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LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERGISE5 IN PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

GILBERT
H.

TRAFTON
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BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME OF THE

SAGE ENDOWMENT FUND
THE GIFT OF

HENRY W. SAGE
1891

ENGINEERING LIBRARY

Cornell University Library

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23.T76
field

Laboratory and

exercises

in

physic

3 1924 005 017 425

Cornell University Library

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LABORATORY AND FIELD
EXERCISES PHYSICAL aEOORAPHY

m

BY

GILBERT

H.

TRAFTON,

M.S.

Lnstkuctok in Science in the High School, Passaic, N.J.

GINN AND COMPANY
BOSTON

NKW YOUK
DALLAS

-

ATLANTA

COLUMBUS

CHICAGO LONDON SAN FRANCISCO

A^u

\

'Soo
1905

Copyright,

By GILBEET

H.

TBAFTON

ALL EIGHTS KESEKVED

A 518.11

VCie ia;ttienten>n jgteee GINN AND COMPANY PROPRIETORS BOSTON U.S.A.

The causes we need not go far to seek. Within the last . the training which the pupil receives subjects discussed in the class room. and the additional light thrown upon the As Physical Geogfirst raphy first is so generally assigned a place in the it is year of the high-school course. Another reason for the delay ia introducing laboratory methods into many of our schools has been that. this adjunct has not yet found its way into the methods of the majority of our secondary schools.PREFACE Physical Geography has at last come to take its place among the other sciences as a subject which requires labora- tory and field work for its highest development. The reasons for the introduction of laboratory methods in this subject are the same as those which in the laboratory demand its use in the other sciences. This newer feature of laboratory work in Physical Geography has been introduced in such comparatively recent years that there has not yet been sufiicient time for schools and teachers to adapt themselves to the changed conditions. But while the need of laboratory work is universally recognized by the leading educators. there has been published no laboratory guide which could be placed in the hands of the pupils. such as had been prepared in the other sciences. This is simply a repetition of what has happened in the development of the other sciences. of special importance that this science should be so taught as to inculcate scientific methods of study. namely. until very recently.

N. E. but this so scattered that it requires some little time to and a still longer time to put it into such shape that it may be used to advantage in the laboratory. my manuscript. TRAFTON . making valuable suggesto use plates of the exercises included here his text-books. as Exercises I and II. These exercises are published with the thought that this difficulty may be partly overcome.iv PREFACE decade there. have appeared enough suggestions to enable one to formulate a satisfactory laboratory course. it is hoped that these may prove helpful in their suggestions and in providing directions for the material is collect it guidance of the pupil. and has allowed me Some GILBERT PAaSAic. for suggestions on Chapter V. Dodge outlines. and figures from were first suggested to me by his writings. M. and that those teachers who do not have the time to develop this subject from the very start may be saved much time and labor and be enabled to introduce laboratory methods into their courses earlier in their experience than they niight otherwise do. and the other exercises in his Elementary Physical Q-eography have also been suggestive in planning my Thanks are due also to Professor R. And even for those who have already worked out their own laboratory exercises. He has very kindly read over tions. H. I take pleasure in making special acknowledgment of the kindness of Professor W. Davis.J.

. 2 Study of the Mississippi River 24 tion of the Earth and to find the Latitude IV. XXX... VI. XXXV. Earth... Glacial Moraines XXI. Old Volcanic Mountains. Glacial Eormations 3 6 6 XX.. THE WORLD AS A GLOBE PAGE North and South 1 .. A III. Appalachian Ridges .. Drumlins . . 28 29 30 Distances on the Earth drawn to Scale . 37 . Dissected Plateaus xxvm. 9 Plateaus XXVI. Domed Mountains XXXI. . Massive Mountains XXXII. 27 .. Young Plateaus XXVII. . . . . . .. ..CONTENTS CHAPTER EXERCISE I. .. Lengthvfise and Crosswise XII. .. To make a Cross Section of the Contour Map used in the Preceding Exercise 14 Moun. 34 36 . .. 30 31 31 Study of a Topographic Map of your Locality 11 Mountains XXIX. Valleys XV. . and Moon at the Different Phases of the Plains XXII. To find a Rivers XIX. Maturely Dissected Volcanic Mountains 38 XXXVI. 32 33 33 X. Volcanoes Rivers XIII. . Worn-Down Plains . Old Plateaus CHAPTER VIII. I. Coastal Plains xxiii. . Moon VII. Old Rivers 21 XVIII. Lake Plains . . Young Volcanic Mountains 18 Flood Plains 18 River Terraces XIV. XI. 8 XXIV.. Study of a Haohure Map 15 To reproduce in Haohures a Part of the Contour Map of the Wicomico 16 Region. XXXIV. Relation of the Earth to the Sun V.. To find the Latitude To demonstrate the Rota. Young Rivers Mature Rivers 20 20 Volcanic 38 Necks .. Longitudinal Profiles of . Worn-Down Mountains which have again been uplifted XXXIII. . . THE LAND . . XVI. Glacial Plains XXV. . Maryland . n. EXERCISE PAGE XVII. . . 25 26 The Seasons Relative Positions of Sun. Dissected Block tains IX. 22 Line II. 10 .

Identification Land Forms . Distribution of Cereals 75 LXii.. CHAPTER III. . Lists of . THE ATMOSPHERE Lix. Lava Plateaus Crater containing a xxxvm. Ocean Currents Lx.64 68 XL. Field XLii. Distribution of Forests 80 Lxvi.... .. azines giving Sug- gestions concerning Laboratory and Field Work D. V. The Effects of Lands CHAPTER . Cane and Sugar Beet 77 78 Lxiv. .. To make a Profile of the Bottom of the Atlantic Ocean and the Ad- joining Land . APPENDIXES 59 Study of a Weather 60 ' Map Liv. Material needed for the Comparison of the Conditions that exist in Work C..VI EXERCISE . fur. LI. 71 72 . To find the Dew Point 53 XLViii... of 40 41 42 LVii. . Study of Rocks To construct a Weather Map CHAPTER IV. . Shore Lines . 58 Effects of Seasons on Winds Liii. Map . . 95 . Distribution of the Great Areas of Vegetation 81 Lxvii. . nished you .. Cy63 Laboratory 98 Exercises . Distribution of Fruits The Heat Equator and Cold Pole 56 A Comparison of Temperatures for January and July at 40° .... Study of Minerals xLi. . Distribution of Sugar . xLiii..73 XLV. of Motion of clones ... To find tlie Height of a Hill by Means of a Barometer 52 xLVii. DISTRIBUTION OF LIFE IN UNITED STATES AND NORTH AMERICA LXi... . Distribution of Animals 83 . Annual Distribution of Rainfall 53 XLix. Distribution of Cotton 79 Lxv. To Weather A for Twenty-Four Hours ahead of the Date of the XXXIX. Weatlier Observations 49 xLvi. Work THE OCEAN Weatliering Stream Action . List of outlined .. Suggestions to Teachers 87 B.55 Lxiii. Drift 42 43 46 Lviii. 92 Books and Mag- Cyclones and Anticyclones 61 Lv. Lxviii.. Density of Population . North and South Latitude Lii.. PAGE predict the 39 XXXVII. 85 . . XLiv. 39 Lake . . . A. and Oceans on Temperature ij. .... To find the Average Rate and Direction . .. . CONTENTS PAGE ' EXERCISE Lvi.

use as a center the dot marking the position of the comer of the box. on end. Stand on the paper a small chalk box. Write in a notebools all that you do under each exercise. Mark the position on the paper of the corner just below the one the whose shadow has been taken.LABORATOEY AND FIELD EXERCISES IN PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER I THE WORLD AS A GLOBE EXERCISE I To FIND A NOKTH AND SoUTH LiNE Place 1 a table before a window through which the sun shines at noon. Do the same at 11 till : for every five minutes 30 and 11 45. or other square-cornered box. At 11 15 mark : the position of the : shadow : of a cor- ner of the box. Write answers to the questions asked and make a record of all other observations made. Draw a line connecting these points. 1 . and finally at 12 30 and : 12:45. then 12 15. Draw the shortest line possible from the lower corner of the box to this line. Place on the table a sheet of paper and put weights on it to keep it from moving. To do this. and with a pencil and string draw an arc of a circumference which shall touch the line position of 1 To THE Pupil.

EXERCISE n (. Take a piece of lath about a foot long and screw post. Why? Before moving the paper find some fixed objects that have the same direction as this line. of the Drive the stake. as shown in the figure. with pointer attached. such as some edge of a building or the line connecting two posts or trees. with the upper part square and the lower part round. one during the middle of the forenoon. two of which should be a foot long. In the early morning turn the pointer toward the sun. The correct position may be found by holding a piece of paper behind the pointer and turning the lath till its shadow is of the same size as the end of the lath itself. one at about . and one 2 feet. In the same way mark the position of the end of the pointer at each of four other observations taken. Fold the paper and paste in your notebook.2 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES previously drawn at only one point. This line will be a north and south line. to the side of a sharpened which should be about 8 inches long. Provide five sharpened stakes about | inch square. Connect this point with the center of the circle. Saw off the end it 1 inch from the end Fig. 1 of the lath at an acute angle. two 1^ feet.see Appendix A) (^Approximately) To FIND THE Latitude Apparatus. Drive a stake into the ground so that the tip of the pointer just touches the top of the stake at the inner corner. about two thirds way into the ground.

Screw a hook into the ceiling just over the center of the open area. Why? To find its this angle. This marks out a plane parallel to that followed by the sun during the day. This last condition can be The requisites for this experiment are a long found in the open space in the stairway of the school building. where the height of several stories can be utilized. procure a protractor and suspend from center a pendulum. Pass the wire over the hook and fasten it. consisting of an iron ball of several pounds weight suspended by as small a wire as will hold it. Placing one edge of this on the ground. To determine the amount of error. two narrower pieces may be fastened together by means of a cleat. thus reducing friction. and a high support for the pendulum. read the angle which the board makes with the pendulum. Draw a chalk line on the floor in the plane in which . one during the middle of the afternoon. EXERCISE in To DEMONSTRATE THE ROTATION OF THE EaETH AND TO FIND THE LATITUDE pendulum. The angle which this plane makes with a perpendicular is the latitude. compare your result with the latitude as found on a map of your state. Go 10 or 15 feet to one side its and. allow it to rest on the tops of the stakes so that each stake or touches the board.THE WORLD AS A GLOBE 3 noon. sighting at. the board with the protractor so that edge shall be in line with the board. in such a position that it will be in a plane at right angles to that in which the pendulum is to vibrate. and one a little while before sunset. Procure a piece of board 2^ feet long by 1^ feet wide. allowing the ball to swing just free from the floor.

to this sine. Divide 24. At either side of the extreme of the vibration of the swinging bob suspend one of these small pendulums and arrange them so that they shall be in the same plane as that in which the bob swings. From the table ascertain the angle which corresponds. this experia means of finding the latitude. and passing it around the greatest diameter of the ball. Compare with the result of . and mark a pdint on the floor just beneath ment furnishes line. This is your approximate latitude. to vibrate. When the bob has nearly stopped. will by the number previously obtained. how would the results differ? How at the equator? How at other points between ? As the time required for the meridian to rotate depends the explanation If the ? pendulum were on the distance of the station from the equator. Take two pieces of string about a yard long and attach to each a small weight. Record the time. each of the small bobs. or See that no doors Burn off the string with a match. What results do you observe ? What is windows are open to cause a draft. find the direction in which it swings. pull it back and fasten it to a support placed oyer the chalk line. and the quotient be the sine of the latitudeof your locality. Take the time. You now have the angle of deflection and the time taken for it. Make a loop of a piece of string. allowing this line to pass through the point just beneath the center of the ball. Watch till the bob nearly stops swinging. Compute the angle of deflection for an hour. In which direction is the bob deflected ? set swinging at either pole. connecting these points by a chalk Measure the angle which this line makes with the line first drawn.4 the LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES pendulum is . Divide 360° by this angle and this will give the number of hours required for a complete rotation of the meridian. the number of hours in a day.

THE WORLD AS A GLOBE 5 the pievious experiment and with the latitude as found on a map of your locality.^ Table of Sines Sine .

" and the other point " aphelion. Through the focus at which the sun is situated draw a first and the perpendicular to the line it drawn in this exercise till on either side." Indicate the direction of the earth's motion by arrows.000 miles. About 1^ inches from each of these points. This rep- December is 21. will the diameter of this circle be ? What would be is the size of a circle to represent the earth. Tip the axis of the globe away from the sun till it forms an angle of 231° (about ^ of a right angle) 1. The points where the ellipse cuts the straight line represent the extremes of the distances of the helion. Place the paper with perihelion at the right and mark the point on the upper side " vernal equinox. Move it clockwise on the circumference about 1^ inches. position of the sun. At the focus where the sun located set up a pin its or piece of wire of such a length that end is opposite the center of the globe.6 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES What 1. although really about \ smaller than this." and the other point " autumnal equinox. On the point with a perpendicular to the plane of the resents the position of the earth on 2. These dots represent approximately the position of the equinoxes." of the lines Label the point nearest the sun " periFrom the length scale used determine each distance. intersects the orbit ' exercise v The Seasons marked "perihelion" in the previous experiment place a small globe or a wooden ball supported on a wire. make a dot. orbit. Allow this end to represent the .000. whose diameter about 8000 miles? earth from the sun. measured clockwise on the circumference.

ing each twenty -four hours? a result of your observations state what two factors cause the change of seasons. As .THE WORLD AS A GLOBE 7 3. 6. Keeping this unchanged. Take a piece of wire a little longer than the circumference of the globe and bend it around the globe in a great circle in a plane perpendicular to a line extending to the point representing the sun. turn the its axis to show the succession of day and night and answer the following questions. Answer the same questions as in the preceding case. keeping the axis parallel to its This represents the position of the earth on first position. (a) Is there any region that receives no sunlight during the day ? How many degrees from the pole does it extend ? at globe on What name (b) is given to this zone ? ? What conditions pre- vail at the other pole How many degrees south of the equator ? is the sun is seen directly overhead at this time What name given ? to the zone within these limits on either side of the equator What are (c) the zones between this one and those around the poles called? How ? do night and day in each zone compare in receives the more sunshine. limits of that half of the globe This wire marks the which receives sunshine any given moment. Place the globe on a point 1^ inches from the aphelion. toward the vernal equinox. In what way do these 7. the length (d) Which hemisphere northern or southern? (e) How does the inclination of the sun's rays vary as you pass from pole to pole ? 4. . (e). and the first part of (a). What zones always have sunlight at some time durJune 21 5. (d). Place the globe at the equinoxes and at each one answer questions (c).

circle On . the left-hand side of the page just opposite draw a ^ inch in diameter to represent the position but not the relative size and distance of the sun. which is really an ellipse.000.000 is and 93. 10. In the following exercise no attempt made to draw the various circles to the same scale. Place the globe so that its axis is parallel to the and determine the effects. 9. and Moon at the Different Phases of the Moon 1. whose approximate diameters are respectively 2000. and sun. side of to represent the At the right-hand your notebook draw a circle 2 inches in diameter moon's orbit. in winter or this 8. What part of your exercise illustrates the cause of day and night? What is the cause? plane of orbit EXERCISE VI Relative Position of Sun. earth. Earth. 8000. what would be the diameters of circles representing the moon. the distances being respectively about 250.8 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES more heat the earth effect does factors act so as to cause the earth to receive in the summer than in the winter? When is nearest the sun. axis is perpendicular to effect the plane of and determine what the its would be on the various zones at the different seasons of the year. Allowing a line 1 inch long to represent 8000 miles. summer? What its have on the range of temperature during the seasons ? Place the globe so that its orbit.000 miles? 2. using a lamp to represent the sun.000 miles? On the same scale. how many feet from the circle representing the earth would those circles representing the moon and sun be placed. and 900. Make these same observations at home in the evening.

. What is the nearest thousands of miles? the circumference of the earth expressed in Allowing a line 1 inch long to represent 5000 miles. how much of the illuminated poris this ? we see What see phase of the What portions do these points 4. pencil that half of each circle which Fill in is with lead away from the sun and so receives no light. 3. 3. each of ^ inch diameter. using as centers the point nearest the sun. 2. and moon nearly in a straight line EXERCISE VII Distances on the Earth deawn to Scale 1. and the two points halfway between these positions points on the circumference of the right-hand circle to repre- — — sent different positions of the moon. Just under it draw another to represent the diameter of the earth. the point farthest away from the sun. leaving the other portion white to represent the illuminated portion. using the scale of miles given on the map : San Francisco. On a blank weather map of the United States find the distance in miles in a straight line from New York City to the following cities. Draw four circles. When the moon is nearest the sun. Boston. Chicago. Washington. draw a straight line to represent the length of the circumference of the earth. earth. we ? when the moon moon ? halfway between What phases are these At what phases of the are the sun. how much the of the illuminated portion can be seen from the earth? What is phase of the tion do moon ? is this called ? When moon is ? moon farthest from the sun.THE AVORLD AS A GLOBE 9 Make a dot at the center of the first circle to represent the position but not the size of the earth.

draw a straight line to represent the distance around that part of the United States represented on the map. showing the distance to it represents. tance from New York . and 2. 4. Using the same scale as before. is What proportion of the diameter of the earth the dis- San Francisco ? What distance would one travel if he were to start from New York and go eastward till he reached San Francisco ? 5. draw lines to represent Label each line.10 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES as in 1 Using the same scale these distances.

similar to those used for aquaria. spurs. cut out so as to give the general outline desired. These are the brown lines found on all parts' of the map. in addition to valleys. Before studying these. and valWhile the finer details cannot be shown as clearly with a specially prepared model. (a) Contour lines. much In place of the apparatus just described. which. This may then be covered with putty by means of which the finer details of relief may be molded. A box with glass sides. ridges. the following simpler equipment may be used. Place the model in a water-tight receptacle a little higher than itself. should contain also a level area. as some which are fair types of hills. steep slopes. sufficiently heavy to keep it from floating when submerged in water. and peaks. but in place of this a tin box made by the tinsmith may be used. yet the meaning of 11 . A little searching among a pile of stones will usually enable one to find leys. is most satisfactory. Pieces of iron or lead should be attached to the base of the model. make the Make a small model of a mountainous country.CHAPTER THE LAND EXERCISE II VIII {see-Appendix A) Study of a Topographic Map of youb Locality 1. Secure an ordi- nary battery jar and a stone small enough to go inside and of such shape as to represent some land form. This may be made by first nailing together blocks of wood following preliminary study.

" the elevation above this line of every fourth contour Mark and also. The contour interval is ^ inch. (3) in circular rings. cient water to raise the level ^ inch. If the stones are used. find the elevation of the highest spot and the lowest . (b) Pour into the box or jar enough water to cover the base of the model. (4) bending in towards the center of the model. and by comparison with the corresponding parts of the model explain what each of the following signifies: (1) close together. draw a line near the edge of to correspond with the water line on the model. just inside the first to represent the Add suffi- Draw another line new water line. shall be the Take special care to see that the distance of the line from the edge of the paper line same as the horizontal distance of the water from the edge of the model. (2) far apart.12 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES contour lines can be brought out quite as well with the stones as with the special model. On the topographic map spot. (c) You have now made a contour map of the model. the same size as Having provided a sheet of paper the base. (d) Find on the map you have drawn the following arrangements of contours. of the highest point. with the coast line of the model. Mark the first line drawn on your map " sea level. Proat a time till ceed in this way to add water ^ inch is only a After each addition of water draw a line on your paper to correspond left small peak of the model uncovered. (5) bend- ing out away from the center of the model. (b) a smaller contour interval than that suggested in will need to be taken. graphic (e) On the topo- map find each of these arrangements of contours. How much is the contour interval on the topographic map of your locality? Explain what this means. each line that you have drawn representing a contour line.

To do this. determine the relation between the direction of contours {g) lines and the direction of the slope. {d) small black (a) blue lines. Compare the total fall of the first half of the distance with that of the second half. Name a few of the principal rivers. squares. tionate size- Find the following and explain what they signify: (5) heavy black lines with cross lines. that relief in the vicinity of the largest stream. (a) By what survey and under whose direction was your map made ? (h) What is the name of your sheet ? (c) What is the scale how many miles to 3. From the elevations of these two points and the distance between them as the stream runs. and towns found on your map. In a similar way find the elevation where the stream leaves the map. 5.THE LAND 13 (/) From a study of the model and the map that you constructed. (c) fine black lines which are in pairs and parallel. find the fall per mile. Find the fall per mile of the largest stream. Draw in your notebook an outline map — an inch? of the state in of which your map is situated. U) What three general heads will include all the fea- shown by the contours ? 2. find the point where the stream enters the map and take the elevation at the first point where the stream is crossed by a contour. What is the meaning of the heavy brown contour found on the topographic map? (A) do the elevations of contours adjacent to each side of a stream compare ? (i) How Find the is. the difference in elevation between the stream bed and the tures divide. lakes. 6. and mark on it the location your map by a small rectangle of the correct propor4. .

What is it? Number the dots to correspond with the cross lines. Imagine yourself to be standing on the summit of some hill. and determine how far you can see north. Draw a smooth connecting these points. if the elevation of point No. Describe the country along the route chosen. For the vertical scale take Jg inch for every 100 feet. 1 is 700 feet. 8. and make dots to correspond in position with the cross lines on the map. cross section with the but with the vertical scale same horizontal 1 inch to 5000 scale feet. Using the same base make another as above.14 7. 1. Proceed in the same line way with the other elevations. Write a description of the country to be seen from this point. and west. Distance and grade must both be taken into consideration. measure up from the line -^-^ inch and make a dot at this place. east. line as in the previous exercise. Find the elevation of cross line No. In thus copying the length of the line you are using the same horizontal scale as is found on the map. In the same way write the height for each of the other cross lines. Measure up from your line distances to represent the elevation under each dot. make a line of the same length as the one drawn by the instructor on the map. For instance. EXERCISE IX (sec Appendix A) To MAKE A Cross Section of the Contour Map used IN THE Preceding Exercise In your notebook. near the bottom of the page. . LABORATORY ANI> PI ELD EXERCISES places as far apart as the Determine the best bicycle road between two selected map will permit. south. and find the distance between them. Write the number of feet under the figure 1 in your notebook.

How much is the vertical exaggeration in the first section? In both of these mark in blue bodies of water crossed by the line. exercise x Stupy of a Haohuke Map Fig.THE LAND 15 the same. long and . Reprksextaiion of Kelief r. 2. Do the same with every profile made. Find on the map each of the following features and it explain what signifies : (a) it a white oval or circular spot (b) with lines radiating from in every direction. sections This will make tlie horizontal and vertical scales about This is the true profile.v Haciiuues 1. Label the profiles and write near them both the horizontal and vertical scales.

Copy this line lightly in draw the hachures Beginning with this. none of which should cross the streams. Draw a rectangle in your notebook of the same size as this one on the map. forming a letter V. 1. places where rows of lines come together. direction of the slopes . EXERCISE XI (see Appendix A) To EEPRODUCB IN Hachuebs A Pakt of the Contour Map of the Wicomico Eegion. location of hills and of the line On valleys. and the amount of slope by the length and shading of the hachures. Review your observations in the eighth exercise under Wherever there is a level area leave this without In the northern part of the rectangle is shading. make dots to indicate About an inch above the this make a profile. showing the by the direction of the hachures. and very steeply where there are black areas without distract lines. Reproduce as much of the Wicomico sheet. 3. your notebook. draw a line connecting the summits of two hills and extended so as to be about 2 inches long. more steeply where the lines are short and heavy.16 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES (c) fine lines. In your notebook draw a line this same length. Draw lines to represent the streams and the eastern shore line of the Wicomico River. To make a profile of a hachure map. 2. {d) black areas without ie) distinct lines. 38° 20' latitude and 76° 50' longitude. a flat- topped hill bounded by the 140-foot contour line. short and heavy lines. 1 (/). as is included between the edges of the map. Be careful to have the profile slope gently where the lines are long and fine. Maryland of the lower right-hand comer Maryland. using the dots as guides in placing the hills and valleys. 2. for the rest of the area.

Now and under each dot put lay the paper on your notebook.THE LAND making long fine 17 hachures for gentle slopes and short slopes. In each case mark the position of the streams by blue lines of the correct proportionate length. the elevation of that point. Whenever reference to lines on the maps is made in connection with these profiles. Do not make any of the lines longer than | inch. On this line mark the dots and elevations to correspond with those on the paper. When heavy ones for steep is finished. Then proceed as in the previous case to construct the cross section. its in Exercise IX. Make dots on the paper opposite the points whose elevations are to be taken. At the close of each exercise the pupil should try to picture in his mind the appearance of the land the map of which he has been studying. In the remaining map studies the cross sections are to be constructed in the same manner as the one already all the area made maps. and draw a line equal in length to the distance marked to show the limits of the profile. and whenever the slope changes. it will be understood that these indicate direction only and that no line is to be drawn. The purpose of the observations called for in the following map studies is to bring out the topographic features. lay a piece of paper on the map so that edge connects the points between which the profile is to be drawn. only no line is to be drawn on the Instead. . carefully erase the line drawn to represent the 140-foot contour. show the change by a difference in the hachures.

Make are the settlements located? word to " river " and extending on each side scale as on the map. and at the contours nearest each side of the river. 2. Note scale and contour interval. 5. La. Take the . Where is is the highest part of the plain? On what. 1. Make a profile as on map. 3. EXERCISE Xin EivEE Terraces Springfield Sheet. What determines the direction of the main roads a profile along a line crossing the to ? Where 7. along the line of 42° 10' latitude 70° 36' and 70° 40' (horizontal scale between longitude 1. How high above sea level yet it is the lowest part of the as the river region? flows. Horizontal scale 1 inch Take the elevations at the ends of the line 100 feet. the river flowing ? is What the nature of most of the area is ? 4. And 150 miles from the sea Does Bayou Conway flow toward or away from the river ? 6.18 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES EIVEES EXERCISE Xn (see Appendix A) Flood Plains Bonaldsonville Sheet. vertical the marsh. vertical scale 1 inch to 200 feet). Mass. This is the first thing to be done in the study of each of the following maps. then.

Md. what is the nature of the land ? What is it between the railroad and river? What separates these two stretches ? How has the level area just east of the river been formed? Does its similarity to the area at the top of the bank suggest how the upper area may have been formed? In what ways must the conditions have differed from those found now? at the EXERCISE xrv Lengthwise and Crosswise Valleys Harper's Ferry Sheet.THE LAND 19 elevations at the ends of the line. Describe the second valley where 3. cuts the Blue Ridge. .. heavy contours on the west side. 2. 2. at each the of ends the at elevations the case take side of the river.. first valley. and one of the lengthwise (horizontal scale valley from Londoun Heights to Leetown In each feet). the local base level of the Shenandoah River ? on account of a difference in the hardness of the Shenandoah should do its vertical erosion more the Potomac. vertical scale 1 inch to 1000 line. W. and at the 200-foot and 80-foot contours on the east side. Va. the Heights to Londoun Heights. in what way would the first than quickly river use its extra time and energy ? Do you see any evidence on the map that bears out your answer ? from Maryland 5. 1. Va. and at the heavy contour lines. is What If. Make a profile of the crosswise valley 4. as on map. Find the lengthwise valley west of the Blue Ridge Describe the it and the crosswise valley cutting across the Ridge. rock. at each side of the river. As you pass from the east end of the line to the 200-foot contour.

at the ends of the line 1000 feet). 2. (a) How does the width of the valley bottom com(h) pare with the width of the stream? flood plains? Are there any 4. Take the elevations and at the heavy contours. Make a cross section from the letter y to the letter v in the word " Yavapai" (horizontal scale 1 inch to 2 miles. cal scale 1 inch to 2. (c) (6) Find the fall of the Kanawha How does the slope of the . slope of the valley sides. 1.20 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES exercise xv Young Eivees Echo 1. 3. Find {a) the fall per mile of the Colorado River^ (c) describe the (b) the width of the canyon at the top vertical scale 1 inch to . In studying the features of mature and old rivers keep in mind the conditions found on the previous map or maps. River. verti- 1000 feet). Make a profile from Rocky Fork to the western end of Grapevine Knob (horizontal scale as on the map. Ariz. Va. Cliffs Sheet. (a) Describe the slopes found here. Take the elevations at each end of the line. W. and at the highest point between two adjacent roads. at the carriage roads. 3. What do you find about the distinctness of the divide between Navajo Creek and the Little Colorado River? Is its location ill defined or sharply defined ? exercise xvi Mature Rivers Charleston Sheet.

7. Take the and elevations at the contours on each at the contours nearest the inter- side of the streams sections of the roads. Describe the slopes found here. Kan. Find the divide between the Coal and Kanawha rivers. found on the preceding sheet ? How many lakes do you find? 6. Make a cross section along the carriage road running north and south through Milan. Can its position and limits be distinctly located ? How wide is it? as 5. extending five squares on either side (horizontal scale as on map. 1. How do the slope of the banks and the width of the valley bottom compare with these features in the Colorado. appearance. (J) What do you note about the course of the river? 3. How much is the difference in elevation between the ? lowest and highest points 5. . Describe the width. 4.THE LAND smallei: streams 21 (d) compare with this? Does the Kana- wha have a flood plain? 4. (a) Are the tributaries few or numerous ? (b) Is there opportunity for them to increase their length by cutting back at their headwaters ? How does this compare with the tributaries of the Colorado that is ? (c) Do you find any area not well drained ? EXERCISE xvn Old Eiveks Caldwell Sheet. vertical scale 1 inch to 1000 feet). and distinctness of the divide between this river and Slate Creek. 2. (a) Find the fall of the Chibaskia River.

which should be copied in your notebook. three Age of River . From a study of your notes and profiles of these maps make a comparison of the characteristics of youth. maturity.22 6. and old age in the tabular form given below. LABORATORY AXD FIELD EXERCISES In what kind of lines do the carriage roads extend? about the number and location to be favorable for What does this indicate ? 7. What do you note of villages? Does the region seem settlement ? 8.

pro- ceed as in the previous case to construct a profile of the Ohio. tance.THE LAND Under each of these numbers put the corresponding height above the mouth level. Using the table. One inch below the line previously drawn. 2. Of the Ohio River base 1. Make a dot in each case at the proper dis- 23 to 2000 Connect these dots by a smooth line slightly concave upward. (a) In what stage of development is each of these rivers ? in {h) What differences form do you note between two profiles ? (c) In what part of the Yellowstone do you find the steepest In what part the slope? these gentlest slope? . Measure up from the correspond with the heights above the mouth on the scale of 1 inch line distances to feet. 3. b. con- struct another line 11 inches long.

24

LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES
EXERCISE XIX

A
Map
1.

Study of the Mississippi Eivek

of the Alluvial Valley of the Mississippi River
flood plain
is

The

tinted blue and the land above flood

levels white (scale 5 miles to an inch).

The

figures near the

river indicate distances
2.

What

is

from Cairo, 111., as the river runs. the form of the lower end of the delta?

How many
3.

distributaries or passes are there ?

Does Bayou La Fourche flow toward or away from the river ? Do you find other distributaries ? 4. What is the first distributary as you follow the river south from Vicksburg? If the point where this leaves the river be taken as the head of the delta, how far out has it been built? From measurements on the map, estimate approximately the area of the delta. What cities
have been built on this delta ?
5.
its

What
What

is

the position of the 'river with reference to
the average width of the flood plain above

flood plain ?
6.
is

the head of the delta ?
7. (a) What do you note about the location of the lakes with reference to the flood plain and the land on either side ? (J) What is the shape of the lakes near the river? (c) Do

you

find

any part

of the river that will be soon left as a

cut-off or lake as the

work

of the river progresses

?

Make

a drawing in your notebook to illustrate this feature.
8.

What

is

characteristic

of the course of

the river

through the whole length shown on these maps ? How far is it in a straight line from the point where the river enters the map at latitude 34° 20' to where it leaves it at latitude
33° 10'?

How far does the river flow in going this distance?

THE LAND

25

GLACIAL FOEMATIONS
exercise

xx

Glacial Mokaines
Eagle Sheet, Wis.
1.

2.

What What
What
?

is

characteristic of the courses of the streams?

else

do you notice concerning the water

fea-

tures
3.

shown here ?
is

the appearance of the land between the
or even?

streams

4. Are the contours sinuous shown concerning the regularity
5.

What
?

is

thus

of the surface

How How

does a section across

Mukwonago compare with
6.

Fox River above Lake one just below the lake?

compare?
7.
(a)

does the relief at different points on the map For example, compare the relief just northeast
find

of Eagleville with that just south.

Do you

any ponds without outlet?

(6)

In

the stream north of Eagleville

how

does the slope of the

upper half compare with that of the lower half ? In our study of the Yellowstone and Ohio rivers what kind of
longitudinal profile did
(c)

we

find that a river tends to

make

?

do your observations under [a) and (h) show concerning the age of the streams and land features found here? Give reasons for your answer. 8. In the Third Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey examine plates facing pages 318 and 370.

What

26

LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES
EXERCISE XXI

Dkumlins

Sun Prairie
1.
2.

Sheet, Wis.

What is the shape of the hills found here ? What is their average height above the surrounding
What
?

country ?
3.

do you notice about the direction of their

longer axes
4. 5.

Can you

explain

?

What is the nature of the land between these hills ? What do you observe concerning the number of

streams and their courses?
6.

— do they cut through
shown concerning

What

is

the relation of the streams to the drumlins
or

How around them ? What

is

thus

the relative age of the hills

and streams ?

Were
hills
7.

the courses of the streams carved after or before the

were formed?

Are the sides of the drumlins smooth or are they dissected by streams ? What do you infer concerning the
time that these
8.
to

hills

have been exposed to erosion ?

See Fig. 103 in Gilbert and Brigham's Introduction

Physical Geography.
9.

Does the parallelism

of

the longer axes of these

drumlins, extending in the same general direction as that

which the glacier moved, suggest any explanation way in which these drumlins may have been formed ? 10. What other maps have you studied that show the influence of the glacial period on man ?
in

regarding the

vertical scale 1 inch to 200 feet). {a) Are the valleys shallow or deep? (h) Do the branches of the principal streams cut back so that their sources are near together and all the area is well diained.THE LAND PLAINS EXERCISE XXn 27 Coastal Plains Grlassboro Sheet. . or are there level areas on 4. and location of the villages? Does the map suggest a reason for their location 8. at the letter 0. What do you note concei'ning the number. of the interstream areas? What is the appearance What is their average height? 3. 1. N. J. size. at the contours on either side of the streams. and at the highest point between the two streams. ? Make a profile along a line just above the village of Clayton. beginning at the letter Y and extending east 5 inches (horizontal scale as on the map. (a) ? ' What do (6) the tufts of blue lines beside the streams fall of signify 2. which no streams in elevation are found ? ? 5. ? (a) What (b) do you note about the location of the roads and railroads with reference to the valleys and interstream ? areas In what kind of lines do they extend ? Why ? Are the roads around your home similar ? Why ? 7. Take the elevations at the ends of the line. What What is is the average relief along the Maurice River the difference between the miles highest point in the northern part and the highest point in the southern part of the map ? About how many apart are they 6. Find the the Maurice River.

extend? What is these mountains ? In what direction do the mountains the appearance of the areas between . Take the elevation of each contour crossed. of fertility of the soil 5. JV. 6. EXERCISE XXra Lake Plains a. is times. Dak. 5. The area represented on this map a part of the Great Basin region. Make a profile along the line of 46° 50' latitude. one of the best wheat regions in the world. Where are the roads and buildings located ? Judging from their number. Fargo Sheet. What is the average distance between the contour lines ? What is thus shown concerning this region ? 3. On this account of the country which Lake Winnipeg is a remnant. 1. Utah is 1. does the region seem to be weU adapted for settlement? do you observe concerning the number and courses of the streams? Describe the valleys as regards width and depth. vertical scale 1 inch to 200 feet). slope. Toele Valley Sheet. What ginning with the contour at the east bank of the Sheyenne River and extending to the third contour east of the Red River (horizontal scale as on the map. What is the elevation of the region expressed in ? nearest hundreds of feet 2. be4. relief. This region was once the bed of a huge lake of glacial Lake Agassiz. LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES Summarize (c) briefly in a sentence the features of the land represented on this (h) map as regards (a) elevation. and the level surface.28 9.

" beginning at the 900-foot contour just southwest of the letter L and extending east to the 900foot contour about halfway between the two w's (horizontal scale as on map. How much is the relief near East Branch Otter Creek? Find the slope per mile of this stream. 7. What do you note about the location and direction of the roads 6. . 3. vertical scale 1 inch to 200 feet). Lake Bonneville. and at points about halfway between the 900-foot contours. EXERCISE XXIV Glacial Plains {Prairies) Marion 1. 117 in Gilbert and Brigham's Introduction to Physical Creography. Take the elevation at each of the 900-foot contours. of which Great Salt Lake is a shrunken remnant. at the contours on either side of the stream. 2. Describe the valleys of the two branches of Otter Creek with reference to their depth and slope. What becomes of most of the streams that flow down from the mountains ? Can you suggest an explanation ? 3. For illustration of the features of this old lake. 5. 4. See Fig.THE LAND 29 2. This area was smoothed over with drift dragged by a large ice sheet which passed over it a number of thousand years ago. 4. examine figures on pages 172 and 186 of the Second Annual Report of the United States G-eological Survey. Sheet. ? Make a profile along the heavy broken line just below the word "Linn. Iowa Describe the appearance of the land north of Marion. The areas between the ridges were once the bottom of a great lake.

Find the depth of the canyon of the Colorado River. Cliffs? What is the height of the region? 4. PLATEAUS EXERCISE XXVI YouNfi Plateaus Echo Cliffs Sheet. 130. Ariz. 148. do you observe concerning the number of settlements and the location of the trails? 8. What do you find concerning the number of streams draining this area? 6. Large Part of the Great Plains Review your notes on "An Old River. 2. 146. 2. In the Second Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey see plates opposite pages 62. 144. Review your notes already made on this sheet and answer the following questions. 110. .30 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES EXERCISE XXV WoEN-DowN Plains A 1. Kansas. Sheet. 5. What What do you notice about the number and length of ? the dry canyons 7. 1. What is the appearance of the region each side of Echo 3." Caldwell See Plate VI in Davis' Elementary Physical Geography. and 162.

describe top and sides. 2. size. Review your notes of Exercise XVI. would you explain these features ? Beginning with the letter G in Cedar Gap. How high above the surrounding land this as regards is it? How ? do other mesas compare with elevation 5. Take the elevations at the ends of the the 2000-foot and 2100-foot contours. What do you notice concerning the location of the roads and the number. 1. What is the difference in elevation between est and highest points ? 4. 1. vertical scale feet). its Are they them ? obstacles to travel Taking the mesa west of Cedar Gap as a type. 80 in Davis' Elementary Physical Geography. W. Va. See Fig. at scale as on map. and at each edge of the top of the mesa. 6. and location of the villages ? 5. 79 in Davis' Elementary Physical Geography. draw 1 How a profile along a line extending 2 inches west (horizontal inch to 500 line. EXERCISE XXVin Old Plateaus Abilene Sheet. northern third of the sheet. or are there gaps between 4.THE LAND exercise xxvii 31 Dissected Plateaus Charleston Sheet. . These are called mesas. compare? the low- 9 How do the elevations of neighboring ridges What is the significance of this ? 3. Describe the slope and appearance of the land in the How high is this area ? What additional feature do you find in the central third? 3. Tex. See Fig.

32 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES MOUNTAINS exercise xxix Dissected Block Mountains Alturas Sheet. How What high above the surrounding country do they rise? 4. 1. In what direction do the Warner Mountains extend? miles long are they ? How many wide ? What is the nature of the land on either side of these mountains? 3. do you observe concerning the number of slope on the eastern with that on the streams on their sides? 5. Make a profile through Cedar Peak along a line extending 3 inches east and 3^ inches west (horizontal scale as on map. vertical scale 1 inch to 4000 feet). What does this signify? Are the crests of the mountains smooth and even or notched and uneven ? 8. The contours bend toward the center of the mountain where crossed by streams. 9. To do this the streams. . How many 2. Oal. summit and at each of the heavy to See Fig. 128 in Gilbert and Brigham's Introduction Physical Greography. and away from the center between western side at five or six places Eagle peaks. 7. 6. Take the elevations at the contours. Compare the between Fandango and compare the distances from the summit to the 5000-foot contour on each side.

THE LAND
EXERCISE

33

XXX

Domed Mountains
Menry Mountains
1.

Sheet, Utah

Mount Ellsworth? How high above the surrounding country does it rise ? 2. (a) What is the direction of the contours with reference to the summit ? (6) Do the summits of this mountain and the others north of it end in sharp peaks ? (c) In the

What

is

the diameter of

Mount Ellsworth is the steepest slope at the sumlittle way below ? (d) Bearing in mind the observations made, describe the form of Mount Ellsworth. 3. Make a profile along a line running northwest and
case of

mit or a

southeast through the summit, extending to the 6000-foot

contour on each side (horizontal scale 1 inch to 2 miles,
vertical scale 1 inch to

4000

feet).

Take the

elevations at

the ends of the line, at the summit, and at each of the

heavy contours.
4. In Gilbert's Report on the Gteology of the Henry Mountains examine the frontispiece, the figures on pages 19, 23, and 27, and Plates I, II, and III at the end of the

book.

exercise xxxi

Massive Mountains
a.

The Rochy Mountains in Colorado.
Sheet, Col.

Canyon City

1.

In what direction do the

Wet

Mountains extend ?

2.

What

is

the relation to these mountains of the valley
?

How does its valley on the eastern from that on the western ? 3. What effects have the smaller streams had on the slopes of the mountains ?
of the Arkansas River

part of the

map

differ

34
4.

LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES
Find Webster Park, just southwest of Royal Gorge. does this differ from the country south of it ?
Huerfano Parh
1.
2.

How

Sheet, Col.

What

is the height of Blanca Peak? Find Veta Pass on the southeastern part of the map.

What
3.

is its

relation to the streams near ?

See Plates I and VII in Davis' Elementary Physical
to

Geography. In Gilbert and Brigham's Introduction
ical

Phys-

Geography examine Figs. 121, 123, and 124. 123 locate the area you have been studying.
b.

In Fig.

The Rocky Mountains in Montana. Sheet, Mont.

Livingstone

1.

Compare the summits

of the Bridger

and Absaroka

ranges.
2. In what respects does the valley of the Yellowstone River between Lower and Yankee Jim canyons differ from that farther south ? This valley was probably at one time

filled

by a

lake.

EXERCISE XXXn

WoBN-DowN Mountains which have again been uplifted
Chesterfield Sheet, Mass.

you were standing on the elevation \ mile southRingville, what would be the appearance of the sky line as you looked around in a circle? Are the hills of so nearly the same height as to form an even sky
1.

If

east

of

line, or is

to give a
2.

the difference between their elevations such rugged appearance? the

as

With

summit

of this hill as a center,

draw a

cir-

cle

with a radius of 1^ inches.

This

is

to represent the

THE LAND

35

sky line for one standing at the center. Make a small cross on the summits of about seven of the principal hills
so chosen as to be Procure a piece of unruled paper 2 inches wide and of the same length as the circumference of the circle. Bend the paper till the ends meet. Stand this on the map, making it coincide with the circum-

that

come nearest the circumference,

scattered as

much

as possible.

ference.

On

the outside of the paper at the bottom

dots opposite the

marked

height of that

hill.

Now
1000

make Put over each dot the measure up from each of these
hills.

dots distances to correspond with the elevations on the
scale of 1 inch to
feet.

Calculate and measure the

distances to the nearest thirty-second of an inch.

Mark

the limit of each of these distances with a dot.
these with a smooth line.

Connect

With

scissors or knife cut the

paper along this line, and bend till the ends meet. This represents the sky line as it would be seen from the cen-

Now look again at question 1 and see whether your answer agrees with the profile. Paste this in your notebook. 3. If the valleys were filled up to the level of these hills, what would be the appearance of the region? 4. At one time there existed in New England a mountain system which was worn down to a plain, of which these hilltops are the remnant. The land was then uplifted and the processes of erosion began their work. What evidences of uplift and erosion do you find? 5. Describe the valleys with reference to their width, depth, and slope of banks. In what stage of development
ter of the circle.

are the streams

?

6. In the National Geographic Monograph^ No. 9, " The Physical Geography of Southern New England," examine

figures

on pages 270, 272, 286, and 287.

" examine figures on pages 170 and 183. How far apart are the ridges ? What the relation of streams like Clark and Stony? creeks to the ridges What is the relation of the Susque- hanna River to the ridges ? 4. At what points is the Susquehanna narrowest? How may this be explained? Would the same explanation apply to the presence of the ridges and valleys? 5. vertical scale 1 inch to 1000 Take the elevations at the summits of the ridges. and at the 400-foot and 500-foot contours in the valley of Stony Creek. In the National G-eograpMc Monograph. " The Northern Appalachians. 7. Where are the settlements located? Make a profile from the letter B in Blue Mountain d in to the letter Third Mountain (horizontal scale feet). 8. at the streams. (h) What relation in direction do these ridges bear to each other ? (e) How do their heights com- pare 2. What do your observations made under 1 (c) suggest concerning the former condition of the country ? 6. Second. . No. Pa. 6. (a) Describe the summits of Peters.36 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES EXERCISE XXXni Appalachian Ridges Harrishurg Sheet. at the 500-foot and 600-foot contours in the valley of Fishing Creek. is ? is What the average depth of the valleys between these ridges 3. 1. ? {d) Describe their slopes. and Blue mountains. as on the map.

higli is Mount Shasta above the sea level? high above the surrounding country? What is its general form? As you pass from base to summit. " Mount Shasta. What What is found at their lower have their source just below these ? Why ? indicated by the brown lines in the center of Hotlum Glacier? 6. Draw the base line for the Shasta profile 4' inches from the top of the paper. Cal. 258. 8. scale 1 inch to 4000 feet). 8. What do the white What patches with blue lines found near the is summit represent? How many forination is are there? How large the largest? ends ? 5. of the line. vertical Take the elevations at the ends two thousand feet. for every parallel with the shorter dimension. Cal. No. 244. and 260. . 1. where are the slopes steepest? 3. extending northwest and southeast to the 5000-foot contour on each side (horizontal scale as on map. a profile along a line through the top of Mount Shasta. For the profiles of this and the next two exercises use a piece of unruled paper 10 by 6 inches." examine figures on pages 243. In the National Geographic Monograph.THE LAND 37 VOLCANOES exercise xxxiv Young Volcan-io Mountains Shasta Special Map. How many Make minor summits do you find? Shasta Sheet. What ? evidences do you find of the beginnings of erosion 4. 7. and at the summit. How How 2.

regularity of form? {d) diameter Make a profile along a line through the summit. exercise xxxvi Old Volcanic Mountains. Volcanic Necks N. (c) form {d) diameter at Make a profile along a line from the summit.Mex. height above surrounding country base. Mount Taylor 1.Mex. extending northwest and southeast to the 8000-foot contour on each side (scales as in the previous exercise). 4. . and at the 6400foot and 7000-foot contours. Draw this line % inch from the bottom of the paper. Sheet. N. 8 and 9 in Physiographic Types. elevations at the summits and at the heavy con- Draw the base line 3 inches below the Shasta line. Sheet. Make a written comparison of these three profiles and paste the paper in j^our notebook. extend- ing eastward just over the top of the letter foot contour. [a) . Take the tours. Take the elevations at the ends of the line. C to the 6000- and westward to the 6000-foot contour (scales as in the two preceding exercises). at the summit. How does Mount {a) Taylor compare with Mount Shasta (I) as regards elevation above surrounding country? (c) steepness of slopes? at base ? 2.38 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES exercise xxxv Matubbly Dissected Volcanic Mountausts Mount Taylor 1. Describe Cabezon Peak as regards . 3. Folio IT. See Figs. (h) slope . 2.

present condition could have brought about this relation ? . CBAtEK CONTAINING A LaKE Lake Special Map. Sheet. 3. map ? How ? wide are the lava beds ? What is their average elevation 3. what would be the appearance of ? man and the land surrounding the lake Watchman sloj)e 2.THE LAND exercise xxxvii 39 Lava Plateaus Modoc Lava Beds 1. These valleys were found. Cal. What two very different kinds of land forms do you find represented on this 2. with liquid lava. Do you think that the streams in their 4. Crater If one were standing on the summit of the Watchlooking east. is the surface of the lake How many feet below the ? How would the to the west compare with that to the east? How wide is the lake? How deep? Has it any outlet? How high above the surrounding country is the ridge around the lake? Examine the streams and valleys on the southern slope to ascertain what relation they bear to the ridge surrounding the lake. What do you notice concerning the course of the filled Pit River? 4. which it spread out evenly and cooled in the position in which is any evidence of the effect on the streams that might result from the blocking of the valleys by such an outpouring? find now Do you EXERCISE XXXVIII A 1. Ore.

Folio II. 10 and 11. is it sharply dissected with steep slopes. or old? Is a flood plain present? . (b) elevation. probably sunk. First deter- mine the general character of the country. whether that of a plain. In Physiographic Types. If a plateau. is it young. study the plates between pages 379 and 381. dissected. In Gilbert and Brigham's Introduction to Physical Geography. In the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1897. If you suppose that part of the map covered by the lake to be filled in with contours coming to a point. see Figs.40 5. but exercise xxxix Identification of Land Forms Determine what type of land form is represented on the maps furnished you. is it young. cutting off canyons part way down the slope. see Figs. or is it subdued with gentle slopes? If there is a river on the map. as in Shasta. 7. 8. LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES The feature referred to in 4 indicates that the its mounupper these tain was once much higher than now. you will have restored in a general way the former volcano. (c) relief. Then. and that part has disappeared. with increasing slope. mountain. by a more careful study. Compare this map with the Shasta Special. your notebook the section at the bottom of making it only half as large. mature. or some other form. ascertain in what stage of development the land form is. In studying the map note {a) scale and contour interval. which was probably of about the same size as Shasta. or old ? If a mountain. plateau. 152 and 153. Copy in the map.

translucent. 1. Crystalline or amorphous. writing the description in may your notebook. compact. 8. fibrous. Specific gravity. Hardness. 6. rhombohedral. silky. . air by loss of Luster. scale. To THE Pupil. Describe each of the minerals furnished you in accordance with the following outline. Cubic. banded. Form. 3. Structure. 4. each mineral After the terms to be used are under- be studied as suggested below. Transparent. Streak Color. Granular. Transparency. stood. Metallic. Before beginning the study of individual minerals each of the features suggested in the accompanying outline should be studied by means of the specimens. 9. Perfect or imperfect. Determine by dividing weight in weight in water. opaque. Cleavage. Refer to 5. the pupils first noting the differences and then being told the names applied to the various characteristics. 7. 2. basal.THE LAND exercise xl 41 Study of Minerals To THE Teacher. vitreous. resinous. pearly. foliated.

compare with your written description of that mineral or rock to ascertain if your identification is correct. . (h) color of each 4. How What does the weathered surface in each differ from ? a freshly exposed surface 3. When you have named a specimen. 2. FIELD WOKK {see Appendix a) EXERCISE XLII Weathering 1. After all the specimens have been studied. metamorphic. (d) you can distinguish between igneous. To what due. monuments. from the features suggested in 1 and 2. ledges. 1.. (a) relative amount of each (c) . Examine buildings. 5. 6. and sedimentary rocks. 42 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES EXERCISE XLI Study of Kocks Describe each of the rocks in accordance with the lowing outline. 3. Crystalline or amorphous. quarries. Of what minerals composed. 2. Identify the unlabeled specimens of rocks and minerals furnished you. how held together. Do you notice any difference in the rapidity with which the different kinds of rocks weather ? Does weath- ering take place evenly in all parts of the exposed surface . and bowlders for evidence of weathering. stone walls. agents may have been at work to bring about these changes? 4. Prevailing color or colors of rock. tell how size and form of grains . fol- Stratified or unstratified.

Make a diagram in your notebook to show 2. the ridges of Pennsylvania. 8. In order to obtain some idea of the rapidity with which weathering agents work. What is the current? the action of the stream on the bank nearest What is taking place on the opposite bank. giving examples exercise xlhi Stream Action 1. Refer to your text-book and find examples. by inquiry. Study the current of a small stream. in other parts of the world. What becomes of the weathered material? Is this motion of the land waste continuous ? What are some of the forms that this waste assumes on its journey? Of what use is it to mankind meanwhile ? What will the final result be if this wasting away continues for long ages? What forces may interfere with this result? 6. how long the surfaces you are examining have been exposed. .THE LAND 43 if of the same rock? Look around your locality to see you can find results of this differential weathering on a larger scale. Describe what you 9. and others. Name the agents of weathering. Look to see if you can find any place where the roots of trees are aiding in breaking up the rocks. 5. evidence of field. whose action you have actually seen in the of each. ascertain if you can. such as the Catskill Mountains. of different shapes of the earth's surface due to the wasting away of the land. find. In a railroad cut or in a quarry compare the color of the material at the top with that of the material at the bottom. On which side of a curve is the stronger current? this. 7.

any evidences of vertical erosion 5.channel a local base level. weaker? Compare the slope of the Examine other parts of the stream to see this process. For an example of vertical erosion look up a discussion of the Colorado River. under which each kind of erosion occurs. iis regards swiftness of current. does the stream tend to be crooked or straight? of the land What is the appearance on either side of the stream where lateral erosion is occurring? What is the width of the flood plain? Of what kind of material is it composed? Describe the material as regards shape and arrangement. up the Mississippi. to be When may the whole stream be said graded? . This action is known as lateral erosion. Rhine. Do you find anywhere in the stream? How does the velocity of the stream where vertical erosion is most prominent compare with that where lateral erosion is taking place? Explain then the conditions. 3. 4. and Nile Do you find in the stream alternations of rapids with reaches of quiet water? In the reaches what determines is the depth to which the . Where lateral erosion is taking place.44 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES is where the current two banks. there ? just sufficient slope to allow the current to wash along the waste furnished. or refer to illustrations and discussion in the text- book. if you can find more advanced stages of In this con- nection study a topographic map of the lower Mississippi River. For examples of flood plains look rivers. 6. cut? This is known as What is the final base level of a stream ? What is these reaches do you note concerning the strength of current in These are said to be graded. that is.

a river with a steep narrow gorge like that of the Colorado. or a broad open valley like that of the Mississippi ? 8. .) At other times do you any motion of the sediment along the bottom of the stream? What effect will the motion of these particles have on the. 10. reached this final stage. Read about the amount done by any large river system. to be fairly on the way towards it. In broadening valleys what part do weathering and erosion play respectively? If these processes continue for long periods. Do you find the stream actually carrying any sediment? (Observe just after a rain. or to be only just beginning ? Look up examples of each find — of these stages in other parts of the world. Write a Make brief a map of the area. account of what you have learned regarding stream action. does it seem to have nearly are studying to be. what you find. After a heavy rain examine the gullies by the roadside for examples of erosion and deposition. Which indicates the larger amount of weathering and erosion. what will be the final form of the surrounding country? In what stage of this cycle should you judge the stream you that is. without the intervention of other forces. Describe 9.THE LAND . 45 7.bed of the stream? Do you find any large pebbles in the stream which the current cannot move? How do you account for their presence here? What is the source of the material which the stream is carrying and depositing? Note the amount of erosion that the stream you are studying has accomplished.

are the more common ? What is the general form ? of the surface in each case In the unstratified deposit describe the material found as regards shape. Do you find stratified and unstratified material in the same bed? 8. How many different surface forms of glacial deposits can you find? Visit any drumlins (see topographic map. extend in the same direction? In the stratified deposit note the general form of the surface and the shape and arrangement of the fragments composing the deposit. Can you find any fragments that Ascertain the significance of the underlying rock that is are scratched? find any of this. Which 2. Can you scratched and rounded? In all what direction do these scratches extend? Is the Do they rock deeply weathered? What inference do you draw regarding the time that has elapsed since these rocks were scoured by the glacier ? 6. Do you find any rock fragments unlike the rock of the neighboring ledges? Are the fragments all of one kind or quite varied in composition? 4.). Sun Prairie. How do you explain the difference between these and the unstratified deposits? 7. relative size. and arrangement. or kames that may be found in . Examine both stratified and unstratified deposits. How do the shape and arrangement compare with those of the materials found in the flood plain ? How do ' you explain the difference? 5.46 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES EXERCISE XLFV Drift 1. Wis. 3. Could this formation have been made by water? Give reasons for your answer. eskers.

and the study of drift in the northeastern part of the country. dance.THE LAND your neighborhood. tion in Note its general form and the direc- which it extends (What relation does this bear to the direction of ice movement?). or are rapids common? Are ponds found in the neighborhood? Of what stage of develop- ment 11. and shape of the fragments composing the moraine (see topographic map. If near the southern limit of the glacial belt. 12. The study of weathering and stream action may be carried on in almost every locality. An attempt may be made to explain and classify the general topographic features of the vicinity. noting their form and nature of the material composing them. Charlestown. If the instructor can learn the location of the nearest outcrop northward . ally Are the streams of the surrounding country gener- smooth flowing. are these features evidence? Look for drift bowlders. The nature of further field work must depend upon the locality. a trip may be made to a glacial deposit for the purpose of ascertaining how many kinds of rocks may be found.I. depth of deposit. Additional Field Woek such as The field work here suggested is may best be done in the fall to serve as a foundation for later work. visit the terminal moraine. one situated in a glaciated region. composition.). and arrange- ment. 47 size and the How does the thickness of ? the drift at different places compare 10. 9. R. Are they like the rocks of the Note their size and abunimmediate vicinity? size. and in some cases it may be profit- able to If make is a topographic map of a small area.

observations may the work of the waves in wearing back the coast rial and of the currents in washing away the loose mateand in forming beaches and bars. ascertain whether the folio for . and from them a large number of field trips may be planned. D. Washington. One may any specified region has been published by addressing the Director of United States Geological Survey. this will tend to give impressions regarding the If work of the glacier. folios of the The United States G-eologic Atlas contain very detailed information regarding the geologic and geographic features of the region treated.48 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES more definite of each kind of rock. one is be made on near the sea or a large lake. The price of each folio is 50 cents.C.

CHAPTER THE ATMOSPHERE III (see Appmidix A) exercise xlv Weathek Observations Copy the table given below in your notebook. extending the columns to the bottom of the page. Between eight and nine o'clock each morning make the observations called for and put the record in your notebook. 11 .

Rainfall. On the table on page 51 are to be plotted the various weather conditions for the month. (Remember you will get the amount for any given day from the with black the part of line distances records of the next day. breaking small branches. blue. the line at the left are made to correspond with the scale on a barometer.rricane or tornado. Thus. Copy on a piece of unruled paper the table given on page 51. extending across the page. measure By means of the scale at the left down that for each day from the top line a distance correspond- ing with the amount of rainfall for that day. gale. if the amount of cloudiness were -^-^. you would measure down j-\ of the distance to this line. and yellow. and dis- tances are measured above and below this line to correfractions of an inch are spond with the scale on a thermometer.50 LABOKATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES . The line a little above this. measured off to represent the amount of rainfall.) Fill in the columns included within these distances. destroying everything in its path. for which you will need three colored pencils. hy. using care to keep the dimensions the same as those found in the table. 6. Temperature. blowing loose bricks from chimneys. Cloudiness. the following exercise is to be worked out. blowing up twigs from the ground. — red. Put a dot in each column opposite the reading on the left-hand line that corresponds with the . allowing the distance to the freezing-point line to represent a cloudiness of \^. When the above observations have been taken for a month. portionate distance for each day and fill Mark off the proin down to these points with yellow. represents the freezing point. Above this. swaying whole trees 6. The distances on the lower part of. Measure down from the same to represent the cloudiness.

THE ATMOSPHERE 51 o5 .

How do these readings compare with those taken at the top of the hill? How do you explain the difference ? The approximate height of the hill in feet may be found by multiplying by 90 the difference. By means of a thermometer find the temperature. and B the The Fahrenheit may be changed to the Centigrade by using the formula ^ ^ C— 5 . In the space just above the pressure line draw arrows to represent the direction of the wind for each day. ^ 9{F-32) .62 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES of that day. Pressure. To make allowance for any difference in temperatures. expressed in tenths of an inch. h j. using the red pencil. put dots opposite that part of the scale which corresponds with the pressure for that day. each barometric reading may first be reduced to the corresponding reading at 0° C. Connect these dots with a blue line. In a similar way. using the corrected pressure. in which t stands for the temperature the first corrected reading. do you trace between the temperature and pressure curves ? EXERCISE XL VI To FIND THE Height of a Hill by Means of a Baeometbk Take the reading of the barometer at the top of the hill. Take the readings of the barometer and thermometer at the bottom of the hill. mean temperature a Connect these dots with smooth line. Winds. reading of the barometer. by using the following formula: B = hil— Centigrade. having the arrows What relation fly with the wind. between the readings of the barometer.

light shading and blank. about one fourth full of water. thermometer. Take the mean of the two readings for the dew point. If the difference between the two is more than two degrees. repeat the experiment. light rainfall (generally under 20 inches) . and ice. While watching the outside of the vessel be careful not to breathe upon it. watching the outside of the As soon as a mist begins to form.THE ATMOSPHERE EXERCISE XLVn 63 To riNB THE Dew Point Apparatus : A tin cup. Add and stir carefully with the thermomevessel. moderate rain. Over the whole globe Fig. Chart op Annual Eainpall Dark shading. will probably be too low. 3. This To till correct this add water at the the mist begins to disappear. EXERCISE XLVni Annual Distbibution op Rainfall a. fall . take the reading of the thermometer. temperature of the room and then again take the reading of the thermometer. heavy rainfall (over 100 inches) medium shading. Fill the calorimeter a few pieces of ice ter.

. dotted. 64 1. from 10 inches to 20 inches. Where does the greatest amount of rainfall occur? Whsrs the least? How much is it in each case? How ranch is the amount for your own state ? . In the United States Fig. 4. belt of winds are they associated? Where are the regions of least rainfall ? What is the amount ? ? As you pass from the equatorial to the polar regions. LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES Where do the regions of greatest rainfall occur? With what 2.. Darkest shade. What relation do you find between mountain ranges and the amount of rainfall ? b. oyer 80 inches lighter vertical lines. less than 10 inches 1. Annual Rainfall of the United States . from 20 inches to 40 inches blank. from 40 inches to 80 inches horizontal lines. amount of rainfall occurs How does the amount of rainfall on the coasts compare with that in the interior of the continents ? 4. in the what change 3. How does the amount of rainfall on the eastern coasts compare with that on the western in the trade-wind belt ? 5.

55 How ? do the interior regions compare with the coast regions 3. as far as you can. explanations for the (b) the Great Basin. 5. Describe the distribution in each of the following regions. (d) exercise xlix The Effects of Lands and Oceans on Tempekatuke Fig.THE ATMOSPHERE 2. Rocky Mountains. Turn to Figs. 6 and 7. (/) Gulf coast. variable (c) amounts : (a) Pacific coast. (g) Atlantic coast. (e) northern and central Mississippi valley. In the first two regions what is the relation of the places of abundant and scanty rainfall to the Sierra Nevada and Coast ranges. Chart of Annual Range of Tempeeatdrb 1. For the winter do the iso- therms over the lands in the northern hemisphere bend toward or away from the equator? Which way do they bend over the oceans? In the summer how do the therms bend over the lands and oceans? iso- . Great Plains. giving.

6. the difference between the summer and winter tem- — peratures. with that over the coast.5G LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES 2. 5 shows the annual range of temperature. In winter how do the temperatures over the land compare with those . that is. State your conclusions concerning the effects of lands and oceans on the changes of temperature during the year. How much is the greatest range ? Where is it found ? Compare the range over the lands with that over the oceans along the latitude circle of 40° north latitude. EXERCISE L The Heat Equator and Cold Pole Fig. 4. Compare the range over the interior of the continents Compare the range over the eastern and western coasts of the northern hemisphere in 6.over the ocean in the same latitude? How do they compare in summer? 8. 5. temperate latitudes. Fig. Isotherms for January .

its summer at this time ? Where does the heat equator bend farther from the geographic equator. In which month does the heat equator stand farther from the geographic equator ? Which hemisphere is having 3. Isotherms for July line In Figs. 2. Make a rough sketch to show the outlines of the lands 40° north and 5. 7. on the oceans or on the lands ? Through how many degrees does the heat equator migrate in its greatest range 4. ? On which side of the geographic equator is the heat equator situated for the larger part of the year? On which side of the equator is the larger amount of land found? What is thus suggested as the cause for the situation of the heat equator in one hemisphere for more than half of the year? In your notebook draw a straight line to represent the geographic equator.THE ATMOSPHERE 57 Fig. which is a running through places of the highest temperature. 6 and 7 draw the heat equatoi-. . as in the figures. 1.

2. line to represent the heat equator for July. Do the same for July. where is it ? What is the temperature found to be at this spot ? In one of the previous exercises what else was learned about this region ? spot. equator for January. as measured bj^ the degrees of longitude Do the same for 40° south. Follow the latitude circle of 40° north across 3. Compare results. the map. 6. straight? In which hemisphere are the isotherms more nearly In order to explain this. make the following observations. Can you explain now why the isotherms are more nearly straight in the southern hemisphere ? . for EXERCISE LI A Comparison of Tempbbatubbs fob Januaey and July AT 40° NOBTH AND SoUTH LATITUDE 1. In Figs. that the coldest January at the pole ? If not. Is the location of the cold pole.58 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES Draw a line to represent the heat south of the equator. How much difference is there between the Januaiy and July temperatures in South America at latitude 40°? Compare with this the difference in North America at latitude 40°. line. What proportion of the way does it lie on the ? continents. 6 and 7 compare the temperature for Janu- ary in North America at 40° latitude with that in South America at 40° latitude for the same month. On the same map draw another Label each is.

6 and 7.THE ATMOSPHERE EXERCISE LII 59 Effect of Seasons on Winds -^^Jlf^ I N D S Fig. "Winds of. January Fig. Turn to Figs. 8. 9. Winds or July 1. In which month in the northern hemisphere do you find the greater difference in .

From a study of the map determine what other countries have similar changes. Turn to Figs. 4. How does the direction of the trade winds on the southern coast of Asia in January compare with that in July? These winds are called monsoons. 5.: 60 LABORATORY AND . (a) (b) in {a) (o) the continuous black lines.) Answer the same questions for July. 3. changes. the circles. what city.FIELD EXERCISES temperature between the equatorial and polar regions? What is the 2. Find the following and explain what each signifies 1. EXERCISE Lin Study of a Weather Map By what government department and bureau. In what belt of winds is southern California situated in January? What kind of weather accompanies these winds? (See text-book. Ascertain what other countries have similar 6. What ? do the shaded areas show? lines are the With what associated What words " high " and " low " do they mean ? In what du'ection with . difference in each case difference ? would this make between the winter and summer winds? the In the southern hemisphere are the changes in tem- perature from winter to summer more or less marked? Explain why. found over Venezuela in January ? What kind of weather accompanies these winds? (See text-book.) Answer the same questions for July. What belt of winds is 4. (b) the dotted black lines. 8 and 9. (c) on what day was your map made ? At what time of day were the observations taken? 2. What strength of 3. (d) the arrows attached to the circles.

Are any of the facts given on the map given also in the columns? 7. Through the center of each draw a straight liue parallel to the edge of the paper. the greatest change velocity. (d) the highest wind the greatest rainfall. (d) the least air pressure. the place that had (6) (a) the highest maximum (c) In the columns find temperature. (e) the lowest minimum temperature. In Cyclones. Direction of winds 1. the greatest air pressure. In each case give the exact figures and the name of the place. On the map (b) find the place that had (c) (a) the highest temperature. Do the same for your own city or for the nearest weather bureau station. What facts are given in the columns in the lower right-hand corner that are not given on the map? What do the minus and plus signs in the second column signify? What is the meaning of the abbreviations Lt.THE ATMOSPHERE reference to the two areas are the winds between 61 them blowing ? 5. and T. in twenty-four hours. in the fourth and sixth columns ? 6. 9. sufficiently transparent to be used for tracing paper. State exercise liv Comparison of the Conditions that exist in Cyclones (Akeas of Low Pressure) and Anticyclones (Areas OF High Pressure) a. the lowest temperature. and mark the ends . What use is made of the space at the left of the columns ? 8. Secure five pieces of paper about 4 inches square. all the meteorological conditions shown on the whole sheet at Washington.

" Copy the arrows (without the circles) within a radius of 1^ inches. What do you find about the direction of the winds in an anticyclone ? 2. copy the circles. which will be near the just over word " low. writing there a brief explanation of how they were obtained. Do the same for five or six antiHow do these two kinds of areas compare as regards the state of weather? 2. Temperature Using the paper as above. I. in a cyclone. Using tlie tracing paper as above. _ From a careful study of the arrows on the paper determine the direction of the winds In anticyclones. Taking one of these pieces. In anticyclones. c. Do the same for the western halves of the same areas. In cyclones. Distribution of Cloudiness and Rainfall directed 1. Do the same for five other low areas. What is the direction of the isotherms through a low area? Label all the pieces of paper and paste them in your notebook. using the same piece of paper. cyclones. Make a short cross in the middle of each line. place it over a low area so that is the long line points north and the cross line the center of the area. copy the temperatures of all stations within a radius of 1^ inches for the eastern halves of five low areas. and LABOKATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES S.62 N. showing the state of weather for five or six cyclones. Find the average of the temperatures each side of the north and south line and compare them. Starting with a new piece of paper. do the same as directed above for six high areas. using the same piece of tracing paper and placing the cross line over the center of each area. .

THE ATMOSPHERE Copy in 63 briefly the conditions that your notebook the table given below. . and state have beau found to exist in the two kinds of areas.

3. From a study of your results find (a) the average velocity. (5) direction. (c) change in temperature. (c) path of all these areas. (b) cloudiness and precipitation. numbering them in succession. . carrying with them about the same meteorological condior. Now suppose these areas to move a day's journey. tions suppose you travel from your home a day's journey for the area. Compare your predictions with them. (d) change in pressure. In case you have two or more maps of consecutive days. in the direction from which the area is moving. From the map of the next day copy the conditions found at or near your locality. 4. (The movement 2.64 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES same method of procedure for nine or ten other low areas. or were due to your ignorance of other laws. you will get some suggestion by noting what the movement of the areas has been for the previous day or days. Predict what the weather at your locality will be at the end of twenty-four hours as regards (a) direction of winds. Oftentimes several areas may be traced on the same series of maps. . Examine the maps again and determine whether the errors in your predictions were due to failure on your part to correctly applyyour knowledge of the laws which you have studied. EXERCISE LVI To PREDICT THE Weathek fok Twenty-Four Hours AHEAD OF THE DaTE OF THE MaP FURNISHED TOU 1. what would amount to nearly the same thing. Recall what you have learned about the rate and direction of movement and is the path of low areas. of high areas similar.) movement Determine what you think the rate and direction of of the areas west and southwest of your location will be.

THE ATMOSPHERE 65 DATA FOR WEATHER IMAP OF UNITED STATES .

83 Columbus. Pittsburg.28 30. .02 30.80 Indianapolis. Minn. Ont. . Shreveport. Ont. Chicago. St.01 Snow Cloudy 29.09 30. Tex. La. SE 30. NE N 11 30. 0.69 29. NE E NE 29.01 La Crosse. Mich. . Iowa . Mich.17 Pa .72 Snow Snow Snow Cloudy Cloudy Cloudy Cloudy Clear Knoxville.70 Cloudy Memphis. . Tenn. Oswego. E E E NE 30.18 29. NE SE S 30.98 30.Y. Ky. .10 29. . Iowa -13 . Port Huron.14 30. Mich.14 Clear Clear -16 . Grand Haven.43 30. O.lo. Tenn. NW N N N Snow Fair Paul. 0.01 Cloudy Clear Cleveland. Ont.95 30.02 30. Nashville. ^ 30. Mich. Cloudy Cloudy Snow Cloudy Fair 12 5 Milwaukee. 7 Fair Clear -16 1 Cloudy . N. Wis. Louisville.74 29. Snow Cloudy Clear . Wis. Bufta. Ind. 14 13 3 6 E Toledo.37 11 N Clear 4 .27 30. Tenn. NW N NE SE Port Arthur. Des Moines. Minn. Rockliffe. Ont. Ont. W 30. .Y. Saugeen.25 30.66 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES Data fob Weather Map of United States (continued) ^a San Antonio. Pa. NE E 29.21 30. 15 .26 30.27 Duluth. Erie.08 30. . . 13 14 29. Davenport. 14 31 31 31 NW NE Chattanooga. . Tenn. 24 17 17 . Parry Sound. W E E 30. 21 22 2 .96 30.18 30. Cincinnati. N. Kingston. 2 NW Snow Snow Snow Snow . 29. 111.27 30. Iowa Keokuk. Marquette.07 Alpena.

THE ATMOSPHERE Data for Weathee Map 67 of United States (continued) .

form D. as the readings . but other places between those given on the map are to be found having this pressure. The isobar of 30 inches will pass between these two cities.06 inches. Then extend the line in the other direction. after drawing the line through Lynchburg it cannot pass between Columbus and Cincinnati. cities.98 inches. while the difference between the reading at Norfolk and the 30-inch isobar distance from Norfolk to Washington. is . The difference between the two readings is .05 and the next one to it a reading of 29. putting the first just above and the second • just 2. which are Washington. If one station has a reading of 30. the temperature and pressure for each place. copy on the blank weather map. noting the suggestion that when you do not find a reading of 30 the line must pass between two stations.08. such that the reading of one is higher and of the other lower than the isobar that is being drawn. The line will pass nearer Norfolk than Washington. below the dots showing the location of the Isobars. with a pressure of 30. and that at a point halfway between will be just 80. As . pencil. For instance. all First draw the isobar of 30 inches.02 is one fourth of . and Norfolk. we assume that the pressure gradually decreases in passing from the first to the second.08. Very few places will be found with a reading of 30. with a pressure of 29.02. — that connect points having a pressure of 30 inches. Use a blue is.95. the isobar will be one fourth of the Extend the line about ^ inch eastward and mark it 30. Find two adjacent places on the Atlantic coast such that one has a pressure greater than 30 inches and the other less than this'. From the data given in the table.68 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES EXERCISE LVn To CONSTRUCT A WeATHER MaP {see Appendix A) 1.

allowing it. Draw arrows through these to indi- cate the direction of the wind. using the same principles as in the previous case. circles Wind. Make the isotherms for every ten is degrees line as 4. Begin the isobar of 30.THE ATMOSPHERE here are both lower than 30 . 69 and it cannot pass between reaches the edge its Washington and Pittsburg. Near each station place a small circle and : represent the state of weather as follows or partly cloudy. Then draw isobars for every tenth of an inch till the highest pressure on the map is reached. higher than 30. till the lowest temperature reached.9 inches and draw the others till the lowest pressure is reached. except that the isotherms are made for every ten degrees. and continue it. The principle used in making isotherms is the same as that just used in making isobars. Weather. Mark each soon as you begin to draw it. Under each station which reports rain or snow draw a green dash. Use a red pencil and make the lines dotted instead of continuous. Begin with the highest temperature divisible by 10. Then begin with the isobar for 29. 3. which in this case is 70. These isobars cannot cross one another. If them to fly with the wind were northwest the arrow would point thus: 6. Color . are separated The scattering reports of precipitation which stations by some distance from the other giving reports of rain or snow may be ignored. ® snow. 5. 3 fair • cloudy. for the readings here are both till it Continue this line of the map. Find the high and low areas and mark them. Isotherms.1 inches. These are to be drawn on the same map as the isobars. O clear. taking care to space properly position be- tween each pair of stations. \^ Precipitation. ® rain. which will start on the Canadian border. Draw a line so as to inclose all these places.

wind. observations. 7. Under each station which reports the weather as cloudy draw a yellow dash. Cloudiness. In the blank space on the lower half of the map write a weather prediction. except the part already tinted green. and state of weather. show regions of What relation does this region bear to the region of precipitation? 8. next twenty-four hours for your . ignoring as before the scattering Color this area.70 LABOKATOliY AND FIELD EXERCISES show the lightly with green the area within this line to regions of precipitation. very lightly with yellow. to cloudiness. Draw a line so as to inclose these stations. for the locality. as regards temperature.

Two inches from the left end of the line make a dot to repi-esent the location of the in the table. Draw a straight line to represent sea level. from left this point the first Measure off toward the two distances on the scale of 1 inch to 75 miles.000 feet. which are to be connected by a smooth line. Mark the distances by dots. on the scale of 1 inch to 16.CHAPTER IV THE OCEAN {see Appendix A) EXERCISE LVra To MAKE A Profile of the Bottom of the Atlantic Ocean anh Adjoixing Land The figures in the table give approximately for certain distances from the coast the heights above and depressions below sea level. Represent elevations by distances above the line and depressions by distances below it. along the line extending from the Appalachian Mountains in Pennsylvania eastward for several Distance from Coast hundred miles into the ocean. Label that part of the ocean bottom within the 600-foot limit 71 . and toward the right the remaining distances.

What their direction along the equator ? of the winds in Figs.72 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES As you look at the profile on either which does it seem to be a part. " continental shelf. of the land or the ocean bottom ? exercise lix Ocean Cuehents Fig. Make a rough sketch of the currents and outlines of Compare the general courses the continents. How many systems of currents do you find in Fig. ? What part of the oceans is Where is the largest cur- How do the others compare with each other In what ways are the currents alike? differ ? is In what ways do they 3." side of this distance. 10 ? ? Describe the location of each. 8 and 9 with the courses of the ocean currents. as shown in Fig. . 10. What relation between winds and currents is suggested? 5. Chart of Ocean Currents 1. 4. 10. not involved in this movement rent situated in size? 2.

line of the of the bar? 3. direction? Describe its appearance as regards length. N. How will the temperature of the various parts of the north Atlantic be affected by these currents? How will this affect the neighboring lands? EXERCISE LX Shore Lines a. Me. and height.J.THE OCEAN 6. 2. Describe the principal land features shown here. What is inclosed behind the bar? In times of storms how would this water compare with that on the outside 1. then the does the 100-foot contour would be the shore line. 3. 73 How many currents do you find in the north Atlan- tic? Write a description of their patlis. on a reduced scale. A Young Coast: Boothhay Sheet. Island Beach to the shore mainland as regards position and. Describe the principal water features. which the present coast has been formed ? Beginning at the top of a new page. What What are forming if on each side of this bay? ? What may 4. outline of the coast including the islands. How was it formed? 2. 1. Barnegat Sheet. An Adolescent Coast: What is the relation of h. make a rough in line. Leave the rest of the page for the next two exercises. result eventually these continue to form do you find situated along the outer shore of Island Beach? . If the land were to be submerged 100 feet. width. How outline of this contour compare in general character with the present coast? What is thus suggested regarding the manner 4.

plates facing the . What is its form from Highland Light southward? 2. Mass.74 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES 5. 6. What kind of a formation do you find inclosing Provincetown harbor? How was this formed and whence was the material for its construction derived? 3. in the Fifth Society.. Just below the sketch of the Maine coast draw an outline of the New Jersey coast. What change in elevation has occurred on the shore line of the mainland. Compare the inner and outer shores of Island Beach and account for the difference. 110 Annual Report of See also. 6. c. 106. as shown by the rivers? What is the evidence? 7. 1. How far apart are they ? What explanation would you give of the presence of the pond beside 5. 94. How many harbors do you find on the outer coast? For how long a distance is this true ? What do you find vertical located along the coast ? 4. one for the outer shore of Island Beach and one for the mainland. using two lines. United States Q-eological in the Eighteenth Report. A Mature Coast: Provincetown Sheet. For illustrations the action of waves on lake shores. Describe the outer coast of Cape Cod. How do the outlines of the three kinds of coast lines compare ? Which shows evidence of the greatest amoimt Just below the sketch of the of wave action? Which of the least? Give reasons for ? your'answers. see plates facing pages 75. 100. Moon Pond meadow ? New Jersey coast draw an outline of the coast of Cape Cod. 86. as suggested by these maps 7. What is the effect on the shore line of longof continued wave action. pages 542 and 544.

.) 2. comparison with Fig. Distribution of Corn in 1.CHAPTER V DISTRIBUTION OF LIFE IN UNITED STATES AND NORTH AMERICA EXERCISE LXI Distribution of Cereals a. Corn. 11. 6 determine with what TO isotherm this limit most nearly coincides. What By is its northern limit North America? (See Fig 17. 11) Fig. (Fig.

Distribution of Wheat and Kioe b. Where is the great corn belt located ? 5. corn or wheat? to Fig. (Fig. Does corn United States ? the southern parts of the 4. map explain what the colors signify.) 2. 12) 1. Which grows farther north.76 LABORATORY ANB FIELD EXERCISES grow in 3. Its southern limit 6 its and ascertain with what isotherm What do you notice about its range of growth ? 3. 12. northern limit most nearly coincides. 17. Wheat. map outline the corn areas and for the areas of color them making a heavier shade In a corner of the largest production. On a blank weather blue. . What Turn is its northern limit in North America? ? (See Fig. f=^ Pig.

Explain on the map the meaning of the colors. On the blank weather map used in the previous exercise color the rice-producing regions red. What contrast do you notice in these regions between the winter and summer temperatures ? 6. 3. In what sections is the sugar beet grown? .DISTRIBUTION OF LIFE IN UNITED STATES 4. Turn to Figs. 4 and ascertain the relation of rainfall 4. Where are the great rice-producing regions of the United States? 2. areas c. On a blank weather map outline the wheat-producing and color them green. rally to the distribution of these cereals. (Fig. Of these three cereals studied which two are natugrouped together as regards the temperature corfditions needed? 5. exercise lxii Distribution of Sugar Cane and Sugar Beet (Fig. Rice. 6 and 7. To what ? section is the growth of sugar cane restricted 2. 13) 1. What is the farthest north that rice is raised ? Com- pare with Figs. 6 and 7 and determine the temperature conditions needed for growth. 12) 1. Turn to Fig. using a heavier shade for those of largest production. 77 In what sections of the United States are the chief wheat-growing areas ? 5.

EXERCISE LXm (Fig. 2. Which fruits are peculiar to each area? Which common to all? Which are found only in the two warmer areas? . Distribution of Sugar Beet and Sugar Cane 4.78 3. 14) Distribution of Fruits. LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES What difference is thus suggested in the conditions required for the growth of each? Which has the greater ? range of temperature ? Which of latitude Boiling I Sugar b««t (doimtlu over SOOO lam) I Sugar cane Fig. What possibilities regarding the future of the sugar industry are suggested ? 5. Locate the three great fruit-producing areas in the United States. 13. On a blank weather map color the areas of sugar cane blue and the areas of sugar beet red. 1.

5. 14.DISTRIBUTION OF LIFE IN UNITED STATES 3. 3. 6 and ascertain with what isotherm northern limit most nearly coincides. 1. 4. On the blank weather map used in the previous exercise outline the cotton areas and color them yellow. (Fig. 6 and 7 and determine the ascertain the relation of relation of these fruits to temperature conditions. Compare with Fig. . On a blank weather map color the two warmer areas blue and the other area red. Fig. Distribution of Fbtjits and Cotton EXERCISE LXIV DiSTKIBUTION OF CoTTOIT. 4 and their distribution to rainfall. 14) is To what ? regions of the United States its growth restricted 2. its Turn to Fig. 79 Compare with Figs.

woods produced color the On a blank weather map areas of hard woods blue and the areas of soft woods red.80 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES EXERCISE LXV DiSTKIBUTION OF FoEESTS. 5. Forest Regions (after Gannett.) this limit 2. Garrison. 1 Pine 3 3 4 6 Spmoe F]T. Summary. Make a table showing the relation of the various plants studied to temperature. States and record the kinds of 4. 15) (See What is their northern limit in North America ? Turn to Fig. Write first that . 4 and ascertain whether the amount of rainfall seems to affect the distribution of forests. Hardwoods Cypress Fig. 15. Locate the five chief forest regions in the United in each. 6 Fig. and determine with what isotherm Compare with most nearly coincides. 16. (Mg. 1. Houston) 3. Fig.

DISTRIBUTION OF LIFE IN UNITED STATES plant whose northern limit States. After each plant write the approximate latitude and January isotherm of its northern limit. 81 is farthest south in the United and then write the others in the order in which their limit lies farther and farther north. .

82 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES Fig. Outline the areas on a map of North America and color each area with a different color. Great Areas of Vegetation 7. 16. explaining in a corner of the map what each signifies. .

17 and 18) Which of those represented are limited to the ex- treme north? Fig. 1. Which two are limited chiefly to the temperate regions of the United States? . Which are found only in the southern part of North America ? 3.DISTRIBUTION OF LIFE IN UNITED STATES EXERCISE LXVII 83 DisTKiBUTiON OF Animals. (Figs. 17. Distribution of Animals (alter Gilbert and Brigham) 2.

is suggested as one controlling factor in the distribu? tion of these animals Using two blank weather maps. Color these areas. Fig. outline as much of the range of each animal as occurs within the United States. using a different color for each area. . 18. 5. Distribution of Animals (after Gilbert andBrigham) What 5.8-1 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES 4. Which have the widest range ? Compare the northern limit of the moose and woodland caribou and the southern limit of the barren-ground caribou and musk ox with the northern limit of forests.

Density of Population Turn amount of 3. What determining factor suggested by the density (Ore. around San Francisco. 1. (Fig. 4. and Boston? 5. 19) In what parts is found the densest population? How many -. to the square mile? 2. 19. Buffalo. 4 and determine is the relation of rainfall to density of population. Where dense? are the next densest regions? Where the least How many to the square mile? Fig. What factor is suggested by the density around Denver ? . Detroit. to Fig.). Portland New York.DISTRIBUTION OF LIFE IN UNITED STATES EXERCISE LXVin 85 Density of Population. .

" based on your map studies of both plants and animals. 7. the chief factors which affect each example. the next (45-90) with heavy blue. the extent to which whether almost completely controlled by a combination of several. Bring out the following points Give : specific examples of the plants and animals concerned. Fill in the densest (90 and OTer) with black.86 6. . from 6 to 45 with light blue. by one factor or general distribution of life. and leave the rest (below 6) uncolored. Write an essay on "The Factors that control the Distribution of Life. and finally give a summary of the chief agencies which control the the species is affected. LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES On a blank weather map outline the areas of varying densities.

In Hodge's Nature 87 . number is The advantage of method is that it may be used at any time of the year. the preparation and time required. As alternative methods. this exercise may first be worked out as suggested in daylight. THE LAND Exercise VIII. This will require a clear day. but if a larger taken there this is less opportunity for error. North Star. and doubtless several attempts will be necessary before a sufficient of observations can be taken in one day. One model will be sufficient for the whole class. clear understanding of the meaning of the contour This preliminary exercise has been found well worth lines. and then its lessons will become more firmly fixed Exercise V. number Three observations are sufficient to determine the plane. Before any satisfactory work with topographic maps can be done. the latitude may be determined altitude of the by measuring the equinox. if the pupil repeats the exercise at home in the evening. if this is .APPENDIX A SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS THE WORLD AS A GLOBE Exercise II. it will be necessary for the pupil to acquire 9. or by finding the zenith distance of the sun at noon at the time of either The most satisfactory results may be obtained performed in a dark room with a lamp to represent the sun but as this cannot generally be done in the school building. and doubtless some of the boys can be called upon to aid in constructing it.

On the other hand. ing and not merely to. that the kind of laboratory work which will be of greatest benefit to the pupil is to the text-book. Shall sidering this question there that which leads to the most original observation and think- When it is largely a matter of accurate observation. Shall physigeography be classed from this standpoint with botany or with physics ? I have found that the difficulties encountered . In cises the question will naturally arise regarding their relation they follow or precede it? In conis one well-grounded principle which should be kept in mind. and the cross which should be numbered. namely. the use of this will doubtless create more interest both in this exercise and the next one but if none has beien issued. If a map of your own locality has been issued. The pupils must be watched carefully while drawing the lines. in some experiments in physics the principles involved are so complicated that some explanation and study of these may cal be needed previous to the laboratory work. In preparation for this exercise lines should This is to be made. XL other sheet which exhibits some diversity of slope Exercises In place of the Wicomico sheet almost any may be connection with these exer- XII-XXXYIII. to see that they are placed at the proper distances from the edge of the paper.verification. any other map which shows some diversity of hills and valleys may be . Exercise used. hills. The contour interval will need to be changed to suit the size of the model. Exercise IX. as in botany. be drawn on the maps where the profile profile should cross some streams and lines. selected. the subject would be robbed of a large amount of its value were the text-book discussion to precede the laboratory work.88 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES Stvdy and Life will be found directions for making a tank for an aquarium which will serve very nicely for this exercise. should be placed so as to best bring out these various features. It will be better to have the class meet in small divisions.

The drowned valleys of the coastal plain of Maryland Brandywine. Kanawha Palls. No. The top of the map may be backed with cloth and then attached at this edge to a wooden roller. Drum Point. and Lebanon sheets. in the Journal of School Geography. The Allegheny ridges of middle Pennsylvania Sunbury. etc. : . Leonardtown. Wicomico. To do this the margin of one sheet may be cut off and . Harrisburg. Lykens. Pine Grove. Oceana. and then they may be fastened together by means of paste on the uncut margin. Catawissa. Vol. Ealeigh. This same plan may be used with the map of the alluvial valley of the Mississippi River. which represents only a small part of the whole area representing a type.the sheets brought till the proper lines and roads. has suggested the following examples of grouped topographic sheets. If such is the case. it is well to have a larger map made by together pasting together contiguous sheets. To correct any mistaken idea that the pupil may acquire concerning the size of the types of land studied by means of a single sheet. Professor Davis. 5. student who has studied the text-book previous to taking up the laboratory work is apt. and Point Lookout sheets. and Hinton sheets. it is evident that the remedy lies in having the study of land forms by means of maps preceded not by text-book discussion but by more thorough preliminary training in the use of maps. Ill. Under such is conditions the very purpose of the labora- tory exercises defeated. Shamokin. The dissected plateau of West Virginia: Charlestown. Millersburg. Hummelstown.: APPENDIX A by the student are not due 89 to any lack of understanding of the principles discussed in the text-book. meet. Piney Point. Sharps Island. but to failure to read the map correctly. even though it be unconsciously sometimes. Prince Frederick. Mount Ross. Nicholas. to answer the questions given him as much from his recollection of what he has read as from direct observation of the A map..

and : White-water sheets. Waterloo. FIELD Exercises WORK These do not include all that This line of work depends so much on local conditions that only a few general exercises are given. : Chino. as these pictures will tend to correct any mistaken idea that the pupil may have obtained from the study of the map. The effort to acquire such a collection is well worth while. of the pupils to keep a record of his own. Otherwise much time will be wasted and the should be done in the field. THE ATMOSPHERE Weather observations. while the observaon the wind and clouds may be carried on by each indiIt will be necessary for the teacher vidual for a longer time. In order to derive the most benefit from these field trips it is essential that there should be placed in the hands of the pupil special directions which shall give him definite questions to answer and definite problems to solve. Mount TrumCamp Mojave. value of the trips lessened. of the Colorado Cliffs. which should be supplemented by such others as each locality will best allow. These may easily be supplemented by other pictures which may be gradually collected. Thomas.90 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES The drumlin district of southern Wisconsin Prairie. Kaibab. Stoughton. The . that each tions Arrangements should be made so member of the class may make individual readings of each instrument for some part of the year. so that he may correct the errors sentation of and make the following exercise on the reprethe conditions of the month more reliable. Echo St. and San Francisco mountain sheets. Arizona. The canyon bull. Evansville. and will strengthen the correct ideas. Diamond Creek. Madison. In a number of cases references are given to standard works which contain photographs of the land form under discussion. Sun Koskonong. XLII-XLIV.

the construction of a that each pupil weather map may be preceded by more detailed practice in one sheet on which the making of isotherm and isobar maps on separate sheets.APPENDIX A correlation of these various conditions 91 may be compared with of course. so may get as much experience as possible in reading the instruments and in keeping records. the observations made on the weather maps. THE OCEAN If one is situated near the coast. will furnish the basis for the more reliable conclusions. These weather observations should be begun early in the course. If one has time. the lines of which a complete weather may be transferred to map is to be made. Exercise L VII. as suggested in Gilbert and Brigham's Teachers' Guide and Laboratory Exercises. . plans should be made to carry on observations on the tides. The work on weather maps may be extended almost indefinitely. which.

^ Sun Prairie. but if bought in quantities of one hundred or more. referred to below.00 for the set .^ West Virginia Eagle. Alturas. West Virginia. .^ New Mexico Pargo. Montana Grlassboro. to have I Included in Folios and II of Physiographic Types. D.^ Maine Louisiana Barnegat. These maps may be obtained by addressing Director. . application to Secretary. . . Huerfano Park. $1. . D. Canyon City. Topographic Atlas of the United States. vial valley of the Mississippi River.^ California. Polios I and II. . Washington. APPENDIX B MATERIAL NEEDED FOR THE WORK OUTLINED UNITED STATES TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS Echo Cliffs. Physiographic Types. . The price is 5 cents a sheet. 20 cents a WEATHER MAPS The 1 daily weather the Chief of maps may usually be obtained by asking the Weather Bureau. single sheet. and Maryland.^ Kansas Donaldsonville. Henry Mountains.. Shasta Special. Washington. Provincetown. Iowa Caldwell. Chesterfield. .C. New Jersey Mount Taylor. 25 cents each Polio III. may be obtained by Commission.C. Massachusetts Livingston. United States Geological Survey. .^ North Dakota Crater Lake Special. Colorado Marion. Springiield. 92 . . . consisting of eight sheets. Boothbay. Mississippi River Louis. Virginia. 50 cents. Map of the allu. . Shasta. These may be obtained from tlie same address as above. Modoc Lava Beds. it is 2 cents each.^ . Texas Pennsylvania Harper's Perry. Mo. Utah Abilenfe. . Arizona. Wisconsin. St. Charleston.^ Oregon Harrisburg.

A supply of the blank weather maps. Knott & Co. but sometimes they are sent free when it is understood that they are to be used for school purposes. The more expenGreen.75 5. whose prices are those given first after the various instruments. Boston.50 : Wind vane the price of this as given by Green is $10..00 Kain gauge 3. These were obtained from L. INSTRUMENTS FOR STUDY OF THE ATMOSPHERE instruments which I have seen refer to those used by the weather bureau. GLOBES small globe should be furnished each of the pupils for the exercise on the seasons. exclusive of specimens of rocks and minerals. Doubtless these may also be obtained from other dealers in lists of The scientific supplies for about the same prices.75 Brooklyn. 25 cents each or Altogether the cost of the material needed for a class of fifteen will be about $30. 15. as above. School collections of these may be obtained very .25 6.00. but one can doubtless find a vane in the vicinity of the school building which may be used for the purposes of the class. Globes suitable for this purpose A may be obtained from dealers in school supplies at a cost of less. .25 Thermometer 1.APPENDIX B 93 them sent from the nearest station.00 2. list sive pieces referred to above may be obtained from H. $30. A price of about 20 cents per hundred is set on these. will be needed. J. while making some saving of expense. forms D and DD.00.25 Maximum and minimum thermometers 1. and so are expensive. below. E. but I have obtained cheaper instruments which have proved satisfactory for school purposes. whose prices are given second in the Mercurial barometer . stating that they are to be used for school purposes and will be posted in a public place. Apply to Chief of Weather Bureau.

While a systematic study of rocks and minerals belongs to geology rather than to physical geography.00.94 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES reasonably of E. 40 rocks price of each collection ton. it will be better to secure This may be obtained of Mr. Rochester. The most desirable condition is to furnish as many and minerals as there are pupils in the class. N. Pa. . Ward's Natural Science Establishment. 2. $2. Howell. at least one collecsets of rocks tion should be furnished for general use. West Medford. but satisfactory work can be done with a smaller number. 1317 Arch Street. : . 3. 1 contains 20 minerals and 20 rocks No. N. D. Howell. 40 minerals No. 612 17th Street. .Y. and also of the following The Foote Mineral Co. .. George B. . Philadelphia. Mr. E. a more elaborate school collection. WashingCollection No.. Mass.C. Frazar. The . . collections preif viously mentioned will serve this purpose set of but only a single specimens is to be obtained.W.

Ginn & Company. University of the State of New York. in Schools. Davis. Winona. Davis. Irwin Shepard. & Company. American Book Ward. Davis. University of York. Elementary Physical Geography. The Use of Government Maps Henry Holt & Co. 26 cents. Teacher's Guide to accompany Elementary Physical Geography. Ginn Company. Practical Exercises in Elementary Meteorology. 95 . New York. King. Physical Geography and Elementary Physical Geography. Minn. Lessons in Physical Geography. 16 Board. contain reports of the proceedings of the third and fourth annual conferences of the New York State Science Teachers Association.Y. may be obtained of Dr. Report of Committee on College Entrance Requirements.APPENDIX LIST OF C BOOKS AND MAGAZINES GIVING SUGGESTIONS CONCERNING LABORATORY AND FIELD "WORK Collie. Albany. the State of New of the College Entrance Examination Address the Board at Post Office Substation 84. Dryer. 25 and 35 cents Bulletins 2 and 7. and 35 cents. High School Department. Document No. N. appointed by the National Educational Association. These may be obtained by addressing the Regents. 10 cents. Macmillan & Com- pany. Ginn & Company. Tarr.

Sent free to teachers. for 15 cents a number." Jefferson. Mentzer. . 6 and 7. 3. Ill. Winona. " Laboratory Work in Elementary Physiography. I. Atkinson. The following articles are found in the Journal of School Geography. Suggestions for Excursions with Elementary Emerson. Vol. The three following articles were published in the Bulletin of the American Bureau of Geography. No. No. Cook. D. Vol. 4. No. Vol. 35 cents. I." " Some " Maps of the Mississippi River. II. No. Vol. No. "Elementary Meteorology." Davis. V. No." Blount. V. 10. Vol." Davis. Vol. 2. Price per number." Kummel. 6. Vol. 8. and 4. " Geographical Laboratory Work in Worcester Academy. Field and Laboratory Exercises in Physical Geography. " Topographic Maps of the United States." Jameson. No. " Equipment of a Meteorological Laboratory." Vol. E. New York." De 7." Cornish. An Introduction to Physical Geography. Vol. No. " The Equipment of a Geographical Laboratory. I." Holway. No. I. Vol. Blount." Snyder. & Grover. V. "Laboratory Work in Physiography. of which the editor was Professor E. American Book Company. II. C. " Modeling Mt. Ward. 3. Minn. Columbia University. Fitch. "Map Notices. A Laboratory Manual for Physical Geography. 10. Dodge. Classes. J. r. Vol. No. Nos. 7. Ill. " Weather Map Exercises. Nos. " Exercises on United States Topographical Maps. Mass. V. M.96 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES Teachers^ Guide and Laboratory Exercises to accompany Gilbert and Brigham. Darling. No. Ill. which may be obtained of E. Appleton & Co. Vol." Davis. Walton. 2. 1. Chamberlain. Vol. 3. Shasta. 1. Lehnerts.

" Field Work in Physical Geography. Journal of Geography. Vol. 9." Wood." Tarr. In the Teachers Manual to accompany Brighani's TextBook of Geology will be found many valuable suggestions concerning field " work. W. " Field Work in Geology and Physical Geography. Vol. No. ." Goodrich. 2. Chicago. 25 cents a copy. 1. Teachers College Record. No. Vol. II. Work. 8." New Emerson. School Science. Columbia University. I. University. New York. 20 cents a copy. 20 cents a copy. The Fields of Brockton.APPENDIX C " Experiences in Field 97 Vol. Ypsilanti. Mich. University of Chicago. Columbia York. No." Dodge & Kirchwey. "An Outline of Eight Excursions for the Study of the Physical Geography and Geology of Springfield and Vicinity. 5." Davis. The School Review. "Training Teachers for the Study of Home Geography." Mark S. E. 740 CuUom Avenue. No. 1 and 2. The Place " Geography in the Horace Mann Schools. I. V. I. Notes for Field Study in Geography and Geology. E. Nos. II. Dodge. 10 cents a copy. " Jow-nal of Geography. Vol. Jefferson. of Field Work in High-School Physiography. 20 cents a copy. No." Orr. Springfield Geological Club. Vol. Teachers College.

Preliminary study of a topographic map. Study of a Washington weather map. Study of a coast survey or lake survey map. One day. 9. (2) their sizes relative to each other and to the disk of the sun. Illustrate the constituents of the atmosphere. On the same sheet. One day. (3) carbon dioxide. 4. minimum. and aphelion solstices. and the rainfall from records kept by the student for the month of December. One day. 2. (2) water vapor. and average temperature. sun's altitude Measurement of the by means of the clinometer. 7. 1897 GIVEN BY CORNISH IN THE JOURNAL OF SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY 1. and its position at the equinoxes and Two days. and (3) their satellites. construct a diagram to show (1) the inclination of (2) its perihelion the earth's axis to the plane of its orbit. positions. 8. Three days. Determine the dew point and relative humidity.APPENDIX D LISTS OF I. which is about 80 inches by 18 inches. days. Two days. Construct a map showing the drainage slopes of the United States. Construct a diagram which shall represent some of the facts of the solar system. Two 5. the barometric pressure. 10. LABORATORY EXERCISES June. 6. (4) oxygen. including (1) relative distances of the planets from the sun. 3. (6) nitrogen (teacher's experiment). Two days. Plot curves to show the daily maximum. — (1) dust. .

99 12. (16). One day. a weather map from facts published in the daily papers. Determination of latitude. Two days. a topographic map of the valley suron a scale of 50 feet to 1 inch. Study of common minerals and rocks. 15. Study of typical topographic features with their various modified forms by means of selected sheets of the various government and state surveys. . Determination of difference of longitude by sending watch (1). 1 Figures in parentheses indicate the number of hours for each exercise. branches directions taken with compass and notes made of the same. Detailed study in the field of a miniature river val- with measurements of width. SUGGESTED BY THE COMMITTEE ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY IN THE REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON COLLEGE ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS i Cause of day and night. with contour lines at 5-foot intervals. length. number of turns. Six weeks. Construction of Study of the north Atlantic chart. including a sand bank of glacial origin. Eight days. One day. Several stereopticon exhibitions of pictures illustrating (1) facts of astronomy and the earth's relations as a planet. Excursions to several points of interest. a limestone quarry. and high noon (1). 17. n. 14.APPENDIX D 11. north and south line. Two days. Construction of a river profile around the earth at the equashowing ocean beds and continental areas. Two days. a sand dune. to outlet from source by the aid of topographic maps. . and extent of sunlight over surface (1). 19. 13. 20. Finding variation of local and standard -time (1). Two days. Construction of veyed above 18. 16. Construction of a profile tor. and (2) typical physiographic features. ley.

(4). Study of erosion with sprinkling pot (2). one a week (8). Observations of ground temperatures. Difference in temperature between the top and bottom of (1). In fall. Reproduction of contour map in hachures (1). of rainfall. Pour excursions in spring (8). Drawing cross sections from contour maps (4). Predictions from weather maps (written with reasons) Observations winds. Making map of small area in neighborhood (1).100 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES different projections (4). Determination of dew point (1). Making contour and hachure maps from small models (2). velocity of the Determination of the amount of snowfall and the amount of water produced by an inch of snow (1). Written descriptions of models (4). Planning of journey. Determination of the amount of sediment carried by a stream (1). depths of frost. Picture reading (written description) (4). Making maps on Study of ocean-current maps (1). Study of rocks and minerals (10). Finding height of hill or building by barometer (1). showing heights of land and depths of sea a hill (2). Study of tide charts (1). . etc. Study of map of the world. temperature. etc. Making isotherm and isobar maps from furnished data Study and reproduction of weather map (1). with study of country to be seen (4). four excursions. (2).

of tide charts (1). life-saving stations. of types of shore lines (2). In the autumn and spring field trips should take the place of laboratory exercises. showing circumference and diameter of earth and distance of several leading cities from New York (1). moon. selected steamer routes across Atlantic and Pacific (1). effects of an axis (1). Study of map of world showing heights of land and depths Explain of sea (1). at right angles and parallel to plane of Orbit face (1). and high noon Ocean. Determination of latitude. north and south line. Prom one third to one half of the candidate's class-room work should be devoted to laboratory exercises. Construct a series of lines to some adopted scale. comprising at least forty exercises selected from a list not very different from the one given below. and sun at the several phases of the moon (1)."^ World as a and Globe. . 1 Numbers In parentheses indicate the value that should he given in esti- mating the total number of forty. "Individual laboratory work. and large cities in relation to southern Atlantic shore (1). Cause of day and night. of positions of lighthouses. (1). and extent of sunlight over surConstruct a diagram showing position of earth. Construct a diagram showing inclination of earth's axis.APPENDIX D ra. 101 LIST OF POSSIBLE EXERCISES GIVEN BY THE COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION BOARD is As a part of the candidate's preparation the following required by the Board. Study Study Study Study of ocean-current maps (1).

cen- (1). Writing description of models (4). Planning a journey and describing country to be seen (1). .102 LABORATORY AND FIELD EXERCISES Atmosphere. Making drainage map of United States (1). Making cross sections of contour maps to scale (4). Predict weather conditions from data furnished ters (1). Four excursions in autumn. Comparison of January and July temperatures at 40° N. Four excursions in spring. Find average wind directions about a storm center (1). Cross section of hachure map. and compare with pressure conditions (2). and changing hachure to contour map (2). and S. Find average rate and direction of motion of storm Study of condition of "cold waves" and "northeasters" Land. Locating illustrations of common land forms on some special contour map (1). Study distribution of cloudiness and rainfall about a storm center (1). Determination of altitude of hill by barometer (1). Written description of selected maps illustrating classes of land forms (4). (2). Making of complete weather maps from furnished data (2). Location and migration of heat equator and cold pole (2). Determination of. Study distribution of wind systems by seasons. Comparison of areas to scale (1). (2). (1). Comparison of temperature over land and water at different seasons (2). described in detail (8). Make isotherm and isobar maps from furnished data (2). described in detail (8).dew point (1). Lat. Writing description of pictures and accompanying map Construction of river profile (1).

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is designea for use in high schools and acadalso and may be found useful in short elementary college courses. form of diagrams. illustrated. earth. The The outline is exceptionally simple. Concrete 2. By limiting his discussion chiefly to this continent the author has been able to devote a large amount of space to the principles which he describes. In historical geology a broad view is afforded of the development American continent and of the evolution of life upon the Only the leading types of plants and animals are mentioned. following characteristics are important. 8vo. Under the leading geological processes are grouped the rock structures and land forms of which they are the cause. Vernon. 3. many of which are in the science. 16754 GINN AND COMPANY Publishers . doth. and both the records of erosion and those of sedimentation 4. throughout.56 THE essentials of the science of geology are treated with fullness and ample illustration in this text-book for beginners. are given special attention.THE ELEMENTS OF GEOLOGY By WILLIAM HARMON NORTON Mt. Iowa Professor of Geology in . is given to those which mark the lines of descent The book emies.Cornell College. are designed to train the pupil and to test his knowledge. 1. S1. 461 pages. The inductive method is emphasized examples are given large space as the basis of generalizations of the Numerous exercises and problems. The cycle idea is made prominent. of the North and special attention of forms now living.

. . GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Davis: Elementary Meteorology 3. .25 Russell : Trafton : North America Lakes of North America Laboratory and Field Exercises . 1..48 . . Whiting Exercises in Astronomy . Young Elements of Astronomy. AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY FOR HIGHER SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES ASTRONOMY Byrd: Laboratory Manual in Astronomy Greene: Introduction to Spherical and Practical Astronomy $1. .60 2.00 tion with Geological Applications Norton: Elements of Geology Russell: Glaciers of .50 With 1.50 . Laboratory.40 . Elementary Physical Geography .60 Ingersoll Geography and Zobel : Mathematical Theory of Heat Conduc2.00 3. : .75 Uranography Young: Manual of Astronomy . . and Library Manual of Physical Geography : GINN AND COMPANY b Publishers . With Uranography Young: General Astronomy Young Lessons in Astronomy (Revised Edition). and Bishop : Physical and Commercial 3. 1.00 i Davis .56 2. .. GEOLOGY. . .48 Gregory...go Willson: Laboratory Astronomy : 1.50 in Physical Geog56 go 146 raphy Wright Field.80 Upton : Star Atlas : 2. 2.48 Davis: Exercises in Physical Geography Atlas 56 40 i Davis : Physical Geography Keller.. 2.TEXTBOOKS IN ASTRONOMY. . .