The ape and baboon the bits . north of Central America except upon the rock of Gibraltar — whose and none in inacces- for a time suckle them. and Pachydermata (thick-skinned). were numerous in New England and in New York: now they are very rarely found in those States.— Describe the order Cnrnivora. 6. Old World. camel. but they have retreated westward before the settler. The Auroch. joints or rings. and Division 4. A live Boa Constrictor. construct huts of branches of trees. — Ammala of a identical with the soft texture. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. — This division includes all animals 1. bably been washed out by the flood of one of the gi'eat South American rivers. Cochin-Ohina. voluntarily and involuntarily. from which they have been some extent dispersed according to their power of locomotion. which have four classes : — It comprises an internal slieleton joined to a bacli-bone. seal. . namely: Thus. their food existing in all sections. III. Animals. II. as well as plants. Quadrumana. cat. Edentata (toothless). those of a dangerous or savage nature. ZOOLOGICAL GEOGRAPHY. — variously varieties. common in merchant-ships. their There are 170 different species of the monkey tribe. species. horse. learned French naturalist. The Mammalia. Some animals appear the to Kangaroo is confined to the islands of Austr. some of islands as a source of supply to the and mice.are name signifj'ing in the confined to the Old World. 8. but correspond in the one particular of suckling their young. Bigitigrada (animals which walk IV. II. lion. dog. Of what does Zoological Geograpby treat? icingdom. lively. 5. Mammalia (animals wiiioh produce their young alive. one of the West Indies. was found on the shores The monster had proof the island of St. sit. 3. has the nearest resemblance to man of any animal. a very savage animal. They live in troops. some of the animals of tlie Clieiroptera ? — Name the different classes of Vertebrated animals. orders.— Describe range. Marine Mammalia — Division 1. and 4." inha- appear to have been originally created in certain specific localities. or Quadrupeds. : — Qnadrmnana 2. Carnivora.). ape. The American species are very different from those of the Old World they bear much less resemblance to man. the animals upon the globe may be considered as subdivided into comprising four principal divisions classes. beaver. Western Europe. the entire globe. elephant. insects. Thus. they inhabit of Africa. confined to a very contracted area.alasia be limited strictly to their original locality. soft or hard. Wolves and bears. and arm themselves with In a domestic stones and clubs for defence against man and elephants.— — 66 .— State their geographical —Name the four principal families. — So called because in many cases . spiders. . Continent. Insectivora (animals that feed on insects). and Borneo. opossum. malia which feed on other animals. Many spe- — Name the four divisions of the animal What are the i!ammaUa? — 'Sam& the orders into which they are divided. contracted area occupied by some animals. and are now found only on the plains east of the Rocky Mountains. monkey. hog. Birds. rat. — State some of the means of their diffusion. Plantigrada (animals which walk on the on their toes). and eat like men. : Barbary ape. supplying the place of a skeleton as the lobster. Carnivorous animals are spread over entire soles of their feet). and the absence of other obstacles to their migration. — No animals of this order are found on the . organs are arranged like rays proceeding from a centre also called Zoophytes. which inhabits Western Africa. dog. 3. and borne thither by the force of the currents. especially cies. Carnivora (flesh-eaters). The order numbers 514 Man has also greatly restricted the range of many animals. change of climate. of which a few still linger in the forests of Poland. Radiated Animals. . animal creation. the buffalo once inhabited North Carolina.— What are . state they are very docile.

the largest animal of this order? the mals of the dog tries in tribe. has attended man in and has everywhere been bis faithful companion and friend. have their province in the polar regions Two species of sea otter. and from Spain. of which there are only 28 different species. musquash. are animals characterized by the absence of front teeth. The Edentata. Tbe lion. is found only in the region of the Rocky Mountains of North America. number 604 different species. and ijrada. and extending over almost the entire Western Continent. — — — Describe the order — Name some peculiarity of animals of the order Edentata? of the principal animals. in a wild state. is valuable on account of their furs. Japan. spread from the Northern United States to the La Plata River. iU^' /J Of the numerous varieties of the family Diti'itigrada. The American bbiek bear inhabits all the wooded districts from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean. and the leopard and panther. it is cover it with a net. . and These singular creatures During the day. on the American all But of animals of the canine tribe. hunted for its fur. as far south as Guinea. the Philippine Islands. in some one of its species. in India beyond the most extensively diffused. in the Old World fiom the Arctic Circle to the southern extremity of Australia. North America. abounds Molucca and adjoining . has a geographical 5. the scourge of the East Indies. wolves are found from the Arctic Panama. and porcupine. It is found in all the explored parts of Australia. viz. are numerous in the western parts of the United States. species of the marten tribe. and are also found in the islands of The Marsiipialia. is a native of all parts of the world. was first discovered by Captain Cook in 1779. The puma. as the name implies. They are not found on the Eastern Continent. North-western America.shed with a pouch. climates. and Africa. are peculiar to America. '/r The animals to of the family Insrc/irora. the principal animal of this order. Syria. The kangaroo. and on the Western are represented by only one family. New World. Abyssinia. animals furni. Describe the order Marstipialia. The beaver of rare. so noted tor its bear tribe. 3. In the Old World. The jackal. rat. the characteristic dog of Africa. and the adjoining islands. and from about Lat.: ZOOLOGICAL CiEOGRAniY. tliis family. in ships to all quarters of the globe. they fly about. or musk-rat. Tlie raccoon. and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. . The wolf has a wider range. G8°. but the common mouse appears to be distributed over all Europe and North America and rats have been transported 4. to near the parallel of 50°. and Sumatra have each different species. and now comparatively range from tbe Atlantic to the Pacific. the hottest regions of Asia. mouse. the cat and the dog. — Africa. are peculiar and the Aleutian Islands. arc the best known animals of this order. wolves. armadillos. the fox is found throughout the greater part of America.. Circle to near the Isthmus of In America. are the Indian Archipelago. They The more important of the two continents. and the jaguar. badger. — Name the principal wild ani- — IIow many species does — Which is it contain ? —W'hich family is represented on the Western Continent? Ilodetitia. Tasmania. two merit especial notice. and the most cruel of quadrupeds. utter- A species. S(iuirrel. in mid-winter. the most formidable species. so named from the manner in file or gnaw with their front teeth. and in temperate climates pass the winter in a torpid state. eastern shores of the continent: the Ganges. of Asia . however. Thibet. which they . which they ingeniously construct. in the Of animals belonging to the family i'/a»C/</raf/rt. — Name tbe different animals of the cat — Europe. martens. ing a loud cry like that of a goose. partly above and partly below the surface of running streams. the most valuable of furto bearing animals. and in tbe southern countries of Asia. attacks kinds of quadrupeds. the Siberian forests the polar regions. the Spice Islands. and otters represent other ti'ibes of the family Di'(/ifiThe spotted hyena is limited to Africa. The largest ?t>. inhabits Southern Asia. wliicli . regions and in young while very small ami imperfectly formcil. coming down for food. ranges from India and the Caspian Sea. — AVhat — Where are they most numerous? . and New Guinea. It is The Rodentia. Hyenas. Asia. necessary to To preserve fruit from their attacks. of the Pacific Ocean. and foxes. excepting the domestic dog. are widely spread over Africa. two closely-related animals. Europe. The tropical regions of the Old World contain the most numerous animals of this tribe. and wolverine. subsisting on dead bodies. on the west. are appointed keep in check the overwhelming increase of the insect world. the ermine and sable. Continent. are widely distributed ranging. The Rodent families of the Old World -generally differ from those (if the New. is confined to Africa and the southern parts voracity. the not occurring. These snarling. and the largest native animal of Australia. and only occasionally occur in the southern regions of the sloths. and New Guinea. but in winter herd together in huts. this order. known as the American Hon. from the same to northern limit to Arabia and India. popularly in the known as " flying cats. The principal wild animals of the dog tribe are jackals. peculiarly belong to Central and South America. the striped hyena is found throughout Africa. or gnawers. and the dingo of Australia. The most remarkable all species of this family. The beaver. and are also members of the family Hantigrada. and the islands The only representatives in Europe. of North America the black fox. which lives in Europe and Asia. or cougar. the most important is the The grizzly bear. occupies the polar regions of both continents. The and ant-eaters are the principal animals of On what do tribe the family Insectivora feed? found wild in America. The polar bear. They live solitarily during the summer. the tiger. — Asia. Old AVorld. The red fox inliabits the wood-lands and the white fox." belongs to islands. one of them is the hedge-hog. Tliey are not found in Oceanica. powerful of the beasts of prey. disgusting creatures are chiefly nocturnal animals. The cat tribe. of wliich there arc 123 known species. except Australia. feeding entirely on the lilood of other animals. Some species of bats. pended from the branches of trees and in the night. and even human beings. the opossums. Give the names of the counwhich animals of the family Plnutitfradit are found. They are very numerous in Northern Africa. . There are two instances of the existence of wild dogs the dhole of India. which. State the countries they inhabit. 67 belong to tbe family Ckeiropiera. they are found susare about the size of a full-grown cat. is the vampire bat of South America. inhabiting caverns. The order specially characterizes Australia. of which there are all many species. in which the females carry their The domestic all dog. North-eastern Asia. They are nocturnal animals.37° to Lat. the most are the cat and lynx.

Llamas. and VIII. -"'^^ ^'. soon after the discovery of the is now very generally diffused throughout the This valuable and beautiful animal seems to arrive at perfection in warm and temperate regions. descends directly into the third stomach. by the first mastication. from France eastward to the Asiatic Camels . They furnish him with food. horn. inhabit the dense forests of Brazil. and supposed to be more ferocious and less sagacious. species ranges from the lower slopes of the Himalaya Mountains. The Pacliydermata. according to the season. especially. appears to be confined to the rivers and lakes of Middle and Southern Africa. where the elephant wanting. and the more handsomely-formed. tallow. extremely delicate. a wild state. North America . using the others to draw towards them the adjacent branches. the south of China. however. and to degenerate in cold The name Ruminantia intimates the singular faculty possessed by these animals of masticating their food a second time. and formed large herds many 7. How many species of the — — the Horse found wild When was the Hog Elephantare there?— State the regions inhabited by the Rhinoceros and Hippopotamus. It is not found in Spain. or river horse. milk. is found. The Elephant. The African species. and the these cases. 15° North. VII. 60°. in Java. Italy. coarsely bruised enter into may either of was probably domesticated at an earlier period than the horse. The drouiedary is a fleet variety of the Arabian camel. and civilized world. inhabits the countries from the northern borders of Cape Colony to Lat. migrating north and south. The animals of this order are remarkable for their elegance of form. II. species. and also serve him as beasts of burden. implies. The principal families of this order are as follows includes I. Both these animals are remarkable for their stupidity and ferocity. Goats. the llanos and prairies of unknown. Deer. This matter passes thence into the second stomach. for a scaly its tail. which is the true organ of digestion. It occurs generally throughout the Old shores of the Pacific. on the foliage of which they feed. where they can traverse They suspend themselves by one limb from the boughs of the trees.- '^. them. sober-colored quagga. inhabiting two distinct regions. and the islands of Sumatra and Ceylon. This faculty depends on the structure of their stomachs. unknown in The domestic hog is now spread throughout the earth. The Hippopotamus. when roasted in the shell. and still ranges there in immense troops.are confined to Southern and Central Asia and Northern Africa. as its name many miles without touching the ground. order Rnmiuani-ia. gaily-striped. IV. . tending as far north in Asia as Lat. The European wild boar. comprise the largest till it is entirely stripped of its leaves. The food thus re-masticated. after it has been returned to the mouth from the stomach. America till introduced by the Spaniards towards the was in close of the fifteenth century. The range It is of the rhinoceros is nearly the same as that of the elephant. The important families of this order are I. III.— 68 Sloths : PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. leather. The first and stomach receives a quantity of vegetable matter. but has since run wild. analogous to the stomachs of animals in general. whence it passes to the fourth. which are always four in number the first three being — so disposed that food largest climates. or thick-skinned order. The Hog. and limited to two species. The Rhinoceros. on both sides of the Ganges through the peninsula of Malacca. of smaller size. which is the parent stock of the domestic hog. mals. It The Asiatic and Persia. and returned to the mouth to be re-chewed. Camelopards (Giraffes). III. Sheep. of which there is but one species. has a wide geographical range. : The armadillo is remarkable its head and body. both of which are completely domesticated. V. The horse was introduced into America by the Spaniards. The order Ruminantia numbers 180 different species. never leaving a tree The ant-eater feeds almost entirely upon insects. on ants. free and unreclaimed. through all India. and hard bony shell which covers the inhabitsaid to be is It is much hunted by which. VI. and also numbering 39 and most powerful of all land anisome of the most useful domesticated by man. where it is moistened and compressed into little pellets or cuds. The camels of the East are represented in the Western Hemisphere by the llamas of South Where is What country does the Sloth inhabit? For what is the Armadillo remarkable?— Name the important families of the order Pnchydermata. and for their usefulness to man. and V. The hippo- potamus. The native country of the horse is plains of Central Asia. IV. It is a native of Central Asia. resembling in form the ass. The Horse. parts of the Continent. 6. It is now found wild on the pampas of South America. but in all present condition is probably a return from the domesticated Continent by Columbus. and ex- World. to its Camels. II. The Ox. and other products. are peculiar to Southern Africa. — — What does the term liitminantla imply? —Where are Camels found? first ? What is the country of the Quagga and Zebra? introduced into America? Name the principal families of the — . Antelopes. ass The The beautiful. n -^5" JJ M /w^l'Il—n- There are two species of the elephant. and all animals which chew the cud. and often ants on account of its flesh. but vicious zebra.

The true musk-deer. mild. 12. Grenada is upper plains of Thibet. dwelling lofty table-lands on the highest regions of the Alps. to the Straits of Magellan. 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 60 SO 100 120 140 160 -/SOe^ QUADRUMANA. or near the Equator? animals of North America. 50.3. Zebu. 26. 31. . The deer family include Jt all those ruminating animiils which are furnished with solid horns. named from the odor is The common domestic ox a native of the Old . Hippopotamus. 43. The elk. Khinoceros. White Bear. 5. 15. Walrus. or antlers.— ZOOLOGICAL GEOGRAPHY. Sable. 36. Spermaceti 48. Lion. Elk. the most numerous in spethe Western any and of the families of the Rmninantia. Platypus. 49. America. 7. Auroch. and is the animal so celebrated for the services which it renders to the Laplanders. Quagga. Horse. Marten. 8. 29. Kangaroo. Greenland Whale. 45. The musk-ox. Dingo. 10. so remarkable fjr its agility. The camelopard (giraffe). and which Continent are the most ferocious Carnivorous animals? Are Name five Carnivorous they most numerous in Polar regions. 24. 47. What animals of the order Quadrumana are found on the Eastern Continent? ? Africa cies of habits. 6. 19. the tallest of all animals. BarOf two bary. Tiger. 2. one is the chamois. Musk Ox. Deer. 27. 46. R0MINANTIA. largest and most powerful of all ruminating animals belong to the o. or moose-deer. solid. is peculiarly the land of the antelope. American Panther. of its flesh. Name an animal of the order Marsupialia. Fox. Wolf. is distinguished by a hunch on its back. has broad. Brown Bear. and very heavy antlers. 14. long noted for its large. a sacred animal in India. is an inhabitant of Central Asia. Striped Hyena. 39. 40. The Cashmere goats. 16. Chimpanzee. Canada Lynx. 1. Grampus. 21. Cashmere Goat. inhabits the coldest regions of North America. 38. Ass. 41. as far north as 70°. Reindeer. World and though now living in Lapland. black eye. 32. 11. 22. American Yak. Zebra. 30. Camelopard. Black Bear. Puma. 18. Ant-Eater. principally found on the west side of the Andes. of which cashmere shawls are made. Pachydermata. 44. 28. and belongs to the northern regions of both Continents. some inhabit the but the greater number roam the plains in troops. Marine Mammalia. Grizzly Bear. Elephant. Buffalo. 9. 25. 4. It is peculiar to the glacial regions of both Continents. and hence occupies the highest latitudes. Llama. noted for its secretion of musk. differing widely in size. Armadillo. Edentata. Whale. and through all the country bordering on the Great Desert. station. European species. is as large as a horse. and state where Name In what Grand Division are the Edentata most numerous? it may be found. Marsupialia. from New The alpacca is a species of llama. The tribe. A few court the shade of the forests. are celebrated for the tine wool which grows among their hair. The reindeer is more capable of enduring cold than the elk. 1. probably came from the warmer parts of the Temperate Zone. with long. Peccary. Lynx. 37. . Narwhal. 35. Camel. woolly hair. color. The Brahminy bull.1. Ourang Outang. Jaguar. 21). Which do you think the most valuable mals compare in size with the Carnivora? What valuable animal of the order Ruminantia is found in animal of this order? In the United States? In Thibet? In Lapland? Africa? In South America? What savtige animal of the What countries does the Yak inhabit? The Giraffe? order Ruminantia inhabits the western part of the United States? — On — — On — — — — — — — — — — — — — . The gazelle."!. Ounce. 51. How do these anithree ditferent animals of the order Pachydermata found in Africa. 33. 34. occupying the declivities of the Himalaya Mountains. and other Tlie parent stock of the lofty mountains. G9 ^•fyrs .s found in Egypt. is common domesticated goat unknown. Ermine. QUESTIONS ON THE CHART.x confined to the desert regions of Africa. 17. i. 42. Carnivora. 23. 52. Wild Boar. Seal.

The toucans are all natives of Tropical America. Swallow. parrot. The most beautiful . Natatores (swimmers). and for its tusks. in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. officer is allowed to have carried on State occasions. which inhabits the forests of Southern Africa. are found in almost every latitude. and fiercest animal of the porpoise sometimes even attacking the whale. Birds constitute the second class of the vertebrated aniThey are the most favored of all animals in their powers of locomotion yet. a very savage animal. one of the finest of song-birds. varieties of birds are found within the Tropics . does the term ordQr Marine "Pacha of Mammalia. is now found principally in the Arctic. Seals and the Oetacea and walruses are the principal animals of the family AmpJiibia. with in the Old cies World than in the New . by strokes of its The condor. the Orinoco. and it is to that quarter the attention of whale adventurers now directed. This huge animal. hawk. Rocky east of the prairies on the great numbers in roams bufiiilo American Mountains. exceeding in size the largest bull. they are still very numerous is . by the untiring pursuit of man. belongs to this order.—V^hich is three tails" signify? are the principal animals of the family jln)^/ii'6j'af ? Cetacea ? — How large the sperm whale — "Where are the most beautiful birds found — Name the two families of the — ? —What the entire known number of species? — What — Name those of the order Scansores. are herbivorous animals. Thibet. the chief species pursued by man. 4.000 feet. into which man has not so often intruded. humming-bird. Rapaces. and Owls. penguin. Scansores (climbers). — The songsters constitute the most numerous order known in temperate of birds. The Manati are chiefly found near the mouths as the of rivers which flow into the warmest parts of the Atlantic Ocean at the : their plumage. — Rapaces (birds of prey). so remarkable for their voracity. The birds of the parrot fomily are . wood-pecker. and Pheasants? Name the six orders of birds. Robin. and the bits the shallow parts of the rivers of Western Africa. spouting motions. mals. is the highest ranger of the tribe. 2. and much reduced in numbers in the waters of the Arctic and Pacific. most species are confined by geographical laws to particular districts. feeding on sea-weed. has its principally found in its habitation in the oceanic waters. —To what order does the Mocking-bird belong? — To what the domestic fowls. Marine Mammalia.remarkable for the beautiful color of The Manatus. however. The Yak. a grim-looking animal. robin. sometimes 75 feet in length. They princi- pally inhabit the tropical regions. fifteen feet is the largest of all flying sometimes measuring from tip to tip of the wings. is much hunted for its is oil. perate Zones. grouse. and in the northern parts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. which inhabits Southern Africa. — Birds of this order are much more numerous of speQuails. The common black. a birds. is the for its oil and bone. is are the principal birds of prey? . On one occasion. Their favorite habitation is the Frigid. Humboldt saw this bird floating over the summit of Mount Chimboi'azo. duck. V. except Australia. 1. eagle. 6. Orallaiores (waders). the being found in Tropical Asia. a hen). and Pigeons. head. account of the resemblance of the tuft of feathers upon the top of its head to a pen behind the ear of a man. popularly known as sea-cows. — The principal birds of prey are : Vultures. The known number of species exceeds 6000. south-east of the Baltic Sea. and the herbage bottom of streams. at an elevation of 22. heron. Several of the species are the AmpJiibia The order forms two distinct families in water). 2. 3. the ivory of which is employed in the arts. and their power of imitating the human voice. number of What species and individuals is greatest. and Sparrow. popularly considered as fishes. enormous tail. It exclusively confined to the Arctic regions. and Cuckoos. their daring energy. snipe. of the Northern Atlantic. Dugong. It sits Indian Ocean. " Pacha of three tails. Its chosen abode is where the average annual temperature is below Hence it lives amid eternal snow on the table-land of the freezing-point. being found in all quarters of the globe.ro PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. — This order includes all the marine animals -which suckle their young. being sometimes from SO to 100 feet long. of the southern part of the United States. and the colder parts of the TemThe walrus. so called on The dolphins. — Parrots. Wood-peckers. Pheasants. and untamable disposition. or European bison. partridge. The Mocking-bird. Toucans. largest of living animals. Birds are divided by Cuvier into the following six orders: 1. and the swiftness of their Shoals of porpoises. tribe. thus giving rise to the fable of the mermaid. are gallinaceous birds. The Grampus is the largest are birds of this order. driven almost entirely from the Atlantic Ocean. In the Antarctic Seas. except the Polar Seas. Whales were formerly much more numerous. Oscines (songsters). The Cape buifalo. and remarkable for its great facility of imitating almost any sound. and has even destroyed ships Eagles. like the Mammalia. The secretary bird. The Aurocli. or The fine-haired. All these species are remarkable for is a very large and ferocious animal.000 feet. It is valuable The Great Rorqual. The phrase." signifies the number of tails of the Yak which that 8. 5. is a species of the vulture family. as the Lark. has been known to fight desperately when attacked by the whalemen. where. and tumbling in pursuit of the herring and mackerel which constitute their prey. se valuable for the oil all The spermaceti whale. 3. the greatest the exception of two orders (the waders and swimmers). Hawks. Gallinacea (Oallina. which was abundant in Germany in the time of Charlemagne. may be seen in all parts of the Atlantic. bushy tail of this animal furnishes the well-known oriental insignia of rank. is now found in the forests The It is the largest European quadruped. Amazon. 4. Gallinacea. boldness. and mermaids. also. resembling them in external appearance. species of the vulture family. The Dugong inhaupright when suckling its Oscines. domestic fowl. sirens. or Greenland whale. at an elevation of 15. The wood-peckers are widely spread. : (animals which live both on land and (animals of the whale kind). Quails. and Stellerine. entire mountain ox of Central Asia. Scansores. crane. number The domestic fowls. vulture. and include those most generally regions : young. and preys upon serpents. the roof of the world. and more generally distriThey have been buted through all the oceanic waters than at present.

61. 25. 22. the Cassowary. 48. 65.— Where are they to be found? . Canada. 53. Boa Constrictor. 41. Partridge. Crane. Whistling Swan. cy^Ti 160 140 120 lOQ 80 GO 71 40 20 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 "^^D© ©QGv.272. 51. Crocodde. Reptiles. 42. Ptarmigan. 27. America. S. Cassowary.inany from Africa. Plaiutain Eater. G-rallatores and Natatores. Turkey Buzzard. Sociable Vulture. 10. 26.and Division does this bird Ducks.ZOOLOGICAL GEOGRAPHY. and 240 miles in length and to have contained (three birds being assigned to Many birds alternate regularly the square yard. 2 3. SCANSORES. 28. Eiigle. Gre. and birds of the order of tropical regions. 30. Oriole. 7. 32. 46. 55. 44. Crowned Pheasant. 60. valuable for its eggs and the down taken inhabit?— On which Continent do you find the Bald Eagle?— In what part of the world the Secretary Bird ?— To what order does the Macaw belong ?— Where is this bird found? Name three birds of the order Oscines. Cobra de Capello. as food becomes scarce or abundant by the . temperate and polar regions than in tropical countries.ant. — Where do you find the Cassowary — The Adjutant? ? Name six birds belonging to the order of Swimmers. IS. Bald Eagle. Hoopoe. 57. Owl. 34. are among the most extraordinary as well as most gigantic birds. Penguins are found along the coast of Patagonia. 38. Resplendent Trogon. and Australian Emu. geese. White Spoonbill. The black swan. 5. Apteryx. 63. in — an interesting fact in Natural History. and the bob-o-link of far more numerous New England. 31. 15. Alexmigrate singly ander Wilson estimated a flock of pigeons which passed above him. penguins. Gold Pheasant. The peacock.) 2. 13. King Vulture. Lyre Bird. 62. 29. Canada Goose. 43. Stork. Pheasants. Huraming-Bird. Which is The most remarkable QUESTIONS ON THE CHART. a very curious species. The Guinea fowl. Snow Goose. from its nest. 56. Iceland Falcon. Crowned Osprey. Rattlesnake. well known for the beauty of its plumage. is a turkejf. 9. 64. Cstrich. Wedge-tailed Eagle. Nigbtingale. 14. is still found there in a wild state. Turkey. 37. 21. ever. Adjutant. Python. 47. 35. gulls. was introduced into Europe during the and is now widely diffused throughout the Eastern Continent. 11. Alligator. liS. Grallatores. to have been a mile in breadth. Emu. 4. [Alps. swan. Sacred Ibis. Green Turtle. 49. Auk. 50. inhabiting the shores of the Arctic Ocean. Snowy Owl. Condor. California \'ulture. oriji. 23. Secretary Bird.230. Griffin Vulture. the largest of the Rapacious birds ? — What Gr. Natatores. Great 58. Penguin. Cormorant. 24.at Vulture of the Common Buzzard. 54.000 pigeons. The rice-bird of Carolina is known further north as the reed-bird of the marshes in the vicinity of the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. Common Vulture. 69. Macaw. Bird of Paradise. Bernicle Goose. — The waders and swimmers are in the change of season. howand southern climates. 6. Some — largest Name five difi'erent birds of the order of Waders. 39. for the greater part of a day. 16. Gallinacea. 40. The African and South American Ostrich. Great North'n Diver. 5. Silver Pbeas. Eider Duck. pelicans. Duck. Toucan. 45. 62. Kapacks. occur in tropical species of waders. Flamingo. 33. — Which bird of this order is the ?— What Grand Division does it inhabit ?— Name a bird of this order which in- habits Australia. native of Northern India. and Partridges belong? ?— Where do you find the Nightingale ? The migration of birds is others in flocks and others still in vast armies.. are among the principal swimmers: all more numerous in temperate than in The eider duck. is Paradise inhabit — ?— Where Humming-Birds? Of what Grand Division is the Turkey a native ?— The Guinea fowl ?— The Peacock To what order do Quails. a native of The sixteenth century. —What part of the world does the Bird of an important and interesting species. Black Grouse. lives in Australia. Albatross. 160 140 120 100 80 ino 120 140 JfiO J2£>'& 12. ToothbiU. 20. 17. between two distant countries. OSCINES. 36. Senegal Web-crest. Stormy Petrel. 1.

from the Equator to the Poles. the dancing snake of Indian The boa jugglers. where it often hangs from the Boughs of trees to The python. reaching. nor can the white bear sustain the heat of the equatorial regions. The rattlesnake.James Ross sent life. The greater number The cod and mackerel tropical of fish. and bear. America. Frogs and salamanders extend further towards the polar regions than any other reptiles. Deer. Reeaj)itulation." observing the same limit. is exclusively an American family. been described. and the number of individuals more than twenty times. to M. Sharks roam in the deep ocean of Flying-fish never go beyond the parallel of their brilliant colors as "gilt Nor will he The herrings fail also to recognise the care of Providence in the his natural condition. is unknown west of the Rocky Mountains. — It thus appears that the animals upon the globe comprise four principal divisions. its prey. class.al water. silk-worm. while animals of the Arctic regions. sometimes attacking men and animals. VI. and tiger. goat. while others appear to be confined to particular localities. — What is said of the of Microscopic animals ? class number — Recapitulate the subjects of this chapter. A far greater number indirectly promote his benefit: such. 40°. indeed. be found literally to swarm with animal Sir . animals of the Torrid Zone. ass. which is exclusively a serpent of the Eastern Continent. is a vei-y venomous serpent. are examples. for examination. exist power of arithmetic to snow. hog. — Describe the Molluscous ani— Name some of the Articulated animals most useful to man. which has already The division MoUusca comprises principally marine animals as the oyster. and various species of shells. it will bafile the almost everywhere. as the Barbary dog and the . . while those of the elephant are formed for strength. in the microscopic animals. camel. and ice. hare. and the Radiated animals —the Mollus— are much : Crocodiles and serpents are among the principal families of this more numerous than the Vertehrated. 248° of heat. Name the three inferior orders of the animal kingdom. The learner useful to will not fail to recognise the wisdom and goodness of the Creator. of a brownish-yellow color.. — Describe the fourth of vertehrated animals? is mals. the vertehrated animals. seek safety in to support the flight. as great as that of the venomous. some surface mioroscopist. of wliich there are 657 kiio-\vn species. and other animals designed to Pike and salmon are the only species of fresh-water fish common to Europe and North America. that they to Such. and cochineal insect. Several kinds of fish are eminently social and migratory. ox. to the domesticated watch South America. under very different conditions. rhinoceros. on the Eastern Continent as the elephant. VIII.arkable for their size and beauty in the Torrid and Hot Zones thus. in stagnant water. bury themselves . while the patient ox can equally well endure severe cold or fervent heat. They are most rem. VII. being native animals of the Old World The . Reptiles. are supplied with a slight coat of hair issue every year from the depths of the Arctic Ocean. or the to the division Sadiaied animals. Some of the species are widely distributed throughout all the oceanic waters. in so constituting those animals which are most man. and most savage animals are : also found and lie torpid during the winter fall in hot climates. Cod annually visit the coasts of Newfoundland. in boiling springs. almost the naturalist's residence at Berlin alive. ermine. in volcanic ashes. the noted Prussian ice. Ehrenberg. the Articulated. for example. one of the most venomous of serpents. vast numbers of them are caught. found in America? — Which of the Crocodile family — Africa?— Asia? — How does the number of harmless serpents comof the venomous. If a drop of water be examined with a microscope. division. and are thus instrumental in keeping them within due bounds. turkey. constrictor. and domestic fowls. is the tenacity of life The number of species of harmless serpents is more than three times. namely: the true crocodile. races than the Western. . have limbs expressly formed for speed his body. and make extraordinary leaps over falls to reach the places suitable for depositing their eggs. The alligators of the rivers and marshes of the southern part of the United States are more savage than those of South America. that they can exist in different parts of the earth. both in species and individuals. however. on the surface of the snow in the Arctic regions. which is exclusively an American species and the gavial. number. and drying IX. as the sable. lion. Western Europe. remarkable adaptation of each animal to ape. dogs. Thus. during the dry season. Erebus. The coloring matter . as destroy animal and vegetable substances in a state of decomposition. frequent sho. rain. of this ice was found to whole of which reached the great four years after they were collected. perfection in the equatorial ocean. the many sheep. where Thus. 72 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. The horse. which is confined to the tropical rivers of Africa the alligator. Microscopic animals. the lower orders of from ten to twenty feet long. and warm climates. while the llama. in cold dogs. lives in the great tropical which are far the most numerous. The inferior orders of the animal kingdom cozis. and the Aleutian Islands. The cobra de capello. peculiar to vSouthern Asia. generally forests of have been known to recover after an exposure in vacuo for 28 days. in the Antarctic regions. Kanitschatka. the lion and tiger cannot live in cold countries. and those that prey on other noxious tribes. used by man for food. vrhioh inhabits the Ganges and other Asiatic rivers. and adapted enormous weight of Name some pare with thjit of the principal families of Reptiles. and repair in vast shoals to the coasts of the United States. consist of microscopic animals. The Eastern Continent has contributed a much greater number of the higher orders. Salmon go up rivers to spawn. There are three tribes of the crocodile family. are provided with the thickest furs. are the in the ground. is of about the same size as the boa constrictor. and some sheep and 67th parallel of latitude. known from heads. and which he supposed was colored by volcanic ashes. Some families of the division Arlicnlaied animals are of direct utility to man : as the honey-bee. which belong express. and noxiousness. in the ocean. The pike. in North America. Fishes constitute the fourth class of vertehrated animals. on the Mackenzie River. and in peat earth twenty feet below the surface soil. their most active enemies. They live in fog. or cayman. the pearl-oyster only comes to . and in numbers which mind to conceive. which he collected near Mt. they also into a similar state. only domestic animals of importance native to largest and temperate climates. diminisli in size. Reptiles.

a vast numbers thrive. at Potosi.ETHNOGRAPHY. and that of the six feet. though with a varying capacity in different individuals. II. . whole earth for his abode. Owing mainly to the flexibility of his constitution. Helena. Laplanders. women it. Vegetables are the chief food of the nations . where animal food can also be as readily procured. while others suffer very little inconvenience. man and very frequently exceed can subsist under the greatest climatic extremes. the is A the Albino. with color in their cheeks. — — Name — Which human is some race 10 . but occur greater portion of the year. senting several well-defined shapes. The African nations are black the American Indians are copper-colored and . A great also observable among mankind and IV. where the ground is most remarkable individu. or eyes. are tall. dif- but subsist in different situations with equal facility on very within the Tropics and a dark skin has usually associated with dark eyes.and dialects in the world is 3664. human population. and a greater length The power of the human frame to resist cold. the result of experiment shows . . IX. and crisp scanty. 587. hair. ETHNOGRAPHY. Esquimaux. observable among mankind. Ataranga pass of the Alps. VI. about 13. not constituting tribes or nations. appears on the amount of food which the individual consumes. the special region of the cereal grains. 240. of the polar tribes . The Patagonians. The last important physical diversity apparent among on fish and seals. a projecting heel. bananas. A difference in the color of the skin. Both barbarous and civilized races exhibit the diversities of physical power which are found in individual families but. color. crossed the is felt after a short stay. soft. there race. eiFect . . Asiatic. in other races. European. diet. and rice. although stated to be about four and a half feet. differ in the propoi-tional size of parts of the bony and in the texture of the skin and hair. in 1851. Albinos are usually of negro parentage. hair. He can adapt himself to every variety of climate. proportion of the limbs. Such differ- burning sun of the Equator accessible latitude. distributed as follows: — American. to have broad flat feet. and flowing. though strangers suffer at first from the atmosphere. rice and fruit form an appropriate food in twenty-four hours. are examples of diminutive size. and their geographical are examples of tribes departing generally from the ordinary height. and light blue or grey eyes there is a . The leading physical differences observable among mankind are varieties of strength. though one of bis companions suffered exceedingly. In the intermediate districts. which varies remarkably. is upon one of the most obvious distinctions of mankind. and eyes. long. that the depend greatly of the fore-arm. .04-4 feet in height. the inhabitants of Europe and the United States have a fair skin. and some of the tribes of Central Africa. Among is the Bosjesmen of Southern Africa. Caribs. and situation habitations extend to the farthest bounds of animated nature. while that of the Mongolian tribes is strong. distinctive of great groups human population. as sight muscular energy and capaand hearing. city of : his senses. degree of civilization. his soil. The human race are not confined to any particular diet. the head of the animal kingJom. and . Darwin. The hair is of a milky-white or cream tinge the color of the skin is the same. and deriving nourishment from all kinds of food. texture of the skin. both animals and vegetables contributing to support the inhabitants of temperate climates. accustomed to an intermediate temperature. lord of the creation. four The Patagonians average obtaining much artificial aid. Under what different conditions can man live ? Of what does Ethnography treat ? Is any inconvenience docs the power to resist cold appear to depend? Why ? What sort of food is principally experienced in ascending high mountains ? Name -In the Torrid Zone? In Temperate climates ? eaten in the Arctic regions? some portions of the glohe which contained no native human population. nience mutual correspondence between the color of the Light hair is generally found to be accomskin. 73 CHAPTER I. while Europeans. experienced no inconvenience whatever. and the Antarctic Lands. are human While a difference in stature will be observed in the same families. Esquimaux eat as much its as ten or twelve pounds weight of animal being heightened by its fat and oily quality. of known languages .al variety.— Name others noted for peculiarities in their skin. pre- with no other articles of support than cocoa-nuts. What noted are the principal physical differences observable ? — among mankind ? varieties of the — On what — — — — — strongest. and Hottentots. Omitting exceptional cases. a characteristic of some of the South Sea Islanders. pupil being intensely red. contrary to popular opinion. transparent skin." fine. lofty elevations. Mankind skeleton. Tonga islanders. Towards the Equator. Few portions of the globe have been discovered destitute with reference to language. Ethnography treats of the different varieties of the distribution. the barbarous or civilized races — Name some noted for peculiarities in the formation of the for their stature. African. The human race can also adapt itself to very different states of the atmosphereas todensity. and wiry. Ilerndon. stature. each containing those which bear a grammatical resemblance to each other. 937. yams. Those of the Old World are considered by Chevalier Bunsen to constitute but five divisions. The entire number . the Madeira and form of government. entire hordes live VIII. straight. parallels The Esquimaux endure the cold between the the African negroes live under the of 70° and 80° . skeleton. mankind of the is the form of the skull. no inconve- VII.000 feet above the sea. who experienced much difficulty in breathing on crossing the Portillo pass of the Chilian Andes. The skin is also softer and more velvety. the average height of the men feet. Iceland. other than physical. V. intimates that. . Thus. where vegetation flourishes most. Some modern writers on philology classify this large number of languages and dialects into a few great divisions. of a native Spitzbergen. has the the savage to be inferior to the civilized man in endurance though some of remarkably vigorous. character of the hair. The hair has likewise that peculiar character which has led to the African nations being styled in general " woolly haired. religion. III. In high latitudes. occasionally of a pinkish hue and the eye is pink. and eyes. panied by a fair. and the form of the skull. Some travellers are very painfully affected by the rarity of the atmosphere Mr. Among the principal of them are Nova Zembla. Lieut. and vegetation covered with snow throughout the is very scanty. difference is mixed diet prevails. animals. 276 Oceanic. have borne the rigor of the highest ences are observable in individuals of various families. and that of Europeans. but they seem to be peculiar to particular tribes. Falkland Islands. who. some of the negro tribes and the fiercest heat of the Torrid Zone. 16. The Man. it black hair and ferent kinds of food. III. hair. A much larger supply of animal than vegetable food is required in a cold climate while amid torrid heat.— State some diversities. 1624. measured in proportion to the upper arm and It is well known height of the body. St. upon comparing the two together.

Hindoos. . florid. says " I have seen. Egyptians." But this naturalist was conclusions. a very high authority. Georgia. In some countries. They founded mighty empires. are originated in the mountains of Caucasus. The distinguished Baron Cuvier writes. Greeks. are very different. small . The classification adopted in this book is that of Blumenbach. the Papuan. Egypt. The pupil who wishes further is to investigate this most interesting subject. degrading superstitions. Pickering. life and property In other parts of the are under the protection of the law. A small. after having visited so many different parts of the globe. and Abyssinia. cipal varieties of Dr. beautifully-shaped head. the Australians. referred to the works of Dr. or 4. Magyars of Hungary. Dr. which may be sepa- rated from each other by strongly marked lines. the naturalist of the United States' Exploring Expedition. are included in the Ethiopian. — — history of the different races. expanded forehead. or white lian. becoming. Hottentot. included in the Caucasian . and their off-shoot in the United States. and remainder of the Ethiopian races. each distinguished by constituting as regarded be marked and characteristic peculiarities. or yellow race 3. Africa. Persia. tan. The Hindoos are Pagans. Pickering upon this subject. Takins o into consideration the diversities of mankind which enumerated. Circassian Chief. and Romans. It is only in this race we find the full-bearded man. in many cases. only The forms of worship prevails among the most highly civilized nations. and is same with that previously made by the great naturalist. The Caucasian. the Abyssinians of and Armenians of Turkey and Persia. Teand the Papuan. Medo-Persians." races. 5. and the clear. and has ever done since the date of authentic history. of the different varieties of the tribes it is very imsome idea of a Supreme Being. or brown race race rally 2. " that of certain hereditary peculiarities of conformation which constitute what are termed races. and held sacred. or yellow and the Ethiopian. The European and American divisions of this race.— 74 . regular features. Pickering's classification. and the black. in the first chapter of his very excellent and interesting work. Naturalists of the past and present century have arrived at very different number of races into which mankind may be divided. Prichard's — Quote the language of Dr. Pickering. Negrillo. Barbary States. . the Papuans. not all. This vast section of the human family comprehends at present. Col. less note have adopted different classifications. in all. most trifling pretexts." by Col. on the XI. but since it is that most generally known. . though with perfect. but of all shades fair. olive. which admits the soft-spreading blush of woman. the entire human family may heretofore have been five races. Arabia. the most perfectly formed. The Malay. Laplanders. eleven races of men and though I am hardly prepared to fix a positive limit to their number. . and Ethiopian. The Christian religion. Arab Chief. 2. the United States and Great Britain for example. Caucasian Race. are each considered by Dr. 3. the Malays. or white race. Indian of Ilindoostau paramount influence in the world a heritage which has descended nations of Western Europe. the lowest and most human many rude race appear to have all of Europe (except the Finns. as taught in the Holy Scriptures. . and even black are the peculiar characteristics of the Caucasian race. — to the (also called Telingan). Western Hunter. transparent skin. or Hindoo Priest. What does the Caucasian race comprise is its ? times? it its ? ? . I confess. Other writers of greater or whence it is supposed to have spread into Europe and Asia. or black 5. the blackish-brown. if Africa Most. In the light of modern ethnographical science it may or may not be the most correct. The American. the Australian and In the classification of this book. These races are seve1. Circassia. In his classification. Brahmin. observes that " comparing the prinform and structure which distinguish the inhabitants of different countries. X. what nations does the Christian religion prevail? ? in past — What has been the character of this race present character? — From what does — What derive name? Describe this race. symmetrical shape fine. The Arabs of Asia and Northern Africa the Berbers. or Negro. Pickering in his Mongolian and Malay still races. that I am at a loss where to look for others. Afghans. in Africa. as their present geographical distribution. there are seven classes of nations. the races are arranged under four colors: the white includes the Arab and Abyssinian the brown. life is taken at the will of the king. . Hamilton Smith conceives the true origin of the race to have been in the beautiful vallej's where the Indus. of Dr. Turkey. red race. and the descendants of Europeans in America and other parts of the globe. as to the : . and Moors of Northern Africa. Hamilton Smith. and Cashgar have their upper courses. Prichard. The Egyptians. Negrillo. as Dahomey. and obtained and Malay . Negro. oval face. Nubia. and Turks). world. Buffon. 4. Hottentot. Amoo. among the mountains of Hindoo Koosh. and some other tribes of Asia are Mohammedans." by Dr. in . undecided whether to refer to either of these. Prichard as constituting two races. in Asia the Great Desert. The degree of civilization which various tribes have attained. three in the Mongoparticular appear eminently distinct the Caucasian. Assyrians. in the classification adopted in this The Ethiopian and Malay work. 1. and the Persians. and intellectual of mankind. the " Races of Men. The Caucasian race comprises the inhabitants of HindoosAfghanistan. Abyssinian. — Which nations profess the Christian religion — Which the Mohammedan — Name the principal Pagan nations of this race. copious. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. vigorous. State some facts to show the difference in the civilization of different countries. and flowing hair complexion generally white. the Mongolian. and a section of Chinese and Independent Tartary. Negro races. 6. profess the Christian religion. it is most convenient for the purposes of this work which is not so much to show the essentially the — mouth. The Caucasian race received its name from the supposition that it lingan. — In — Into how many races may the whole human family be divided? — What was the classification of Baron Cuvier? — What was Dr. and a gentleman probably whose own individual observation has exceeded that of any of the naturalists who have written on this subject. the Arab." : European. named as follows: The Mongolian. South Sea Islanders. the true Caucasus of the ancients. and the forms of government under -n-hich they live. swarthy. Georgian Girl. — . The Ethiopian. Prichard. vary in other nations. successively represented the civilization of past ages. and part of the Ethiopian races. The race described in this work as American is included by Dr. and Indians of America. . and the " History of the Human Species. Babylonians. Australian.

Laplanders.000. and prominent. ETIINOG RAniY. arc Mohammedans. the Siberian and Tartar tribes. and compressed at the sides the especially the upper one.0(M). equally ugly in face and form.302. olive complexion. dark eyes. Galla. The Kalmucks. Magyars.500. The Magyars of Hungary are a bold.vGOLiAN Race. Moors. 6.000 Inhabitants of Asia and Asiatic Ishinds 287. The Ethiopian.000 2.000 The Finns. Chinese Mandarin. Different varieties of this race vary greatly in stature and personal appearnarrow. 2. with iittle. or eyebroad skulls. often jet black. nose broad and is the lips. . are among the most many of the lower families of the Caucasian race. 5. and becanip Christians in the eleventh century. The Esquimaux of America. Osmans of Turkey.000 106. Europe 15. long. The Mongolian tral Asia. of Mongoli. are Mongolians. whose whole employment is the chase. have become one of the handsomest. and all South-eastern Asia. Papua. a part of Madagascar. are endowed with very acute senses of seeing and hearing.0()(). comprises the natives of . Lapland AVoman. The Mongolian as follows : — race is estimated to number about 302. and several tribes of the Malaysian Islands.x of Northern America.600.an . The entire 75 of Turkey. the Ethiopian flat . and Magyars profess the Christian religion the Turks.000 and their descendants in other parts of the globe. handsome family. tall. classified by some writers as a different race. south of the Great Desert and Abyssinia the inhabitants New Hebrides. the Finns and Laplanders of Europe. Bushman. and high cheek-bones.000. and other tribes of Northern Africa Inhabitants of South-western Asia Total 22. beard. Papuan. or yellow race. and Chinese of California. Caledonia.000. 6. Berbers. are of a diminutive size. Solomon's Archipelago. the natives of China.000 Finns. the true Turks. Esquimau. are very thick the eyes are black. New A large number of this race are held in slavery in America. and present rulers of the country. also. Africa. of the islands of Australia. Mo. ? hideous creatures in existence. America.3. black hair lashes . Egyptians. and is . comprises the Es<iuiinaiix America the Finns. of . are rather a handsome people. 4. The Mongolian. Laplanders. A yellow. distributed . . Arabs. the hair is black and woolly.000. Foulah Woman. and their institutions date back for a long period Africa. The head of is and the Samoides and other tribes of Siberia. and Magyars of Hungary. in Europe the inhabitants of Ceylon and the Japanese Islands. or New Guinea. XII. large. eye-brows. 4. Abyssinians. in other respects. Cen- where it is supposed have originated. race ranks in numbers next It derives its to to the Caueasi. war. Laplanders. number : of the Caucasiiiii race distributed as follows — estimated at 4TU. and from being one of the ugliest families in Europe. and like all who lead a savage life. the skin dark-colored. by frequent intermixtures with other races. Kamtschatdale.000. and Osmans of Turkey.000. Miindingt 2. or black race. does the Ethiopian race comprise? — Describe and the general appearance of this tribes of this lian race comprise? — How does this race rank with reference to the Caucasian? — State — Is there much difference in the individuals race? — State some particulars with reference to tlUfercnt varieties of this race. ance. What some is the entire number of the Caucasian race — What nations does the Mongo- What race. or sallow..000 470. and the tending of cattle. and probain bly so. facts to illustrate your statement. small. except the Malays of Malacca. name from Mongolia. Some of the tribes south of the Groat Desert are finely-shaped. which established themselves in Europe in the ninth century. if any.an origin. and obliquely set. 5. Mongol Tartar.000. is A great difference observaije in individuals and tribes of this race. IvAi . -3. lian race. 100.000 — Total .000 XIII. are peculiarities of the Mongo- — ETntOPIAN 1. the Feejee Islands. . and other Tartar tribes of Central Asia. the remainder of the race are attached to different systems of the Pagiin religion. The Osmans Inhabitants of Europe 250. and some of the Tartar tribes. 1. Australian.600.000 European European colonists anil their descendants in colonists America 30.0011. Thibetian Priest. straight. while the Bushmen and Hottentots of South the arts of civilization. Esquimau-x. and The Chinese and Japanese have made very considerable advancements yet they are inferior to in exhibit much intelligence .

Describe the Gallas.000. or the chase. — What does the Malay race comprise the estimated number of the Malay race? Describe the Polynesian division. (classified by Dr. They of which appear to be equally cruel and ferocious. occupied the entire entire number of the race is estimated not to exceed eleven XIV. are civilized will — practising tribes. race. black hair.000 Natives of Madagascar Papuans.000.) are in many respects the most degraded of human The natives of one of the New Hebrides Islands are described by beino-s. on account of their Many cious. 3. and living in Considering the race as constituting two divisions sian. — Australians.000. Hawaiian. — What —Describe the general appearance of race. Decreasing in numbers.600. . scanty beard complexion long. and a part of Madagascar. Tahitian 3.000. Digger.650 000 23. coarse. with which it is often classed. 5. flat faces. Araucanian. 6. — Papuans. New Caledonia.. — What said of their respective heights? resemble? — Describe some of the this it is tribes. Madegasy of Madagascar. Malay of Malacca. all of many The Polynesians are generally mild and gentle in their disposition. 600. .000 2.000. lian. New . and Polynesia (except the Feejee Islands). however. The Polynesians are very while the natives entire western section of the country. A few of the North American example. to become extinct.000 American Continent. Australians. black people. . and other tribes of islands in the Pacific and Indian Oceans Total . Woman. from Mexico to the region of the of the islands of Malaysia are decidedly below the general average. comprises the chief part of the native inhabitants of the peninsula of Malacca. principally inhabit Eastern Africa.600. entire : enormous heads of hair. By far the towns. . or Snake Indian. and some rude who inhabit the interior as follows — number of the race is estimated at about 23. Pickering as constituting two separate races. divided into tribes. Comanche.500. Pickering as a separate race. Mohammedans life. Malay Race. 1. deep-set. and ultimately will probably become of the Malays are men native population has extinct. islands are far advanced in social and the natives of some of the while in others they are rude. 5.000 63. robbery.000 350.000 a sea-captain. black hair large mouth. or red race. or brown millions. are peculiar chaIn many respects it much resembles the Mongoracteristics of this race.— Name the two divisions of the Malay — Are the red race increasing or decreasing in numbers? — What race does most race. 4. classed by Dr. sunken eyes . The Papuans of New Guinea. and high cheek-bones. On islands where the white have established themselves. The Malay. New Zealand. The ago. . They are handsome varieties. the islands of Malaysia. Javanese Chief. 4. who visited them. is The Chenooks. 6. greater part.000. and a low forehead. where they have established schools and churches. distributed as — Slaves and free blacks in America 1. Many them have adopted the Christian religion.000. Malays of Malacca Malays of Madagascar Inhabitants of Polynesia. 2. observed in their stature. the latter inhabiting the islands of Polynesia — the Malay and Polyne— a great difference be tall. among the most ferocious upon the globe. 76 The Gallas are a tall. They are cannibals.. black eyes The Malayans have a reddish-brown complexion long. Patagonian. Esquimaux ? . three centuries and a half Natives of Africa 35. the Sandwich Islands for example. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. The Mandingoes and Foulahs inhabit Western Africa. coarse. the Cherokees and Choctaws for the arts of agriculture. at no distant day.000 XV. and vindictive. and the Feejee Islands. tribes of blacks The The Australians. Puegian. Pawnee Chief.400. are a family of robust blacks. The individuals of this race present a singular personal appearance. Zealand Chief. south of Abyssinia. fero. still retain their savage habits roaming over the . 2. 1. they are rapidly disappearing before the white man and seem destined.000 . to Inhabitants of Malaysia Total The Ethiopian race follows : computed number 53. as is more resembling monkeys than men.3. 2. considerably advanced in civilization.000 20. 2. The American.. distributed of many of the islands of Malaysia. subsisting by war. American Race. A copper-colored black. the much decreased.

470.ands ? In what Grand Division of the globe do you find Birmans ? part of the American Continent is inhabited by a variety of the Mongolian race? Which is most advanced in civilization. people. of the Great Basin of Utah. who mostly by the chase. and by territorial divisions. who inhabit the desolate parts of the southern extremity of the continent. most degraded of mankind.000 more enterprising people.irt of America? To what race do they belong? most southern portion of the American Continent? Which Grand Division conLains the greatest population? Which the least? Which Which is least in number? Which race is most numerous. are very degraded. but in many cases they are mere estimates. and Oregon.000 | faucasi.. The Snake Indians. Hottentots or Patagonians ? Which are most advanced To in civilization.000.in Race " " " " Asia 455. islands. — In In which of the Grand Divisions of the globe are the Caucasian race most numerous ? which the Mongolian? The Ethiopian? Which race principally inhabit — — On which the greater To what race do the Hindoos belong? — The Nubians? — The Arabs? — Are the varieties of the Caucasian race alike advanced in civilization? — Which do you think the lylauds ? — On which — Continent do you find the American race? ? part of the Mongolian race all Indians have In Mexico. who subLizards and crickets also form sist chiefly upon roots dug from the ground. Central America. and in South America. as the natives of are very live The Araucanians of Southern Chili are a brave tribe. Foulahs or Australians ? To what race do the Papuans belong? what the Haytians ? What is the color of the Malays ? Do they principally inhabit islands or continents ? To what race do the inhabitants of the In what Grand Division . 77 inhabitants of Nootka Sound. Mexico. and subsisting on very in different kinds of food. a portion of their food. living in villages. -American Total 23.500.000 53.600.000 23. The Caribs of Venezuela. The made from the most recent and reliable authorities.000 265. race is most numerous ? — — — ^ — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — ? 800.000.600. the Indian race has the same general appearance Patagonia. miserable tribe. this variety or the Chinese ? Is there any diff"erence in the physical appearance of the various tribes of the Ethiopian race ? What kind of a people are the Australians ? To what race do they belong ? Which are usually the tallest. The estimates are a summary of the present population of the globe. inhabit the desert region They are a thieving. are among the QUESTIONS ON THE CHART. climates.600. following is XVI.440. in all of which the much intermixed with other varieties.400.000 the Malay or the Indian — The Ethiopian — — — or Mongolian ? . they are a half-civilized and practising the rude arts of agriculture.560.iy Europe Africa America Oceanica Total .000 Mongolian Ethiopian Mal.000 11. which roam over the plateaus and plains of Texas and New Mexico.ire they found? Sandwich Islands belong? What race formerly inhabited nearly all of America ? What is the present character Who inhabit the northern of this race? Is it increasing or decreasing in numbers? Name the tribe inhabiting the p.000 01. tribes. popularly known as Diggers. To what race do the Chinese belong ? The Japanese ? Which of these two varieties What inhabit isl. or those who dwell on continents? Give illustrations to prove your statement. the English or the Persians? The French or the Arabs? The Germans or the Abyssinians ? The Nubians or Swedes ? Are the men who inhabit the northern parts of the Continent inferior or superior to those who live in the North Temperate Zone? How do the people who inhabit the Which are usually Torrid Zone compare with those who reside in the Temperate? the most enterprising class: those who live on. — ETHNOGRAPHY.000 860.000 302.500.600. Some Terra del Fuego. and the dirt-eaters of the Orinoco region. and other north-western triljes.600. and the Patagonians. Though ranging through many Brazil. against the all-conquering whites. and who have successfully defended their country tall.000 64. The Comanches and Apacliees are warlike tribes. arranged in races.

Bias are points extending into the Gulf of Mexico. and the Gulf of Mexico on lakes on chain of great the south. of Delaware Bay. and the Tortugas and Florida reefs. drawn on the 40th parallel of latitude. of Cape Cod. Cape Cod Peninsula ? What of those on the Athantic coast south Describe the Santa Barbara Islands. would have an extent of 1600 miles. projecting into the Atlantic Ocean. would have an extent of 2650 line A Sandy Hook marks the entrance of New York harbor Cape Henlopen and Cape May. east. 24° 32'. The coast-line of the United States is comparatively un. extending a short distance into the ocean. extending first in the north. and Cape Cod on the Atlantic Ocean. of Chesapeake Bay. pare with that of Europe? land. 6200 " The principal br. the land in but few cases projects any great distance In these respects. and terminating in a low. which is especially noted for its deep and extensive inland seas. or the pointed termiStates extend through 24|° of latitude. Niintucket Island. 1925 " 1750 Pacific Coast. by numerous navigable rivers. if not by The extent of the coast-line is estimated aa follows : — all. Foulweather. Cape Key West. the islands are generally low and sandy. Lookout. They are -washed . are mostly of granite formation. and the Bay of San Francisco on the Pacific coast. situated in the PaOcean.. Most peninsulas have the The Peninsula line of their greatest extent of Cape Cod to GEOGEAPHICAL POSITION AND EXTENT. Cape Charles and Cape Henry. on the coast of Maine. or by the longcontinued action of the waters of rivers and the ocean. Canaveral. Orford. and the chain of great lakes which forms a part of the northern boundary. and Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds on The the Atlantic coast. Points Conception and Delgado. from mouth of St. to Cape Sable. Croix River. an exception. and Massachusetts Bays. 2525 miles. the Pacific. Cape II. Delaware. and Flattery. their geological structure Atlantic Coast. The United States. . " Coast of Gulf of Mexico. then turning sandy point. IV. CAPES. Montauk Point is the eastern distance round the globe. from Cape Sable to mouth of Rio Grande. principal bodies of land projecting into the sea are the Peninsulas of Florida on the south-east. north of the Peninsula of Cape Cod. Maine.. from north to south. They contain several good harbors. or violent storm. Cape Fear. and Cape Florida. III. broken. project into the Pacific. Numerous islands are scattered along the various coasts of the United States. the terminating point of the Peninsula of Cape Cod. in Florida. both and geographical position. — Name — Name — How does its coast-line com- Name the principal bodies of water projecting into the the principal points of land extending into the ocean. containing an area of about 150 miles. Long Island. sandy points. Give the boundaries and extent of the United States. and on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. the principal capes along the coast of the United States. and on the other hand. and considerably elevated above the sea. east of Long Island. Island. I. — PENIN- an easterly direction. on the Atlantic coast. branches of the great ocean. area of the country may be stated at about three millions of square miles. from their northern The entire to their southern boundary. from the Parallel of 32° 30' to that of 49° Florida Total The islands of the Atlantic coast. rocky group. extremity of . Cape Piomans and Cape St. Cape Sable is the south-west point of the Peninsula of Florida. to the parallel of 49°. mark the entrance of bodies of water into the land. so valuable for purposes of navigation. and have been separated from it by some convulsion of nature. division of the American Continent. most. mark the entrance of Massachusetts Bay. of which give evidence. by the and the Pacific on the west by the Atlantic Ocean on the north. both extending into the cific The Santa Barbara Islands are a barren. Mount Desert Island. as Florida. are amply compensated for their want of such facilities. south-west of Florida. there is a wide difference between the United States and Europe. and Martha's Vineyard. east of New York. The Golden Gate is the channel connecting the Bay of San Francisco with Long Island Sound is a shallow body of water north of Long Island. from their eastern to their miles and one drawn on the 98th meridian of longitude. I. the sea rarely penetrating far into the land into the ocean. Many inferior projections of land. from the 67th to the 124th meridian. South of this peninsula. are low. however. containing an area of 1450 miles. — nearly one-sixth of the and through 57° of Ann and Cape Long Cod. that they were once a part of the main land. through which is carried on much of the commercial intercourse between the city of New York and the New England States.anches of the sea extending into the land are Chesapeake. Cape Orford is the most western point of land in the United States. known as capes or points. Cape Lookout. off the coast of California. from the parallel of The United nation of bodies of land in the ocean. is AND ISLANDS. Cape Ilatteras (the dread of mariners). is the largest. western boundary. longitude. central part of the northern The United States occupy the the east.PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES CHAPTER SULAS. and Capea Mendocino. are the other principal islands. and on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico? of the islands north of — — What is the character — (78J . is the largest.

— Sierra Nevada. named in the west in which they occur. or quite. known in different parts of their The principal of them. The mountain-ciiains of the United States diflferent may be consi- dered as constituting three systems. and has been long noted for its beauty and fertility. Regarding the Alleghany system as a continuous chain. are the two groups vegetation only occurring on their lower slope and at their base. The principal ranges are the Cascade. where they are merged in the Cascade range. its entire length from the northern boundary of Vermont. The Blue Mountains are a spur from the Cascade range. and Mars Hill. into the State of California. — What between the Rocky Mountains and the Cascade range and Sierra Nevada? — What Of what great chain is Name Hudson Atlantic coast? —Which of them borders the — Name the principal ranges of the Alleghany system south of the River. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES. IV. and North of the Highlands. this chain known as the Rocky Mountains — thence to the southern boundary. and extends in a north-east direction. in a north-east direction. called the Black Hills. are the principal elevations of the Maine in the State of Highlands. For a more particular description of this system. The Valley of Virginia. much visited by tourists.awhich frequently unite of which will be found in the next chapter. The system ranges in width from 30 to 150 miles. The Cascade range extends from about the 40th parallel. The gold-producing valleys of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers lie between the Sierra r' They are of inconsiderable elevation. Rocky Mountain system a part — Name some of the prin— What does the California system comprise — Describe the the character of the country Coast chain. many Nevada. this chain is known Rivers. MOUNTAINS. the Coast. and extend in a northerly direction to about the 43d parallel. branches off at about the 40th parallel. averaging. and the Rocky Mountains on the east. above the The White Mountains New the two mountain-systems just described. into Canada. V. Lat. III. as the Kittatinny. II. namely: the Allethe California The average elevation is from 2000 to 3000 feet. Between the different ranges are many valleys of greater or less extent. may also be regarded as an outlying spur of the same system. In some parts of . to where it disappears in the low lands of Alabama.itahdin. extent by different and local names.— Cascade range. A spur. as the Blue Ridge Mount Mitchell. Mount K. are the Alleghany Mountains. about latitude 34°. Sierra head-waters of the Penobscot and Kennebec Rivers. from the Gulf its of St. Hampshire. the most eastern range of the system. 45°. a peak of the Blue Ridge. The California system of the United States comprises the country west of the Rocky Mountain system. which extend in a north-eastern direction from about the 43d parallel to Lewis River. 33° 30'. rarely rising more than 2000 or 3000 feet The Sierra Nevada Mountains branch the Nevada and the Coast Mountains. nearly.ay be traced in a southerly direction. the most western chain. across the Territories of Oregon and Washington into British America. as well as the Coast chain of California. are barren and inaccessible of the peaks being perpetually covered with snow. Most of the ranges of the Alleghany system. From the Highlands. this system consists of a single chain but it is generally composed of several parallel ranges. chain of high lands. let the The main chain of this system extends in a southerly direction.) View of tho WiUcy House ami Notch. through Connecticut. and from some of them the United States. from about the 42d parallel. Massachusetts. extent. a continuous chain may be traced. east of the Rio Grande. at a distance from the is Atlantic varying from 50 to 3(K3 miles. the Sierra The Coast Mountains. a nearly continuous chain. The Guadalupe Mountains and Sierra Diavolo are among the principal ranges. Mountains are II. It is the loftiest chain of mountains in Several of the peaks are volcanic. or Appalachian systems. From about the same parallel. nearly to the Missouri River. Laurel Ridge. — Name those north-east of the Hudson. extend along the Pacific Nevada. — Where — Name the two mountain-groups in the State of is is the Valley of Virginia? said of the growth of vegetation on these mountains? . tr. — Which are the principal tlie three mountain-systems of the United States. so noted for their grand and An irregular beautiful scenery. . order from e. is the highest elevation of the Alleghany system. 1 ele- is vations of the Maine Highlands ? Kew York.:. The Rocky Mountain system of the United States is a part of the great American chain which extends from the Arctic Ocean to the Straits of Magellan. with valleys between them. entirely across the United States. Lat. is the most extensive of them. the ? cipal spurs of this system. and the Blue Mountains. The Wahsatoh Mountains are an important branch of the main chain. the Rocky Mountain. and greatly admired for the beautiful scenery in which they abound. . They extend in a south-west direction. to Highlands of the 1700 feet. forming the water-shed between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. 5000 feet high. AVest of this range are several ridges. which extend across the State of Maine. and Rocky Mountains. between the head-waters of the Savannah and Chatahoochee South of the 40th parallel. in a snuth-west direction. Chestnut Ridge. ghany. be assumed From the northern boundary of the country to the 38th is panallel of latitude. a nearly continuous chain m. In various parts of its extent this chain is known by different and local names. while the loftier heights of the Cascade range. Whito Mountains. 79 The Catskill CHAPTER I. In Vermont. their distance from the ocean varying from 30 to 60 miles. may be stated at 1300 miles. or Blue Mountains. perhaps uniting the Rocky Mountain and California systems.ast to mountain-chains of the From the Highlands. are a spur from the Appalachian system. New York. or within about 200 miles of the Gulf of Mexico. are covered with vegetation to their summits . this chain is known as the Green Mountains. (a is and Sierra Nevada on the more particular description an elevated table-land. 1683 feet in height. in a line nearly parallel with the Atlantic coast. smoke and ashes still occasionally issue. Hudson River. about GO miles. of the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains. off from the coast^range at about 35th parallel. and the Cumberland Mountains. into Texas. and The Alleghany system extends in a south-west direction. and Vermont. of versed by many mountain-chains and broken ridges. which have an elevation of from 1000 as a starting-point. between the Sierra Nevada and Coast Mountains. perhaps. The entire country between the Cascade range west. north of it. west of the Blue Ridge. coast from the southern boundary of California to the Strait of Fuca. which is finally lost in a series of slight elevations. as the Sierra Madre. Lawrence to about the 34th parallel of latitude.

or into the chain of great lakes. "that is. 6. The political divisions embr. and a large portion of the territory of State the extent of the Mississippi Valley. it is New Mexico. Tennessee. or different parts of the same body.80 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. Mexico. Gulf. and is most part a 420. Lawrence Basin from general surface the the Valley of the Mississippi.aced in this Valley are portions of New York. Some land are very level. as uncultivable from absence of rain at certain seasons. The entire region is a well-wooded. Kansas. 4. Delaware. IV. immediately adjoining the ocean. New . From fertile the Mississippi River. The first is a low. the waters of which flow in opposite directions into different Their bodies of water. III. 7. a sandy region.000 220. and that the remaining part. as follows : — and Iowa — with Nebraska.3. and a considerable extent of rich alluvial soil. the chief part of the southern slope of the great North American Plain. abounding in in feet to the mile. and Almost the whole surface. and be 500 feet. Carolina. sissippi. west of the Mississippi Valley. on the prairies of Illinois and Wisconsin — : — — elevation of which is scarcely perceptible. North a large extent yet continues so. United States. the Gulf of It includes all of the The south-western covered with a heavy growth of grass. Describe the water-shed separating these regions. Maryland. Wisconsin. fertile plain. — What States are included division? — Name the — Describe each of the physical in this — — tion is in the — Name the political divisions included well wooded — What part of —What part of prairie — W^hat portable-land — Is any portion —What part of the United States included ? it is ? ? sterile ? is divisions. in his recent report on the explorations for the Pacific Railroad. New York. Jersey. The Texas Slope includes into the Gulf of Mexico. and ponds. is a desert plateau. " Recent explorations prove. Ohio. Virginia. It is a hilly and generally country. Croix to the Mississippi. two-fifths of the entire area of the comprises more than for the 2. names and areas are 1. beautiful. Along the Atlantic coast this division is about 100 miles wide. Illinois. susceptible of being made highly productive necessarily sterile for fertility. limpid streams. considering the entire country as from the Alleghany to the Rocky Mountains. drained by rivers flowing which has an average elevation of about 1000 feet. all being Hudson towards the Gulf of Mexico. Pennsylvania. from the River St. Arkansas. Lawrence Basin? political divisions of the Atlantic Slope. North Carolina. What is the character of the land of the St. Indiana. Florida and a part of Pennsylvania. The Atlantic Slope includes the region drained by rivers View on a Western Prairie. Texas Slope ? — Name the political divisions of this slope.000 1." says the Hon. Indiana. except where capable and unproductive as the other. . the District of Columbia. Minnesota. 130.000. though there are extensive tracts of sandy land covered with pine forests. level plain. Virginia. Secretary of War. South of the Roanoke. It increases width from the which there Rocky Mountains. which. the waters of which flow into the St. and a tract along Mexico 150 miles in width. States. Lawrence River.300. except a part of Vermont . Wisconsin. and on the 40th parallel of latitude its width is 1350 miles. Minnesota. in some cases. westward to within from 200 to 400 miles of The north-eastern to the section of this slope extends from the River St.000 United States. Alabama. or sections. from 2000 to 5000 feet in elevation. The diversities in the surface of the United States may be most conveniently described by constituting seven distinct Hydrographical regions. all of New . Lawrence Basin includes that portion of the II. of which that river is the outlet. 5. III. The Mississippi Valley includes the vast tract of country CHAPTER I. embraces a part of Vermont.000 Total . The St. It That portion of the Valley east of the Mississippi River has a very gradual ascent to the base of the Alleghany Mountains — the average elevation may embraces all the New England New York. was originally clothed with forests.000 20. The political divisions of this region are nearly all of Texas. a part of Louisiana. clear lakes. described on page 17. Georgia. Alabama. Maryland. this Valley is less than 100 miles wide. varying in elevation above the level of the sea from 300 to 1500 feet.000 region of unrivalled fertility. The water-shed separating the different regions is. This section embraces two distinct divisions. and highly-fertile section south-east. is a plain. . The Mississippi Valley forms Area in Square Miles. is. Lawrence Basin The Atlantic Slope The Mississippi Valley The Texas Slope The Pacific Slope The Inland Basin of Utah (Great or Fremont Basin) The Basin of the Red River of the North . It Illinois. except upon the borders of the streams. .000 . The country east of the Rocky Blountains. one of the most attractive and richest districts of the United States. drained by the Mississippi River and its tributaries. above which it rarely rises more than 100 feet. South Carolina. MisLouisiana. the soil of the greater part of this region this is from its constituent parts. and Mississippi. Ohio. States. Croix the base of the Hudson. is by cultivation. the land has a gradual ascent of about six The greater part of this section is prairie country. It and all of the States of Kentucky." all V. section widens from the tracts of prairie while others are undulating. a as the Rocky Mountains. and Texas Missouri. and from the Gulf Near the of Mexico to the northern boundary of the country. for a distance varying from 200 to 400 miles. which separate the Mississippi mountain-chain Valley and the Pacific slope and in others. 280. Jeiferson Davis. The St. sloping to the It is a well-watered. this plain abounds in swamps. it is a very slight elevation of the as the water-shed dividing the St. although well constituted of irrigation.000 630. 3. and Indian Territories. that portion of the United The tract of land between the mountains and the section already described. and all of Michigan. It extends GENERAL SURFACE OF THE COUNTRY.". in Name the Hydrographical regions into which the United States may be divided. Peninsula of Florida. Hudson towards the north-east. on are no trees. From the Hudson to the Roanoke River though not naturally fertile. flowing into the Atlantic or Gulf of Mexico. Georgia. this Valley. with the exception of the prairie regions of Wisconsin and Illinois. Pennsylvania.

about The Northern division embraces between the Rocky Mountains and is the section north of the Great Basin.Ut The Western division embraces the country between the Coast Mountains and the Pacific. View of S. or by evaporation. the . divisions of the Pncific Slope. braces The all Pacific Slope includes that portion of the United It States drained by rivers flowing into the Pacific Ocean. and a part of This region comprises three separate divisions and Southern. being in general a very fertile section. and from ten to twenty-five miles wide. are perhaps Along the eastern borders of this sterile region. and the valleys between this chain and the Cascade range and Sierra Nevada. there is a gradual descent. however. this region of the valleys one of general Some which and mountain slopes are it fertile. fertile low-land VI. The first is a low phiin. caused by heavy rains. surrounded by rugged mountains. From this line south to the Gulf of Mexico. abounding in salt lakes a few of the valleys on its eastern side .s in this B:isin? soil . as by the Hon. generally well watered and exceedingly fertile. of the Territory of Utah. Lake Valley. a lofty table-land. and not a be seen upon it. is traNear the 32d parallel. Name the political Whicii of these divisions is The phy. boats may pass from one basin to the other. this belt it is may be made passable by digging Through some of the mountain-passes of to the Pacific. It contains extensive cane-brakes and some made fertile by irrigation. and is the only extensive section of the Pacific slope capable of supporting a dense population. VIII. valleys." . From the preceding descriptions. the adjoining regions. abumlant tween The Southern division of the P. This section is in general an extremely fertile re}. em- of the State of California and Washington Territory. — The tract of country between the Pacific Slope and Mississippi Valley. which gradually rises towards the north-west. — What 11 — — — is the general character of the soil of the other divisions? — A portion of what Territories are included — the of this region fertile? — Describe the B.isin of the Red River of the North. the Pacific Slope. This entire region feet. which is drained by rivers . which borders immediately on the Gulf. soil of the country included in this belt is generally sterile much of from its nature.«ii-al divisions. with an average elevation of from 2500 to 3000 It is described traversed . elevated It is a table-land. and thence by Nelson's River The 1500 section of country into Hudson's Bay. embraced sea. a gently undulating. where the soil the rains are min-c better constituted for fertility. Law- "a region of gener. and separates the plains from the desert plateau.000 square miles. — the Western. who drove is stakes in the ground as a guide to their route across as large as the entire State of Pennsylvania. of any considerable extent in the United States. and which is unproductive only on account Some sections. The elevation of this water-shed is so slight. the greater part of Oregon. and considerable tracts are well adapted for grazing. to an elevation of about a thousand feet. but are lost in the sand. There are other tracts. but ver3' little rain falls. may be made fertile of the want of moisture.acific slope includes the country lying bethe Wahsatch and Rocky Mountaijis.fertile? Describe each of the three physical divisions of the Texas Slope. It is a dreary. on is and no vegetation found. stretches a remarkable belt of wood-land.OF THE UNITED STATES. and a por- base of the Rocky Mountains.) includes a considerable tract of country. hopelessly so. prairie country. and other desert tracts wells. containing an area of about 140. Like the Northern division. The Great or Fremont Basin is a plateau with an average elevation of about 5000 feet. It is in general a table-land." It is about 400 miles lono'.soil of which is naturally fertile. or sinking Artesian wells. it. or " staked plain. the waters of which do not flow into the ocean.ion the river-bottoms are Tills slope . Utah and New Mexico.are . in width from 700 to 1-300 miles. of this plateau is described by the Secretary of War. The Inland Basin of Utah (Great or Fremont Basin. which extends from the Arctic Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico. desolate region. a distance of 150 or 200 miles. in this basin is a plain. 81 remarkably productive. also contains extensive desert tracts. The second division extends further inland. it is scantily supplied with grass.xas Slope by a mountains to receive the superstructure for a rail-road. and north to the Arctic Ocean. which are drained by the Mississippi and St. and admirably adapted division is for grazing. This plain It is at certain seasons of the year entirely destitute of water single tree is to . the only fertile tracts and some other narrow embraced within this division. IX. the mountain valleys. It is a moderately elevated country. with an flowing into the Gulf of California. . The Valley of the Rio Grande.rt outlet. from 30 to 60 miles wide." to which "there are exceptions in is rence Rivers. it YII. fertile slopes it will be seen that the belt of of the Pacific are separated from the rich prairies scarcely any preparation to fit it is necessary (except through the mountain-passes. that during high water.) of the Mississippi Valley and Te. swamp This tile is and these alone are inhabited by civilized man. they are better adapted to grazing. and the entire region east of the barren plateau which stretches along the eastern This basin embraces the greater tion of Oregon and New Mexico. is The remaining mountain-ranges. Tliis is also a ferregion. is and table-lands. by 120 miles in width. is proposed to construct a rail-road be perceived that this belt It will also the only sterile tract of country which have no pr. Northern. This is a region 1200 miles in length. the Cascade range. in Fremont Basin. it is supposed. or flow into lakes by irrigation . the surfixce versed by many broken mountain-ridges. lands. The is. as being so level that The water-shed which separates the Mississippi Valley from this basin marks the highest elevation of the great North American plain. which traversed by several is The eastern It part of this plateau called the Llano nearly Estacado. the waters of which are drained by that river into Lake Winnipeg. varying sterility. The Basin of the Red River of the North includes a small tract of country in the northern part of the territory of Minnesota. and for hut although portions of these are suitable agricultural purposes. I.al sterility.Jefferson feet above the level of the a tract similar in all respects to by many broken mountain-riilges. called the " Cross Timbers. Davis. comprises throe separate divisions." was so named by the Mexicans. average elevation of about 4000 feet and like the Northern division. Describe the Inland Basin of Utah.

than for the St. Lake Ontario. Lake Okechobee is the principal one. Chicago. to Philadelphia is . For commercial purposes. in Maine. the lakes of Central Wisconsin. and Augusta. the system — valleys of the rivers often afford the most practicable route for the construction of railways. "thousand isles" of the St. A ship canal now obviates this difficulty. may St. In our wars with Great Britain. and WinneLawrence. St. have been here The water-power afforded by the rapids and falls of the rivers of this as Lowell is immense. a narrow passage eight or ten miles in length. and. which forms the size of for half a mile of its course a rapid with a fall of 23 feet. would cover the earth Lake Michigan is entirely within . Lake Huron receives the waters of Lake Michigan by the Strait of Mackinaw. . as the Palisades of the These river-harbors. the Falls of the Passaic. and discharges them through the Niagara River over the Falls of Niagara. is about New Hampshire. Massachusetts. which forms its outlet to the St. Richmond. and the Potomac.— 82 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. Except for a short distance. through mountain-gorges and over such often marked by the most striking scenes of natural beauty — the small rivers belonging to the system. in a mountainous or hilly country. which at best are narrow and difficult of entrance. affording few harbors. They are generally masses of rock. was the For what ia that of the latitude. and determines the position of important cities and towns as Paterson. be regarded as the widening of the river which connects Lake Huron and Lake Erie. The water of these lakes is remarkable for its clearness and purity. the rivers of this slope are the outlets. Lake George. Hudson. discharges its waters directly into Near the union of the lake 'and river are the the River St. IV. which connects the lake with the Hudson River and Erie Canal. a shallow body of water. the largest body of fresh water upon the globe. or its tributaries the rivers of this system within the United States being quite insignificant. the inland seas States falls. Moosehead Lake. This point marks the limit of steam navigation. and ia deep enough for navigation by large vessels. By the Champlain Canal. and vast resources of agricultural and mineral wealth are yet but partially developed. . an unbroken water communication exists between Canada and New York. the smallest lake of the system. only practicable route for an army between Canada and New York city . the natural communication by the River Richelieu. Lakes Champlain and George. th . in New Hampshire. What kind with of harbors have ? — Name and describe each of Are the rivers of the Atlantic Slope generally navigable any great distance? — Why? — Are these lakes of much commercial importance? — —What point their course markE the position of important — Why? — Of what they? — What river of the Atlantic Slope of these rivers — Name some of the lakes of connected slope use are the rapids and in cities? is falls ? this ? this basin by a canal Describe the Valley of the Mississippi.aoturing cities and Manchester. Lawrence Basin : of more importance to the United States. . who winds his way among them on the dark waters of the river. country was accordingly twice invaded by this path. commercial advantages.) fall edge of the upland country. present a scene of indescribable beauty. and are obstructed by rapids not far from the sea. Trenton. On account of this deficiency. the United States are as much indebted to this great chain of lakes as Europe which indent her coast. Buffalo. for its chain of great lakes. The rivers in cascades over the : It is estimated that the to the depth of three inches. and from It is navigable for large vessels. III. It is remarkably regular. CHAPTER I. Lawrence Basin most important? the great lakes of this system. being thus situated. The Hudson River. 120 miles in length. on the Merrimack River. is greatly adThe marshy regions of Florida also abound its beautiful scenery. with an area of about 450 miles. determine the sites of the principal cities. the storms. if between the Hudson and Mississippi (except in Florida. of which is Lake Champlain. The hilly regions of New England contain many beautiful lakes. equally distributed. entirely obstructing the natural channel of navigation. Lake Winnipiseogee. by four or five miles in width and discharges its own waters by the River St. Clair. The St. preceding chapter. Clair. The Valley of the Mississippi has an area inferior only to Amazon. and the passage of the Potomac through the Blue Ridge at Harper's Ferry. the Lake Champlain affords excellent one-half a mile to ten miles broad. water of these lakes. a beautiful sheet of water. Delaware. and to the eye of the admiring of small extent. Where the country is hilly. containing an area about one thousand miles less than Lake Erie. are very destructive to shipping. into Lake Lake Onfcirio. Lake Erie receives the waters of the upper lakes. Lawrence. and gives rise to large manuf. . the St. Lawrence. admits of the ascent of large yessels to Hudson the in the II. is The passage of the Atlantic rivers. and Connecticut. Lawrence. and mired for in lakes. and others. Milwaukie. IV. and there constructed bago Lake. extending through so many degrees of embraces the climate and productions of three It is different its zones. however. Cleveland. Artificial harbors. which are as violent upon these lakes as upon the ocean. and the Hudson River. are also tributaries of the is New York. Lawrence itself. the finest portion of our country. A free navigation to the Atlantic Ocean has been effected by means of improvements in the River Richelieu. the Delaware Gap. Its waters are discharged into Lake Huron by the River St. or breakwaters. except such as are formed by the mouths of is to Harper's Ferry. they are usually and lakes of the United States may be considered connection with the seven Hydrographical regions described The rivers navigable only for vessels of a light draught. the limits of the United States each of the other lakes of the chain is one half in Canada. The coast-line of the United upon these lakes is more than 3000 miles long. covered with forest trees tourist. in to remedy the evil. Mary's. The rivers of the Atlantic Slope generally flow through RIVERS AND LAKES. to Washington. Vermont. largest of them. Lake Superior.

Muskingum. which could be obviated at a moderate cost. is it stream . its It is not navigable. Great Kanawha. Alleghany and Wabash. subject to periodical overflow.allowness of the river in the dry The Ohio is Red River Caiion. noted for its rapid current. by small steamers. is capable of navigation. 200 miles. navigation is extended to the remotest parts of the Ohio Basin. months of summer. its The Wabash is navigable for more than . navigation is resumed. very rapid. and Tennessee. tributaries of the Missouri. Cumberland. in Tennessee. aflbrd sites for large towns. among On this account. level of the sea and.300 miles . there only one spot on which a which. the Red River. meets with only two obstrucAnthony. Kentucky. Below the Ohio.a. the rocks rise perpendicularly from the water's edge to . Its current is The Missouri the channel snags.") is a shallow stream. which. Memphis. in St. next man to could stand between the water and the mountain-side. and might go much further. for The Washita flows into the Red River a short disseveral humlred miles.OF THE UNITED STATES. Vicksburg. The Great Raft is the most important obstacle to navigation. — the Falls of its marshy region. it is navigable for steamers drawing to from eighteen twenty inches of water. Nebraska. is. VI. . above them. the country is rich and well wooded. The Arkansas River rises in the Rocky Mountains. but derives importance from to Californi. the Mississippi or the Missouri River? its three principal tributaries. Steamers . the most important obstacle to naviga- . The Kansas. Knoxville. — What the is Name into it? tion ? the principal tribuUries of the Ohio. are avoided by a ship canal. called the "Gates of the the height of 1200 feet Rocky Mountains. the distance of about 400 miles from source. For 500 miles below the Llano Estacado. with is the exception of rapids. the declivity of the Alleghanies. nearly destitute of trees. Which River. Both above and below the Great Raft. on its south side. tance above its junction with the Mississippi. for the Mississippi. Rivers. but that mighty stream pours in a turbid flood.are the river. VIII. for large steamers to Nashville. during the greater part of the year. Licking. The Wabash.ascend the Tennessee River to the Muscle Shoal Rapids . except the rapids at Louisville. and its the springs which form source are not more than a mile from the head-waters of the Columbia. enters a fertile region near the borders It is navigable for 800 miles during nine months of Arkansas. In the first sixty miles of its coui'se. the river flows through a dry and sandy region. water. and receives from its most distinguishing characteristics. and. the most important tributary of the Mississippi River. and extends to The Alleghany. before the union of the greatly inferior in size to the Missouri. is a wild and turbulent river. The Basin of the Ohio affords about 5000 miles of navigable waters. the Missouri flows through At a mountain-gorge. further About 110 miles down . and is navigable for about 300 miles. The tions 83 Mississippi River rises in a . the river has worn for itself a channel. The Missouri its rises in the Kocky Mountains. about ')00 feet above the passage to the Gulf. drains an exceedingly fertile prairie country. a distance of nearly 2500 miles. is are the largest affluents of the — Name the larger. but most of them of these steamers are navigable only for steamers of light draught. and Yellow Stone Rivers.. and for small boats liOO miles farther. are all In this latter division the river tlio cut of a mile or two. Rivers. but they are of great value in supplying water to the canals by which their course is accompanied. and Green navigable. The rivers which flow into the Ohio. are the three principal The Kansas ("good potato") River.) are only navigable to a limited extent. strictly speaking. and of Peckagania. in the year. generally rise on the hills which branch oflf from most of them are obstructed by rapids in some part of their course. the low banks.") is. when not obstructed by ice. miles. Above the mouth of the 1 Ohio River. requiring the construction of dams and The rivers upon the north side (except the locks to avoid the difficulty. which imparts a different character to the remainder of its Missouri course. There is no important obstruction to navigation. and for the first three miles. at high water. Its current. though large Llano Egtacado. V. rarely exceeds a velocity of three miles an hour. Above course. and after flowing through the belt of sterile land which stretches eastward from their base. — Describe the Missouri — Describe each of them. is the grandest in North America. or canon. some distance above Shreveport. The Missouri ("smoky as a tributary of tlie which commonly two classed Mississippi.are situated. except upon the high bluffs on the east side at these points. waters are clear and bright. from its mouth to within fifteen miles of the Great Falls. and obstructs the channel for a length of 70 miles. accordingly. which becomes lodged in the swampy expansion of the river. the parent rivers." is For a dis- tance of six miles. and others. Natchez. however. and rendered exceedingly intricate by numerous sand-bars and Yet. traveller is remarkably winding by a short might sometimes save a circuit of thirty . the Missouri the small tributaries are very numerous. is The Mississippi navigated principally by steamboats. is — What other rivers of importance flow its length of the navigable waters of the Ohio River? — Describe the Red River.— What — Describe the Arkansas River. navi- gable for 150 to 200 miles. the fact that vaUey forms the principal route of emigrants is The Yellow Stone said to be navigable for 200 miles. It is formed by drift wood.500 to 800 feet. Some is draw less than two feet of water. These rapids are not so great an obstacle as the sh. so deep and narrow that the banks rise abruptly from the water's edge to the hciglit of . Monongahela. formed by the union of the Alleghany and Monongahela though at first rapid. the Cumberland. In the remainder of its rises in the VII. are the Great Falls of the Missouri. The Red River sailing vessels ascend to New Orleans. Niagara. The Nebraska ("flat water. or that mountain-system. By such artificial means. The Ohio next to the Missouri. The ice in winter is another serious disadvantage. in the lower its part of course. few favorable .

a distance of about 140 miles. — This singular country has a system of lakes own. fish. thousands of Bay. The Columbia. and California. and the world. and. and empties into Lake Winnipeg. the — navigability. The Warm Zone embraces the country between the Iso- XII. The Illinois River is the largest and most important of these minor streams. Its waters are so salt that no living thing can exist in them. and upon local obstructions. bottoms. Francis. orange. 82°'51 The mean annual temperature of New Orleans for of the winter. Nueces. and a branch of the Gulf of The water-power of the Union. The Temperate. The Sacramento. having no connection with the ocean. III. but found in almost every part IX. The Red River of the North rises nesota.) penetrate to almost every habitable part of the country. is of little combarren and desolate region mercial importance. yet it lies chiefly within a rugged and sterile region of mountains and highlands. the The entire territory of the United : comprised within three zones of climate. many smaller afiluents. no continuous navigation is possible. The deficiency of forests in the Missouri Basin. The mouth of the Columbia is somewhat obstructed by a sand-bar. largest of this system. — The largest rivers of this system are the It will be observed that many of our largest Rio Grande. are navigable to a short distance The Hot Zone includes that part of the United States lies by sea-vessels. 69°'53. shallow body of salt water. and Rogue Rivers. and are well stocked with the finest in Louisiana. 20 years is 69°-86 of the summer. Lakes. — What portion of the United States Hot Zone? this — What remarkable? — is included in the Warm Zone? — In what part of the country is this zone narrowest? . the San Texas. communicates with it by the River Jordan. are beauThey have pebbly sheets of water. have diminished the volume of that its river." is a scene of great beauty and grandeur. by the Columbia. Neches. Name country? the principal rivers of the Texas Slope. is ? — Does Name the three principal ones of the Columbia River drain a fertile or sterile region of — some of the uses of it is rivers. is a Lake Pontchartrain. permits rapid Most of these rivers are navigable the extent of the navigation depending upon the season of the year. 100 miles in The Minnesota. and. and banana. without them. with tributary. Within what zones of climate part of in the the territory of the United States comprised? is Name some of its — For what the climate of zone productions. and by two small rivers. 56°-53. navigation — these two points being the natural centres of trade. which seem to be disposed along this stream like beads upon a thread. of the winter. with its Umpqua and Rogue. by which it includes the fertile valleys of the Sacramento and San Joaquin. RAINFALL. reported in the steamboats far into the interior. and the SacraX. By avoiding the occasional obstructions. The western AND PRODUCTIONS. fertilizing Besides the great tributaries above described. Colorado. Texas Slope. Brazos. It comprises nearly The Colorado. would give access to evaporation. and forms part of Great Salt is Lake The mean summer temperature of the same places is 82°'73 and that of The mean annual temperature of Key West. is and their effect upon the prosperity of a country. but vessels of 200 or 300 tons burden can ascend the river to the Cascade range. By their length. connects consin. our river- bute their waters to the Mississippi. Wisit with Lake Michigan. with its principal tributarj'^. Guadalupe. Joaquin. known as the " Cascades. Army Meteorological Register. Pacific Slope. The clearing of the wood-lands from the basin of the Ohio River is thought. though of great length. drains one of the richest countries in its The Sacramento and many of tributaries are navigable for The climate of this zone is remarkable for its uniformity. and the remarkable northward curve of its northern boundary near the Pacific. the Mississippi receives are navigable to a considerable distance. of its in Elbow Lake. near its mouth. II. a body of fresh water. . Humboldt River flows into Humboldt Lake. its which principal . and rivers of its 70 miles long. Trinity. 60°'31. States is Willamette. or to Hudson's steamers (drawing sometimes only nine inches of water. Chippeway. are all important. and 30 miles wide. power. zone may be successfully grown and the sugar-cane. deduced from 14 years' observation. that their beds are inaccessible to man The passage of the Columbia River through the Cascade Mounor beast. are the The Basin of the Columbia is of great extent. A reference to the map will show the narrowness of this zone across the sterile regions of the course. the rivers flow through such deep clefts. . to the Lawrence Basin. . and the means which they afford to commerce Des Moines. and manufactures. also. — There are many lakes in Minnesota and Wisconsin which contriSt. In some cases. most of which It flows the efiect of rivers upon the prosperity of a country. and Yazoo Rivers. flows through a all of the Peninsula of Florida. the largest of which is the Lake of the Woods. where the rivers flow through narrow gorges. CHAPTER CLIMATE. — The United States strikingly exhibit many smaller aiHuents. Iowa. in consequence. Beyond this section of this basin is drained tributai-y. are cultivated to a considerable extent. removal of a raft in the Colorado River. are upon rivers. Utah Basin. St. south of the Isotherm of 70°. miles from the ocean. State the Pacific — Which docs the Willamette? —The Colorado? — Into what does the Willamette flow?— Is the Sacramento an important river? — Why? — What the peculiarity of the rivers of the Utah Basin — Describe the Red River of the North. Colorado. Utah Lake. in MinIn the first 100 miles thermal lines of 70° and 60°. and a canal. Recapitulation. . except for small boats. is 72°"44. The mean annual temperature of eighteen diiferent places. it forms the line of connection between a multitude of small lakes. San Antonio. and this river is one of the chief causes of the shallowness of and its tributaries in summer. Willamette. V.84 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. which flow directly into the Pacific. or at the head of and Sabine. tains. Slope. from one to forty miles in extent. they sustain and promote the great branches of industry and no considerable extent of country can prosper . namely the Hot. in Florida. New Mexico. I. XIII. the route for emigrants to California. and over many falls and rapids. Warm. the Gila. mento Rivers. the great manufacturing towns. as deduced from many years' observation. to a large extent of country. through an extremely fertile country. Texas and Pacific Slopes. and point. the winter. is 76°'51 that of the summer. Umpqua. cities of our rivers is not confined to the sites of is Mexico. 82°-27. XI. Small steamers The are generally able to ascend to the distance of from 50 to 450 miles. either at the mouth. and a small part of Louisiana. tiful These lakes. Most of in this the productions of tropical countries .

G5°-10: and of ten stations in the interior.OF THE UNITED STATES. and its exposure to Thus the mean annual temperature of Foit Steilacoom.. 49° '. and Fort same latitude. the Region of Frequent Rains. 47° 10'. Burlington. and 45°-G0. is and ne. Eiistport . Interior. The region of Periodical Rains comprises the western division of the Pacific Slope. by its elevation. (See table. Lat. and generally much less rain fills in Pacific Coast. Louis. and the summer rains are much more abundant than those of the winter. Louis. region. Lat. This exceedingly well watered. Vt.37° 76°-19 67° -33 64°-94 76°-57 55°-44 48°-85 42°-91 61°-68 54°-55 47°-52 32°-27 25°-90 10°-01 Northern Atlantic Slope. appear that along the Atlantic same annual quantity of and that it is very equally distributed throughout tlie year. and also that it From an examination .about the same latitude. w-inds and currents.. rye. St. of the annexed table: — This will be seen by an examination Temperature. VI. Spring. Astoria. oats. it appears that Fort Steilacoom. This section furnishes many striking examples of the effects produced upim the temperature of a place. it Fort llipley hjiflcen Augusline . Harbor Fort Sullivan. and to the influence of the Japan Current. — What part of the United enihrnced in the region of Frequent Rains? — In what part of this region does States most rain fall? — In what part does least rain fall? — Give examples.) in Inches. 6-90 degrees colder than north. fall V. and the Region of Scanty near the Atlantic coast. Fort kipley 38° 40' 41° 52' 46° 19' . 42° 10'. St. namely: the Region of Periodical Rains. fall the country emhraeed in the region of Periodical Rains — In what here? . The quantity It will thus be seen that the climate of the interior is considerably warmer scarcely any rain falls in in summer and The colder in winter than that of the coasts. Rains. interior the annual quantity is less. 52°-05. Ijelongs to the winter and spring. and along the Atlantic Slope south of Washington. N. as far south as Washington. the isothermal lines diverge widely from the parallels of latitude. 0-55 0-21 1-24 1-65 Year.-irly in winter somewhat exceeds that which all the rice and cotton produced in the United States raised here. only three degrees colder. Monroe. Louis. Louia Arsenal Chic. on the Pacific coast. nearly y'orty-yoHr degrees and of Fort Monroe. 12-86 6-61 6-31 7-97 1409 10-92 12-62 12-24 13-03 12. Amount of Rain Latitude. 10-05 9-85 10-61 Year. temperature of two stations near the Pacific coast is G0°-95 of five stations .. in the interior. owing to the warm south-west winds VII. and of those situated in the interior. Fall op Rain in Inches. are in about the be perceived that Astoria. and Fort Monroe. the annual amount of rain is much greater than in the other sections. although is only about 500 miles further Key West Pen sa cola 8-:u 1286 11-29 New Orleans San Francisco. 03°-4C!. Name some of the productions of the ? perate Zone of the United States — pare with that of the Atlantic statement. it Contrasting the climate of the Pacific coast with that of the Atlantic and the interior. — What is the extent of the TemHow does the climate of the Pacific coast com- Into what reLcinns mny the United States be divided with respect to the is fall ? of rain? — Whiit part of is seasons of the year does rain — to illustrate your — Give examples. Indian great abundance in produced in Temperate Zone of the United States. illustrations of the difference Louis Fort Snelling Fort Ripley Fort Leavenworth Fort Smith St.wven degrees of St. Thus. — What are ? Of the interior ? Give examples some of the productions of this Zone? — Warm Zone. In the of the table. the largest of Lat. summer. appears from the annexed table: — falls during the spring. From the 97th meridian Sacramento — 32° 36° 37° 38° 38° 42' 36' 48' 13' 2-74 4-43 5-90 5-91 ll-:i8 S81 6-40 003 001 0-00 33' 902 3-37 2-65 3-74 7-56 8-56 10-43 12-20 23-59 16-62 21-32 westward to the Pacific.. Eastport is two degrees south of : Baton Rouge Interior. Summer Autumn 3- Winter. will varies much Slope. . is suj^ar-oane cultivated in the southern part of this zone. Mcmterey San Francisco Astoria I 36° 36' 63°-99 54°-41 51°-16 54°-15 44°-90 39°-33 57°-33 61°-58 57°-29 56°-83 53°-76 61°-22 50°-86 42°-43 55°-29 54°-88 52°-23 54°-51 46°-75 39°-30 winter than in the other seasons. though 050 is (tclf States. is 50°-82 that of Santa F6. Summer Autumn Winier. barley. as will be seen by an examination of the map. Year. ihiriij-six degrees. 800 miles further to the south. very nearly the loss with the latitude. latitude Sprinir. (average 18 years) Buffalo Pittsburg Detroit 1508 10-54 16-59 18-69 17-28 19-14 44-92 49-43 31-80 47-65 56-98 50-90 62-10 33-9 38-80 34-96 30-07 41-95 25-43 29-48 30-29 42-10 8-50 9-38 8-51 9-23 9-87 9-29 13-54 8-23 7-41 8-71 Astoria. and 80°-ll . This IV. In rain falls the Gulf States. and 11-13 10-45 10-07 41-20 From this table it will Ripley. near Norfolk.O. upon The mean annual or near the coast. and potatoes — are common to temperate regions — as wheat. about the 97th meridian. the mean winter temperature. The difference 85 between the oceanic anJ continental climate is shown by a compaiison between the temperature of various places in this zimc. The difference between the mean summer and winter temperature of San Francisco is less than . at an elevation of 4519 feet. The Region of Frequent Rains extends from the Atlantic coast westward to about the 100th meridian of longitude. as in the southern division. on Puget's Sound. 40° than south of it. considered as a whole. Spring Summer Autumn Winter 5S°-fi4 Year. has a somewhat higher mean annual temperature than Santa F6. but is nine degrees colder. miles north of Monterey. is from the Pacific. FortOrford Fort Vancouver Fort Steilacoom 42° 44' 45° 40' 47° 10' 1912 9-28 11-19 8 23 3-85 19-60 10-30 15-20 26-80 19-69 2151 68-52 45-50 61-75 . 80°-0-l. rising much higher on the Pacific than on the Atlantic coast. Charleston 9-89 9 years) 17-45 10-06 9-56 15-35 13-71 9-62 12-48 7-52 5-80 7-37 11-72 12-71 15-40 Savannah (average St.. F(jrt 40° 42' 44° 15' 72°10 60°-50 40°-45 31°-38 23°-90 58°-89 51°-6'J New York Philadelphia (average 28 years) Baltimore 11-55 11-33 11-04 10-53 10-30 10-52 10-15 9-63 9-31 42-23 42-3 42- 43°02 Washington Southern Atlantic Slope. Lat. the temperature decreases quite regularly towards the north . The mean summer temperature of the same places rpspectively is 7'2°-0r). 35° 41'. are in . is 50°-0G. at an elevation of 6840 feet. food-plants The various the corn. Fort Columbus. Y.. St. A much amount greater quantity of rain falls upon that part of the division north but. and very little in autumn. the rain being quite equally distributed through the different seasons.48 5-98 8-42 7-33 9-93 7-53 7-48 4-86 6-29 1-92 2-13 2-75 6-66 Give between the oceanic and continental climates. !J0°-59 and that of Fort Laramie.igo Spring. Tlie whole country north of the Isothermal lino of 60° is From the Atlantic Ocean to included in the Temperate Zone.. In that portion of this division south of the 40th parallel of latitude. Summer Autumn Winter. Eastport Providence (average 23 years) Albany (average 20 years) S-S8 39-39 39-71 40- Atlantic Coast. The United States may be divided with reference to the of rain into three regions. Amount of Rain in Inches. it will be found that the former is more uniform. the isothermal lines corresponding very San Diego Monterey San Francisco Benicia nearly with the parallels of latitude.

What are the principal ordinary metals and ores — Describe the production of each. at five inches. V. and is estimated by Prof. The mineral productions of any country : The principal deposit of anthracite coal is between the Delaware and Susquehanna Rivers. Yuma. is estimated at three inches that of the Inland Basin of Utah. and in other States. in New York. and the sterile region east of the and in the mineral region south of Lake Superior. that the productions of nearly every and climate are so excellent and Zone are culti- States are iron. Some of the mountain valleys are also well watered. the least. in Pennsylvania. Iowa. district may be considered as inexhaustible. State the greatest annual fall of rain recorded in the United States. VI. the Inland Basin of Utah. in the Lake Superior region. and Baltimore. Thus the annual fall of rain at Santa F6. A mass of pure native copper was discovered during this year weighing 250 Copper is also found in various other parts of the United States. and Gold. The ore more mineral than any which has yet been discovered elsewhere. Diamonds are said to have been discovered in North Agates and cornelians are numerous along the banks of the Upper Mississippi. and platinum. The coal is of two kinds. near Puget's Sound. Philadelphia. The Physical Geography of the United States exhibits The mines are the The soil IV. in Virginia. and Wisconsin." for any given year. (more than half of it in Pennsylvania) and it is estimated that the pro- vated with success. through which the Great Colo. of 1-78 inches. sand-stone. Marble and sand-stone are abundant in various sections of the country. Missouri. Granite is Mountains. VIII. is 20-54 inches.— 86 VIII. and Utah. Kentucky. The Region of Scanty Rains embraces the country between about the 100th meridian of longitude and the Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mountains. of 116*6 inches at Fort . and violent showers are experienced in all seasons of the year. Basin underlies the greater part of the State of Illinois. MINERALOGY. The Alleghany coal field extends from Pennsylvania to Alabama. all of mineral is dug from the ground is as coal is in this country. all which are found United States. New Mexico. The entire product for the half century ending 1854. England all States. the ordinary stones. from those of Large quantities are also produced from the salt springs of Western Pennsylvania. is 19'83 inches and the fall at Fort Massachusetts. There are deposits in other parts of the country which would be considered large. and II. the most important mineral. Silver is are also numerous in Kentucky. ten inches and of the sterile region east of the Rocky . — From what region anthracite coal principally bituminous coal found? — How salt obtained obtained? — Where the United States? — State some of the natural advantages of the United States. salt. the ordinary metals and ores. California. The only mines of quicksilver in the country are in California. forming entire mountains. where the deposits are among the richest upon the globe. may be divided into a few great classes as the precious stones. Texas. tons. from Maryland to Alabama. of the Llano Estacado. Zinc is procured from the lead region of the Upper Mississippi. of which two hundred and ninetyeight millions were from California. were it not for the immense extent of those already described. From four to five millions of bushels are manufactured here annually. richest from a region along the eastern base of the Alleghany Mountains. — Name the principal building-stones. which is situated in a valley 100 miles fur. and Iowa. The least. Coal has also been found in the Pacific Slope. In all these sections. The coal-beds of the United States are more extensive than those of any other part of the world. yields ten times ther north. while but a comparatively small extent of territory is barren or unhealthy. The product of this section for 1855. Iron The rivers is and lakes. in comparatively small quantities. marble. and the shores of Lake Superior. VII. lead. equally . Platinum occurs in connection with gold in various quarters. namely : anthracite and bituminous.as great. In Europe there are extensive mines of rock-salt. VI. adapted to commerce or manufactures.000 tons of pig iron were made in 1850. was the in 1846. the precious metals. The are those at Syracuse. from Maine to Texas. California. and a considerable A third immense coalportion of Indiana. and it is widely diffused throughout the entire country. and quicksilver or mercury. of the Great Plain. It was first discovered in California in 1848. ten inches. in 1853. In the United States no such beds have been discovered. and one has been found in Rutherfoi'd County. Carolina. Into — what classes may the mineral productions of nny country be divided? ? stones have been found in the United States — Which — What precious ? — is is is in are the precious metals . and is also found in Pennsylvania and New -Jersey. the principal places along the Atlantic coast. a fall. Vast quantities of iron ore of remarkable purity. The greatest amount "Army fall. scarcely any rain falls in summer. from fifteen to twenty inches. Granite. It includes the northern and southern divisions of the Pacific Slope. field stretches along the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains. from those of the Kanawha Valley Salt springs hundred and seven millions of dollars. Rogers The coal-field of Illinois and the Ohio to contain an area of 63. and also in California and other parts of the country. of rain in the desert region. are the principal ordinary or building-stones of this country. ? What sections of the United States are included in the region of Scanty Rains. fall The annual rado flows.000 miles. copper. south of the Columbia River. It is also found in Missouri. found. at Baton Rouge. promote every branch of industry. About six millions of tons were The quantity contained in this sent to market from this region in 1854. Rocky Mountains. the mountains of this region a considerable quantity of rain falls. CHAPTER I. Great quantities of lead are obtained from the mines of Illinois. of rain reported in the IX. and this The precious metals are in the gold. and of Southern Ohio. and render all the resources of the country available. Nearly 600. and lime-stone. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. There are three great bituminous coal regions. one of the most important articles of export from the New and buildings constructed of this material may be found in Meteorological Register. the most extraordinary natural advantages. It is supposed to be most abundant in New Mexico. is the principal building-stone of the Mississippi Valley. have been discovered in Missouri. These are much used for the construction of buildings in the chief cities of Lime-stone the Atlantic slope: as New York. zinc. in connection with copper. is stated in Lippinoott's Gazetteer at three numerous in various sections of the country. the Table-lands of the Texas Slope. was nearly ten millions of pounds. The principal ordinary metals and ores of the United so varied. the estimated value of which was more than one and a half million of dollars. and in Oregon. has been obtained for many years the salt produced Salt springs are obtained by the evaporation of salt- water. silver. Few precious stones of value have been found in the United States. situated on a plateau enclosed by mountains.) is twice . richest in the world. III. Among The copper regions of Lake Superior are the richest in the world. coal. and the production has already been sufficient to reduce its com- mercial value. duct of the present year (1856.

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rivers. by : During what months is the sun north of the Equator? — Do they have the the overland route what kind of surface do they find as far as the base of the If Rocky Mountains? Along what river-valley will they be likely to travel? detained at the mouth of the Nebraska River till summer. during those months? — Can you give. — He wishes to settle. sets sail from San FranCanton : what winds favor his passage ? Would they be favorable at all seasons of the year? —What race of men will he find ? — in physical characteristics? course to the Sea of Aral — Would he find any making a straight — What mountains. — Are there any continental rivers in Europe sj'stem does the Orinoco belong? ?• —Which ? — The ? Returning j I to America. or at the south of the Equator. would he cross in making the journey ? — Within the limits of his passage confined? He crosses the country. — Do the same vessels which bring down the merchandize from Louis to — In the Western Continent. convey it shortest passage from Cincinnati to to New York or Europe? — Which is the New Orleans. page 91)? is — In Europe? is ? is is is ? ? is ? through what river? He leaves the OriLa Guayra. whence. a general law the Tropics at for determining the season of places within bably first find difficulty in obtaining pasturage for their cattle? — What kind of surfice will they cross between the In what part of California will gold miners? — Would they find Would they find the winters as Would the summits of the mountains at any time be summer in this region ? covered with snow? What ferocious animal might be encountered among the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada? they be likely to settle. : : — If — Are they of any use to man. or our winter? If While it is summer with us. and descend the change in the temperature will he experience ascending the mountains? way will the wind blow on the plains east ? of the mountains? — — Will he find a what Which wooded river? or an open country fierce —What animal it maybe — Will there be pine forests along the bank of the encounter these forests — What dangerous in ? creature would make hazardous for him to bathe in the river? he" Arriving at the mouth of the Rio Negro. — Of Canton — He island? — Of volcanic or Helena? — He to sails — Which of them grow chiefly in the — In the Warm Zones? — Is coffee produced within the Tropics? — Is tea? — Sugar? — Rice? — Maize? — The cocoa-nut? — Are Bananas? — Plantains? — Potatoes? — Is wheat a characteristic product of tropical countries? — Do grains grow well in Iceland?-— Greenland? — Are pine What are the most important food-plants ? Torrid Zone? — In the Temperate Zones? forests characteristic of the Torrid Rio Janeiro : what winds wishes to ship a cargo of the productions of the country to Baltimore: what shall he purchase? Trace his course to Baltimore. he resolves to cross the Andes. and de:^ires to pur- their greatest size and strength : the temperate. plateaus. and proceeds by land to plains will he cross ? determines to cross over to the — What the — Africa? — The Western Continent? the highest peak of the In North America? — In the United States? — Which Alleghany system — How high it? — Which the highest peak of the Alps? The Pyrenees? — The Andes? — The Ural Mountains? Name six of those volcanoes which you have most frequently heard of? — Which the most northern active volcano — Is there a volcano on the plains the most of the Amazon? — Of the Orinoco — In the Desert of Sahara? — What destructive volcanic eruption that you can mention — Do volcanoes ever appear suddenly? — Mention six of the most recent? — By what force are they created? What is the highest mountain in the world (see Table. to Muscat: what difficulties Does he find Muscat as hot as Canton? He embarks upon — What races dwell in Africa? America? Europe? Asia? Australia? To what race do the inhabitants of the Marquesas Islands belong ? Of Greenland ? Iceland ? Madagascar? If you wished to visit every part of the world in-which Are there families of the Caucasian race exist. in the wet season: what hazard does he encounter from the climate? inhabiting the country ? — Does he find a civilized race by the Negro race? ? He arrives at Cape Town: does he find the Helena: ? city inhabited How I does the temperature compare with that of Muscat? for St. what changes of season would you experience in the month of November? Which way does the wind blow at night on a tropical island? Which way during the day ? — mountains? highest mountain in Asia? One of the emigrants : embarks to find for South America with a quantity of umbrellas ? for sale will he be likely a good market at Lima — Being of an advenAmazon : turous turn. or are they only intended for purposes of destruction? of the year does he undertake the journey? — He finds these plains covered with \'erdure at what season — Do any mountains intercept his New Orleans. in 1853. A company of emigrants set out in the spring I'rom St. he embarks perils does in Dr. where will they pro- — — rainy season at the north. is it embarks a continental or pelagic near coral formation — Are there any other islands aid his passage ? St.— — — SI •^ MISCELLANEOUS UUESTIONS FOR REVIEW. then. but is wrecked on the coast of Zanguebar. if they wish to become the summers as hot here as in St. disappointed with California. or the return ? — At what times difficult? ? ? Setting sail from La Guayra for it disabled in a hurri- would the passage up the river be most rence Basin ever overflow their banks — Do the lakes of the St. he settles as : a farmer near Chicago. or the tropical? — In which does 6 _/G-' chase an interest in a copper-mine: where would you advise him to go? man reach the highest state of civilization? (88) Gv_ DO . and tell what winds He — Zone? and most formidable animals?—-Which continent? AVhat is the largest animal native to North America? Are there any lions in Africa ? Hindostan ? Mongolia? Are there any camels in Africa? In which region do animals attain Asia? Are camels native to Europe? Which zone has generally the largest — — — — — — — — and currents would aid his passage. Kane's Exploring Expedition: what new AVhich is the longest river in the world ? — What To what race do they belong? — He he encounter? while travelling in Europe : men does he meet in Greenland? — — The Pacific — The Arctic? — Which : — The longest of the Atlantic system is the largest continental river? has met another variety of the same race what country was it? AVhat animals does be see in Greenland? What birds? Does he find any vegetation ? What does he ascertain about the open Polar Sea? in s}'stem has the largest river-basins — — — or the system of the Indian Ocean ? — — In the United States? — To what ? the Atlantic. the two greatest river-basins in the world. or the Pacific? — The Arctic. in Illinois. the ship is Name St. Louis for California. and Orange? — Danube ?— Yang-tse-Kiang? — Hoang Ho? — Zambeze — Colorado — Petchora? — Cambodia? — Columbia? — Volga? — Name the Grand Divisions which these rivers are situated in raises the products of the country is what are they? ? — Is the country in which he settled generally a level or a hilly country cisco to Another of the company. Louis? Would it be likely to rain much in the cold ? — any month in the year? Do the monsoons disturb the regularity of this law? Are the Llanos of the Orinoco dried up in the months which constitute our summer. plains. what countries must you seek ? Is the Ethiopian race any families of the Mongolians south of the Equator? chiefly north or south of the Equator? The Apaches? The Brazilians? The To what race do the Sioux belong? Mandingoes ? Papuans ?— Foulahs ?— The Caffres ? Gallas ? Hottentots ? Abyssinians? Afghans? Arabs? Are all the families of the Kalmucks? Do the Europeans all Caucasian race equally intelligent and enterprising? — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — belong to the Caucasian race ? a European chip. Law? cane : which way does drift ? — Saved from the wreck. does he encounter? — and the Gulf of Oman. what season do they have in Rio Janeiro? — — — — — — you could make a steam-passage from Greenland to Buenos Ayres in one month. and difficulty in China? —AVhat are their what race is deserts. path to the sea? New : Orleans. tribe of hff goes to New York. —In the Eastern. the port of Caraccas what remarkable so. Orinoco: can he go by water? noco.

Ex'-o-gens. Jan May en Ja-pan'. "fire. Latin. **island" duce bread-corn. Ar-e'-ca. Lich'-en. Ar'-ab. Grenelle {Gra-nel'). "bay. Dec'-can." " toe. Glaciers {Glaa'-e-tra). Dcs Moines (Se-moin'). Ju'-ra. Lupata {Loo'pah' -tah). Guayaquil (Owi-ah-keel'). the Osus. uninhabited. Au-ro'-ra Bo-re-a'-Us: Latin — Aurora. — Sea of Aral. Kilimandjaro {Kil-e-rnrtht-jah-ro'). Ber-nard'." and gradna. JoruUo [Ho-rooV-yo). Kuttenberg {Koo'-ten-herg).dor. Anahuac (Ah-7ia-waJik'). "foolish. Gila {Hee'-la). — from Hip-po-pot'-a-mus. stick. Coimbra {Co-eem'-hra). Cosiguina (Co-Be-ghee'-na). Az'-of." Auvergne {O-vaim')." Bergen (Bur'-ghen). K G. Borealis. Bokhara {Bo-Jcah'-i-n). — "sea of sand. I'-o-wa. Ir-ra-wad'-dy.) Jag-u-ar'." — Hec'-la.cu-la'-ne-um. Applied to plants that pro- F. sea. Galapagos {GahU-pa-gos). Colorado {Co-lo-rah''do). Amorgo (Ah-mor'-f/o). "hill. Despoblado (Dea-po-blah'-do). Cryp-tog'-a-mou8. Chim-bo-ra'-zo. Buenos Ayres {Bo'-nna A'-n'z). Rica {Koa'-tah Ree'-ka). "the East. Car'-ib. ( Yan Mi'. Esmeralda [Ea-mer-nM'-du). Jut'-land. Divine Intelligence. Bolan {Bo-lafi7t'). {JCi-eun')." or Guatemala {Gwak-ta-mah'-la). en)." Dwina {Dicee'-na). hae. Guinea {Ghin'-ee). — "rich Gral-la-to'-res. "Son of the Creator. Ibarra {E-bar'-ra). Cuzco {Koo8-ko). Guadalupe {Gwmo-da-loop')." Hoang Ho {Whahng'-ho')j river j" so named from waters." Cau'-ca-sus. Ben Lo'-mond {Ben means "mountain. Guanaxuato {Gwah-7iah-hira'-to). *' — Ignis Fatuus. — "yellow the color to its Llano Estacado {Le-ah'-no Ea-tah-cah'do). E-den-ta'-ta." Ka-tah'-din. Cey-lon'. Fa'-roe. or Bo-h>r' Tofjh. Gentian {Jen' -shun). Co'-chin Chi'-na. Cairo (ICi'-ro). means "sea. Car-niv'-o-ra." Brazil {Brah-ze^V). mushroom a toadstool." Great St. Lava {Lah'-va). Az'-ores. Bora {Bo' -rah). Ar'-a-go. — "Land of the Dar-da-nelles'. Himalaya {Him-aM'-a). Berne {Bum). Chihuahua (CH-waw'-tca). Atacama {Ak-tah-cah'-7na7i). Dant'-zio. also called Be-loor' Tagk. — Disa Grandiflora (Deo'-za Gran-diflo'-ra). E. (89) 6 SQ^ 23 -SB% . Albino (Ai'be'-no). Kirghis {Keer-gheez'). Imbamburu Eem~bahm-boo' -roo). Agulhas (Ak-gool'-i/as). Ghauts {Oaicta). the ancient fabled goddess Jalapa (Hah-lah'-pa). Cau-ca'-si-an. or Elburz Et-boorz'). Iran (E'-rahn). Cotopaxi (Ko-to-pax' -ee). — called also and the Car-ib-be'-an. *' — Her. Latin plural o( fungiis ." Catherine's town. Hai. Biscay {Bia'-kif). Gneiss {Nice)." m or tkievea so named by Magellan." Bourbon {Boor' -hxin). Kurile {Koo'-ril). Lima [Lec'-mah). Latin. — Charlemagne {Sharl-vmhu). Chim-pan'-zee. Bonin Sima {Bo-neen See'-ma). or and/a?Ki(s." a district of Ire- Cevennes [Sa-ven'). Eu-phra'-tes. Ilan-hai {Ilahi-hi'). of corn." Balkan [Bal'-kan. Hen-lo'-pen. Lassa {Ilfalis'-sah). Al-le-gha'-ny. Artois (Ar'-ticaic)." {Kan-aic' ~wah). Brah-ma-poo'-tra. Fingal (Fiiig-gawV) land. Equador {Ek-wa-dore'). Lab' -ra. orAmoa {Ah-moo') Gihon {Je-hone'). Bahia {BaJi-ce'-a). Bar-ba'-does. "step." Belor (Be-lor')." {El-brooz'. Chili (Chil'-le). ( Amoo. Hin-doo-stan'. La-goon'. Derived from Ceres. Dahomey {Dah-ho-may'). Cheiroptera (Ki-rop'-ter-a). — "staked plain. Bogota {Bo-gO'tah'). or Aciy. La-drones'." in Chinese. Louisville {Loo'-is-vH). Cassiquiare (Cah-see-kee-ah'-re). which the clay banks give Hy-drog'-ra-phy. Baton Rouge {Bat'-un Roozh'). Ar'-al. — ignii." Ganges {Gan'-Jez). Lianos {Le-ah'-nos). A. Anatolia (Ah-na-to'-lia)." Antilles (An-til-eea). Llama {Lah'-ma). Elbruz. Eider (I'-der). "northern. or Ahl-ti'). — "red — Costa. Altai {Af-ta'-i. " land of dates. Archipelago (Ar-Ice-peV-a-go)." moun- Car-ac'-cas.^IDS 2 "^ PRONOUNCING VOCABULARY. Islands of the " ladrones. Cayenne Ce'-re-al. Basalt {Ba-zoW). "Island Fata Morgana (Fah'-ta Mor-gah'-na). In-sect-iv'o-ra. which was formerly settled by Fins whence the name. Ar-kan'-sas. Fun'-gi. Lipari {Lee-pah' -re). Fu-e'-gi-an. Ce-ta'-ee-a." Amoor (Ah-moor'). Cobi {Co' -be). Jap-an-ese'. on account of the thievish disposi- — tion of the natives. Kanawha Kan'-sas. the Ji-hoon'. or Bald-kahn'). Ekaterinburg (E-kat-e-ri' -nen-hurg). coast. Benicia (Be-m'sk'-i-a). Guiana {Ghee-ah' -na). Bermudas {Der-moo'-dm). Cam'-el-o-pard. "flesh-eating. B. "gold tains. Irtysh (Eer'-lish). Llanos {Le-ah'-nos). Gallinacea {Gall-i-na'-she-a) "day-break". . the earth to Heaven. Irkoutsk (Ir-kootsk'). Ap-pa-la'-chi-an. Chicago (She-katt'-go). Khiva (A'ee'-fa). Cau'-ver-y. I-tas'-ca. Desaguadero (Dea-ah-gwa-da'-ro). Kunchinginga {Koon-chiu-jivg'-gah)." Beled-el-jerid { Be-led' -el-je-reed'). Cumana {Koo-mah-nah'). — "flowing through — "smoky water. Ad-i-ron'-dack. d 1 "good air. Knmtschatka {Kam-shat'-ka). Dig-it-i-gra'-da. Kuen LUn {Kwen-hott'). Isalco (E-aahl'-co). — " the great river." Cam-er-oons'. Endogenous (En-dnf-e-nous). Eth-nog'-ra-phy. Falkland {Fmck'lavd. Can-av'-er-al. Lar'-a-mie. " the outlet. —a Cherrapongi ( Cher-a-poon-jec*). Coch'-i-neal. Cor-ri-en'-tes. digitut." Blumenbach {Bho'-men-bahk).

Sierra Morena {Mo-ra'-nah). St. Steppes {Steps). Santa F6 {San'^ta Fa). because at a distance the infernal regions." PelaguB." Tierras Frias {Free'-az). Si-roc'-co. Thian Shan ( Te-ahn' Shahi'). Sco'-ri-a. — St." is Ty-phoon'. Saviour. From Latin. after Se-rin-ga-pa-tam'. clad mountain -ridge. O-ke-cho'-bee. Ver'-te-bra-ted. Sit'-ka. Magellan (Ma-Jel'-an). Yakoutsk f Yah-lcootsk'). O-des'-sa. — "land of Fuego {Ter'-ra fire.—'' holy Santorini {San-to-ree' -nee). Messina (Mes-see'-nak). Paraguay {Par-a-grca'). Pas-sa'-ic. Wah-satch'. Commonly pronounced Stromboli {Strom' -ho-lee). Layers or Ya-zoo'. Ne-a-pol'-i-tan. Santa Barbara (Sau'-ta Bar'-har-a). Magyar {Mah'-yar)* Mahabaleshwar. Su-ma'-tra." Porto Rico {Ree'-co)f — "rich harbor. N. Per-en'-ni-al. Sahara {Sali-hah'-rah). which Saint Law'-rence. Volcanic — "cold lands. 0. Anthony {An'-to^ny)." — " thousand isles. "January River. Derived from the magnificent forests with which these islands were formerly covered Pacha." Pam'-pe-ros. — "hot lands. Si-moom'. Sirikol {See-ree-hoV). Steilacoom {Sti-la-coom'). Nueces {Noo-a'-ces). Ruth'-er-ford. Sabrina {Sah-hree' -nah). ( swim." Mar'-jo-ram. from a Greek word. Tehama {Ta-hah'-mah)f Teneriffe ( — "low land. New' -found-land. mare." Sco'-ri-se). of Oasis. San Salvador {San Sal-va-dore'). — Latin. Sierra Diavolo. Winnipiseogec lands. "Devil's ridge. Maritime (Mar'-e-tim).") Sierra Leone {Le-o'-na). — " perpetual. PI. Phys'-i-cal." TieTras Calientes {Te-er'-ras Cah-le-en'tea). — "father of waters. Mol-lus'-cous. " greedy. — from Latin. Y." Saxifrage {Sax'-e-fraje). "beautiful lake among the high- Croix (Croi). Ph£e-nog'-a-mus. "the sea.—" Celestial Mountains. —" tortoises. Stra'-ta. Yu'-ma. signifying *' change. Vindhya ( Viiid'-yah). San Joaquin {San Ho-ah-lceen')." — "Holy Tequendama ( Ta-ken-dak'-mak). Quad-ru-ma'-na. Mendocino {Men-do-eee' -no). Si-be'-ri-a. Tasmania {Taz-ma'-ne-a).) is a Spanish word. ( Wash'-e-taw). Russia {Rush'-e-a). Richelieu {Reesh'-el-yoo).'* — " treeless plains. River." Nyoe Rio de la Plata {Ree'-o da lah Plak'-taJi) (iVee-er'). Relating to matter. Mar'-mo-ra." Peck-a-ga'-ma. Tahiti {Tah-hee'-tee). (PI." Si-lo'-am. hair of the natives. Roque {Rohe). discoverer. or Parima (Pak-ree'-mah). Plu-ton'-ic. P. {Zo-ol'-o-jy). Nan-ling'. Mal-a-bar'. Mozambique {Mo-zam-heek'). Ri'-o Ja-nee'-ro. — "fine harbor. Terra. — from Latin. Thames {Temz). Rio Janeiro. Tripe de Roche {Treep de Roshe). " the sea. — "violent winds Pam'-pas. coon' -yah. fire. Pelagic [Pe-Iaf-ic). Reitiavick {Ri'-ke-a-vik). Yu-ca-tan'. Neches (Netch'-iz). A bent tube used for draw- Zoological {Zo-o-loJ'-i'Cal). or Tierra del del Fu-e'-go)." ( Peling {Pa-ling'). Relating to the regions of u. Mo-luc'-ca." Natch'-ez. San Diego {San De~a'-go). ra De-ah' -vo-lo. Ptarmigan {Tar'-mi-gan)t Moscow (Mos'-Jco). silver. Monterey {Mon-te-ray'). Ta-co'-ra." Rio Negro {Ree'-o Ne'-gro)." Solano {So-lah'^no). Yang-tse-Kiang ( Yahng-tse-Kee' -ahng) Reaumur [Ro'-mer). Sac-ra-men'-to. Popayan {Po-pah-yahn'). Pu'-get." So-ra'-ta. Mack'-i-naw. from the enormous frizzled heads of Frizzled." Tehuantepec {Ta-wahn-ta-pec')." — " coiled serpent. or rocks. Bashaw (Pa-skaiv'). its Named in Pachydermata {Pak-i-der' -ma-ta). Nat-a-tor'-es. My-sore'. noi). of the languages. or Pasha. as applied to Barbary. Ten-er-if). ^ T. or Oo-rahV). Papua {Pap'-oo-a). sweep over the Pampas. Mont-mo-ren'-cy. faith. Pustza {Pooz'-tzaJi). Por'-to Bel'-lo. NatOy *'to a. O-hi'-o. O'-a-ses. Ve-su'-vi-us. Samoiedes {Sam-oi'eedz'). Saltillo (Sahl-teel'-yo). sents a notched appearance." Wi7t-e-pe-eaw'-ke). Parime. Maelstrom {Male' -strum). Senegal {Sen-e-gawV)." Philippine {Fil'-i-pin). Yenesei Yen-e-aa'-e). Mal'-dive. St. Vancouver ( Van-coo'-ver). w.! {VaU'-di). Tchad {Chad). often pre{Sier- Yoo'-ral.. — IL Tortugas of Spain." — " the beautiful river. HeUe'-na. — "snow- Prussia {Prrnh'-e-a). Madeira {Ma-dee'-ra). " to climb." beds of anything: as sand. Rio Grande {Rw Grand'). pronounced almost Waic-lceen. St." Pompeii {Pom-pa' -ye). ( Me-te-or-o-log'-i-cal. Snieuw Bergen {Snoio' Ber'-ghen). Pont-char-train'. Ne-va'-do de — " snow-chid. Sy'-phon." The knowledge or study cinders. Monte Nuevo {Mon'-ta Noo-a'-vo). Gothard {Go-tard). light without heat. — "river of Stratum. and. from Latin. of — "Son of the { Sea. Niger (Ni'-Jer). PI. "soft." rhihei{ Tib' -et). — the Mad'-rid. j^/o^/«8cus. Sierra Valenciana ( Vah-len-se-ah'-naJt). ( Mirage (Me-razhe').mGl "^S4 ^ 90 M. Sa-bine'.' Mag-da-le'-na. Louis {Loo'-ib)." is thin. Latin. St. MarsiiMar-su-pi-a'-li-a. Utah Ural {U'-taio). Met-a-mor'-phic. Venezuela ( Ven-e-zwe'-la). St." — "Black Sumbawa {Soom-haw' -\Da). Mis-sis-sip'-pi. Scan-so'-res. ( Tor-too'-gaz). ing 6yr'-i-a. Rarified air New in op- Gran-a'-da." Severo Vostochnoi {Sa-va'~ro Vos-toh'- Phos-pho-i"es'-cence. position to condensed air. PRONOUNCING VOCABULARY. Mon-te Kos'-si. Zoophytes b mof>^ £Dk § . off Zambeze Zoology (Zam-ha'-ze). Rapax." Pam'-li-co. z. Ma-na'-tus. " snow-mountains. Sierra Nevada {Na-vah'-dah). Ber-nard'. V. O'-ri-no'-co. Ptolemy {Tol'-e-my). St. Sierra {Se-er'-a. Tristan Shanghai {Shang-hi'). YaldB. it Pluto was the fabled god of Me-te-or-ol'-o-gy. Marquesas {3far-ka'-8aB). Pyr'-en-ees." Plat'-i-num. Mon-soon'. Sa'-mi-el. Nic-a-ra'-gua. piujyi. signifying "saw. — Wabash Washita ( Waio'-haah). Ra-pa'-C63. Philip Named Torrecelli (Tor-re -eel' -lee). Phi-lol'-o-gy. d'Acunha (TriB-tahn' DaJt- — Plan-ti-gra'-da. Quito {Kee'-to). Ner-bud'-dah. Mam-ma'-Ii-a. or Mahableshwur. water from casks. Stellerine [Stel-hr-een'). X. Obi (O'-be)." Potosi {Po-to-8^e'). gravel. Tierras Templadas Tem-plah'-daz). honor of Tasman. Uruguay Oo-roo-gwi)." Latin. Rar'-i-fied. Man-tchoo'-ri-a. A feeble kind of Trin-i-dad'. " temperate lands. {Mah'hah-hlesh-wur'). Portuguese word Madera signifying " timber. and applied to a mountain-ridge. 'mill-stream. a " pouch. Xarayes {Hah-rV -ez). Madre {Mah'-dra). Tolima { To-lee' -7nak). {Zo'-o-Jitcs).

Continental Rivers Volga TABLE SHOWING THE LOCATION.000? 600.874 TABLE SHOWING THE AREA.500 23.500 14.3.400 716.000 30. (( a li Ansted. North Carolina Mount Washington. Russian America Popocatepetl. California Mount Hood.000 7613 Mount Kilimandjaro Mount Kenia Abl)a Yared.000 15. Name of Volcano. J. Pacific System.000 . Sihon Amoo.182. Equador Sorato.. in feet..H.400 10. 480. level Depression of surface bel level in feet.000 Authority. 1.000 142.. Galung Gung. Lawrence Tocantins Orinoco San Francisco Rio Grande . Gualatieri. White Mountains. highest of the Atlas..000 2. Equador. of the sea.000 OCEANICA. 7600 6874 5007 4265 3948 Lake Lake Lake Lake Lake Lake Lake Lake Sir-i-kol .695 13. Himalaya Mountains " " Dhawalaghiri.910 Niger Senegal Orange 700. Helen's. Mount St.300. AND THE LENGTH OF THE PRINCIPAL RIVERS UPON THE GLOBE. Chili Chimborazo.000 792.210 12.. Ganges (includingthe Basin of the Brahmapootra) Irrawaddy Indus Euphrates Godavery Zambeze 576.Sumbawa. Sandwich Islands. Java.320 19. Antisani. highest of the Grampian Mountains.000 340.795 4200 (91) IB 9v_ . Tasmania 8500 6500 5520 1960 2600? 2300? 1750 900 800? Johnston. the highest of the Caucasus Mountains.000 ? 15. Azores System of the Indian Ocean. Cape Colony Peak of Pico.000 31. Rocky Mountains Sierra Nevada.717 16.* Arctic System. Peru. Dem.500 143. Island of Jan Mayen. ELEVATION.176 28.240 196.860 17. highest of the Alps Mount Maladetta. Pichiocha. Area of Basin. Mauna Erebus. Mount Mitchell.842 13.400 12.000. and the length in statute miles. Elias.776 15.000 Dnieper Don Rhine Elbe 5397 4368 3571 Rhone Amazon Mississippi 273. New South Wales Mount Humboldt. Height.717 15.000 226. 250 100 200 83-4 36 1312 1535 15.. .500 Johnston.9 APPENDIX.000? J ? ? ? Europe.000 396. MOUNTAINPEAKS OF THE GLOBE.34 Atlantic System.750 250. AVestern Asia.000 65. Sumatra Semero Mountain. Turkey in Asia Mount Lebanon.000 225. highest of the Pyrenees Mount Scardus.000 249.600 Obi Yenesei Lena Kolyma Dwina Petchora Mackenzie's Back's 2700 3250 2800 930 1000 700 2. Naples.000 1.Young.233. Feet. highest mountain in Wales Danube 17. Loa. Islo of Bourbon Mount Miltsin. Bolivia 2. Mexico. Mount Ophir. (Italy). Arequipa. Nelson's 28. . Snowy Mountains.000 20.200? 258.000 9100 7497 St. Island of Java Mount Orohena.000? 261.020 17.470 12. in feet. Canary Islands.avend. Younf Johnston.000 33. Morne Garou. Ural or O. Average Elevation of Depth surface ab.137 18.910 22.924 14.. 1./a . Popocatepetl.000 300 . AND DATE OF THE LAST ERUPTION OF SEVERAL ACTIVE VOLCANOES. Elbruz. Vesuvius.000 123.630 14. Great Salt Lake 6900 4000 4000 1875 900 1000 1000 120 500 40 627 595 595 565 231 128 12. Vincent's. AND ELEVATION OF THE PRINCIPAL LAKES ON THE GLOBE.640 441. New York 17. Johnston. Aconcagua.i. Russia Mont Blanc. Morocco Yang-tse-Kiang Hoang Ho Cambodia Columbia Colorado 777.436 10.Young Ansted. It J. Length. Date of last eruption.800 388.000? 20. Abyssinia .800 45.500 11. highest of the Blue Ridge. Piton des Neiges. Ore£. Area in Square Miles. Turkey Konjakofski-Kamen.000 17.000 Kunchinginga. of the sea.000 2800 3300 2700 2000 1200 1100 Johnston. Ural Mountains Ben Nevis. Location. Caspian Sea Sea of Aral Dead Sea Lake Baikal 145.016. Antarctic Land. Tolima. Rio de La Plata Asia. Island of St. H.000 1750 1260 1120 700 800 650 3600 4100 2240 2000 2100 1300 1600 1650 2150 Johnston.000 13. or Koosh..420 21. Scotland Snowdon.on Territory Fremont's Peali. Mexico. Jeb-el-Makmel Mount Olympus. Turkey in Asia Mount Sinai. Hindoo Koo. AVERAGE DEPTH.000 317.000 2800 1400? 1650 650? Johnston. highest of the Balkan Mountains. Society Islands 13.182 10. Cabul Mount Ararat. Bolivia. Aconcagua. St. Nile 5300 SocTH America. H. Syria.286 Gambia Coanza Rio Grande I 1. New Hampshire Mount Tahawus.000 336.045. TABLE SHOWING THE AREA OP THE BASINS.000 20.000 Mount Kosciusko. Arabia Africa. or Marcy. Mexico Mount Brown.600 416. 6470 62. Jan Mayen. United States. Equador. Teneriffe.500 66.875 18.160 49.200 12..000? 1 2500? 2600? 1 ? 21. The area is given in English square miles.120 12.150 23.. Jorullo. 23.600 240. TABLE OF THE HEIfiHT OF SOME OF THE PRINCIPAI.. Etn.200 730. Sicily.000 588. Island of .100 7800 Tomboro. Central Asia.300 13. Superior Michigan Huron Erie Ontario . Nicaragua Titicaca .500 270. in feet.668 11. Rocky Mountains " " Long's Peak.xus 530.. Cotopaxi. 600 J. North America. Chili.. Pechan.000 1. New Granada. Amour 20.000 110. Equador.

. THE ELEVATION ABOVE THE LEVEL OF THE SEA. Ind. Charleston. N. Ga Fort Marion.il. AND THE AVERAGE ANNUAL FALL OF RAIN AT VARIOUS PLACES IN THE UNITED STATES. Maine Fort Constitution.a Fort Towson. California Fort Humboldt. New Mexico Albuquerque. Md Bellona Arsenal.S Fort Kent. 47° 15' 68° 35' 46 46 67 49 67 49 46 07 44 54 66 68 43 39 70 20 43 04 70 49 42 20 71 41 41 41 41 40 40 21 29 30 21 71 71 71 72 575 415 620 70 20 40 50 37°-04 3S-11 40-61 43-02 45-22 45-81 48-92 47-34 49-70 60-72 49-62 51-69 51-54 60-73 48-07 44- 36-46 36-97 39-39 45-25 35-57 35-30 Watertown Arsenal. Pa . [This valuable Table is Name of Place of Observation.ah 69-60 70-20 68-74 66-88 66-84 69-86 69-25 69-86 68-14 66-34 61-69 62-21 48-50 56-98 63-50 71-92 60-63 50-90 62-10 45-86 61-08 41-66 200? 400 800 845 900? 1000? 3937 6350 4576 5032 6000 6846 6418 6670 8366 7200? 120 150 1000? 140 402 150 64 50 44-49 44-80 47-63 50-31 45-50 49-74 39-30 44-54 52-78 49-28 47-67 50-06 60-83 63-99 63-54 63-73 62-38 65-76 66-12 66-74 69-25 71-37 71-30 70-95 73-75 74-21 73-24 70-86 67-69 68-03 67-04 63-98 54-84 59-40 56-32 55-12 50-59 49-14 49-14 49-11 46-92 73-62 62- 39-74 26-56 29-48 25-43 30-29 27-98 19-98 30-67 22- 40-86 17-22 31-88 40-6S 36-56 33-77 30-82 33-65 20-95 lS-66 22-20 27-99 20-58 21-80 9-28 8-79 6-76 9-42 12-05 63-28 55-29 66- 674 50 2570 50 50 360 300? 50 4361 64-8S 68-29 59-89 62-09 62-80 51-40 53-62 52-65 52-79 60-82 62-23 19-83 19-24 19-24 20-54 16-64 3-24 10-43 13-77 12-20 24-51 23-59 16-62 21-32 29-02 16-77 16-77 68-52 45-50 14-32 51-75 53-24 THE END. Tampa Bay. New Mexico Fort Defiance. New Mexico Fort Webster. South Fla Fort Brooke. Nebraska Fort Kearney. Name of Place of Observation.. 111 Fort Atkinson. Maine Fort Sullivan. Mo Newport Barracks. Y. Fla Fort Shannon. East Fla New Smyrna. Ga Fort Moultrie. Wis Fort Crawford. Maine Fort Preble. New London. Nebraska Fort Laramie. Vernon Arsenal. compiled from the " Army Meteorological Register. C Va Augusta Arsenal. Texas Fort Clark. Mifflin. Chicago. b mo^ AD 3 8 . Ind. N. Ter Fort Washita. California Monterey. Ut. California Fort Reading. . I. Mich Fort Wilkins. :I.. result of all the records. Wis Fort Winnebago. Fort Trumbull. 35° 23' 94° 29' 95 10 34 47 94 35 37 45 90 15 38 28 90 05 38 40 84 29 39 05 82 68 42 20 82 23 42 55 84 33 46 61 87 35 41 52 S4 43 46 30 88 47 30 88 05 44 30 89 28 43 31 91 43 05 41 30 90 40 92 43 93 38 41 32 94 19 46 19 44 53 93 10 94 44 39 21 95 48 41 30 40 38 98 57 42 12 104 47 34 27 97 09 33 08 98 48 32 40 97 25 32 30 99 46 31 38 100 40 31 56 97 26 31 26 97 49 30 40 98 31 29 25 28 17 28 05 27 47 25 64 26 23 27 31 28 42 29 09 29 22 29 17 32 13 32 48 33 34 35 06 35 03 35 41 35 35 35 54 37 32 35 44 32 43 32 42 34 36 36 37 37 48 38 03 38 33 40 30 40 46 41 36 42 44 46 40 46 36 47 10 40 11 40 46 98 26 98 98 57 97 27 97 26 99 02 99 21 100. New York Fort Ontario. New Mexico Hill. Oregon Fort Steilacoom. Nebraska Fort Arbuckle. Fla Fort Meade. San Diego. Ter 09 20 40 20 20 06 23 42 74 01 23 37 74 02 25 4123 167 74 42 43 50? 73 43 44 41 73 25 1S6 43 57 76 15 262 43 20 76 40 260 43 IS 79 08 260 42 53 58 78 660 40 32 80 02 704 40 12 500 77 14 39 53 75 13 20 39 35 75 34 10 39 IT 35 36 71 38 58 76 27 20 38 53 77 02 50-90 38 43 77 06 60 20 37 120 77 2537 76 IS 8 34 41 76 40 20 34 78 05 20 33 28 81 53 600? 32 45 79 51 25 32 05 81 07 40 29 48 81 35 25 29 34 81 48 25 28 54 81 02 20 27 30 80 20 30 25 55 80 20 20 24 32 81 48 10 26 38 82 02 50 28 82 28 20 28 01 S2 80 29 30 60? 82 28 29 10 82 10 50 29 07 83 03 35 29 35 S3 50 30 18 87 27 20 30 14 88 20 31 12 88 02 200? 30 10 10 89 38 30 08 89 51 20 29 57 90 10 30 26 91 78 41 3133 93 32 80? 34 95 33 300? 24 14 96 38 645 4207 52-46 45-69 42-23 43-65 64-16 34-55 33-39 39-78 30-88 31-77 38-SO 34-96 34-01 46-27 42. California Sacramento. Fla Fort Myers. Richmond. L. East Fla Fort Dallas. Fla Fort Micanopy. Texas Corpus Christi. R. H. Augustine. Rhode Island Fort Wolcott. Ind. Texas San Antonio. Mo St. Conn Fort Columbus. Iowa Fort Des Moines. N. New Mexico Ijas Vegas. California Fort Miller. 111 Fort Brady. New York Plattsburg Barracks. New Mexico Fort Union. East Fla Fort Pierce." and presents the for 33 years.. Ark Fort Gibson.30 99 07 99 33 100 25 106 42 108 04 107 09 106 38 107 14 106 02 105 16 104 67 105 23 109 16 114 36 117 14 117 25 121 52 119 40 122 26 122 08 121 20 122 05 124 09 122 52 124 29 122 30 120 65 122 25 123 48 112 06 460 560 1000? 472 460 500 580 698 728 591 600 620 620 770? 642 628 700? 780 1130 820 896 1250 2360 4519 lOOO? 1600? 1100? 60°-02 60-81 54-50 55-46 54-51 56-26 47-25 46-29 40-65 46-75 40-37 41- 42-10 36-46| 42-12 37-83 41-95 30-07 32-62 23-87 31-35 34-65 27-49 31-40 2300? 2120 900? 1000? 1000? 600 160? 200 20 50 Fort Yuma. New York Alleghany Arsen. N. Oregon Great Salt Lake.. Fla Fort King. C Fort Johnston. Texas Fort Inge. Texas Fort Ewell. Ter Fort Scott.H 3 „ a R Fort Smith. Texas Ringgold Barracks. from 1822 to the close of 1854. Min Fort Leavenworth.. California San Francisco. New York Buffalo Barracks. La Orleans. Fla Fort Barrancas. Mich Ky 2CB < Q. Oregon Fort Dalles. Kansas Council Bluffs. La Fort Wood. New Mexico CeboUeta and Laguna. Ala Fort Pike. Washington Territory Astoria. Detroit. Harbor Fort Hamilton. Fla Fort Morgan.APPENDIX. Ter Fort Belknap. Fla Fort Fiinning. Texas Phantom 46-38 46-44 47-91 46-25 50-86 61-10 63-85 56-06 64-36 55-42 56-14 67-S7 69-27 58-89 62-23 65-68 64-01 66-58 67-44 69-61 69-64 69-17 73-20 74-76 76-61 75-04 71-92 71-48 70-09 70- 48-61 41-20 46-02 50-89 46-01 23- 44-92 53-33 31-80 48-6S 62-98 47-65 62-26 56-47 40-22 Texas Fort Chadbourne. Texas Fort Brown. Pittsburg. Fort Jessup. Pilatka. California Fort Jones. Md Md C Washington City. Maine Hancock Barracks. Texas Fort Gates. California Benicia Barracks. ISagle Pass. Newport Harbor. Mass. Ala Mt. Fort Monroe. Louis Arsenal. New Mexico Fort Conrad. Mich Fort Gratiot. Fort Mackinac.. Wis Fort Armstrong. in the Army Medical Bureau. C Oglethorpe Barracks. TABLE SHOWING THE LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE. Iowa Fort Ripley. St. Pa Fort Fort Fort Fort Carlisle Barracks. Texas Fort Lincoln. New Mexico Fort Massachusetts. Texas Fort Fillmore. La New La Baton Rouge. California Fort Orford. D. Boston Harb. Newport. Severn.. Fort Independence. Del McHenry. Mass Fort Adams. Eastport. California Fort Vancouver. Va Fort Macon. Pa Delaware. New York Wiitervliet Arsenal. Texas Fort Merrill. Mich Fort Howard. East Fla Key West. New Mexico Santa Fe. Portsmouth. Pensacola. Fla Cedar Keys. Texas Fort Duncan. Mo Jelferson Barracks. Texas Fort Graham. Portland.T. S. Minnesota Fort Snelling. Fort Washington. Mich Fort Dearborn. NewY'ork Sackett's Harbor..] 3. Ind. Harbor West Point. THE MEAN ANNUAL TEMPERATURE. California . Maine Fort Fairfield. California Posts Del Chino and Jurupa. New York Fort Niagara. Texas Fort Worth. N. Carlisle./ZA . Texas Fort Mcintosh. Texas Fort Croghan.

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