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Granite peaks in the Yosemite.







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>)st COPY. 1398.



Copyright, 1S97,





Set up and electrotyped June, 1897. Reprinted July, August, September, October, 1897; March, 1898.

J. S.


& Co. — Berwick & Smith Norwood Mass. U.S.A.



Elementary Physical Geography, I attempted to present the subject in such a way as to put it forward in its more modern aspect, and particularly to

In preparing


include the


physiography, or science of land form.



was made to cover the
large, that


in a very

elementary way

but at once the difficulty arose that the

was so

even to present the subject in

an elementary manner would require a good-sized book.

To avoid this there were two things possible one to omit some parts and curtail others the other to com:


mence the consideration


some subjects with the assump-

tion that either the scholars


the preliminary points,

or that the teacher could explain them.


of shortening the

Both of these book were followed, but even

grew to a size entirely too large for those schools in which the subject has a minor place. The result has been, that although this book has met
with a success wholly unexpected, many teachers who wish to give instruction in the netu physical geography^ are unable to make use of it. It is partly in the hope of meeting the needs of these, that I have undertaken the preparation of this smaller book, from which still other sub-

but in which the attempt is made to start from the beginning, and make every topic thoroughly clear, assuming no more than is absolutely necessary in a subject
jects are omitted,

If I

based in part upon certain well-known principles

of other sciences, notably physics

and geology.

have been successful in

this effort, the, other object

that I have in

mind may

also be accomplished.



many of the better schools, geography is taught first as a home study of observation, and this is followed by general geography, and this by physical geography. But the latter
subject, as treated in

most geographies,


entirely inadestill

quate, and ought to be supplemented, or better
entirely replaced,


by a

real study of physical

geography in

the upper grade of the



Since the great

majority of our youth never go further than the grammar
school, I believe that they ought not to be allowed to


out into


without a genuine knowledge of the main

principles of air

and earth


I feel this strongly,

not merely because of the information which they gain,

but also because of the discipline and culture which these
sciences can impart.


reality, it is for the last object that I chiefly seek, for

I believe

that with this information


training, the stu-

he enters the high school, will then be able to go

on with much greater profit with a more thorough study of the earth sciences, geology and physiography. Indeed, I would urge, that where the general study of physical geography as a whole can be put into the grammar schools, the high schools should take up, not a more thorough study of the same subject, on the " concentric " plan, but a fuller study of a part, or better still, several parts, like meteo-

and geology. Although having in mind the use of this book in the high school, I would frankly say that I have no sympathy with the conditions which seem to demand it. Modern
rology, physiography,

education should



above fourteen-week courses, and


better to omit physical geography, giving its place to


more thorough study of some other science, than to keep on that plane. By peculiar merits of its own it demands It is my hope, therefore, that where this book fuller study. may be used in high schools in which conditions have

made necessary a short course, it may help to create mand for better and fuller instruction in the subject. Much of the value of the new physical geography,

a de-


might almost say its whole value, aside from the deed information which it imparts, depends upon the way in which it is taught. To assign certain pages to be memorized, and to stop there, whether this is done in the gram-


or the high school, is to fail to obtain the full results which can be gained from the study. Simple class-room experiments laboratory study of specimens, maps and photographs observations made by students independently, and discussed in the class practice in grouping facts which logically lead to conclusions and collective study out-of;
; ;


doors, shoukl take the place of


of the time-honored



suggestions are made here, but

teachers will find



earlier book.




so unfavorably situated that opportunities for such study

cannot be found in abundance
fail to find


no genuine teacher


pleasure from the results of such study; and
fail to

no student will
for fuller

gain great profit from

Much good comes

any study when the desire is created information and still more benefit arises when

to satisfy this desire, students are taught that there are

places in which to look,
find them.

and are given instruction how


To make

these benefits possible, I appended

at the close of each chapter of


Elementary Physical

Geography, a
list of


books of reference selected from the worth while to repeat these here; but at the end of this book there are a few supplementary references, chiefly to works which have appeared since the

It is not

former book was published. This book follows approximately the same order as that of my Elementary Physical Geography, because I believe
that this

the best.

a different order,

Still some will be found who prefer and there is no reason why a teacher

who prefers to commence with the land may not do so. As in my Elementary Physical Geography and Elementary
it is

have introduced illustrations profusely, because next to nature itself, such illustrations are of most value. More can be told in the space occupied them than by in several times that much space in type, and it can be told more clearly. Moreover, some of them can be made to serve as a basis for observation study. A



belief that

considerable majority of the illustrations are original, but

some are copied, and some are reproduced from photographs taken by others. To those who have kindly allowed me
to use these I return especial thanks.

Ithaca, N. Y., June





Condition of the Earth

Earth The Earth a Sphere Longitude
of the


3 3



The Earth an Oblate Spheroid
General Condition of the Earth

7 7





Solid Earth


Surface of the Earth

Continents and Ocean Basins

Mountain Irregularities Minor Irregularities Movements of the Earth

....... ........

9 9
12 13

13 13


The Sun

in the



Cause of Seasons

The Solar System The Sun The Planets


The Universe

24 25

The Universe The Nebular Hypothesis Symmetry of the Solar System The Explanation
Facts accounted for Other Nebulae



.27 .28



The Atmosphere


Importance of the Air Composition


General Features of the Air




33 33

Oxygen and Nitrogen Carbonic Acid Gas Water Vapor


Dust Particles Height of the Atmosphere Changes in the Air

40 42

Nature of Light


Light, Electricity, and Magnetism
43 44

Selective Scattering

48 48 49


The Colors of Sunrise and Sunset The Rainbow
Halos and Coronas
Sunlight Measurements


and 3Iagnetism















Nature of Heat Reflection of Heat Absorption of Heat Radiation of Heat Conduction of Heat Convection Heat on the Land




55 55


. . .













of the




61 62

Temperature of Highlands Effect of Heat on the Air
Effect of Kotation

64 66

Effect of Revolution


Temperature Measurement

Daily Range


Temperature of the Earth's Surface
70 70

Day and Night Change
Change with the Seasons Effect of Land and Water Irregular Changes Seasonal Temperature Change Seasonal Range
Influence of Latitude

72 73


74 76

Influence of Altitude
Influence of

Land and Water


Climatic Zones

Isothermal Lines

79 84

Temperature Extremes

Air Pressure



Measurement of Air Pressure Change in Air Pressure

. .

85 88 90 90 93

. . . . .

Theoretical Circulation

Trade-Wind Circulation
Prevailing Westerlies



Monsoons Land and Sea Breezes Mountain and Valley Breezes





Velocity of the






. .



Weather Changes Weather Maps 'Comparison of Weather Maps Cyclonic and Anticyclonic Areas The Low- and High-Pressure Areas Origin of the High- and Low-Pressure Areas




Explanation of the Winds Explanation of the Rain Explanation of the Temperatures
. .



Hurricanes or Tropical Cyclones

116 117

Time and Place


Explanation Storm Winds Thunder Storms Tornadoes

.... .... ....










the Atmosphere

Instruments for Measuring Vapor



130 132


Fog Haze


Mist Clouds Cloud Materials





....... .......

... ...

134 135 135

136 139 140

of Clouds Causes of Clouds Rain




of Rainfall



Nature of Rainfall Distribution of Rain Distribution of Snowfall



Climatic Zones Climate of the Tropical Zone Belt of 150 150 152 Calms The Trade.. . Climate PAGE Word Climate 149 149 . Distribution of Man Animals and Plants 180 182 Modes of Distribution of Barriers to the Spread of Life 185 ..Wind Belt The Indian Climate Climates of the Frigid Zones 154 155 . .. . 161 162 163 163 and Land CHAPTER XL Zones of Life Distribution of Animals and Plants 165 Life in the Ocean Plants .CONTENTS CHAPTER Meaning of the XV X. .. The South Frigid Zone . 165 167 Animals Faunas of the Coast Line (Littoral Faunas) Animals of the Ocean Bottom (Abyssal Fauna) Life at the Surface (Pelagic Faunas) . .155 155 156 Near the Arctic Circle In the Higher Latitudes Climates of the Temperate Zone Various Types United States Climates Difference between United States and Europe Variation with Altitude Differences between Ocean 160 160 . 167 169 171 Life in Fresh Water Life on the 173 Land 174 178 Plants Animals . . ..

187 188 189 191 193 . o . XIV.211 . . Elements Definition . 203 203 204 Red Clay CHAPTER Wind Waves The Tides XIII.. 215 215 216 Atlantic Currents The Explanation Effects 218 219 Part IV... . . The Movements of the Ocean . . Ocean .XVI CONTENTS Part III. The Ocean PAGE CHAPTER Area of the XII. 187 Importance of the Ocean The Ocean Water is Salt Temperature of the Ocean Surface Life on the Bottom Methods used in Studying the Ocean Bed Ocean Bottom Temperatures The Depth of the Sea Topography of the Ocean Bottom .. Ocean Currents Differences in Temperature .205 210 Nature of the Tides Causes of Tides Effects of the Tides 210 . General Description of the Ocean .. .. .. The Land The Earth's Crust 220 221 221 222 CHAPTER Condition of the Crust Minerals of the Crust . .213 . ' 195 198 200 The Ocean Bed Globigerina Ooze .

. . 236 238 Ages of the Land CHAPTER XV.. Rocks of the Crust . The Wearing Away Entrance of Water into the Earth Return of Underground Water to the Surface Springs 240 242 242 Artesian Wells 243 . Weathering .. Movements of the Crust Age of the Earth Geological .: CONTENTS Minerals of the Crust xvii Quartz Feldspar Calcite 222 223 224 . . 244 246 248 248 251 Breaking Rocks Methods Employed of the Up . . Mineral Springs Limestone Caves . 254 257 Erosion of the Land Destruction of the Land River Valleys. including Waterfalls AND Lakes 260 CHAPTER XVL Characteristics of River Valleys 261 . . .. . Difference in Result Effects of . . . 268 274 278 283 286 288 291 Lakes . The River Work History of River Valleys 264 Accidents interfering with Valley Development The River Course River Deltas River Floodplains Waterfalls . . „ 234 . „ . .226 226 228 231 Igneous Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Position of the Rocks 232 . .

Sea and Lake Shores 313 313 Lake and Sea Shores Form Sea of the Coast Cliffs 314 317 The Beach Wave-carved Shores 320 321 A A Sinking Coast Rising Coast . Valley Glaciers The Greenland Glacier Icebergs Glacial Period 294 300 304 305 305 308 309 310 Evidence of this Cause of the Glacial Period . Plains. Glacial Deposits .323 323 Marshes Coral Reefs Islands 324 326 326 . Glaciers and the Glacial Period PAGE .XVlll CONTENTS CHAPTER XVII. Plateaus. Effects of the Glacier CHAPTER Difference between XVIII. . By By Construction Destruction 328 Promontories 330 331 Changes in Coast Line CHAPTER Plains XIX. 332 334 335 Plateaus Treeless Plains Mountains Nature of Mountains 335 337 Development of a Mountain System The Destruction of Mountains Other Kinds of Mountains The Cause of Mountains 340 342 342 . and Mountains .

. . 349 351 351 Form of the Cone 352 353 355 Extinct Volcanoes Distribution of Volcanoes Cause of Volcanoes Explanation of the Differences Earthquakes Geysers 356 in Volcanoes 356 357 361 . . Birth of a Volcano xix Volcanoes. Earthquakes. . and Geysers Volcanoes page Vesuvius Krakatoa The Hawaiian Volcanoes Other Volcanoes Materials Erupted = ..347 .CONTENTS CHAPTER XX. 345 . . 344 .


8. 16. . 6.. Kelative size and distance of planets and sun Craters on the moon Diagram Diagram illustrating Nebular Hypothesis Andromeda Nebula . 2. 3.. 25. 11. 18. Seasonal temperature range. illustrating density of air 40 Ideal section of atmosphere 63 . Thermograph Thickness of air passed through by vertical and oblique rays Diurnal variation of temperature Daily temperature range for several places Influence of ocean on daily temperature range Daily range in desert and humid tropical lands Irregularities in daily temperature range . 72 73 74 74 75 Temperature range for several days . 28.ILLUSTEATIONS PHOTOGRAPHS AND DIAGRAMS FIG. 5. 10. and Afr Globe to illustrate day and night at Equinox 16 18 9. summer 24 25 29 31 17. 24... 69 70 70 71 21. 23. Section across South America. 4 5 of earth 9 10 11 12 7. . several places 76 . 15. 27. Daily temperature change. several places 29. Atlantic Ocean. 1. 26. 4. 19. Diagram Diagram to illustrate cause for seasons illustrating small amount of heat reaching earth 22 13.. 14. Ocean surface showing curvature of earth Diagram to illustrate curvature of earth Maps to illustrate latitude and longitude Diagrammatic section from surface to interior The two hemispheres Land and water hemispheres .. Seasonal temperature range. 22. . Globe illustrating conditions in northern summer Globe illustrating conditions in northern winter 19 21 12. 66 20.

Jan. 61. conditions. 55. 40.. Cirro-cumulus clouds . 67. Jan. Effect of sea breeze on daily temperature range 39. 48.XXll FIG. . Tornado near St. 27.. 1891 conditions. 69. Cirrus clouds Strato-cumulus clouds .. Summer and winter monsoon. 53. 52. 9. November. Anemometer Weather Weather Weather conditions. 62. 46. 60. Monsoon of Spanish peninsula . air circulation air. Change in barometer in hurricane Temperature change in cold wave and sirocco Influence of cyclone and anticyclone on temperature Temperature change during chinook. 35. 49. QQ. Ideal circulation of surface southern hemisphere 36.. 57. 42. 64. India 38. 44. Paul. 63. Nov. 1893 conditions. 51. . Montana Photograph of distant thunder storm Map showing location of thunder storms in cyclonic . 1893 Paths followed by low-pressure areas. . 47. Photograph of large hailstones Photograph of snow flakes TJain gauge . 1893 1893 8. Minn Diagram showing change in relat ve humidity Psychrometer Upper surface of valley fog Clouds on cliff in the Yosemite Cumulus clouds . 59. 33. Weather Weather Weather conditions... 54. 41. Theoretical air movement in storm 50. 43. 7. Isothermal chart for New England of pressure 32. ILLUSTRATIONS Influence of ocean on seasonal temperature range 30.. 56.. . Jan. Jan. Disturbance of wind by surface irregularities Pulsation of wind . 12. 68. Theoretical air circulation in anticyclone Tropical cyclone in India . . Diagram showing changes Aneroid barometer Diagram showing general 34. 65. April 20. 31. 1896 conditions. 45. 1897 . . 37. 58.. .

.. Deep-sea sounding machine Deep-sea dredge on ocean bottom Temperature of ocean bottom of north Atlantic Temperature of ocean at various depths Section from Atlantic to Gulf of Mexico Section of ocean from New York to Bermuda Section across Atlantic showing temperature and depth Ocean bottom topography (Jones model) Ocean bottom topography (Jones model) Diagram showing approach of wave on beach 199 200 201 202 207 100. Deep-sea fish Deep-sea crinoid .. 75.. 82. A 88. Mountain peak. 105. 91. 1888 Map showing snowfall of United States Mangi'ove swamp. 183 190 192 194 195 196 197 90.. 87. March 13. 92. 78.. Cape Ann.. Peru Near timber line. Land ..ILLUSTRATIONS FIG. Consolidated pebble bed .. 210 211 212 217 Stratification in horizontal rocks 220 222 224 Quartz crystal Piece of calcite Section of diabase enlarged by microscope 106. snow Bermuda road Bit of Bermuda landscape Arctic flora in Arctic sea ice . 98. 74.. 81. 96. 97. 104. in Greenland. 226 227 Diagram illustrating intrusion of granite 109. . summer Greenland ice sheet Cold wave. 153 156 157 72. 108.... 85. . 89. crest of Andes. Desert vegetation in the west Midnight sun. . 229 . Mass. 83. 158 159 160 161 166 167 Corals. XXlll PAGE 70. Great Barrier reef. 103. northern Norway Ice-covered sea in the Arctic . 76. . 107. 77. Australia 169 80. 95. Diagram illustrating origin of tidal wave Diagram showing advance of tidal wave in Atlantic Diagram showing cause of spring and neap tides Diagram showing currents of eastern north Atlantic . Bermuda Seaweed mat.. 99. 94. 73. Rocky Mountains 86. 170 171 Semi-tropical forest in Florida 174 Cactus in Arizona desert 175 176 177 178 182 84. .. 93. 71. 102. 101. . 79.

149. N. . Mass . 120. 255 133. 137. . . 112. Beach. Maryland Diagram illustrating residual Bad Lands. .. .Y . . Yellowstone Howe's Cave. . Cape Ann. 111. Diagram illustrating cause of hillside springs Diagram illustrating artesian wells Diagram illustrating artesian wells Hot Springs. 122. 114. 148. 138.272 274 274 Cross section of Colorado River 145. .Y Delaware Water Gap . View 147.258 262 River gorge in Peruvian Andes Rocky stream bed in Adirondacks 264 136. Coquina Diagram of volcano in cross section Crumpling of rock Diagram illustrating faults Photograph of small fault Folded rocks A monocline Section of gneiss enlarged by microscope Diagram illustrating conditions in hot springs ^ " 230 231 233 233 235 236 236 237 241 242 242 . Diagram illustrating stream action and weathering Meandering of Missouri River Young valley. 141. central New York Diagram illustrating base level Diagram illustrating development of stream valley Broad mature valley. . . . . 124. 142. 135. Decaying granite. 139. 123. 146. Ithaca. canon Diagram illustrating Chesapeake Bay river system Drainage in mountain Drainage on plain in Colorado . Interlocking tributaries . 116.. .. Column in cavern 248 249 252 Effect of frost action on mountain top 128. . N. 134. . 256 257 soil . 129. Effect of weathering in arid lands 130. Butte in western Texas Crumbling of rocks on mountain side 253 . 127. 117. 113. 275 279 279 280 . 121. 243 244 245 246 247 125. 143. . . 118. 140.271 . New York Natural Bridge . ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE 110. 132. . 131. . South Dakota . . Ithaca. 115. 119. 144.XXIV FIG. Enfield Gorge. . 126. 265 267 268 269 270 271 .

. Greenland Iceberg off . . 173. 183. N. shore of by sinking Island joined to land by bars Islands caused Bermuda of Bermuda 328 329 330 332 334 336 337 Plain of Everglades. 187. Alluvial fans in the west . 172. 304 ice in glacial period 305 306 307 308 309 315 316 318 319 320 321 322 325 327 178. Teton Mountains Near timber line. 176.. 167. 155.ILLUSTRATIONS FIG. 179. Greenland Delta in glacier lake Ice floating in water 161. 154. 156. Depressed coast of part of Connecticut Beach and coral reef. Crevassed surface of Muir glacier. 171. Hawaiian Islands 348 . Wave-cut islands. to valleys 281 River flowing in anticline Cross section of delta Waterfall. Cape Ann. 153.. Cape Ann.Y Boulder-strewn moraine. Changing of mountain tops . Serpula atolls. Bermuda Wave-cut cliff. 151. . Sections of Appalachian Mountains 185. New York . 162. Grandfather Mountain. 302 302 303 164. central . Glaciated rock surface in Iowa Terminal moraine hills.. Montana Pompeii and Vesuvius 339 341 347 Mauna Loa. Alaska Margin of Cornell glacier. Nova Scotia Bars on shore of Martha's Vineyard Tiny wave-carved bay. 160.. Bermuda Undercut sea cliffs. Mass. southern Florida Diagram illustrating dissection of plain . 177. 181. North Carolina Mount Moran. Ithaca. 174. North Greenland coast Map of United States showing extension of Boulder clay. 188.. 182. Mass Sea cliff. Cape Ann. 169. Gallatin Mountains. An Alpine glacier 296 297 301 159. 175. 186. XXV PAGE 150. 165. Bermuda . . 180. General view of Niagara Falls Peat bogs in Adirondacks Snowfield in high Alps 289 290 295 157. coast of Florida . 163. 158. 168. Scratched glacial pebble. Mass. 189. 170. 166. Cape Breton. 282 283 285 288 152. Lake Superior Bar across bay. 184.

1 1 12. 8. 13. Crater of Kilauea 349 350 192.. Isothermal chart of the world for January Isothermal chart of the world for the year 80 81 3. 4. . 146 147 189 198 15. 283 314 336 . granite. 195. New Mexico Distribution of Volcanoes Effect of Japanese earthquake. ' XXVI FIG. 190. 18. Isothermal chart of the United States for July Isothermal chart of the United States for January Isothermal chart of the United States for the year 82 83 84 90 92 93 116 117 6. 5. Tiny volcano. . 197. 193.. 353 354 355 358 359 360 361 Isoseismals. Maine Mountain ridge in the northwest of . Mediterranean Popocatapetl. Mexico Volcanic necks. 2.. Charleston earthquake Giant Geyser. Frontispiece Isothermal chart of the world for July 79 .. 198. 191. . . Chart showing isobaric lines for the world Map showing prevailing winds of the globe for July Map showing prevailing winds of the globe for January A West Indian hurricane Typical winter storm Rainfall chart of world Rainfall chart of United States Average temperature of sea surface . . 20. and gneiss) Delta of Mississippi 214 227 19. Chart of ocean currents Three rock specimens (diabase. Yellowstone PLATES PACING PAGE Granite peaks in the Yosemite 1.. Depth of Atlantic Ocean 17. ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE 190. 1891 Diagram illustrating earthquake wave . 7. 9.. 194. Map drowned coast. 16. 10. 14..

G. Gardner. 145. 155. Gilbert. Minn. F. Fig. S. L. Some of these have been more or very few that have been less modified to suit the needs of tlie book. Popular Astronomy. (Photographs by). etc. Abbe. West Indian Hurricanes. 139. Vol. Blanford. Denver. Figs. 60. B. Baltimore. 1889. Johnston-Lavis. Sixth Annual Report. U. (Dealer in Meteorological Instruments). J. 177. Chamberlin. 153. S. Fig..Y. Figs. I am also indebted to Mr. 80. Fifth Annual Report.. U. Prof. modified. and 9. Fig. Geological Survey. 11. Buchan. G. S. Ball. Kent. Atmospheric Circulation. Iowa . U. L. III. Figs. J. 131. H. 172. Part 2. 79. Freiz. 75. 126. and 198. Martin for some of the photographs. P. Fig. 92. (Photographer).. Fig. Agassiz. Challenger Reports. same. 85. Jackson Photograph Co. Bailey. U. Figs. Fig. 197. illustrations in this book have been obtained from the following sources. N. Berghaus Atlas der Meteorologie.. Three Cruises of the Blake. Fig. H. 62. Third Annual Report. Dutton. Series of Lantern Slides for Schools. 123.. 37 and 51. Fig. S. 143. Md. C.. Second Annual Report. Keyes. Fig. 167. S. Haynes. . Figs. 82. 97 and 98. Fig. and 192. Climates and Weather of India. Ninth Annual . 93. Hellmann. 8... 2. Fig. Schneekrystalle. S. Fifteenth Annual Report. Figs. 81. 20. 166 and 169. Thomas. Howes. 3. 165. 182. 111.. Harvard College Astronomical Observatory Annals. Signal Service. Jay (Photographer). Report. Vol. XXXI. Chicago. S. Figs.. Col. 193 same. etc. 159. S. Fig. J. 18 and 39. Plate 12. O. 69. Photograph of copyrighted globe. Plates 1. A borrowed are not acknowledged because the original source is not known. Hayden. G. Fig. 31. Jones. Davis.. 191. South Italian Volcanoes. Hann... White and Mr.ILLUSTRATIONS xxvii ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF ILLUSTRATIONS Aside from those that are original. F. St. Fig. Ithaca. 186. 68.. Paul. G. Fig. Annual Report. Great Barrier Reef. 2d (Photographs by). Figs. 41. 33. 7.

. 45. Sigsbee. Jour. Fig. 70. Thornton. 16. N. 56. Figs. Deep Sea Sounding and Dredging. Plate 20. 90. 135. 64. . modified. Montreal. 19.. 76. and Figs. United States Coast Survey (Maps of). 151.. W. Minn.). Steeruwitz. and 13.). R. (Photographer). McGillivray (Photographer). Glens Falls. 42. 184 (Hayes). Set of Cloud Slides (Riggenbach. Notman (Photographer). Fig. Figs. and 190. Libbey. 57. 1890. and 176. 6. modified. 91. 46. Final Summary. 27. 187. 189. 128 and 133. 32. Langley.Y. 10. Plates 14 and 15. 54. 58. United States Weather Bureau (based upon maps and records of) Plates 4. 129.. Jr. Fig. Paul. Lawrence. Figs. and 156.XXVlll ILLUSTRATIONS St. 48. 1891. Kansas (Photographs by). 40. and . N. Texas Geological Survey. Fig. Williston. 14. Fig. 86. Koester (Photographs by. Printed in Am. Ward. (Photographs by). Prof. 22. Advanced Physiography (from a Photograph by Mr. Met. VII. Thomson. Figs. XLVII. 136. Figs. The Moon. Vol. W. Prof. 55. Murray. 63. and Frontispiece. 174. Stoddard. 125. 11. 124. S. and 66. Burnham. Fig. Canada. . Challenger Reports (Narrative). United States Geological Survey Folios (Campbell). Figs. 61. sold by Fredrick and Koester. 43. New York State Weather Bureau (from records of). S. Challenger Reports. and 59. 185. 53. 138. 65.Y. First Annual Report. Ithaca. 47. 113. Fig... United States Geological Survey (Photographs by). 52. Nasmyth and Carpenter. 147. 44. 5. Fig. Roberts). Plates 18 and 19. Fig. etc. and Fig. 26. United States Geological Survey (Maps of). Figs. American Journal Science.

still is and.OHIO SUPPLEMENT. and the fossils have been preserved in These layers of stratified rock them. For a long time it stood as a low island in the Paleozoic sea. great sheets of shale. they are in a nearly horizontal position. Devonian. became buried in the sandy. and. 228). were laid down horizontally. The first part of this sea bottom to be raised above the surface was a broad tract in the southwestern part of Ohio. and sandstone were spread out over the ocean bottom (p. having been deposited in the sea at a time when there was a great ocean extending over the Central States. This was during the Paleozoic time (p. and has been called the Cincinnati Arch. In this sea. 238) that are entombed in them. 1 . 230) these soft beds have become consolidated form hard rock. You can see that this so in any ledge or quarry in the state. The rocks of Ohio are all Geology and Topography. In many of these rocks proof of this ocean origin may be found in the fossils (p. or limy beds. and the strata belong to the Silurian. limestone. where now the state of Ohio stands. settling to the bottom. muddy. and Carboniferous periods. It was left as a great and low dome extending across the boundary of Ohio into Kentucky and Indiana. 233). sedimentary (p. of to — By the deposit cement (p. 239). now that they are raised above the sea. Each fossil represents the remnants of an animal or plant which lived in this sea.

perhaps somewhat like those of Florida (p. and cut by many deep and broad valleys with gently sloping sides. was lifted also. but. Indeed. in the Carboni- ferous period. While the state has been standing weathering in the air. such as occurred where the mountains rose. underlaid by nearly horizontal rocks. state to the very base of the . such as the Ohio. Sometimes this shallow sea bottom was lifted above the water. Finally Ohio became dry land. 270). Standing in the bottom of some of these valleys.2 PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY. it was then that the Appalachians were being formed and. The topography of Ohio is therefore that of a plain. as they rose in great folds of rock (p. in this part. and rivers have been slowly carrying the rocks away. without any folding or crumpling of the rocks. 274) by the glacial deposit to be described later. 336). and West Virginia. occupy mature valleys (p. and slowly changed to the coal which is so valuable to the states of Ohio. were formed. including many hundreds of thousands of tons of These rivers have been so long at work that they how coal. and great swampy plains. and so it has remained nearly. as a dry land part of the continent. the region to the west of them. Pennsylvania. . if not all of the time since. On these swamps the coal jDlants grew and built beds of swamp muck. toward the close of the Paleozoic. This all happened so long ago that there has been much chance for change. Then. 333). the depth of the sea in the eastern part became and a great shallow sea extended from this part of the Appalachian Mountains in West Virginia and Pennsylvania. where Ohio now stands. The streams have cut down through the sheets of sedimentary rock and carried a great deal off to the sea. excepting in those places where they have been locally changed or rejuvenated (p. which were later buried beneath layers of clay and sand. with less.

he feet down upon Ohio from above the sea level. This plain is really a broad pla- teau near the base of the Rockies. 162) and quite different from the rocks near by and. and rising higher still near the base of these mountains. . 8 the hills rismg from 400 to 700 feet above the valley bottom. if one could would see that it was really one great plain. glacial stride (Fig. where the Mississippi River Through this dissected plain many streams extend. 239). most of them entering the Ohio. and this changed the physical geography Ohio in a most important manner. Effects of the Glacial Period. and where some of the highest hills are 1200 to 1500 look above. and also near the base of the Appalachians. 305-312). 167) may be found. The glacier all of the state. recently uncovered. if one might not recognize the scenery as that of a plain bnt one should go to the top of a high hill. 199). where the bare rock has been . all form a part of a dissected plain. higher along the Ohio divide.OHIO SUPPLEMENT. and its lowest part flows. The drainage lines of the state may be studied on any good ing the present. In fact. which extends in a northeast and southwest direction across the state. and that they . but left the southeastern corner uncovered (Fig. is near the middle. either directly or through the Wabash. Lawrence drainage through Lake Erie. that there came map of Ohio. he would find that many other hills rise to nearly the same level. — In the period just preced- down of is. In other parts of Ohio proof that did not cover the ice visited the region may often be found. over this region of plains the great conti- nental glacier (pp. but some passing into the St. during the Pleistocene (p. Moreover. for there are pebbles frequently scratched (Fig. this extensive plain is but a small part of a much larger one extending from the Appalachians to the Rockies. showing where the glacier has ploughed over the bed rock.

Fig. Avhere these moraines of recession were built. other morainal deposits. small drift hills of Ohio are parts of this moraine.: 4 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 308) was built. . 199 show were built. 199. 199) show that this direction was mainly from the north and northeast. so that its front stood at different points north of this termijial moraine. These strite tell the direction from which the ice came. Map showing and beach Leverett. as will be seen by studying the map (Fig. and perhaps some of them are so near that you yourself may see them. and the arrows on the map (Fig. After Along the margin of the glacier a terminal moraine (p. lines moraines of Ohio by dots. But in different parts of the state there were currents moving in various directions. cession. and when the glacier slowly melted away. 199). known as moraines of reThe dotted spaces on Fig. direction of ice movement by arrows by heavy and dotted lines southwest of Lake Erie. and each line Many of the represents a halt in the withdrawal of the ice.

there are buried valleys in places where no one would know about it. Not only were moraines built at the margin. but till (p. and in some places. Till plain near Columbus. and some entirely buried beneath the drift. found here and there in the have been caused in this way. very thick. particularly in the western part of Ohio. Ohio. so that little lake basins have been formed and the many ponds and state. 400. Fig. tiny lakes. The moraines and the sheet have been laid down .OHIO SUPPLEMENT. and even 500 feet of In many places this sheet of glacial deposit is glacial drift. SO deep that the river valleys liave been made shallower. if wells had not been sunk there. 200. As a result. Many of tlie swamps . forms the it is 5 a sheet of This till soil of much of the glaciated portion of the state. 306) was deposited wherever the ice stood. showing hills and valley bottoms beneath the glacial deposits. Some of the wells that have been bored for oil have passed through 200. The Cuyahoga vallej^ is one of those tliat is deeply till filled with drift. 300. irreg- ularly.

Even Lake Erie itself has been partly caused by deposits of glacial drift which have choked up the valley that. before the glacial period. 312) has helped to deepen the basin of Lake Erie. also. the course the streams period. 292). and peat bogs are ponds of this kind that have been filled by the aid of vegetation (p. glacial erosion (p. it is seen that the entire Present drainage lines of Upper Ohio Chamberlin and Leverett. 202 a similar map showing the x /^ Fig. Probably. may be assumed that the streams are not flowing in their old preglacial valleys. One effects of the most important the glacier of was to P^^H v^" /af!/ & rob the St. before glacial By comparing these maps. by scooping out some of the rock as the ice passed along the Erie valley. was occupied by a river where Lake Erie is now situated. and give Li Fig. Where of rivers young portions it 1 PRESENT DRAINAGE SYSTEMS ^\^ ^ are found. 201 we have a sketch map showing and of in >•:. 201. upper headwaters of the Ohio were apparently given to it during the glacial period. What a vast difference it would have made to the state had this not been done The Ohio ! . Lawrence system of many them the of its tributaries to the Ohio.6 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. many other changes wei'e waterfalls the drainage. ^m %S}s£^^'-^-Sy but that they have cut out new valleys since the glacial period. Fig.-- present probable drainage. The gorges and these that occur in the state are the result of some of these. By made the deposit of in all this drift.

one from Probable preglacial drainage of Upper Ohio region. they unite and flow back toward Lake Erie through the Maumee. but. would have been so much smaller than now that have been nearly so useful as it is. over wliich the poured when the ice was here. Joseph's Fig. as it formerly had. 202. after the ice had gone. it . There are many other interesting effects of the glacier on the drainage of the state. which southeast. Together the three streams form something like the barbed head of an arrow. . They the flow together. The reason for this. and one from the northwest. northward flow for some of the Ohio headwaters. Grand River) the old valleys are deeply filled A second reason is that the Ohio narrows up near North PROBABLE PREGLACIAL DRAINAGE OF Martinsville so that this seems to be a divide. Mary's rivers unite. notice on Fig. is that the two rivers flow on the Avestern side of a moraine. Chamberlin and Leverett. the drainage was able to flow southward instead of northAvater THE UPPER OHIO REGION ward. 199). A is third reason for this belief that the rock floor of the valleys.7 could not One of the reasons is why it is believed that all these changes occurred that in some places (as near the mouth with of the drift. 199 indicates a how and peculiarly St. St. and cut the valley so low that. instead of doing this.OHIO SUPPLEMENT. as you can see on the map (Fig. as revealed by borings. For instance. as if they were going toward the Wabash.

It the ice was receeding. 203. near Fort Wayne. causing the moraine to turn southwest in that valley but in time the ice front began to withdraw from the Maumee. the this Indiana. the that Maumee Lake not it flow into Erie as does (p. Maumee valley at an elevation of about 250 feet Map showing and. the Where overflow occurred. 199. will be noticed that several other streams have their courses determined by the moraines.8 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. This beach extends eastward along the . and Bryan. position outline of glacier front of glacial lakes while above the lake and along the line marked on Fig. it which is now ice still not occupied by a stream. When the ice was withdrawing from this section. As the opened a withdrew still further from this region. Belmore. Delphos. It prevents them from sooner turning toward the east. The shores of lake can now be plainly seen in the Fig. lower outlet for these waters past the present and then the Maumee lake fell to a lower 204). This river naturally flows northeastward. and while the water stood here another beach was built. now which had an overflow past Fort Wayne. Present lakes 23assed through Findlay. and consequently the ice formed a . and city of Chicago. a tongue. there is a broad channel cut in the earth. Delta (Fig. 292). 199). Taylor in Dryer's Indiana Studies. or lohe^ extended up the Maumee valley. into Wabash. level (Fig. dam 203) could across so the river (Fig. This caused a lake to form. It passes through Tiflin. shown by dotted lines.

OHIO SUPPLEMENT. somewhat as clay is now being carried into Lake Erie by the various streams and deposited over its floor. 203. Industries of the State. A region owes its industries and material development to its physiography. though most of tliem have now been removed because of the value of the land for farming. 204.. Few states furnish . Maumee These were clays deposited in the glacial lakes along the ice front. are there beaches of sand and gravel along these but also extensive deposits of clay in the Erie shore. shores of 9 through the city of Cleveland and there are still lower beaches between these and the lake. the outflow was eastward when the ice front had melted back far enough to the Erie. passing Lake north to allow the waters to flow in that direction. Dryer's Indiana Studies. In this clay-covered section of Ohio there were extensive prairies (p. when Taylor in Not only lines. valley and along the — people themselves are influenced by it. Same as Fig. marking drops in the level of the water as lower outlets were discovered. and even the . later stage the outflow was past Chicago. Fig. until. finally. 335) when the state was discovered but in some of the other parts of the state forests existed.

. in Ohio. The climate a better illustration of this influence than Ohio. is pleasant and temperate and the rainfall heavy enough. being unable to escape slowly accumulated there until men have bored of they are stored. so that fruit raising tries one of the indusstate. Besides the general conditions of climate. and other delicate crops thrive well because of the more southern in effect of climate and oftentimes there is a difference between hill top and valley bottom. Geological Survey. Orton. to ensure good crops. or Part Eighth Annual Report. along the shores of many Lake Erie. and both derived from the distillation of organic remains in the rocks. . they have where the Ohio oil and gas. soil. dairy products. where a soil has resulted from the decay of sandy rocks (p. from the rocks. U. 1 These substances are hydrocarbons. but when the falls generally uniform enough. which. where the climate there. Beneath the soil are other natural resources. fruit. is made more moderate by is the pres- ence of the water. Because of Ohio is it eminently adapted to successful agriculture. and over the larger In places part of the state by a soil brought by the glacier. In the southwestern part of the latitude tobacco. see wells to the places 2. in the Ohio State Geological Survey Report.10 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. but. surface is cut into hills and valleys of moderate slope. and wool. for instance. For an excellent account S. as in most of Ohio. The coal beds furnish abundant fuel petroleum and natural gas ^ furnish heat and light and the iron beds have been of . soil has been transported. They are formed somewhat as marsh gas is formed in swamps . one liquid. the fertile and the rainfall. the level surface. for the most part covered with a rich soil. notably. even a sandy rock may be covered by a blanket of rich soil. there are local modifications. 256) it is liable to be sandy and sterile. Vol. the state is So is that so productive of the various farm crops. . upon plains. and This rain even where most dissected. are only This. the other gaseous. in the Trenton limestone. as. VII. .

With the growth of the city an extensive breakwater has been built in order to accommodate the grow- . but even the ocean Along the lake shore manufacturing towns and shipping ports have grown. headed by the largest city in the state. is also situall ated on a natural harbor which Avas large enough for purposes when the city was founded. so that now an artificial harbor has been made necessary. Toledo. 11 them importance in starting iron manufactories. All of these industries have been greatly aided by the drainage lines and the general levelness of the The great Ohio. a city almost as large as Cincinnati. of extensive headwaters. Lake Erie bounds northern Ohio. and these are naturally located where vessels may enter to is. but has long since become too small. Cincinnati. though some of are now maintained by iron brought from beyond the state. and Sandusky. the Great Lakes. as upon its larger tributaries. ucts of the state of other sections may may be shipped over it. swelled in volume by the addition region. Many towns and cities on these rivers. on a harbor at the extreme end of the lake. of necessity manu- facturing has developed to meet the needs of the producer and consumer. The excellent building stones found among the hori- zontal sedimentary strata have been a source of wealth. load and unload their cargoes: that Cleveland. where there are harbors. Then. is navigable. and upon it. also. for at and material shipped in such quantities that cities have of necessity grown. prove the importance of these drainage lines . while the products This opens up not only be brought in upon the same waters. and the prodthese places factories have been started. all of the immense area around itself. are illustrations of this.OHIO SUPPLEMENT. With the natural resources of the state. the crops and manufactured articles have been shipped with ease. on another harbor. and other mineral resources have been of importance.

Over these canals products could be carried from places which had no natural waterway. First of all. and Cincinnati. He has not merely tilled the soil. and manufactured articles from these products. A person living in such a place can easily find out what this was in each particular case. too. Each of the large cities. and this was made possible in Ohio by the levelness of the surface. All who study this book may. and this. before railroads were of importance. for if you will look at a map of Ohio you will see that a great many of the railroads follow the valleys. so that even the railroads themselves have been influenced by the natural features. Cleveland. though in the places where the surface is most level it has been possible for them to extend across country. These cities got their start because of natural advantages. for the canals connect them with large areas of the state by a very serviceable waterway. in still another direction.12 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. extracted the mineral treasures. and even their very lives. and even large cities. owes its location to some natural feature which gave it some superior advantage and permitted it to grow. canals were dug. The building of canals in this state has had an important effect upon the growth of many towns. Now that railroads have been built they have served chiefly to make the cities previously established grow more rapidly. have been influenced by the physical geography of the region in which . and in this way also towns were caused to develop. if they have the desire. but he has improved the means of carrying these materials about. Man has of course been at Avork improving the opportunities that nature offers. learn some interesting and valuable lessons in attempting to find out how far their homes. as well as ing shipping industr}^ most of the small ones. and the railroads were obliged to go to them. such as Toledo.

Dryer's Studies in Indiana Geology (Inland Pub. you have been rewarded for this study. is discussed by Chamberlin and Leverett in the American Journal of Science. pp. $0. every one of which contains much of value. These books are in many private and public libraries. uses for The teacher may wish to read more upon the subject of the physical geography of Ohio. Vol. There are many other papers on the geology of the state. and seen its application in some cases. 1892. pp. mentioned above. 281-301.. 1894. XLIIL. and reference to some of these may be found in the sources mentioned in this paragraph. Co. and they dwell. 247-283 and the moraine of Ohio by Leverett in the same journal.OHIO SUPPLEMENT. he has not been slow in finding them and putting them to the which they are suited. and for this reason these few references are appended. The change in the Ohio drainage. Terre Haute.50) contains much on the physical geography of Ohio. XLVII. 1897.. and copies may often be found in the second-hand bookstores. First of all are the reports of the Ohio State Geological Survey. Vol.. If you have learned this lesson. 13 Many gifts have been placed before man. Ind. and in some of which the county geology is discussed. . especially on the Great Lake history. .






2). and the water upon it. that are near show the sails. — Standing upon the seashore. see we ships sailing some near at hand and some Those far away. The vessel gradually disappears behind the curvature of the earth.FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL >>@<c GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER I CONDITION OF THE EARTH Form of the Earth : The Marth a Sphere. more distant ones are the offing is detected only by of the There are other _pr oofs that the earth 3 is a spherical . sails and masts and perchance one in topmast (Fig. to the water's edge. 1. and looking out upon the broad expanse of water. its down The ocean surface to Fig. spars. 1). This is because the surface of the earth. is curved (Fig. and along. even the hull but only the seen. just as a man disappears from sight as he passes over the crest of a hill. show curvature of the earth.

north of Hudson's Bay. and is situated in Boothia Land. rose to the level of the line AB. start 1 — Should a dozen people (see a globe).^ In mapping the globe. just as a globe or an apple may be These are not the same as the magnetic to rotate about an axis. the travellers would in time meet at a point in the south. are 360 in number. toward which the compass needle points. San Francisco. their paths would all converge toward a point at which they might eventually meet. from as many places. which is so enwrapped in ice and snow that it has not yet been visited by man.— 4 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHT For instance. is called the North Pole.16 miles. ships. west. and these all converge toward the poles. such as New York. which is called the South Pole^ and this region also is inaccessible to man. Or. by travelling over land and water. or lines of longitude. poles 2 made Since there are 360 lines of longitude is the length of a degree of longitude it follows that at the equator very nearly 69. As . geographers are in the habit of projecting lines in the direction of these imaginary journeys. Passing due south from these same places. and each of these is spoken of as a degree of longitude. and this point. and in time To illustrate curvature of earth. These meridians. The north magnetic pole lies to the southward of the true North Pole. and be able to go due north..'^ Longitude. etc.. A person standf^n^ OUr^iclveS back body. ^t the startnig pomt .2. of the earth through which the axis This axis is that about which the earth rotates. The North and South Poles are the imaginary points on the surface of the earth emerges. — : —— ing at B could not see an object at C unless it . we can A — B i) go due east or due C___ ^iG. London. if we should start on one of the we might pass entirely around the globe and return to the point whence we started.

.^ From Greenwich as the zero. has utes. 3. into 60 minutes ('). for they broaden out and spread apart as the distance from the poles increases (Fig. and lies 2° 20' 9" east of Greenwich but English-speaking people do not . gitude^ and is this is known as east lon- while west longitude located in the same way we proceed toward the less 1 this poles the length of a degree of longitude becomes and less until it is at the poles. Where furthest apart the distance between two Each degree (°) is divided meridians is about 69 miles. To illustrate latitude and longitude. and each minute into 60 seconds ("). minGreenwich Observatory. and seconds. England. the meridians are numbered toward the east until 180° is reached. 3).CONDITION O^ THE EART3 The 5 distance between these varies. use this. which to start in numbering these degrees. In France the Observatory of Paris is taken as the starting place. and the longitude of any place is given in degrees. been chosen by English-speaking people as the place from Fig.

the zero circle poles. we must know not only the longitude. The JEarth an Oblate Spheroid. latitude and longitude. toward each pole. midway between the two name Equator is applied. we exact distance from any other known part of the earth. 1 and 7925. high latitudes are nearer the All north of the poles and low latitudes near the Equator. spend some time upon this subject.^ 6 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Thus the United States is toward the west. The space placed Since we know the size of the globe. in west order to locate places on a sphere. Latitude. both north and south of the Equator. there is north latitude and south latitude^ the United States being in the former. sphere must be the same in earth is — The diameters of a true parts. Therefore a series of imaginary circles are passed around the earth in an east and west direction. is In numbering and to this the between each pole and the Equator is divided into 90°. This shows a It would be well students of some practice lessons. but being about 69 miles. Equator is called the northern hemisphere^ and all south Since latitude is measured of it the southern hemisphere. but that of the all 7899. giving the so that they may fully grasp the meaning . measured along the axis from pole to pole. Since degrees of latitude are numbered from the Equator as zero. the length of a degree of latitude varying somewhat. these. or the east or west distance from a place. of if we deter- mine the latitude and longitude can easily tell its any given place. These degrees are also divided into minutes and seconds. longitude. but also the distance in a north or south direction from — In some definite part of the earth.6 miles to at the Equator.1 miles.

CONDITION OF THE EABTB slight flattening in the polar regions. the ocean enwraps the globe. this deflection from a sphere has produced very marked effects. or atmosphere. and (3) the gaseous envelope. in the equatorial part. of the earth's surface this flattening by about 13^ miles at each pole would not be noticed but in the movement of the earth through space. — The air is in constant movement. 7 and a protuberance. . . that we may upon it for thou- sands of miles without a glimpse of any other irregularity than the waves which disturb its surface. — The is hardly realized (Part II). fourths of the solid earth. performing many tasks of importance.. nearly level (that to say. and drives our ships along and in many hundred other ways it serves us. it brings us our winds. transparent mass of gas. Yet the air is merely a thin. presence about us Ocean. being less than 68 miles in India. Like the air. and the sphere is thus In an ordinary study distorted into an oblate spheroid. or bulging. whose constant to plants . Because of this difference. it is parallel to the general sail surface of the globe). and a little more than 69 miles in Sweden. ocean shuts out from view nearly threeand in places buries it beneath Its surface is so is a depth of four or five miles of water. and storms it furnishes the oxygen by which our lamps may burn and our fires glow. and conforms . it ruffles the ocean surface with waves. clouds. . it gives life and animals it diffuses the heat and light which reach the earth from the sun. — (1) the solid earth itself (2) the partial water envelope . the length of the degree of latitude varies from equatorial to polar regions. Speaking broadl}^ there General Condition of the Earth. are three parts to the earth : Air. We breathe it.

In there all deep borings and shafts. but is slightly dis- torted by various causes. by which the earth binds the plane from which to itself all movable objects on its surface. the temperature of the earth must be very high Indeed.8 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GFOGBAPHY by the force of to its general outline. It was once believed that these facts proved the earth to be a great globe of liquid. as it toward the probably does. a considerable variation it is perature of the earth increases with the depth is found that the temand while . level^ is This level water surface. here and there melted rock comes to the air. the seawe determine the elevations on the land. Here and there wells and mines pierce to the depth of a mile or more. — Some portions of the land are still and great areas near each pole have so far venturesome explorers. In fact. It is not strictly level. and in this case volcanoes are formed. at least. around which was a solid rind or crust. through cracks reaching down into the earth. but we can only speculate concerning the conditions below this level. the solid rock extends. inaccessible. our knowledge almost ceases when we pass below the very surface. place. and to this baffled all the efforts of depth. and beneath this. Accumulated on the surface there is generally a soil. molten rock. the average condition shows an increase of about 1° for every If this continues from place to 50 or 60 feet of descent. seems that at great depths the temperature must be higher than the melting point of rocks at the surface. but while we have now visited most lands. centre. The Solid Earth. being held in place gravity. hard rock of various kinds is encountered. usually at depths of only a few feet. it at the depth of a few score of miles. But astronomers have shown that .

1 condition within the earth. customary to make the surface perfectly smooth yet we all know is that the earth's surface is ular. and the supposed only about five miles. the greatest irregularity of the land above sea-level is Section to show relative amount of air and solid earth. Surface of the Earth tinents : Con- and Ocean Basins. for in its behavior earth acts like a rigid hody^ rial. It may be stated that an increase of pressure raises the melting point and at a depth of several miles in the earth. the — it When is earth is repre- sented by a map or globe.CONDITION OF THE EABTH this 9 cannot be . very irregthe This because irregularities with which we are familiar are small com- pared to the size of the earth. believe that Scientists now is ATMOSPHERE the interior Mghly heated^ but that the it is kept in a solid condition by great weight of the still overlying rock. the pressure of the load of . the there is molten mate- the outer crust must be very thick. 4. and if toward the planets. While the diameter sphere is of the about 7900 miles.^ a convenient We use the term earth^s crust as word to express the solid and relatively cold outer part of the earth. Fig.

5. The two hemispheres. On a rather arbitrary basis it is customary to divide these land masses into individual continents. and Australia. in fact. the New World.10 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY The surface is diversified by a series of grand elevations and depressions. and the Old World. There are two sets of continents. and partly also by the West Indies and the Antilles. is The smallest. quite completely separated from the others. being conand the two Americas are directly connected by the Isthmus of Panama. the ocean the ocean. that melting may be . including Eurasia. Africa. relatively nected at the Isthmus of Suez . Europe and Asia cannot be naturally Africa is removed from Eurasia only by the separated. Australia. rock above must be very great impossible. showing the grouping of continents and oceans. the full extent of which is obscured by The continents are the elevations. beds the depressions. — so great. including North and South America. NORTHERN HEMISPHERE 90 SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE 90 Fig. though there the narrow Mediterranean and Red seas. is a partial connection with Asia by way of East Indies.

or Atlantic. toward the Xorth Pole. we find that the water predominates and the land in the northern. the Atlantic group. Land and water hemispheres. . and that the continent groups project somewhat triangular tongues from the land area of the northern hemisphere toward the South Pole. the South Pole called the Antarctic Ocean. the Arctic arctic. is another large ocean. Atlantic. The Arctic may be ^^55-ti£i:. Viewing the globe as a whole. sidered to be a northern prolongation of the Atlantic.CONDITION OF THE EARTH 11 Between these groups of continents there are two great and Pacific. the Indian. in somewhat triangular tongues. Atlantic. This development of the land in one hemisphere. Indian. and in the southern hemisphere. That around and that surAlthough open to the is much more enclosed than the Antwhich has no natural boundary line between either the Pacific. rounding the North Pole the Arctic. from the great nucleus around the South Pole. while between the African and Australian prolongation of the Old World landoceans. It is also noticeable that the water projects. is Around each pole there some land is and much water. and Indian. and the Antarctic to be parts of the Pacific. 6.i!^A^^ con- ^^o^«HIS^^ Fig.

000 land. usually from the crest The most remarkable of these mounof a high plateau.000 square miles.^ but the average elevation of the land much less than the average depth of the ocean.700. of which about 144.700. 6).000 is water surface and 52. showing greater depth of ocean.000 feet above the ocean beds. makes the land possible to divide the earth into is little two hemispheres. or over eleven miles. Cape Horn. and in a single view there would be some cases of elevation amounting to fully eight miles. 7. the continents would stand as great elevations rising. . Occasional peaks in these mountains attain an elevation of three or four miles above sea-level and often. two Americas.000. — The second group of irregu- those occurring along relatively narrow lines. Upon the continents.000 feet. tain groups is that facing the Pacific in the to and extending from Alaska . the area of the water being about three-fourths of the total. fully 14.^ Fig. sea cover a greater area than the is Not only does the land. Atlantic Ocean. in one of which there is land. while in the other distinctly in excess of the water (Fig. In some places of exceptional ocean depth and land height. is only about 2500 feet. and Africa.12 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY it the water in the other. the difference between ocean bottom and mountain peak would amount to about 60. on an average. while the average elevation of the land above the sea. Section across South America. as in the case of the 1 The area of the earth is not far from 190. 2 The average depth of the ocean is computed to be about 12. though if the ocean could be removed.000 feet. ranges and ridges of mountains rise above the general level of the land. These are called the land and water hemispheres. Mountain larities are Irregularities.

our land surface has become very much worn. the plateau 13 rise is above which they fully a mile above the sea. rivers. and after travelling across the heavens. the sun rises in the eastern sky. are volcanoes (Chapter XX). there are produced chains of oceanic islands. tains. Some of the causes for these irregularities are described in the chapters on the land (Part IV). as in the case By means of these mounof the Kamtchatka peninsula. by the By these forces the land is constantly weather. : Every day. making at night darkness prevails. sets in the west. as one but for a long time we movement of the sun is Our globe is spinearth. great peninsulas and chains of islands.CONDITION OF THE EARTH Rocky Mountains. sunrise in light — Between and heat and sunset the earth is bathed and coolness takes the place of warmth. as in the Hawaiian Archipelago. elevations rise entirely in the sea. dissected. . might make an apple rotate by using the stem as an axis. so that in the course of long periods of time. These are often the higher peaks of a partly submerged mountain range and not uncommonly they are volcanic cones. partially cut off and enclose arms of the Very often. and land. which are mainly the result of the carving of the surface. . At times mountains extend into the ocean. most of the earth. such as the Japanese group. Before it was known that the earth was a sphere. just as some of the higher peaks of the mountains on the land . it was thought that the sun actually rose and set. persea. haps in mid-ocean. being cut into hills and valleys. and then. a daily journey across the heavens have really known that this apjjarent due to the motion of the ning about an axis which passes through the poles. over Movements of the Earth Rotation. and ocean. — sculptured. There are many minor irregularities of the Minor Irregularities.

the sun would remain on the eastern horizon. turneast. this . decreases from the Equator toward the poles. This distance is greatest at the Equator. but those who remained behind would have experienced the complete changes of day and night. This is the same as saying that the earth rotates at this rate.14 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY quite uniform. with sunrise still present. we could travel across the earth at the Equator. and hence the meridians spread : . as the earth rotates. and little less This spinning or rotation of the earth is constant and the complete rotation is made in a than 24 hours (23 hours and 56 minutes). So. The division of the earth by meridians is based on this fact. The sun travels from meridian to meridian in 4 minutes and as there are 24 hours in which to make the journey. although the distance over which the rays pass from hour to hour decreases toward the poles. whether at the Equator or near the poles and hence the time between two sunrises is everywhere the same. further apart as the equatorial belt is approached. or the time between two sunrises. and that the sun's rays advance over the land in But the diameter of a circle of latitude this rapid way. It takes the earth about 24 hours to make the complete rotation. and at the end of the 24 hours we would be at the starting place. going at the rate of about 69 miles in 4 minutes. . the position of the sun in the heavens would remain the same starting at the sunrise. and therefore the sun's rays creep across the globe at a less and less rapid rate as the distance from the Equator increases. ing toward the to the sun appears to rise in the east and If move across the heavens as the day advances. the distance between two of these lines being that which the sun passes in about 4 minutes.

24 days) the cycle of seasonal 1 In this country. while all places between two such meridians have the same standard time.. so that at distances of 15° the time changes one hour.^ If a body on the earth at the equator travels over a distance of 25. the rate of change being 4 minutes for each While the sun has been an hour above the horizon with us. artificial boundaries have been drawn parallel to the meridians. going at the rate of about 17 miles a minute. we find the time to be constantly changing. moving with it. Mountain (97i°-112L°). CONDITION OF THE EARTH necessitates 360 meridians 15 1440 -^ 4 = 360). now being low. Eastern (67i°-82i°). in order to avoid the confusion resulting with every town having its own true or solar time. the people are thrown Revolution : The Sun in the Heavexs. In this country there are five divisions of Standard time as follows: Intercolonial (52|"-67i°). but from month to month is distinctly seen. There are several such belts. just forward. and now. we come to the boundaries. They are a part of the earth. again high at midday.000 miles in a day. Why are not air. the question bodies. and as this path changes. and all movable behind and hurled into space ? The answer is that gravity draws all things towards the earth and binds them to it. and Pacific (112i°-i27^°). movable bodies would be hurled when a train suddenly stops. if we travel toward the west or the east. left may be asked. our seasons vary. The sun slowly changes its path through the heavens. — Though rising and setting every da}^. just as a person becomes a part of a train which is whirling along at the rate of a mile a minute. This is scarcely noticeable in two succeeding mornings. 15° west of us it is just rising. as. the sun each morning rises in a different place from that of the preceding day. setting are obliged to set our watches when we them back on the journey west and ahead when going eastward. Central (82^°-97^°). water. < . when we travel across the country. degree of longitude. If the earth could suddenly stop. on the earth (24 x 60 = 1440 For the same reason. all away. In about 365 days (365.

8. it would be an equal distance north of the vault.16 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHY changes If — the year^ we call it — has been passed through cycle. pass almost directly overhead at noon. ments. At the equator the sun would rise nearly in the east. In each place the sun would have a new series of movevarious points between this and the poles. During the season which corresponds with our winter. To illustrate day and night at equinox. and during the season corresponding to our summer. and then we again go over the same we could spend a year at the equator and others at we should find an entire difference in the seasons of the several places. the midday sun would be somewhat south of the zenith. . when the sun's rays reach both poles. but in a single locality^ the cycle would be the same year after year. we should find the sun to be always south . Passing 23^-° northward. FiG. and set in the west.

cold winter night. when it has circled into the southern quadrant. and rising higher at mid- day. These conditions continue to increase until within 23|^ of the pole. and the earth were merely a rotating north. the sun would . dipping toward when it is near the north (Fig. its revolution around the sun. During the summer the sun circles near the horizon. the tie of gravitation^ which extends throughout the solar universe. and year after year going over approximately the same path. midday in always be found in the southern half of the sky.000 miles distant. in winter. Although the sun is on the average about 92. Cause of Seasons. Then it passes below the horizon to stay during the long. while at the same time. Our winter is the southern summer. If it were not for the revolution. 71). and further north for months at a time. but in midwinter just reaches the southern Beyond this the sun does not generally have a horizon. — 1 it at night. the days would be short and the nights long.CONDITION OF THE EARTH of the zenith. but remains above the horizon for rising daily weeks. 17 it excepting in midsummer. whirling through space at the rate of 1000 miles a minute. keeps the sun and earth together. and making the complete journey in a year. midwinter it would Passing north of this. Exactly at the pole the sun and below it the other half. where the midsummer sun rises fairly high in the heavens. c above the horizon half the . These peculiarities are the result of a second movement of the earth.800. and set. if we change south to and north to south. and setting. are short seasons is Between the winter the sun does actually night and rise summer day there when year. it would be very low. while the latter revolves around the former. when would ex- actly reach the zenith at be furthest south. At midday. and vice versa.^ What is said of the northern hemisphere is equally true for the southern.

Then the sun's rays would reach the equator over the zenith at noon of every day in the year. March 21 and September 22 exact pole. at any given i^^^^^^^^^^BK^^^^^ V A'^mpj^i ^^^^BHP^H^^^^^^^^^^^H l^^l 'v«^vt. and north of the equator. at the time of the vernal and autumnal equinoxes (the spring and autumn. To illustrate conditions in northern summer when the whole Arctic bathed in sunlight. but each The same would be its the earth revolved about the sun with axis ver- tical to the plane of revolution. it the horizon. and the sunrise and sunset would be seen making a complete circuit of This is exactly what happens twice each year.X^„^^i^^^^^^^^ll W ^^^B^^^hai^ ^'^^^^^H 1] r '^9 is 4 \4|C£\^^^^^^H Fig. every the heavens. As the poles were approached. 9. .18 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY sphere fixed in space. we could have no seasons. day would find the sun in the same part of would always be at the same place. until at the place. day would be true if like the preceding. the sun would be lower and lower in the heavens.

10. 19 when the day and night are equal in length. 8). the earth revolves with its axis inclined at an angle of about 231° (exactly 23° 27' 21'') to the plane of revolution. is and it because of this that we have the seasons. Condition during northern winter when the sun's rays just reach the Arctic circle. which forms the Arctic circle^ perpetual night light.Vi CONDITION OF THE EARTH respectively). the solar rays will cease to light the earth. 10). about Suppose that the North Pole is inclined away from this plane. and at a distance of 231° from the North Pole. the southern hemisphere would be will prevail. All In the northern hemisphere the sun will everywhere be in the southern heavens. each being 12 hours (Fig. In reality. while beyond this line. or over the Tropic of Qa'pricorn. If on the other hand. and the South Pole toward it (Fig. of the south polar region will be bathed in giving perpetual day in that part of the earth. The whole light. 231° south of the Equator. Then the sun will be vertical at Lat. the axis is turned with the North . Fig. Imagine the earth fixed in space and rotating about an axis in- cHned 23J° of the earth to the plane of revolution the sun.

and our sun is less high in the heavens. that when the South Pole is turned from the sun. and is j^ear by year pointing toward nearly the same place in the heavens ^ (the north pole pointing approximately toward the North Star). toward each pole. a condition of perpetual night is present. If this position were maintained. the revolution of the earth about the sun turns the North Pole now toward and now away from the sun (Fig. Since the axis is inclined. and the sun's rays will always be vertical at noon over the northern tropic. which is 23^° north of the Equator. and the hemispheres face toward and away from the sun in the different seasons. This then gradually changes to autumn. but the teacher This can be easily done if the teacher will make intelligent use of a globe. the rays of the sun cover the entire earth. the one hemisphere would have per]3etual winter.20 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Pole toward the sun (Fig. or a distance of 23 1° when winter prevails in the southern hemisphere. or of any spherical body. 2 this does change. when the days become equal in length. showing the way in which the axis maintains its position while the earth moves. and Beyond the Antarctic circle. 9). the northern hemisphere have long we in summer days with the sun high in the heavens at noonday. the other perpetual summer. and so the two hemispheres enjoy alternation of seasons. should see to that each student really understands these points.^ This is the same as saying. . and the temperature would decrease from that tropic over which the sun was vertical. but this is a question of astronomy which does not bear especially upon the present It is very commonly it the case that the pupil merely memorizes these facts without really grasping the fundamental principles . At this time. which is the condiiln the course of long periods of time subject. from the South Pole. 11). and are thus treated alike. Cancer. the reverse will be true.

Then begins the return of warmth with the spring and lengthen- "VemaLEipmaJC Fig. 11. after year the earth pursues its path about the sun. we find the same alternation and So this cycle. To show change in seasons as the earth revolves about the sun gerated and relative size and distance not shown) (ellipse exag- ing days. because the revo- complete. and the length will be a hundred years from now. what the position of the sun. while at the same time summer prevails south of the Equator. . the day shortens. that astronomers are able to predict of the day. Gradually the sun takes a lower position in the heavens. and so year of seasons. and the sun has finished a come back nearly to as the place where started the year before. As soon one revolution year by year distinct just is is new one is begun.CONDITION OF THE EARTH tion that ^1 would exist if the earth's axis were at right angles to the plane of revolution. lution is Soon the yearly cycle it is over. and midwinter is reached.

it is thought to be pervaded by a mysterious ether^ which allows waves of light and heat to pass from the ceive of an end to space : believed to be . perhaps 200 or 300 degrees below zero.CHAPTER II THE UNIVERSE The Solar System : The Sun. yet each performs certain duties and movements of its own. — The earth is but one of a great family. 12. Its temperature is believed to be very low. sun to the earth. the earth receives hut a very ^ so far as to is the great unknown expanse which surrounds the earth. all having certain resemblances. and we know. in all directions. They pass through space ^ in company. We are unable conceive of anything without an end. and all bound together by the common bond of gravitation. To show that of all the light and heat sent from the sun little. extends without limit in all directions. . The central body is the Fig. and yet we are unable to con- Space It is space baffles our most acute perception. empty of all substances with which we are acquainted yet since light and heat pass through it.

and this form of energy performs work of immense importance. 1 space between Mars and Jupiter. eter. but so highly heated that both heat and light are emitted in all directions into space (Fig. source.^ central sun. in the order of their distance from the sun. Saturn. Jupiter. the largest of these (86. or more than 100 times that of the earth as its If the centre of the sun were within the earth. Earth. but it would extend two-thirds as far earth. but at present our knowledge of most of the planets is very slightc Jupiter.000 miles in diameter). Mars. at least. and those that are well enough known have been found to have a rotation about an axis. and named Neptune. sun. apparently composed of the same elements as the earth itself. it is While the earth revolves around the and receives its light and heat from this this. The Planets. Like the earth itself. which. Some. They are all somewhat flattened spheres (oblate spheroids).000 miles. for — not alone in there are other great spheres which also revolve about the sun in orbits which bear a general resemblance to that pursued by the earth. have an atmosphere. Venus. and there are eight of these. a hot 23 glowing mass. from the sun. These are colled planets.THE UNIVERSE. in the The largest is about 520 miles in diam- ing stars and the smallest less than 40 miles. the sun is a great spherical body. its diameter being about 860. it A small part of this is intercepted by the moves around the sun. . There are also comets and shootmoving in the space occupied by the solar system. called asteroids. beyond. revolving in nearly circular elliptical paths about the sun. are Mercury. Besides the planets there are smaller spheres. In the heavens they shine as stars but their light is reflected . 12). Uranus. body would not only cover all the space between us and the moon.

The earth's satellite. has a diameter of about 2992 miles.000 miles distant. the earth of about 240. and also Mercury is is only 35. 2. Diagram to show relative distance of the planets their relative sizes. Mercury. The other planets range in size between these two extremes. Jupiter 12 of our years.000 miles. it does so by reflected sunlight. from the sun.750. is a cold sphere with a Satellites. Mercury and Venus. but it has only one-tenth the diameter of the sun. and an average distance from In company with the moves about the sun. Jupiter about 480. Fig. being only a little less than one-half as large as the earth. On the other ex- treme. each of the planets is revolving but two of them. These Satellites vary in number.000.000. the earth occupies 365 days.000 miles.24 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY all has a mass greater than the others combined .000 miles away. In travelling through these immense distances. it earth .800. and Neptune about 165 years. and as it goes. and Neptune. the planet nearest the sun. When it shines.000. in their journey about the sun. the moon. — While all about the sun. have smaller bodies revolving around them. makes the journey around the earth every 29J days. While the distance of the earth from the sun averages about 92. Saturn having eight. diameter of about 2160 miles. Mercury 88 days. the most distant of the planets. 13.775.

re- sembling immense volcanic craters (Fig. moon. and know of of others. great and small. Craters and ridges on the moon. it is. 14). relatively.THE UNIVERSE 25 Being so near the earth. and we know more about its surface than we do about any other body in Only one side is turned towards us. its surface is very rough. pit the surface of the The Universe. 14. It is thought by many that these are craters of ancient volcanoes which are now extinct. neither water nor atmosphere : Fig. the moon has been carefully studied by the aid of powerful telescopes. us see but a tiny part of it. we see a sun so distant that the very light which . When we look upon a twinkling star. but a tiny speck of dust in the great universe upon which we gaze every starry night. and while most of the rest only from the description — Thousands of them. and many of the irregularities are great crater-like pits. While the earth seems so large to us. On that side which we see there is see the opposite face. and we never space.

the nature of which no man can even guess. do these planets resemble ours. There is something in this wonderful system that may well cause the human mind to recognize its own smallness and insignificance. . but which the telescope reveals and these may be other stellar systems. Are the tiny stars each a mother sun. In the heavens there are large clusters of stars. itself a small portion of a great universe Here again no answer can be of mani/ stellar systems ? given. In this belt of abundant star-dust. Is our stellar system. Way also. the limit of suns cannot be told and yet all of these bodies are so fixed in space that year by year their position appears to be unchanged. 26 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY meets our eye may have left the star hundreds of years ago and perchance the star that we see. which to the unaided eye looks gleam of the sun's rays reflected from a thin cloud in the upper air. and who think that they can reduce it to a system of natural laws. of which the great solar system is but a small part. like that which we view when we look into the star-lit vault of the heavens. they have yet to announce an explanation this? which satisfies the average mind. our tiny earth is the only favored spot ? : I . one beyond the other and beyond these are still others which In the Milky like the . throw any light upon If so. . even the telescope cannot distinguish. What is this space. the telescope finds myriads of stars.. no longer exists. and are they inhabited by life ? Again we cannot even guess but why may not this be so for is it probable that in all this great and apparently endless universe. . and the limits of which no man has yet been Can those who believe that they know the able to find? origin of the universe. which to the eye are unknown. with a family of planets ? and if so.

in lieu of our inability to really conceive this. Startmore than 176 years would be occupied in reaching the earth. it comes and goes with a rush that is almost Let us suppose that we could start on a journey from the sun to Neptune. can have only a slight con. it tinuously at the rate of 60 miles an hour. the child of two or three will try to make an and object pass through a space smaller than itself. it is all found that the regular spherical bodies. That is to say. and the man.THE UNIV^BSE 27 The power of the human mind is indeed restricted. and the moon. will learn better only by repeated has experiments only his the boy of ten or fifteen. shown by astronomers to exist in the solar system. ception of the size of the earth to measure by his experiences The best that one can do. if one had started from the sun at the beginning of the Christian era. and as it passes us. a to travel little . passing the earth. can have no proper conception of the distance of the sun. he would still be journeying. and would be only part way between Saturn and Uranus yet during this would take 17 days ing at the sun. An express train in most cases goes no faster than 60 miles an hour. and travelling conAt this rate of speed. . and cannot even dream of the meaning of a billion miles. for we learn by experience. — Reviewing members are The Nebular Hypothesis the : conditions Symmetry of the Solar System. and the journey from the sun to the planet Neptune would require 5280 years. A little more than 166 days would take us to the moon. startling. The infant reaches out to grasp objects that are far beyond its reach . around the earth at the Equator. period of time a great part of the recorded history of the human race has taken place. and those that are near . accustomed on the earth. To reach the nearest star would take several hundred times as many years. is to become impressed with the immensity of these distances of space by some comparison with things of ordinary experience. who known own town or country.

the planet nearest the sun. and in this are found some of the very elements which compose the earth. Astronomy us something of the composition of the sun. and hot within the moon appears to be cold throughout there its entire mass. The Explanation. the most remote. . The is . next in size.28 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY to enough in the polar regions. by which they . from Mercury. These movements are all so regular that astronomers can predict in advance exactly what they will be. There is therefore a wonderful symmetry of form and movement of the spheres all obey the laws of gravitation. the Jupiter. and in addition are revolving around their parent planets. the sun. Again. the earth cold at the surface. rotation are all inclined to the plane of revolution. but is not luminous at the surface . sun. It has seemed to men that these conditions called for a uniformity of origin and before all of these facts were known. are all bound together in this regular. well-established system of movement. The paths pursued by these bodies are all nearly circular ellipses. largest. philosophers and astronomers is — . to Neptune. at one of the foci of which is situated the central body. around which the revolution is made. have been studied carefully. terials an almost uniform decrease in density of the macomposing the planets. There is harmony also in other respects. show a flattening All that are well enough known. is intensely hot . show a rotation about an axis passing through these flattened parts of the sphere. satellites The they show similar uniformity . There appears to be a progressive decrease in tells heat as the size of the sphere diminishes. and all of them revolve The axes of about the sun in the same direction. apparently is warm.

and these are revolving in the direction The ring (e in C) have also gathered into spheres of the arrows. to illustrate Nebular Hypothesis. These continued to slowly revolve in the original direction. The mass was cool- ing by the radiation of the heat into space. the jSTebular Hypothesis is this In the beginning. about some portion which was originally more dense . Briefly. It is now more firmly grounded than ever before. in their movement around the sun. . . There was a certain loss of bulk from contraction. something like those which rise from an engine as it is starting from a railway station. 15. slowly revolving in the direction which the planets now pursue : A B Z) c . a Fig. This is still held by astronomers. it has the advantage of explaining nearly all the facts.THE UNIVERSE 29 had proposed the brilliant explanation for the solar system which we know as the Nebular Hypothesis. in C this ring has gathered {K) around a centre (a in B) and has itself thrown off a ring {i). while there is little to oppose it. 7 Diagram A mass of heated gas {A) more dense at centre (c) is rotating in the direction of the arrows in 5 a ring ah is thrown off. more dense at a than elsewhere. and gravity gradually drew the mass of each ring together into a spherical body. and in the course of time this caused the parent mass to throw off rings. and many new facts have been brought to its support. While it cannot be said to be more than a theory. while another ring (e) has come off from the central mass in Z) a planet (P) and Satellite (S) have formed. (3/andiV). the solar system was a mass of glowing gas. just as the sun and earth are now still losing heat.

In time. a rotating sphere of gas. If this explanation is correct. As the heat became less intense. being the first to reach the solid stage. and the flatten- . the earth is descended from a much hotter body. in the course of time these began to solidify. in water. it tells why the sun and the earth contain the same elements. . acting upon a gaseous body will necessarily produce a sphere. It accounts also for the heat of the sun and the earth's interior. where the rotation is most rapid. of rotation — This hj^othesis accounts for the uniformity : and of revolution it explains the spherical form.30 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY than the rest. and those that were first thrown off. are the coldest. or of liquid. because. It also explains the decrease in density from the inner to the outer members of the system for the first rings thrown off would be composed of the less dense outer portions of the nebula (just as the air and water of the earth are outside of the denser crust) and finally. the smallest. Some of these spheres have themselves thrown off rings. which is the largest and most central body. the sun also will lose its heat. and it presupposes that there was a nebulous mass of hot gas. by the centrifugal force. 1 ing This may be illustrated by a globule of oil may be shown by revolving such a sphere. which upon passing through the same history began to form which revolved around their parents.^ It explains the flattening at the poles. is the hottest. At the same time it must be understood that this satisfactory explanation depends upon some very distinct assumptions. . and to rotate as it went. while so small a body as the moon. and our globe will be cut off from the supply of heat and light energy which are of such vital importance to all life. will bulge at the Equator. in the course of indefinite ages. Facts accounted for. and it will continue to lose heat until the condition of the moon is reached. The sphere of gas continued to revolve about the parent nebula. spheres. because gravity. and has now reached a stage in cooling when only the interior is hot. Therefore the sun. revolving and under the influence of gravitation. and so distant a planet as Neptune.

16. — always impelled to attempt explanation. From this it ular Hypothesis conceives. is liable to error. but the mind. 31 — Far away in space. and is very limited in its power of conception. although a beautiful hypothesis.THE UNIVEUSE Other ISfehulce. it is now in process of formation. The Andromeda nebula showing rings and denser parts in a nebulous mass. that in the far-away confines of space. to account for the wonderful law and symmetry that everywhere prevails. like those supposed to have existed when the solar nebula was forming. seems possible. . It is Whether an attempt of the human mind to explain the most profound mystery of nature. other Fig. the telescope has revealed masses of glowing gas like that which the Neb- and some of them show the condensing rings and spheres. worlds are even true or not.

If an animal should be placed under a closed cylinder on an air pump. the surface with breezes and It carries invisible disturbs it with vapor from water to where it falls as rain. we feel the breeze or wind.I PART IL — THE ATMOSPHERE III CHAPTER GENERAL FEATURES OF THE AIR Importance of the Air. for there soon cease to burn. For a similar reason a person suffocates and drowns when kept for a few minutes under water. which excludes the air from the lungs. death would soon result. 32 . and furnished the animal dies. It fans — An invisible ocean of elastic its gas surrounds the earth with violent winds. the air has substance. air is The breathing has caused a chemical change. and would be no air to breathe and perform the work which the body constantly demands of it. and in many ways and warmth presence works to the advantage of the varied life that overspreads the earth. it is different from the unless original. We breathe and it gives to us materials that are necessary for our existence. land. It spreads light its over the globe. new A candle placed in a similar position will it is then found that the gases of the air have been changed by the burning of the candle. life-giving substance. Although in motion invisible. it soon exhausts the and although a gas still remains. Place an animal in a small enclosed space. and air. and the air be exhausted. and when it is it.

and causit. 1 nitrogen (and also argon) is a very inert ele- ment.GENERAL FEATURES OF THE AIR Composition : 33 Oxygen and Nitrogen. of . ing is many changes on Nevertheless nitrogen for if it a very important part of the atmosphere were would be very much less. which acts as an adulterant to the active oxygen. If more oxygen were added. It may appear strange that an element which we have always been breathing should so long have escaped detection but this new element resembles the atmosphere. in a manner similar to the adulteration or is solution of salt that is when water added to doing the work in the bodies of the earth. 2 It is something like the difference between a fire with the draft closed and one with an open draft. At present it is impossible to tell much about the new gas. making and collecting oxygen in a receiver in which a candle is burning.^ absent. The teacher can easily show this by an experiment. nitrogen so closely that the two have been co^afused. called argon. and oxygen^ about 21% of the latter to 79% of the In the air. the light would go out. was discovered in which it forms a considerable proportion. former. — Careful study has nitrogen shown that the air is made chiefly of two gaseous elements. the bulk of the air Carbonic Acid G-as. — In a burning candle or lamp. the light would burn much more brilliantly. 1 In 1894 a new gaseous substance. This combustion or oxidation is somewhat like that which takes place when a man breathes the life-giving oxygen into his lungs. for then also the oxygen gas combines with other substances. i> . live in pure oxygen. and An animal cannot the work of the oxygen more rapid. for this works more rapidly on the tissues than does the adulterated oxygen of the air. thus causing more rapid burning. If we should exhaust the oxygen. . weakening of a It is oxygen animals. through which more oxygen is furnished. the oxygen of the air is producing a chemical change in the burning substance.

We burn this in our stoves. small jar soon ceases to burn for after awhile all of the consumed by combining with the carbon of the candle. and its place is taken by the newly made carbonic acid gas. producing the gas which acid in a gas (carbon dioxide). and they take it. Every animal and plant that is dead and decaying is giving out this gas. This gas serves well to illustrate how beautifully every- . every animal is furnishing some. as for where plants have not decayed but have been changed to mineral coal. furnishing in return pure oxygen. and a supply is also obtained from the earth carbon is locked up in the earth.03% of the whole). It is also constantly escaping from many springs. and probably also from the soil. But carbonic acid gas forms an appreciable part of the air it is everywhere present. more carbonic acid gas exists in the air near cities than in the open itself. Hence in a measure they act as purifiers of ihe atmosphere. Because of the large amount of fuel burned there. destroying some of the carbonic acid gas made by animals. (about . This is . Also when a volcano breaks forth in eruption. and one of the products is carbonic acid gas. work of converting They need carbon. and in the lungs. Growing plants perform the reverse carbonic acid gas back to oxygen. and replacing it by oxygen. large quantities of this gas escape.34 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHT is known as carbonic why a lighted candle In a lamp. and everything that burns supplies this gas to the air. oxygen combines with carbon. There are several sources from which it is known to come. When breathing. and Much instance. For the same reason an animal cannot live long oxygen is in a closed space a little larger than itself. country.

In both cases it has evaporated. While there are minute quantities of Water Vapor. little by little the water dis- none is left. . it diminished. for instance. or slightly diminished. forming only on the earth. though no longer to be seen. the pools of water in the road slowly disappear. and the earth. and the water is gone. the destruction of these would necessitate the death of all animals excepting those that could draw entirely upon the ocean for their subsistence. which if decidedly increased. great and small. and the earth has been clothed with vegetation and occupied by myriads of animals. some of the vapor is condensed back to water. . steam issues from the neck.03% of the entire atmosphere. and has changed its form from the visible liquid to the invisible gas which we call water vapor (Chapter IX). That it is present may be shown on a frosty day for then when the vapor-laden air of the room encounters the cold window. the water having changed to vapor. . appears. But for untold ages this harmony of nature's balance has been maintained. the mud dries up. This process of evaporation is somewhat like that which is producing steam. which is still present in the air of the room. life would be fatal to all animal on the land. after a rain. and in time the kettle becomes dry. the plant life that If as the animals of the land cannot take their food directly from entirely by means of plants. is a gas. — many other gases in the air.GENERAL FEATURES OF THE AIB thing is 35 life adjusted to the existence and development of Here. forming . there is but one other really important gaseous constituent. but obtain it very much increased. The kettle on the stove boils. would be directly fatal if depends upon it for existence would perish. until finally When Also wet clothes are placed upon the line to dry.

for evaporation takes place more rapidly in warm than in cold air. moves the air. than a certain quantity of vapor. The housewife knows that some days are better drying When the warm sun shines upon the days than others. a room 10 feet high and 20 feet square contains 346 pounds of air. The amount of water vapor that the air can contain depends upon the temperature. and it thus does not allow to remain near the damp object long enough to become saturated. they generally dry quickly. ^ day is very cold.36 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY If the drops on the glass. if this is warm air will hold more and if vapor may be forced to assume the liquid . When saturated. some of the or solid forms of rain. and on cold nights our chamber windows are covered with frost. the solid. In this. Because the wind also favors evaporation. vapor to cause this. if the temperature is 0°. if Heating is this water. air . at ordinary pressure. spoonfuls of salt are placed in a dish of cold may not dissolve. and then the salt water vapor. muggy days of summer are not such good drying days as the cold. into fantastic frost crystals. more So salt is taken into solution. and on the muggy by the fact that summer days it the air is nearly saturated^ while it is rela- tively dry during the cold. dew. windy days of winter. with the . icy form clothes. illustrate this by bringing a pitcher it is of ice water into a warm 2 The comparison may be made (though If several all of it only partly analogous) to a salt solution. is But heat is only one of the aids to evaporation. water. or frost.^ warm air being able to 1 The teacher may room. allowed to cool. cold air can contain little then cooled. it solidifies which water temperature has descended the below the takes when Even the breath may furnish enough freezing point. windy spells This is because the air cannot contain more of winter. fog. and this illustrated some of the hot. some of the disit is solved salt will be precipitated in the form of crystals.

Every cloud. while dry air greedily absorbs it. . A pound of water equals about one pint. line but still continue to dry. at lower temperatures. If the temperature is raised to 80°.GENERAL FEATURES OF THE AIR carry 37 more than cold. it takes vapor more clothes freeze upon the The rate of evaporation readily than if quiet. air will carry some vapor even when its temperature is below the freezing This is illustrated on a cold winter day. because the water by its presence. when the point. the air weighs 291 pounds. 6i pounds. Although present vapor is in very small quantities. so air. and the air still saturated. but upon the water but the air is . its weight is 301 pounds. is a witness of this remarkable transformation. it bears the vapor away and also warms . will take no more. water one of the most important constituents of the is Even of in the driest parts of the land it always present. and as it saturated. and every drop of rain or snow crystal. for it depends not upon air. forming air. for just as a saturated solution of salt cannot be made stronger without increasing the temperature. 1 For purposes of graphic description it is convenient to make this comparison yet physicists know that evaporation would occur if there were no air. importantin evaporation. having as much vapor as it can hold. and if moving. and the vapor when condensed would weigh 3i. more can be evaporated than air. although then in very small quantities.pounds. only a small proportion of the entire atmosphere. depends partly upon the dryness of the air. transformed to water. and the vapor if condensed. every glistening drop of dew. there is an amount of vapor which.^ Hence dry air evaporates water more rapidly than nearly saturated or humid If of high temperature. Nevertheless. If the temperature is increased to 60°. would weigh one-third of a pound. The conversion is water vapor back to water or snow constantly in progress. every fog particle.

Dust is also blown into the air from the ground. flower. 1 That solid particles are rising from even the blaze of a candle may be proved by holding a piece of glass over the flame and watching it become covered with soot. . ent particles which are so light that they air.^ is sent into the air. the solid con- are The solid commonly known fro. and the sun shines less intensely than in the open country. and fruit. particles that float about in the air as dust. Portions of this are left behind as ash. causing countless myriads of plants to burst forth into leaf.. When wood is burned. that a dull cloud hovers over them. the earth would be a desert sphere whirling aimlessly through space. in our rivers. while some rise into the air and float away. lakes. of vital importance is performed. many differmay float in the Some . furnishes the water supply upon which we are so dependent. as we may see by watching the smoke In large cities so much smoke rising from a chimney. carbon combines with oxygen to form carbonic acid gas but there are some solid particles which do not become transformed to gas. and when a beam of light enters a room. are microscopic in size. the larger dust particles are seen dancing to and In the term dust are included are visible to the eye others. Without this ingredient of the great atmospheric ocean. and there are many microscopic microbes. — Even more minute in quantity than is either of the gaseous elements of the air stituent. 38 silently FinST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY and almost mysteriously proceeds in the change. and springs. It transforms the salt water of the sea to fresh drops of rain this. and Bust Particles. and the majority. solid substances of various kinds. and quantities of tiny . a work It sprinkles the land Avith showers.

the purer than on the lowlands. particularly during drouths. there are times in desert regions when sand than elsewhere. some by the action of rain. solid bits. Over dust than over the land. on days when the air is quiet but the dust is constantly being removed. some by slowly settling to the earth. . producing sand storms which shut out from view even the when the tion also These days are exceptional. Over some cities where soft coal is burned. Again. when forest fires are common. at times the air is from these impurities. and rains have not come to remove the solids. At such a time the raindrops of a slight shower contain enough dust to discolor white paper. catches and So the rain purifies and freshcarries it to the ground. it is found to contain many minute . and the sand soon becomes quiet. A violent volcanic erupcauses dust to spread high into the air. . Although near cities there is more dust in the air particles. and this at times air again travels for thousands of miles before settling to the earth. even of considits erable size. objects close at hand. settles and kept there by motion. if and a raindrop is examined under atmosphere ens the a powerful microscope. is less may be produced at midday. the air would in time become so impure that the sun's rays would be obscured. which as it descends through the air. and then the sun shines brightly and the sky has a beautiful blue tint. sometimes almost obscured. the air is hazy and the sky and sun dull. and high in the atmosair is and on mountain peaks. while near the volcano the darkness of night the ocean there phere. are whirled into the air by the wind. perhaps even more than they are in the large cities. that if allowed to accumulate. the dust of the air settles in sufficient quantities to discolor white and free objects.GENERAL FEATURES OF THE AIR 39 So much dust comes from these various sources. The amount clear of dust varies greatly.

and probably gradually fades away. but that there is some such boundary between empty space and terrestrial atmosphere. and so we can only conjecture as to its nature. though sometimes large. atmosphere becomes So far as we know. It is not to be supposed Height of the Atmosphere. which vapor condenses to form fog particles and rain and their presence in the atmosphere is responsible for many of the sky and cloud color with which we are familiar. the surface of the liquid ocean. the and less dense as the distance from the ground increases. No one has ever been near this limit. spread disease. The solid particles appear to serve as nuclei around . These wanderers in space.40 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GFOGBAPHT Dust the air. is proved by the behavior of meteors and shooting stars. until there is an almost indefinite boundary separating it from the great void of space. To illustrate the decrease in density of the air from sea level to the higher regions. like effects of — Fig. 17. are less . that the upper limits of the air are sharply defined. particles are of much importance in the action of The microbes which are present.

the molecules of gas become further and further apart. Air is still is found. and in most cases to flash out suddenly as brilliant beams of light. which itself quickly This furnishes proof that the meteors come disappears. which sometimes fall to the earth. and heat. like the earth. men have ascended appear. just as heat is generated encounter the gases of the atmosphere. As the elevation becomes greater. we know that more than onehalf of its whole bulk rests within four miles of the earth's surface. and to us invisvelocities. the atmosphere not limited to so shallow a depth. but difficult. and on mountain tops. the air less dense.GENERAL FEATURES OF THE AIR usually tiny particles. In balloons. nevertheless serves to destroy all but the largest. breathing so light and rarefied that and such ascents are sometimes it is dangerous even to life. which. are in an orbit 41 moving around the sun. The air has . and fully two-thirds within the lower six miles (Fig. the friction causes when a knife is held upon a dry grindstone that to glow. definite weight. from a place where nothing impedes their passage. which can be measured (Chapter YII) and from measurements at various heights. though only that caused by an invisible gas. . travelling also with terrific When in space they are cold. is revolving. and leave behind a track of fire. 17). to one Avhere they encounter resistance. But while so large a percentage of its total is bulk is near the earth. and The measurements of the height at which shooting stars begin to glow. The meteors then begin finally burn up and dis- They to a height of five or six miles above the level of the sea. ible. seem to prove that there is some air at an elevation of fully 500 miles from the surface (Fig. but when they cross the path of the earth. 4). which.

The heat from the sun warms the earth and air. . and while it the atmosphere elastic . and possibly damp winds to-morrow. warming by day. heating some parts more than others. . as well as from Since the air is elastic and easily disseason to season.42 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Changes in the Air. Water evaporates from the land and the seas. and the changes in temperature and movement of the air cause dry winds to-day. and no two successive days are exactly alike. in the next few chapters Ave will point out some of the principles upon which they depend. these differences in warmth cause movements. turbed. Infinite variety is thus introduced. now moderate (Chapter VII). The vapor condenses. and from day to day. So the air is ever variable. and even storms may develop. and illustrate them by a few examples. causing intense warmth in some seasons and allowing the opposite So the temperature varies from season to be cool or cold. forming dew. is — Already it has been hinted that and mobile. The weather of a place near the seashore is different from that in the interior of the continents of the equatorial regions. and allowing cooling at night. or possibly clouds. from the plain. and that there are many changes in progress. one point to another. moving across the land and causing rain to fall. and so the air is in constant motion. will be impossible to state all of these differences. now violent. from that of the higher latitudes of the mountain top.

43 we perceive almost at the same instant. fire. is the undulatory theory which it is believed. AND MAGNETISM Light Nature of Light. Like the iron.000 miles a second. that a series of undulations. Something comes from the iron. and to us entirely mysterious substance. These waves are thought to be somewhat but they travel at the almost incred- like those in water. of lights according to The hypothesis which physicists have for explaining this. it can be seen from the opposite side. and it becomes red or even white hot. which upon reaching our eyes. and we are able either to read by its light. and soon begins to glow. are started in an invisible. If we place a white-hot bar of iron at the end of a room.CHAPTER IV LIGHT. its black It color is lost. So if a it lamp is lighted at a distance of a mile. ELECTRICITY. the sun is a very hot body which shines with a fiery light. produces there the sensation of light. called ether^ which per- vades all space. then gives out light and heat. ibly rapid rate of about 180. and we may even be able to see it at a distance of half a mile. or waves. . or to warm our hands by holding them over it. it — When a bar of iron is placed in a becomes hot.

that the light others cannot be discussed in this book. over a path of more than Only a very 92. indigo. own.800. but the dull remainder of the It is somewhat light is as if we compared of a a lamp in a room to the sun.^ the hot bar of iron diminish as the distance from it is increased. some of which may be simply stated. So while light is ordinarily white. light is not a simple wave. the colors of the spectrum.44 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY The hot rapid is solar orb is at all times emitting this radiant So and heat travel across space to the earth. 12) and most of it goes out into space. — . — During a part of the month is the moon or old. the sky is blue. while the energy (light and heat) into space in all directions. so the heat and light of the sun lose intensity. 2 White made number of waves each having a color colon's. and by various causes. and the flowers varicolored. movement of the rays. According to this theory. when the moon young we 1 see the bright crescent. called primary — and red. and again it disappears . and a of its violet. This may be illustrated by a prism. which we see in a rainbow. in a little over 8 minutes. until at the planet Neptune their amount must be slight. which breaks up the white light into its component colors. Reflection. yellow. the leaves of trees green. and then we obtain color. We recognize only seven of these.'^ Sometimes.000 miles. blue. speck of dust on the wall to the earth. the sunsets red or yellow. and upon reaching the eye they together produce the phenomenon which we call white liglit. The difference in color depends upon various conditions. green. vrhere. orange. this white light has some of its waves removed. it is lost. so far Just as warmth and light from as we know. but a complex series moving with slightly different wave lengths. shines brightly in the heavens with a silvery white light. small part of the light and heat from the sun reaches us (Fig.

placed in the the subject of reflection plain. as a brightly On moon illuminated orb in the sky. If the sunlight is colored. The places in light were not reflected to shadow would be them from the air and from the land. its path to the earth is may be seen. just as we may the be reflected from a mirror to some place which the sun's rays do not reach directly. the teacher By an experiment with a can make dish of water. because of some change in the light rays. when the sun's rays reach a dense cloud bank. for otherwise the distant rays would not be visible. By means of a mirror. the reflected sunlight . Like the earth. ^ too. 1 sunlight. Pure air of uniform density does not of a itself reflect the light.LIGHT sphere does not shine brightly. the moon and at times these are cause a sunbeam to the earth appears reflected to the earth. we find them reflected So. but when beam ^^ of sunlight passes through a gap in a cloud. but instead. the water or snow particles which compose the cloud reflect the may and while the great mass of the cloud appears black or leaden gray. or a mirror. but a water surface does reflect readily. . becomes transformed to dazzling white. This appearance must be the result of reflection of light. if different. the edge upon which the sunbeams strike. and the sun ''^ then said to be drawing water. being transparent . allow the light easily through them. the illumination of the earth in the daytime would be very very dark. If the air did not reflect light. from this in the form of a dazzling beam of light. such as those explained below. light may he colored. intercepts 45 some of the sun's rays. to pass Gases do not readily reflect. we may reflect enough sunlight upon a shadow to entirely destroy it. and as the sun's rays reach the surface of a water body.

. during the summer. when walking along a road or on a railway track. The warm air is set in motion. causing it to reflect light. 46 FIRST less BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY complete and in a way the natural reflection from is many surrounding Shadows days . are less intense on hazy than on very clear for then there are many solid particles in the air and it is these dust particles." the dust. and the little currents thus started differ in density. so that it has different density from that above. When tions there is a warm layer of air above the surface. The traveller on the desert often fancies that he sees a sheet of water when he looks down upon the air that is see this on may warm near the surface. often transforms the broken ice surface into a marvellously complex and beautiful mon and when . and as they reflect light from their surface we Each different layer acts somesee them dancing about. In the Arctic regions. there is sometimes reflection from the air itself. close summer day. reflecit. what like a mirror. . the mirage is very comsailing in the midst of floating ice. may be caused from and objects may then appear be seen apparently inverted. the effect of the mirage in raising the ice floe above the water level. so that a ship may sometimes sailing in the heavens with its masts pointed toward the earth. and ships ma}^ be seen apparently sailing in the air. which cause the reflection which is seen when the sun In addition to the reflection from is "drawing water. This is because the atmosphere varies in density. rather than the air itself. On a lake or seashore the mirage lifts the distant shores above the water level. objects engaged in the partial destruction of shadows. It is upon this principle that the mirage is caused. We any hot.

or nearly so (then called trans- lucent'). etc. even those that are most is transparent absorb some of the light. stances. all Light rays pass easily through some subwhich are then said to be transparent. . is glass. it happens that many objects allow some of the rays to pass. particularly of important in the economy of plant life. piece of ice Absorption. the object is white in color when nearly all is absorbed. cellar. a sickly. Those solids and liquids which do not allow light to pass easily through. each producing separate colors. or. Nearly also. is the color green if more red is reflected than others. and which are then called opaque. there is constant variation.LIGHT series of 47 and turrets. is reflected in excess of the others. is produced. castles. A single sometimes duplicated. while the remainder either reflected or allowed to pass on iiito the substance. it many forms While a potato will sprout and grow in a does not pro- duce fresh green leaves. and many liquids . a red is produced. Even men who dwell away from the sunlight lose their freshness. until four or five pieces appear one above the other. Sometimes these join. and no two times is the same view seen in the same direction. absorb most of that which encounters them. while others are reflected. white imitations of is cities. it is black. When very little of the light is absorbed. An instance of a transparent solid When light encounters bodies. and then the sensation of color . the transparency of which serves us so well in our windows. This absorption of sunlight of life. when partially joined. a sculptured turret. through them parent. but instead. forming a column. But as white light is a complex of many Avaves. and as one looks upon such a scene. is If green . allow light to pass easily but solid substances are more rarely trans- — gases are transparent. yellowishgreen stalk and leaves.

of the other when the scattered blue rays are partially obscured by the scattering and coarser rays. light are less easily disturbed than those having a small wave length. When there is much dust in the air. — While there are several other peculiarities of called selective scattering. even the yellow may be scattered and these. the violets and blues of the white light are scattered clear. azure blue. . give to the sky a yelloAvish tinge. like the violet and blue. and there have been times when its color was a brassy yellow. only one more can be easily explained in this book. some of the rays are turned to one and Since the waves that have small wave length are more easily turned aside. which are of various lengths. a change which is not at all times the same. when passing through air that is impure. the process is Refraction. again it is Sometimes the sky a deep a pale. By side this interference^ scattered. The color of the sky therefore depends upon which of the rays are scattered . its becoming white in passage through the air. being then more intense than the blue. and since certain waves are selected^ according to the obstacle encountered. while the larger storm waves break over the obstacle. This may be compared to the ripples on a lake. almost colorless blue. When a stick is placed .48 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Selective Scattering. Light waves. even if the air is very is Hence the inten Atj of the blueness of the sky greater on particularly clear than on hazy days. light rays suffer change. which may be checked in their motion by a small sand spit. In this is passage. of light. some which are important. — The light of much the sun is probably bluish when it enters the upper layers of the atmosphere. find their progress parThe coarser waves of yellow and red tially checked.

may be red orb. the light ray itself being bent as it If we could look from passes into the denser medium. a glow of yellow. the stick would still appear broken. and we are then able to recog- and affects the various colors differently. and if dusty. while those above the horizon.LIGHT in a quiet 49 body of water. in a different way from those with the longer wave lengths^ So if we allow a sunbeam to pass through a glass prism. it appears the water to the air. ^ This is due to refraction. overspreads the sky in the west. in passing through substances of different density. are Those rays which come from near the horizon most destroyed. depend in part upon this principle of refraction of light rays. This is an experiment whicli any pupil can try . This bending of the rays affects those colors which have wave lengths. and hence the coarsest of all prevail giving red colors. but would incline in the opposite direction. Many of our atmospheric colors. As the sun disappears. the colors of the spectrum are thrown upon the floor. refraction bends the rays the shorter Hence. with a part extending above the broken at the water surface. because the more delicate light waves have been scattered in passing through the great thickness of dustfilled air (Fig. when a from a prism. because. instead of all the rays light ray emerges combining to cause white. surface. 21). in addition to the blue light waves. The Colors of Sunrise and Sunset. especially those of sunset. air. its brilliancy is usually so decreased that we may a great look directly at it . nize the seven primary colors mentioned above. the air is — When it the sun is setting. passing through less 1 yellow. the coarser reds and yellows have been scattered in passing through the motefilled air. for himself. are there. or red.

fading out through tints of green to the sky-blue above. Our most perfect sunsets are in a clear sky but the most beautiful come when the heavens are partly clouded. at first increases the intensity of the coloring. so that the sunset colors often extend far on either side of the setting sun. so that in a very hazy sky the sunset colors are absent. forming an arch. and when we see the sun just beginning to descend behind the hills. second fainter series of colors. in passing through air. with the sun near the centre. produc- ing a marvellously beautiful and varied series of shades and tints of reds.50 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY These solar rays are bent. it is really below the horizon. the horizon is partly occupied by clouds. rays produced at sunset and the dark or blue color. brilliant gold. . At sunset there is a dehcate pink tint in the eastern sky. grading upward and downward into the blue. and the cloud particles reflect and refract the light rays. the dust deadens the colors. A often illuminates the sky. At first the colors are yellow. after the has faded. both at sunset and sunrise. but beyond a tain point. known as the This is the result of reflection of some of the scattered twilight arch. yellows. or refracted. and deep purple. . The yellow changes to red near the the dusty horizon. the afterglow^ first glow of sunset In reverse order the sunrise colors exhibit the same changes. These are some in clear weather. of the normal effects of the setting sun cer- An increase of dust in the air. below the reflected pink. because even the waves of red and yellow light are so scattered that they do not reach the eye. In a clear sky the colors of sunset are arranged in a semicircular series. is the shadow of the earth cast against the sky. Very often. . This refraction lengthens the zone of coloring.

reflected and it from their is refraction of light passing through surface.LIGHT The Rainbow. of hght. but when best developed it has the colors of the spectrum. and nearly a semi- The form . being small when' the sun is high in the heavens. with the red outside. just as in the case of the light passing — In each case there are drops of — through a prism of glass. may often see a beautiful rainbow outlined in the spray that dashes into the air at the base of the mighty cataract. reflection This refraction separates the rays into and these are sent back to the eye by from the drops of rain. one 51 of — Standing at the foot Niagara Falls. and as the rays enter and emerge from the water drops. and at times a second bow is produced above the true rainbow. the rainbow colors. occurs when the upper air is overspread with nearly transparent clouds. that produces the halos. the air often bears numerous these. Arctic explorers describe brilliant halos. The colors of the rainbow are those of the spectrum. with the red inside. and ice crystals. they are refracted. The halo. spray in Niagara. two of Usually the halo is a ring of white light . the same in cause. of the rainbow is that of a segment of a circle. circle when it is near the horizon. composed of particles of ice. rainbow. Halos and Coronas. Though forming an arc of a smaller circle than that seen in the eastern sky after a it is summer thunder storm. or ring around the sun or moon. Each person sees a different features. with the ends resting on the horizon and the extent of the arc depends upon the position of the sun. . for in these cold regions. and raindrops in the rainbow water through which the rays of the sun are passing. but all see the same general because the raindrops always act in the same way in refracting light. In this the red is on the inside. only — There are other pecuHar and exceptional effects which will be briefly raentioned.

segments. thus marking its black bulb thermometer. Utah. entering the hole.. At other times bar of light sometimes extends from the sun. Lightning is then produced. — During air. With these measurements we are not concerned..C. 40%. and the sound caused by the Lightning. D. at Eastport. but meteoThe rologists sometimes study the intensity and duration of sunlight. and usually a colored light concentrically of small diameter. 44%. and thus a line is marked where the sun shone. or from a cloud to the ground. 52 FinST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPBY denser clouds partly obscure the sun. Missouri. 57 % at Washington. California. By at such means we learn that in 1892 the sun at Yuma. that from sunrise to sunset the sunlight shines into through a On the inside of the box a piece of photographic (or blue print) is and the sunbeam. In rare cases these bars occur at the same time with coronas. 62 % at Salt Lake City. and nearly all the latter by the sunshine recorder. all shone for fully 80 % of the time that . which arranged. 44%.Y. 69). Maine. are circles of sometimes produces coronas. have measured the velocity of the phenomena of light have received a satisfactory explanation on the basis of the undulatory theory. At night the photographic paper is taken out and developed. presence by a line that is continuous if the sun shines all day. travels over this. and at times a cross is formed by two such bars. and broken if interrupted by clouds. Louis.. light — Physicists by various means . it stood above the horizon . former may be obtained by means of the black bulb thermometer (p. A similar result may be obtained from the paper placed. the interference of When these with the rays of light. This is a metal it box so placed hole. and the circles are then divided into foui Sunlight Measurement. 52%. Electricity and Magnetism thunder storms. at St. and other violent is often caused to pass from cloud to cloud. Arizona. with the red on the outside. while no line is present if the sun's rays were interrupted. N^. at Buffalo. San Diego. disturbances of the an electric spark .

^ familiar with the common a great magnet. It is possible that atmos- upon the formation though of this there is some doubt. — Every one is not now recognized as an important feature of the is air. one south of AusThese in the Antarctic region. This condition of terrestrial magnetism important. north of Hudson's Bay. for it is exceedingly furnishes us an easy means of obtain- ing directions by compass. and why it appears. echoes and reverberates thunder storms are at a distance. Just how this electricity is generated. of attraction. The earth is magnet with two poles tralia. because the attractive force steadily varies. so that the north end of the needle points toward the north magnetic pole. 1 as it AND MAGNETISM among 53 the clouds. . causes the roar and crash of thunder. in the Arctic. is Magnetic action earth also present in the sun we are able to detect this ments.ELECTBICITY passage. is not exactly understood. When and we see heat lightning. which a magnetized piece of iron capable of attracting other particles of iron. a flash of lightning illuminates the distant sky. it pheric electricity has some influence of rain. 1 Sometimes this . The attractive force is beneath the earth's surface. and often when they are below the horizon. Avhich is a piece of magnetized iron. so that near the pole the magnetic needle dips vertically toward the ground. and on the by means of delicate instrusolar magnetism produces what thunder 2 By an electric spark from Leyden jars an imitation of lightning and may be produced. poles attract the needle of the compass. is not always in the same place. and although producing some vivid effects in the form of lightning. is Magnetism. An electric car furnishes frequent illustrations. the other on Boothia Island. so that the pole This subject calls for con- stant study.

electric apparatus is disturbed and the atmosphere seems to be under the influ- ence of magnetic action. are among the causes which produce. is apparently some magnetic by which a faint light is produced. This disturbance in the air. now shooting backward and forward with great rapidity. and yet one whose influence is constantly present and important. Although careful studies have been carried on for a long time. Our sailors. Aurora Borealis. surveyors. the explanation may throw much light upon various questions. are much more frequently and better developed near the magnetic pole than elsewhere. Usually colorless. . and map makers are making use of a force whose nature no one understands. although they may often be seen in the United States. In some way this appears to be related to the magnetism of the earth itself. Here is one of the great unsolved problems with which Nature confronts us. or at least direct. and the magnetism of the sun. while always it is so dim The Northern Lights that the stars shine through it. some relation between magnetism and sun At or times the northern sky night. solar There spots. now waving like a drapery. the question of magnetism is still far from settled. the great rain storms which travel across the country. and when it is understood.54 are FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY when is known as magnetic storms. There is reason for believing that the north magnetic pole of the earth. by the strange light may become illuminated at known as the Northern Lights. causing most of the rain that falls in the northern states. the aurora sometimes assumes various tints. and a variety of form that at times is remarkable.

Like light. like a stove. light is their heat is Bodies which reflect sunlight. 1 It is exceedingly important that the students thoroughly grasp the principles treated in this chapter. heat changes its behavior on reaching the earth. but increased. for warms our over the globe. Heat. which do not finally produced. like light. offer as little resistance to heat. However. moving with exceedingly rapid vibrations. Some hot the sensation of light on the eye. and fore. directly Like light. for it It is the upon its presence all forms of life depend for existence. and are possibly merely different expressions of the same thing exactly. peculiarities. and theresphere. travels to us across space as a series of waves.CHAPTER V SUN'S HEATi Nature of Heat. an understanding of the distribution of solar heat we must first learn something of its Reflection of Heat. great life giver. whence it is emitted in company bodies. our supply of heat" comes from the sun. such as a piece of white paper. which have the same origin. do not usually produce if — with light. there is an intimate connection between these phenomena of radiant energy (light and heat). — Most bodies that allow light to pass easily through them. reflect light. do not become warm as quickly as those like black paper. 55 .

heat from the ground performs this work. . which parent to heat. for then not only does is heat fall directly upon the street. Smooth bodies. even though our face is The reflected kept in shadow by means of a broad hat. and since a water surface reflects better than the ground. much higher temperature than as air that of the air are trans- Such bodies and glass. and During their passage through the air. all bodies can reflect some heat. but some reflected from the enclosing walls of buildings. Hence radiant energy (both will record a outside. So also we may become sunburned in summer. in the direct rays of the sun. when the sun's rays are absent. As in the case of light.56 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY light and heat) enters and passes readily through the transparent atmosphere and if the temperature out of doors is zero. Quarrymen working in pits partly enclosed by rock walls. one becomes sunburned much more quickly when on the water than on the land. that the streets of a city are hotter in summer than the open country. notice the same thing on a hot summer day. but most of them pass on and reach the ground. some of the heat particles that the dust and scattered by rays are reflected are present. and we even obtain a small quantity of reflected heat from the moon. when the walls of the quarry reflect heat. Most of the light immediately escapes. this reason also. reflect both heat and light better than others. and those having a light color. and add to that which It is partly for falls directly upon them from the sun. darkness prevails. are said to be diathermanous. but . a thermometer in a room placed near a windoAV. and we ma}^ prove this at any time by standing in a shadow upon which the light and heat from a window are being reflected.

SUN'S HEAT heat in part remains. body areas. even its effect is still felt. these are lost in absorbed. we place a piece of black in such cold weather . to 57 some when the sun rises in the morning. a large percentage of the heat rays that reach the earth. but with the material that Radiation of Heat. will cause the snow beneath it to melt.. for a heated equalized. being turned back by reflection is and so. is used. and the cloth will sink into the snow even during become hot. until its temperature 1 reduced to that it This may be light illustrated in this way . stove. also Hence the warming is effect of the sun's rays varies greatly. and extent. is able to give out its heat to cooler surrounding until the temperature of the two is is Hence the sun will continue to radiate heat into space in all directions. space. iron. resulting from absorption. and also is warmed close the blinds and the light ceases. but objects that were reached by the sunlight will still remain warm. not only with the location. Absorption of Heat. and hence in summer cloth the asphalt pavement of cities. come to us that are being radiated The heat that comes from the sun energy which this great body similar radiant emitting. upon a snow bank. : if the sun shines into a room. pass directly away. becomes . — A portion of the heat is Black bodies absorb so much of the sunlight that they Such bodies also return to the eyes no distinct color. much more of and the cloth does not become nearly so warm. its warmth. absorb much of the heat that comes to them. as far as the earth concerned. but if a white cloth is the radiant energy reflected. rays — When we receive heat from a from the is is being warmed. ^ How- ever. a position as to be exposed to the direct rays of the sun. or the black rocks If of the country.

it entered. and the air would witness an inand earth would soon become intensely hot if all of is the rays were not sent away. some by dii^eet radiation . Radiation extremely important in explaining many will of the features of the air. radiation is in progress but the ground continues to warm through the day.68 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHY just as a stove in of space: which the fire has gone out its air. and continues to cool until the sun again rises. because more heat is being absorbed than can be radiated. radiation is in excess of the supply. ever. as soon as the is sun descends behind the western cut off. heat. During the summer the days are longer than the nights. and it passes through the atmosphere . In this way the earth disposes of of one year is its surplus and hence the heat not greatly dif- ferent from that of the preceding. so that the ground becomes cooler and cooler. this action of radiation. Therefore the ground warms day after day. and the ground is warmed but during all the time that this heat is coming to the earth. Some of this is absorbed. will continue to radiate heat into the room until temperature is reduced to that of the surrounding The same is true of the heat which comes to the earth from the sun. Even dursummer days. each year If it were not for crease of heat . and more heat comes than can be radiated. until the days have again perceptibly lengthened. but in the winter. it is being sent away into space. and in later pages we need to refer to it again and again. How- in a way similar tq that in which ing the hottest . the supply while radiation continues. and hence the ground becomes cooler. Some bodies radiate . and which stays upon the surface for awhile. horizon. some by reflection.

or even of iron. which away from the source of heat. the sun's rays produce little effect even in summer. and the heat is conducted from the iron into the water. The iron is warmed and placed outside the wheel. The heat of one end passes through the iron by conduction^ In the being transmitted from molecule to molecule. earth's surface. Water and air are even poorer conductors. warm. itself becomes and after awhile so hot that it cannot be held. the is is placed in the fire. and soon the other end. stove. Thus the the influence of the sun is almost absent. and leaves are better and the earth radiates more readily than water. the rays of the sun. is gradually warmed by contact with the warm earth. — If the end of a rod of copper. the end in contact with becomes very hot. and at a depth of three or four feet. but the air which rests directly on the ground. have their heat gradually conducted down into the soil. Heat causes expansion. as any one may see by watching a blacksmith put an iron tire on a wheel. same way. which come in contact with only the veri/ surface of the land. and by conduction this fire entirely heat is slowly transmitted into the air to a slight dis- tance above the ground. but as it Convection. the iron is placed upon a warmed. which it fits very loosely. while at a depth of ten or twenty feet. — When a kettle of water is bottom . sun warms only the veri/ surface of the land. Hence the sun's rays affect and here another reason for variation in temperature of the Conduction of Heat. But the ground is not so good a conductor as iron.SUN'S HEAT 59 much better than others: grass radiators than the bare ground. is various parts of the earth in a different way.

though air The sometimes this is enough — 1 So also the warming of the rails of a track in summer causes them to expand. the kettle is warmed. quiet and unnoticeable. and an atmospheric boiling or convection is inaugurated. which are drawn down by gravity. the light layers of lower water are forced to rise by the sinking of the heavy cold layers. This causes a boiling In the same way the lower layers of the or convection. it becomes lighter than the layers This is an unnatural condition. it contracts and binds the wood of the wheel firmly together.60 cools FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY by radiation and conduction. and to obscure objects at no great distance. Heat on the Land. Therefore in laying rails it is necessary to leave a small space for this movement. A few words in summary will show how the land is warmed and cooled. and this action furnishes an explanation of many of the winds of the earth (Chapter VII). warm air reflect light to seems to be in violent motion. which has absorbed heat. . These become lighter. while in the cold winter they contract and spread apart. or a railway track. so that the joints fit together. for the lightest above. Ordinarily this convection is but on a dusty road. much in summer and relatively little in winter. day. ^ The expansion of a liquid or a gas makes it less dense Therefore when the water in the bottom of or lighter. atmosphere are warmed by conduction from the ground. During the daytime the earth absorbs heat. during a hot summer the eye. By this process of convection the atmosphere is set in motion in a much larger way. As the things float. and at all times it is radiating. as oil or wood will float on water. the boiling of the air as the little rising currents of may be actually seen. warming proceeds.

becomes warm by conduction. the air that rests upon the surface it fell. and currents are caused as a result of the change in density thus produced. Some of the heat is conducted below the surface. is The heat it is absorbed. while the hilltop is open to the sky. and hence in shadow during part of the day. much less rapidly than land. very little would be thus carried away through so poor a conductor. and hence exposed to the direct rays of the sun. and it rises. on the level ocean there is a . but as soon as a layer of air near the ground is warmed. If the air were immovable. also expands the water. of the land is more effective in some situations than In the case of black and light-colored rocks. so that the upper layer of the ground is less excessively warmed than it would be if all remained where Moreover. Warming the of the Ocean. The warmth of the upon the fact that the sides reflect heat into the valley. The hilltop. and check radiation from it. cooler air forcing it up and taking its place hence much heat is thus removed and distributed from . when no heat comes. we have instances of two extremes. then set in motion.sun's heat 61 at night. The warmth of the land also depends being more exposed to the wind. The warming in others. the effect of radiation is most pronounced. — For various reasons. So. and can radiate heat in all directions. Since it is a mobile liquid. is cooler than the valley. A valley facing toward the south. and causes a rise in temperature. becomes warmer than one facing toward the east or west. while on the land some places become warmer than others. In that heat rays are more readily reflected from the smooth and often glassy water surface. water increases in temperature first place. place to place. and less air being able to radiate heat through valley also partly depends than that which covers the increased valley bottom. upon its outline. and this also takes away some of the heat.

quickly equalized by means of a current. because radiation from its surface is less rapid. instead of the Hence much of the solar heat that ocean where it fell. and so is called latent heat or heat of evaporation. and in winter. and in winter. After a storm in the mounTemperature of Highlands. is a cool. For these reasons water warms very slowly. Hence the climate of the ocean is equable. I the local climate perceptibly.62 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHT all alike. or — . and one of slight change. so when changes back to liquid water. another reason and j * There is still why water temperature It takes is less easily raised than that of the land. even lakes of small size influence latent heat. may appear at some very distant point and warm the air. Therefore in day and summer the ocean is relatively cool. water can be evaporated^ and in doing * this. uniformity of conditions. enters the water is borne away in vapor. it is warmer than the land. than it does the same amount of earth -A or rock. and even in midsummer the sea breeze that blows upon the land from the ocean. Because of the same peculiarity. refreshing breath of air. one may often see that snow has fallen on the hill or mountain tops. while rain tains. The vapor thus pro- duced that rises into the air it finally and passes away in the winds. the material being so movable that is if the difference one part becomes warmer than another. the water cools to a less degree than the land. Also. much heat energy is used. At night. but this heat is not made apparent by an increase of temperature. much more heat to raise the temperature of a certain bulk of water one degree. the which then becomes apparent. and the influence of this uniformity is felt upon the land which borders the sea. and during the night. even in a hilly country.

rerr Tern it is proved that the temperature of the ^. 1 C«««^ ^ _ _- _ - _ Fig.. By such observations. The low temperatures of mountain tops are intensified hy radiation^ for the direct rays of the sun reach the mountains.. he would find the temperature steadily descending... — z . Even in the hottest parts of the earth. s ^mm ^f s s? gj g f . just as they do the lowlands. This cold is partly inherent in the thin upper layers. . i ' en .- — ^ 5 'JgQO gk e _^ ^ s^ «.rn^. 18.oi „ _ zz k -.iA. z. .l.. = = ^ _ __ = =. and it is partly due to distance from the warm earthy which causes the temperature of the air near the ground to rise. showing temperature at the surface and at various elevations. ^I r 1 "™" Ideal section of atmosphere in temperate and equatorial regions.Li.. _ u _k __ = :. _ -~ ~^ :S^ _-^ -° liooQ lO Z— — z z zI ~ =. and the same condition is noticed by balloonists who ascend high into the air. « f .. The rate somewhat." n i tn n 1 ^ JO . J. — -x.s "»«x. air decreases with elevation above the sea.^ = -— ___ _ _ L = = = Sf z = ~ zz -~~ _ h __ — J= ~ _ ^ =- ~ _ ^ *JO^-. but on the average there is a decrease of about 1° for every 300 feet of elevation. I - =b : ~~ I = ~~ _ = ^Z - Wn _ _ _ __ == = = :- = ^rjfiw) t Zz z === i: _ : - -- aoco e_ Umm. varies This heat is rapidly radiated.^. mountains may rise high enough to reach the region of eternal snow.SUN'S HEAT fell in 63 If one should carry a thermometer the valleys. \ » _ _ XS = == 1 \ a leMPCxtruKi. on a journey to a mountain top. ::: — -1 — a J— = =.r.. though after having passed through a thinner layer of atmosphere. because radiation proceeds with much greater ease through the thin layer of rarefied .

and is "muggy. If the sky is overcast with clouds. and prevents the escape by radiation. the noonEffect of Heat on the Air. a midsummer day. partly because of the cold air which surrounds them. and the impure air acts also as a barrier to outward passage by radiation. if the same condition of the atmosphere Thus on exists. So on such days. reach the Being clear. also acts as a blanket.64 FIB ST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHY it upper atmosphere." this. although little is — sunlight has passed to the earth. because If the little heat comes and is day hazy. little leaves. surface are also easy. radiation and reflection from the ground. On a very clear day. or if the air contains much vapor. Since radiation . and partly benear the sea level. The heat is not imprisoned nor entrapped. dust- ters Hence the nights and winon mountain tops are intensely cold. with the sun shining brightly. cause of the easy radiation. which prevented rays from entering. day sun sends its rays through the air with little interruption. for the foreign particles absorb some of the heat as it passes . and much heat goes directly back. the air may be refreshing both by day and night. and the day oppressive. the night time usually not cold. but much heat still the earth. perature of day and night At such times the temmay remain about the same. than filled air does through the denser. of the heat which had previously come to the earth. radiation continues to proceed rapidly. while at night. After such a day. the heat rays pass with difficulty. the ground and air are warm. because the cloud covering. and the larger share of those that enter. and because so little heat reaches the ground the day is liable to be cool. checks the pasreaches its sage of rays from the sun. to a certain extent.

This heat is to some extent imparted to the neighboring air by conduction. and storms are caused. and from one latitude to another. and hence in density. atmosphere composed of pure nitrogen and oxygen. temperature than one 10 feet above is it . and these intercept some of the heat and thus become warmed. from land to ocean. and then by convection the warm lower layers rise. and directly or indirectly winds. the air receives its warmth mainly in an On a hot summer day.StlN^S HEAT 65 is partly checked. until finally relief comes when the air is again clear. the elastic air is set into motion. from hill to valley. By means of these differences in temperature. a thermometer placed indirect way. and it is always at work equallizing the differences in temperature. even the night time may offer no relief from the oppressive heat. An would . The air is therefore a carrier of heat. and the heat from the ground is distributed. for the lower laj^er with the heated earth. clouds. a foot from the ground registers a considerably higher cles exist in the air. However. because these gases are very diathermanous and in this case the air would be vejy slightly warmed by the passage But water vapor and dust partiof sunlight through it. offer little resistance to the passage of heat rays. and man and beast suffer. or by a steam radiator. and some of the excessive heat caa be radiated into space. so that there is a double cause for warming. just as the air of a room is warmed by a stove. from one kind of ground to another. So by conduction the air temperature is raised. contact warmed by . These foreign substances intercept both the direct rays from the sun and those radiated from the earth. There are many differences in warmth of the air from place to place.

by dust particles through the atmosphere the heat rays when the sun is nearly ver- and the thickness of the air is least. as the great thickness of lower dense and first dusty then increasing in intensity until afternoon. in most parts of the earth. Effect of Rotation. and the amount of air through which the rays must pass is similar to that of the afternoon sun. its rays traverse air. the temperatux-e rising in the morning and early afternoon. and NOON NOON ^-V why the morning sun does not quickly NOON NOON NOON NOQi^. . and again losing intensity 1 Another is the different angle at which the rays reach the surface. as the horizon is neared. 100° 95° 100° 95° 90° 85° /^ / i_ r\ 1 80° 75° 70° 65° — \ / -/- / V \ \ ^. in temperature for six successive warm the earth and air. and then descending until the sun again rises.-\ __/_. J r 7 "\ -- y vy /' \ V / \ \ / / ^ 90^ 85° 80° 75° 70° 65° 60° 60° 55° 55° Diagram showing change summer days. mounts higher and warming the earth feebly. even at noonday. This is one of the reasons ^ why the afternoon sun of summer loses its power as it sets toward the west. their effect is greatly decreased. for then the sun is low in the southern heavens. Fig. 19. It is also one of the reasons why. we can easily understand that at night. — By the earth's rotation. or early in the morning.\ 66 \ FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPRT If in their passage are checked tical. the winter sun does not generally warm the land. 21). the sun each day higher in the heavens. when the rays pass through so much more air (Fig.

1 No attempt is made to explain this phenomenon in this book. decreasing toward the poles. 17). for in the latter the rays never reach the earth from overhead. corresponds in a measure to that of the light which comes to us late in the afternoon. . they are turned toward the west if from the Equator. which in all other . (2) the North between the Arctic circle and the Tropic of Cancer. In the northern hemisphere it causes tliem to turn to the right. for this causes sea- At all times the belt near the Equator more heat than that near the poles. The angle at which the sunlight reaches the earth during the polar summer. Because of the difference ceived. Effect of Revolution. So the solar rays vary in effect from one latitude to another. in the southern toward the left or in other words. We shall have occasion greatest with those that move most rapidly. for the explanation is difficult to give without the use of mathematics. but in sons (p. toward the east. (3) the South Temperate^ between the Antarctic circle and the Tropic of Capricorn. if they are moving toward the Equator. while in the former the sun is never far from vertical at midday. the earth in- the amount of heat re: is divided into five great zones (1) the Temperate^ Tropical^ Equatorial^ or Torrid. receives winter no sunlight reaches the polar regions. (4) the Arctic or North Polar zone^ within the Arctic circle and (5) the Antarctic or South Polar zone. . being tor. to call attention in several places to the effect of this right-hand and left-hand deflection of air and water currents.^ . but this variation is partly checked by the revolution.sun's heat 67 There is another important action of rotation which affects the moving currents of air and water. — Every part of the earth has its temperature influenced by revolution. The deflective influence is greatest near the poles and least near the EquaIt varies also with the velocity of the moving current.

or the standard upon which it is mounted. with its axis inclined. the one in ordinary use in English-speaking countries being the Fahrenheit. of summer shines from a point near the it is far Six months later down in the southern heavens. destroys the difference between day and night during a part of the year. Ordinarily the sun rises and sets but within the Arctic and Antarctic circles the revolution of the earth. and in our latitude we have long nights in one season and short nights in the opposite. in which the freezing point is 32°. from one latitude to another. The liquid thread which rises and falls.68 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY zones than the Tropical. Temperature Measurement. Hence an increase in air temperature causes the mercury to rise in the tube. In the United States the noonday sun zenith. side of these zones. and from land to sea. sealed both ends. and the boiling point 212°. and terminating in a bulb at the base. instruments are in use for determining the temperature of the the most but the ordinary me /'cwWaZ common and useful. Even out. from mountain to plain. contains mercury with a partial vacuum above. produces seasons of alternate warmth and cold. Either the glass tube. we may study and understand the variations of temperature distribution over the earth is a in the temperature of the earth's surface. and day by day these conditions change. is graduated into a scale. A glass tube. even as far as the Equator. this statement it will be seen that the question complex and that there must be many variations from day to night. Certain temperatures are oare^fully deter- . is forced up and down by the expansion and contraction of mercury in a cistern or bulb. thermometer at is — Various air. from season to season. the relative length of is day and night caused to constantly vary. and the lowering of the temperature makes it necessary for the mercury to sink. But if we understand the principles which have been dwelt upon in this chapter. From one. The principle of its action is that liquids expand with warmth and contract with cold.

a more simple scale. its record of temperature is higher. The hlack bulb thermometer may be used to tell the intensity of the sun's rays. over a graduated dial. this having 0° for freezing point. and then the remainder of the On the European continent. for then mer~ cury freezes and ceases to act. 20. an ordinary one. and is coming into use in this country. of this The de- operation pends upon the expansion metal and contraction of strips.sun's heat 69 mined. to the Fahrenheit scale. with a clock face over which hand moves. we speak of high temperatures as synonymous with warmth. and others to register the lowest (minimum thermometers). A a thermometer is now made of metal. These thermographs automatically write a continuous record of the temperature changes. the time of the paper is moved regularly which may be by clockwork. and alcohol is commonly emIt is ployed where very low temperatures are encountered. and marked on the tube. and 100° for boiling. commonly used. told because There are thermometers constructed to register the highest tem(maximum thermometers). change is conveyed to the hand. and also for the purpose of recording the amount of sunlight. Both are exposed to the sunlight side by side. multiply by 1. "^ To convert the Centigrade 32°. which moves A thermograph. Other liquids can be used. while alcohol does not. and since the blackened bulb absorbs more heat than that of the ordinary thermometer. and one with a bulb blackened by perature of the day paint or lampblack. which presses against a moving paper run by clockwork. Since the degrees recorded by warm conditions are high. the Centigrade scale is scale is graduated. and low temperatures with cold. The instrument consists of two thermometers. and this Fig. Such metal thermometers may be connected with a pen point.8° and add .

— 1 CHAPTER VI TEMPERATURE OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE Day and Night Change rises Daily Range. Fig.22.7* and after passing through increased an angle. u both land and air is increased. 22* the sun's rays reach \ 21" / ^2o• i»* the earth at a greater IB" .0 M — so- them."' -.o „ I —— _. the effect heat. as / \^ / / \ \. slowly at 70 of Then the temperature first. The temperature to rise k continues / / V "N 2? 24" 23* mid-afternoon. the temperature of : — Diagram to show difference in amount of air {TS) passed through by rays reaching the earth's surface {SS). though from the it effect of radiation during the preceding night. is lessened. nearly vertically {BA) and obliquely iCA). . and then. a . TEMPERATURE takes some time for the sun's heat to . and radiation exceeds the supply descends. 21). When the sun above the horizon in the morning. . thickness of air (Fig. warm until p —— . T s .

and period is that just be- fore the sunrise. India. 23. (6) Galle. Within sea. the midday temis perature very high. the tropics. 27). line) . so it differs from 23 and 24).Summer (heavy Fig. India. time 19. to 26. 22). at all sons. (4) Jacobabad. . (5) Key West.TEMPEBATUBE OF THE EABTH' S SUBFACE 71 the western horizon then more and more rapidly as the sun sinks behind (Fig. (2) St. 6 and 6. Florida. time and the Change Seasons. but varies with the position of the sun in the heavens. place to place (Figs. Vincent. it and after sunset and winter (dotted line) daily range of temperature for several places. Radiation proceeds to lower the temperature until therefore the coldest the sun again rises. and even the same place. this By normal of means we have a rise and fall temperature the each day that the sun shines. India. many modify that causes this But there are which normal change or range. — This curve with or range is not the same in all latitudes. near the warm sea. in from (Figs. Minnesota (1) Arctic day (3) Djarling.

. midday cool is fola lowed by a cold night. the normal change is from hot midday to cool night but in winter the change In the is from very cold night to cool or cold midday. where radiaof layers upper thin. the summer day is cool. polar zones. and the nights are for because these cool. 24. does not set. the daily range in temper- During the summer. warm day may be followed by a frosty As the season changes. sun does — a change with altitude. temperature is but litIn the winthe temperature of day and night may be exactly the same but between these two extremes. there is also a decided difference in the daily temperature changes (Figs. the night tle lower. to show even at midday in summer. though the temperatures are lower. . when rise the and set. Fig. Diagram influence of ocean on dailytemperature range in summer and winter. Effect of Land and There is also Water. 72 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY fall does not low enough to produce cold nights. rise into the cool. change is similar winter In the tion is always very rapid. ter.. noticed. the temperature of highlands and mountains is not high. Withm the temperate zones a night. air. Between the ocean and the inland. and since the sun ature varies.

NOON 6 P. If the sky becomes cloudy at midday. than that is So the daily temperature range is greater on the ocean. because passes heat the sun 90° . m| covered by a blanket of cool dry the air. so that is the hottest part of the day at night. 73 cool rapidly.. 25). A cool breeze may check the rise of temperature. because they are blanketed by a vapor-laden air. may prevent reached before noon. ^T^ V iB 70° Diagram illustrate greater daily range in temperature in a dry desert climate {B) than in an equally hot. daily rise — may not continue to rise. are high. so' V Y y \ Fig. TEMPEBATUBE OF THE EABTR'S SUB FACE 23 and 24).M. or on land influenced by the neighDesert lands. and it does not warms and cools with much greater rapidity.M. while the land The ocean warms slowly. south of the desert. being M 6 boring sea. Clouds the temperature . and is radiated with equal ease but humid lands are not subject to so much change. 25. it rises very slowly. but humid. tropical land {A). or if it does. while in the followed by relatively cool There are many reasons why the and fall of temperature may be checked. A. the sun's heat is partly prevented from reaching the land. or a warm breeze. Therefore.A ^ / through this air. are greatly warmed of /^B\ lOtf in day and the easily cooled at night. to In the latter the is temperature of both day and night Sahara very hot days nights (Fig. and the temperature Irregular Changes. the daily temperature range of the Sahara is considerably greater than that of the tropical belt of heavy rains in northern Africa. in the interior of continents.

26 and 27). the temperature of the year rises 1 The teacher can use these diagrams to test the ability of the students to detect illustrations of the points discussed in the text. : 1% Diagram to show regular daily range of temperature and irregularities due to various causes. 27. and when humid conditions M 90 85 80 75 70 65 prevail. and as the result of various causes (Figs. 189b Fig. Theretemperature a cold fore. 19. dry air. because this range is checked or altered in many cases. Again. in reality. r\ \. normal rise and fall of temperature. 20. the NOON M day and night M NOON M NOON M NOON M NOON M NOON NOON M NOON M 1 eo ( 60 55 / U Vr y^ \ /N.^ Seasonal Temperature Change Seasonal Range. 26. Compare may change very slightly. Notice April 22d and 27th. only a portion of all the days exhibit the ?i: is Fig.74 FIEST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY as it should. . 27. \ 50 \ \ / / / \ . a storm or may so interfere with the daily range. "\ \ r 1 M J / - — \ \ \ ^ / / \ ff5 r '^ 30 76 70 / \ V fJ \ vy / / \ U// V^ >. Diagram to show irregularities of the daily temperature range. — As in the case of day and night. with Fig. that the wave temperature may rise at night and fall in the day./ 29 as 30 ss 50 Vj / 22 « 23 AUG. 1895 21 2* 26 AUG. from descending A humid or muggy air causes a smaller range of temperature than a clear.

Taking the average of all the temperatures of all the days of the year. APR. followed by a decrease until the coldest part Such a curve. and the ground and air continue to cool even day (December 21). become warmer and then. NOV. MJ(R. the tem- perature decreases as the rays reach the earth less vertihave our coldest cally. 28. Seasonal temperature range at several places. although ^he sun's rays reach the earth less vertically. the ground and air. Therefore. -^ eo Fig. SEPt.80 60 40 ^^ ^ y -^ s z6 0° 20° 40° / / / / s\ 1 ^ '^ New York \ \s X. the temperature continues to rise. the warmest time of year does not coincide MH. but occurs later. because there are cool spells in summer and warm periods in winter. Singapore. After that. We days in January. would be somewhat irregular. if made accurately. . As this continues. because radiation after the shortest is in excess of the sup- ply of heat. we find a gradual increase from winter of winter.TEMPERATURE OF THE EARTH and sun falls. in tropical ocean= with midsummer. even after mid(or June 20). S SURFACE warm 75 as the The cold ground of winter begins to higher in the spring. DEC. and the rays reach the earth more nearly verticall}^ after passing through less air. summer. and the days become shorter. Fahr. cooled during the prerises summer ceding winter. OCT. FEB. but in spite of these to . MAY JUNE JULY Aue.

and the days and nights are nearly equal in length. and redependent moteness from the sea. NOV. cause seasons . in various parts of the earth._. elevation. there much variety in But the temperature conditions a very decided differ- from day to day. . DEC. Hence the winter is cold and the summer warm or even hot.. 1 It will furnish good practice to have the students look up the loca- tion. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. 10 There in is enough change respects to these Seasonal temiDerature range in several places (1) St. altitude. .|apr. At the Equator the noonday sun is always hiofh in the heavens. . ____ . Arizona (4) Key West Florida (5) Galle.^ 60 c 50 \ -''' __. SEPT OCT. and by this they w^ill better appre- ciate the meaning of the differences. of these places.76 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY temporarj variations there is a progressive change. JAN. etc. and the days are long. there is feb. — Influence of Latitude. Minnesota (2) New York state (3) Yuma. . Vincent. 28) may vary a little from one year to another. but since the ter SUmmcr and win temperatures are both high.''? r^ o-"' V**** 00 4^ 2_. t^a i^ 5 ^N^ c c S^ 2 ^' ^ <^' / 'V / ''A ^N ^ ^• ^ \ 80 \\ \ *< \ \ \ \ 70 a upon latitude. / Fig. of is course. but in any given place it is nearly the same from year to year. while in winter the sun is near the horizon and the nights are long. the range from season to season is not great. This average seasonal change or curve (Fig. / / \ '\2 40 30 20 id / V. India. 29. ence in the nature of c 3 S -4. ->^^ this seasonal change. Within the temperate zones the sun is high in the heavens in summer. .|mar. although.

and influencing the temperature of the air. 29. average temperature descends. the water of the ocean does not become highly heated in summer. the below it stays land and causes very low temperatures. never high. and partly because it is in constant motion. in determining the seasonal temperature of a place. nor very much colder in winter. just as they do on the way from temperate to polar latitudes. In ascending mountains the suffilife. within the frigid zones. climate. while the winter is cold. and this change cient to influence the growth of plant so that forests change in nature and then disappear (Fig. Therefore in the same latitude the seasonal range elevation may vary greatly with is above the sea. are conInfluence of Land and Water. and of warm water from the Tropics. with perpetual snow on the highest mountain tops and in the temperate zones many of the mountains reach the height where snow can remain all the year In such places the summer temperatures are round. This is partly because the water does not warm or cool quickly. and 30). as upon the daily change in temperature (Figs. for then the sun remains above the months but during the winter and then radiation cools the horizon. Altitude is almost as important Influence of Altitude. where there is so much difference between summer and winter. the 77 rises sun high enough in the heavens to raise the temperature considerably in summer. 28. Currents of cold water from the Arctic. — . Therefore the seasonal range . or even . Even in the temperate latitudes. the same produced by land and water upon seasonal range. horizon for weeks.TEMPERATURE OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE Near the poles. — Practically effect is stantly flowing in the north Atlantic. 85). as latiEven near the Equator there may be a frigid tude.

3C° 20° b f^' k -r V. JAN. In . at Nantucket low. 24. and the range great. always high. DEC. 30. APRIL MAY JUNE JULY SEPT.. NOV. and the range moderate (2) the Temperate zones (one north and one south of the Equator). y' 60° --N /. FEB.' Fig. One moderating influence of the water even on over the ocean may feel this the shores of a lake. and the influence of the ocean itself is felt to a considerable distance MAR. *^^..78 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY is never so great as it is on the land. Influence of water on seasonal range of temperature. kXiO. differing from . Compare with Fig. OCT. t/ 50° V > 'K-/ 40° \R ^. while the average is and (3) the Frigid zones (one temperature is moderate about each pole). where the temperature is high in summer and low in winter. Each of these zones must be further subdivided. — the Summer temperature reverse at North- Climatic Zones. from the shore.. each there are insular or oceanic climates. where the temperatures are always low and the range considerable. and winter temperature high ampton. — Because : of these peculiarities the earth may be divided into five great zones of different (1) the temperature conditions warm Tropical helt^ in which the temperature .


ISOTHERMAL LINES showing tte /^ Mean Temperature of the Globe for (Fahr.) JTJIiY 120 140 100 180 160 140 120 100 Facing page 79.120 140 160 180 160 140 120 100 80 A -^::j CU- \% TROPIC OF CAPRICORN t u > ::sj ^. .

D.40 GO 80 100 120 140 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 B.S<:rv<lss. .Y. S.


where the climate is very warm. all the temperatures observed during semi-arid country. It then passes between Kansas and Nebraska and then into Missouri. after which it enters the dry. Philadelphia. and southern Pennsylvania. The parallel passes across the warm Pacific. almost tropical climate of the Mediterranean. and as we go from Equator to pole we pass through regions in which Still places on the the average temperature is decreasing. and ascends the mountains and plateaus of the west. and northern Japan. to the frigid climates of the high plateaus and mountains. dry. Indiana. There is every gradation from the warm. enters Portugal. then across the plateau of Spain. ^ — . cold plateau region of central Asia. where the climate is very equable. which by itself will determine the temperature conditions. Ohio. which passes near Crossing the Atlantic. enters the United States north of San Francisco. differing from those of the lowlands. Hence there is no single feature of the earth. a warm. the place to which people go for the purpose of a moderate winter climate. crossing China. crossing the southern part of Italy. now passing over a cold mountain top. near Pekin. This can be very well illustrated by following a parallel of latitude. ture is such as the fortieth parallel. It then crosses Greece and Asia Minor. and there are highland and mountain climates. Lati- tude produces the most decided influence. dry plateau enclosed between the ranges. below Naples. Isothermal Lines. and emerges upon the warm Mediterranean. That is to say. central Illinois.TEMPERATURE OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE 79 the inland or continental. An isothermal line is one which extends through places having the same average temperature. and again descending to a warm. same latitude do not necessarily have the same climate. where the temperait moderate.

Examining the charts which illustrate this chapter. but north of but the hottest part of the This it. more land in the northern hemisphere than in This becomes warmer than the water. is zone of greatest heat the reason that there may be called the Heat Equator^ and why is this is north of the geographic Equator. not exactly at the Equator. but . Since the tempera- ture varies from one place to another on the same latitude. and the coldest near the poles earth is . is in northern Siberia. and therefore the isotherms extend around the earth. than those in the southern. . but manner. course. and the places having the same average are connected by a line which we call an In the same way the average temperatures of the isotherm. following the direction of the parallels of latitude in -a general way. near the Arctic circle. we may see how the average temperatures of the world are distributed. hence the temperatures in the northern hemisphere are Of higher. known place. though the coldest est parts of the earth. year give a basis for the construction of isotherms for the year. are A is map in which the lines of equal temperature drawn called an isothermal chart. or isotherms. and the southern. There is an average decrease in temperature from the warm equatorial region toward the poles. The warmest belts are near the Equator. do not pass in a very irregular around the earth parallel to the degrees of latitude. the lines of equal temperature. we know very little about the climate in the cold- and nothing whatever about the conditions at the poles and so it is impossible to say just where the very coldest places are.80 a FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY month (for instance) are averaged to furnish the mean temperature for that month. or the cold jpole of the earth. on the average.


.Facing page 80.

Strvo..D. .S..X.r.



J^'acing page 81. .

60 80 100 120 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 S.D.T. . N.Strt^aa.


crossing the middle of Ireland and England. and entering the Pacific. the isotherms extend over the water surface in a direction nearly parallel to the lines of latitude. Crossing Massachusetts Bay to the tip end of Cape Cod (between 42°-43°). crossing the northern end of the Caspian. Then passing northeastward. and passing through central Asia near the parallel of 45°. which is the one passing through Boston. and separated by water In the southern hemisphere. the iso- therm enters this country near the mouth of the Columbia and passes into Canada. In the southern hemisphere this same isotherm passes around the earth nearly on the 40th parallel. Some of the isotherms show even a greater difference than this. It then descends to the Black Sea. and this in the northern hemisphere. where there is less bodies.TEMPEnATUBE OF TBE EARTH'S STTRFACE they do so very irregularly. and in the southern hemisphere through not more than 8°. though sometimes passing to the northern side. varying from plain to mountain. land. this isotherm extends northeastward fully 10°. then again descends into the United States. Therefore in the northern hemisphere this isotherm ranges through about 15° of latitude. passing along the southern portion of the Great Lakes. It will be instructive to follow one of these isotherms for each hemisphere . Comparing the January and July isothermal charts. generally being south of it. and for this purpose we may select the isoall therm of 50° (the one which passes through points whose average temperature for the year is 50°). It then descends below the 40th parallel. is 81 particularly true where there is so much land. crossing Corea and northern Japan at about 40°. Mass. we may see how much difference there is between the tern- .

These ranges . and a little it is In the southern hemisphere. Each of these features is very well shown in the north Atlantic on the January chart. while in China it descends to the 30th. cools the air and bends the isotherms toward the Equator. Where they flow. during the the 40° isotherm runs nearly north of 60° south latitude. A comparison of the charts shows how cold the interior of the continents becomes in winter. So the climate of the north temperate zone is shown to be more extreme than that of the oceanic southern hemisphere. the result of minor causes.. coming from the north. and in some places nearly reaches the 80th parallel. During July this isotherm is entirely within the Arctic circle. southern parallel to summer (January). while just north of the 50th paral- in the southern Avinter lel. and how warm they inland climates. against the blowing in from the Pacific. are in summer . The study of these charts reveals many other features. because the air. warm ocean currents raise the temperature of the sea and bend the isotherms toward the poles a cold current. rises mountain ranges and cools. In the north Atlantic the isotherm of 40° for January reaches above the 60th parallel. such as the influence of highlands in disturbing the direction of the isotherms. 82 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHT perature of the coldest and the warmest months. and we find here an excel- lent illustration of the difference between the oceanic and The world is so large that such maps as these can do no more than show the most general features. On those of the United States we may find other features. ranging through more than 30° of latitude in the two regions. Thus on the Pacific slope the isotherms run nearly parallel to the coast.





Isothermal chart of southern New England. and so the isotherms a run in distance this direction. we would find many other varia- FiG. tions. and the shores of the Great Lakes are more equable than the country which lies at In New a distance from these 'large water bodies. England. each one representing greater from the sea. showing influence of high and low land. and a greater elevation. the Hudson and Mohawk valleys warmer than the enclosing highlands.TEMPEBATUBE OF THE EABTH' S SUBFACE are nearly parallel 83 to the coast. are In New York. 31. the Connecticut valley is warmer than the high- . If we could have even a more detailed chart of a small area of country. such as a state.

The lowest earth. while in winter radiation proceeds with equal ease. far from the sea. if itsj . the other is an elevated interior plain. and the air is constantly doing work of various kinds. 31 and the same is shown in many other regions. the cold mountain tops. — Owing the irregular changes of weather. for at times the earth of deserts. and to a discussion many features shown. the difference between the record of temperature in day and night is generally from 5° to 10°. dry region of Thibet a range of 90° in a single day reported. In Montana a fall of 100° has been recorded in a few days. storms arise. land region on either side (Fig. 68° at 3 midday and — 22° at night. we may have i In Montana a daily a great temperature change in a few hours. from near the ground. fori which space cannot be given 2 in this book. At Key West the range is only about 40° (50° in winter and 90° in summer). through which the sun's heat falls readily to the earth in summer. etc. particularly color is dark. to Temperature Extremes.^ and 105° 1 j - |. the interior plain. The sea is set in motion. !' i! jj ] j/j The teacher would do well to devote considerable time to the study of the of these charts. while at Key West. — 90° is 127° in Algiers. There are also many other indirect effects. winds are formed. there are Because of the many variations in heat effect described numerous kinds of cli- mate. and covered by relatively dry air. range of 50° is not uncommon. vapor is taken from the water. the heated desert. with extremes of heat and cold.84 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GFOGBAFHY 1). becomes so hot that it is painful to walk on the sand. Other parts of the country show ranges between these two extremes. and the which is the coldest known part of the Higher temperatures than that of Algiers have been recorded highest air temperature ever recorded in central Siberia. — the warm and equable ocean. rains are caused.2 In Montana the range between the highest temperature of j j | summer and in the lowest of winter is about 145° ( — 40° in winter | summer). The one place has an insular climate. is In the clear. in the preceding pages. while at Key West there is never a great range. which are common in the temperate latitudes. in the midst of a warm ocean current.



The pressure is then removed from the under side. of the air is not the The pressure nor at all times (Fig. also that there is a difference in the air pressure found even at The reason should fill for this is explained below. For various reasons it changes from day to day. for of course there is less air over a It is mountain top than above a neighboring plain. air 85 . and the invisible load presses on the back of the hand with such force as to be painful. One can prove the existence of this pressure. VII — About us is a mass of air which presses down upon every part of the earth.CHAPTER 'WINDS Air Pressure. and then invert 1 with water a glass it with the upon the top of a cylinder on an if he places his hand pump. At the sea level the pressure of the air amounts to about 15 pounds on every square inch of surface.^ same in all places. While it amounts to about 15 pounds to the altitude. dry days than in The weight of the air also varies with stormy weather. square inch near sea level. and is greater on cool. because the many thousands is of pressure equal in all directions. 32). Measurement of Air Pressure. sea level in different latitudes. — If -^e tube 35 feet long. the pressure decreases as one ascends a mountain . having one end sealed. hut the weight of the atmospheric column above is felt. from which the air is then exhausted. but he moves about without realizing this. of A man therefore bears a weight pounds upon the outside of his body.

pressing on the surface of the well. 32). This column of water represents the actual weight of an air column having the same area of cross section. A special kind to the well. When the air is heavy. etc. we have a loiu barometer. Diagram showing change of pressure for seven days. there would be a column of the liquid rising in the tube to the height of about 30 feet. By such an arrangement we cannot possibly draw water 40 feet above the surface of the well. air A tube leads we exhaust the of pump is necessary to raise water above the height of 25 or 30 feet.1. Figures on the inches and tenths of inches —28. and we have a high barometer. and if we watched the top of the water day by day. \^ ^/ 6 ' 5 3 1 ?8 10 1 16 1892 Fig. as that described above is Such a barometer too cumbersome for . : side are It is upon this same principle that the ordinary pump is constructed. when it is light. 32. forces water into the tube. we should find that it rose and fell. from the tube by means of the handle.86 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHY open end in a dish of water. it is common to speak of a change in barometer as synonymous with change in pressure (Fig. BAROMETER ITHACA 9 7 6 : "* 3 N^ 1 \ \ 29 9 8 ^ \ ^ ^vy/ ^X / ^ ^ \ —N ^. indicating a change in air pressure. the barometer rises. and then the air. Since these changes are in reality detected by a similar instrument. 29.9. Such a tube may be called a barometer.

Since there is less air above a high land than above the sea.8.1. and the mercury correspondingly sinks a certain barometers. mercury made to rise only about 30 inches. we say that etc.. or the elevation of the mercury in the tube. For some pur- Aneroid barometer graduated in feet (outside) and inches (inside). The ordinary barometer is made in exactly this way. it so high in a tube which has a partial vacuum at While water can be forced up to a height of about 30 feet. The liquid mer- cury air very much heavier than water. and is unfit especially tion. in order to increase its perfection One of these is the mode of reading the height of the barometer. is A subject to change. poses it is important to transport when it is desired to measure the elevation of any part of the land. for transporta- When it kept standing in does very well. is Even the mercurial barometer somewhat cumbersome.WINDS use. In speak- ing of the height of a barometer. especially . a barometer carried up a mountain side is subjected to less and less pressure. one place it soon gets out of order when carried about. Any one can make a mercurial barometer by filling with mercury a glass tube 33 or 34 inches long. it reads 29. and then inverting it with the open end under the surface of a small dish of mercury. 30. but Fig. and from day to day every barometer situated at one place inches. so that very slight differences in air pressure are noticed. with one end sealed. 87 and for is it is substituted the mercurial barometer. although there are many changes in detail. and hence the weight of the cannot force is the top. barometer at sea level has a higher reading than one at an elevation above the sea. and is possible to read to tenths or even hundredths of an inch. 33. column is it The barometer graduated in inches.

somewhat as the hands of a watch pass over the dial. Here instead of a liquid. instrument varies Aneroids are also used in recording a change in pressure. FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY and hence for a fall of a fraction of an inch. The is placed in the proper position. while the rate of movement of the paper keeps record of the time. and the colored water will sink. so that a continuous record is kept both of the time and amount of change in air pressure. The same principle is illustrated by a stove or a lamp. because it is heavier than the remainder. in the other. the molebecomes lighter. though this varies somewhat with the amount of elevation. The change produced on the diaphragm is communicated to a hand which moves over the face. is warmed. so to calculate the that as the index moves. This can be proved by a simple experiment place a drop of colored ice water in a glass of water having a temperature of 40°. or 60°. The air near this is warmed. and : perfectly still. Such a self-recording barometer is called a barograph. is and in descending. cording to these changes. and since the pressure from day to day. and hence made lighter than . For this class of work a special form of barometer has been devised. In climbing an elevation. the heavy cold air from out of doors pours into the room. The same is true of a liquid. if a window in a warm room is opened. The pen therefore marks the changes in pressure. Also on a cold winter's night. 33). the pressure called the aneroid (Fig. —^When air it cules are spread apart. A change in pressure of an inch means an elevation of about 900 feet. 50°. of the air exerts its force on a metal diaphragm within a metal case. we are able amount of elevation over which we have passed. The face beneath the hands is graduated to feet. when the air outside is Change in Air Pressure. the hand moves backward and forward acOn it is fixed a pen which presses against a sheet of paper moved by clockwork (as in the thermograph). So the height of a mountain can be determined by means of the barometer.88 amount . Just as he reads the time on a watch. the hand moves in one direction. a person may read the change. it The entire instrument so small that may be carried in the pocket.

New England region toward the low-pressure area of the Mississippi valley. a chair in a well-warmed room. or low pressure. For instance. the air over the Mississippi valley may be warm. with the result that the entire surface is raised a little. and the air will move from the east. and causes the neighboring layers to move. By standing on we may see that the while the warm air rises to the top.^ The atmosphere may be likened to the air of a room. raising the surface of that part of the basin. and the pressure remains the same in all parts of the basin. The water that is poured in does not stay in one place. The heavy air presses down and forces the warm air to causing a circulation in the room. but flows about. Oftentimes the upper layers are suffocatingly hot.WINDS that 89 which occupies the more remote parts of the room. register a difference of an inch in the This difference in pressure gives rise to what called the barometric gradient. and those that are most warmed are lighter than the colder portions. or a consideration of ventilation. and that over New England cold. rise. or heavy pressure. and a low barometer. Just so in the air: no sooner is a difference in pressure introduced than movement begins to equalize 1 This subject of air circulation may well be prefaced by an experimental study. Some places are being warmed more than others. causing winds from the It does this because the atmospheric gases are so slight mobile that even long exist. The barometer may two is places. It is differences in pressure cannot somewhat like pouring a glass of water into a basin. . in the former place. and we then have a high barometer. cooler air stays at the bottom. in the latter place. while those near the floor are only comfortably warm.

there must be some escape. there must be a flow toward the warm region. Therefore we may expect a great planetary circulation similar to that in a room containing around the equatorial belt. is — The earth divided into zones: there cold about the poles and heat at the Equator. This will force the air near the Equator to rise. FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY and attempt to make the pressure everywhere the same. since the air is hoavy. But if it rises. a stove. there are belts with a cooler cliair here is Warmed most '' ^ \V o ^S Fig. the general air circulation. upon this principle that most of the winds of the : It is globe depend.90 it. Cross section of atmosphere showing. very diagrammat'cally. mate. 34. through the draft of a stove. Planetary Winds is Theoretical Circulation. equator S and N. . or or of a lamp. Otherwise so much air will reach . while air from the north and south flows in to become warmed and also rise. In the latter. in order to equalize the pressure produced by the difference in temperature. while on either side. north and south of this. E. south and north poles. just as air ascends in a fireplace. the expanded and made light.



both winter and summer. (3) an upper current moving away from the stove. Again. It is therefore not only a belt of calm air. . These represent the cooler. so that body . and in the opposite direction and. which are moving in toward the great terrestrial stove. finally. which flow over the ocean in a remarkably permanent manner. and hence a movement of a very permanent nature must be begun. : Here. and it is sometimes called the doldrums. dense layers near the earth. we may expect to find on the earth. with light and variable winds. Near the Equator there is a belt of calms^ which is the place where the air is rising. the ceiling the air is cooled by contact with the cooler stove. Moving toward the doldrums. Above these. This ascending air cools. some of its vapor is condensed. while the air that moved At in toward the stove is warmed and also made to rise. cold air flows in. and flowing in . then. which thus reach the ceiling and flow away to the sides of the room. Trade -Wind Circulation. on either side. it settles. we have four zones of movement (1) the current along the floor toward the stove (2) the vertical current over and near it. the equatorial belt of calms.WINDS the Equator that the increase in bulk will 91 make the press- ure as great as that in the colder temperate zones. and again flows toward the is a constant circulation maintained. are the trade winds. — and rain storms are of daily occurrence. . we may make a comparison to a room containing a stove. forcing up the warm layers. Here the air is warmed near the stove. but also a very rainy belt. The cause for this imaginary circulation of the air is at work every day in the year. (4) the settling of the upper air on the opposite Upon a much larger scale this is what side of the room. above that on the floor.

and the southern toward the southeast.92 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY an opposite direction. The reason for this is the influence of the earth's rotation (p. Hence as the equatorial belt of greatest heat migrates. is Any current on the earth. one side as it turned to moves. 1 air. In reality this is not so. of various places very perceptibly. however: according to theory. known as and thus the theoretical circulation is completed. the trades change their position. The belt of calms is not stationary. . 67). and enter the upper currents. and the anti-trades should blow in the opposite direction. Hence the trades do not approach the Equator along the meridians. while the. whose existence is proved by the movement of clouds high in the air. and in winter it migrates to the south. During our summer. there are regions of settling the horse latitudes . moving directly toward the Equator. in the summer being further north This change influences the climate than in the winter. and also by actual observations on mountain tops. because the greatest effect of the sun's heat is first north and later south. the trades should blow southward in the northern hemisphere and northward in the southern. whether of air or water. as is the Equator. are the anti-trades. the belt moves to the northward. Near the tropics. when the sun is vertical over the northern tropic. to the right in the northern hemileft in sphere and to the the southern. at the place where the trades begin to be permanent. and in fact we find what was predicted in theory. southern trades move toward the northwest. the trade winds of the northern hemisphere blow toward the southwest. the northern anti-trades toward the northeast. but migrates with the seasons (compare Plates 8 and 9). There is a very important difference. where peaks rise above the trade winds.



and hence a movement of a very permanent nature must be begun. with light and variable winds. Here the air is warmed near the stove. It is therefore not only a belt of calm air. the equatorial belt of calms. — and rain storms are of daily occurrence. The cause for this imaginary circulation of the air is at work every day in the year. . cold air flows in. which is the place where the air is rising. we have four zones of movement (1) the current along the floor toward the stove (2) the vertical current over and near it (3) an upper current moving away from the stove. but also a very rainy belt. finally. which are moving in toward the great terrestrial stove.WINDS the Equator that the increase in bulk will 91 make the press- ure as great as that in the colder temperate zones. Upon a much larger scale this is what we may expect to find on the earth. This ascending air cools. : Here. At the ceiling the air is cooled by contact with the cooler body. dense layers near the earth. Again. so that is a constant circulation maintained. Above these. are the trade winds. Near the Equator there is a helt of calms. then. (4) the settling of the upper air on the opposite side of the room. Moving toward the doldrums. and in the opposite direction and.. some of its vapor is condensed. and it is sometimes called the doldrums. both winter and summer. . and flowing in . Trade-Wind Circulation. on either side. which flow over the ocean in a remarkably permanent manner. which thus reach the ceiling and flow away to the sides of the room. and again flows toward the stove. forcing up the warm layers. These represent the cooler. while the air that moved in toward the stove is warmed and also made to rise. it settles. we may make a comparison to a room containing a stove. . above that on the floor.




an opposite direction, are the anti-trades, whose existence is proved by the movement of clouds high in the air, and ateo by actual observations on mountain tops, where peaks

Near the

above the trade winds, and enter the upper currents. tropics, at the place where the trades begin to

be permanent, there are regions of settling
the horse latitudes



and thus the theoretical circulation is completed, and in fact we find what was predicted in theory. There is a very important difference, however: according to theory, the trades should blow southward in the northern hemisphere and northward in the southern, moving directly toward the Equator, and the anti-trades should blow in the opposite direction. In reality this is not so; the trade winds of the northern hemisphere blow toward the southwest, while the southern trades move toward the northwest, the northern anti-trades toward the northeast, and the southern toward the southeast. The reason for

the influence of the earth's rotation (p. 67). Any whether of air or water, is turned to current on the earth,

one side as


moves, to the right in the northern hemileft in the

sphere and to the


Hence the


do not approach the Equator along the meridians.

The belt of calms is not stationary, as is the Equator, but migrates with the seasons (compare Plates 8 and 9). During our summer, when the sun is vertical over the
northern tropic, the belt moves to the northward; and in



migrates to the south, because the greatest effect
is first

of the sun's heat

north and later south.



the equatorial belt of greatest heat migrates, the trades

change their position, in the summer being further north This change influences the climate than in the winter. of various places very perceptibly.


polar regions

— Since

places of greater cold,

we might expect

that in these zones

would be high; but such is not found to and we must look for some explanation. There certainly must be a settling of dense air in the high temperate and polar latithe air pressure




tudes, because

the cold of


these regions

makes the


We know that


a rising of the air near

the Equator, but

tling of this in the region
of the horse latitudes does

not take place so far north
as this zone of greatest cold,

but rather in the



tions of the temperate zones,

where the trade winds begin
to blow.

Fig. 35.
Ideal circulation of air near the surface, in the southern hemisphere.



only a part of the air settles,


and some of the upper currents, which extend as antitrades from the place of

trade-wind belt H, H, horse latitudes of uncertain winds C.W., circumpolar whirl, or prevailing
: ; ;


equatorial upflow, pass along toward the poles, constantly turning more and more to the east, under the influence of

the earth's rotation.

West winds therefore prevail in the upper air of the high latitudes, and this is also the prevailing direction of the winds near the ground, though there are so many disturbing causes here that they are not so permanent as they are high up above the earth. Since both in the higher temperate and polar zones of the northern and southern



hemispheres, the air movement, both aloft and near the

ground, prevails from the west, these winds are called They complete the great planetthe prevailing westerlies.
ary circulation
obtain an


atmosphere, and from them


explanation of the


at first
air is


low pressure near the poles, thought a high pressure would be expected. moving toward the poles, where, because of

the cold, there

greater density


but as


comes from
it is

the broad temperate into the polar zones,


toward a pointy the pole, and
a narrower


constantly coming toward

and narrower


would be impossible

for all the air that starts to reach the polar zone,

and hence but much and returns toward the Equator keeps on. A deflection results from the influence of rotation, which turns the currents to one side, and a whirl is begun, which is somewhat like that produced in water which is escaping from a basin. In this case the water is flowing from a broad area toward a narrow orifice, and if

some sinks

we look


such a whirl, we find that the water surface


lower in the centre than on the sides, and that around the

depression the water

whirling in spiral currents.
in the as

Conditions similar to this evidently prevail in the re-

gion surrounding each pole, and the whirl of
belt of prevailing westerlies, forms





Because of this spiral whirling movement, there is actually less air near the poles, and hence, notwithstanding the fact that it is colder and denser than in other parts of the world, its pressure is less than would be expected if it were not for the whirl. The great system of winds described above is better developed in the southern than in the northern hemisphere, because there is less land in the former. The
the eireumpolar whirl.



great expanse of water south of the Equator allows the
air circulation to

proceed with less interference than in

the northern hemisphere, where bodies of land
alternate (Plates 8 and 9).

The heat

of the

and water sun affects

the land

much more than

the water, and this difference

causes other winds from water to land, or the reverse,

Fig. 36.


of Spanish peninsula, showing lines of pressure and temperature with winds for July, when the summer monsoon prevails.

which mask, and at times even destroy the great planetary winds near the earth's surface. However, in both hemispheres the currents in the higher altitudes are remarkablj^

permanent, as may be seen in the United States by watching the passage of clouds high in the air, which are
generally moving from the west.





effect of the sun's

heat upon the land


greater than on the water, and radia-




tion from the land surface produces a greater effect than

upon the water.




a large land area, in

becomes warmer than the neighboring water, and in winter cooler. This may be seen by examining the map of the Spanish peninsula (Fig. 36). There, in summer, the air is less dense over the land than over the


water; and, as in the case of the stove, a circulation must

Therefore the denser


which in summer


over the Mediterranean and Atlantic, settles and forces

Fig. 37.

The summer


hand) and winter (right hand) monsoons of India.

the lighter air over Spain to rise


but during the winter,


the land


colder than the surrounding water, the

dense cold air over Spain settles and flows out toward the causing winds in the opposite direction. These are

monsoons, and they are periodical winds because they blow
at certain definite periods of time.

found in Asia, but it occurs also and elsewhere. In Asia, particularly over India (Fig. 37), the monsoon winds are remarkably permanent, and are important both in modifying



in Spain, Australia, Texas,

the climate and in navigation. the year, the


In the

summer monsoon

brings warm,

warm part damp


from the ocean, and heavy rains result; but the winter monsoon, blowing from an opposite direction, bears cold, Year after year these changes of dry air from the land. wind direction come as regularly as the seasons but there are of course other winds, due to different causes, which at times bring air from other directions. People go to the seashore to Land and Sea Breezes. escape the heat of the summer, and they do this because This is the ocean does not become so warm as the land. very well illustrated in hot summer days, when the heat of the land is oppressive, and when, by going to the coast, one finds relief from the heat. Soon, if the day is quiet,

a gentle breeze
sea (the

may be seen ruffling the same may be seen on large lakes,

surface of the
like the Great

Lakes), and after awhile a cool draught comes from the


the sea breeze, to which the dwellers by

the seashore look for a relief from the oppressive heat of

summer day. It may reach a score or more of miles from the coast, but its chief effect is felt near the sea. At such a time the sea breeze may become a strong wind, and often in regions of permanent winds, such as



a sea




entirely changing the direction of air
as in the

which succeeds in movement. Here,

monsoon, the cause

the heating of the land, so

that the denser cold air of the sea flows in over the heated


begins to blow, the temperature by noon
into the nineties

may have mounted
in less

of the breeze, the


may fall

and then, with the 10° or more

than an hour, so that the time of greatest heat

does not fall in the afternoon as usual.






the land cools by radiation, the dense

air settles

and flows out toward the warm


causing a which,
not nor


so so



frequent in






sea and


land breezes are also


along the shores

of the greater lakes,

Fig. 38.

To show

effect of sea breeze



upon the dailyThe normal range
of the

though these are perhaps more properly called lake and land

Even near
the smaller

shown by heavy line, the influence sea breeze by the dotted line.





draughts of








air. This illustrates how easy it is for the atmosphere to move when the pressure varies slightly by

differences in temperature.

Mountain and Valley Breezes.
contraction of the lower layers,

hilly districts, the cooling of the air

mountains, and even in by radiation at night, causes a which becoming heavier, flow down

— Among

toward the lower ground. Like water, the flowing air chooses down which to pass, and sometimes, in a valley having numerous branches, the breeze from the mountains and hills becomes very strong, and even increases to a gale before morning. In the daytime the warming of the mountain sides sometimes starts a reverse movement, which gives rise to a noticeable but less pronounced
the valleys
breeze up the mountain sides.
often feel the first-named

Those dwelling in hilly regions may wind during warm summer nights, but the


moving up the

hillside is


less noticeable.

A slight breeze has a velocity of from 2 to 10 miles. varies with the difference in pressure. A wind with a velocity of 10 miles one in which the air would move 10 miles in an hour. Diagram to show two of the several possible causes for the wave-like movement of the air. JtoUinc/ Ground. but their consideration inust be postponed until we understand something about storms (Ch. also a great — Velocity of the Wind. while in a tornado (or what the newspapers call a "cyclone "). EUly Cau/nlry. meaning the rate at // ///// Ocsarv. There are other winds of less importance. pronounced in the United States. VIII). The rate at which the wind travels. and associated These are the winds which are most in cause with extensive storms.WINDS Irregular 99 Winds. which the moving is . A Bluff. Here the air is disturbed in passing over hilly ground. or even very rarely 60 miles. 39. which the air travels. and group of winds having irregular directions. the velocity may be 100 or 200 miles an hour. a strong wind from 20 to 30 miles. — The velocity of the wind is commonly stated in miles per hour. a gale from 40 to 50. Fig.

We are all familiar with this in a larger way. there are tiny gusts. 40). Hence on the tops of high towers. but besides these.2 ocean than on O "C ^ the rough land.2 ^ .. ° like the from an en- As the air - and it has been found that even in times of moves forward. ^ g u be -J^ somewhat puffs erine. so slight that deliThe vertical cate instruments are needed to detect them (Fig. surface of the ^ . of the wind blows with much greater c a II o •S «(-( than it on the ground. which are well known and very noticeable. and especially mountains. but this rate is retarded near the ground by the friction of air with the irregular earth. but a series of pulsations. and it force does is also stronger over the smooth >. .« ® a §3 ^ J ^ •9 shown that the wind is not a simple onward movement of a regular kind. Recent have studies >>. when the wind comes in gusts. 100 air is FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY endeavoring to equalize. it also rises and falls strong w^nd there are momentary calms.

with the construction of this and with its use. one can tell how fast the wind blows. 41). just as we may tell the time of day by the rate of movement of the hands over the dial of a clock. Perhaps some day men may also make some air ship. used for determining the of An anemometer. Sometimes. This instrument consists of four metal cups which are whirled about by the wind. Measurement of Winds. 41. is 101 this wave-like passage of the of the air which accompanies believed to be the motive power which such birds as con- dors and hawks use in their remarkable habit of soaring without the movement of their wings. and thus each revolution of the anemometer is automatically recorded. it is connected by electricity in such a way as to Fig. causing a hand to move over a dial upon which are figures representing miles and fractions of miles. and from the result of air wind studies in the higher now being made by means are of kites. is Another wind instrument rate at . the anemometer (Fig.WINDS movement winds. however. Aside from certain delicate use of this principle in the construction of — in- struments for special study of the wind. make an automatic record changes in wind direction. and each revolution which they perform turns a cog wheel. A certain number of revolutions of the instrument causes the hand to move over the space marked on the dial as one mile and therefore by reading this dial. Oftentimes the instrument is connected by electric wire with a self-recording apparatus. . which is which the air moves. there two in instru- ments commonly the air use for studying movement. One of these is the ordinary wind vane. which tells the direcEvery one is familiar tion. which in turn moves others.

when a blanket of cold air overspreads all the eastern half of the country.CHAPTER STORMS Weather Changes. A cool (cold in winter) spell of dry weather is followed by a rise in temperature which accompanies winds from southerly quarters. with lower temperature. preceded by thunder storms. and in the Mississippi valley by tornadoes. and wind from the north During the summer this change may he or northwest. stationed at various points in . Gradually the sky becomes overcast. and at times the force of the wind is great and its effect destructive. Every five or six days this cycle is passed through. there is VIII — In the central and eastern states. though perchance the rain may be slight. Weather Maps. the wind changes toward the east. or may not be sufficiently widespread to affect the entire eastern region. and after awhile there is a clearing. particularly in winter. Sometimes. rain falls. In winter it is often followed by severe cold weather. though with many minor variations. possibly causing frosts even in Florida. while at other times the winds are only breezes. These Aveather changes need to be studied in considerable detail. the changes in temperature are rapid and severe. — The United States government has in 102 its em- ploy a corps of weather observers. a fairly regular succession of weather changes.

These observations. are telegraphed to headquarters. Areas of rainfall dotted. 1893. Arrows point in direction toward which the wind is blowing:. is placed upon a map. etc. Upon the weather map are lines connecting places of equal tem- perature. heaviest shading indicating highest pi'essure. to be used in making observations on the changes in temperature. and 103 furnished with thermometers. and other meteorological instruments. lines Tsoharic lines. or isothermal lines. By these one may tell' what the tem- perature has been in various parts of the country. wind force. Isobars (red) and red Chart to show weather conditions January 7. or connecting places having the same air or barometric pressure. pressure. and the information thus obtained from all parts of the country. heaviest shade indicating lowest temperature. Blue shows temperature. and any one sufficiently interested may obtain them.STOBMS the country. barometers. These are printed and widely distributed. shading show the pressure. wind direction. 42. which is called the lueather map. . Fig. made at the same time of day at all stations.

If we take a series of Comparison of Weather Maps. toward which the wind is weather is cloudy. Fig. Shading. or clear.104 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY is marked in inches and Arrows point in the direction blowing. snowy. 29. such maps for successive days. Chart to show weather conditions January 8. A statement of the weather conditions is printed at the bottom of the map. 1893. thus : 30. and a prediction for the local weather of the nest day is also placed upon it. chiefly because the government does not have as many observers as are really needed for the work..9.4. 43. — A . but in some respects they are unsatisfactory. rainy. These maps contain much valuable information about the weather. and circles tell whether the are also placed on the map. we are able to see the reason for the succession of weather changes noted above. series of winter charts will probably best illustrate the points. etc. same as Fig. for then the cjcle of change is most typical. etc. The pressure tenths of an inch. 42. Path of storm centre shown by a series of arrows.

Shading. north of Montana (Fig. the isobaric lines are arranged concentri- the lowest pressure being within. and 30. 42). etc. Chart to show weather conditions January 9. Figs. 44. there is another Low^ and .4 of an inch. 42 and 43.. Between the To - 3^ Y'^ 1 !Atlan\S° "Vo dbarleston 'jack3t. IjOW. Toward the area of low pressure the wind is blowing from various directions. while further south the pressure is higher. being 29. Around the word cally. same as word Low and the northern boundary of Idaho the press- ure varies ._ Jrontgomery ^'ew Galveston Orleans^ Fig. near Nova Scotia. In the east.n. 1893.9 inches in the north. we start with one in which the word Low is placed in the Canadian northwest.3 in the south.ST0BM8 105 In the series selected for this description (and each winter will furnish many similar series).

Also it is of high value to have the daily weather charts in the school. rainy weather.106 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHT around the word.C. near here. has overspread New York and possibly New England. day by day. 43). the more eastern word Low has disappeared. also. on its way out to sea.3 inches. The western Low area has passed eastward to Lake Superior. and the next day (Fig. beyond Newfoundland (Fig. Lawrence. has appeared in the northwest. and if our map extended so far. which each student may study. and for the In the meantime a High winter time. so as to become thoroughly familiar with the facts illustrated. while the High A day later the Low is over has also moved eastward. and in this way. Toward blowing from all directions. the isobars are arranged which is the lowest pressure. near where we first found the low pressure. D. 44) the Low^ which is evidently a storm. Twenty-four hours later. the location of which can be learned by addressing the chief of the Weather Bureau. changes of similar nature are recorded by the weather maps. before undertaking the study of the nature of these changes.^ this also the is 1 wind 1 sets of would urge upon teachers the advisability of obtaining various such maps. By this time another Low will have appeared in the northwest. The temperature here is between 10° and 20°. high temj)erature. has gone still further east. and with it have gone the conditions of cloudy. cool weather accompanying the high-pressure area. and the weather in the neighborhood of the low pressure is rainy. of 29. United States Department of Agriculture. while the clear. the Bay of St. These will undoubtedly be sent regularly if application is made to the nearest Weather Bureau station. area. . while that in the other low-pressure area varies from 10° to 40°. we would find the conditions that caused it out on the Atlantic. with clear weather and low temperature. Washington.

though at times they do Fig. an area in which the pressure is lower than the average. which they often reach. a path which ultimately leads toward the east (Fig. 45) and what is said of the low-pressure areas applies equally to the high. the low-pressure moves toward the northeast. and dates by Arabic numerals. evening. and progresses rapidly eastward. in the east and going westward. . Map showing paths followed by low-pressure areas during November. The most common path . for — From these observations seen. and then across the Atlantic toward Europe. and 2. passing over the country in from two No case is known of such an area starting to four days. that some reason. So we have as one universal fact. begin in the southwest.and Highit is Pressure Areas. West Indian area When this is the case.STOBMS Cyclonic and Anticyclonic Areas : 107 The Low. Order of storms shown by Roman. 1891. appears in the northwest. 45. From these one can tell the direction and distance over which each storm travelled. and also in the region. Figure 1 beneath the line indicates morning.

through the St. when the difference in pressure sometimes becomes very violent. Fig. the wind blows toward it from various directions. pressure. while at other times the difference as these variations occur. there is a is great. and on the other hand they at times rapidly develop renewed energy. which. 1893. and is change in the velocity of the wind. 1.108 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHT for these disturbances of the air is eastward over the Great Lakes. showing two high-pressure areas and typical storm. 46. In their passage they sometimes die out. great.4 inch difference in pressure. "Weather conditions April 20. . and when it is typically developed. Lawrence valley. As the lowpressure area progresses. In some cases there is only a slight difference in the land. over Newfound- and across the Atlantic. Rain area shaded. toward northern Europe.

the winds are blowing outward. In this high area the temperature is very low temperature indicated by shading. for if this were so. there it would be extremely violent winds from the west as passed along. What is really the case in these disturbances of the air. 1896. pressure condition . and toward this moving area of low barometer. of the air it is . — moving toward the east. eastward. just as a wave moves along the water surface with little real forward movement of the water.STORMS 109 the air moves from all sides spirally toward the centre of Although the storm moves not to be inferred that the progress of the low-pressure area across the country is a bodily movement lowest pressure (Fig. is a low- Atlanta" 1/ ^X t^^arleston Fig. Hence the condition is this: an area of low pressure constantly progresses eastward with a wave-like movement. winds blow from all directions. 46). 47. Map showing weather conditions November 27. From a high-pressure area in the west.

46). and when this is the case. and high temperatures generally accompany the low-pressure areas. 1897. Map showing weather below zero. especially when. 48. 30 a wave. conditions January 12. We need also to note the fact. as is sometimes the case. 48). and that they always do so if these are strongly . the long axis extends in a north and south direction (Fig. that the areas of high and low 23ressure. are more often elongated or elliptical. In this case there is an even more notable resemblance to Fig. rain. while sometimes circular (Fig. Most intense shading indicates highest j)ressure. exceptOther ing that here the air moves outward (Fig.110 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY For the high-pressure area the same holds true. the trough of low pressure covers nearly the entire Mississippi valley. that clouds. facts to be noted are. 47). Two low and a highpressure area with isobars extending nearly north and south. Temperature in centre of high. from north of the Canadian line to the Gulf.

as the sea it and as we may expect pressure to be in passing over the irregularities of the land (Fig. the air is sage it is moving eastward. definite order. much as in the case of the sea breeze. and while undoubtedly some are.and Low-Pressure Areas. while the reverse barometer. thrown into waves.STORMS developed. more pronounced in the coldest parts of the year. It was once believed that all of these areas had their origin in differ- — ences of temperature. doubt has recently been cast If the air is upon this theory. and with these varia- . and rising in the low- pressure areas. but the studies mentioned. warmed. In the circumpolar whirl of prevailing If in its pasis. which were made among mountains. and inaugurate a circulation. are difficult to explain on this theory. As is a result of studies made in Europe. and that the areas of high and low pressure pass in such regular Theresuccession. just as truly as it does in the case of the sea breeze. but facts point toward the possible truth of the following. No certain explanation can be offered in place of the old theory. troughs would be produced. 39). many meteorologists believe that we must look for some other theory. the temperature of the atmosphere on the mountain tops in such a centre should be warmer than that of the borders. or the summer monsoon. westerlies. is 111 true for the areas of high Origin of the High. Such a cause would explain most of the features observed. and crests of high and low These should come in a high following low. while such disturbances can be caused by differences of temperature. fore. fail to show that this is Also the facts that these disturbances of the air are true. because warmth would expand the air.

in high pressure or anticyclonic area. 112 tions FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY appearing at frequent intervals. storm area. air has been disturbed. Temperature rises on left. pressure. for it cannot be from either side. in sufficient detail.^-rr^^^V.C^ HEAVY STRATUS CLOUDS ^^W. The source of this must be from above. 50. It has already been stated Explanation of the Winds. 49. "°vement Diagram showing theoretical movement low tions. — BROKEN CLOUDS CLEAR CIRRUS CLOUDS ^—.C'C_^ J-COLDE^ S^'^°''\^^{. . the winds must blow toward a region of low barometer and away from that of high. the explanation of the movement toward the east.RMER^" V\ DIRECTION ""^ 3^—^EAST Fig. Hence such areas move across the country.V /"^^ —^ ~-^-~^-^ ' --r~' -?>^*'' . must be that the areas move in the great circumpolar whirl. is moving outward from the centre. that air will move toward areas of low . its place must be taken by other air which is pushing it onward.^ m^ ^ ^y-^r^^\^-^^ CALM Ds DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT Fig. in the attempt to equalize the pressure that Since in the high-pressure areas.. and hence toward the east. Diagram showing theoretical circulation (by arrows) and other conditions. in a j)ressure or of air (by arrows). since the movement is outward in all direc- . as CIRRUS CLOUDS CLEAR WEATHER EARTliay CLOU DV ^. This will also account for the eastAvard progress of the areas and whichever theory is finally accepted. and other condi- and away from areas of high barometer.^\)\ A'l^i^/^Xrfe?^^" .^^^^^^.

and as the storm moves eastward. air moves toward a centre which is constantly shifting its position but as it comes from all sides toward the centre. and as it does so it is often obliged to rise over mountains or plateaus. the entire country. some of it must find Hence escape. The subject of rain does not properly belong in this chapter. storms. but on this point a few — words must now be said. snow. blowing in toward the low pressure. from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic. or up the more moderate grade of the interior plains. and the only place for escape is upward. Since the temperature of the atmosphere decreases place. In the The causes first for these rains are probably several. not perhaps of true convectional origin. but similar to that arising from convection. or in winter. cyclonic storms. or extra-tropical cyclones. It is from the low-pressure areas that northern Europe and America obtain most of their rain supply. 113 is Therefore in high-pressure areas the air settling from aloft. . here. and from the Gulf states to Hudson's Bay. In the low-pressure regions. cloudy and rainy area may be more than 1000 miles. performing a journey similar to that in the trade-wind circulation (Figs. the air is . 49 and 50). there is ascending air. flows along toward the neighboring area of high barometer. passing upward. Perhaps the air that rises from the centre of the lowbarometer area. Explanation of the Rain. cyclones. and these storms sometimes last for several In parts of New England these are called northeast days. and there settles.STORMS tions. because the rainy winds of the storm are from the By meteorologists they are called east and northeast. may receive The diameter of the rain.

it is generally moving down grade . and in this way also its temperature is lowered. by being cooled in its passage. than when low and therefore. toward the central and eastern states. 18). as explain the dry. they are called. When a cyclonic passing is over northern area United storm States. and it is often flowing from cool to warm regions. clear air of the high-pressure areas. as they usually have when they blow from the south and east. such condiand dry weather (Fig. Hence by all these causes the anticyclonic air is having its temperature raised. and therefore its capacity to take vapor increased. 49). To or. which are also warmer. 50). hence becoming warmer. be forced to give up some of its vapor. if at the beginning of its movement toward the area of low barometer. which in winter is warmer than the land. rising ground causes it Also much of the air moves from a southern toward a cooler northern region.114 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GFOGRAPHY this lifting of the air over the with elevation (Fig. the anticyclones^ because of their contrast with the cyclones. . Vapor can be held in greater quantities when the temperature is high. tions bring clear Instead of clouds and rain. we have but to reverse the In these the air is settling. This is forming clouds (Fig. particularly liable to haj^pen if the winds have come from the ocean. In a third way the air may become cooled as it rises in the area of low pressure. or from southern regions. to cool. the air was nearly saturated. . the winds of the country involved are usually from southerly — These may come from the water. and rain or snow. Hence the passage of air toward the low-pressure area or easterly quarters. Explanation of the Temperatures. and statements just made. it maiy.

50). is also and spread a blanket due to several causes. or in the fall. of fuel The storm has become which once started increases by the aid itself. and hence prevents Also the condensation of vapor is a nocturnal cooling. or the heat that is ated expended in transforming the water to vapor. late frosts may come. thus decreasing the pressure and creasing the wind velocity and rainfall as well as the general intensity of the storm. radiation. and hence from colder lands. in time the weather moderates. In addition to this. is liberwhen the clouds form. The settling of the air from aloft brings down to the earth the high temperatures of the upper atmosphere (Fig. Since this air is dry and cool. while in spring. ivarming process^ the so-called latent heat. the antic5^clone is distinctly cooler than the low-pressure area. a great engine. Since the centre of the anticyclone is generally in the north. and perhaps the snow- storm may end it in rain. 62). . and raindrops are produced Hence even when a winter storm begins as a (p. if cold snowstorm. proceeds with rapidity. Avhich in winter may produce a cold wave^ of ice-cold air over the land. which it supplies to The coolness of the high-pressure anticyclone. It is also true that this liberated heat furnishes energy to the storm. and as a result of these several causes. warming the air and in- making lighter. When a well-developed anticyclone overspreads the northern states.STORMS is lis a cause for a rise in temperature. vegetation may suffer from an early frost. the air that flows over the United States usually comes from northerly quarters. the condensation of vapor continues. the rapid radiation of night-time may cause even the summer night to be uncomfortably cool. both of day and night. the cloud-covering checks radiation.

and early October. which quite often devastates Fig. The typhoon. ever originate on the land. the Asiatic coast. The West Indian hurricanes have their origin between . the western Atlantic is liable to be visited by one or several very violent storm violent storms. showing spirally inflowing winds toward area of low pressure.116 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHY Occurrence. September. Their birthplace is near the tropics over the ocean. which are called hurricanes or tropical Similar storms visit the Indian Ocean and the south Pacific. nor do they They come in the autumn months (the autumn corresponding with our spring in the southern hemisphere). A tropical cyclone in India. cyclones. during August. Such storms are not known in the south Atlantic. is a similar disturbance of the air. near the middle of September. and are practically confined to these. 51. and in reality. Hurricanes or Tropical Cyclones : Time and Place of The sailors of the Atlantic believe that a — may be expected at the autumn equinox.

.Facing page 116 Plate 10. isobars. Path shown by line of arrows upon which the dates of passage are indicated. Path somewhat abnormal. Rain indicated by shading. A tropical cyclone or West Indian hurricane. Winds. and isotherms shown.

T.Strvo». Map of typical winter storm to difference in temperature in different Over dotted area rain is falling.V.Facing page 117. parts. . Plate show 11.Ji. over cross-shaded portion. B. snow is falling. near boundary between cyclone and anticyclone.

0 29.3 29. 30.1 L n J-^ it 29.1 ^ \ yr/" \ 30. fall of than the cyclonic storms which In the centre the pressure is we have been considering. 3. from which they move northward. 30. and the isobars are crowded together.ON 1 much OCTOBER NOON -l smaller in area OCT. the air goes from all sides with great force (blowing 60 or 70 .5 29. during the passage of a hurricane. Toward this centre.4 29.6 29. Characteristics.7 \ \ 1 / / . usually causing terrific gales from Texas to Nova Scotia.Y. with the centre generall}^ off our coast (Fig. After passing along this coast.9 \ 29.. over the eastern states (Plate 10). in exactly the are deflected.STORMS 117 Florida and the South American coast. 1896. 1 NOON NOON NOON 1 30. approximately along the path pursued by the cyclones. turning toward the east. under the influence same way that the trade winds Sometimes these storms diverge from this path and pass over the land. 45). very low. so that the centre moves of rotation.0 Fig.^ 29. N.3 29. disturbances OCTOBER NO. the winds of which did much damage. — II the hurricanes are INCHES SEPT.||SEPT.8 29. 52. 18^6.4 30.2 30. Diagram showing sudden barometer at Ithaca. 1896. they cross the Atlantic. Where first noticed as distinct storms. so that in a short distance the pressure may change more than an inch.2 29.

that . the air currents in the belt of calms cannot be turned very decidedly to one side. air comes from all sides. and violent and destructive classes of storms. of which air must the cooler regions. loses intensity. we must recall the fact that the deflective influence of rotation. are often devastated. In the autumn the belt of greatest heat is furthest from I . and finally. — The rise. Such a storm could not be formed over the land. turning spirally as as water does in escaping from a basin. origin of hurricanes seems evident from the fact that they always begin in warm regions. while all around it are clouds. for the cooler air that exists in the more northern latitudes. be to clear. which gives rise to the whirling movement of the air. The heat thus liberated by the condensed vapor. erally at the one of the most As they come out of the tropics. furnish rain. Seacoast towns over which hurricanes pass. somewhat Exactly in the centre. This points to convec- Unusual heat brings about conditions as a result and hence. 118 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY it miles an hour). they gradually lose violence. contains less vapor to supply the heat energy with which the intensity of the tropical storm is maintained. A vessel of the all.. upon cooling. But much heat reaches the tropical zone at all times of the year and why then do we not have such storms at all times ? and why are none found in the south Atlantic? To explain these two peculiarities. escapes at does so only after suffering this forms much damage. passing into tion as their cause. and this decreases the already low pressure. which move spirally because they are deflected by the effect of rotation. and near the Equator is so slight. from and there the sky may which torof the rents of rain are falling. that has the misfortune come within the reach if it more violent part hurricane. Explanation. decreases from polar to tropical latitudes. is moyes. forming winds. slowly moves. The storm increases. because the air is not so humid as over the water and hence the heat caused by the condensation of vapor could not be supplied in such amount. Toward this area of ascent. increases the ascent of the air by warming it. the air rising vertically. and gensame time increase in area.

STORMS 119 the Equator. Since this heated belt never goes far south of the Equator in the south Atlantic. It is such winds as these which cause the winter thaws. such storms cannot visit this ocean. start whirling winds which blow toward the region of low and without the whirl the .Y.e 28 Ma. and hence nearest the region where this deflective effect can produce decided injiuence upon the direction of the winds. 53 and 54). which come from the south. The hot summer winds. Storm Winds. and then the land may be During the winter our visited by a summer drought.). . after day without cessation. and these likewise are moving toward a storm centre (Figs. ivarm winds are also from the southern quarter. 1895 . storm cannot exist. which brought a high temperature for several days. Hence at this time only. generally represent air that is slowly flowing in toward a low-pressure area in the far north. showing effect of two cold waves. Temperature record for several successive days (Ithaca. humid sea. the winds near the surface are mainly determined by the passage of the high- and low-pressure areas. They are often muggy winds because their source is from Sometimes these winds blow day the warm.> yv^ -^ A V \ / / 20 /\ / \ • / A A^ V \^^ " — V -J^ 1 \V 1 /\\ \ i 10 J ^ / / / \ *^\ \^ ^ / / \J av February 25. N. 53. and (in centre) of 1 2 1 Fig. States is — While the greater part of the United within the belt of prevailing westerlies (Chapter VII). can the pressure of the heated belt. M SO • NOON M NOON M NOON M NOON M NOON M NOON M NOON | 4I -^^ 40 35 . so that west winds prevail.

perhaps even at midday. The cool. cold snow squalls occur. the anticyclone. even lower temperatures occur. N. and this by wind from the east. The latter illustrates ^^ ^ Fig.120 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY warm winds are called siroccos^ In Europe similar and this name may place also be applied to our own warm south wind : winds. in Dakota a blizzard. already cools still After this comes the calm of covered with a blanket of cold. as the During wind changes the temperature descends. there are often strong and even fierce west and northwest winds. after many of the winter storms. perhaps accompanied by snow (Plate 11). ^ Temperature record (Ithaca. dry. and . During the progress of a storm the in any particular may veer through various quarters the warm south wind may be followed by a warm and rainy southwest or bears rain. which moving from the an exactly opposite type from that of the sirocco (Figs.Y. and partly from In Texas the cool interior and more northerly regions. 53 and 54). such a wind is called a norther. such a time. from the upper layers of the atmosphere. They represent cold air coming partly northwest. and soon the thermometer has fallen nearly to zero. and the air. and this in turn by cold air southeast wind. land. Milder types of blizzards occur in New York. 54. and other eastern states.) showing how for thirteen successive days the daily temperature range was destroyed by cyclones and anticyclones. perhaps after a rain storm. On the rear or west side of a storm. clear iintil more by radiation.

5 r y 20 / ^ <^^ / y \ 40 "^-^ /^ \ V 10 10 \A/ / / 0° o' ^..M.. 1 e.. In less than an hour the thermometer rose from 10° below zero nearly to 40° above a rise of nearly 50^. and ascending air is cooled 9. 12 9 P.-. as we should expect. This wind is known as the chinook (Fig. and is merely stated here as a fact. Sometimes in the west. that descending air has its temperature increased. because as the temperature rises. and hence it reaches the ground much warmer than when started. for a after it an oppresfrequently we look thunder storm.^ The air is made is dry.-^ = \ / ^ y Fig. is the summer equivalent of the winter cold wave.«. 12 9 P. — During the summer.M. 9A. — .STORMS refreshing west 121 wind of summer. the tain slopes its toward a centre of low pressure. 12 (P. sive day. and tains. a wonderfully dry and warm wind springs up from the west. temperature as a result of the compression.. 6.M. 55. in e. is sometimes warm instead of cold. — is known in Switzerland as the Foehn.. 1 . perhaps causing all the snow to disappear from the ground. Thunder Storms. its ability to carry vapor increased. 55). 6. near the eastern base of the Rocky MounMontana and elsewhere. rises When it air settles rapidly. These warm winds are caused by air blowing down the moun- a wind of the same kind in Greenland. which succeeds the sultry weather that has perhaps terminated in a thunder shower. . and iThis is a fact of physics.M.M.s it rises and expands.«. 10 80 Temperature records during the blowing of the Chinook wind in Montana. Also ah which flows down from the great ice and snow covered interior.

Thunder storms tropical belt. air is generally fresher. are of frequent occurrence within the As the air is warmed by the morning sun. rising air cools. and even sometimes so near that we In northern see the lightning and even hear the thunder. great banks of cloud begin to develop overhead. Here the . some is condensed to form clouds. Following the storm the Fig. and often when one does not visit us. and later rain.122 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY . because with a lower temperature some of the vapor must be given up. United States these storms come from the west. is while lightning and thunder appear. Photograph of a distant thunder storm. 56. tliey occur to the north or south. dry west winds replace the sultry air that has been coming from the south. cause evidently the rise of the air by convection for and if it started with much vapor. usually in comes the afternoon or early evening. and finally rain falls. and cool. .

and of That convection is 1 the cause for these clouds is shown by the fact that they often form over the land. and The same explanation appears to apply to the thunder storms of the United States. occurring in larger area of of low pressure. and not over the cooler ocean. similar to those caused here also convection is the cause. which is out of sight. 57. by convection If in the tropics. Moreover. where warm.STORMS Around moTintain peaks 123 similar storms are developed in summer. occurred at places marked by arrows. and when the air is very humid. clouds while the sky overhead is clear . showing storm over easteru Canada and northThunder storms ern New England. one often sees a line of these there is less convection. he will find that they have developed in the southern quarter of a low-pressure area. 1892. They are therefore storms^ secondary a Part of weather map July 16. and the presence of clouds. and developed mainly because the heat made possible by the south winds. their coming is preceded by the formation of cloud banks. of distant land.^ one will ex- for a amine the weather map day when thunder storms occur. winds are blowing toward the storm centre (Fig. is shown by these banks . humid south and east southFig. for these come only in the warm months. 57). where In sailing off shore.

On a small but much more violent scale it is like a hurricane.124 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY is the moisture. and where they do occur. Then perhaps the flutter of a bird starts a the air near the ground. the centre the barometric pressure is extremely low. they extend over only a very small tract. movement which layers. muggy days. and on a much larger. and disappeared upon passing out to sea. Tornadoes. They move eastward in the same direction as the low-pressure area. On a plain. but in this it attains such a velocity that strong buildings are torn apart. and better still on deserts. trees uprooted. toward the centre of the is reached. shall give relief to the unnatural all sides Air presses from arrangement of air toward the place where the ascent . with increasing velocity until the centre of a The wind vacuum is so nearly reached. which due to the same cause. and lightning and thunder accompany the storm. until than the layers above. its temperature is several degrees higher This is an unstable and unnatural condition. and sometimes many such storms develop and progress Some eastward. Rain and hail fall from the margin. and also more violent scale it resembles the tiny dust whirls of the desert. Excepting near the spout the wind is not violent . New — Fortunately these As terrible storms are uncommon in most of the country. where the air is rising rapidly enough to lift the roofs of houses from their supHere no rain can fall. in the case of thunder storms. heavy objects lifted and borne away. which I shall describe. the heat of the sun warms the houses sometimes blows the walls outward. light air should rise but the day is so quiet that for awhile nothing causes it to start. . and the afternoon or evening of hot. and the condition in a tornado blows spirally spout. 58). and many remarkable feats performed. they consist of a spout of black cloud. spreading out into an umbrella shape above (Fig. for everything so light must rise. such storms have travelled from New York across England. move eastward during summer. generally in Seen from one side. that the expansion of the air within The tornado spout is somewhat like the whirl of water which escapes from the outlet of a wash basin. In ports. following approximately parallel paths. they develop in the southern part of low-pressure areas. for warm.

over the great plains. On a milder and very small scale this is what is experienced in a tornado. 58. while cooler layers of air exist above. A tornado near St. fall to the ground on one side of the centre. then until finally replaced ley than elsewhere. Convection causes a whirl to start. The reason why tornadoes are more abundant in the Mississippi valdirectly in his face. and a tornado develops. of the air so rapid that the winds carry dust. when his hat would rise into the air. During days when tornadoes come. the warm air from the south is more easily drawn in undei^ the cool air. is that here. by the calm of the desert. and the little dust whirl itself moves slowly across the plain. the air near the ground is very warm and humid. leaves. which causes more heat. and spreading out above.STORMS is 125 is and the movement and even sticks. at first briskly. and quickly the wind being begun. Minnesota. . which in the centre rise. which is moving from the west in the prevailing westerlies. July 13. and soon a slight whirl is started. more gently. so that if one should stand in its path. would blow Paul. From all directions the air moves toward this spout. being no doubt increased in force by the formation of rain. Fig. he would find the wind first in his back. 1890.

When the air has so much vapor that no more can be taken. partly on its temperature. depends partly upon the dryness and partly on its movement. When the air remains quiet over a pond.CHAPTER IX MOISTURE IN THE ATMOSPHERE Vapor. where air the is exceedingly dry. as it is It also from damp ground and from the leaves of plants. On the other hand. saturated. and not nearly saturated. of the air. water cannot stand long without being evaporated. is possible for some vapor to be held in all air. it may become saturated. but rate of evaporation if The the wind is blowing. — This invisible form of water is always present and every now and then some of it is being changed from an invisible gas to the liquid or solid form This substance finds its way into the air as of water. and hence for the time being. is capable of rapid evaporation. there are constant supplies of new 126 . it is said to be in the air. but there is a limit to the amount that air of any given temperature can hold. evaporation over the water surface may be checked. an air that is dry. hence such humid or saturated air does not have the power to carry on evaporation further. the result of evaporation^ and at nearly all times vapor is being taken from all water bodies in the world. no matter how cold. Therefore in deserts.

or hail. it would be compared If it vapor actually present in the air. contained all that could possibly be held. as well as that of the land near them. which we have supposed. point of saturation. is known as the dew point. These facts have important bearings . would be 75% of the possible. In any given amount of air there quantity of water vapor .MOISTURE IN THE ATMOSPHERE air^ 127 and hence evaporation proceeds without interruption. snow. because it can hold more vapor than formerly. or was . it is possible that the temperature may descend until the point of saturation is reached. with a higher temperature. instead of falling. and if this be so. when the relative humidity stands at 100%. might he held at that temperature. and therefore. Should the temperature of this same air fall. the relative humidity would be 100% hence the |. and this is iri always a certain as the absolute III). that is. known humidity^ and could be measured pounds (Chapter we suppose much vapor as If ture. the relative humidity Avould be increased. the rela- tive humidity will decrease. rain. is generally more humid than is that far away in the interior of continents. some of the vapor must be given up either in This the form of fog. the air temperature rises. dew. Indeed. saturated. or the absolute humidity. frost. and the relative humidity would therefore be 75%. even without the least change in the real amount of vapor. because cold air is able to carry less vapor than when warmer. the percentage of that held compared with what might be carried is smaller. that pass over the great ocean can obtain The winds much vapor. this that air with a temperature of 60° has | as it could possibly contain at that temperarelative £ would be called the the percentage of luith that 7uhich humidity . and hence the air of oceans. If.

it can no longer exist as vapor. as may be seen by the fact that clothes on the line dry quickly. haps for several days the air of a place has about the same actual amount of vapor^ or the same absolute humidity. and then evaporation rapid. N. Record of relative humidity for a week at Ithaca. 59. PerMONDAY 6 XII TUESDAY G 6 XII s WEDNESDAY 6 THURSDAY 6 FRIDAY e SATURDAY 6 SUNDAY 6 XII XII G XII 6 XII 6 XII 6 G / ^ n \ ^ \ 1 f^ J^ V J / V r\^ \ . Evaporated and transformed to a gas which no one can see. and perhaps by is noon there only 50% as much vapor as can be held at that temperature. the vapor passes hither and thither. In the afternoon the temperature descends. but at midday the relative humidity is only from 30°-60°. by some change of temperature. until perhaps the point of . but must assume its old form. the relative humidity of the is air decreases. As the sun's heat warms the earth in the daytime. and therefore the relative humidity rises. Nj J/ AUG. Almost any place in moist countries offers frequent illustrations of this change in relative humidity.Y. 20. but the temperature of the air varies from day to night.128 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHT on the explanation of the precipitation of moisture from the air. and perhaps return to the very ocean which gave it birth. / / / n^ V ^ \ \ / \/ V . 1893 RELATIVE HUMIDITY JTHACA Fig. Nearly every night the dew point is reached. until finally.

thus cooling the jar and also the water. and reached (Fig.MOISTURE IN TEE ATMOSPHEBE saturation is 129 may form. This principle tries to K . 59). because the evaporation of water from the muslin produces cold. the Tiair its One of we we the commonest bundle of hygrometer. one having its bulb encased in a This instrument. although before sunset they were dry. 1 If the air is Psychrometer or dry (right hand) and wet (left hand) bulb thermometer. The operation of this instrument air. and as they absorb or This movement give up vapor they lengthen or the artificial curl when exposed This results from the absorption of vapor from the air. there are also changes in the absolute humidity of the air. In travelling in such countries it is customary to carry a canteen of tin. psycJirometer. they again begin to become damp. of the hairs can be scale.^ Fig. there are various ways in which can measure the relative humidity. for dry. and from this the relative humidity be calculated. and one of the thermometers records the real air temperature^ while the other. which consists of a hair robbed of The individual hairs absorb the vapor in proportion to its amount. is made use of in dry counkeep water cool. — Although cannot of these is see vapor. which is called a piece of wet muslin. records a loiver temperature. so that made to move a hand across a graduated readings of the length may be made. is whirled in the air. 60. oil. which has its bulb wrapped in wet muslin. as evaporation always does. Another means for making this measurement is by the use of two thermometers. In addition to this daily change^ dependent entirely uj)on variation in temperature. is upon the same principle that causes hair not naturally curly to to damp lo. some winds are damp and others Instruments for Measuring Vapor. Water in a porous jar evaporates through the sides. and then dew if clothes have been left out upon the line.

have cool drinking water even on the hottest day. By means of this rod the measurement of the depth of water evaporated and hence. . and during some nights no dew forms. particularly in deserts. So long as the cloth is kept damp. it is custois made in inches mary to say that it amomits to so many inches in a year. and hence weighed. or else one in which there is a graduated rod. 1 There is a similar instrument which is not whirled. ceeds slowly . and at other times when the temjDerature does not fall below the freezing point. the evaporation proand hence in the former case the difference in temperature recorded by the two instruments. is greater than in the latter. because the air it is always greedy for more moisture than can find. the amount of evaporation exceeds that of the rainfall. the soil is kept constantly dry. By means of tables made for the purpose (these may be obtained from the U. S. is rapid. tlie Dew. especially if the sky is cloud}^ Sometimes dew gathers only in certain places. or possibly its formation may not begin until late at night. the setting of the sun is often followed by an increasing dampand other objects that are near the ground. and from them also it is possible to tell at just what temperature the dew point will be reached under all con- ditions of relative humidity." even before the sun has finally set.130 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY very dry. and again. covered with a woollen cloth. the evaporatiori. or "fall. by this meaning in the course of a year that evaporation from a water body would lower it just that number of inches. but kept station- ary. and rate of The evaporation is generally determined by of water (called an evaporating dish) either placed . the its evaporation of water from the sm^face keeps the canteen and contents even though exposed to the direct rays of the sun. In dry regions. — During summer. oil the water rising as does through a lamp wick. i means of a pan upon scales. In this a wick leading from a dish of water keeps the muslin damp. In dry countries one may. ness of the grass This dampness we call dew. and it may form. cool. in stating the evaporation. Weather Bureau at Washington) the relative humidity may be calculated. if it is humid. therefore.

which from radiation. by which .^ the sty. This is why dew gathers on the under side of leaves and other objects Probably this cause for dew formation also results spread out near the ground. or perhaps only just far enough for a little to collect. and also if the air is very dry. and particularly from plants. muggy sumnier is day. and vegetation. 1 This is one of the animals and plants many beautiful adjustments make use of Nature's riches. and does not appear in the form of drops of water which are visible but at night. and the dampness accumulates on the surface of the ground and plants. as sometimes the case in summer. as with Shortly after sunrise the glittering drops of pear. just as vapor in a room may condense on the surface of the cold window. perhaps very humid. some vapor passes into the form of liquid water. of dew depends upon the change The air. Those objects that have cooled most. is cooled by radiation after the sun sinks in the west. radiation is checked. and from the then saturated air. in which it rises from the ground in the form of sap. not hy falling^ but by condensation from the air upon the surface of those objects that are coolest. 59). MOISTUBM IN TBE ATMOSPMEEE particularly after a 131 gathers rain. is aided by another. being evaporated dew disap- under the warming influence of in is the sun. receive the greatest supply of dew.. soon the dew point is reached (Fig. which is one of the best of radiaWith many clouds in tors. and the dew point may not be reached. evaporation cannot proceed. The production relative humidity. adding to the quantity that comes from the air. the cooling at night may not go far enough to reach the dew point. so much if that all vegetation dripping wet. During the daytime this is evaporated. At all times vapor is being exuded from the damp ground. when the air is nearly or quite saturated. is most abundantly supplied. Silently it accumulates. of nature.

Thereremarks that have been made the about fore dew apply quite fully to frost. FIUST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY condensation of vapor from the air pro- — This duces frost whenever the temperature of the dew point is 32° or less. and thus the cooling. will cause differences in amount. swamps turn is earlier than those on There another cause besides this one. and indeed in one place may accumulate. . or a cloth spread over a plant. without any previous deposit of liquid water which can freeze. but merely the solid form assumed by the condensation of invisible vapor. while frost in others frost gathers. much more soon Moving air is not easily cooled. because as as the radiation perature of the air near from the ground has lowered the temit. where the frost crystals may be seen to grow as solid forms. will often prevent by checking radiation.132 Frost. particularly for then there is more vapor if the lower ground is damp . it slides away. and other layers take its place. Sometimes it is very heavy. in the air. and the grass and earth are white with it. thus causing movement and a stirring of the air. but at other times there is only a very light In the latter case very slight differfrost in a few places. It is quite like the formation of frostwork on the window. ences in exposure. Frost is not frozen dew. at a temperature below the freezing point. it the valleys the cold layers settle and remain quiet. Low ground is visited earlier than the higher land. It is partly for this reason that in autumn the leaves of trees in the dry hillsides. There are many peculiarities in the distribution of frost. or in the nature of the ground. and the air near the ground becomes heavy and slides down the hillsides. cools. while in for as radiation proceeds. dew The smoke of a fire.

the other warm and flowing northward from the Tropics. a speck of dust. The former is the cold Labrador current. until the On a very large scale nature is dew point is reached. There are various ways in which fogs may be produced. Sometimes a similar fog is caused on the land. cooling of the spreading over a particle is swamp or a stream bottom. one cold and moving southward from the Arctic. . The fog a minute drop of water. and a veil of fog point. The centre of the fog particle is often. he forms a tiny fog. that the particles do not settle to the ground by their own weight. aside from that mentioned above. if not always. the latter the Gulf Stream. they are often chilled until their temperature is reduced to the dew point. In the early morning this mist may often be seen forms. and after becoming warm and humid pass on over the cold Labrador current. In the Atlantic. near Newfoundland. when a warm. When winds from the south pass over the warm Gulf Stream. — Sometimes. along the path of the European steamers. Here there are two currents of water.MOISTUBE IN THE ATMOSPHEBE Fog. 133 places. particularly in damp the ground by radiation chills the air for some distance above it. when a fog is produced. extensive fog banks abound. so small that one may sometimes walk in a fog without becoming sensibly wet. When one breathes into the air of a frosty morning. making fogs of a similar kind. because the warm. and lowers its temperature to the dew Then vapor must condense. and so small also. vapor-laden breath has its temperature reduced by the cold air. and it is believed that one of the main causes for the abundant fogs of London is the presence of innumerable dust particles furnished from that great cit3^ and thus available for the condensation of vapor to form the fog.

134 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHT humid wind from land. During such conditions. On the other hand. until a change in the weather causes . in the south passes northward over the cold autumn. so that from the enclosing By mountains one may look down upon a great sea of fog (Fig. current over the down into a Gulf Stream. Haze. them to disappear. humid hills or air that exists there. Some of the fogs of the Gulf Stream region have the same origin this. may remain for days. 61. through which perchance the church steeples rise. the air is blue and hazy. so that distant landscapes are softened by a veil of . while all else is hidden from sight. as when cold air Fig. dew point to be reached in the layers that are near the surface. chilling the warm. particularly in summer and autumn. eral causes fogs may fill one of these sevvalleys. The fogs of the land soon disappear before the warm sun. a cold huniid earth may cause the wind blowing over the warm. or of the Arctic. which eats them up b}^ evaporation. spring. from the Lab- rador flows Upper surface of a sea of fog. or sometimes even in winter. — Oftentimes. but occurs only over low. the fog may not extend over all the land. hov/ever. as if by magic but the heavy fog banks of the ocean. Looking valley from a mountain. swampy places or lakes. 61).

so that collisions of fog particles. see a cloud above him. or else to the ticles larger comhination of various such particles. Then as size still cloud may be formed of smoke. or ice particles. it seems probable that some haze results from a form of liquefied vapoi". MOISTURE IN THE ATMOSPHERE 135 increases haze which otherwise might not be detected. when the clouds rest upon the hill- . he In climbing a mountain one may may enter it. and passing above it. until movement numerous they grow so in size that they must sink toward the earth. mist. Sometimes the haze so that distant objects are obscured. until they become so large that they settle to the earth. and rains have not come to remove the dust. — There are times when the air is filled with a mist of par- than those of fog. but in nature nearly all clouds are caused by the natural condenClouds : Cloud Materials. the dew point. snow. or of steam issuing from a locomotive. they settle. drops. and so increase in more. they strike other particles. Indeed. • —A sation of vapor in the air. he may see the same appearance as that caused by a veil of fog in a small valley. Mist. until the same result is produced. the air may become exceedingly hazy. In addition to these causes. in which the particles are even less numerous and more minute than in the lightest of fogs. for in such journeys.. and yet smaller than the usual rainThis mist may be due either to the growth of the fog particles. perhaps finding it to be only fog. The the latter may happen when wind will cause is blowing the fog about. clouds are entered and even passed through. during a rain storm. when forest fires have been extensive. Therefore when the temperature reaches we may expect that clouds will among high mountains be composed either of fog. and looking down upon its upper surface. Balloonists and travellers is prove that this actually the case. This phenomenon is generally due to the presence of an unusual number of dust particles and after dry spells. rain. A fog or mist may be truly said to be nothing more than cloud resting on the earth.

overcast by clouds. there all clouds. them as much attention as they deserve. one may easily ascend into them and see exactly of what they are made. giving appearance. stantly of con- would seem ^^ almost im^^ Clouds upon a possible cliff in 'x. lie low in the heavens. . — There is nothing in nature more beautiful than the forms and colors assumed by clouds. if we form. task ^ the Yosemite..136 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY sides. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^K''^ gdHHHHH^^^^I^HHK U^^^^^M/j^^^^^^^^K^^ fl^^^^^^^^lsPf^^^P -. These are called stratus. Forms of Clouds. Sometimes the sky is nearly or quite massed into layers or bands. 62. "we perhaps ^^^HHHH|^|HHB JHH^^^^^^^^^^^^I . How- certain types which are fairly easy to recognize. them a stratified and they generally their bases resting It is this class that accom- . to and name ever.^ J. Being / com- ^^^klflP ' us.JH "^m They dot or the sky in patches j Jll B^^^^^^^^^H^^^^^^HhB^H ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^HflH ^^^^^^^^^^^^t^^^^^^^^^^^^^M '<^^raHHH|H^^|^^^|H||H|^r ^""^^^mmmmmmmB^^^KSBS^^^^^ FiG. and so indeed it would tried to find a are name for every variety of classiiy be. perhaps with against the distant hillside. B^^I^^^^^^^^I^^^^^L ^^^^^^ every variety form.

generally so dense. These are among the most beautiful of the and when seen in the east after a summer thunder storm. Both stratus and cumulus clouds are clouds. whose elevation is several thousand feet above the surface.MOISTURE IN TEE ATMOSPHERE panies the cyclonic storms described in tlie 137 last chapter. Above this. Cumulus feet higher. when they pass before the sun. especially when lighted and colored by the rays of the setting sun. Another type is that which comes on a hot summer day. The name for this is the cumulus (Fig. clouds. From both stratus and cumulus clouds. and it consists of a bank of cloud particles rising from a nearly level base. and is commonly called the "thunder head" (Fig. that rays are cut off. and the rain-producing cloud is called the nimbus. domes of cloud masses rise several thousand Fig. its . they furnish a spectacle which may well arouse our admiration. rain may fall. 56'). 63. 63).

and they are then Strato-cumulus clouds. Fig. not of fog particles. Sometimes they are so thin and veil-like that the stars shine through them at night. They are so Cirrus clouds. and they are the highest of alL It is that halos. .: 138 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY partially intercept the sun's rays. in them coronas. but of spicules. show that they are often five or six miles from the earth. 65. are often oped. Between three is devel- these there types every gradation cir- sometimes the rus are stratified. Oftentimes there are thin clouds. are called cirrus clouds (Fig. which scarcely or only These are high in the and measurements that have been made. 64).. 64. It is known ice that these are made. Fig. which are so transparent that light easily passes through. because of the low temperatures which occur there even in summer. high that the liquid form of water cannot exist. These. which are often plumed and feathery. etc. air.

air currents of different temperatures clouds. 18). a cold layer of watching the clouds. — of Fig. By the combining three similar names into compound words. if the rising continues. From this cause clouds often gather around mountains and even air hills. Causes Clouds. 65). when it may often be seen that those at different . it and as the air continues to rise. cumulo-cirrus. That there are such currents in the air. or lus if and these they are more like cumu- than cirrus. this cooling must bring about condensation whenever the proper temperature is reached. ally the cause Cirro-cumulus clouds. exactly as may cause fog near the ground. as in the case of fog. coming in contact with a cool surface. may be inferred by For instance. Vapor-laden air. may chill the latter near the contact and cause clouds to form. Or. Generof m. resembling small cumulus clouds high in the are called cirro-cumulus (Fig. 139 little at times the feathery form is replaced by air. again. Starting with a certain amount of vapor. may produce moving over a warm and humid layer. the elevation of which will depend largely on the of vapor. — the is The most common way in which vapor relative humidity of the air at the beginning. The air near the surface rises upon being warmed. and as it does so.MOISTURE IN THE ATMOSPHERE called cirro-stratus . banks. clouds. more vapor forming the beautiful piles of cloud banks. cools (Fig. names may formed for be most of the com- mon clouds of the sky (Fig. for these represent the elevation at which condensation began condenses above this. may form . 66). as it will be at a certain height. as that of other visible forms of water in the air. This is why cumulus clouds have level bases. is by lowering the temperature to the dew point. clouds is the same condensation condensed in the This may air. and the cumulus clouds are commonly formed by this means. be caused by convection.

— If as a result of any one air. has gone far enough. There is every gradation from these down to the tiny fog particles.^ fail to times such drops start from the cloud and reach the ground. there is much vapor to condense. Probably it clouds of the upper air are caused in this way.140 levels are FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY or moving in two is more directions. We may often see streamlets of such rain descending from the summer clouds and gradually dying out in the air. or chilling it by contact with colder bodies. rain must fall. of the causes mentioned Often- above. as we all may see from the fact that rain fails to fall from most of them.enough to fall through the rain is formed. and this is particularly liable to happen when warm humid air is present. Clouds furnish the birthplace for most raindrops. the condensation of the vapor forms particles large . When the process of raising air by convection. sizrC of a raindrop by condensation of vapor around increases . because not enough drops are produced to satisfy the dryer layers of air through which they are passing. and tain that this in cyclonic storms. and own country when thunder storms develop 1 in thq Provided the temperature is above the freezing point. and their production is merely a continuation of the process which makes the cloud but a cloud may be formed without going far enough to cause rain. many of now seems the cer- one of the causes for the dense layers of stratus clouds Rain. either of air. so that its size constantly and then. or land. starting to fall from the cloud. . other added to the drop by collision. A fog particle may grow to the it. for then particles are . This is the case during the hot days which prevail in the in our humid tropical belt. being evaporated on the way. until perhaps the raindrop has grown to large size. water.

shows the size of an unusual result of vapor condensation. 67. A ruler. but they are are apparently tion of vapor. Photograph of large hailstones. it near the freezing point. — Rarely. and certainly at an elevation where the temperature is low.MOISTURE IN THE ATMOSPHERE hot 141 summer afternoons. Later. These are really ice balls made of layers of clear and cloudy ice. where the temperature of ice fall to the ground. the with slush. . and reaching the ground. and they represent the freezing of water high in the air. and the damp air of the ocean blowing against rising land. the air currents in cyclonic storms. Snow. Little is known of the mode of formation of these remarkable Fig. also bring about conditions favoring the formation of rain. and formed when the air is in violent commotion. is — During a winter storm. balls and with such force windows and cause much damage to vegetation. sometimes of such size as to break is low. The rising air in hurricanes. by snow may change to rain. in summer. Hail. when thunder storms are present. They differ from snow in not being made of feathery crystals caused by the solidificahailstones. marked the hail. a heavy. cover a slight rise in temperature. in inches. when the temperature damp snow may fall. along the margins of continents.

change as rain. Photograph of actual snow flakes. 68. ascend into the region where snow is falling. the neigh- Fig. until finally the delicate crystals or snow flakes are dry. boring highlands have been whitened with snow. and as they fall . as the snow. while rain has been falling on the low ground. During such a condition we may leave the rain. Or the storm may start thermometer falls. and climbing a high hill. passing first through the zone where rain and snow fall together.142 FIRST JBOOK 0:e' PHYSICAL GEOGRAPBT although there has been no difference in the appearance After the storm clears. we may see that. of the clonds. to and gradually.

as quartz crystals salt to md cic. . tne funnel. but they are truly the result of crystallization of water vapor. and or' ^ ^^"1 g^uge^ a^ ^'T^Z7^'fl"' ^'^"f^^^^^^^^^f left-hand figures). So the snow crystal gradually grows. II II. would form balls of ice or sleet . 69. ^ llliillilifllli r. following the definite laAvs of crystal groAvth. In the case of is snow. it takes the solid form directly. for this Snow crystals are not frozen rain. There is a great variety of form in these and they are the result of the operation of a law in nature whose products are well known to us. so that as vapor is given out. until the beautiful snow flake is formed by constant additions of vapor. that upon solidification from the liquid or tion. a (and small ^' hence one at which water cannot be produced.rtisca S6ctioru RAIN GAUGE stances take geor iiillillil iiiilii iiJiliiHl V ^ 1 A on definite metrical forms. Secti<m. the vapor 2 3 « s fi 7 e s 10 >i tz 13 14 IS IS 17 la la aoiizz23£t-i condensed at a Fig. c I H^crrtzantcO. but whose cause is not understood..1 MOISTTTBE IN THE ATMOSPHERE accumulate on the ground. temperature below freezing point. but they all follow the same law of geometrical perfection. ) i other or as 1 3 1 C -n may be made do by allowing a solution of salt in water to evaporate. vaporous condimany subwill n-c7it new. crystals of feathery 143 These snowflakes are true and beautiful form. Thip law is.

The measurement of tlie depth of the is made by means of a stick graduated in inches and tenths of inches. No perfect rule can be given for this change. The object of this increase to make it possible to measure even small rains. when the drops are small and not near together. an inch of rain falls. some. and then the water measured with a stick. By an inch of rain it is meant ^hat had the rain stayed where By various it fell. Since it is customary to report snowfall in its equivalent amount of rain. escapes through a small orifice which opens into the small inner cylinder. as before or the depth of the snow upon a level tract may be measured. is instrument for measuring raina cylinder of metal which stands . an inch of rain becomes 10 inches deep. depth of damp snow than in an equal However.144 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GFOGRAPHY of Measurement fall is called Rainfall. the drops are large and very numerous. . where the water collects in in another cylinder a funnel the bottom. while in other cases. the rainfall of several days inch. especially when the air is very humid. it is necessary to convert this measurement of snow depth into rainfall. it would have formed a water layer one inch deep. almost like fog particles. There is much difference in rain. because the its amount of rain represented in a fall of snow. There depth is more water it in a given when is is dry. means the rainfall may be automatically recorded. perhaps in a quarter of an hour. as in summer. varies with dryness or dampness. and running down the sides. the depth of the water as it is y^ that of the area 10 times as great would be if gathered in a cylinder with the same area as the is funnel. whose area is 10 times as great and upon it is whose top has the same area as the larger cylinder. In some cases. — may not make an There is also much difference in the snow. while at other times they are large. for by this exaggeration of depth. For measuring the snowfall. — The This the rain gauge. the rain gauge may be used. the snow being melted. so that in a short time. rain . in ordinary snow a depth of about 10 inches equal to one inch of rain. The rain falls upon the funnel in the same amount as it would on the ground. Since the area of this inner cylinder is of the collecting funnel. Sometimes the drops are tiny. Nature of Rainfall.

. until near the base of the Rocky Mountains there is not enough rain for purposes of agriculture. and near the coast. — As a general statement. and it is only upon the islands that measurements of rain can be kept for any length of time. for the air over the In the water has more vapor than that far from the sea. as is the case in the better illustrated desert and semi-desert region of the Great Basin. because the warm air of the equatorial regions carries much vapor. while is when the temperature of the air nearly down to freezing point. This would be expected. Distribution of Rain. being very dry in other cases. although few measurements have been made there. westward and northward. between 1 The rainfall on the ocean is known to be heavy.^ MOISTURE 7iV THE ATMOSPHEBE 145 especially in midwinter. while that of the Hence a slight change in polar zone has little to give. Hence the rainfall chart does not include the precipitation over the ocean. United States this is very well shown. the steppes of south- eastern Russia being very of much dryer than the climate western Europe. This difference between seashore and interior is even when the air that goes inland is obliged to pass over mountains on its way. Also there is generally a heavier rainfall on the ocean. and feathery. may be said that there is a decrease in the amount of rainfall from the warm tropical belt toward the poles (Plate 12). than in the interior of continents. the temperature of the former place will cause more vapor to be condensed than a great change in the colder latitudes. The same difference is shown in Russia. This again is easily understood. for the rainfall decreases from the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Vessels move about from place to place. the snow crystals are damp and it matted together.

humid summer monsoon wind blows from the Indian Ocean against the mountains. and other forms of vegetation grow only scantily (Fig. and passes over the plateau. where the prevailing westerlies blow from the warm Pacific water against the as the air rises. but there it is 493 inches. Even in a distance of a few miles there may be a great difference in rainfall. as in Central America and the coast of South America (compare Plates 8 and 9 with 12). The best illustration of the effect of mountains that can be found in the world is in India. Here the air. Since winds which blow over mountains lose their vapor mountain against which and particularly if the air comes from the sea. and it explains the Great American Desert of Arizona. The heaviest rainfall in this region occurs during the months of June. and August. is cooled. like our Great Basin. and sometimes sides of the mountains. the sides of the the wind blows are well watered. Here is found the heaviest rainfall in the world. In the United States this cause accounts for the heavy rain in the state of Washington. and hence caused up much of its vapor.146 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY the Sierra to give flowing up the mountain sides. so that when it descends on the other side. 70) but in the mountains rains are abundant. where mountains rise above the arid plateau. it is dry. and forests exist. So little rain falls upon the lower ground that trees cannot exist. This is one of the two most important causes for deserts. . where the warm. chart. . July. Nevada and Rocky Mountains. In most of eastern United States the rainfall varies from 30 to 60 inches. It is also shown on the world wherever the trade winds blow from the ocean against the rising continents. This is shown in desert countries.





and hence for being drying winds. Then they are drying winds and as a result deserts are often produced. which pass over the country. and partly to the great cyclonic storms. they have their power to take it increased. and in this way the southern edge of the Sahara region.^ MOISTURE IN THE ATMOSPHERE more rain falls in a single 147 day than we have in a great So heavy is the fall of rain that all the soil is washed from the rocks of some of the steep mountain sides. it cools and vapor. storms. west coasts are more humid than east . As the belt of calms migrates northward and southward with the seasons which (Plates 8 and 9). the trades. one of the rainiest in the world. This is the reason why some west coasts in the trade-wind belt are The arid. When the trade winds blow over the land toivarcl a coast. The rain of temperate latitudes as is partly due to similar in convectional movement. though dry in one season. partly to air illustrated our thunder coming from the ocean. westerlies. as in the case of western South America. and hence. and moving both up grade and northward toward colder regions. and which in reality furnish us with most of our rainfall (Chapter YIII). part of the eastern United States in an entire year. In the belt of prevailing coasts. is well watered in the opposite. instead of yielding vapor. after rising over the highlands of northern Africa. thus hav- ing a double cause for warming. both descend and go to the southwards. forming the copious rains of that belt. the air is coming down grade and becoming warm. Here desert of Sahara is explained in a similar way. gives Where up is the air rises in the belt of calms. this belt of heavy rains changes position.

temperatures are often found on the high mountains. Upon these Alps. contains more vapor to furnish snow. so that in such places rain rarely falls. some snow falls every winter but it is only in the higher latitudes that much accumulates on the ground. freezing to cause snow in place of rain. Within the Arctic circle most of the precipitation is in the form of snow. even during the tains. and so throughout the year this portion of the earth is wrapped in snow and ice. while snow comes over the cooler inland. . though in summer. where the snowfall is much less at Nantucket and Cape Cod than in central Massachusetts and in New York. though warmer. then from ocean Over a great part of the earth snow though everywhere the clouds of the upper air are formed in a zone of perpetual cold. . Even though situated on the same parallel. some rain falls over the sea and on the land near sea level. less snow falls in the dry interior lands than near the coast. the temperature is often so high This is that rain falls. Nevertheless there is less snow exactly on the coast than at a short distance inland. — never In the temperate latitudes. where the air. summer. there are great snow fields. snow falls both in summer and winter. even at the Equator the temperature may be sufficiently low Distribution of Snowfall. such as the mounfrom which glaciers may extend down into the valleys (Chapter XVII). 148 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY is because the general direction of the air to land. falls. where less falls in New York city than at Buffalo. where vapor never condenses in any other than the solid form.. Therefore if a mountain peak reaches high enough. because though there is more vapor. Over the greater part of the temperate lands. even as far as explorers have gone. and great glaciers cover most of the land (Chapter XVII). very well shown on the New England coast. On the higher ground of these latitudes.

Climate includes and averages these weather mate. sunshine. temperate. dryness or dampness of the air. etc. while in an equable climate there is little weather change. — One it is might divide the earth into to cli- matic zones on the basis of rainfall. excepting that less attention cases. These changes from day to day are called changes in the iveather. or any of several features of air change . and therefore according to the latitude of This gives us the tropical. Climatic Zones. etc. and perhaps also in wind direction. — Every day there are changes in temperature. is cli- A climate one in which the weather changes frequently.CHAPTER X CLIMATE Meaning of the Word Climate. Therefore. and is frigid zones. paid to the single and more to the general result. according to the altitude of the sun in the heavens. The elements of the w^eather are wind. ture changes. all . tempera. abundance of clouds. conditions. five in but in any one of these there 149 so much difference . A perfectly natural division make temperature may be made the place. and the elements is of climate are the same. but most common the basis. others equable. rain. others variable Thus we say that some places have a dry humid. clouds. to consider climate we must look somewhat at the question of weather. some variable.

and the frigid. some idea of the general climatic features size. In the consideration of the we will first take the warm equa- then the frigid zone. Then also there are desert climates and within the tropics there are differences between the climate of the trade-wind belt and coast and insular). these are less. There is very much less difference in the tropical and is frigid zones than in the temperate. — This is midday sun stands nearly vertical at all times of the year. .150 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY each of the zones there are from place to place. or St. because the tropical zone is prevailingly warm. and then the temperate. that in For instance. cold. a single great zone. while the places in the temperate zone may be now warm and now cold. To do this properly. have much higher temperatures and less variation than those near the frigid zones. and between each of these and that of San Francisco. and it is therefore the warmest belt. the north temperate. Moreover. though all of these are in different many climates. and to discuss would require several volumes of this However. there is a great difference between the climates of Florida and Boston. those portions of the temperate latitudes which are near the tropics. if we take only a few places this subject fully as types. climates of the world. it will be necessary to further subdivide each of the zones into oceanic (or sea- and mountainous. and while in each of the former zones there are also differences in climate. : Climates of the Tropical Zone the zone where the Belt of Calms. In the latter there an almost interminable variety. or Helena. that of the doldrums. torial belt. as the trade winds blow . Louis. interior. Montana. Here it is that the air is rising. There are many variations in climate. of the world may be gained.

and the air rises more perceptibly. when the sun shines. which are well winter and dry in summer. and even weeks. and hence the rainfall is less. and also in the yv^atered in campos of Brazil. ing. theless. Over the land there is less rain and the temperature Because of radiation from the land. In this belt sailing vessels may linger for days. relatively calm. In it are situated the heavily forested rainy districts of central Africa and the Amazon valley. although great and oppressive. Because of the the daytime is hot and the nights cool. and dry in the winter. so that on the margin of the tropical rain belt. is less equable. . from either side. absence of ocean water to supply vapor. These change gradually to less dense forests on either side. on which almost no vegetation can grow. .CLIMATE in 151 Calms prevail here. the air both of day and night is warm and humid throughout the year. and hence coolin the world. Also the air is ences in temperature. without having a wind of sufficient force to drive them through On the ocean. south of the Equator. there is heavy rain throughout the year and during the day. where the llanos of Venezuela are rainy during the summer season. there is a climate which is dry in one season and very wet in the other. doldrums are best developed. because the air and ascends. and very warm belt. . which cause breezes to arise. this is a rainy. and this is the most equable climate Because the air is rising. ceases to move horizontally. and in Africa gradually give place to the dry desert of Sahara. where the to the zone of the trade winds. This is shown in South America. the position of the heavy rains changes. As the belt of calms migrates with the seasons. for over various parts of the land there are differ- Never- even over the land. less less calm. clouds form and copious rain falls. The heat of the daytime. the air is humid. is tempered somewhat by the ocean.

and then. when rising in the belt of calms. ney from the zone conditions of of perpetual summer. carry much vapor. moving constantly. as they do in the Sahara north of the Equator. They are warm and as they pass over the sea. 25). colder to rising. they do much work of evaporation. in one direction. . and finally into a region where the nights are cold and the days cool. taken but since they are blowing from is warmer latitudes. and with distinct strength.. followed by a cool. is a resemblance between and those of the frigid zone. that even though the weather is cold. one may rise above the elevation where timber can grow. or in winter really cold. Being within the tropics. night (Fig. When blowing over the land. there is this difference. the sun rises high in the heavens in midday at all times of the year. their temperature constantly and hence they are able to take much more vapor. to that where the spring prevail throughout the year. 152 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY The Trade-Wind Belt. the trade winds may produce deserts. going still higher. it precipitates quantities of moisture. Although in respect to temperature there these climates of high altitudes Over the ocean the trade winds blow with wonderful steadiness. and here they are not especially rainy winds but that the trade winds are carrying much vapor is proved by the fact that when the air has its temperature lowered. and in Australia and South Africa south of the Equator. — There is much more variety in the climate of this zone than in the belt of calms. and perhaps even as 6old as those of the northern winter. The desert climate is one of extreme heat in the day. Therefore as they blow over the sea. the temperature is everywhere high excepting on the lofty mountain tops. where the climate Among these mountains one may jouris almost frigid.

CLIMATE Because of the dryness of the allows it 153 readily reach the ground throughout to be radiated at which permits heat to tiie daytime. but one which there is little precipitation. causing a circulation as the air attempts to In . equalize the differences in pressure thus produced. air. is the temperature range of the desert great. On the land. rarely Fig. The desert vegetation if in tlie far west. and night with almost equal ease. and this only in cer- tain seasons. 70. in ever a climate in which no rain falls (Plate 12). to support In the desert there is not enough rainfall any but the most hardy forms of desert plants. As the name indicates. the direction of the trade winds is often changed as one part of the land becomes warmer than another. a desert climate is one of great dryness.

Everything becomes dry. having previously been in leaf and flower in February or March. still intense. Then in June there comes a calm. Everything withers before the scorching west winds which blow from the sandy wastes of the Indus valley. Finally clouds appear. wilid belt is also rainy on many east-facing coasts. and the temperature of the day reaches above 100° in the shade. the hot . for as the air blows in over the heated land. becomes even more suffocating. way the — A peculiar India. and then. The hot summer begins in April and lasts until June. course. it gives up some of its vapor. and the winter. within the trade-wind belt. plants flower a second time. causing heavy rains. the dew point is soon The tradereached. either passing up the grade of the land. Under the influence of the heavy rainfall. toward the close of the rains. is of daily occurrence.154 this FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPBY trade winds are sometimes deflected from their and caused to move toward the heated land. or rising by convection. and sometimes 110° or 115°. by the monsoon effect of Asia. excepting at night and just before the dawn. and rain falls. and also on many oceanic islands. summer. where the sea breeze blows and air is drawn in from the ocean. and it is almost impossible for an Englishman to take exercise. climate is found on the plains of where the air movement is modified Here there are three seasons. as in the case of western Africa (Plates 8 and 9). lasting over a month or two. clouds are formed. The Indian Climate. which during this season. being forced to rise. the climate is once more almost unendurable. and rain falls. as in the case of South America both to the north and south of the Equator (Plate 12). which bring rain and some relief from the steady heat. . because there is no movement of the air and every one prays for the south and east winds of the summer monsoon. Then the climate of the tradewind belt may be changed from one of moderate dryness to one of heavy rainfall (Plate 12). The intense dryness is followed by equally intense dampness. in which the heat. the rains. and during this time the air is hot and dry. for as the air blows against the land.

followed by a cloudy sky. In the extreme southern portion. on the one hand. dry season. Climates of the Frigid Zones : The South Frigid Zone. Then the weather becomes so cold that fires are needed in the evening. during the months of December and January. Therefore. that of the ocean. transforms the hot plains to a region with a deliciously cool climate. and the icecovered land of Greenland on the other.CLIMATS By 155 the beginning of October the winter monsoon begins. South Pole. which discourages the thriving vegetation. inducing vegetation to break forth and this is then followed by the hot. the the late autumn. and hence there is much variety of weather. . and causes it to wither until it again bursts forth in the ti-ue growing season of wet weather. with alternately cool and clear conditions. and that of the high. and at midnight the either eartli lighted although the sun by the dim sunlight or bright twilight. Wear the Arctic Circle. it shines most or all of the day. similar to the changes in the . ice-covered land of the Antarctic continent. The storms of temperate latitudes affect this region. and a sort of spring visits the land. and the summer weather is cool. — Within the Arctic there is a progressive increase in the severity of the climate as one proceeds northward. near the sea level. little is known about the climates of the south frigid but there seem to be two different climates. but not cold. — Very belt. perhaps with rainy weather. blowing from the highlands of northern and central India. In February the warm weather begins. is low in the heavens. which appears to entirely enwrap the Probably these climates are very similar to those of tlie Arctic Ocean. but they have not been studied. summer sun reaches about as high in the heavens as it does in northern United States during drops At night-time it down is to the northern horizon. and from then until December the cool air. in which the air is clear and dry.

become even still different. but by outside causes. Then there is a season of prevailing cold. which the form of precipitation during of the year. when a warm wind is caused by some movement of the air. northern Norway. In the winter the sun rises high enough to cause twilight at midday. not by the direct influence of the sun. During — . but the variations are mainly governed by movements of the air caused by cyclonthe ic storms of the temperate zone. there are two seasons when the sun rises and sets. Further north these climates In the Higher Latitudes. and clear weather or snow. these changes are determined. with quite distinct characteristics. and then. The winter night is marked by intense cold. The storms and no cause cold or warm winds. winter cold The midnight sun. in addition to the causes mentioned. with temperatures generally ranging between 21° and 60° (and probably more) below zero. Between of this season Fig. and summer coolness. There is little or daily rise and fall of temperature. the temperature changes There are therefore four different from day to night. and the night is therefore constant. seasons. though now and then rising above freezing point. 71. BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY The temperature is United most is so high that rain falls instead of snow.156 FIRST States.

when plants burst forth and the hum of insects is heard. After this comes the summer. Though low in the heavens. the sun warms the earth. 72).CLIMATE this season the land is 157 deeply snow-covered. and the sea is coated with ice. while the nights are cold. 72. and the sea ice to break up and float away to the south (Fig. that shines by night as well as by day. soon the midday becomes Then the comfortably warm. where it eventually melts in the warmer waters of the more temperate latitudes. snow begins to melt. summer of Steamer Hope in the ice. the frost disappears from the surface. being warmed into life under the influence of the summer sun. As the darkness of the winter night replaced by the spring-time. 1896. and even at midnight the temperature . Baffin Land. into blossom. The ice-covered sea off Cumberland Sound. Fig.

of here. sun occur in the high interior lands. summer of 1896. the sun not seen. and for weeks. A part of the high coast of mences to fall. Greenland. until finally the winter night sets in. warmed slightly by day. but low that even in summer there is never rain. because of the greater elevation. and the land is deeply the snow. After this comes the autumn. and further north even for months. when the darkness of night again appears. 73. and gradually the day becomes is shorter. the temperature is so The same changes . Latitude 74° 15'. and the earth. and never warmth enough to melt Here perpetual winter prevails. so that the bays begin to freeze.158 FIBST JBOOK OF PHYSICAL GJEOGUAPHY does not descend to the freezing point. cools at night. During this even as far north as man has gone. snow comseason rain fall may FiG.

Fjord in foreground 3 miles wide. This which . passes Baffin Land and carries to that coast the chill of the ice-laden waters of the north. while a cold current. in winter summer. in some cases.CLIMATE covered with snow and climate. and icebergs in it. coming from the south. 75 feet high. We do know that the snowfall is extremely heavy. must become intensely severe but no one has ever lived there to tell us how low the temis bitter cold in peratures descend. Latitude 74° 15'. . The Greenland ice sheet showing a part of the Cornell Glacier. ice. because a warm current of water. flowing southward. Taken from an elevation of 1400 feet. There are other differences in the frigid climate. Fig. bathes the former shores. The glacier covers all land excepting the island in the ice (nunatak). the most noteworthy of which is that caused by ocean currents. as in 159 the case of the whole interior of Greenland. and probably also of the great Antarctic continent. The coast of Greenland is distinctly warmer than that of Baffin Land in the same latitude. which is 9 miles distant. 74.

excepting in the fact that there irregu- . Temperature indicated by shading. by the cyclonic and anticyclonic disturbances which affect The wind and weather changes the temperate latitudes. These two zones. in Between these two extremes are the great temperate which so much of the civilized world lies.160 FIB ST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHT : Climates of the Temperate Zone Various Types. to cool or cold conditions in winter. climates and weather of the south temperate zone resemble is less those of the northern. and mainly caused either by differences in heat effect. changing from warm and perhaps hot in vailing moderate summer. which pass from west the higher latitudes of the belt (Chapter VIII). and near the tropics the conditions resemble those described for the trade-wind belts of variable climates. is Everywhere there generally a range of temperature from day to night. Isobars also shov/n. These daily temperature changes are liable to be interrupted A cold wave. 1888. or by the lowto east over and high-pressure The areas. are influenced by the prevailing westerlies. autumn and spring. and also in the two intermediate seasons of FiG. one south and one north of the Equator. . 75. and this differs in winter and summer. March 13. are characterized by pre- temperature. is — Near the frigid zones the temperate climate quite like that near the Arctic and Antarctic circles belt.

This allows less range of temperature. United States Climates. 161 because the southern hemisphere is occupied mainly by water. or by cold weather. Near the tropics. and what Canada and Europe. which prevailingly blow from the west. the daily range of temperature in Avinter may be replaced by warm spells. and in general to other parts of the middle temperate belt. This variability has been sufficiently described for the is United States in the chapter on Storms.CLIMATE larity. A cold wave. and variable. and in summer by hot or by said there applies to cool spells. By the passage of cyclonic storms and anticyclones. in both hemispheres. Fig. find the characteristic southern Canada. — In northern United States. All in temperate belt. the climate of the temperate zones is modified by the conditions of the horse latitudes. may . overspreading the land. with frequent calms. where the air light is settling. and Europe. as for instance on the east coast of southern South America. Map showing snowfall of United States in inches. and the sky generally In this belt of settling air there are some deserts. and less irregularity of winds. 76. we weather conditions and variable climates of the temperate latitudes. the winds clear.

lie — places in- habited only by Esquimaux and a few Europeans purposes of trade rigor . and cover the northern United States with a blanket of cold air. a sparsely settled region. or east. and now the sky is clouded. or the permanent winds of the lands influenced by the trades. Or on the contrary. may cause the temperature to rise. and then the sky is clear. the uniform humidity of the doldrum belt. is warmed by an ocean current from the south . while those of Europe have blown across the ocean water. 53 and 54). north. and no one can tell what the weather will be from week to week. even at night. one the fact that the prevailing westerlies blow over eastern America. after having passed across the land. and perhaps rain or snow is falling. excepting to know that it will be variable.162 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY cause the temperature to drop even at midday. There are two reasons for these conditions. much variety The great city of St. European coast. This is in striking contrast to the ever dry climate of a desert. the direction of the wind varies. moving toward a storm centre. having a climate of almost Arctic . causing the snow to melt from the ground (Figs. Petersburg is situated in from place to nearly the same latitude as southern Greenland and northern Labrador. and to become so high that a thaw occurs. day after day. producing temperatures varying from freezing to 40° below zero (Fig. now from the west. and the vault of the heavens a beautiful blue. As these changes occur. and New York warm and lies in the latitude of southern Italy and Greece. these changes occur. places with almost subtropical climates. being now from the south. Difference betiveen United States and Europe. live there for Berlin and London in the latitude of southern Labrador. warm winds from the south. and week by week. 75). the constant winter cold of parts of the Arctic. Day by day. on the The second reason is that the water of the eastern Atlantic. is — Within who this belt of variable temperate climate there place.

Variation ivith Altitude. 24 and 30). The cli- mate of of New York and all of city is warmer and more equable than is that of Ohio. are so cold that snow falls upon their summits snow and even in summer. and also warmer than the eastern coast of Asia in the same latitude but the difference between the climates of the Asiatic and American coasts is less than that just described. in New Hampshire and Maine. so that there are great fields of perpetual glaciers among the mountains (Chap. where the summer is hot and the winter not this way ous district. while in winter the temIn peratures are exceedingly low and the snowfall heavy. like that of New extreme. which lie in the latitude of southern France. In a small — There are also noticeable may be seen dif- ferences in the climate of the temperate zone according to in any mountainEngland. because no cold Arctic current (the Labrador) from the icy Arctic sea (Chap.CLIMA TE (the Gulf Stream). where the valleys are very much warmer than the mountain tops (Fig. 31). Mt. Mass. altitude. current bathes the shores of eastern Asia. is less severe than that of the interior to place along the coast and from place one finds many variations (Figs. are covered with a blanket of hot air. which are in the same The climate of Boston of Massachusetts. and by autumn the top of this mountain is covered with snow. XVII). a point nearly surrounded by the equable ocean. Again there is a Differences between Ocean and Land. At Cape Ann. Washington in New Hampshire is enwrapped in cold air even in summer. . this in turn less extreme than that latitude. while the 163 American shores are bathed by a frigid For similar reasons the western coast of the United States is warmer than the eastern. Wyoming. XTII) .. while the lowlands to the east. — variation in climate from the sea to the interior. the temperature during the cold midwinter does not descend . the same way the Alps. For instance.

XI). and the nights are often cold. warmed during the summer. vegetation does not so quickly develop as lies does at Cambridge. being surrounded it so far as at places 10 miles inland. which lie much further south. the sun. this industry is not possible.164 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHY and in spring. The vegetation has a tropical aspect (Chap. the ocean water. that an extensive grape-raising industry has developed. and equally great the variation in the climates of different parts of the great zone. Here the conditions are so equable. in western New York. The former. does not have extremely high temperatures in summer. . although the climate is not extreme. while in winter. Thus in the temperate lati- tude there is is an infinite variety in the weather. do not visit the cape. which occur a few miles from the shore. two or three miles away. Throughout the fall. by the cold ocean water. which but a short distance inland. and hence some frosts. In central Georgia. as for instance along the shores of Lake Erie. while in winter the nights are never cold and rarely cool. surrounded entirely by warm ocean waters. and the Bermudas in this respect resemble the Bahamas and Florida. causing hot days. On an even more notable scale the influence of the ocean upon climate may be illustrated by contrasting the Bermuda Islands with central Georgia on the same parallel of latitude. The leaves begin to appear upon the maple trees in Cambridge fully a week earlier than at Cape Ann. frosts are by no means uncommon. and frosts are practically unknown. prevents radiation on the land from cooling the air over this cape to such low temperatures as those reached a short distance away . These same differences in climate are shown near lakes. near the lake shore. warms the land in summer. while upon the hillsides. having the same altitude.

of the frigid or even the temperate zone. — There are three — the differ inhabited by different assemblages of animals and plants. ocean. as the nature of the coast varies. is The there- subject of the distribution of animals and plants very complex one. for the nature of the flora and fauna varies with depth. For instance in there are very different organisms the tropical belt from those animals. — In the sea both plants and animals exist in latter great abundance. numerous subdivisions of the zones of land life. and this applies to ocean and fresh-water as well as to land Besides these there are other zones in the sea and deeper lakes. though the 165 greatly exceed the . Also in the larger bodies of water there are changes with distance from shore. which in a book of this scope can be treated only in a brief and most general way. and also along the There are also shore. while those of the humid seacoast climate bear very fore a little resemblance to those of the desert. the land. Life in the Oceai^ Plants.CHAPTER XI DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS Zones of AND PLANTS great zones of life Life. and the fresh water. The creatures that live among the mountains differ from those of the plain. In each of these there are subzones in because of which the animals and plants variations in temperature.

the tree is mangrove able to live with its roots in salt water and in protected places along these coasts there are veritable jungles of mangrove swamps (Fig. 77).. into which the salt water enters. Therefore. of the Upon that part rocky coast of New England which is exposed at low tide. It is A mangrove swamp. none of the higher flowering plants. be- cause at depths of a few hun- dred feet not enough sunlight passes through the ocean water to perform the work necessary for plant growth. so common on the land. limited to shallow water. bottom. and the seaweed also grows upon the Fig. being in this respect a great desert extending over nearly three-fourths Seaweed needs to have a solid base on which to grow. near the coast. where the waves keep the sand particles in constant movement. XVIII). of the earth's surface. on the exposed. these delicate organisms cannot exist. 78). these plants produce a mat (Fig. where the water is deep. On the coast of Florida and other tropical lands. there are numerous species of plants. notably the seaweed. resembling those of the land. Upon salt marshes (Chap. Excepting at the very coast line. Bermuda. the great expanse of ocean bottom. sandy shores. are found. 77. 166 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHY former in importance. and hence. is devoid of vegetable life. . Elsewhere in the sea the plant life belongs to the lower forms of vegetation.

many in themselves firmly to the rocks. These are called "grassy" or Sargasso seas. Shore of Cape Ann. of these many move about from over the bottom. Mass. walking or crawling Seaweed mat. or that the seacoast.DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS There ocean is AND PLANTS 167 also ocean. Exposed between tides. and there is abundance of animal life in the sea is is no part of its surface or bed which not inhabited. others burrow all the mud. like that which lies between Spain and the West Indies. going from a rocky headland to a sandy beach. bay. 78. that and (3) the pelagic. places and in to place. in We the may recognize three great zones of animal (1) The life ocean: of littoral. especially in the . — The marvellous. or that of the ocean bottom. that sailing have their progress retarded in passing through them. or of the surface. Hence as we pass along the coast. and then thre6 to a muddy flat in we find entirely different types an enclosed of animal . (2) the abyssal. — Coast Line Some creatures swim in the surf. Animals. Faunas of (^Littoral the . The seafaunas^ coast faunas vary greatly from place to place. much seaweed floating aboat on the surface of the warm waters of the tropical zone in the mid- vessels and sometimes this gathers over such great areas. some cling attach to the seaweed. in which the species of Sargassum are most abundant (Plate 16). place Fig.

which thrive in the warm The dwellers on the seacoast and shallow bottoms. Under these favorable conditions. to which the tropical animals The latter. . as well as those of the temperate latitudes. because in winter these are ice-bound. Within the rises. and as the tide it grinds against the shore with such power that no can withstand its effects. life Arctic almost no organisms live on the rocky shores. cannot go to seek their and therefore food.168 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY even though the distance be no more than a also great differences in the animal life ac- colonies. Similar differences are noticed on the land. reefs of coral develop. but must have it brought to them warm currents. become marvellously dant. ice. at all times furnished with an abundance of food. and is particularly where this water in circulation as warm ocean currents. There are cording to the temperature of the water. waters of the tropics. These currents not only bear the equable conditions of constant warmth. are less so much . It is within the waters warmed by the tropical sun. that we find the littoral faunas in all their luxuriance of development. 79). usually anchored firmly in place. But below the reach of the many animals and seaweeds exist. water. laden with animalculse. bathed constantly in warm water. furnish them with an abundant food supply. These. and are not subjected. they are much less delicate and beautiful and in their plain and rugged forms they tell of the struggle against the rigors of winter. beautiful and varied in form and color. both in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. but also an abundance of floating animals. though abun- warm than the myriads of creatures that dwell in the Moreover. mile. and one who has never seen a coral reef (Fig. can form no real conception of the vast numbers and wonderful variety of the animal life clustered .

the Bahamas. Australia. as a is result of much study.DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS together in these colonies. however. Now. millions of past. Nowhere and else in the world are there so individuals many of species animals clustered together in a small space. as one may and the see in the coral reefs of Ber- muda. of the animals dwelling in this zone depend for their food supply upon the remains of animals that lived near . and where the temperature is always nearly at the freezing point. 79. Bottom(^AhyssalFanna). that no animals could showing profusion of coral life. It exist on the bed of the where the water has a depth of at least a mile. like that of night constantly reigns. in which plants of various colors and forms are growing in rank profusion. and many other kinds of ocean animals exist there in great Most numbers. one corals of all colors down upon a bottom covered with The and forms. Animals of the Ocean Fig. Fishes swim about. and know no better comparison than to a garden on the land. Some are blind. AND PLANTS may is 169 gaze Drifting about in a boat. with floating of I mouths wide open and hungry for food that coral reefs are the gardens of the sea. and shrimp. but others have eyes. — was once thought A part of the Great Barrier Reef. shellfish crawl over or burrow into the mud. and often two or three miles. sea-anemones. we know that this great realm inhabited by animals not greatly different from those of the ocean surface. many of the coasts of tropics. and where a darkness sea.

is is deep-sea fish. after year. and upon dying. greater numbers and different kinds of animals live in the shallows. and year There is therefore little cause for differences. day after day. than in the neighboring deeper and colder water. than in any other great area Fig. the temperature becomes lower (Fig. under the more favorable conditions. as the depth of the sea increases. A the temperature season. Nearly everywhere. is The abundance of animal life on the ocean bed of food that is in large part determined by the amount thus supplied. There are fewer differences among the animals of differ- ent parts of the ocean bottom. 170 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY the surface of the sea. Sometimes warm currents of water bathe shallow parts of the sea bed. . always low. and the temperature about the same at the Equator as at the Arctic circle. 93).. and then. settled to the bottom. and this is one great cause for the variation in the faunas of the deep sea. being nearly everywhere below 40°. there are no changes with and none from day to night.

These monsters obtain food by this means not only in at night. and then very drops gleam of silvery light marks the track of the vessel. but if crinoid. trom the tropical zone to the ever V? 1 p) w frozen waters of the Arctic. for some unknown reason. The abundance of these creatures is shown by the fact that the mammoth whale obtains his living from them. he may gather these animals. swimming through the water with his mouth wide open. Each animalcule is emitting his share of this strange light. 81. and in a dish of sea water examine them at leisure.DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS 171 is Life at the Surface (^Pelagic Faunas). life. these tiny creatures com- bine to produce a phosphorescent glow on the water surface. A deep-sea he will drag the surface with a net having minute meshes. Fig. great variety and abundance of animal — Here. there Not merely do the larger fishes swim about singly and in great "schools" or "shoals. ^fcr' fi^^M but the water teems with life of minute and even microscopic size. or silfall from the oars." containing tens of thousands in a single group. One might sail over the ocean without being aware of their existence. less ^K (bN Countthese myriads creatures of tiny occupy the water of all parts of the ocean surface. a . ^ i Now and then. and straining the minute animals from the water by means of the fringed whalebones. so small are they.

that the surface animals differ but little. there is In the entire area of these three great a wonderful variety and abundance of animals. and least In each of these wide distribution. 1 Even those which before settling are anchored have a free-swimming stage early in to the real condition of maturity.172 the FIBST warm BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHT waters of the tropics. So also in the frigid zone. zones. excepting in places so far apart. zones there is separated regions. and so different. excepting in widely in the great expanse of the deep sea. but even in the ice-strewn Arctic seas. they swim about easily from place to place. and generally higher. the temperature is more equable. there are life. In the temperate somewhat greater differences. or are driven here and there before the winds or the currents. partly because the waters are in nearly constant movement. There- fore there are zones of life here. Near the coast. Within the tropics. as the cold waters of the frigid zone and the warm equatorial ocean. because of the presence of warm ocean currents. In the ocean there life is therefore the greatest variety of conditions in the littoral or seashore zone. life down . ^ and partly because the temperature variation is not great. however. There is little reason for difference in the pelagic fauna. and hence are widely distributed. and hence greater variety. while further out to sea. the water is cold in winter and warm in summer. the waters are always so warm. the constant cold which prevails in these waters favors uniformity of latitudes. partly because many of the creatures can swim about. and the conditions so uniform.

Life in Fresh




come from the air and animals which live and die in the fresh water. As the animals and plants of the land vary, so do those of the lakes and rivers, for among these there are differences from lowland to mountain, and from frigid to tropica]


of the animals that dwell in fresh water


land,i but there are


species of plants



of the groups of animals of the sea inhabit the lakes

but many, like corals, are never found in fresh water. Some sea fish (such as salmon, alewives, etc.) have a habit of passing up rivers into lakes to breed or " spawn," and hence there is often a difference between
the faunas of fresh-water bodies near the sea and those remote from

for not only do the adults pass

up stream

to lay their eggs,


then come back again, but the young remain in the lakes for a season. Through changes of land and water, animals of the sea have sometimes been obliged to remain permanently in the fresh water, and

then sea
the lake

fish are

found in the lakes

at all times.





river fish have


to inhabit their present


in a

similar way.

the nature of the animal

In the small lakes, and in rivers, there are only slight differences in and plant inhabitants from one part to

There will perhaps be different creatures on the swampy

shores from those of the rocky headlands, and between these and the

inhabitants of the

marshy and sandy shores
like the


but these variations

would be


because the distance and the difference in conditions

are not great.

But in large lakes,

Great Lakes, the fauna and

vary greatly, and in a way similar to the conditions existing in the ocean, although in lakes there is no such abundant variety of animal life as in the sea. There is here a variable littoral fauna and

a pelagic zone, and a lake-bottom zone.

In the

latter, as in


sea, there is little variety,

because the temperature

always low, and

the conditions constant and unfavorable to

Here also, as in the life. where the sun's rays cease to be powerful enough to perform the work needed by plants. Although the species are not the same, and notwithstanding many minor difplant

ceases below the depth


Such as the young

of the

mosquito and dragon-fly from the



the tree-toad from the land.



a general resemblance between the
source cut

ferences, there

zones of large
as the result

and the sea. Sometimes a fresh-water lake has of a change in climate from moist
rates faster than
salt lake
results, as in the



to arid,


the water evapo-

the rain can supply
case of the

and then gradually a Great Salt Lake and the



As the fresh water changes

to salt,


of the animals

perish, until finally only a



main, so few, in
fact, that the lake

called a dead



in the

Great Salt Lake
there are some mi-

nute animals and



of the salt lakes



that in any other
part of the world,




ence being in the
Fio. 82.

very limited number

A view


a semi-tropical forest in Florida.
so distinctly with the


which contrasts
fresh water.


abundance of


in ocean

Life on the


— The most characteristic
and yet animals

on the land





are of very high importance.

Vegetation clothes the surface almost everywhere, furnishing dwelling-places for many animals and supplying all

with food. Animals of the land have not the power of taking food directly from the earth but plants are able to convert earthy materials into substance which animals can



use; and even those creatures which do not take their food directly from plants, do so more indirectly from other
cling to

Most plants

live at the surface of the earth


firmly anchored in place.

There is a limit to the abundance of plants in any given Under the place, but this varies with the conditions. circumfavorable most



Avithin the tropical belt of

heavy rains, the limit
that of space.



As many

can get together and obtain food from the earth, and the
necessary sunlight for plant

growth, can exist in this

and here are found


reaching high in the

and a tangle of under-


growth, forming an almost
impassable mat of vegetation.


the other extreme, in


even though within

Fig. 83.


In the desert of Arizona, showing giant

the tropics, the conditions
of sunlight


and warmth


present, but the equally necessary water is absent, and hence the surface is only scantily clothed with the desert grass, cactus, and other kinds of vegetation which can thrive amidst such adverse conditions (Figs. 70 and 83).

Growing easily, because of the favorable conditions, plants in the humid climates suffer little if attacked by animals but on the desert



the conditions of nature are so adverse that any additional difficulties

would be fatal. Hence the desert plants attempt to protect themselves from the attacks of animals, attaining this end sometimes by means of thorns, as in the case of cactus, and sometimes by developing substances in the sap which cause the taste of the plant to be disagreeable,
as in the sage brush of the desert.

Equally adverse are the conditions on high mountain
tops (Fig. 84), where the temperature

low, or in the

Fig. 84.

A mountain

peak on the crest

of the


in Peru,

above the timber


where not only


there cold, but also a limited


Approaching either of these regions, we find the trees changing from the deciduous to the evergreens, the forests becoming less dense, and then the trees more and more scattered and stunted, until finally the timber line is passed (Fig. 85), and the only forms of vegetation are those that cling to the earth. Within the Arctic regions the willows and other species of trees creep







ground, raising their leaves and flowers no higher for early in the winter it is vitally

important to secure a covering of snow which shall proHowever, no matter tect them from the intense cold.


far north

we may

go, even to the highest latitude

and j9owers will be found in summer, wherever soil
so far visited, grass
exists in a position ex-

posed to the sun (Fig.







and mosses, and

on the hillsides, and in
the valley bottoms, are





there are never

any trees.

With change in latitude there are many variations

Fig. 85.

in vegetation;

A view near

the tropical plants differ
radically from those of

the timber line in the high Rockies of Colorado.

the temperate zone, being

much more abundant,


and beautiful.

Fruits abound, and Nature

very prod-

igal in her productions.

Many of the plants of the world are cultivated by man, and even where he protects them, there are distinct belts in which various species grow best. For instance, coffee, bananas, pineapples, etc., cannot be grown in northern United States and barley or wheat thrive

better in the cooler climates.



the cold Arctic zone



impossible to raise even the hardiest of crops, for the

summer season





is too short for any but the native species, which are accustomed to blossom and mature their seed in the short summer of these far northern lands.


— The animal
all three.


of the land


be said to

live in three great zones, or else to

spend a part of their

time in two or


this includes


There are many that dwell in of the insects and most of
the birds, as

well as some
others (such
as the




the majority,

dwell on the
surface of the


ing about by

one means or
another; for


view in North Greenland, showing plants and flowers (Arctic poppies) peeping above the snow.

on the land
the habit of
it is

remaining fixed in one place




in the

An animal

that stayed in one place

would have

chance to obtain

food supply^, for the air

unlike the

ocean in this respect.


third group of animals occupies
it all

spending There are also many of the land animals which leave the dry land, either in some stage of their development, or from time to time, taking to the sea or fresh water for the purpose of obtaining a food supply. Among these there are some which spend more time in the sea than on the land.
the ground, either living in
of the time, or

part of the time on the surface.





land animals there




distribution than


the animals of the sea, or the
like birds or insects,

plants of land




For instance, ducks and geese \yhich nest in the Arctic, spend the winter in southern United States and Mexico; but most of the land animals move about so slowly, and with such
readily that

they occupy large areas.

difficulty, localities.

that they are



relatively limited




confined to

certain small




in the case of plants, so


the animals, there

a very great difference

between those of the tropics and

those of the colder zones.
of calms, rivals the flora in

The fauna

of the



abundance and



tropical forest


alive with creatures of all classes, because



furnished prodigally by the abundant growth of



this is

more nearly

absent, as in des-

animals become scarce.
plains the limited

number of insects and birds, abundance of these creatures in the swamps of Arkansas in the same latitude and the reptiles and higher animals show an even greater diminution. The antelope, the prairie dog, a few burrowing animals, one or two species of rabbit, the coyote, and a few other species, which constitute the higher animal life of the desert, furnish a striking contrast to the scores of mammals which exist in more favorable localities.
contrasts strikingly with the

Upon our western

In ascending a mountain a similar change
in a journey to the Arctic,




one finds the decrease in abun-

For instance, the Australian land, surrounded by water, though not from the large islands to the northward, has animals so different from those of other countries, that it may be said to have a fauna of its own.


else in the world are the kangaroo, and the animals of Australia, at present living.


other strange


life parallel to

dance of land animal

that of the plant


For instance, in central eastern Greenland, with the exception of the mosquito, insects are not numerous or abundant. Reptiles and burrowing animals are entirely absent, because the frost is in the ground throughout the year, and in winter the temperature is extremely low. Birds, mainly those which obtain food entirely from the sea, are abundant along the coast in summer, but most of these disappear with the coming of winter. The chief land birds are the snow bunting, ptarmigan, and raven. Reindeer, foxes, and Arctic hares are the principal land mammals, and these are by no means abundant.
The polar bear, though coming to the land now and then, lives mainly on the floating ice of the sea where he obtains his food. The seal and walrus crawl upon the rocks, but only now and then, for they spend most of their time in the water or on the sea ice. This list of the land animal life of this inhospitable climate furnishes a wonderful contrast to the thousands of species that inhabit the tropical forests. Moreover it is noticeable that the higher creatures of the Arctic live there only by protecting themselves by a thick covering of fur, which keeps out the cold, and that most of them depend not upon the land for their food, but upon the sea. In the great ice-covered wastes of interior Greenland, there is an entire absence of both animal and vegetable life. This is the most absolute desert so far visited by man.

was the time when men and were distributed in belts, when races were separated and marked by distinct characteristics but now, with the progress of civilization and the development of means of transportation, the barriers have in large measure been removed, and before the white race, the others are disDistribution of


— Once


appearing or are being rapidly absorbed.

There are


savage or uncivilized races which are

kept within certain bounds by natural barriers, as people




were in Europe several centuries ago but most races have reached the stage of development when natural barriers are easily overcome. Rivers no longer present
serious obstacles to travel, as they did
ries of


the bounda-

European countries were drawn. Seas are no longer crossed with difficulty, as was the case when England, Scandinavia, and other countries developed independently of their neighbors; and mountains are no longer such impenetrable barriers as they were in the time when it was possible for a tiny state, like Switzerland, to


of the

exist independently in the midst of greedy neighbors.

The boundary lines of many countries were drawn in the days when even a dense forest was a diflBculty of a serious nature. For a long time the Appalachian forests, aided to be sure by the Indian occupants, served as a barrier to the progress of the American people, and caused a concentration along the Atlantic coast; and it is doubtful whether the American Revolution would have been successful had

been possible for the early settlers to have spread themselves over

the western territory.

Without serious study one can hardly realize how closely dependent upon geographic conditions has the development of the human race been, although now we have
nearly risen above this dependence on natural surroundings.

In his advance toward a higher civilization,


same influences that have affected the abundance and variety of plants and
has been subjected to
of the


For instance, amid the conditions of though savage, his superior intelligence man the master but his mastery cost so his livelihood was so secure, that he did rapidly as those who were placed amid

the tropics,





little effort,

not advance as
the greater dif-

groves. A Bermuda road bordered by cedar uted. but to some extent of Nature herself. . being drifted about in these media. was necessary. one will probably not find a more intelligent race than the Esquimaux of the Arctic. The same cases species in some One may gain an the excellent idea of the general subject of modes by which animals and plants are distributed over the earth. or in both eastern and central United States.182 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Here constant effort Acuities of the temperate zone. and not merely of other men. for in the resem- blances and differences which are found. and too little opportunity. While from place to place there are — many variations in the kind of animals and plants. Modes of Distribution of Animals and Plants. by comparing the fauna and flora of Ber- muda with that of the United States . 87. Those animals wliich live in the air or water are most easily distributed. and as a result they have developed hardly more than the races of the tropics . many species Fig. yet among uncivilized peoples. so that the intelligence and skill were developed which have made the men of temperate latitudes the masters of the world. The people of the Arctic have had too severe a struggle. are widely are distrib- found in Siberia and British North America. the chief causes for distribution are illustrated.

and a few others. DISTBIBUTION OF ANIMALS The Bermudas is AND PLANTS 183 lie about 600 miles from the Carolina coast. How did these come to this remote island. the palmetto. One .. Robins and other birds of passage stop upon this land during their annual migrations. was found on the island. which on and other Bahama and Florida plants. Fig. catbird. which the nearest land. particularly the ground dove. They form a cluster of tiny islands. and scores of other species common latitude in in southern United States. Xorth America. many species of birds are seen which of the . Upon their surface we find the cedar (Fig. mainland are numerous . not a single Insects of the mammal. the cactus and Spanish dagger. bluebird. is that the animal life is chiefly made up of species which can fly and every year there is proof that it is this fact which accounts for their presence. and ? why are there no larger animals most striking facts concerning the fauna of the Bermudas. and during pr after heavy storms. 87) and other plants from the same the mainland exist on the arid plains. same kind excepting the bat. redbii'd. absolutely alone in the sea. the oleander. and have never been connected with Xorth America but yet the animals and plants are American in kind. A tiny lizard of the same kind as one in the West Indies is also found there. and birds are also there in considerable numbers. When these islands were first visited. A as those of the bit of Bermuda landscape.

new place not Birds. or of the air.184 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY do not naturally belong there. where he rests for awhile in the rigging. before taking up his flight in the effort to again reach the lan(J from which he has been driven. and which quickly disapThey have been blown out to sea by the wind. may make a journey across the sea. None of the larger and higher first The lizards were. and in any event they probably could not survive 1 It . may this place. perhaps starting a colony in some before occupied by this particular species. to see some small land bird wearily flying toward the ship. lands. it. that although the land birds native to the island dozen. develop into plants that start a growth of a new kind in Also the wind. may it appear strange that so small a bird can make so great a jour- ney but floating in must be remembered that there are many the sea. carrying lighter seeds. land. scores perish at sea. either by direct driven by accident. and the number which have been thus driven away from the pear. Naturally then. and better yet over the land. or in upon the mainland. for there would be nothing to float them. which have also carried the shells now inhabiting the land and the water which surrounds these islands. no doubt carried there species of animals can take such a journey. may drive them to far-distant which came to the Bermudas upon bits of floating wood. when sailing far out of sight of land. 185 different species have been found there. may be shown by the fact. the dwellers flight. means uncommon.^ No doubt for every tiny bird that safety. and that these will serve as a logs and bits of wood by no resting-place for the It is birds that are forced to make this flight against their will. moving in the ocean currents. . eating fruit at the island. drop seeds. number hardly more than a Even makes the journey in the tiny humming-bird has been seen in the Bermudas. which. sprouting. after arriving fact after making any journey.

which has extended its range so as to become a pest Many insects. such as the field daisy. so that very often it is difficult to say which species are native and which introduced. like the Colorado beetle or potato in farming districts. introduced from Europe not a national pest. in Bermuda. This process of extension of species into areas previously unoccupied by them. bug. each species having found a place for itself and occupying a restricted area. killing and introducing them there. but off species here. so that the world was divided into fairly definite zones. For instance. is well illustrated in the case of many of the weeds. — rier to the spread of life is temperature. they move slowly along. like the English sparrow. by their own or by accidental movements. and other animals. man is interrupting all this. have multiplied and spread in a wonderful manner. introduced by chance into this country during the Revolution. No . matter by what means the cocoanut or the coffee berry were carried to northern United States. spreading out into whatever new distributed: territory they may be able to occupy. and now one of the commonest of plants. Formerly. In Australia many years ago. the latter a European species. or of the Canadian thistle. many plants carried there by man have taken such a footing on the islands that in some cases it is almost impossible to say that they were not there before man came.DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS 185 These are the means by which animals and plants are some make direct journeys. The most effective barBarriers to the Spread of Life. and some are carried by accident. has become Man has now come upon the scene. and has become the most potent of all agents in the distribution of animals and plants. organisms had spread about over the land. they could not grow nor would . finding themselves in a new region favorable to their develop- ment. some come by On the land chance. the rabbit.

for because of the For the same reason mountain ranges serve as a partial low temperatures. pass the great tropical harrier. for the forest-dweller may not be able to endure a journey across the open prairie. . and this has been Only certain well illustrated in the case of Bermuda. barrier. Therefore the species of the north temperate all and Arctic belts are not at the same as those of the southern hemisphere. so that these elevations are not complete barriers. on land as well as sea. especially of the higher animals.186 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHT genial home. Even a river^ or a chain of lakes. forms can make the passage of this barrier. and oftentimes by the presence of new forms. may mark the limit of spread of some species . even for they cannot where the climatic conditions are the same. which have been developed In the there. or the inhabitant of an open plain may find the passage through a forest impossible. and sometimes a forest. and therefore the land fauna and flora of oceanic islands may differ from those of the nearest mainland by the absence of many species. far-away islands of the mid-ocean these peculiarities are very marked. though some of the more hardy species are able to make the journey. dependent largely upon temperature. However. and have not yet spread to the mainland. a limit to the distribution both of animals and plants. Organisms accustomed to life in a humid climate cannot survive on a desert^ and therefore this also serves as a partial barrier. or an open country/. many species cannot cross them. one of our pines or spruces find the tropical belt a conThere is therefore. may serve as a barrier. the great barrier is the sea. and others pass around the ends.

at waves of the sea are incessantly attack upon the land. Importance of the Ocean. and especially influences the land near by 187 it f ur- . Its waters bathe the shores of these lands. almost as effectual as it now is to animals.— THE OCEAN CHAPTER XII GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE OCEAN Upon the earth there are about Area of the Ocean. the people of another. but is irregularly distributed and between these there are continents.000 square miles of ocean water. XVIII). while above its surface there rise numerous islands. of the ocean moderates the climate of the . carrying the products of one zone to means had reached such perfection. work in an — The ocean surface is now traversed by ships. where the land is indented by many bays and harbors.000.PART III. It not a uniform sheet. contact for the is the scene of many changes (Chap. 145. and the contact between land and water is very irregular. and even short journeys by sea were hazardous. especially in the northern hemisphere. covering and hiding from view about three-quarters of is — its surface. and even by great enclosed seas. but at one time. before our of navigation The water globe. This line of in oceans. Then distant lands were unknown. the sea surface was a barrier to the spread of man.

if deposited in a layer over the sura bed over 400 feet thick. face of the land. the ocean is less salty at the mouths of large rivers. but as its saltness varies. added to that which is wrested from the the land. . as in the trade-wind belt. and near such great glaciers as those of Greenland. is strewn over the bed of the sea near coast by Last. many of which serve man as an important source of food. the ocean is the the land. home of myriads of animals. Salt water is heavier than fresh. the density likewise changes.188 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY nishes the air with the vapor which falls as rain. that the total amount of sea which gave it birth. such as the doldrumsj the constant supply of rain freshens the sea water. which enter the sea and furnish fresh water when the ice melts. The to the ocean.7% of the whole. the ocean water is distinctly salt. Besides the its taste. common salt which gives the ocean water there are minute percentages of other solids in . sea water has an average density of 1. On the other hand. and when it leaves the ocean. which may return to the parent rivers not only take water sediment from the land. the sea water becomes salter than elsewhere for evaporated water is fresh. after a passage over the land. and therefore supplies our streams and lakes with water. would make In rainy belts. Unlike most of the water of The Ocean Water is Salt. and so the sea becomes the dumping ground for the waste of This. and there is a great difference in the percentage of this substance present in it. the waves. and so also.02. the salt remains behind.3% to 3. and we say that it is more dense. the land. Yet so great is the bulk of sea water on the earth. and by no means least. but also carry — salt dissolved in it. where evaporation is rapid. Calling the density of fresh water 1. thus making the surface water that remains still salter. On an average the amount of salt in the sea varies from 3. so that more than 96% of the ocean is pure fresh water.



of the was then furnished it but all rivers that flow over the land carry salt. salt Upon this explanation much . and so the sea is probably becoming salter all the time. the material out of well. the sea in the early history of the globe must have been impure hot. Probably the sea has always been salt. just as some lakes without outlet are even now being transformed to salt seas. the sea water car- oxygen and other gases of the atmosphere. just as the land animals take rials with their food mate- which they build into bone. ries quantities of and the fishes take this No one is able to say just what is the source of the salt in the ocean. and in the Arctic . 189 The most important of these is carbonate of which corals build their skeletons. having become so when first the waters gathered on the surface of the globe. and shellfish their shells. teeth. they must have contained salt and other substances in solution.GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE OCEAN solution. in the condition of heated rain. for it is the warmed by the sun in a manner similar to warming of the land. very much as we take oxygen from the air by means Without it they would die. from the water by means of their gills. perature of the surface of the ocean varies from place to Temperature of the — place. They take it with their food and transform it to the solid forms which we know so lime. In addition to these solid substances. Some of the of our lungs. oxygen present in the surface water is furnished by plants. in the ocean now contained Naturally the temOcean Surface. or carried into the sea by rain and river water. Near the Equator the constant warmth produces warm ocean water. with many substances. but much is absorbed from the atmosphere. If the explanation of the origin of the earth which the Nebular Hypothesis furnishes is correct. etc. which they have obtained from the rocks and soils. for then the earth was As the oceans de- scended from the atmosphere. to form the great bodies of water of the globe.

89. Up to this point the water sinks as it cools. and the tides and currents it moving in is hither and thither. crack and break flat. on the other hand. The sea-made when sur- drifting about. as it is called makes it more dense. which are sometimes but commonly raised one upon another. Far to the north. Fig. However. Arctic sea ice. but the surface of this the ice. . northern end of Labrador. breaking into blocks. though sometimes greater than this. so that is many places the Arctic ice so rough that travel over is its surface almost impossible. very much as ponds are in the winter. 1 but congeals and sea ice is when this is reached the water formed. pile it is very much rougher. this floe This varies with the density of the sea water. and therefore causes ice of the Arctic. for as in the case of air. the surface of the ocean in winter is transformed to solid ice. but is generally between 28° and 29°. the water is cooled by the constant coolness of the climate. the temperature of the sea never descends below the freezingpoint of salt water. cooling it to settle. The depth of this sea ice generally not over 10 or 20 feet. Since the ocean waters are in 1 movement at the surface. the blocks one upon another. or the jloe ice. for the winds.190 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPBT and Antarctic seas. forms over the greater portion of the water which rounds the poles.

but some goes off to other regions.GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE OCEAN ice is carried 191 about. and warmer water takes its place. where. and it is one of the reasons . the accumulation of the winter is in part removed Both during winter and to warmer latitudes during the summer. Hence it does not increase in thickriess as winter succeeds winter. why for the surface water changes temperature so slightly a difference in temperature. Tlie difference in the temperature of the sea causes movement to start. an — area equal to about three-fourths of the earth's surface. and hence it floats. shores of Baffin There is a constant procession of this ice past the Land (Figs. 72 and 89). known about the bed of the sea. and these peculiarities were thought to be sufficient reason for preventing the was supposed life. the water moves ences. Life on the about. very much as the air moves by convecThe warmer water of the tro]3ics is made light tion. in spring and early summer far as it extends along the entire coast of Labrador. there it is a movement of the sea ice in this direction. being denser. while that of the colder regions. owing to the warmer and climate. it was found to be possible to lay cables across was discovered that animals did live in this . When it the ocean. to be a great barren zone uninhabited by People knew that the pressure on the bottom must be tremendous. melts and disappears. summer. settles. by the higher temperature. and even as Newfoundland. existence of animals in the depths of the sea. and that probably no sunlight passed through the great depth of water. with and hence in density. endeavoring to equalize the differ- almost nothing was It For a long time Bottom (Chapter XI). This is one of the reasons why the ocean waters are in movement in the form of ocean currents. and as the movement of the water is mainly toward the south.

and the great pressure. It is now known live there that animals notwithstanding the coldness of water. but it is exerted on every part of Deep-sea sounding machine. and that from within. with and their bod}^. the darkness. partl}^ to study animal life. and in order to select the best lines. While they are on the bottom 73" there is a tremendous pressure Fig. and an interest was aroused among scientific men. and their airbladders from their mouths. the latter point being necessary in some cases in order to find if it would be possible to lay cables upon it. and it is also known that they obtain their food mainly from the death of the creatures with which the )CO0\ surface waters teem. . gives the results mentioned.192 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHT great zone. as a result of which explorations of the sea bottom were undertaken. 90. pressing outward. just as an air pressure without the sinker ^f ^i^^^^^ 15 pounds to the square inch is exerted on every part of our own bodies. is the pressure But when these creatures are raised to the surface. That there by the is great pressure on is the bottom of the ocean fact that fishes proved brought to protruding the surface often have their skin cracked. their eyes from their heads. removed from the outside. and partly to determine the outline of the ocean bottom. No doubt the animals move about in the waters of the deep sea with the same ease that their fellow-creatures do in the waters at the surface.

and others at different points between the surface and the bottom. how deep the water is. So delicately made is this machine. and we now have many thousand such soundings in different parts of the ocean. These are so constructed that when the sounding wire is drawn in.^ at the top of which is a joint. pierced by a hole. surface wheel is stopped. while the wdre and water bottle are drawn to the surface. In carrying on the study. what the temperature is. is — — 1 This is the xoater bottle^ which by automatic contrivances remains open on the way down. the water escapes as soda water does from a fountain. and becomes hermetically sealed by means of a tiny screw which revolves when the wire is being drawn up. bends and releases a small hook upon which the cannon ball has been suspended by a wire. It is desired to know what animals inhabit these deep recesses. When and it cannot do so until the bottom is this hook drops down. and when it strikes sends a shock through the wire. The iron weight. so that when the bottle is opened at the surface. Therefore the water bottle brings to the surface a sample of the water from the ocean bottom. It is worthy of mention that this water is charged with gases under great pressure. o . 90). The sounding is made by means of a small steel wire which is It is necessary that reeled off from a sounding machine (Fig.GENHEAL DESCRIPTION OF THE OCEAN 193 In the study of the ocean Methods used in Studying the Ocean Bed. On the end of the sounding wire there is a heavy iron ball which sinks to the bottom. The sounding wire is so frail that it would be impossible to draw the weight back to the surface from the great depths. and hence remains on the sea bed. the ball is released. which causes a spring attached to the machine to jump. surrounds a cylinder. At the same time the temperature of the water is obtained. and then the reeling of the wire from the friction in the water. for the weight of a coil of heavy wire. which when the ball touches bottom. which is a cannon ball floor has been reached. and hence something about the outline of the ocean bed. the first thing be learned is the depth. this shall be small. reached. and its to — would make it difficult to draw back to the what had been lowered. bottom there are several sets of facts which are chiefly sought. that the depth measured with an error of only a few feet. A thermometer is attached to the sounding wire near the water bottle. and hence it is By doing this it is made certain that the ocean left on the bottom.

^. lowered by means of a strong wire rope.^ again. like soap. one of importance being the determinaThis is done by placing some soft substance. and to this the mud or sand of the sea floor will cling and be brought up to the surface. taking whatever chances to come in its wa. Lowering a deep-sea dredge dredge or deep-sea trawl to the ocean bottom. is an iron frame with a long bag net attached. and a dredge rarely comes from the bottom without containing some It is necessary that the frame shall be of the deep-sea creatures. This is dragged over the bottom. 91.194 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY they turn upside down. and then dragged over the ocean bottom. a dredging is often undertaken for the purpose of obtaining some of the deep-sea animals. . and this is not afterwards disturbed unless the instrument is turned right side up Therefore the temperature for any depth may be obtained. much more rope is needed tion of the nature of the materials covering the bottom. on the bottom of the water bottle. After a sounding has been made. and to do 1 this. The Fig. the temperature at that particular time is recorded by the height of the mercury column. When the thermometer overturns. Other facts are also obtained. being allowed to do so by a little screw wheel which is unscrewed by the upward movement through the water.

the temperature of the creases as the depth becomes greater. Excepting poswater deThis is sibly in the Arctic seas. Sometimes a weight is attached to the rope in order to cause it to sag (Fig. might be expected. for if an extra amount were not allowed. when the steamer began to drag the dredge it would simply be towed through the water. water of the bottom of the sea — As is cold. because the .GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE OCEAN 195 than in sounding. . Ex planat ion. 35-36 36-37 37-3810 Fig.n Map showing temperature of the bottom of the north Atlantic. tlie Ocean Bottom Temperatures. 91) but in real deep water the great amount of heavy wire rope used is sufficient for this purpose. 92.H +39V. 38-39V.

There are various reasons for believing that these cold waters have come to their place as a result of the slow movements of ocean currents along the ocean bottom. because it then becomes heavier. it sinks. So there is a settling of the cold water. A section of the ocean from New York to Bermuda. for the temperature of the sea surface within the tropics is rarely below 70° (Plate 14).. either during the winter or the night. within the tropics. the water at the surface is cooled. similar cold ter is also at but wafound the bottom near the tor. the is temperature between 32° and 35°. Equaand over a its great part of the sea floor. particularly in the . in deepest portions. 196 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY sun warms only the surface layers. and therefore the temperature at the bottom of the frigid seas is about at the freezing point of salt water. and whenever. even Fig. Between Iceland and Norway the ocean bottom temperature is below 30°. showing the temperature at various depths Manifestly (fathom =G this feet) cannot be due to the sinking of water in the warmer zones. 93). XIII). from the frigid zones toward the Equator (Chap. 93. Generally the temperature of the ocean descends rather rapidly just below the surface (Fig.

The exin would flow . GENEBAL DESCRIPTION OF TEE OCEAN tropical zone. OCEAN SURFACE u.. where the ocean depth is no greater.. a depth of a few hundred feet rate makes a becomes difference of several degrees. Such a difference must have a special explanation. 197 where the upper layers of water are warm but after passing from this upper zone.5^.„-^^^ ^^ 1^ ^5" 1000 FATHOMS ATLANTIC OCEAN 39. free circulation. At first. less.5° • _^^^ -^ Fig. the lower the temperature. 94. the temperature decreases normally until it reaches about 39. showing depth and temperature. In other words. O Z GULF OF MEXICO 39. for if there were chances for . Therefore. for instance. as a general rule. In the latter. the greater the depth. most of which are found in such partly enclosed seas as the Mediterranean and Gulf of Mexico (Fig. 94). the highest at the top and the lowest at the bottom. the temperature decreases to 35°. ^\^ 2000 FATHOMS 1 \35° Section of part of Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. in the open Atlantic. while outside. There are several exceptions to this. the temperature descends more slowly. the ocean water is stratified into layers having different temperatures. the cold water of the deeper Atlantic and displace the warmer water that overspreads the deeper parts of the Gulf of Mexico.5° and then there is no further decrease. until and then this near the bottom there may be a change of not more than 1° in a thousand feet.

which is about 29.000 feet. the other from New York to Great Britain. from a few miles to over 100 miles. is only 55°. and and very often more. frequently there much nearer. east of Australia. where is the temperature of the bottom at a depth of 12. The same condition exists in the Mediterranean. while in the open Atlantic at the same depth it is The temperature at the bottom of the Mediterranean the same as that in the Atlantic at the same level as the bed of the Strait of Gibraltar.000 feet. There more than 5J miles. or 30. The deepest known point of the Atlantic is 4561 fathoms. The deepest part of the sea The Depth of the Sea. until the great ocean abysses are reached.5°. within 70 miles of the island of Porto Rico. the of the partly enclosed its ocean not very deep. ence The best way to gain an idea of this differmake two sections. beyond a score or two of miles from the land. but is its average depth very much greater. over which the sea is shallow. and in some seas. is to . one from New York to Bermuda. which are in the south Pacific. — so far discovered lies to the south of the Friendly Islands. which in the open Atlantic is that at the level of the top of the is about 39. but beyond this the depth rapidly increases. the depth is a mile or two.198 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY is planation for this peculiarity is a rise in the sea bottom which found in the fact that there makes the bed of the Gulf a basin with the rim higher than the centre. being greater than the elevation of the highest land above the sea level. but over nearly entire area. rises Not only is are parts of the ocean deeper below the sea level than the highest land above it. is the depth over 5000 fathoms.000 feet 20° lower. Near the continents. is Surrounding most of the continents a shelf of varying width. The coldest water that can enter rim.

GREV DEEP /!. _. Facing page 19 . 500-1000.i FATHOMS 0-100 100-500.


Facing page 108. Map showing depth of the sea in the Atlantic Ocean. . Plate 15.


quite like a volcano in form. we come to the seashore. the temperature of the ocean-bottom water varies with the season. at first slowly. or 600 feet. . so that if one could stand on the sea floor 30 miles from the Bermudas. As the depth becomes less on the sides of this cone. the temperature increases. and the descent upon its face is about as rapid as that of a moderate mountain slope. the depth has increased from 100 fathoms to 1000 fathoms. On the . which borders the entire continent at varying distances from the coast. 95). Twentyfive miles away the depth is perhaps 200 or 300 feet. Then the depth of the sea becomes gradually greater. 95. being warm in summer and cold in winter but at the outer limit the temperature is always somewhat high. Between jSTew York and this point. This zone of shallow water rests upon the continental shelf. and in this short distance rises more than two miles. where by a further moderate descent. is reached. and the water continues to deepen very gradually. the bed of the sea begins to rapidly ascend. Along this the temperature rapidly decreases. not more than 30 miles away. well toward the Bermudas. or more than a mile. until at a distance of about 75 miles from ISTew York the depth is 100 fathoms. This region of steep slope. 199 New York at an elevation of 1000 or 2000 and passing over undulating ground. within a few miles from the edge of the shelf.GENEBAL BESCBIPTION OF THE OCEAN Starting from western feet. showing depth and temperature. so that Fig. Section of ocean from New York to Bermuda. until the temperature of the surface. about 70°. he would see a lofty conical mountain. then rapidly. is called the continental slope. beingkept so by the influence of the water of the Gulf Stream. Here the temperature of the sea is 34°. and going further we find the depth of the water rapidly increasing. until the deepest point of over 3000 fathoms is reached. Within sight of the Bermudas. the land passes beneath the sea and the depth of the water gradually increases (Fig. until at the depth of 1000 fathoms it is 38°.

from the British coast. as on the American side and with this rise the temperature increases. and varying in width. toward Em^ope. but continue until near the midAtlantic. at first about 100 fathoms deep. Then. terminating in steep slopes facing toward the sea. Topography world. and soon the first cold. and then. reaching a depth of nearly 3000 fathoms. in diagram. as on the American side. . — These two sections are characteristic of the ocean floor in various parts of the Bordering the continents there are plains covered with very little water. the water. Beyond this. beyond which are extensive plains covered by deep water and extending over nearly three-fourths of the earth's surface. the conditions of temperature and deptli in the Atlantic. the bottom again descends. the continental slope rises steeply. at a distance of 50 miles Section to show.Atlantic ridge Generally the depth 1000 or 2000 fathoms.200 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHY is opposite side the descent similar to this. dark depths of the sea are again found. of the Ocean Bottom.- The where the bottom rises in a great. the part of the journey would be similar to that just described. great ocean depths that are reached beyond the edge of the continental shelf are nowhere interrupted by shallows. becomes gradually shallower and here. from the crest of this to the shores of England. forming a ridge which divides the Atlantic in a somewhat disconnected way from the northern part to the south Atlantic. but the water is shallower here than on either side. . is of this mid. and upon is its crest the temperature higher than in the greater depths to the east or the west (Plate 15). Depth and width of continental shelf greatly exaggerated. . the temperature changes with the seasons. broad swell. These plains of the ocean bottom are the most extensive in the world. Passing from New York toward England.

1894. and in some parts of the sea. like the the Bermudas. the surface of which no doubt rises and falls in gentle swells and is here and there relieved by single peaks. like or groups of peaks. showing a part of the ocean bed islands.GENEBAL DESCRIPTION OF THE OCEAN 201 forming great monotonous expanses of ocean-bottom clay. . some rising to the surface. so far. Hawaiian Fig. Copyright. and 111. like the chains of islands forming the East and West Indies. Chicago. by Thomas Jones. and some not reaching Here and there also there are mountain ranges. 97. as in the south Islands. A part of the Jones Model the continents and of the earth.

FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY of disconnected peaks rise from. 98. Chicago. mountain ranges. North and South America in relief with neighboring ocean beds showing continent elevations. In both there are volcanoes | and mountains. — i I sea floor and that of the land. 97). There a distinct difference between the outline of the Fig. and in both there are plains but on the land the action of water have gullied and carved the surface into an exceed- and plateaus the weather and the running ' I . Copyright. 111. and ocean basins. the great numbers is ocean-bottom plain (Fig. 1894.202 Pacific. by Thomas Jones.

and much formed by the death of animals which have taken carbonate of lime from the water and built they die fall it to and skeletons. muddy ooze. being furnished by rivers and waves but these fragments are too heavy to be carried far from the coast. The land surface is either bare rock The Ocean Bed. — . sion are absent. but there is also a constant rain of sediment. and Globigerina Ooze. gravel and sand are distributed over the bottom. irregularities absent. Near the land. some wrested from the shore by waves. and they therefore settle near the shore. The sea bed is nearly everywhere soft clay or or soil. but also with minute hills and valleys. settle to the But in the open sea these materials bottom in very much smaller quantity than the shells of the minute and almost microscopic animals which live in such abundance in the surface waters. while the mountains and volcanoes rise steeply. Even 100 miles from the coast there are some minute bits of clay floating in the surface is — . which when the sea bottom and accumulate. On the sea bottom however. uncut sides. some brought to the sea by rivers. broken here and there by steeply ascending and smooth-sided peaks and mountain chains (Plate 15 and Figs. these agents of land ero- and the plains and plateaus are level. not only with great elevations and depressions. with Not only are the causes for the land smooth. This into shells floor. waters. 97 and 98).GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE OCEAN 203 ingly irregular outline. the sea bottom tends to smooth out all the smaller irregularities which For these reasons the main feature of levelness. distributed over the sea naturally exist. the finer are the materials covering the sea bed. so that the further we go from it. steady supply of materials.

such as Diatoms and Infusoria. remnants of these tiny shells. such as the teeth. its color being due to the presence of the iron. Among the shell-bearing mon are species belonging to great areas this ooze. Covering even a larger area than this (about 51. In it are found bits of meteoric iron. Since they have been falling to the sea bottom in the open ocean for ages past.000. since each grain represents the life and death of an animal whose size is less than that of a pin-head. This is a red mud occurring in the deeper parts of the ocean. Every shell contains something else than carbonate of lime. are more common than the Globigerina and on the bottom of these seas the ooze is called diatomaceous or infusorial.204 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Therefore of which upon their death sink to the bottom.000 square miles) is a still more remarkable deposit called red clay. over most of the sea floor the bed is made chiefly composed of remnants of these shells. which are less easily dissolved than the carbonate of lime which forms the — . . below the depth of 2000 or 2500 fathoms. and the more indestructible parts of sea animals. In parts of the ocean other minute species. the red clay is gathering with infinitely greater slowness as a result of the accumulation of minute . while the Globigerina ooze is very slowly formed by the accumulation of many minute shells. which are not so easily dissolved as the carbonate of lime. Therefore. according to w^hich form predominates. they must have formed a great thickness of this ooze. Red Clay. Because of the presence of gases (especially carbonic acid gas) held under the great pressure which exists there. shells. though to make a layer a foot in depth must require many centuries. such as minute quantities of iron and silica. pelagic animals some of the . representing the partly burned-up meteors. the genus Globigerina most comand hence over makes an accumulation of what is called Globigerina which is somewhat like the chalk of England and France. Hence. these remain behind and it is of this insoluble residue that the red clay is formed. while the latter is taken into solution. fragments of pumice. an ooze. the shells have been dissolved in the sea water.

there is a gentle current moving slowly along before the wind. so that a floating body not merely rises and falls as the wave passes under it. a wind drifts at the very surface. when a The wave form consists stone is thrown into the water.CHAPTER XIII THE MOVEMENTS OF THE OCEAN Wind Waves. the top or elevated part being called the crest of the wave. just as of we may raise a tiny its wind wave in a basin This friction not only causes the water to rise and fall. but an object floating in the water does not move along as From this it is seen that the fast as the tiny wave does. of two parts. an elevation and depression. but actually floats slowly forward. while the depression between two crests is called the trough. surface. pass- ing in the direction toward which the wind is blowing. just as a series of ring move outward water. Therefore everywhere that wind is blowing over water. Thus the and one ripple succeeds another. This surface movement of the water constitutes a gentle current. The cause of the wave is the friction of the wind on the a disturbance of its surface. causing ripples to start on the water. surface rises — A slight falls as wind disturbs the surface of the sea. but in all directions waves from the centre. but it really does drive a very small amount forward. 205 water by blowing over . wave is not a hodily forward movement of the water.

which have originated in some distant part of the sea. but not being injured. travel as much as 45 miles per hour. when the water surface is smooth and glassy. waves reach "mountainous height. its effect is felt to a depth of 200 or 300 feet. the ripples which extend perhaps for scores of feet. and especially if it freshens. 2 Large ocean waves rarely rise more than 20 or 30 feet from trough to crest. and it then becomes such a powerful movement of the water that it may last for a long time after its cause has disappeared. ^ In addition to this. the height of the wave is increased as one wave catches up with another. This may be in a basin. being lifted and lowered as the waves pass by. it heaves with great sicells or rollers. for the cause is increased because then there is more friction. illustrated by blowing gently on the surface of the water and then blowing with much greater force. . when in violent gales the surface of the sea is lashed into a broken mass of whitened 1 wave crests between deep. the waves become higher.206 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY If the wind continues. jS'ot uncommonlj^. and it is believed that some reach the height of 60 feet from the lowest point of the trough Those having a height of 40 or 50 feet to the highest part of the crest. excepting rarely. In the open ocean the waves are usually doing little fall. on a perfectly calm day. and the distance from the crest of one wave to that of another may be over 700 feet but one may travel on the sea for a long distance without finding such huge disturbances.^ When a wind wave attains these dimensions. work excepting to cause the surface to rise and Vessels pass over them. and have passed far beyond the place in which they were formed. it starts so it is If one throws a stone into the water. and gradually die out. but some have been measured which rose 46 feet. so that two combine to form one higher than This increase may continue until either of the others. ." which is an exaggeration due to the great apparent height of the wave seen from a small ship. and with the great ocean waves.

THE MOVEMENTS OF THE OCEAN narrow troughs. first ously hurled against the coast. Diagram to show approach of a wave upon a beach. The upper portion of the comes in contact with the sea wave. and larger ones at times seriously damaged. no longer as a mere wave movement. This constant grinding wears them slowly away. or the pebbles are rolled about. progresses. 99. the waves strike a blow Upon the beach the surf rushes far above the average water level. The sand the beach washed backward and forward. for as the water becomes shallower. but as an onward flood of water. During these times of destruction of violent waves there of is great work is being done. and against the cliffs which causes the rocks to tremble. rounding . so that as a result of this the becoming steeper on the land side. being less checked movement. the waves change their habit. is partially checked as it floor. furiin its crest gradually changes. causing a deafening roar as they are ground together. while the spray dashes high upon the coast. On the coast the wave form is destroyed. and sends a roar through the air. 207 violently Then small vessels. and then falling forward in the form of a breaker^ which rushes violently upon the coast. the great waves have their movement interfered with. are sometimes foundered. and the motion of the bottom part _A» DIRECTION OF WAVE MOVEMENT foru- Fig. When they come to the coast. and dash upon the exposed shores with resistless fury. tossed about.

they would soon lose their power to cut into the land. passes not only toward the land. As the boulders and pebbles are ground to pieces by the waves. But if the waves merely destroyed the coast. Then also. Sometimes the power of the waves becomes so great. instead of running di- rectly along the coast. when the waves come upon the coast diago- nally. which they are also wearing slowly away. but also against the cliffs of hard or soft rock. are ground to form the sediment which The violent waves is being strewn over the ocean bed. the surf. The tidal currents help in this removal. are ground to tiny pebbles in the course of a few years. that blocks tons in weight are wrested from their beds and moved along the coast. particles are worn off which are so fine that they can float away in the moving water. as they often do.^ The beaches are the mills in which the rock fragments. but for some distance along shores in the surf. . the sand and pebbles are washed along the Fragments are thus carried over con- 1 So rapid is this work of destruction that bricks which have been washed ashore upon the beacli. or wrested by them from the rocky headlands. for as the cliffs crumbled. they would be protected from further attack. and so also do the wind-formed currents of surface water which move before the winds.208 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHY them and finally reducing them to bits of clay or sand. Some of these must be removed^ so as to leave the cliffs open to the further attack of the waves. driven ashore by the waves. and the debris accumulated at their base. its margin^ so that as wave follows wave. not only work here. and the waves would expend their energy on the fragments which they had wrested from the land.

These are the tools with which the wave does its work. some out to sea. where. flowing with such force that bathers are sometimes caught in it and drawn down and held near the bottom until life is extinct. which is known as the undertow. This attack of the waves produces different results according to their violence. being driven into the more quiet water of these several particles By means the take from the coast are slowly the protected bay. continues below the immediate sur- form of a current along the bottom. the exposure of the coast.THE MOVEMENTS OF THE OCEAN siderable distances 209 waves move. in order that the waves may . the water must return to the sea. is an outward-moving current. work 1 of change.^ face in the which the waves ground up and carried away. not so much by the direct action of the water. or its rock structure and it is performing a great . This. continue their attack upon the land. and is interrupted when the next wave comes. it is also important that remain in their grasp for the some fragments should also work of the waves is made effective. in the form in the direction toward which the Also when the waves run upon the beach of surf. its form. as a result of which the coasts of the surface. This return movement. as by the battering of the pebbles and sand which they hurl against the shore. which begins when the wave has worn itself out against the shore. it settles to the bottom. When swimming . where they settle in the more quiet water. in the ocean surf it is necessary to keep near the and if the feet are allowed to sink toward the bottom the entire body may be drawn under. and some along shore. While it is necessary for much of the material to be carried away. until an indentation is reached.

so that every 12 hours and 25 minutes there is a high tide. the rise is only 2 Hudson Straits. the falling. in oceanic islands. and in 1 From necessity this subject is treated briefly here. slowly advances. lOd.210 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY world are not only varying in outline. slowly as it as when it again is begins to rise. the tide If one watches the with care. as well as in other books. is The rising tide called the flow. Then came. with low tide between. it reaches an elevation of 30 feet. for a little it retires more than 6 hours. but that there is considerable height. and on or 3 feet. The water ocean the water surface rises twice each day. the distortion being of course Again. after day. from one place to another there is greatly exaggerated. i . he sees that it does not rise to the same level day Fig. and this re- peated again and again. difference in its Diagram to illustrate the distortion of the ocean by the attraction of the moon. ehh. XVIII). changes may be deferred until we have gained a little more knowledge of the land (see Chap. but are being conThe study of these structed into certain definite forms. and a person standing upon the coast is : — driven from his position as it rises. north of Labrador. a variation in the rises. In most parts of the The Tides ^ Nature of the Tides. The teacher who i ' wishes to expand the subject will find some material for this in my Ele- mentary Physical Geography. in parts of the Bay of Fundy the high tide is often 30 or 40 feet above the low. height to which the tide At Key West.

101. approaches caused to habit and change to its reach higher than It is piled is the natural level of the sea. is The moon. is evident that they are waves of rising and falling and we know ocean shores all — water. When it is a wind the wave beach. it From an examination of the tides Causes of Tides. The tides reach greater V-shaped bays than on exposed height in oceanic this is islands. up. and evidently due to the influence of the land. in the northern part of the Labrador peninsula. Figures represent hours of the day. just as this is upon . we find that its change cor- responds with the variations in the phases of the moon. as it enters the narDiagram to rowing bay. and so the tide wave Fig.THE MOVEMENTS OF THE OCEAN some places is 211 said to reach 50 or 60 feet. the tide rises about as high as it does in the Bay of Fundy. the at all times exerting a pull upon the earth. heavy lines. that are disturbed by them. In Ungava Bay. noon. and this would lead us to believe that in some way the tide is caused by the moon. show advance variation in height of the tide at any single place. nearest of the heavenly bodies. If we observe the of tidal wave in the Atlantic.

the sun is also doing but this body. ^^ ^^® es -. but they do not pass around the earth directly under the moon. moon and earth could cease revolving. 102. neavens. they would come if it together as certainly as a stone will fall to the earth is dropped from © ® the hand. earth. Therefore is a wave raised in the ocean. by which the bodies of the solar system are bound together. draw the earth toward it.212 FIB ST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY the moon. and it is something like that which holds the air to the If the earth and causes a stone to fall to the ground. earth. . because the attractive force varies not only with the mass . and one on the opposite side. There- /^ fore the moon is endeavoring to U ^ .j tlie tlCle wave ^ it. (B) the same at full moon a. In the first two cases the waves of moon and sun are formed in about the same place hut in the third they are formed in different places and hence the tidal rise is less. j. for they lag behind. the moon and sun in opposition during the quarter. . and new moon. is so much further from us that its influence is less. . -^y tillS attrac- tion one wave is formed under the moon. What the moon is doing in this respect..-\ pass- through f ollows . and to B a slight extent is ^ / really succeeding in ^ drawing the liquid part of the © Fig. and hence follow it. though much larger than the moon. This pull is the attraction of gravitation. and the Three diagrams to moon in line at moon and (C) show (A) the sun.

one of the most important being the difference in distance of the moon. .^ Effects of the Tides. At new and full moon. become real curchecked or aided. waves are formed. so that a caused. the sun. published by the United States Coast Survey. giving the spring tide. particularly the moon or new. . and hence in perigee. Then navigation formed about. as given in the Tide Tables for the Atlantic. the tide is is full when the moon if made high. month.C. — Sometimes the is tides. sand and clay are drifted the mouths of harbors. and then both the lunar and solar tides are raised in about the same place. not in a circle. Therefore. The attraction varies greatly with the distance of the body . When nearest to us the moon is said to be in perigee^ and when is furthest in apogee. price 25 cents. D. the moon is much nearer than at the other times. as the phases of the moon change. but also with its distance. but along an elliptical path with the earth Therefore at one part of the lunar at one of the foci. and moon are nearly in line. Then the two combine to form a larger wave than usual. There are other causes for variations. earth. and the two waves are therefore somewhat in oppolower or neap tide is sition. the sun and moon are exerting their influence in directions nearly at right angles to one another. bars are 1 at wave form. instead of being merely the rising and falling of water in true rents. the height of the tide varies. When the moon is in the quarter.THE MOVEMENTS OF THE OCEAN 213 Therefore four of the body. Washington. and the waves are An especially valuable lesson in tide variation may be given by a careful study and plotting of the tide height at various places. the two larger ones by the moon. This body travels around the earth once in a lunar month. and two much smaller waves by the sun.

and known under the name of seiches. In parts of the Bay Fundy. where the tide rises to such great height. as the tide wave does after passing through the Strait of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean. when the tide falls. with the rising and falling tide the water moves backward and forward through it. the current moves one way. . currents are so strong that navigation is is Sometimes these tidal it impeded.214 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY aided in moving the sediment either along the coast or else out to sea. besides the more irregular fluct- uations of the surface due to winds and changes in the air pressure. moves as rapidly as a man can run. Again. surface This silent and regular rising and falling of the ocean is one of the most interesting features connected with this great expanse of water. however. 1 Here. bottom. and then. the tide may sometimes lose its height and velocity. if there is a strait between the two bays. where there is almost no rise and fall of the tide. of miles. There are many special causes for these currents. On the open sea one might travel for thousands its existence . and oftentimes impossible to row a boat against the current. this great mass of water rushes out through the narrow channel with the velocity of a river. Sometimes the tide rises higher on one side of a peninsula than on the other. when after passing through a narrow entrance it reaches a broad sea. even in large lakes there are slight tides of this origin. On the other hand. and it is unsafe to attempt to navigate these waters unless one is perfectly familiar with There the tide. advancing over all the peculiarities of movement. never knowing of but along the land margin it becomes very apparent and important. In fact. These currents are caused by the approach of the wave over the shallovi^ surf on the beach. the water may enter a broad bay and then. and the outgoing tide in the opposite direction. in a manner similar to the approach of the wind-wave As the tide rises. the low mud flats.^ of j^aces . a separate tide of small size is generated by the same cause which makes the great ocean tidal waves. the currents or become as violent as a rapid river current. after passing through a narrow arm of the sea.


Facing page 21k. Diagrammati( ha .

c ocean currents. .


and the warming . would furnish it. but they seem 1j be more powerful than this cause alone could produce and although nearly every one believes that differences in temperature cause a slow circulation of cold water along the ocean bottom. . but a slow circulation along the tom. and rising in if can be accounted for only on this explanation. how could the deep-sea animals obtain the oxygen which they need ? If the waters this were quiet. rises in the warmer and settles in the colder regions. and there are other facts pointing The temperature of the deep sea to the same conclusion. there were no such circulation. This conclusion seems necessary as a result of the fact of greater warmth in the one place than in the other. bot- On this theory the ocean is somewhat . and the great movements of of ocean currents are similar to the circulation the atmosphere : but there is one very important difference being made lighter belts. another explanation seems to be neceslayers . with bottom currents moving toward the Equator. like the air. consisting of sinking water in warmer belts. it was stated that there are reasons for believing that there is — a circulation in the ocean. the colder latitudes. of this therefore confined to the surface hence the comparison with the air is not strictly correct. and surface movements away from it. and aid in the production of some of the currents at the surface. Moreover. these creatures would have no source for necessary element. But the air is is the sun's heat does not reach to the bottom of the sea. and near the ground. XII). supplied from the surface. There are actual movements of the ocean similar to those which this theory demands.THE MOVEMENTS OF THE OCEAN : 215 Ocean Currents Differences iyi Temperature When speaking of the temperature of the sea (Chap. while it cools warmed from below.

forming a great eddy of and this is found in all the oceans that are crossed by the Equatorial belt. then southeastward. where it divides into two unequal parts. — that is. circles eastward. partly between the West Indies. stating this theory let us look briefly at the actual conditions of oceanic circulation. becoming warmer. — For the illustration of these ocean move- ments we may select north Atlantic. Atlantic Currents. The former drums. circles through it. passing along the coast of Europe and northern Africa. That part of the Equatorial drift which passes into the Caribbean Sea. ^ tion of the sea. movof calms in the direction followed by southwest on the northern side of the it.216 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Before sary for the more powerful of the surface currents. There is a slow circulaand south of the Equator. partly into the Caribbean. both north ing toward the belt the trades. and northwest to the south of In the dol- water moves westward until the coast of South America is reached. turning to the left in the southern seas Hence it circles around. of these islands in the open sea. The turning to the right under the influence of the earth's rotation. again comes within the zone of the trade winds. enters 1 Although some it investigated. and finally. . and partly outside latter. slowly moving surface water. the smaller southwards. this drift of passes as a slow drift of water. and much more carefully studied. and to the right in the northern. between the trade-wind belts. of the conditions on the ocean bottom have been has not been found possible to determine the rate of move^ ment of the cold bottom water. in which the ocean currents are as well developed as anywhere. the larger journeying northward along the northern coast of South America. Equator.


the Gulf of Mexico,
of Florida


and passes out of and Cuba, where it emerges


as the

between the end Gulf Stream

(Fig. 103).

This current, flowing rapidly at
passes along
it is

as a

narrow stream, loses velocity as

and becomes

Off the Florida coast

a distinct stream in

the sea,

flowing at the rate of four or five miles an hour

but by the time the


Cod has
ity is


reduced to less than two miles For a an hour.

flows near


then, about


the latitude of

Cape Hatteras,

slowly turns to the

leaving the

American shores and crossing the
Atlantic to Europe,

being deflected in

Fig. 103.





show the currents






Against the European coast it divides, some turning southwards toward the Equator, and some going northward past Scandinavia
into the Arctic.^
1 Nansen has proved that there is a current in the Arctic from the northern shores of Asia to the region between Greenland and Spitzbergen.

north Atlantic. Figures in miles per hour.

tell rate of




In the north Atlantic there is a cold current called the Labrador current, flowing from the Arctic. This comes down from the north, between Greenland and Baffin Land, past Labrador, and as far as New England, where it disappears in the Gulf of Maine.^ It hugs the American coast closely, being turned to the right by the deflective
effect of the earth's rotation.


Aside from similar currents in the several oceans, there a drift of water in the southern hemisphere, south of

and Australia, where the water moves in the direction followed by the prevailing westerThese movements constitute the great ocean curlies. rents of the globe, and as a result of them the waters of the sea are almost constantly in motion in certain definite
Africa, South America,
It will be noticed that where they have the same directions as the prevailing winds,^ and this is believed by many to be the most prominent cause for the surface ocean currents. Water is always drifted before the wind, and small currents of this origin may be seen along the coast, not only Drifted along, turned by in the ocean but in many lakes. the land, and by the effect of rotation, the water circles through the seas, giving the great oceanic circulation. No doubt there is also a great but slow movement caused by differences in temperature but this seems to be a less important cause for surface currents than the winds.

The Explanation.

start, the currents


The gulf enclosed between Nova Scotia and Cape Cod. The Labrador current is possibly started by the north winds, but probably is a partial return of the water that is sent into the Arctic by the


Gulf Stream, and the fresh water that enters the Arctic from the great
north-flowing rivers of Asia and North America.


the Gulf Stream

aided in crossing the Atlantic by the prevailing westerlies.



There are several reasons for this conclusion, but the most prominent one is, that the ocean currents are less pronounced in the southern than in the northern oceans yet southern oceans are open to the cold Antarctic, while those north of the Equator are more nearly closed to the cold Arctic waters and particularly is this true of the north Pacific. If the oceanic circulation is chiefly due to differences in temperature, it should be most pronounced in the southern oceans, where there is a greater chance for but the reverse is true. this difference to express itself Ocean currents are chiefly important in modiEffects. fying the climate. By them the ocean itself, and the



neighboring lands, are


either Avarmer or cooler.


currents do not cut the shores as do the waves, nor are

they moving rapidly enough to carry


sediment, as


of the tidal currents


but they are performing

a great


in nourishing large



float in these waters,

numbers of marine aniand which furnish food to
currents are food
exist in the

the larger animals.

The warm ocean


for the

colonies of
of the ocean,


and they therefore aid in the building of many lands in the sea. The Bahamas, the Bermudas, the southern end of Florida, and the multitudes of islands in the south Pacific, are coral islands

warmer portions

made from the skeletons

of creatures nourished in the

warm water

of the ocean currents.





Condition of


Crust. ^

— Nearly

everywhere at the

very surface of the land there

a soil covering, beneath

which, at depths usually not more than a few


Fig. 104.




of horizontal layers of different kinds.

sometimes 200, 300, or even 400

feet, there is solid rock,


this continues to as great a
this point I

depth as
of a part of


has peneI,


would suggest a review



larly pages 7-13.

THE earth's crust
trated into the crust.


These rocks are



kinds, and

when seen

in a river gorge, or

any other cut-

they are usually found to be in layers, and in many cases these are arranged one on another, generally in horizontal beds (Figs. 104, 136, and 139), but sometimes in
layers tilted at various angles




even vertically.


of these are

made up

of fragments,

such as grains of clay or sand, some of shells of animals, forming limestones, and some are made of distinct minerals,

and these are called

crystalline rocks.

Minerals of the Crust



— When subjected


found that in any rock there are Chemists have so far discovered about certain elements.^ 70 elements, but only a very few are really common in the earth, the three most abundant being oxygen, silicon, and aluminum; and the others, that are less abundant, though still important in the crust, are iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, carbon, and hydrogen. Oxygen forms 47% of the earth's crust, silicon 27%, and
chemical analysis,
it is

aluminum 8%,

so that these three constitute about




rocks of the earth's crust.



of the

No attempt can be made
his larger

here to treat the subject of mineralogy.


Dana's Minerals and How to Study be found a more complete treatment. for students to really understand minerals is to examine them and study their characteristics from actual specimens. I would
very good elementary book

Them ; and in The only way



suggest the introduction of
minerals, preferably taking

mon, which are selected
other characteristics.

some simple laboratory work in the study of up only a dozen or twenty of the most comnot so much for crystal perfection as to show the




the simplest form to which


has been able to reduce


Gold, for instance, cannot be


simpler, nor can mercury,

nor the oxygen of the air but each of these may be made to combine with other elements to form some chemical combination.



rocks, such as those


of clay, the elements are often


complex and indefinite combination but frequently they

are present in distinct combinations,

— A mineral may be defined as a homogeneous
There are perhaps 2000


as minerals.

solid of definite chemical composition^ occurring in nature^ hut

not of apparent organic origin.

minerals known, but most of them are so rare that they

found only in the larger mineral collections.



two hundred may be considered


common, but


than a dozen are really important in the rocks.

— By far the most abundant

of these is quartz^

a mineral composed of the two elements silicon and oxygen

(SiOg), and found in all
granites and sandstones,
as well as in



rocks and most soils.

so hard that


be scratched with a knife,

and it will cut glass. Very often it is found in
FiG. 105.

perfect crystalline form,

Quartz crystal, showing three of the prism sides and three of the pyramid faces.

being bounded by smooth
glassy planes, which form

a six-sided prism, while on one end, or perhaps on both,
there are hexagonal pyramids.
is less

More commonly the quartz


and in

most of the quartz


the world occurs in grains, generally of small size.

Quartz may be told from the single grains of other common minerals by its hardness, and by its glassy surface,


reflects light as glass does



for this reason it is

said to have a glassy lustre.
fracture, for

It resembles glass also in its




has a shelly, rounded sur-

face quite like broken glass. or shells/ fracture.




called the conchoidal

rocks durable, for

Being hard, quartz tends to make it is not easily ground down by the
cutting rocks (Chapter

agents which are




more durable than other minerals for another reason, when exposed to the air it does not change and crumble, as some minerals do, but throughout all the attacks of the weather remains pure, clear quartz. Quartz, when compared with the mineral next described, is about as gold is In the air gold remains fresh, but iron soon rusts to iron. and becomes soft. Quartz is also slightly soluble, and the water flowing over the land always carries small quantibut in this respect it is much less soluble than ties of it calcite, and more so than feldspar. Therefore in most

respects this is a very durable mineral.


— This mineral


another exceedingly impor-

component of the crust. With quartz it occurs in granite, and this rock is chiefly made of these two minerals. Feldspar sometimes occurs in crystals, though much When it is found in grains more rarely than quartz. together with quartz, the two can generally be told apart by the fact that feldspar is duller and Avhitish, and has a
Besides this, a fractured piece less glassy lustre. found to be smooth, like the side of a crystal. This is because the mineral is cut by many minute planes, extending parallel to one another, which are known as cleavage planes (Fig. 106) and when the mineral is broken, it splits most easily along these planes. Therefore, although nearly of the same hardness (quartz being a



harder), these minerals


be easily told apart.^

Excellent observation lessons

or pebbles

may be given by means of small chips from a stone yard or stream bed.




mineral, feldspar

hard as quartz, and not a soluble This is because when exposed to the air it slowly changes and gradually Really fresh feldspar is glassy and looks quite crumbles. like quartz; but this kind of feldspar is not common

Although nearly

not nearly so durable.

excepting in recently cooled lavas, in which there has not

The dull opaqueness of been time enough for change. most feldspar is due to the beginning of this change and when it has gone far enough, the formerly hard mineral is changed to a crumbling clay or kaolin^ just as hard iron or steel may rust to a soft, yellow, clayey mass. Air and water cause many changes among the minerals, and hence they slowly crumble when ex;

posed to the action of these

Since feldspar
it is



easily altered,

an element

weakness in any rock.






and limestones, and
Fig. 106.

small quantities in





other mineral properties. Like feldspar it has cleavage, but this is much more distinct in calcite, and one can rarely find a piece of it in which the smooth, shiny cleavage faces do not appear. ^ In color it varies greatly, as do the minerals described above. While quartz and feldspar cannot be scratched with a knife, calcite is easily

piece of calcite, showing cleav age faces and cleavage cracks.

Moreover, unlike these two minerals,
instance, in the white marble used for






in cemeteries.

TSE earth's crust
carried in solution,


and the water

of the land

and sea

One may see th6 proof of this by always carries it.^ visiting a cemetery in which the stones have stood for


surface of the marble headstones


often etched by the rain,
are nearly obscured.

and sometimes the inscriptions


change or decay,

exposed to the action of the air, calcite does not though it may be carried off in solution water bearing some acid comes in contact with it,

a chemical change immediately takes place,

and the


slowly disappears.
a very

What happens
in a



be seen on

much more
or marble

extensive scale, by placing a bit of

weak solution


or other acid,

when an

effervescence begins

and carbonic
entirely gone.

acid gas escapes, until finally the calcite

Because this mineral

is soft,

easily dissolved,

and changed




in contact



rocks that are


not nearly so durable as those made of quartz or feldspar, or of these combined.
of calcite are

There are numerous other important mmerals in the rocks, but the etc., which have been formed from their destruction, constitute considerably more than onehalf of the earth's crust. The other more common rock-forming minerals are the micas, some of which are colorless and others black, while all are characterized by a remarkable cleavage hornblende and augite, dark brown, green, or black minerals; and some of the comj)ounds of iron, which give the red and yellow colors to soils and many rocks.
three above mentioned, together with the clays,

which makes it possible for animals to build shells. of these and a few other minerals, in which each student is expected to handle the specimens and determine the lustre, cleavage (if present), fracture, color, hardness, crystal form (if present), specific
1 It is



The study

gravity, etc.


will be of great disciplinary value, particularly


in study-

ing mineral specimens,


of the crystalline rocks are furnished


study and to identify the minerals of which they are made. Q

volcanoes existed and sent forth molten rock in parts of the earth which are no longer the seats of eruption. though the mineral grains may be so minute that none can be distinguished by the eye. and lava flows out at the surface. similar lavas have come from within the earth. 107. and at all times in the past. a new rock is being added to the crust.226 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY : Rocks of the Crust Igneous Rocks. and the grains vary greatly in size. we find that it is made of minerals. (Compare Plate 17 (diabase) and or one that Fig. most common in these beds are feldspar. quartz. we find such lavas which have recently cooled. either one that has just cooled.) The minerals that are Section of diabase (Plate 17) enlarged under the microscope. If the lava cools very slowly. the . 107. — Whenever a volcano breaks forth in eruption. Fig. these elements come together and form definite compounds. was formed long ago. Rocks like those found on the land are even now forming on the earth's surface. or minerals. but as they cool. showing the minerals. they are made of elements which are not definitely combined. and upon cooling have formed hard rocks (Chapter XX). and begin to form hard rock. hornblende and augite. When the lavas are melted. Upon the flanks of Vesuvius and other volcanoes. If we examine a solidified lava. and in former times. some- what salt as salt crystals are is produced when a solution of hot water cooled.


i .

. have cooled so very slowly This that the mineral grains have all grown to good size. that are always work weariug away the crust (Chapter Diagram to illustrate the way in which granite is thrust into the earth and later reached. Some lavas which are thrust into the earth. and in fact some are so porous. they may be so small that the unaided eye cannot distinguish them and indeed the rock may even become a glass. 108) the cooling . seen at the surface only ^O^CAJ\/q when beit the layers neath which was formerly buried have been removed the by at agents FiG. some being black and some nearly white. The pores are caused by the expansion of steam in the cooling lava. There is also a difference in chemical composition of the lavas. in which even the microscope cannot detect crystal grains. others dense.TBE earth's crust crystals . and hence in the kind of minerals which grow as they cool. XV). and which have not reached the surface. and such a rock is is the origin of the granites (Fig. 108. like obsidian. In accordance with these differfloat . 227 have time to grow to large size (Plate 17) but if is rapid. etc. some rocks contain quartz and others have none of this mineral. that like pumice they will on water. some have hornblende. As these differences occur there is a variation in the color. As a result of this. some augite. Not only are there these differ- ences in texture^ but some lavas are porous. for all of these molten rocks contain water.

As a result of this. — When exposed to the air. Here the waves take the fragments. names. All of these. or carbonate of lime. like the grains of quartz. places where specimens may be purchased. and strew them over the bed of the sea near the land. and the breaking up of the grains by action of frost. adding other substances which they themselves rasp from the coast. lavas and all other rocks are subjected to changes. This form of laboratory work I would strongly urge. (Chapter XV). and upon the land there are great areas of these. resulting from the decay of some of the minerals (like feldspar. so that in the course of time the rocks slowly crumble. but are now raised above it. there are quite different products of the changes in such minerals as feldsjjar. the solution of others. find their way into the rivers. The beds of rock thus formed are called sedimentary/. New chemical compounds insoluble. A third product is the unchanged mineral. of always sinking into the ground.228 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY ences the igneous rocks (those formed from the cooling of lava) are classified and given different names. etc. The soluble substances. which are produced. taken by the water which flows over the land. as for instance in salt 1 It is impossible to introduce into this book a more complete state. gypsum. but the latter remain fine-grained clay. ment concerning these rocks in fact it would not be profitable to do so unless the student were supplied with specimens for individual study. may in some rare cases. like behind. more complete statement about the rocks of the crust is contained in my Elementary Geology^ where the teacher will find the necessary information concern- A ing kinds of rocks. generally in the form kaolin.^ Sedimentary/ Bocks. . augite. etc. is some being soluble and others The former may pass off in the water. like salt. then from these either into lakes or the sea. and hornblende). which were once formed in the sea.

most important group of sedimentary rocks is the mechajiical or fragmental^ which are made of rock fragments of all kinds. Or the carbonate of lime may be taken from shells. forming There are salt and gypsum beds in the west which have been formed in this way. another illustration of this . . beds of carbonate of lime are even now layers of chemically/ deposited rock.^ and in some of the salt lakes of the Great Basin of the west. and far the wood and coal ash. are instances these rocks. ments ground. The Globigerina ooze and the beds of coral lime- stone. when the waves are very strong. These fragments vary in size from the very finest clay to coarse pebbles and even boulders. the water later by animals and built into their which forming gather into layers of carbonate of lime. as substances from the well as from the water of the In every tree there are mineral substances. 109. which are accumuof lating near coral reefs. A pebble bed. Sometimes. be precipitated 229 from a saturated solution.THE EARTH'S CRUST lakes. but in this case the in the coal or Carboniferous period. which are known as organic sedimentary beds. being precipitated. class Coal is Fig. which the waves and currents have carried and deposited in layers or strata on the sea bed. beds are made of plant frag- now exposed at Cape Breton Nova Scotia. the latter may be carried. these which form part of the But by 1 This is the origin of many of the beds of rock salt which are now mined. a part of a beach formed Island. limestone. it is which have taken air.

being called con- the pebble rocks glomerates (Fig.. The cement of these rocks is deposited from solution by the ing. stones or shales. settles to the bottom and forms beds of clay. the sand beds sandstones^ and the clay layers Fig. when the sea is more quiet. 110. no longer be kept afloat by the curcan the finer clay. the deposits are of coarse pebbles but in quiet bays. and the members of this group are named upon this basis. or sand (Fig. . Like the lavas. where the waves are violent. When in the . Near the coast line. 230 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY but later. and far out to sea. fore among these is rocks there ture a variation in tex- from peb- ble beds to clay rocks. 110) . Mass. the fragmental rocks are unconsolidated when first formed but as they are not hot they do not become solid by cool- found upon land these strata are generally form of hard beds and by examination it will be found that the grains of which they are composed are held together by a cement^ somewhat as we may cause sand grains to cling together by means of mucilage. Cape Ann. pebbly at one end. which Thererents. either clay- A sand beach. 109). only the smaller fragments can be transported.

where the shell fragments which are thrown up by the waves. are fine crystals. A specimen process of cementing ol coquina. carbonate of lime. of minerals Metamorphic Rocks. Ill). but more often a hard and very dense rock is formed by means of this cement. 111. may often be seen in gravel beds and on shell beaches. or common rock cements Fig. soon become transformed into a rock called coquin (Fig. which is used for building houses in these regions. and sinking into the ground. This are silica. like those of Florida. — Igneous rocks made and always have a crystalline structure. the cementing has only gone far enough to cause the grains to adhere very slightly. which though . Betw^een the clay or sand bed and the solid rock there are is every gradation. The most some ^substances which are being carried in solution by most of the water which is flowing over the surSometimes face of the earth. is 231 percolating between the grains.THE EARTH'S CRUST water which salt of iron.

108 and 112). come from deep and cut through the rocks nearly vertically in reaching toward the surface. are made up oi fragments However. Canada. the clay rock a slate. the heat which exists in the earth. The limestone becomes a marble. in which heat and heated water have caused minerals to change in kind and form. as crust may reach down to a buried lava mass. ISTew England. may also cause change. or metamorphism. and metamorphism may produce a coarse-grained granitic rock. for they The reason to the air. 113). and this The heat results from the friction of also causes heat and change. . Position of the Rocks. The sheets . where if they come for this is evident. These resemble the and some of formed. and perhaps even a schist. the rocks of the crust of minerals. and sometimes even crumpled (Fig.232 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHT sometimes not possessing a perfect crystal outline. but they are commonly found either in nearly horizontal beds or in steeply inclined sheets (Figs. From these various causes a third great class of rock beds is which the name metamorphic is given. the highlands of ^N'ew Jersey. as we may warm two rocks by rubbing them together. or line calcite . called gneiss (Plate 17). within the earth. — Lavas may exist in any position. and are not crystalline. or by pressing them against a grindstone that to is revolving. Besides among mountains the strata are often folded. They exist over great areas in etc. but by some change. they flow out over the land in nearly horizontal any pasty liquid would. when first formed. The chemically deposited sedimentary rocks are also frequently crystalline but the sedimentary beds proper. because here the cause for heat has been more pronounced. the rock particles as they glide over one another during the folding. The water passing of the earth are subjected to many changes. them look quite like granite. through them alters them so that beds of shell may become crystalor the heat of a lava mass passing through the rocks. These metamorphic beds are nmch more common in mountainous regions than elsewhere. the minerals have been formed not by melting. as we might crumple sheets of paper. or the wearing away of the sheets. igneous in being crystalline. this. Here however. These may later be buried beneath other rocks.

settle to the bottom. and these layers may be thin seams (or laminoe) or great beds. 113. The cur- rents vary. In tion is the sedimentary rocks the Oidginal condi- nearly horizontal Fig. as the lava wells ^0. changes. and the very level of the These land fluctuates. 108 233 112) . These variations in kind of rock produce stratifica- . then one of limestone. form- ing layers parallel to which are nearly horizontal. 112. the waves changes. bed of formed over the the sea.OUCA/v. then of sand. Islands. etc. dikes are and in every eruption formed of and Kilauea. the velocity Crumpling of rock. Great sheets of sand or clay are Diagram showing a volcano in cross section. for as time elapses there are many of FiG.THE EARTH'S CRUST that cut through the strata are called dikes (Figs. then another of clay. The layers vary in kind and in texture. because this is the out- line of the greater part of the ocean floor (Chapter XII). and the grains it. in the Hawaiian . on the flanks of the volcano. beds of different kinds. changes in conditions may cause the deposit first of a sheet of clay. out from a fissure and flows down the mountain sides (Chapter XX).

especially among mountains (Chap. as in the case of these mountains (Chap. which in consequence are often called stratified. . Metamorphic rocks also vary in position. 234 tion. they are so folded and changed that they are no longer sedimentary or igneous.000 feet above sea level. XIX). but become members of the metamorphic group. even on the tops of mountains. FinST BOOK OF PHTSiCAL GFOGRAPBT ¥ and the different beds are called strata (Figs. and 139). and that then there came an uplift. as in the great Mississippi valley between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains but sometimes they are folded. these contortions of the rocks occur. 113) for when. . for they have been metamorphosed as the result of changes in which folding has been of importance. Movements of the Crust. as the result of which they have been raised perhaps as much as 10. M in the past. crust of the earth been in Not only has the movement . — The study of the rocks proves movement that the earth's crust has been in On the land.. Sometimes this uplift has strata which are the . Hence these rocks tell us that the land where they now exist was once a sea bed. This difference of stratification is one of the most characteristic features of the sedimentary rocks. XIX). the metamorphic rocks are usually most complexly bent and twisted (Fig. Indeed. by the movement of altered beds . When raised into a dry-land condition. | i I j been such as to leave the rocks still in horizontal sheets but in other places the strata have been folded and broken. 104. 136. for very often they are which were originally stratified into layers of different texture and composition but they are rarely horizontal. the earth's crust. these beds are most commonly so uplifted that they still remain nearly horizontal. there are ' same in kind as those now gathering on the sea floor and in them are found entombed the shells or skeletons of animals that once lived in the sea.

might be introduced to show that the crust is rising here and sinking there and from equally conclusive evidence geologists have proved that in the past. 114. but even the continents. A section of horizontal rocks showing three fault planes. along the plane of breaking. ot fault . these changes. have not been exposed to the air long to is enough have been covered with moss and lichen growth. During earth- the earthquake shocks in 1835 the land on the coast of Chile was lifted four or five feet. as has been Scores of similar instances proved by careful measurements made under the supervision of the government. is now standing below the coast of sea level of On Sweden part the land slowly rising and part sinking. There historical proof of change in level (rising) of the coast of Hudson's Bay. have produced not only the mountains of the land. and now lifted above the sea level. and on the shores of New England and !Lli r I I I ! I I I I 1^ i i I __!_ _^ l^^^r?^"^^^^^^ Fig. they either bend or break.THE EARTH'S CBUST in the past. or perhaps thousands of feet. The shores of Baffin Land have risen so recently that pebble beaches formed by the waves. When the rocks thus moved are disturbed very much from their horizontal position. tree trunks a recent sinking. When breaking. but it is 235 even now changing position. . and during many quakes similar movements have occurred in other places. New show Jersey. occupying long periods of time. they may move only a few inches.

and tions are caused in fact some mountainous eleva- by them. far means from the truth. the folding of rocks that as may proceed so far. the beds are actFig. because it is impossible to find any of telling how long it takes for Nature to perform . the broken blocks being raised and tilted. and sometimes they are even in the form of overturned folds. Age of the Earth. among the metamor(Fig.236 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHY Faults are very plane (Figs.S. and while these symmet- they are often irregular. ually crumpled Photograph of a small fault near Sydney. the monocline (Fig.). the former being called an anticline. Cape Breton. unsymmetrical anticlines and synclines (U.) and overturned anticlines and synclines (O. and O. 117). in which the strata dip in only one direction. common among mountains. 116). 115. 114 and 115). synclines (S). In folding there may be an up or a down fold (Fig. Section of folded rocks showing anticlines (A). are sometimes very rical. the latter a syncline . — Various attempts have been made . In an anticline the rocks dip in two directions away from a central axis. 113). to state the age of the earth in years but all have been OS OA Fig. but there is a fold. 116. and U.A. In fact.S.A. phic series.

attempting any estimate of the age of comes from the fact that the changes are very slow. 000 or 40. Such great changes require much time. one layer upon another. 117.THE earth's cnusT her tasks in changing the earth's surface. while our lifetime is short. Some volcanoes have been watched two thou. and the time since they began to operate very great. which in some cases is a mile or two above the base. like the Colorado. and they have not grown much in size yet in previous times they have been built to very nearly their present great height.':•. action of the river water. but in some parts of the ^^.••••• ~~Z _-^-^_-<i. ^^- A monocline. become and then slowly been destroyed. 2^l"-^'1=3^ 'II :^^?^^ ^^ •^\r>v:v.§ J Fig. and so also does the formation of the deep river valleys. and we know that the action of the agents of the sea would require many for one or scores of thousands of years to form these miles of rock. yet which have been cut out of the rocks by the slow earth great volcanoes have been built. which in a lifetime do not appear to change.-:s:<-:x ^fe^-?^. until now only a few remnants of the lofty pile of lava remain to tell the story.--^r. there are 30. ^r^ .:^^^^ :••. that have been deposited in the sea during some past time . One difficulty in The the earth . sand years. then have extinct. Compared with the time which has elapsed since the beginning of the geological history.•'•'. 72222•>^-^ = Not only this. a human life is but a fraction of a second. 000 feet of 237 In some places sedimentary strata._= ^^----1^-/5:^.

To these divisions of the history certain names have been given. or fossils. Slowly. which can be used to tell the actual time. and we or ayes. we have been able to work out general and to divide this into stages ov periods. or mammals then fishes appeared. this chronology will be . animals and plants have been changing. hundreds of millions. being first of simple and lowly forms. and we have a kind of rough chronology. Geological Ages. Careful studies have revealed this history of change.^ 1 A more complete statement of the basis for found in most geologies. highest of all. as — While we cannot man tell the age of the its earth in years^ history. in which are found animal and plant remains of certain kinds. at first there were no true fishes. throughout all past time. occur.238 thing is FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY noteworthy: all who have tried to estimate the it age of the earth during recent years have placed millions of years^ and some. and there are many names representing subdivisions of these larger groups. man himself. before he began to leave written records. then birds. then mammals. the most ancient periods are placed at the bottom. are now able to divide the earth historj^ into stages and say that certain rocks. belong to an earlier or later period than other beds in which different organic remains. For instance. or time scale. just as we divide the early history of into stages (the paleo- and neolithic). the larger divisions . These are merely the names for but geologists have carried the chro- nology much further. and finally. and gradually changing as higher groups appeared. birds. reptiles. . In the table. These lithic geological stages have been made out from the of records left in the rocks by the animal life the past. and then reptiles.

Neocene. 2 From this group. the Algonkian. some of the upper beds have been given a name. Keptiles and amphibia continue to be Age of Reptiles. which begin to be abundant in the Devonian. Land plants and insects of high types. The age of Devonian. diminish. Invertebrates prevail. Quaternary. reptiles continue. PALEOZOIC TIME. In part No forms higher than invertebrates. Land plants assume great importance.^ part the original crust of the earth. and higher mammals be- Cretaceous. the Invertebrates of course continue down to the very present but until Devonian they were the most important group. and to great size. Jurassic. but continue down to 1 . The same is true of fishes. Carboniferous. In the first half the CEN020IC TIME. No fossils known.THE earth's crust TABLE OF GEOLOGICAIi AGES Pleistocene 239 Man in the or assumes importance. new . occurring just below the Cambrian. Amphibia and Triassic. Invertebrates. the present. particularly upper part. MESOZOIC TIME. perhaps in Archean. predominant. gin. reptiles develop remark- ably. Silurian. Mostly metamorphic rocks. AZOIC TIME. Eishes begin to be abundant. Birds begin to become important. Glacial Period prevailed. ety. Age of Mammals. i Cambrian. Mammals develop in remarkable variwhile reptiles 1 Eocene. Mammals of low forms appear.

Therefore there are paths along which more water runs than elsewhere. This is why wells dug in one place may and some parts are more not find a good supply of water. transform it either to a weak acid or an alkali. 240 •: Gen[ . and while most will be turned aside from its I i I f downward path. there are substances. and Each of these portions is work wearing of away the rocks of engaged That part which sinks into the soil the earth's crust. a portion of it runs directly away. easily entered than others. Wood ashes are often used in making soap because of their alkalies. carries with it some of the oxygen and carbonic acid gas of the air. while those near by encounter seams which furnish a permanent supply. which when dissolved by water. and perchance it also takes some substances a part soaks into the ground. the water may encounter a dense stratum. Some beds are much more porous than others. in the slow from the decaying vegetation at the surface. Sinking through the soil. and in the humus that is formed. When plants decay. for in i every case the rocks of the surface are crossed by minute crevices. carbonic acid gas is produced. — When rain falls upon the surface. some sinks gradually into the rock.CHAPTER XV THE TVEARING AVTAY OF THE LAND Entrance of Water into the Earth. and these are among the materials which the water obtains from the decaying vegetation.

. Yet if Ave could examine these minutely. is poured upon sand. Even a dense rock like granite allows water to pass between and through the minerals. water . Section of rock (gneiss) trickling by through the strata. not only along the cracks and joints. but also into the very heart of the beds themselves. will be found that it has become heavier as the result of the absorbed water. and in each case its temperature is increased. Water exists all through the earth's crust as deep as man has explored. it is Fig. be carefully dried hours and then weighed. enlarged microscope and showing cracks along which water percolates. we would find that some actually did enter. or nearly any other rock. underground journey.^ THE WEARING erally these AWAY OF THE LAND 241 water-producing seams are not the result of streams. but instead. or it may settle down below the cold upper crust into the warmer portions. There enters is much difference in the permeability of the beds If forming the crust. 1 for If a small piece of this. it quickly and disappears but if upon clay. 118. are places in underground actual and between the rocks more through which water trickles readily than elsewhere. Laden as it is In its . the surface becomes wet. and very little water passes into the mass between the compact clay grains. water near the surface remains cool but it may pass near a lava which has been intruded into the crust. and afterwards soaked in water and weighed it again.

may do much work of solution and change but . the Surface. or mittent eruption. however. warm water of dissolves easily than cold. even when. water seeps slowly to the surface. the water. 119. if the rain that fell flowed away directly. We then have a hot spring (Fig. surface from considerable depths. Indeed. if the water escapes by interto the Such springs have come passing along a great the break or in earth a fault plane (Fig. when warmed for it has its power more in this respect greatly increased. to Fig. its when it flows out at the surface. the rivers would be violent floods at . porous rock I.. a geyser. the Conditions existing in hillside spring. temperature may be as high as the boiling point. 242 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY cold. and it is this gradual seep- impervious layers. More commonly. Arrows indicate direction of flow of water. Diagram showing condition exist ing in some hot springs. P. 114). and then. — of the After a certain journey some water returns to the air. 119). with foreign substances (see above). Perhaps it has gone far enough have been heated. age that supplies the rivers. Return to Underground Water Springs.

while the underfrom sinking. but the most common is where water. 120). passing through the soil. — Men Fig. it may pass on down the incline. the water comes out as a spring (Fig. encounters a less porous bed. is perhaps reaching the surface as an artesian well. dry river But a part of the rain water is stored in the channels. Such springs are very often located on hillsides. or a porous rock.. sometimes make springs artificially. Hence if a well is bored to this layer from a level below that where the water has . . encountering a porous stratum which dips into the ground. if in inclined layers a well is bored to it. earth. of the overlying beds The water it unable to escape because which prevent lying impervious layers prevent it from rising. along the surface of which it flows until it reaches the air. from these are called artesian wells. and sometimes the line of contact of sand and clay beds is marked by boggy places where the water is slowly escaping. where the conditions favor. short underground journey. ^^--^^^ Artesian Wells. becomes a water-bearing layer. and then as soon as the rain ceased. and gradually turned over to the streams after a Here and there. . It is therefore under the pressure of the water above stratum. Such a stratum. Diagram showing conditions favoring artesian wells (A) porous (P) and impervious (I) which. and Water. follows it and if it is prevented from escaping by means of a more impervious layer. it in the inclined water-bearing is That is to say. THE WEARING AWAT OF THE LAND 243 one time. the water rises. 121. There are many ways in which springs may be caused. the pressure great enough to force the water up through the well boring. nearly as high as the surface of the porous layer where the water has entered.

244 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY entered the ground. then there are two heads of supply. w^hilein a singly inclined layer the water may pass downwards along the porous stratum which is dipping into the earth. Mineral Springs. and sometimes these are so abundant that the water has a very disagreeable taste. and therefore can no longer hold so much mineral in solution. where the water cools when it reaches the air. In eastern New Jersey and eastern Texas there are such wells. in solution. may this . artesian — Many waters reached by wells or as borings. the hot springs are constantly being made. and to which additions For instance. down grade for the fold forms a saucer-shaped depression. and no escape . because air. is that where the rock raise it a short distance layers are bent into a syncline Conditions favoring artesian wells (A) in a syncline with porous and impervious (I) layers. the source of whose water is scores of miles to the westward. . One around many iron springs and surrounding hot springs. around many springs. deposits of minerals are being precipitated. and there are thousands of such wells in this country. In artesian wells the water may come to the surface scores of miles from the place where it entered. when it is necessary to by pumping. and many more iu which the pressure is not quite strong enough to force the water out into the air. A much rarer. On the land. they have minerals in solution. have mineral properties. In other words. but even more favorable condition. and many that come out natural springs. when coming out them origin into the the water can no longer hold find iron deposits of . the water will not only reach the surface. These are the conditions under which artesian w^ater is most commonly found. but wall rise into the air as a fountain. there are sometimes extensive beds that have been precipitated.

Every year. One of the most important lessons taught by this solvent action. It is this which supplies the animals in the sea with the carbonate of lime which they need. 123. in the Yellowstone Park are depositing extensive beds of and from the water of the same region. or Hot Springs. In the . Yellowstone Park.THE WEARING of the AWAY . are in reality only extensive cases of exactly what water all is underground doing. /^^ \^ Not a drop of water passes into the ground. some iron. This shows that in journey. and escapes. gypsum. gas and other substances. and a chemical analysis of any spring It is this or river water will reveal Fig. or all of these. each large stream is bearing seaward thousands of tons of dissolved mineral. and this means that much solid jnatter is taken away from its drainage area. its silica is being precipitated (Chapter XX). underground water is doing work of solution. is that water in a river is always carrying something away. which makes water hard . 123) geysers. attacks the minerals and takes These examples. without bringing to the surface a small load of dissolved mineral. and other substances as well. Laden it as it is with carbonic acid many substances away. limestone. OF THE LAND 245 carbonate of lime (Fig. and it is this which supplies the cement for the grains of the sedimentary rocks. which are im- pressive because they appeal to the eye.

by R. Copyright. perhaps coming to a more impervious layer. roof.*^^ f-p Fig.000 toiig of dissolved minerals. along 1 this. Then. showing stalactites on S. 1889. Y. bility of minerals.246 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHY course of the countless ages of geological time this small work amounts to a grand total of land destruction. tain — As there a difference in the solu-. some of which conan abundance of soluble minerals. . it passes . dissolving the limestone as it goes. Water. At first The Mississippi River annually carries into the sea 150.000. Stoddard. N. so there is of rocks. chooses some natural break or joint as the easiest way of entering the earth and slowly it enlarges this by solution. with limestones in which caverns are being hollowed out by water action.. This is the case -m^ . 124. New York.^ is Limestone Caves. Glens Falls. when sinking into the rocks. Howe's Cave.

124). because the roof of the cave has disappeared. mostly underground. or hollows. as are the Mammoth. but one in which fishes live. Gradually the surface of the land is being worn The Natural Bridge. 125. In a limestone country. perhaps after a journey of miles. and small surface because the streams are drainage is rare. and may be entered. and many others. like Kentucky near the Mammoth Cave. there might be a natural bridge formed. down. firmer than the rest. as a spring on the of a river. Luray. but before this open-stream condition. and the pasis sage of the water easier. then as these become enlarged. where not only is there a river. bank Fig. In time this would go so far that the underground river becomes a surface stream. and in time these caverns are partly opened to the air. emerg- ing. where a part of the cave wall. where cades into the earth to take up its underground journey. Virginia. the conditions is may in time change until there river.THE WEARING AWAT OF THE LAND 247 the water slowly seeps through the rock along the numer- ous joints . the last remnant of the old cavern. The surface water runs down it cas- into little saucer-shaped depressions. . 1 This is the case in Mammoth Cave. formed a veritable underground flowing in a great cavern which the water has dis- solved out of the rock^ (Fig. has been left standing as a bridge across the valley. much of the water sinks into the earth.

124). as in the case of the remarkable Luray Cave. . Little by little these deposits grow. Fig. One is of the most potent agencies is of rock disintegration dissolving as it water. often ornaments the caverns so that they become places of distinct interest and beauty. dissolve the limestone. actions co-operating to cause the rocks If this to crumble. and enters the cave through the roof. and the rivers would not be furnished with sediment The strata that form the land and they must be softened and divided into bits before they can be worn away and carried from land to sea. forming pendent stalactites. caused by union of stalactite described above. escapes into the air. some of the carbonic acid gas. or from the roof (Fig. icicle-like columns. 126) and the weird and even beautiful way in which these deposits increase. and the water is then of its unable to hold all of the lime in solution. were not so. On this journey through the rock it has taken some of the carbonate of lime into solution but upon entering the cave. which permitted the water to ping from this to the . Methods Employed.248 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY also slowly percolates into the limestone rock The water through many smaller crevices. This at work changing and . Breaking up of the Rocks. and is therefore forced to deposit some mineral load. rocks are being slowly disintegrated. are hard. much of the earth would be in the condition of bare rock. instead of a soil-covered land. softenings and crumto transport to the sea. either upon the cave roof or upon the floor below. forming columns (Fig. This process of decaying. In time these may unite. 126. bling the rocks it is is commonly called weathering^ because due to the action of the weather. drop- floor. and smaller stalagmites from the floor. By the action of solution — Column in a cavern. and sta- but there are other lagmite.

When ice is formed. sometimes carbonic and very often two or all of these.THE WEABING AWAY OF THE LAND Every 249 bit that passes through the crevices of the rock. In cold climates. the ice presses . for then the minerals are less firmly supported. and perhaps other substances which the water is In this way hard minerals are softened and bearing. an expansion takes and being confined in small crevices. and in the high temperate and Arctic latitudes. water in the rock crevices sometimes freezes at night and thaws in the daytime. rocks crumbled. and in time they fall apart. and one of the results of that substances are produced which the water can then take away in solution. as iron is when exposed to dampSometimes they need oxygen. 127. is taken away in solution weakens the mass. Fig. and particularly on high mountain tops. The changes that take place in the minerals are these is very complex. place. may min- As it passes along. sometimes water. ready for change. acid gas. Effect of frost action on mountain top in Colorado. the water finds many erals ness.

other substances to the water. is engaged in pulverizing the rock or the soil. Frost action is everywhere at work where rocks and soil are exposed to the air in cold climates but below the depth of a few feet it loses its importance. every blade of grass. or even a chip of rock. which sinks into the earth through the mat of vegetation. On a built much larger scale this action may be seen when a fire strata. which will soon crack because of the unequal expansion in different parts. night. and every lichen that clings to the surface of a boulder or ledge.^ Plants are also helping to destroy the In their sap they take mineral substances from the dying they furnish carbonic acid gas. or when a brick or stone building burns. In hot countries the change of temperature from day to night causes expansion during the day and contraction at the soil. Not only does this prying apart of the result that tiny fragments rocks break them up directly. and upon humic acid.250 FinsT BOOK OF PHtStCAL GEOGBAPBY with great force against the enclosing walls. their roots and tiny rootlets ramify through the soil. which they pry apart as they grow. but it opens cavities into which water more readily enters. because the changes . Therefore even though no deeper than two or three feet. for as they grow. and of 1 Or it may be illustrated by placing a lighted candle beneath a piece window or bottle glass. and this increases its power of dissolving and changing the minerals. serves as a blanket to protect the rock below. . and this. with the and even great pieces are sometimes pried off. of temperature do not extend far into the earth. They are also aiding mechanically . soil. Every tree. and even enter the rock itself. causes bits to snap from them. which is necessarily different in different parts of exposed rocks. is against a stone.

— There is a great difference in the strata are so porous that . as because they have remained more nearly at the elevation to which they were raised. one of the most important principles of the and it accounts for many . neither porous nor which decay rapidly. valleys. are made of granitic rocks which are more durable than others surrounding them. side by side. the rate of weathering becomes much more rapid than where only one or none of these conditions are favorable. For instance. Many are made of insoluble or nearly insoluble minerals. Washington. one sees. and many other elevations. the peaks of the Adirondacks. Mt. . and others Some rocks. great and small. while the valleys are frequently located in beds of more easily removed shale and limestone and all over the earth's surface similar illustrations. and others that are readily changed or decayed. not so much because they were lifted there at first. ever becoming higher above the neighboring country. easily destroyed solution. and has some minerals that can be easily dissolved. may be found. they have resisted and stood up. and and while neighboring strata have been crumbled and carried away. This is physical geography of the land of the hills. Some water easily enters and causes the changes mentioned others are dense but are and by difficult to penetrate. Hence since rocks differ in composition. layers that are worn away rapidly and beds that soluble. power of this weathering. Pike's Peak. In the same way the ridges of the Appalachians are often made of durable sandstone and conglomerate strata. Where a rock is porous. are made of minerals resist the weather. mountains.Tat] WEABiNG AWAY OF THE LAND 251 Difference in Result. There are also differences according to the conditions .

where the horizontal strata have been carved by rain action because of the absence of protection by plants. Upon a mountain top. where the winds are violent. Climate is one of the most important of these (Figs. and hence the rocks melt down less rapidly in the latter than in the former regions. altitude is another modifying condition. and this furnishes to the water the tools with Fig. 128.252 FinsT BOOK OF PBTStCAL GFOGRAPBY which surround the rocks. In such cold lands as the Arctic regions. In a warm country condition is absent and although there is more water it is active . tation is Moreover. and where the slope is so great that the rain and melting snows run down the mountain sides with great velocity. In a very cold climate and weathering rapid. action. 128 and 129). Effect of weathering upon a hill in the arid regions. vegemore luxuriant in a moist climate than in an arid one. which frost this works in rock decay. its effect is not equal to that of frost. moist region furnishes more water to perform the work than does an A arid climate. . or the high mountain peaks.

the rate of weathering increased. are quickly removed. and soon. (contrast Figs. any other cause. every piece that is loosened by face bare to the attacks of the from the cliff. 127). This has just been mentioned in speaking of mountains but in this place. showing cliff is exposed to weather in an arid climate where vegetation scanty. . 136 and 139 with 142 and 143). A mountain (a butte) in western Texas. also contrast the precipice with the gently sloping In the former case. or falls . is greatly The slope of the land is another feature. 129. leaving the weather but on the more gently sloping hillsides many of these fragments remain. and so the rock remains bare and open to the full When this is combined effect of the weather (Fig. Fig. we may hillside. broken off by weathering. form a soil which to some extent protects the rocks from the action of the weather frost. . with a cold climate. by accumulating.THE WEABING AWAY OF THE LAND 25S the tiny bits of rock.

the rock is fresh and hard. this change becomes visible. has been disintegrating so rapidly that it has been found necessary to protect all it from the weather. perhaps being quarried. Therefore one of the most important effects of weathering is the sculpturing of the . and is even now very slowly varying in In this work of change the wind and rivers its features. while within. changeable New York climate. even more important. land. .: 254 FIRST BOOK OF PBTSICAL GEOGBAPHT Effects of Weathering. — We may watch a cliff or a rock for years without seeing any notable change. By direct observation one may see that these rocks are crumbling and geologists find abundant evidence that all have been and still are being disintegrated. this delicate tool will find it and while the weak part is rapidly destroyed. and the face of the land has been changed. the hard portions stand out in relief. not merely a few years. brought to the damp. have aided. with the decayed surface. but weathering has been of prime importance. while others. by an iron stain. A 1 second important effect is the supply of materials to the rivers and the ocean. and the obelisk.^ Many stone buildings have crumbled at the surface in the 200 or 300 years since they were built. yet if one looks at its surface it is seen to be rough and crumbly. perhaps colored. Taking into consideration the time during which these agents have been at work. It is revolutionizing the outline of the land and again and again mountains have been raised and worn down. but tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of years. This In a gorge the rock fragments may be best seen in a quarry by contrasting the fresh rock. the slow work of weathering becomes very important in its effect. are not noticed. . valleys have been dug where hills once existed. If weakness exists in rocks. that is Probably the outside is disbecause by the decay of the minerals which contain iron.

or if more material is supplied are constantly dropping to the than can be carried.. THE WEARING AWAY OF THE LAND ^^5 bottom of the cliffs (Fig. rapid. same way. and are taken 130). forming a talus deposit (Fig. It is not more important because more cliff furnishes debris to the sea in the can see the importance of this. or the fragments passing cliff fail down the to reach the stream. 130. but because the area of such slopes greatly exceeds cliffs. they either enter the where stream. accumulate at the base of the precipice. We and hence it appeals to us but more important still is the slower and less perceptible down-sliding of the soil fragments on the more gently sloping land. showing the sliding down of the fragments which fall from the cliffs. 134). that of steep down the hillsides Every rain is washing some material which border the river valleys. A sea Fig. This . along with the current. Crumbling of rocks on a mountain side.

sand. the rock would soon be covered to such a depth that frost and plants would produce no effect. It is also important because it gives sediment to the sea. 131. the stream rasps at its bed and slowly deepens its channel (Ch. being soluble in water. To man the most important effect of weathering is the formation of soil. formed by decay. The crumbling of the rocks furnishes an their valleys. it keeps the weathered material from accumulating on the rock and protecting it by a deep blanket. Fragments of rock and clay. Maryland. and clay. are taken from the soil This soil which is formed by the decay of . raised to the sur- face. XVI). First.256 is FIRST BOOK OF PBTSICAL GEOGRAPHT why the streams become muddy with sediment after heavy rains and during the melting of the snow. in the sap. where it is built into the beds of rock. Hence the removal aids weathering . the prepara- elements of the land. which later. and which. and hence fresh enough to be quarried. Fig. surround blocks not yet reached by weathering. of material by weathering furnishes streams with tools with which to work in cutting Water by itself has little power to cut the rocks. for if some were not removed. and even percolating water would not be of great importance. form such notable too. easily thrust their roots and the decay of the minerals furnishes substances which are needed in plant growth. Then tion Decaying granite. accumulation of soil fragments into which plants can . but armed with pebbles. This load of sediment is important for several reasons.

Some are also formed by wind action. Here and there over the land (Chapter XVII). one from which many of the and is hence composed chiefly of the insoluble residue^ particularly kaolin In such a soil the surface portions are clay and silica. soluble substances have been removed. not yet pulverized to fragments. and along rivers there are soils . and some were once deposited in the sea. Diagram to show the conditions in a region covered by residual soil. they scour the beds over which they pass. and have since been raised above it. very fine-grained clay. Such soils though they are combeing destroyed by glaciers pass — The land is other agents. 132. the fragments feet in depth. may reach 100 or 200 monly much less. rTn5^ M J -r-i rJ r^ FRESH ROCK Fig. and then to soft and partially deca3^ed beds. grading downward to fresh rock. 1 In northern United States and Europe the .^ called residual soil. and as they slowly along.THE WEARING rocks. grinding them down and carrying the pieces thus wrested to their ends. where they may be left on the land or carried away in the streams glaciers soil has been brought by which have been accumulated by the water. dragging soil move and rock fragments with them. Erosion of the Land. AWAT OF THE LAND 257 is and which is the most It is common one in the world. passing first through a zone of partially decayed rock fragments in a clay matrix. which grind down the surface and remove by erosion.

or often. the soil particles do not cling together. Every heavy -rain removes some material from the surface ^^nd sea. Rain-sculptured Bad Lands of South Dakota. because of the dryness of the climate. 133.258 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GFOGBAPHT produced by the melting of the ice. Beand tides are ever at cause of the great activity of the destructive agents in the one of the most rapidly changing parts of the land. line the waves Along the coast work destroying the land and removing the fragments (Chaps. and where. Another agent of erosion is the wind^ particularly in arid countries. life where the soil is not held in place by abundant plant (Fig. 133). be borne away by icebergs. On the land. XIII. Fig. this is . water is also active in erosion. XVIII). where the end is in the sea.

This is one of the most potent agents in the sculpturing of the land. perhaps form- ing a tiny landslip. preventing its rapid escape. sides. though sometimes. which and rock. are often caused when the frost is coming from the ground and the earth is then made damp. but also accomplishes mechanically. as an agent of erosion. be places of very rapid erosion (Chapter XVI). and in the great desert and semi-desert countries. rills. for the latter. the rain-water becomes more concentrated. gather into tiny and these form and from the first impact of the raindrop. Gathering into rivers. Valleys are cut. on steep mountain slips of the land. or the grinding of hard rock. therefore. striking blow upon the streams. and gorges and even water may deep canons are carved in the rocks. and one of the most important of the effects of percolating water. a great and destructive avalanche. 128 and 133). rain erosion becomes very noticeable (Figs. water percolating along the contact between a porous and slippery. Also. nishes rivers with tools by causing the rocks to crumble.THE WEARING carries it to the rivers. Therefore. The erosion by rain itself becomes more important when vegetation is not present to check the force of its fall and to hold it. it and while there not only dissolves and changes. soil. lubricates the soil particles so that they slide The underground down the hillsides water . makes the surface of the latter the porous bed may commence These to slide. This work of rivers goes hand in hand with that of weathering. AWAT The OF THE LARD first 259 a raindrops. slope is steep. sometimes carry thousands of tons of soil . or landslide. the be engaged either in the removal of loose particles. in roads. has its power increased. and materials to carry. so that if the a clayey layer. ploughed fields. Or perhaps a heavy fall of snow will increase the weight of an unstable part of the hill or mountain side. fur- Much much this is of the rain that falls on the land sinks into the ground. and the beds of the streams may. causing an avalanche. Gradually the soil migrates down hill even if the slope is not very great.

. though now and then locally sinking. and at some of the results which have been produced. . But it is not permitted to work without interruption. the land long before now would have been reduced to a nearly level surface. throughout the long periods of time during which the land has been exposed to the produced. . air. hill. — the most profound effects have been into Not merely has the land been sculptured its present outline of hill and valley. valley. the face of the land has been battered and carved into the irregularities of seashore.260 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY The combined work of Destruction of the Land. Denudation is engaged in the great task of destroying the land and transporting to the sea the materials thus derived and if it had been permitted to work uninterruptedly throughout all past time. and so far denudation is the weaker of the combatants but as a result of the conflict. otherwise the surface would be less rugged and the level lower. and mountain. slowly operating but ever at work. plain. while the land is being attacked deeper. . The land is rising here and falling there and as a result of the contraction of the heated globe. . and thousands of feet of rock have been removed from the surface. plateau. weathering and erosion is called denudation. by denudation. It will be interesting to look a little more closely at some of the methods employed in this battle. the land surface is steadily rising. while the bed of the ocean is gradually becoming Therefore. By these agents. The two are in conflict. it is also rising and we may be certain that this uplift has been more rapid than the downcutting caused by denudation. but great mountains have been reduced to lowlands.

and some shallow. . others in arid. exist in moist. some broad. an extremely great variety of form. is — and among these there form of its valley. many cases rivers have occupied their valleys for a very long time but a few have existed for only a short period. Some valleys are situated in easily destroyed rocks. Another universal fact is that at some time all river valIn most of them some water is always present. sometimes veritable floods but there are some valleys which contain water only for a very short time during the year.CHAPTER XVI RIVER VALLEYS. others mountains and plateaus. though geologists studying a river valley can generally find out why it has its particular form. and some cross first one and then another. some in durable layers. all of a resulting variety in all river-valley — that they flow in some kind of a form . some deep. Some are narrow. and leys contain water. in Many In are situated on plains. these variations. climates. and the Characteristics of River Valleys. sometimes a very small amount. and some . INCLUDING WATERFALLS AND LAKES Rivers occupy valleys. 261 . there is With rivers. In such an elementary book as this we can do no more than understand some of the simplest principles. but there is one characteristic of valley. In every single case there is a certain relation between the conditions surrounding the river.

flows quietly along in ordinary times.. while may remain dry is for many years. and partly from underground water which once fell as rain. then entered the earth. "^^^ . . . and contrast this with the rushes tor- rent that over the same slope after a heavy rain. and condition. Perhaps some tributaries are great rivers. The velocity and some have steep. too. and also talus supplying debris from the valley walls. or when the snow In is rapidly melting.262 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY others which say. of Peru). ./°'. there is great variety in form. all rivers this water partly supply comes from the direct fall of rain.. . All riverS have tribuf^^. others gentle slopes. and ^ ^ .^ ^ Andes showing gorge cut hy rapidly descending stream. like the Ohio where it enters the Mississippi. in all cases the amount varies from time to time. That is to water in every case sometimes present. size. but with any given grade^ the velocity of the water also varies with the amount of water. Every river occupies a certain basin or drainage area^ and the combination of Here all the streams in this area forms the river system. . but most are only tiny rills which exist during rains. . A^ typical river valley m mountains (the nigh . ^^^ ' ^^lese vary "^ in number and kind. . To prove this let any one examine a stream that of the stream differs with the slope of its bed.

river systems are caused to be and areas of the what they are by the combined action of running water and weathering. Hence it also becomes a carrier of fragments leys. the form . divides. for the valtributaries. a gently rounded hilltop. A river is nothing more than a drainage line on the land. obtaiued from the waste of the land. That is to say. tion from time to time and from place This point of river variato place will be considered in some detail. volume of water. kind of rock. cause of these two facts. and many are at all times. is proved by the fact that all rivers are at some time. 6i the river valley also varies. and hence not necessarily tow9. or much parting.r4 . and length of time in which the work has proceeded. the water flows down hill. like the Great Basin of the west. according as the slope. or even a swampy plain. That this is so.n. by which the surface water is passing from high to low ground. Most of these features are ever changing . be- grinding a valley. because of the co-operation of weathering. valley walls. or more commonly by an area. carrying loads of minerals in solution and rock fragments in suspension. or the Dead Sea. amount of sediment. the river is obtaining mineral matter to remove from the land (Fig. 1 the water flows into an interior area t|ie oce£{. and by its own action.BIVER VALLEYS 263 Two neighboring river systems are separated by a line. known as a divide or water This may be a sharp mountain ridge. vary from place to place.^ In its course. fore. the river is Incidentally. 134). ever deepening it when this is possible. In enclosed basins. and is furnished with rock fragments and with these in its grasp it scours Thereits bed. more commonly. generally toward the sea.

264 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPRT The River Work. although . and courses along down a slope. It dissolves such substances as it can. The rate at Avhich it will do this varies with the velocity of the water. with greater rapidity than granite. A stream bed in the Adirondacks. showing boulders that are moved by the floods. in fact more than they can carry along. and a soft clay bed will be worn away more rapidly than a hard rock. it cuts into its channel by two kinds of action. . Limestone is dissolved — Fig. The Platte in Nebraska for instance. and then some of the load must be deposited in the bed instead of being able to cut into the rock. the amount of sediment. 135. and the kind of rock over which it flows. When water gathers into a stream. To do this work most rapidly the stream should have sediment with which to wear away its channel but some streams have too much sediment. and it scours its bed by dragging rock fragments along.

When Erie. above the Falls. N. has sediment little it that is not able river to scour its channel.. Part of a circular pot hole in the foreground. A slope stream is less that flows over a gentle able to cut into its channel than one that passes down rock its - a steep grade. one has but to watch the rushing torrent . it because bits hurls against bed with less force and since the .Y. clear it this flows out from Lake as starts lake as water. 136. but is building up its bed. water increases.liIV:ER VALLEYS is 265 not cutting a flowing down a moderately steep grade. it can cut into its bed more rapidly when in flood than at other times. a result of the stream be- low Buffalo flows almost at the surface of the plain. valley. On the other hand. velocity becomes when of Fig. greater the View in Enfield gorge near Ithaca. Niagara so River. showing young stream deflected by joint planes. and this. volume To appreciate this.

some distance (Fig.266 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHT which courses down a stream valley in the spring. For the remainder of the year. If is we should go to flowing over the bed rock. . and the width of the valley is very much more (perhaps miles) than the width of the stream channel. though a small amount of work is done. 136). Most valleys have greater breadth than depth. or that the water had cut into those places more deeply than elsewhere. The greater part of the cutting done by most streams during the year is accomplished during the few days when the water flows as a torrent. vast results in valley formation have been . and which. perhaps where the rock soft or much jointed. These are carved at the base of waterfalls or in an eddy of the stream. and one see that softer rocks are may also more rapidly worn than harder. are left standing in the channel (Fig. when the flood subsides. where the swirling the channel had been turned aside for In waters have whirled the pebbles about (Fig. the stream loiters and rests from its labors. In a year there has been no perceptible deepening of the stream channel but in a few centuries rapidly working and in the great ages of geostreams will make changes logical time. accomplished. for one can see that a hole has been dug. 136). we have seen only that the stream cuts . Perhaps in places where the flow was increased for any reason. where the water we would find that in certain is places. or that blocks have been cut out. 135). 139). such river beds there is proof that the stream is really cutting into its channel . and see it carrying along pebbles. and even bonlders. circular pot holes had been dug (Fig. which under ordinary conditions it would not be able to move. any stream valley. So far as we have gone in this study.

different parts of the side are successively attacked. there are other itself (Fig. but when it begins to swing. This all it is true of Diagram to FiG. its width being about that of the stream Evidently therefore. and if this were the whole truth.mVEU VALLEYS 267 its bed. and also true amount of rock actually cut out by the stream. show relatively small that in meander- ing they change their position from time to time. 138). 137. every mud-laden stream (Fig. 137). Hence the current is one side of the valley. This always at work. and passes into the little by little the rock crumbles. compared with the width of the valley as broadened by weathering. monl}^ the place of greatest velocity of a river is Comin the middle . The really great tuidening of valleys is that done by is the very slow action of weathering (Fig.138). then to strikes against the hank (Fig. there valley walls. and in addition to the vertical cutting in the stream bed. but meanders is about (Fig. streams. facts to be un- derstood. a river valley should be narrow. rill that courses down the hillside. and is whirled off Every block that falls from the cliff. the place of great- est velocity shifts first to the other. 134). and . and so by action the valley is slightly broadened (Fig. 138). One does ORIGINAL of these is that the river not flow over a straight course. toward the sea. a certain lateral cutting against the Since the swing of the river changes from this time to time. 130).

268 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHT every bit of dissolved substance brought to the surface by underground water. showing meandering river cutting against bluff on one side and depositing on opposite. channel would be more rapid than the action of weathering in widening the valley. j If a river were supposed to History of River Valleys. Arrows indicate the strongest current. not for a century only. because the body of water moving 1 Called the consequent course. Weathering would of course immediately begin to co-oper- — ate but for awhile the work of the river in cutting its . because it is chosen in consequence of the topography. and along this ^ would commence to dig a valley. the water would take the lowest course. ciate this we must remember that the valley has been developing. begin upon a new land. 138. Fig. . represents a small contribution To appreto the grand sum total of valley broadening. but for many tens or even hundreds of thousands of years. \ Part of map.

It may also have lakes A young valley being central cut in the shale rock of New York. would be valley 136. A ley it young river val- may have a very irregular course. sequently the valley would be narrow and because the river its sides steep. carves the rock with such relative rapidity (Fig. 139. streams pursue a very roundabout path to their mouths.RIVER VALLEYS 269 along the narrow channel is a more powerful agent than Conthe very slow action of weathering and rain wash. following that it wherever lead . for each . for has taken the low- est line. Such young 134. may and many young Fig. wherever we certain find a gorge or canon. for there may have been depressions in its bed which had to be filled up before the river could proceed. 137). and and 145). we may be that it has not existed long enough for weathering to widen it. As time goes on. in the course. 139. these will be destroyed. a stream valley a (Figs.

270 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY stream that enters a lake. For instance. There is a level below which the stream cannot cut. . and it is commonly called the base level of erosion (Fig. its valley down.i where falls its path has led it down some steep slope its and may be developed as the river cuts bed. 140). this is the sea level. Diagram to illustrate base level (B E) and profile of equilibrium (P E) over hard or soft rock. with and waterfalls. 1 While a stream may cut its channel As in the case of Niagara. See latter part of chapter. so long as a lake exists in the course of a stream. in Waterfalls also may exist in the course of a young stream. passing Fig.. At its mouth. . 140. earlT/ maturity^ there are differences and therefore in the form of the valley. is characteristic of young streams. its channel cannot be cut below the temporary base level of the lake surface. lakes Therefore a gorge valley. The sea level is the permanent base level of streams. and hence lakes are not liable to be found in valleys that have passed the youthful stage. and therefore lowering the lake In time the combination of these causes succeeds removing the lake. but temporarily there may be a base level above this. brings sediment which is slowly filling it. and at the same time the outlet stream is cutting level. as the stream valley becomes older. where it enters the sea. and reaches the stage of in the conditions. After awhile.

Diagram to illustrate the development of a stream valley from original surface (ee'). Called this because it is the profile in v^hich an equilibrium is main- tained between water and sediment supply. the profile of equilibrium. sediment load. may be called the profile of equilibrium (Fig. Ithaca. 140). Fig. it can never do this far the water can run. for the river 271 to sea level near the sea. must maintain a slope down which and at the same time transport its Fig. When 1 a stream in its down-cutting has reached nearly to this lowest possible slope. and river slope. mature valley. N. 142. 141. This line. through youth to old age (gg'). .Y.^ mVMB VALLEYS down inland. sloping down toward the sea. A broad.

one being in soft rock. . (Fig. in some and theremore slope. it ceases to be able to cut into channel. But weathering is continues. the other in hard. and so while the valley no longer being deepened. in others rapid . . and the gorge or canon gives place to a valley with rounded sides (Fig. where the rocks are softer limestones and slates. two neighboring parts of the same stream may show different stages of development. I A view on the Delaware. gently sloping valley in the foreground. as it does in animals and plants : in some climates weathering fore has slow.272 its FIB ST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GFOGBAPBT and still power to cut further is very greatly diminished. Indeed. finally. 142). Fig. and more work to do. when the profile its is actually reached. it begins to grow broader. others in soft rock. | j The length of time which is it will take to reach matu- rity varies greatly. and hence one places the stream begins high above sea level. and the broad. showing the Water Gap in the background. Ii3. This is characteristic of the stage of maturity 141). than others which begin on low plains and some work in hard. where the rocks are hard conglomerate.

but there are no such old valleys. . and during maturity the divides are so definite. elevating and destroying The land is rising than denudation can remove it. other streams develop. carry less water. This which has been stated is the well illustrated in both the Red River valley of the North. because the slope is the easiest one possible. time enough for this. There are other ways in which a mature valley differs from a young one. Also at first the divides may have been very indefinite and the tributaries few ^ but the tributaries increase in number. they cannot be developed /as^er than the lower portions. and gradually the divides become more sharply defined. become quite different from the original. for they must wait for these in order that they may have the necessary slope down which to carry their sediment supply. and have more work to perform. the operation weathering slowly continues to broaden the valleys and lower the hilltops. that all water falling on the land finds a slope down which to flow. and all falls have therefore been destroyed. and here faster is an illustration of the combat between the forces. ^or can The river course may have lakes exist. for these are higher. Moreover. Also the headwaters of a stream will be less mature than the lower portions. . and the water that falls scarcely knows which way to flow. and hence there are no really old lands. 143). nearly undrained swamps. and a valley in which to join with other water to ultimately reach the main stream. Here the divides are great. 1 This is in Florida. for they have all been filled. Waterfalls cannot exist. In time. and which are young plains. After the profile of equilibrium of is reached. for in time rivers adjust themselves.BIVEB VALLEYS 273 having a more rounded outline than the other (Fig. as definite courses are chosen. and often gradually alter their direction. until if everything is favorable. 141). the country will be reduced to the condition of a plain There can be no doubt that there has been (Fig.

as in the case of the Col- A view in the Colorado canon. orado River of the west (Figs. is — The gives country in which a valley being formed may be raised. inner. 144. 144 and 145). may the mature valley. 145. Fig. or a gorge may be cut in the centre of Fig. normal or ideal In reality rivers are subaccidents^ ject to many interruptions. creases the By this stream is the rejuvenated revived^ or and the gorge condition be prolonged. which may be called and these will now be considered. Diagram to show young. showing inner gorge and outer broad valley. and to this the stream to init new power cut. and older outer gorge of Colorado River. for slope.2T4 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY cycle of change. Accidents interfering with Valley Development. Here the river had cut down to its profile .

RIVER VALLEYS of 275 equilibrium. 146. to show (by heavy line) the way in which the various rivers would unite into a single trunk stream if the land were elevated. flowing to the sea Map of Chesapeake Bay. 146). came an upthe since which the Colorado has cut a narrow canon. a fairly forming there lift broad valley. stance. and the valley sides had wasted back. which is a deep. occurred in the past. broad If val- elevation occur such an should along the coast line. through a single trunk stream (Fig. narrow trench in the middle of the older. of Then land. ing this by sepa- mouths would be united. streams rate many now enterFig. separate streams might be caused into one. Such elevations have . to unite For in- if the re- gion about Chesa- peake Bay were an of to be raised to elevation 200 or 300 feet. ley.

and estuaries along the coast (Plate 19). In the main. harbors. as in the case of the Chesapeake. the stream loses most of its power. and then it may build a broad floodplain (Fig. is when the surface changes in level along a relatively narrow line. and others in the it is Ap- very difQcult to prove that the cause for this has been that just mentioned. 146). because its slope is decreased. Another way in which the normal development of the stream valley may be interfered with by movements of the land. 143). because it existed before the mountain grew. as in the case of the Delaware at the Water Gap (Fig. For instance. sea. Though many rivers cross mountains.276 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHT If the reverse movement of depression takes place. forming a deep mountain defile or gorge. called an antecedent river. transforming the coast to one of extreme irregularity (Plate 19). mountain Such a stream. logical times northern Europe and America have been depressed. so that the sea enters many of the valleys. a mountain chain In this case perhaps its may be rising across a river valley. would then cross the mountains directly. but which now. but must deposit some in its bed or to one side of the channel. In these the sea has extended up the valleys. such palachians. the If in this case the depression is near the stream valley may be submerged or drowned. and this . enter the During recent geosea by separate mouths (Fig. cutting into the rock rises. and this has separated or dissected rivers which once entered the sea by a single mouth. the Susquehanna. 138). and in fact this is the cause of many of the bays. mountain valleys are the result of later changes. because it is no longer able to carry all its sediment. the stream ^\\\ maintain as rapidly as the course.

forming a lake which may later be filled up by the river sediment. and distinct mouths. No doubt during or may be in a different direction. mountain formation the land often rises so rapidly that the stream is turned to one side or diverted. where it crosses the Uinta Mountains in Colorado. there is now relativel}^ little weathering. but now they all run down into the Great Basin. In the Far West. is an antecedent river. which overflowed into the Columbia. at present having an entirely separate existence. so that the typical valley of the arid land is an angular canon (Fig. Climates have changed in the past. and the mountains may rise rapidly enough to divide a stream into two parts. and in some places. and thence to the sea. are now shrunken. were abandoned. Much more commonly the growing mountain dams the stream. and some streams to be dissected. process. the rivers now flowing into the Great Salt Lake valley once united to form a larger lake. where the weathering of the damp climate was rapid. Some streams in this region that were formerly larger. In this western region the change in climate has caused some valleys to be entirely For instance. where they disappear by evaporation. once united into a single stream.BIVER VALLEYS applies to practically all in the Appalachians . In any event. having its course reversed. after which a gorge may be cut at the point of overflow which may be the same as the original course. or perhaps even forced to flow in the opposite direction. Hence many streams. the growth of a mountain seriously interferes with the development of the valley. and the broadening of valleys is therefore a slow . 277 but some believe that the Green River. places now arid once had a moist climate. . 145).

278 One FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY of the most important accidents to rivers is that caused by the great glaciers which once overspread northwestern Europe and northeastern America. others were made to join different streams. at times causing it to cut an entirely new valley. so that they have become locally transformed to lakes. and a choked with glacial deposits. and the blowing of sand into the form of sand-hills sometimes dams a river. forming a lake. and although there are times when the accidents help the work along. The River Course. thus rejuvenating the river by giving it a new task to perform. By this nearly all of the rivers have had their courses interfered with. XVII). whatever this of the river. many have been obliged very large number have had their channels By one or all of these accidents many rivers are con- stantly being retarded in their development. on the average they give the stream something more to do. and hence the task of river-valley formation is not only naturally a slow one. forming a lake and changing its course. as the rivers of Florida flow outward from the . back. Indeed. Some were turned out of their course. An avalanche from a mountain may produce the same effect. perhaps to join a new river system. The effects of the glacial accident will be better understood when we have studied glaciers (Chap. vari- ous portions of a single river may suffer different accidents and become composite in form. but in general will follow the direction of the slope of the plain. There are other less important accidents to which rivers are subSometimes a lava flow enters a valley and dams the stream ject. but one beset by many obstacles. to cut gorges. This consequent stream course differs according to the location Upon a plain it may be very irregular. — At first a stream chooses for course the easiest slope. and therefore prevent it from passing its the stage of maturity into that of real old age. may be. Again and again a river may start its development only to be interrupted.

or as the streams of eastern New Jersey and Texas flow outward toward the sea. Among mounfolded as tains. they are into ridges and valleys. 148. the surface is so irregular that streams are often obliged to pursue very roundabout courses before entering the sea. to ranges. now main and River drainage on a plain. then turning abruptly from its valley between the ridges. with tributaries running straight down the Fig. and other Upon a country that has been glaciated. . Fig. 147. showing rectangular tributaries. showing rivers parallel features of drainage. Map of a mountainous country. mountain and stream the sides.RIVER VALLEYS 279 higher central part of the state. the larger streams flow parallel to the ridges.

Such a river. because the current is turned that way by the velocity of the water in the main stream. 148). and therefore have an In such a case the river gradually changes. it could follow a single layer of soft rock. but many cases this course changes as the stream develops. and as the stream develops. it may find it necessary to adjust its course to agree with the tilted rocks. others trifle whereas if its course were just a different. If at first it was irregular. Uj)on a plain the tributaries. 149). interlocking series. Map showing plain. the river tends to remain there. for they eat against the downstream bank. and crossing a ridge which it fol- lows for awhile (Fig. at first enter the This consequent course in may be followed for a time. through a plane of horizontal rocks. Fig. 147). until it becomes more in accord with the rock structure. and finally becomes adjusted to it. which is called superimposed^ after cut- ting through the horizontal beds. interlocking tributaries of rivers draining a may find itself flowing across soft. they enter it at a more and more acute angle (Fig. the river finds itself cut- ting into tilted beds. which form an arborescent.280 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY to enter another valley. easier task. or nearly so (Fig. the river slowly straightens Or if after cutting its course so as to flow more directly. and a longer journey was undertaken than necessary. the edges of a series of tilted layers. some hard. there are many changes in . Once in a soft bed. may main stream at right angles. but as the work proceeds. 149.

150 will develop . while the softer valleys. and so it may be merely stated as a fact. more rapidly than another in a harder layer. for the streams on one side are usually more powerful than those on the other. perhaps originally smaller. and gradually will gain upon its neighbor. Diagram showing the condition in parts of the Appalachiams where old moun- tain tops have been changed to valleys. because rivers ^ \ OLD VALLEY /" ^>^:1/Ar Fig. until finally it has 281 This adjustment of river courses is not easy to comprehend without going more fully into the question than we are able to do here. Hence the smaller stream may grow larger. the harder beds stand found the easiest path. and slowly they push the divide back into the area of the less favorably situated stream. Thus there is a constant but slow migration of divides. By such changes as this. mountain valleys have been transformed to mountain tops. cuts rapidly. and mountain tops to valleys (Figs. Hence a stream. with the larger stream located in the more favorable situation. but because in the course of time soft rocks wear away more rapidly than hard. ones are lowlands up as hills and hence or ridges. that in regions where hard and soft rocks occur together. located in a soft layer. until by slow changes an adjustment is reached. and hence more power. not necessarily were first located there.niVMB VALLEYS course. and perhaps in the end entirely rob The stream that is more favorably situated it of its drainage area. and the large river dwindle. 150. its tributaries have more slope.

151. but it it has a story to is tell: not left to a dead thing. or the softest rock. drawn off and and then one of the rivers is while the other is enlarged by the capture. or the heaviest rainfall. that the headwaters of the neighboring stream are actually carried into the robber's territory. ing at the of the one . a river adjusted to the rock structure. During is this slow where the rivers change sometimes a case where the divide forced so far back. and flowing in a bed of limestone which is a part of an old mountain. then Fig. formed and remain ever the same without change. may read a part care- of the story told by the river valleys ful study it is and by a more possible to decipher many of the stages of the previous history. and the valley probably composite.282 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY This is and 151). . There is a constant battle for territory between neigh- boring streams. history The is complex. which has been so briefly outlined here. every Map and section of the Sequatchie valley in the southern Appalachians. Looksurface land. there is common in the Appalachians. struggling valley to reach a definite end of developriver ment. and those that have the greatest slope. will be the most successful in the battle. Therefore we must look upon the river valley as a thing ever changing. are well adjusted to the rock structure. and the river LIMESTONE jCjCbSc Sk Sc SANDSTONE system as a thing of activity and even of life. quickly reduced in size.



is flows over such a moderate slope. Hence near their mouths. of rock fragments. that a railway It does rise slightly above sea level. gradu- ally building the plain higher. Then the plain becomes transformed to a broad.=___ » >> >^ N-^^ N Fig. grows outward SEA more and DELTA PLAIN -=-=^-=-=r-^=-=-^=. The reason why the top of the delta is a plain. more is added . to their end. it because as the river it flows out over the plain which has built. sometimes coarse. \\ \ N^Ct-x Cross section of a delta. 283 a river enters a . but never to any very great elevation above the sea or lake. 152. extending be- neath the sea or lake. is that its surface cannot be raised much above the level of the sea. They are flat-topped plains of alluvial material. in which sediment settles. as which is entirely submerged. — When its the water of velocity is quiet lake. lake-like expanse of slowly moving and shallow water. checked and if it is carrying sediment. showing its structure in a diagrammatic way. some of this must be deposited near the point of entrance. and it remains steep for the same reason embankment does when loads of gravel are dumped upon it. 152). In this way deltas are built. This steep seaward face. or the sea. rivers are dumping a load sometimes fine. that the channel not able to hold all the water in flood times. which sloping is a steeply embankment (Fig. .BIVER VALLEYS River Deltas.

. They are much more common in lakes than in the sea. reasons from most river mouths on the seashore but one may be certain that any stream which carries sediment would in time build a delta. spreading out fan-shaped. whence its name. flooding farms and villages and often destroy- much life. until finally these interfering it reached sea level. mainly because lakes are shallow. found at stream mouths. why rise nearer the surface. instead of being formed by one chan- often made by several. and its front is broad. so that a slight cause to is often sufficient make the stream abandon one of its former channels. the water of the stream that forms it often flows through several mouths or distributaries^ which divide from the stream near the head of the delta. unless there were some other cause which prevented for no matter how slow the accumulation might be. like the Greek letter delta (A). so that the form of the delta plain. and builds that in time it abandons its old course to find a bed higher. year by year it would deltas are absent . This because the slope its is so slight that the river deposits sediment. or other movements of the sea. between its sea margin and the two outer distributaries. nor in fact usually. so that less sediment is needed to raise the bed to the surface of The fact that the depth is great is one of the the water. In the larger deltas of the world. so new and lower channel. and distribute . their course Such ing rivers as the Yellow of China change is frequently. is often triangular. Hence the nel. Deltas are not always. streams flow in very uncertain courses. of Among causes are the presence strong waves^ tidal currents. is delta.284 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Because of the very levelness of the delta plain. which take the sediment as fast as it comes.

but there are cases of rivers heavily laden with sediment enclosed bays. absence of strong waves and currents.mVEB VALLEYS it 285 far and wide. . are those in which the bed of. a sea not too deep. This is one reason why. next to lakes. are the places where deltas abound. yet not constructing deltas. 153Alluvial fans in the arid lands of the west. The absence of the latter condition explains the absence of deltas on the coast of eastern North America and western Europe. or has recently sunk so rapidly that the river deposit has not For delta formalevel. where the land has recently subsided. most favorable conditions are much sediment. such as the Mediterranean. river with faster Of course a much sediment will ordinarily build a delta little than one carrying or none . and a sea bottom either remaining in the same position or been able to build up to the sea tion the else being slowly elevated. and entering Such cases Fig. the sea is sinJciyig. enclosed and nearly tideless seas.

Indeed. Like a delta this deposit is somewhat triangular in outline but it has not the . one may see a great variety of bars. flat surface nor the steep front of the delta. of their channels. rivers sometimes make a deposit which somewhat resembles a delta. as in such large Each time that the river floods ^ tlie plain. or . the stream flows by means of distributaries. 138). This river bottom. be narrow. Some island-like bars are caused by the splitting of the stream. Over this alluvial fan. or. constantly adding to its height and extending its area. and represents the accumulation of sediment. and particularly near their mouths where the slope is less. some of this must be deposited in the form of a fan or cone-shaped accumulation. in places where for floods any reason the current subside. where the river slope is not great enough for the flood water to carry all the load. The bar may be very tiny. its velocity is checked almost as effectually as if it had entered the sea and if it is bearing much sediment. and by the study of them one may often find their cause. is checked. the form or during ordinary times the condition may happen when the may occur eddy in the current. — Streams that are carrying some of it much sediment are often obliged to deposit in the channel. Where the stream comes down from a steep mountain valley upon a plain. In almost any stream valley of moderate slope. which for awhile follows two channels. may rivers as the Mississippi. After a overspread face. as it often is. Most rivers are constantly changing their position. Extensive floodplains are more common in mature rivers. or coi^e delta (Fig.286 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Even on the land. . with the apex at the point where the stream emerges from the mountain. islands. forming an island in the middle but in time one of these is abandoned and one chosen as the channel for all the water. This in an on the down-stream side of a boulder. Oftentimes the river is is which ^' in time of flood bordered on one or both sides by a plain covered by river water (Fig. fan delta. the floodplain is really made by the river floods. and as they do this." or Jioodplain. and partly closed stream channels. a tiny layer of sediment is deposited on its surand gradually it is built upward. or of a tree that has become lodged in the channel. from apex to River Floodplains. which divides the river and is covered only in flood stages. 153). very broad. but has a gradual slope base. or it may grow to the size of an island. .

in the world. swinging curves. Upon these are built the artificial levees which men construct in order to confine the river to its channel and prevent it from flooding the neighboring plain. one may often look across a narrow neck of land and see the river half a mile away. . Bay may it. for as the water cuts against one bank. which then becomes a somewhat circular lake in the floodplain. thus building the embankment. yet true. This does not broaden the channel. mountain val- made of coarse gravel but the larger plains are built of very fine-grained clay. and in time the river wanders over all parts of its floodplain. On the larger plains the surface is nearly level excepting near the stream bank. circling about in great. 287 floodplain and the river and v^hen a bay flows out over is filled ment. plain. where the current is not so rapid. and here the velocity of the water is less. are of the narrow floodplains. but its position slowly changes. On many of these level areas the river increases the curve of meander so that in passing down stream upon a steamer.RIVER VALLEYS delta is built. 138) and hence in places it is cutting against the soft banks. meander the river current has its greatest velocity on one side (Fig. Over a broad floodplain the river flows with a curving or meandering course. Therefore the width of the channel remains about the same. This is the place where the rapid current of the channel and the current in the middle of the floodplain come in contact. especially those in . These are common in streams and there are many large ones on the Mississippi flood- than on either sides is bordered . it deposits sediment on the opposite one. it is transformed to a with a level sheet of river sedisome day be. The river channel on both by a low embankment or natural levee. but merely changes its position. this also becomes a flood- Some leys. but several miles distant as the boat must go. taking a shorter course and abandoning the " ox-bow " curve. called an ox-hoiv cut-off. . Gradually eating against its banks. where the elevation slightly greater is side. as Chesapeake plain. so that more sediment is deposited. Many and they constitute some of the best farming land of the meadows on the sides of small streams are tiny. the river sometimes cuts through them. These are conIn the stantly but usually slowly changing in form and position. floodplains. thus increasing its swing as it eats its way into the land.

during time of low water. forming the first Niagara. or a landslide. or vice versa. A lava flow. forming a steep its course leading it to the edge of the bluff at . over a precipice a steep hill- A view at Ludlow ville. A miniature Niagara in all features. A hard limestone bed with soft shales below causes a waterShales beneath cut out in the form of a fall. or down side. cave. excepting that in the one case the bed descends with nearly vertical slope. There are various ways in which these conditions may be introduced into the stream bed. and in the other less steeply. 154. over Lewwhich it fell. and between falls and rapids there no distinct difference. . — Waterfalls is and rapids are formed where- ever the stream channel changes its slope rapidly. which the at the close of Period found iston. seven miles distant from the present fall.288 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPRT Waterfalls. means the river By some may its be turned out of course and forced to fall Fig. not being able to bear them away. central New York. or the growth of a mountain across a stream bed. allows them to accumulate. A fall may change to a rapid. which. This was the case with Glacial Niagara. may introduce a similar steep slope and sometimes rapids or falls are caused where a side stream brings coarse materials into the main river. They are convexities in the river bed.

BIVER VALLEYS slope in a part of the bed. new power to dig. and other regions. If in cutting down soft in their channels they encounter a hard layer with a one below. and hence increase their slope (Fig. have been formed in this way. This very increase of slope gives them . they can cut the latter more rapidly than Fig. But many streams develop rapids and falls as they pro- ceed in the construction of their valleys. Many of the waterfalls of New York. 154). and Niagara. former. and so they deepen the channel more and more. though first caused as above stated. 289 this There are rapids of kind in the valley of the Colorado River. perhaps in the end forming a very high fall. the showing Horseshoe Falls in the distance. 155. A general view of Niagara.

155). continues to exist for this very reason. Stoddard. and 7 miles from its original position.290 still FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHY Therefore fall. yet it stands at about the same elevation. the last remnant of the R. N. 200 or 300 feet in depth. by S. Glens Falls. take Niagara as a type of this kind of we may Niagara began as a waterfall at the bluff at Lewiston and has gradually retreated up stream. 1888. from which it is now separated by a gorge. where it is a great fall about 160 feet high (Fig. A peat bog in the former lake. until it has reached its present position. which it has cut out of the rock. at the a sheet of hard limestone. Adirondacks with a pond enclosed (Copyrighted. the it out from beneath the . crest of the Falls. The reason why Niagara has thus retreated is found in the difference in rock structure.Y. 156. water digs into the shale and cuts Dashing over the fall. The fall is still Fig. During the last 50 years Niagara has moved up stream about 250 feet. is Just beneath the water.) — moving backward at a rate which has been measured. beneath which are beds of soft shale.

Lakes. a mountain developing across a stream channel. Lakes will exist in the course of a stream only for a short time. 154). and the waterfall moves up stream for a few feet (Fig. especially those of northw^estern Europe and northeastern America (Chap. like a sea bottom just elevated. The . these are all in streams that are are closely associated. may have saucer-like depressions upon it or these may be caused by the change of level of the land. glaciers A lake is therefore a part of the river valley. or deposits left by a lake. For instance. and Niagara cannot cut the hard limestone fall will remain just so long as but it will of these conditions exist in the stream bed course disappear when the stream has reached its lowest for it cannot then cut slope. may be caused. The latter cause accounts for most of the lakes of the w^orld.RIVER VALLEYS 291 hard layer of limestone until some of this is undermined. nel . behind which lakes gather or a lava flow may check a stream. This process of undermining continues. and hence able to discover differences Therefore falls and gorges in the hardness of the rocks. — A waterfall is a convexity in the stream chan- When for any reason a lake must be filled as high as the lowest part of the rim. in this country where the cause is the same as this. provided the rainfall is There are many ways in which such basins sufficient. often causes a dam. and young enough to be digging into their beds. a concavity. . A surface of new land. when a block falls. exists. where it will outflow. because rivers "are the mortal enemies of . XVII). may build dams. or the profile of equilibrium one part faster than another. There are thousands of falls remains as a fall because it as fast as the shale. the basin .

commences of the ing the water to land. having been robbed of most of their sediment in passing through basins with sediment. the Great Salt Lake being the shrunken remnant. which acts as a last until filter. because they have no tools with which to work. vegetation to grow. though still possible if time enough is allowed. The lake will destroyed by the combined process of filling and cutting at the barrier. the streams flow over the surface of the of their sediment. For ininstance. so that the water evaporated faster than it was supplied.292 lakes. and being no longer robbed begin to cut into the lake beds. . the quiet lake water. and perhaps cut canons where the lakes formerly existed. The great majority of the and transformswamps world are the result of the is filling of lakes. the lake deposits. Also in the valley of the Red River of the North an immense lake has recently existed. at the time when the great glacier formed a dam and prevented the river from flowing northward." FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY are cutting They down the outlets and filling the Generally they cut very slowly. This lake disappeared when the glacier withdrew far enough to allow the water to take its natural northward course. For Lake City. but the destruction of such immense bodies as the Great Lakes is a much more difficult one.^ When filled. the Great Lakes have been higher than now. This which once outflowed into the Columbia. So also at a time when the glacier prevented them from outflowing as at present. was destroyed by a change of climate from moist to dry. and the last stage will be a swamp^ for when the water becomes shallow enough. completing the filling. the next most important being river river water overflowing its floodplain. The filling of small ponds is a small task. a great lake once existed near Salt 1 swamps caused by There are other kinds of swamps. causing it to outflow toward the south into the Mississippi. Sometimes lakes are caused to disappear by other means.

where the is dry. Thus little by little the fresh-water lakes become salt. when the Mohawk was also ice-filled. Fort Wayne. which were built in the bed of a lake and also of the elevated beaches which pass through New York. In time any lake without outlet will become salt. When it evaporates. the vapor is nearly pure water. There are manj^ such lakes in the Great Basin. Indiana. Even the Great Lakes would become saline if the climate should become so dry that they could not rise to their rims. Lakes generally have outlets but sometimes. once past Chicago. the lake waters rose higher than now. and Lake Ontario outflowed through the Mohawk. and then Salter and Salter. and deposited layers of sediment over their beds. . Even before this. and among these are many salt lakes. because all water that is flowing over the rocks bears some salt. lakes flowed through other channels. without the salt. but passes into the air without it. climate . once when the ice occupied the St. turning to dead seas. and hence the salt is left behind. So day by day. and the water that brought it does not flow away with it to the sea. Lawrence valley. and thence westward into Ohio. and from them see what is now being done in lakes. so that we may study them. cut cliffs. more and more salt is supplied. the lake waters built beds.. and in other dry regions of the world. and perhaps becoming so saline that some must be deposited as rock salt in the lake. This is the reason for the extensive wheat plains of Dakota and Manitoba. in the valley of the Red River. and these now appear on the land. they do not fill their basins to the rim. near Lakes Ontario and Erie. BIVEB VALLEYS 293 stance. the and once past While these high stages existed.

of the 294 . snow Besides this. have their origin. The line above which this remains permanently on the ground is the snow line. By this means there is a constant movement from the . — In some parts of the earth the snow remains on the ground throughout the year. filling many valleys and clothing mountain sides in a permanent coat. if present. . since each summer fails to remove the fall of the preceding winter. and much of the snow that falls cannot lodge upon the slopes. This occurs on high mountain tops or else in high polar latitudes. such as those of the Alps. is found in the upper portions and in temperate latitudes only the high valleys and peaks are covered with perpetual snow. snow gathers year by year. Here. Among mountains the snow line. This is known as a snow fields and it is from here that valley glaciers. and very often in the valleys between the peaks.form of snow. and where the effect of summer melting is not sufficient to remove the supply of snow. but slides down fields into the valleys. A snow field on a high mountain is elevated into the zone of strong winds and therefore much of the snow that falls upon it is whirled away. where much of the precipitation is in the. settling at some lower level.CHAPTER XVII GLACIERS AND THE GLACIAL PERIOD Valley Glaciers. the high peaks mountains are very steep.

field in the high Alps. Indeed. and this is called the neve. and then it slowly flows down the valleys as glaciers. By this means the snow is prevented from reaching great depths in the high parts of the mountains. we may call the snow is field the supply region valley. and much of it therefore passes down into the valleys. the snow becomes compacted into ice. By melting and freezing. in the glacier tvv^o. somewhat as wax will . after snow has become upon the slope that it must slip off. as water does on the Fig. Snow land. for the ice streams or glaciers which occupy the In a snow real ice. and by pressure. 157. passing down by a slow movement. field the material true snow. w^here the snow is changing to ice. There is a region between these near the head of the glacier proper. AND THE GLACIAL PEEIOB slides 295 Much more snow down the in the form of great avalanches^ or so deep slides.GLACIERS into the valleys.

296 flow if FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHY a large piece is and gradually warmed. 158. extending well beyond the snow field. the glacier ice behaves like a viscous body. Avalanches. and of the glacier will thereif will then end if and the terminus further fore extend it supply is great. placed upon an inclined surface In other words. and medial moraine. weathering supplies rock fragments. slowly passes Hence supplied from the ice field. showing snow field. just as a river flows out beyond Fig. the valley glacier down the mountain side. place as from which far as : its water comes. Just as in the case of a mountain river. It will pass down the supply exceeds the melting. than Throughout its passage were small. single the much this would . An the Alpine glacier. so here. ice stream. down the mountain valley the glacier receives much rock material.

Fig. forming a moraiyie. are called lateral moraines. perhaps becoming exceedingly rough and even impassable. 158). an ice fall Where the valmay be caused. Rough crevassed surface of Muir glacier. in which the ice is crevassed into a. quite closely resembling river surface tossed about in a rapid. This the ice. and resting on the surface of the glacier near its margin. forming a medial moraine of rock (Fig. Alaska. 159. is we may break ice Therefore when flowing over bed. dropped mainly from the valley sides. ley bottom slopes rapidly. as it is strained. or may wax by its striking it a blow. since this generally an irregular rock sur- face. Although when subjected like a viscous to slow pressure the ice flows body. When two glaciers unite. or caused to move rapidly. if for it any reason crack. an irregular surface. a dark band and on some and gravel in the middle of glaciers there are several of these. 297 and bits whirled by the wind. two of the lat- eral moraines is may join. it is often cracked or crevassed.GLACIERS AND THE GLACIAL PERIOD blocks. Those piles of rock frag- ments. are carried upon the ice. .

where the ice melts and flows away in streams. and so they journey . But the materials deposited by rivers are assorted according to the size which of many can be carried with a given velocity. and it it is then dragged more material rasped from the bed. journeys slowly forward in the glacier until the end is reached.^ If the glacier dis- . while water. grooving and polishing the it passes. clay. bed under the heavy weight of buoying up the sediment which The glait carries. but not to carry pebbles. where obtains while much of the ice load of rock materials remains behind. along the bottom. of bits of rock varying fine clay to large been ground under the which are scratched because they have ice (Fig. Hence it is that the deposits made by the from glacier are composed boulders. This together with the lateral and medial moraines. the terminal moraine may be built to a made of hills of gravel and boulders brought and dumped by the ice. forming a moraine at the end of the glacier. makes the pebbles and sand lighter. but in a stream the velocity may be rapid enough to carry sand. As it passes over the rock of its bed. The rock fragments in the bottom of the ice form what is known as the ground moraine. Since the presses its down on solid ice above. If the ice front remains at one place for a long time. and grinding the fragments In its mode of ivorh it is unlike a river.298 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY crevasses Through these falls to some of the surface moraine the bottom of the glacier. 162). being acts like a surface over which to a fine for it powerful sandpaper. cier differs also in the material which it carries. rock fragments are frozen into the along side by side ice. the valley glacier considerable height. the terminal moraine. a large boulder is transported as easily as a bit of sand.

bearing much color. Where they cut into the bed more rapidly than elsewhere. which usually makes them milky white in This they carry some of it in the channel. the glaciers have left the valleys. perhaps damming the streams and forming lakes. and for the same reason less rapid near the bottom than at the surface. so in the past. out of which they flow with considerable velocity. or turning them out of their path into more irregular courses. The movement is more rapid on the sides. . the and in the Norwegian mountains. it is The glacier movement is generally so slow that in the centre than necessary to observe very care- it. of the material Therefore not all which the glacier carries. or in lakes. depending upon Their movement is ordithe slope and the snow supply. narily only a few inches or a few feet a day. and probably glaciers have never carved their valleys as rivers have but in some places they are widening and deepening them. in Europe in New Zealand. remains in the terminal moraine at the margin of the ice. they have carved out basins in the rock. down their when the valleys. 299 on the surface. left — the moraines are — and many have done From the front of the glacier there generally emerges a stream (or sometimes several) coming from an ice cave. or perhaps over floodplains. Mountain valley glaciers exist in the Caucasus Mountains. sediment. Alps. Valley glaciers move at a variable rate. where it is retarded by friction. in which perhaps they are obliged to cut new valleys. depositing slope decreases. but some of the valley tongues of ice on the Greenland coast move as much as 75 or 100 feet a day. They flow in valleys which previously existed. in which lakes later accumulate after fully in order to detect . .GLACIERS AND THE GLACIAL PERIOD appears from a valley by melting.

One of these is in the — Antarctic region. St. Where now there are only a very few tiny glaciers. In Greenland all but the margin is buried beneath snow and ice. but in this region.300 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY the southern Andes. surrounding the south pole. ice-polished rocks. there are many other grand valley glaciers which frequently terminate in the sea. Glaciers exist on the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. in recent geological times there have been many in the higher val- the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada. While leys of glaciers are now scarce in this country. there are immense glaciers covering all the land and moving over both hill and valley. scarcely more than mere snow fields. In two parts of the world The Greenland Glacier. the other in Greenland. but as soon as the Canadian border is reached they commence to be numerous among the mountains. there were formerly hundreds of Because of a change in well-developed valley glaciers. and have left a record of their existence in the presence of moraines.000 square miles. and further north in the Mt. Almost is known about the former. this place to northern and from Alaska. in the northern Rockies and in the Sierra Nevada. Alaska they are very numerous. Elias region. climate they have gradually disappeared from the land. the total area of this great glacier being about 500. No part of the world has larger or more is perfect valley glaciers than The most noted of these the Muir Glacier. and in various parts of central Asia and western America. nothing . There are many thousands in the world. which is almost entirely ice covered. an area 10 times Both in summer and as great as the state of New York. but many geologists have visited the latter. and boulders which have been taken from the mountain tops down into the valleys. These existed at the time of the Glacial Period. but in the United States proper there are only a few small glaciers. north of Sitka.

flow if a weight were placed upon the top. and where the country has been buried to a great depth and its surface raised to an elevation of 10. which there are many small valley cap of Greenland. Greenland showing terminal moraine. Black Near the sea there are occasional mountain peaks projecting above ^he glacier. and there are also many islands and peninwhich the ice does not extend. north. and burying sea. though upon glaciers. 160. and west. south. slowly flows out in all directions from the interior toward the coast. even high mountain peaks.000 feet by the accumulation of snow. It moves somewhat as a pile of wax might east. The snow of the interior becomes compacted to ice at a slight depth. Margin of Cornell Glacier. riding over all The great ice the land. in which there is absolutely no land.GLACIERS AND THE GLACIAL PERIOD winter snow falls 301 upon the high interior region. layers of ice carry quantities of rock fragments. Fig. moves slowly down to the . forming v hat the Greenlanders call a sulas over nunatak. and as it accumulates.

161). A scratched glacial pebble from moraine of Cornell glacier. there Fig. Now is and then the water dammed streams into a tiny lake into which the carry much sand and Fig. where it melts. where it off in the form of icebergs. the Greenland ice c|ip is pure and free from moraine but near the sea. where peaks project above the surface. 162.302 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY it which breaks enters at the heads of bays or fjords. 160). . forming the streams which course along between land and glacier. clay. 161. Away coast from the the surface of . build- ing deltas (Fig. Delta in tiny lake fornaed by ice dam at margin of Cornell glacier. Between these places the ice rests on the land (Fig. Greenland.

materials float off in the icebergs but where it ends on . scouring which they have That the ice worked well is shown by the scratches and grooves of the rock. dragged them along. The fi-agments brought in the ice are often quite unlike those on which the edge of the glacier rests it is certain that they have been brought and hence from some other . Therefore nearly the Greenland parts there ice sheet bears is considerable fragments varying in size boulders (Fig. Where the glacier enters the sea. 163. which point in the direction from which the glacier flows.GLACIERS AND THE GLACIAL PERIOD are lines of moraine 303 on the glacier. recently and now grooved ice- and polished by the received. numerous. as we might scratch two rocks by rubbing them together. the boulders against the bed rock and Photograph of a piece of floating ice. place. showing the relative amount of ice above the water surface (AA) to that below. ice just Indeed beyond the edge of are the seen rock cov- surfaces ered. which pressed Fig. the ground moraine . cutting tools with which it no moraine but in the lower rock material. though these are not entire surface of the . 160). consisting of from grains of clay to huge is Therefore the glacier it armed with can grind the land over which slowly glides. These were formed by the ice.

a berg 100 feet high sinks deep in the water. . icebergs rising more than 100 feet above the water are uncommon. ice has hills. sea. forming icebergs . and perhaps having entirely obscured the Greenland margin. 164.7 parts below the surface to one above. and smoothed and scratched rock surfaces. 200. In fact. Icebergs. having formerly covered much which now rises above it. these are the same as may now be seen exactly at the margin of the glacier. Since ice when floating has 8. perhaps a mile in width. the case building terminal-moraine ridges and of valley glaciers. fragments of in size ice break and float and these vary from tiny pieces up to great masses. as in At some recent geological time the been more extensive. Fig. but much remains. In the Antarc- . boulders of the land that have been brought from some other place. The evidence of this is the presence of moraines on the land. and 100. and is really an immense ice mass.304 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY the land. Iceberg off the North Greenland coast. some goes off in the streams. or even 300 feet in height but in the Arctic. off — When a glacier ends in the away.

often encounter icebergs 1000 or 2000 miles from the parent glacier. perhaps thousands of miles from their place of birth.GLACIERS tic. ' \ HFig. Over northwestern Glacial Period Evidence of this. The where they remain until by melting they can once more float away.---'^ . ^\1 'F< -h. and once in a while running upon a shoal. Starting very often with a load of rock fragments in their bases. 165). Gradually they journey toward warmer latitudes. sounding like a volley of artillery. slowly melting until they finally disappear. they strew these over the sea bed as they slowly melt. changing position now and then. Breaking off from the glacier front with a thundering crash. being driven to some extent by the wind. setting the water into commotion and causing powerful waves to move out in all directions. the surface presents : — . but mainly by the ocean currents. ^^. heavy hnes mark the position of terminal moraines. down to the line marked on the accompanying map (Fig. 165. Europe and northeastern America. they rock backward and forward. Map showing extension of ice in eastern United States (by shading). AND THE GLACIAL PERIOD 305 some huge icebergs have been reported to be so large that they have been mistaken for islands. The ocean steamers which cross the Atlantic to Europe. Then they float majestically away.

166. many The soil is not the residual soil of rock decay that commonly forms when rocks are exposed to the weather. Glacial till moraines. but many have been brought from the north. These deposits are not strewn over the surface regularly. though elsewhere there may be no more than a mere veneer of boulder clay upon the rock. as if or boulder clay. are beds of sand and gravel.306 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY peculiar appearances. in some cases the surface is bare rock. but here and there. till The pebbles and boulders which occur in the are not the same as those of the rock in the neighboihood. some now found in the Greenland Fig. 166). This is known as boulder clay^ or till (Fig. some now found in the United States having come from Canada. and polished as in and the bed rock of the region is scratched Greenland (Fig. Moreover quite like they are scratched. Indeed. Mass. not unlike those now occurring where streams flow from the end of a glacier. especially in stream valleys. or in some cases numerous boulders. they had been ground against other rocks . 167). This till is not found everywhere. but generally consists of a clay in which there are occasional. as in Greenland. Cape Ann. and the surface is . but in some cases are 200 or 300 feet deep.

and there are no foreign rocks. from one in which these are either absent or very much less abundant. This line of division separates a land of lakes. giving the form roches moutonnees^ or sheep-back rocks. This. as they do in Greenland. there are many lakes and waterfalls. There is an area extending across our country. Rock surface in Iowa. in which these conditions are found. but south of which they are absent. which wq . In the regions where these peculiarities occur. or in other words of falls.GLACIERS AND THE GLACIAL PEBIOD 307 scoured into rounded outline. on the other residual and on the one side the boulders are foreign to the region. while on the other they are not scratched. 1G7. known as The grooves and scratches point toward the place from which the boulders have come. Fig. and young streams. If we Ave re to go to this area of separation. and both the pebbles and bed rock are scratched. . where streams have been dammed or forced out of their valleys by deposits of boulder also clay and gravel. on the one side the soil is boulder clay. we would find that it was marked by a line of hummocky hills quite closely resembling a terminal moraine. gorges. in a general westerly direction. scratched "by passage of glacier. Moreover.

N. Th^fact that the Glacial Period really has existed cannot be doubted. and this being so. geologists will do what has been done have concluded that in a recent geological as period. Terminal-moraine hills near Ithaca. 168. bringing boulder clay and scratching and grinding the rocks over which passed. Greenland is now covered. closely resemble those seen at the Fig. and then another which caused it to withdraw.rniony with the evidence concerning the shrink- . This is in hg. Because the conditions so margin of actual glaciers. a great continental glacier covered northeastern America and northwestern Europe.Y. and because no other agent here. we must believe that there has been a great change in climate which allowed ice to — advance over the country. Cause of the Glacial Period.308 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY may call the terminal moraine of the Glacial Period^ extends across country. passing up hill and down . and it marks the limit to which it ice extended at a recent period.

and the effects of which only can to prove one be studied. for the question deals with conditions that are past. Glacial Deposits. its front stood along lines further and further north. any one dragged ground moraine down to its edge and piled it up along the margin as a terminal moraine. and disprove the others. 169.GLACIEBS AND THE GLACIAL PERIOD ing of the Greenland 309 ice. and the disappearance of glaciers from the mountain valleys of the west. the true expla- nation has not yet been found and proved. Cape Ann. A boulder-strewn moraine hill. the United States and Canada. but like many scientific facts. Concerning the cause of this there has been but much discussion . Mass. but as slowly melted from the land. These terminal moraines are among the most characteristic land forms in this country (Figs. . and each time that it halted a moraine was built. it is difficult We have many theories. f'^-'^M^: Fig. for not only did the ice it advance to and stand at the line described above. There are many such moraines in ice front stood at it — When the place for a considerable length of time.

and hence without stratification. varying in size from boulders to clay. Therefore these moraines are complex in structure as well as outline. which were deposited by water furnished by the melting ice. saucer-shaped valleys. It has moved materials from one place to soil it has swept off the old and replaced it by . ridges. and their surface outline is irregular and hummocky. Effects of the Glacier. and the land which has been ice covered is therefore strewn with various kinds of glacial deposits.. and in some no boulders are found. as any mass of earth would be if dumped without order. This till has various forms. so that some valleys have been entirely buried. There are small hills. sometimes as a thin layer and sometimes in very thick beds. and in general an exceedingly irregular surface. where the supply of hard rock was boulder clay. there are of the till few large rocks (Fig. but generally it is a sheet extending uniformly over the surface of the rock on which it rests. it carried with it a load of rock fragments which it held as a ground moraine and when . this was left as a sheet of boulder clay strewn over the surface. finally it disappeared. till was often dragged down into these and left there. another . They consist of a dump of rock fragments. 310 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 168 and 169). scanty. 168). 169) but in other cases. The streams from the ice have also deposited sheets of gravel and built low hills of various kinds. When the ice crossed valleys. while others have a filling of perhaps 100 or 200 feet of Some of the till is very bouldery (Fig. They are chiefly composed of till brought by the glacier and laid down without assortment. but they also contain beds of stratified sand and gravel. When the ice advanced. — While it existed the ice did much work.

and partly or entirely deepened tops.GLACIERS a AND THE GLACIAL PERIOD 311 it has worn and lowered many of the hillsome of the valleys. cutting their outlet. as it was melting from the country. The most important effect of glacial action has been upon the drainage. When the ice stood as a barrier on the land it stretched across many stream valleys whose slope was toward the north. fore many north-flowing streams for awhile flowed south- ward. the slope of the land no longer led them northward. St. lowered down the barriers at them so greatl}^ that when the ice disappeared. clinging to the hillsides. and since the water has now we may often see these old lake deposits Not only did these conditions exist near the southern terminal moraine. it has not been able to erase the larger preglacial hills and valleys. Avhich being prevented from flowing as the land sloped. in them. were forced to seek some other outlet. the streams again occupied the land. LawWhile these lakes existed. valleys. but only to find the old valleys considerably altered. which before the Glacial Period belonged to the rence drainage. the zone of tempoiriry glacial lakes extended farther northward. and it has left the land surface quite differfilled others ent from the way in which it was found. whereever it stood on the land. . but now joins the Ohio. the land was carved into hills and and streams occupied the surface but while the . and these were then transformed to lakes. but merely to modify them. Before the ice came. but along the margin of the ice. As soon as the ice left. One of the best cases of this is found in the headwaters of the Alleghany. Hence as the glacier withdrew northward. Still with all its work. beaches and deltas were built disappeared from the basins. glacier existed they were for a time extinguished. and they continued to flow in their reversed direction. In . and some of these. There- new kind .

With equal frequency dams of moraine have been thrown across the stream course. In other cases. and that in these there are numerous waterfalls (Chapter XVI). lar sheet of till. Therefore. and Canada are the result of either because their surface was dotted States with saucer-shaped depressions. or in the till. and hence it is that so many streams in the glaciated country flow in gorges some cases. to one side of their former course. and new ones had to be started by young streams flowing on the plains of glacial deposit. Upon the irregu- the terminal moraine and the gravel hills of United States and Canada. though they were undoubtedly caused in part by the action of ice in digging valleys deeper. the valleys for a part of the distance. and particularly in the moderately hill}'.312 FIBST BOOK m PBYStCAL GEOGRAPHY Ohio and the other level states of the were entirely obliterated by glacial deposits. streams were sometimes caused to leave their old valleys and carve new ones. these causes. or else because they have This is one of the formed dams across stream valleys. Or they were turned from the old channels by glacial deposits and caused to cut gorges in the rock. as in plains. there are probably more than Practically all the 100. forming lakes. they were locally rejuvenated . reasons for the existence of the Great Lakes.000 lakes and ponds.countries. lakes of northern United glacial deposits. and in part by changes in the level Even with of the land which have formed rock dams. . much of the area of the Great Lakes is due to the effect of glacial deposits which have partly choked old preglacial valleys.

being more important in the fresh water. and exceedingly irregular. and there are also windformed currents in each. and estuaries. ceed. and therefore certain kinds of shores which are constructed by ocean animals are never found in lakes. But in several ways they differ places there are no great circulation.: CHAPTER XVIII SEA AND LAKE SHORES Difference between are Lake and Sea Shores. great and small. Form of the Coast. is found in lakes. the shores of sea so closely resemble one another that they may In both we find cliffs and beaches. In both sidered together. Besides these. harbors. and in each there are many differences between these from point to point. north of Cape Cod. and these differ from place to place. animal life is less abundant in lakes than in the sea. the coast New England. like that of the ocean currents. On the the other hand. promontories and bays. To go on foot along the margin of such a shore for a 313 . in force waves constantly at work. and as many bays. we find many of differences as we pro- For instance. If we pass along an extensive — stretch of coast line. the action of plant life is different in two bodies. There are tens of thousands of islands and peninsulas. is chiefly rocky. — While there and lake be con- many differences in detail. nor are there well-developed tides.

and at the same time less irregular. w^e see that Avhile the coast of Europe and the northern coasts both is of western and eastern America are exceedingly irregular. the ke^s. it is found that the coast becomes less abrupt and rocky. which if the — rock slide is hard. whether in lake or sea. as measured from headland to headland. or as they require miles.814 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY distance of a dozen miles. are made of coral fragments. until on the Carolina coast the shore is a series of sand bars and beaches. excepting those formed by the sand bars. are cutting into the land. although rocky. on the southern end of Florida. and on many coasts have made important changes. further south. may are called. These differences are due to perfectly natural causes. Beating against the coast. clay. down until it can come to With the action . Where waves are at work violently. it would be found by such a journey that the abrupt sea cliffs and headlands often enclose beaches. or if soft. with pebbles and sand. their resistless sawing at the rocks cuts them into the form of cliffs (Fig. 170). the west coast of South America. either of pebbles or sand. armed Sea Cliffs. most of which can be simply explained. the coast again becomes irregular but here the islands. While rocky in general. so uniformly straight that good harbors are scarce. even since man has inhabited them. the waves. may rise nearly vertically. with less steep slopes. or gravel will rest. and that salt marshes and mud flats line the head of many of the bays. for then the sand. in passing . 176 and Plate 1'^). with no rocks and iew irreguStill larities. They gradually wear away the hardest rocks. Carry- ing the examination to more distant lands. one to walk not less than 100 around the bays (Fig. Passing south of Cape Cod.

Mr m ^ .


are found in the open ocean where the . gradually by this undermining fragments of the cliff face are caused to fall. and slowly it moves backward. rising hundreds of feet out of full the water. waves and is their allies. cliff. the waves cease to cut into the and under the influence its gradually loses steepness. leaving Just so long as this is Fig. undermine the rock above. causing it to fall because its . the not only the rock cut away. Sea cliffs of great size. the falling fragments being support action. and thus. carried away by the waves. If the time comes when the of weathering it materials cannot be taken away.SEA of the AND LAKE SHOBES wave and wind it is 315 currents. but the cliff open to fresh attacks. A sea cliff on south shore of Bermuda. removed. perhaps forming sea eaves. So. is removed. done the cliff will maintain its steepness for the waves saw along a narrow zone near sea level. 170. nndercutting the cliff (Fig. 171).

showing undercutting action of waves. In other cases the rocks are so hard cliff. where smaller waves are generated. One may therefore expect that this would be not only the grandest but also the commonest tains the these vertical .. Bermuda. S16 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY force of powerful waves can be exerted against the shore but similar though smaller cliffs occur in lakes (Fig. The sea cliff is the natural result of wave work where they are free to cut as they will. soft sand or gravel. form of a precipice for a long time. rising directly from the water but in other cases the shore consists of rounded and somewhat irregular outlines. Wave-cut islands. and this is particularly true where the material is . and also in the enclosed bays of the seashore. of seashore features . that they can be cut into the form of a which main- FiG. Their form varies greatly with the kmd of rock out of which the coast is made some shores crumble so rapidly under w^eathering that they are never vertical. 171. . Sometimes cliffs are several hundred feet in height. 172). but the latter is certainly not true.

they have built hundreds of miles of bars and then the winds. but to that burden which the waves themselves Weathering. wind take. — the Carolina coast are not cutting cliffs in the soft rock. . the materials wrested by the waves are removed by the undertow. along the entire coast of the United States south of New York. have been built up by the waves out of materials which were furnished them. of several miles from the real shore. and by the others alojig shore. and the swash of the surf. the wind-formed currents. they are obtaining materials which must be disposed of if they would continue their work of cutting. which rushes upon the land at a slight angle to the direction in which the coast extends. . As has been explained. excepting at the southern end of Florida. but which the}^ could not carry away. from which the outer These bars. but are breaking upon sand beaches. and these supplies sometimes become so great that the waves are overburdened and cannot perform the great task of removal thrust upon them. is added one imposed upoii them. and wearing it back. and rivers. often at distances beach bars are separated by lagoons and marshes. action. For instance. . the waves have more material than they can carry off. Therefore the bars are partly wave-formed and partly wind-formed but the supply has been furnished chiefly by the rivers. By the first of these some of the material is carried off shore. Hence it is that the great ocean waves that beat against cliff . are furnishing other materials to the waves. Being forced to lay down their burdens. taking the sand from the beaches. have piled it up in the form of sand dunes or sand hills.SEA AND LAKE SHOBES 317 When the waves are cutting against a The Beach. such as those forming Cape Hatteras.

many pocket little beaches Wave-cut cliff with beach in small hay. the waves have an easier task. wear fragments off. as well as that furnished by weathering and streams. and hence get less of a load to carry. carry some out to sea. the power of the waves decreases. 172. Lake Superior. Further up. 110). the waves are always tiny. because here even clay cannot be carried away. and the rivers entering the sea there do not transport so much The coast is more irregular.318 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Along an irregular rocky coast. pebbles or boulders that have been wrested from the neighborIn the larger ing cliffs and driven into the depressions. of sand. where the load dropped. and drive others along shore until an indenta- tion of the coast is reached. and because of sediment. this the waves beat against the relatively few headlands. They have harder rocks against w^hich to w^ork. By this means the bays and other indentations of the . like that of Maine. indentations there are extensive beaches of sand and pebbles (Fig. and that which the waves wear off. is accumulated there. near the head of bays. Hence upon this coast there are Fig. be- is cause upon entering a bay or harbor. where mud flats exist.

tained through which the tide ebbs and flows. while upon others it is necessary to spend large sums of money every year. are materials Driven along shore.SEA AND LAKE SHORES 319 They become a dumping coast are gradually filling up. ground for the wave-derived materials. and finally stretches from side to side. Therefore the double action of cutting the cliffs and filling the bays results in production of mo7^e regular Fig. the 174). as well as those coming from the land itself. Bar built across bay. Because of this fact some harbors have been rendered useless. perhaps completely enclosing it. and transforming it to a pond. Cape Breton Island. reaches the surface. 173. Along . causing the water near the mouth of the bay or harbor Later as more is added. bar across the forming of a 173 and dropped. though more commonly a small opening is mainof the first steps in harbor filling is the One mouth of the indentation (Figs. the bar to become shallower. Nova Scotia. in order to keep them deep enough for large ships to enter.

175). because as they increase in depth. showing arms of the sea cut off by bars. liable to be very irregular. Map is of a part of Martha's Vineyard. and the straits. consisting of alternating headlands and minor indentations. and have beaches built at their heads. Fig. — Besides constructing these wave- them miles in length. It has sometimes been stated that such great bays as the Chesapeake. But these do not become very great. . Wherever there is a softer layer between harder w^alls.320 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY the United States coast there are thousands of such bar beaches. which protect the rocks from the further attack of the waves. the waves will find this and eat into it more rapidly (Fig. 174. and harbors of the coast of New England. Hence a rocky coast on which the materials vary in kind. the waves have done of carving rocky shores into irregular outline. much work and cutting the sea cliffs. some of Wave-carved Shores. huilt forms. bays. and they become then a place of deposit. have been cut out by waves and tides. the waves that enter have less power.

This description of what would happen may be applied to the eastern coast of North America and the western shores of northern Europe. one of the effects would be to cause the sea to enter the valleys. for waves cease when they enter bays. shore of would rise over low divides and transform them to straits. and coast . The would then become very irregular (Figs. Small bay formed where a soft trap rock crosses the others into promontories and capes. Mass. and make some hills into islands. Here there are islands which resemble hilltops. A ject Sinking Coast. Should the submergence continue. and some places are ing. transforming them to if bays. and so it is necessary to look for another elevation of the land cause to explain these greater irregularities. Cape Ann.SUA AND LAKE SHOBES but this to cut to is 321 to be able certainly not true. to — The ris- is sub- frequent change. straits between capes and islands. Fig. 176 and 180. in time the water A wave-carved indentation on harder granite. not deepened and enlarged by tides and waves . fjords if or to narrow. and Plate 19). the land should sink near the coast. 175. and tides have not the power do the cutting. they were broad. while some have changed If recently one or \ in the other of these directions. Indeed careful study shows that such bays are being filled. others sinking.

that one of the strong proofs that such sinking actually has occurred. showing present outline of coast with bays. the For strait separating Great Britain from Europe appears to represent a low divide sunk River. 176. The Bay Lawrence of and its tributaries. St. appear to be nothing Fig. .322 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY and fjords bays. It makes the shore line more irregular. now partly beneath the sea (Fig. and (by shading) the similar outline which would result if the land should sink a hundred feet more. It causes the water to rise higher and higher. harbors. and therefore furnishes depressions into which the waves can drop their load. and the Chesapeake and its branches. which end is in river valleys on the In fact the resemblance so close to what actually would happen it is if the land should be partly drowned. more than land valleys Map of part of Connecticut. instance. 146). A sinking coast brings the sea water and therefore reduces the amount of material which waves can cut. The Hudson rises into whicli the tide above Albany. peninsulas. land. beneath sea level. and islands. appears to be a river valley carved on the land. submerging in contact with the hard rock of the land.

— A rising coast mud and is less irregular because It is the sea bottom is much smoother than the land. as in the case of the coast of Texas. and this is why there are so few harbors coast. filling up of these enclosed Here areas. and then . and to this deposit is added sediment driven in by the waves and borne by the tidal currents. The western coast of South America the reason is also rising. Salt marshes are formed by a partial.SEA AND LAKE SHORES the beaches 323 Thereliable to which the waves commence to build. Settling. is fore. A Rising Coast. which has been recently elevated. a sinking coast be not only an irregular one. for these various reasons. which are out of reach of the ocean waves. covered with soft carry sand. derfully straight and such a wonIn lakes whose level is being less lowered. off. the accumulation slowly raises the sea floor until the depth is shallow enough for certain plants to take root. and in some cases a complete. and hence the waves obtain a great load. there are extensive marshy plains in the These are seen on the New England coast as well as behind the sand bars of the more southern states. which high now sinking. there are very few beaches. is Thus on the coast of Greenland. rain and rivers wash materials into the arms of the sea. as any reason produces the same may be seen on the south shore of the Great Lakes. but also one of cliffs numerous but In lakes and few beaches. directly out of quite deep water. Marshes. such as those of eastern protected bays and estuaries. cliffs rise the rising of the water for results. — On many shores. and generally more than they can so that bars are often built. similar though much pronounced effects are produced. United States.

similar treeless and tree-covered marshes are built by the aid of plant growth and many small ponds are bordered by such swamps. the depth not more than 150 feet. and have established farms and even towns upon a plain which is really below the level of the high tide. Gradually the surface rises to the level of the high tide. time exposed to the can grow only in places where it is at some though it must also at some time receive a bath of salt water. by entangling sediment and partly by their death. In addition to this. and where they are not exposed to the air between tides. the animals must have a good supply of food. regions. and large areas of Holland were once salt marsh. while some have been entirely replaced by them. 77). salt mai'sh grass air. Both in England and America there has been much land reclaimed in this way. though in this case tree-covered. they cannot . becoming then a remarkably level plain. Both in sea and lake these marsh lands can develop only where the waves are not active enough to remove the clay or sand in which the vegetation takes root. partly and causing The to settle. where the reef-building animals can thrive only where the water is warm and the tem23erature never lower than 68° or 70°. and hence they are generally found where ocean currents exist. through which extend numerous channels occupied by the rising tide. and they exist on other subtropical as well as tropical coasts.324 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHT it still it these raise higher. a tree which can grow with its roots in salt water. which fills them and then overflows the plain with a sheet of salt water. Coral Reefs. In time the marshes rise this stage. Before many countries. or if fresh water enters the sea. is building similar marshes. in the sea exists in great luxuriance and particularly These this true in the shallow water in and near the tropical corals abound. men have built dykes to keep out the salt water. In lakes. If the water is muddy. The mangrove (Fig. in even above this level and then become dry land. . In this country these are found in the bays of Florida. life is — Where conditions are favorable. animal .

or away entire masses. 177. Upon passing over the reefs. Position of coral reef 5^H!H?i~P«^BWiH HJH^Hl I i Bi[ shown hy line of hreakers. in 325 Hence reef-building corals need a combination of unusually favorable conditions. in since they are firmly anchored in place. may be blown into . 177). then known as a harrier reef. where they are ground This coral and drive them ashore upon the up (Fig. thus causing a constant passage of food. the abundance of coral and other lime-secreting animals marvellous (Fig. which must come to the corals. sand. forming a great line of which the animals thrive because the water is kept in commotion. beach. coming upon the shore. that they build the bottom up so near the surface that the waves. PimSS^'^SSSSHH Fig. taken by the wind. along which they huildfringmg reefs rising nearly to sea Or they may build a reef just off shore. surf. Corals may abound in the shallow waters near the land. break over the reef.SEA AND LAKE SHOBES abound. which is level. is Where these favorable conditions are combined. They grow so luxuriantly ii^g Beach on coast of Florida. and their distribution abundant colonies is not great. the waves break tear off fragments of coral. 79).

partly because the waves have thrown fragments above sea level. The of former islands may of be called islands construction^ the latter destruction. of material Great Barrier Reef.326 FIB ST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHT The southern end of made of coral subBermudas. By far the greater number islands exist near the sea coast. particularly along the shore line of the 1 — southern states. In the southern Pacific there are many coral islands far away from any land. which is over 1000 miles and from this is being supplied a vast amount out of which rock is being built. but not a in mid-ocean. Along such coasts as that of eastern United States. and the coral ring rises a number of feet above the water surface. and hence land will be actually con- structed out of coral fragments. to covered at high Greenland. immense islands. called the in length. but chiefly because the wind has blown the coral sand from the beach into the form of low hills. Islands maybe 5m?^ by various means. and having the form of a more or less perfect ring. Florida and the stance . These are known as atolls. Bahama Islands are and the entire area of the level. Islands. above sea from reefs and built of the wind. they vary from tiny bits of land. few are found that of In size tide. like By Construction. is made of shell sand derived into the form of hills by the action Along the shores of northern Australia there a reef. is the form of hills. book on . Near deltas they are often formed because the waves cannot remove all the sediment out to sea. — Islands are either new land of built up in the sea or else remnants of old land partly destroyed. where the waves have more atolls a geology For the theories to account for these interesting may be consulted.

178). forming islands. of the continents near which The Hawaiian Islands are an instance of this for between the several islands of this group there extends a . which are true islands. tiny islands that Serpula atolls.SEA AND LAKE SHORES 32T sediment than they can dispose of. islands the coral the de- and just scribed are of this class. also raise parts above the sea level. Islands may be constructed by the elevation of an irregular sea bottom for then higher parts of the bed may be raised above the sea. This is the origin of raised high many West they of the larger islands of the world. generally very long coasts there are and narrow. 178. the combined action of winds and waves builds a great many sand bars. Bermuda. Along our of these. have been built by serpula (a worm that makes a calcareous shell) into the true ring form of the atoll (Fig. where the water is shal- low. Such bars can be made only many thousands near land. Or the folding of the sea bed through the formation of mountains may . The East and Indies are parts of mountains not now enough to form a portion lie. but sometimes a score or two of miles in length. mostly small. Animals are also reefs atolls building . . coast of Along the Bermuda there are many Fig.

328 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GFOGltAPBT ridge of upfolded sea bottom. Bi/ Destruction. The sinking of the land accounts for the greatest number partial of instances of islands of destructive origin. 179). thus forming islands are caused by the destruction of land. and in this many similar elevations not yet raised above the surface. All the isolated islands of the open ocean. cut from the land (on right) by wave action. excepting those made of coral. may leave some parts standing for awhile. the volcanic. if not all of the isolated Fig. coral atolls of the mid-ocean have been built by animals upon platforms constructed by volcanic causes. The peaks which rise from the crest of this ridge are illustrations of another type of con- structed islands. — By far the greatest number of islands For instance. . case also there are By outpouring of molten rock these peaks have been raised as islands. The drowning of an irregular coast transforms the shore into an exceedingly irregular area of promontories and islands. Islands on shore of Bermuda. evidently a true mountain range beneath the sea. 179. (Fig.. are volcanic peaks and it is probable that most. Such islands can never be large. the waves beating against the shore and wearing it back. being really tiny fragments of the coast line not yet destroyed.

and hence if new all directions. Since they. of Those extending along the coast of northeastern cause also (Plate 19). ocean. and this attack Avill be active they stand well out in the open Gradually then they disappear. Some islands are being increased in size by the causes . and the vast Maine are due to this number along the shores America.S^A AND LAKE SHOBES the latter 329 being produced rounded by water. Fig. some of which are of large size. due to sinking of the land. they are surrounded on all sides by water they can be attacked in on all sides. Islands in the Bermudas. 180. especially if . which constructed them but as soon as these causes cease. like other islands. caused the large when the hilltops are surThe subsidence of the Bermudas has number of islands seen there (Fig. represent merely high peaks of the old land now partly drowned in the sea. are attacked by the waves. 180).

like that of N^ova Scotia. or by the elevation of the sea bottom. is a mountain uplift just The Japanese islands. inwaves bring more than they can carry away but when these conditions cease. 18i. Island joined to mainland by two bars. Fig. ontories . These represent the high places in the ancient country. or of Labrador. — Karatchatka peninsula. if the uplift continues. the south of these. have been lifted out of the sea by mountain folding and in time. others may be caused by the joining of coral reefs to the land. and the sinking has not been great enough to transform them to islands. as they is may in time. built by the waves. Nova Scotia. and a sand . standingside by side with the island of Sumatra. or mountain growth. Some are built by the waves. will in time be destroyed. Tiny capes may also be formed by wave erosion . supplies be not added. which are merely small promontories. though by a very small . or by volcanic eruption. as well as great peninsulas. The volcanic peaks rising in the sea coral as the volcano erupts grow keys grow in size as long as long as the animals thrive . The Malay peninsula. and small capes. creases just as long as the bar. may be caused by the sinking of an irregular land. Cape Breton. What has been said about islands applies to promand to capes.330 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHT any island . the island doomed to destruction. they may be joined to the Promontories. and the Philippines to as is Sumatra itself.

Islands may be transformed to peninsulas by means of bars built from them to the land by wave action (Fig. through rising or There was a time when the New England land extended many miles further than now. during the short period of fifty years since good maps of the coast have been made.SEA AND LAKE SHOEES additional submergence ISTova Scotia land. and in America. and straits and bays were dry-land valleys between hills. but the out- line of coasts is slowly changing. The seacoast is the seat of very active changes. the bar is so high that a road may be built upon it. either sinking (pages 321 and 323). and when present islands and capes were hilltops. just as 831 off would be cut from the main- Newfoundland now is. 181). In England the coast has Changes in Coast Lines. and the filling of bays in still other places. — Not only is there this action of the waves. and sometimes the connection is only made at low tide. many changes have been noticed. These consist in a cutting back of the headlands in one place. otherwise this could not have been seen by man. changed very considerably in the past thousand years. quite like those now found in New England. while in other cases. . On the coast of the United States there are many illustrations of this. the formation of bars in others.

AND MOUNTAINS — The term plain refers to a rather level stretch not very great elevation. Plains. being crossed by streams which have the most carved valleys.. A large plain presents Fig. they may be more deeply dissected by valleys but these higher plains are more properly called plateaus. A view on the plain of the Everglades in southern Florida. above the 332 . monotonous scenery for as far as one to be found in any part is of the land. and surface often consists of a series of wave-like undulations. may look there nothing but level country. its of country of It is generally somewhat irregular. 182. CHAPTER XIX PLAINS. PLATEAUS. Where plains exist at a considerable elevation sea.

Tennessee. have been gradu- by past denudation. before the Glacial Period. and there are many level stretches where lakes have once existed. but between these there will be level areas. etc. level country may be caused by denudation. left by the has been deposited upon their surface. the surface would gradually become smooth again. as they do in the greater part of this With the same climatic conditions over a large area. and the roughened plain would again become . there is a narrow tom. Even without much denudation. excepting where stream channels Starting upon a plain. probably never very high land. and in fact most of the states south of Xew Jersey. PLATEAUS. for it is may actually be worn down until nearly level.PLAINS. and the great plain of the Red River valley of the Xorth represents an old lake bottom. at the elevation is first narrow and steep-sided. the valleys may^ become deep and the country hilly. Salt-marsh plains have also been built up. through the rocks. The plains of the central states. In addition to a land this. strip of level land which is really a part of the old ocean bot- now raised into the air. making the surface even more level than it was ally levelled glaciers. . and then much drift. The levelness of Florida of the built same origin but the delta and floodplain of the Mississippi have been by the deposit of sediment carried by the river. will cut may result if the rocks lie in nearly horizontal sheets. but in time becoming broader. so that many parts have been filled. Therefore the prairies of the Mississippi plains valley have a double cause for their levelness. this does not decidedly . the rivers carve valleys. If time were allowed. 333 Bordering the coast of Texas. until finally it loses the characteristics of a plain. roughen the surface but if the region is elevated. forming valleys all points. In JSTorth America many small plains and swamps are really old lakes. as in the case of western West Virginia. streams . There are many different kinds of AND MOUNTAINS plains. because the rocks lie in sheets which wear down with the same rapidity in lie. Kentucky. If not great. country. just as plains would be produced is if the continental shelf were elevated.

If still smaller in area. old plains are not found. an elevated plain (Fig. which are true. 129). the streams have more power to cut. and in the west the Spaniards have called these mesas^ or tables. 334 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY for the a true plain. Therefore.. and rising steeply as a hill. Being more elevated than a plain. the plateau left In the course of this denudation flat-topped areas may be between the streams. as in the plateau through which the Colorado River of the west cuts its canon (Fig. As denumay become exceedingly irregular and rough. and even by canons. as in the case of the Catskill Mountains. Plateaus. dation proceeds. 183. leaving rather flat hilltops where hard strata (H) resist denudabetween the river valleys. be- cause denudation. although in places the plateau rarely has to go far to find it is level. and the highlands of southern central and western New York. though much dissected plateaus. and it is is — A plateau REMNANT OF PLAIN H Fig. resist denudation everywhere excepting where the streams cut through them (Fig. Plateaus are generally formed by the uplift of horizontal beds of rock which make the country level-topped. finds hard layers. 145) but it also has other features. generally dissected by deep valleys. . which would be an old land . one greatly roughened. 183). Diagram to illustrate dissection of plain tion. in carving them. 145). these remnants of formerly extensive level stretches are called huttes in the west (Fig. which being horizontal. but same reason that old river valleys do not exist.

The steppes of Russia and the pampas and llanos of South America. main nearly horizontal. as they were deposited raised into mountains they have been inclined. are great treeless plains. and most of the great plains west of the Mississippi but the cause of the prah'ies of the Mississippi valley must be different. Mountains There is very much difference term mountain.PLAINS. is The ex- planation of this peculiar absence of trees Some have argued that the soil is not entirely certain. of folding or breaking of the rocks of the crust. level land along the Texas coast is without trees because it is too swampy for them to grow. country most of the plains and plateaus number of these being so because of This is true of the entire western plateau . as we might fold Nature of Mountains. too dense. The latter seems to be the most acceptable explanation. As used in this book. the strata have been folded into waves. but others believe that the Indians have caused the open prairie. Therefore in a level region a small hill is called a mountain. . PLATEAUS. There are treeless plains in other regions: the salt marsh is an instance. In plateaus the rock layers rebut when . for it and moreover and that they have actually extended the area of the prairies since white men came into the region. and the low. and in mountainous countries high peaks are called hills. the term refers to parts of the earth's crust which have been uplifted as the result That is. but to most it means any considerable elevation above the surrounding country. . — in the use of the the leaves of this book. are treeless. Both on the plains and prairies. AND MOUNTAINS 335 — In this by far the greater the dryness of the climate. and have thus kept the land clear of trees. trees grow in the river it is known that trees can grow in the prairie soil fires. Treeless Plains. because in this region the rainfall is quite heavy enough for tree growth. has been proved that Indians did build bottoms near the streams. — that they set fires in con- nection with their hunt for the buffalo.

so that the length of the elevation is greater than the width.336 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY of the earth. and in each range there may be single ridges is (Plate 20). a lofty among high mountains elevation whose length and width do not greatly differ. or the Rockies. which extend from Alabama to New York. so that they rise above the general level. either by folding or faulting. Letters identify layers. . Basin Ranges.000 feet. 185). and the several mountain ranges occupying the western part of the United States. ing from Mexico closely Canada. such folds forms a system^ such as the Appalachians. the This folding of the rocks has occurred in various parts most notable cases in this country being the Appalachians in the east. reach- Sections through portions of the Appalachians. A series of sometimes to heights of 5000 or 10. In each system there are parts consist of uplifted portions side known side by as ranges^ which and separated by valleys . In these places the rocks have been tilted. Two or more systems such as the Rockies. constitute a eordilinto associated. The characteristic feature of each of these that the rocks are tilted. showing folded rocks and faults. lera. and Coast Ranges. Sierra Nevada. Former extension of strata indicated by dotted lines. is But the most striking feature the peak (Fig.



Let us suppose that it starts in the sea. sometimes It is the mountain peak which people have in mind when they name a hill. perhaps the best way to proceed is to imagine that we can trace the growth of a mountain system. though probaraised bly volcanoes pour forth lava at various points along the crests of the rising ridges. stand the origin of the features of mountains. Fig. to a great height. where for some reason the bed is being — and the layers of the bottom are being folded. a peak in the Blue Ridge of North Carolina. In order to underDevelopment of a Mountain System. . 185. with little other change than the folding (or perhaps faulting) and uplifting. PLATEAUS. in the sea along the line Such a mountain range exists where the Hawaiian Islands rise . Grandfather Mountain . Really these peaks are true hills of great size and height among mountains and it is not necessary that the rocks of which they are made shall be folded. a mountain.PLAINS. but which rises AND FOUNTAINS 337 above the surrounding region. Gradually the bed rises.

never reaching the height to which they would have risen had denudation been debarred. Such a stage has been reached by the Japanese Islands. they reach the air. we should take a pair of shears and . Because the rocks were folded as sheets. but their elevation is ineffectually opposed. and 1500 miles. 143). not standing in a layer. and the whole a system. rocks decay in the weather. and perchance the ocean waves beat against the margin. rains fall. there was nothing to check the increasing elevation but as soon as . also will resist like granite. As we may fold paper into two or three if each representing a range. ridges may be formed. as the folds gradually rose. the ridges are nearly parallel ^ and wherever denudation . 1 denudation and stand folds. 2 As our paper mountain would be clip off the tops of the folds. They represent a mountain system with several ranges. such hard layers. As soon as the range begins.338 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY this above the surface. finds But if there exists a it more massive rock. So the folds no longer rise uninterruptedly. and they continue to rise with battered and scarred surfaces. a new chapter Formerly.^ but denudation has cut into the ranges. which are old mountains that have been exposed to the air for a long time. range extends not less than rises into the air. and finding hard layers of rock in the form of inclined sheets. which are even now rising mountains. and the hard rocks stand up because the softer ones are worn away more rapidly. winds blow. rivers gather on the land. They begin to be sculptured. has carved out ridges where the hard layers exist. the agents of denudation commence their work of sculpturing and destruction. as has happened in the Appalachians (Fig.

Carrying the development of the mountain system may rise and become a part if of the continent. Pike's Peak. A very large number of well-known peaks in the world ^ rise above the surrounding folds. because some such hard rock denudation better than the softer Had the durable rock existed as a ones that surround it. a ridge would have been produced. AND MOUNTAINS B39 up.PLAINS. as well as hundreds of others. it in the west. still and others further. as the Japanese Islands will they continue to be elevated. Mt. but a peak (Fig. and other Swiss peaks. 186. the Adirondacks. and as the Coast ranges of California already have. there is at first a partly enclosed 1 Such as the peaks of the White Mountains of New Hampshire. one which has been carved into of the ridge. PLATEAUS. though perhaps as granite has resisted Fig. in Teton Mountains. la7/er. 185). Between them and the mainland. the Matterhorn. thus forming not a ridge. as seen in the many peaks along the line of Teton Mountains Wyoming. Mt. . Everest in the Himalayas. Moran.

because the water courses down them with great and therefore can dig rajDidly (Fig. The valleys which the rivers carve are deep canons with steep and rocky sides. the high mountain tops line (Figs. because their water is evaporated by the dry air. where winds are fierce and frost action powerful. across the ranges (Fig. rise slowly. the valley may become the a plateau. or perhaps an enclosed basin. valley.340 sea. so long as they grow their elevation is usually more rapid than the downcutting by denudation but the velocity. 127). like Great Basin between the Sierra Nevada and the Rockies. which between the Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada. into which rivers flow without passing into the sea. and particularly a growing mountain is carved into very rugged forms. 143). streams have such a slope that their valleys are deeply cut.^ above sea level. and between the ridges. — . lies Like the Sacramento valley of California. and are therefore not protected from the weather. so that weathering is rapid (Fig. 134). 1 Just as canons are characteristic of young streams. and differences relief. but also because the peaks rise into the higher regions of the atmosphere. Although mountains The Destruction of Mountains. great enclosed and then perhaps a great Finally. of rock texture are brougnL into very sharp It is not merely because of the slope of the streams. Hence it is that a young. as the elevation continues. . rise above the timber 85 and 187). By the growth of the mountains not only may great basins be enclosed between the systems. while rivers carve still others on the mountain sides. but other valleys of smaller size may form between the ranges. Moreover. which has been robbed of its moisture. FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY rises then as the outlet lakes outflowing to the sea.

they would into the air (Fig. all of New England. But in the course of time there comes a period when the mountain-building forces cease to cause the ridge to rise. Near the timber line. Gallatin Range. as they rise once must have been. We folded in such a know this because the rock layers are way that if they were continued. Montana. such the length of . and dation the very sites of the cities of timore. and then denudation has full sway. Philadelphia. like the Rockies. and Himalayas. have for a long Fig. until they have lost their ancient elevation and irregularity. and the ranges slowly melt down. 184). PLATEAUS. are also young. In fact denu- may go further than this. Washington. thousands of feet is Therefore. Balall Richmond. strikingly different consisting of low ridges from the Alpine ranges.PLAINS. time been subjected to destructive agents. Nova Scotia. SO AND MOUNTAINS 341 rugged mountains. and New York. Alps. and lofty ranges be reduced to low hills. 187. are reduced moun- tains which once rose to heights rivalling those of the Rockies and the Alps. Andes. The Appalachians.

A hot body is larger than it would be if cool. mountain peaks may result. and so powerful are the agents of denudation. and this is the case in the Catskills. though it must be said that it has not been proved. that if they have plenty of time in to which to work. or true . though they much sculptured plateau. which is much more or faulting. for it is the heat escaping into space just as certainly as from a stove into a room.342 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY time since the earth was young. While only elevations due to folding mountain ranges. are really a very They therefore stand higher. they closely resemble a true mountain range. Thereat mountain peaks are caused by the sculpturing of rocks among ranges but wherever unusually high areas have been formed by the unequal carving of the strata. even mountain ranges may be reduced low hills. We knoiv that the heat of the earth increases with the depth. The Cause Since it is of Mountains. where the strata are not folded. nor to discuss them fully. even though not situated in regions of folded rock. the contraction theory^ which has found most favor. so that. have been considered here. and therefore. — The origin of mountains is leads us to a question about which very little known. but where hard sandstone occurs. Many of the buttes of the west are high hills or low peaks. — durable than the surrounding layers. Other Kinds of Mountains. ranges of considerable extent may be formed where unusually durable rocks have resisted destruction better than the neighboring land. the earth is cooling. is If this is so. . it not possible to state even the most important will suggested explanations. it becomes smaller. and have been carved into very irregular form. as it cools. and it is believed that the interior is highly heated. be well to state but one. Indeed. it must be said that there are true mountainous elevations which may be formed without rock folding. and therefore properly called mountain peaks.

and in the continents. losing water from the inner pulp and therefore becoming smaller. cloth. a hot body within. surrounded by a cold. though none that seem fatal to it as an explanation. or contraction of the earth's interior. AND MOUNTAINS U^ So the theory is. If this is done. portions are rising. is cooling. and therefore it must either be separated from the interior or else sink down upon it.PLAINS. solid outer crust. fit upon its surface. In doing this there will be some ridges of . which all know so well. This supposed loss of bulk. The elevation of the crust will occur along lines which for some reason are weaker than other places. Not being able to see and hence thoroughly understand what is going on below the surface. 1 to make This can be proved experimentally by taking a ball and attempting a flannel cover. but the solid crust. is a very slow process. already cool. we can only reason upon the basis of the facts which we already possess. Really. along mountain^ ranges. PLATEAUS. contraction causes the earth's surface to slowly settle. the only way in which it can fit the shrinking central part is by crumpling. The interior is therefore constantly becoming smaller. but whose cause is somewhere in the earth bej^ond the reach of human vision. but locally. is not losing size. and this sinking is evidently occurring over most of the sea bottom. and therefore the uplifting of mountains will also be slow. and it now stands as the best attempt so far made to explain the fact. and hence. and hence slowly shrinking. as the skin of an apple does when this dries. as the core becomes smaller. some must rise. that the earth. which is ever becoming smaller.^ To the contraction theory there are some objections. while the greater part sinks. a little larger than the ball. for the crust has a greater diameter than the shrinking interior.

built a shoal in the sea. EARTHQUAKES. quite like pumice. — In the year 1831. It had risen through the crust as liquid molten rock. and 3 miles in circumference). which falling back. so that its 1 As steam is rises through oatmeal. AND GEYSERS Volcanoes Birth of a Volcano. which expanding in the The steam. quite without warning. there rose out of the sea a great volume of steam.CHAPTER XX VOLCANOES.^ as it does from an engine. until spreading out above. driven upward by the steam. light in weight because pierced by innumerable tiny cavities. escaping lava. and now no land exists to mark its site. bearing in it redhot cinders. and was built entirely of loose fragments of volcanic ash. This vent the steam kept clear. and in a few years Graham's Island had disappeared before the attack of the waves. . or as gas makes porous the bread 344 that becoming solid in baking. it was brought down by gravity. falling at one side of the vent through which it had escaped. The new island was low (being about 200 feet high. in the Mediter- ranean south of Sicily. which shortly rose as an island. In a short time quiet again reigned. A volcano was born. had blown it full of holes. carried the ash high into the air. and birth was announced by a roar and commotion of the water.

though it rose only about 200 feet. Had there been another increased. fell near the outlet on of it. while the elevation of most cones is measured in thousands of feet. then perhaps a violent eruption might have partly destroyed the cone.VOLCANOES when there. eruption. Also throughout its history. what might have happened during its history. was first visited mountain rose above the Bay As time passed. and first ash might have been erupted from the vent. the enemy of the land. let us look at what has happened to some of the volcanoes of the earth. . This newly born volcano. with one . sand must 1 An experiment illustrating tube. During long periods it might have been quiet. and especially the heavier pieces all sides that settle more quickly. but during action perhaps with a life of tens of thousands of years. be put into the tube several different times. forming a cone^ which was nearly as steep as the angle at which loose fragments of rock will rest in the air. — When the from the east. the size of the cone and in would have been time a large volcano would have been its history. would have attacked it. a lofty conical of Naples. denudation. Vesuvius. for volcanic very capricious. which died after a single gasp. and later lava. sending it into the air. towns were built at its base Italian peninsula this can be shown by having a U-shaped end rising through a piece of cardboard partly resting on a table. there is would have been many changes.^ illustrates perfectly a tyjDical volcano. too much sand in the tube and in order to build a high cone. 345 the eruption ceased there was a cavity or crater Most of the ash. Upon blowing through the tube the sand rises Care must be taken not to put in the air and builds a cone with a crater. removing some To understand of the materials out of which it was built. containing sand. built .

and even now. at . the Vesuvius. lasted . the cone was changed in form. the Bay of Naples by earthquake shocks. showing the dwellings of the people who were driven from them more than that eighteen centuries ago (Fig. Pompeii and Herculaneum. struction from denudation. Monte Somma slept no more. have been discovered and extensively excavated.346 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHT It and upon its sides. was visited ancestor of About the year 79 a. no doubt. when it ceased. and farms were covered by a great barren stretch of pumice and ash. People fled before the shower of hot rock. For centuries these were buried. it did not erupt. so violent. and the mountain active volcano. but therefore. had the form it of a volcano with a crater in the centre. villages. was preparing for a terrific eruption. Part of the old rim of Monte Somma had disappeared. cone open only to deFor centuries this condition but the volcano was not extinct. it was only sleep- was a dead or ing or dormant. fell upon the flanks of the mountains and upon the neighboring lowland. has occurred. Vesuvius has had periods of quiet . rests of an There have been many years. but every now and then an outbreak is still. Homes and towns were abandoned. and during the year 79 an outbreak occurred. Monte Somma. scores of towns are entombed beneath the products of this eruption. and spreading out. sands of feet in the air. and when the eruption had ceased. at the present day. Two of them. formed a cloud The ash so dense that the day became as dark as night. and after a rest of many Ash rose thoucenturies the active Vesuvius was born.d. 188). the sites of cities. Since that terrible eruption of 79. while a new and smaller cone had been built amid the ruins. being blown into the air. extinct Apparently.

Upon the neighboring land the Straits of . Krakatoa. while ash fell from the air. both ash and lava. obscured the sun. so that it differs from Graham's Island. the sailors in Sunda saw a great cloud rising above a small island. which had but one eruption. .VOLCANOES other times frequent eruptions. excavated from beneath the ash. and this. 347 Sometimes the outbreaks but at no time has there been such a destructive explosion as that which Often the material gave modern Vesuvius its birth. has cooled have been violent. to form solid lava. 188. again relatively quiet. Therefore this volcano has sent out Fig. of the old A part rim of Monte Somma Vesuvius in the backon the right. erupted has been ash but at other times liquid rock has welled out. A portion of Pompeii ground. and that of ash. upon spreading out. and flowing down the mountain side.— In the late summer of 1883.

staid suspended in the air for months. . crossed the Pacific to the California coast. Krakatoa. Hawaiian Islands. floating about 1 For volcanic ash. was impeded. and for awhile it was so thick upon the surface of the sea. So high did it rise that the lighter by the upper winds. When the eruption had ceased it was found that Krakatoa had been split into two parts. some of it falling in America and Europe. which had not been in eruption during this century. A great water wave. fell on the surrounding land and water. generated by the explosion. and pumice will float in water. Ash rose miles in the air. with the most the same was seen. the low coasts a great water terrific explosion that man has recorded.348 FIEST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY and the ground was shaken. destroying thousands of lives. while upon wave rushed. and it was observed on the shores of Africa and Australia. and spreading out.^ that the progress of The volcano of Mauna Loa. one of which had disappeared into the air. leaving ocean water where there had vessels ash. in the Straits of Sunda. had again broken forth.

Fig. there are several craters. rivers. . Mauna Loa 13. mant or extinct. but upon the largest. neither plant nor animal. cannot be told for centuries. 190. Hawaii. and all of them have been Most are now extinct and the attacks of are rapidly disappearing before wind. The Hawaiian Volcanoes.VOLCANOES 349 been dry land. after a long rest. This eruption may have it once mighty cone. one Kilauea. and waves (Fig.675 feet. 189). or been the death struggle of the may have been but a temporary awakening. and . Since then there have been no more eruptions and now Krakatoa is either dor. The lava floor in the crater of Kilauea. built —A series of eight islands lie in a chain in the mid-Pacific.805 feet Mauna Loa and a third Mauna Kea. by volcanic eruptions. The part of the island that remained was covered with a deep coating of ash. another 13. but which. The latter rises above the sea. weather. and not a living thing was left.

sometimes reaching the sea. and perhaps passing 30 or 40 miles before coming to an end. There is no Fig.. a crust . is made by while a house built for their ac- commodation on the margin of the Kilauea crater. steam rise. becoming cooled in the air. an eruption occurs but it is not at all like those just de- scribed. through which jets of into the air. At first it flows rapidly. on an average of once in about seven years. One may ascend to the top of the immense crater of one of these and look down upon a lake of liquid rock. 191. Kilauea about 9000 The two latter are now active and have been well studied. . the crater. 350 FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHY feet. occasionally throwing bits of lava There is no danger in this journey. Once in a while. which the molten rock escapes by a fissure which had broken open the side of the mountain. a glowing stream of liquid rock but soon. but a flow of lava. however. ash. but out of the side of the through cone. which is constantly being tourists. From this the lava flows down the mountain side. not from An eruption of a tiny volcano in the Mediterranean.

Then it flows less rapidly and finally barely creeps. and the volcanoes of Iceland. Materials Erupted. when the force from is exhausted. it stops. like the tiny volcanoes of the Lipari Islands in the Mediterranean. when for any reason eruption — . overwhelming everything in its path. Some. adding to the Perchance falling upon destruction caused by the other products. to those terrible eruptions of Vesuvius and Krakatoa just described. Often in the quiet eruptions of Kilauea. and many in the Andes. . Herculaneum on the flanks of Vesuvius was buried beneath such a mudjiow. produces deluging rains. in others they come at irregular intervals. Some. we might but these that have been given. Other gases than steam arise. . perhaps at the very outskirts of some town which it has threatened to destroy. and there is always lava in the tube of a volcano.VOLCANOES forms on the top. it washes this down with it in such quantities that a destructive torrent of mud passes on. furnish illustrations of the chief differences. now erupt ash and now lava. Other Volcanoes. so heavy that torrents rush down the sides of the cone. until at last. loose ash. always erupt ash others. great banks of steam rise from the lava. but most. and in great eruptions so much rises. it condenses into drops. like the Hawaiian cones. that reaching thousands of feet into the air. known as basalt. slowly behind all advancing for weeks. practically always emit lava. and falling back to the ground. like Vesuvius. and the frightfully destructive outbursts of the Icelandic volcanoes. Nearly the eruptions of these volcanoes have been of this nature. ship. ^tna. but they are of much less importance. In volume and importance. so moderate that they may be witnessed from a without danger and from these there is every gradation. select other instances . have toy eruptions. Even the tiniest an impressive scene but a violent one is the most aweinspiring phenomenon which nature presents upon the earth's surface. under which the molten lava is 351 enclosed. However. near by. — From the hundreds of cones in the world . steam is the greatest of volcanic products. is perhaps centuries apart. — flows of black lava. like Fusiyama in Japan. While in some cases the outbreaks are frequent. Sometimes the lava wells out quietly as a flow.

D. This is because the material of which it is built is lava. and forms ash and jmmice. For instance. and are therefore more typical than either the steep Fusiyama or of the many base but very steep. it is apparently made up of the broken fragments of the mountain. extends over a score or two of miles. 189). like that which split Krakatoa. These vary in size from mere In nearly every case the ash is bits of dust to huge blocks of rock.. when a mountain side like that of Krakatoa is blown into the air. the lava is blown into shreds and bits. Those that are made partly of ash and partly of lava will be less steep. for the winds carry it away but in the lava . taking an angle as steep as loose fragments can maintain in the air. though rising above the sea to the height of 13.675 feet. though sometimes. but very high cone. Its diameter at the base is great. South American volcanoes. —A typical volcano is a cone with of this a crater in the centre. upon cooling. Form of the Cone. which flowing away from the place of exit. too when a volcano erupts ash some is lost. There is also a difference in the shape of the peak. are narrow at the These are made of volcanic ash which has settled near the crater. merely lava which the steam has blown out.352 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY the steam has the power. while others are of great size. and Monte Somma. . and these are the most common of volcanoes. Sometimes the perfection has been destroyed by a violent explosion. and that of 79 A. and hence it is a moderately sloping. just as a heap of dirt will when dumped from a wagon. first as a liquid. then as a more viscous body. does not rise steeply (Fig. Fusiyama in Japan. Mauna Loa. like the bits of iron which are thrown out during a violent boiler explosion. : There is another point. which partly destroyed Some cones are very low. the great mound of Mauna Loa. if the eruptions have been few.

become dormant. provided the the cone.-->^^l Fig. need surprise no one to hear that a volcano in 2a . Therefore the is hulk of rock in such a cone as Mauna Loa many times as great some of the ash emptors. as certainly as every animal — ^^B^^^^ -sj^^r-?^-. Not only do volcanoes erupt.VOLCANOES eruption all 353 remains within a score or two of miles of Hence a much larger peak will be made by the same number of lava eruptions than of ash. A dormant or else extinct volcano rising above the plateau. history every volcano will die. -> •-'-. and then active again. 192. but sometime in its Extinct Volcanoes. and plant will. quantity sent out as that of is the same. Popocatapetl. Of extinct volcanoes of instances in the world. but in we have thousands no part of the earth are they more numerous than among the Cordilleras of the western part of this country and Mexico. Mexico. Some have ceased erupting for so short a period that it cannot be certainly stated that they are 192). It more than dormant (Fig.

the Hawaiian Islands. among the plateaus and mountains of the is First the crater breached and gullied (Fig. and elsewhere in the Patrue there are cones in all stages of destruction. and finally only the hard core of solid lava in the tube or neck stands up. on the plateau of New Mexico. remnants of volcanoes. Among cific. there are lava flows that have certainly not been exposed Cones forming under the sea^ rise without being attacked by the forces of destruction but all through their history . and the is same west. . to the air for a full century. 1 It ticularly seems certain that there are active craters in places in the on the Asiatic coast. volcanoes that rise in the air are subject to the attack of the agents of denudation. Fig. 192). 193. All of sea.354 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Near some the west has again burst forth into activity. Volcanic necks or plugs. par- then the cone form disappears. of these is not so rise rapid as the supply of lava or ash. The work off. and so the cones but when these supplies are cut they slowly melt away.

especially in the Connecticut valley. but the cones have long since disappeared and in the east there have been no volcanoes in times sufficiently recent to have left even a part of a cone. -At present volcanic cones most abundant along the borders of the Pacific Ocean. Those that are extinct. the volcanoes that exist among them Distribution of Volcanoes. . Diagrammatic sketch to show (by dots) distribution of volcanoes. and from there along the Atlantic coast at least as far as !N"orth Carolina. Fig. There are hundreds of these remnants in the west (Fig. they are associated with mountains that are growing. ^ — are . Some of the ancient lava flows still remain buried beneath other rocks. In all cases they are either in or near the sea. 194. if not always. have 193). and generally. though there are some elsewhere. New England. the ash and the lava flows. like the partly destroyed cones of the west. In past ages volcanic cones existed in 355 now disappeared. are found among mountains that have ceased rising and it seems certain that as soon as mountains cease their growth. .VOLCANOES the cone.

as in growing mountains with volcanoes. Others think that the ynovement of rocks in mountain folding causes melting by the heat of friction of the particles moving over one another. the cones extend in chains along Cause of Volcanoes. little — When the steam. it gathers force until escape is finally crater. This accounts for their arrangement along lines.^ very Sometimes a crust forms over the like a boiler against the sides of which steam is conbut the boiler is strong enough to stand the pressure up to a certain limit. is Whichever of these correct. as it it does from the lava lake of Kilauea.356 die out. so that this is the immediate cause for the eruption. in either case the heated condition that the melting . It is much . FIBST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY ( Very often. is is thought a secondary result of this. rock into the form of volcanic ash its cannot gain violence enough to blow the liquid but if for any reason . if the temperature of the it earth increases at the same rate as does in the part so far explored. as gether. the rocks in places. escape is retarded. or it may be the squeezing of the melted rocks up to places where they can escape. . but every now and then permits a little steam to escape. the explosion of a boiler. Jirst this though in the second explanation. though after this is reached an explosion takes place. Some action or condition in the earth melts Some believe that the roots of volcanoes reach — through the crust into the zone v^^here the heat is high enough to melt and certainly there is such a zone. as in the Hawaiian and Japanese lines. the expelling force of the lava is it is steam. islands. made 1 possible. or is in such a condition as to allow it to readily escape. stantly pressing thus relieving the pressure. An engineer does not usually allow the pressure to become great enough for an explosion. may be the melting of rocks. for the association of The reason Explanation lava contains of the Differences in Volcanoes. or fissures and faults. we may warm two pieces of rock is by rubbing them is to- Since this mountain folding probably due to the heat cause for volcanoes it within the earth. Whichever is the true explanation. strata. through which the lava may escape. the folding of the strata causes breaks.

of rocks. as to drive the easier for to explode than wadding out. In many cases. or will cause to volcanic causes. Mt. roads rendered impassable. it is easier to break a it is new opening than some guns a cone to force the plug out. and sometimes that buildings are thrown down. the movement of the steam and the lava sends jars through the rocks. and streams interfered with. and the destruction of will produce life is very great. if a great water wave. and in this case the ground was cracked. the old one. slowly gathering force enough for an outbreak. in the sea. and this 357 may grow so thick that the steam cannot blow it out.^ upon the Next land. and the jars that pass over a frozen pond on a winter night are similar shocks. jars pass and these reaching the surface. and then the volcano either becomes extinct or remains dormant. Since both volcanoes and faults are associated with mountains. or near. as in Japan in 1891. the breaking of the rocks which caused the shock reached to the surface. if Any jar to the rocks an earthquake. cause earthquakes. Earthquakes Before and during a volcanic eruption. and the earth trembles. At times the plug becomes so strong. Then may be built at is the side of. that when the pressure is high enough. is so violently shaken There may be hundreds of such earthquake shocks during a violent outburst. 1 Hence the A miniature shock is caused when gunpowder is exploded. out. is tlie the most important source of earthquakes breaking As they move along the fault plane. earthquake shocks are frequent only in those places. Shasta a double volcano of this origin. .VOLCANOES or in the upper part of the neck.

there The earthquake.358 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY is free from them. While slight Fig. or near Vesuvius. another in 1812. greater part of the earth etc. earthquakes are exceedingly frequent. in Japan. South Carolina. near Boston. and one near Charleston. bemg a outward from jar starting this in all directions. though near Vesuvius. in 1888. The earth uncommon in central and eastern United have been only three violent earthquakes in these regions since they were settled. Effect of the Japanese earthquake of 1891 upon a railway was shaken from beneath the track.. on the western side of South America. During the same period there have been hundreds in Japan. extends waves of rock move- . as a series of from some centre. 195. jars are not States. near the boundary of Louisiana and Arkansas. one during the last centur}^. bridge.

in 1755. same time. Without not far from to sea. description of the shock . reaching points at equal distances passes outward to both ends of the bar. and passing through places at which the shock was felt at the same time. is the place where the shock is most vio- FiG. lines all directions. and rocks diffe7' in character. the shock reaches the spherical. the waves would be spherical. or focus. 196. are called isoseismal lines. and if the rock were of one kind. but The somewhat circular. Diagram to illustrate passage of earthquake wave from a point. other warning than Lisbon. the focus (F) E. so that the waves are much less simple. at exactly the same time. If the waves were really these places would be at equal distances from the epicentrum. in surface at exactly the really they are not. almost at the same moment. called the epicentrum. a sound like thunder proceeding from the ground. lent. . and its force decreases on all sides from this. they would advance as spheres of movement. To understand the effects of the earthquake a brief which devastated Lisbon. PortuThe epicentrum was out gal. from the place of origin. At a certain dis- tance from the epicentrum. though quite irregular. isoseismals. The place directly above the focus.EARTHQUAKES ment. may be introduced. drawn around the epicentrum. In reality the focus is not a point. there came. epicentrum I. very 359 piece of iron much as the jar caused by a blow upon a If the shock started from a point. a violent shaking of the earth which destroyed most of the houses in the city.

add greatly to the destruction. and a wave rushed upon the shore to the height of 50 feet above the ordinary level.360 FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY and fires. where they would be free from the falling buildings but this sank .000 people were killed. if the epicentrum fires is near a city. and Great Britain. that are In countries like . then rose. showing the two epiceutra and the isoseismal lines during the shock of 1888. The surface of the ocean fell. This was one est Fig. gathered upon a quay or stone pier. Many people who had es- caped. and hence Lisbon was nearly destroyed. while a large part of her inhabitants were exterminated. which extended out into the water. of the great- of earthquakes has since man kept Map shock was felt in the Alps and in Germany. carry- ing the people with it. 197. and the caused. starting immediately after this.C.. The West but Indies. SO that in six minutes 60. S. definite records. Sweden. into the water. even a violent is earthquake not destructive . the falling buildings. When occurring in the open country. added to the destruction. and the water wave reached across the Atlantic as far as the near Charleston.

but especially in the Yellowstone Park. with the exception that the water is heated. and Iceland. New Zealand. the hot water comes forth not regu- . so constructed that they are not easily thrown down yet even in Japan single shocks have destroyed thousands of lives. Yellowstone Park. In some cases the cause for this heat is no doubt intruded lava which has not reached the surface but at . the inhabitlow houses.EARTHQUAKES 361 Japan. which flows out as it does Geysers. Fig. which are visited by frequent shocks. where the grinding of the particles produced heat for the same reason that a knife becomes hot when held against a dry grindstone. ants build . 198. Hot springs emit hot water. perhaps even to the boiling point. Giant geyser in eruption. In several places in the world. Perits other times cause may haps the water sometimes comes from such a great depth that it brings out some of the heat that exists deep in the crust. — be friction along the sides of fault planes. from any spring.

I. New Geikie. narrow glass tube. or even months. 362. tion is the presence of a supply of heat. and York. There are periods of quiet. Vol. Co.00.C. by Powell. hours. p. Then being mains quiet until the heat again temperature of the water The time beto the boiling point. New There are several articles of general interest in the annual reports of the United States Geological Survey.Weathering. BOOKS OF REFERENCE Russell. when another eruption occurs. 1897. Articles Russell. Washington. Rocks. which it The cause for the erupwarms the water down relieved. D.. Russell. expands to steam.362 larly. National Geographic Monographs. American be pur- Book Merrill. . and it expels the water above into the air.65. Ancient Volcanoes of Great Britain. or in my Elementary Geology. but others irregularly. Boston. Co. there comes an eruption. it re- in the tube until reaches the boiling point. York. . perhaps after intervals of a at regular intervals. Ginn & Co. Rock. and Hayes. forming geysers. days. Separate papers may chased singly. $1."|2. 1897.. few minutes. 1897. Ginn & Co. Lakes of North America. Boston. applying heat to one part of it.. The Macmillan The Macmillan Co. Gilbert. 2 Vols. Willis. FIRST BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY but intermittently.. Soils.^ 1 A geyser may be artificially made by warming water in a long. If the teacher wishes a more detailed explanation of the cause of geysers he will find it either in Le Conte's Elements of Geology. Glaciers of North America. Diller. Mass.65. $4.. raises the tween these outbursts will therefore depend upon the length of time needed to heat the water in the tube. A list of these can be obtained from the Director. Some geysers erupt and then. New York. Davis. Shaler. and a fountain of hot water and steam rises into the air and quickly subsides. 1895.50. $1. Mass. 1896..

Anticline. 230. 85 Alluvial fan. Antarctic circle. 185. animals and plants Blizzard. 149 influence on weathering. currents of. 253. Arctic circle. 190. effect of heat on. 165 . 138. Cirrus clouds. 149. Barrier reefs. distribution 178. 169. tem- perature 47. of land. 107. 246. Abyssal fauna. Cirro-cumulus clouds j 139. 19. 54. 7. 92. 163. Artesian wells. Arctic zone. 236. 306. Anticyclonic areas. rivers. Aneroid. importance of. 167. Asteroids. Andromeda nebula. 42. 35. 270. 33. on temperature range. Ash. Carbonic acid gas. . of. Circumpolar whirl. Chinook. vapor in. 33. Beds. Altitude. height of. Climatic zones. Antecedent rivers. changes in. depth of. 238. 183. 243. 360. 94. volcanic. Antarctic zone. 295. 127. 32. 62. 77 on v^eath. of ocean. 20. 334. Chemically deposited rocks. 101. 67. Atlantic. 179. of. Air. 27i. 63. 121. 40. of ocean. 223. Barriers to spread of Bars. on climate. Accidents in river valleys. 89. Age Bad Lands. Butte. 229. 157. Argon. geological. Adjustment of Afterglow. 33. Centigrade scale. 224. Beach. 67. 23. Anti-trades. Avalanches. 236. 88. climate of. 233. Animals.INDEX Atmosphere. height Absolute humidity. Anemometer. of earth. Bermuda. 281. 155. 86. Calcite. 286. 120. of. pressure Barograph. ering. 246. Arctic ice. Arctic. Boulder clay. animals of. 258. 252. Ages. influence of. 276. Cleavage planes. 363 . of. 32. 319. 198. composition of. life. 259. of. 352. Barometer. 252. 150. 78. Charleston earthquake. 40. 91. Belt of calms. . 31. 87. . 325. Climate. Absorption of heat. x^urora Borealis. 69. 57 of light. 216. 64. Barometric gradient. Caverns. Caves. 50. 358. 317. Base level of erosion.

Crumpling of rocks. 160. 235. 248. 52. Coronas. Deflection of currents. 283. 49. Continental slope. Extinct volcanoes. Contraction theory. sunrise. Dew. 9. Dredge. 276. Conduction of heat. atmospheric. 234. of Atlantic. 139 forms of. particles. 231. elevation of. Coquina. origin of. INDEX Depths of the sea. of. 157. 248. 286. Equinox. cause of. Currents in ocean. 257 by rivers. 226. Earthquakes. 27. Crystalline rocks. 12. form of. 313. Continental shelf. 230. Coasts. 152. Continental climate. 308. 194. 80. Foehn. Crevasses. volcanic. 67. Electricity. Dead seas. 345 form Conglomerates. Evaporation. Colors. 216. . 297. Denudation. condition interior of. 359. 18. 56. 79. Columns. 13. . 66 influence on color. 321 wavecarved. 223. .364 . Disintegration of rocks. . 353. 262. . Earth's crust. 357. Divide. . 107. 91. 25^62^ 126. rising of. Deltas. tropical. 38. 22. Cyclone. 47. 115. 215. 33^. Day. effect upon heat rays. 278. Cold pole. Cordilleras. 323 sinking of. 190. 5. 68. . 8. Constructional islands. 221. sunset. 286. 44. Fahrenheit scale. Continents. 236. 168. form of. Coral reefs. 4. 127. 180. 65. 49. Feldspar. 263. Degrees. of. Dew point. 352. 326. 346. . 320. 13. Focus of earthquake. 43. 198. 135. . 9. Floe ice. Cyclonic areas. 345. 174. Crust. 116. 336. 121. Ether. Crater. 221. Dikes. 199. movements of. 136 materials forming. 216. Distributaries. age of. of. Drowned Dust rivers. 130. Deserts. cause of. Equator. 16. 331. condition of. 221. Elements. 3. Consequent rivers. 284. rocks of. 7. Continental glacier. 260. Floodplains. Clouds. Diathermanous bodies. Epicentrum. E Earth. 199. 61. 46. Cone. 227. 65. 342. 293. 264. 346. 8. 359. Equatorial drift. 324. 233. 9. Faults. Cumulus clouds. Convection caused by heat. 220. 137. 276. Cone deltas. 8. Equatorial zone. Erosion. 52. 33. 59. movesurface ment of. 67. Dormant volcanoes. 220 minerals of. 59. Distribution of animals and plants. changes in. Drainage area. 233. Everglades. 182 of man. Combustion. 6. 135 cause of. Dissected rivers. . cause of. Doldrums. Cold wave.

Isoseismal lines. influence upon temperature range. 52. 10. formed by of. 78. 349. 65. 169. . 80. High-pressure areas. 51. 48 undulatory theory of. Glaciers. 312. Hurricanes. Land. . 116. 298. 165 on ocean bottom. 55 of evapora. Granite. Gulf Stream. 48 selective scattering of. Krakatoa. 242. Keys. 245. 174. 129. 61. absorption of. Fossils. 76. Frost. 157. 11. warming of. 259. Fragmental rocks. effect of. 92. 238. 53. 80. 59. 185. Icebergs. 57. Lake Hail. 6. Latent heat. 55. 61. effect of. 13. 165. of. 62. 190. Hawaiian volcanoes. 77 Halo. 309. 365 37. 227. 232. . 57. Horse Hot latitudes. 351. 344. 242. 359. 238. 72. Life. 59. 103. . laud and water. Frigid zones. nature of. 297. 64. 155. 107. 60. Humidity. on highlands. 98. 305. Kaolin. 154. 347. 297. Fringing reefs. glaciers. effect of. absorption conduction of. . 62. climate of. of. Lakes. on. Isotherms. 226. 62. Limestone caves. Herculaneum. Glacial lakes. radiation of. Globigerina ooze. latent. 80. Isothermal lines. Heat equator. convection caused by. 217. 361. Highlands. 291 . breeze. climate of. destruction of. shores. 44 refraction of. 62. 229. 78. 60 reflection 61 from sun. 203. Graham's Island. Ground moraine. Greenland. springs. 246. 62. Heat. 313. 141. Islands. Hygrometer. on erosion of. barriers to spread of. Geysers. Glacial period. on land. Hemispheres. 191 . India. Lateral moraines. 127. Light. 133. Latitude. 174. 224. action of. zones of. 325. Lava. tion. Gneiss. life 178. 340. on the land. Kilauea. 311. Great Basin. temperature of. 55 . in fresh water. 132. climate of. Glacial deposits. Heat lightning.INDEX Fog. Folding of rocks. Land Land hemisphere. in the ocean. 294 erosion by. Ice fall. 79. Landslides. 60. Igneous rocks. 234. . 173. nature of. 106. effect of. 349. 257. Insular climate. 11. 346. . 249. 43 reflection of. 5. Isobaric. 79. Ice of Arctic. 65. Isothermal chart. Lightning. 43. 304. Haze. . 257 . on ocean. glaciers 300. . 314. in weathering. animals temperature. G Geological ages. 159. 326 oceanic. . of. 47. 6. 134.

Mountainous irregularities. Mature valleys. 244. 13. 250. 63. 336. of. 270. 342. of. 215 depth of. 31. currents of. 163. Meridians. 53. Ox-bow Oxygen. Mauna Oblate spheroid. 67. Plants. 340. Planets. on climate. Mirage. 247. 12. topography of. 336. 287. Oxidation. Ocean basins. distribution of. animals in. 301. 324. Plains. temperature 200. 205 189 . 53. Ocean. M Magnetic pole. Mist. Mountains. Northeast storms. North Pole. 12. 87. . 98. Mercurial barometer. 126. Nebulae. in weathering. Marshes. of. Mid. Littoral faunas. 68. salt of. 332 treeless. upon life in. 187 influence of. Old river valleys. . 4. 340. 166. 281. 79. 200. 167. destruction of. 95. 72. 6. 236. Periodical winds. 107. Peaks. 95. 290. 287. Plateaus. Migration of divides.366 Lisbon earthquake. 9. Oceanic climate. 4. 120. Northern lights. distribution of. 323. 47. Northern hemisphere. Mountain system. Monocline. 198 importance of. 33. of the land. 6. Mud flow. Mountain breeze. cause of. Mountain valleys. 78. 187. of. Monte Somma. Nitrogen. Loa. 169. 334. Longitude. 171. N Natural bridge. 335. Organic rocks. cause of. 113. 105. . area of. 6. Nimbus clouds. of. Opaque bodies. . 191 Moisture in atmosphere. Monsoons. 348. 135. Mineral springs. 27. Mercurial thermometer. 295. Nunataks. movements temperature of. 7.Atlantic ridge. 24. Oceanic islands. 337. Low-pressure areas. Norther. 33. 5. 33. 90. 61. 335. 10. Nebular Hypothesis. 4. Low latitude. . nature of. 346. Moraines. development of. Man. 221. climate of. Metamorphic rocks. Mangrove swamps. 273. North Temperate zone. influence temperature range. 46. Planetary winds. 180. 203. 359. Pelagic faunas. 229. . Niagara. Moon. warming of. 54. animals materials 195 . cut-offs. Mesas. North Polar zone. 165. INDEX Neve'. 23. 297. 4. 174 aid of. 318. 334. 67. 289. 351. Minerals of crust. 231. 13. 297. 137. . Magnetism. Medial moraines. cause for coolness on. 167. . 77 165 188 . Natural levee. Pocket beaches. Night. Ocean bottom. 349.

River system. . line. 248. 268. erosion by. 193. Snow Snow Soil. 264. cause of. Pressure of air. history River work. Radiation of heat. 126. South Polar zone. 48. 351 metamorphic. effect of. Stratification. 188. Solar system. of. 22. Profile of equilibrium. 147. 144 nature of. 55 position of. 36. 119. 293. River valleys. 351. Satellites. 323. 66. Seasonal temperature change. 138. 226. South temperate zone. 228 volcanic. . Refraction of light. 294. mrneral-bearing. Sea breeze. 330. rivers. 67. 141. Sea cliffs. distribution of. field. 61. . 55. Saturation of air. / . Salt of ocean. heat from. Sunlight. 144. 97. Sea shores. Sedimentary rocks. Ranges. Space. destruction Pot holes. 336. . 166. 259. distribution Red clay. Psychrometer. 4. 274. of. 48. formation of. 274. 22 symmetry Sounding machine. temperature of. 248 igneous. Sahara. 15 Ridges. 227. 144. 231 position of. 266. . 234. 52. Stellar system. . Stars. Prairies. 190. . 10. 228. in volcano. Snowfall. of. 26. 204. . 276. 313. Stalactites. Southern hemisphere. Pumice. measurement . Sirocco. 242. Salt lakes. Rivers. Prevailing westerlies. Q Quartz. . 93. 258 measurement of. Stratified rocks. Snow. Strato-cumulus clouds. 233. . Storm winds. Springs. of. 67. 67. on sun's heat. 51. 346. 55. 294. Sea ice. 244. 256. accidents effect of glaciers upon. 22 . Rotation. Storms. South Pole. Strata. 120. 44 of heat. 157. 136. disintegration of. 21 effect daily temperature change. Seasons. 367 S Pompeii. Promontories. 2!. 85 change in. Revived 67. 17. 74. 248. 327. 234. Residual soil. 102. Rain gauge. Radiant energy. on sun's heat. 174. 145 erosion by. . 8. 140. Steam to.INDEX Poles. 113. Reflection of light. Right-hand deflection. Scattering of light rays. Rocks. 262. Rainfall charts. Rainbow. 148. of the crust. Salt marshes. . effect of. Stalagmites. rivers. in cyclones. . : 44. 4. Submerged Sun. 313. on Serpula atolls. 271. 257. 26. Stratus clouds. 226. 335. 127. 311 of. 48. 73. 232 sedimentary. 6. 229. 129. 24. 57. 71. course of^l^78 263. 352. 336. Revolution. Selective scattering. Reefs. Relative humidity. 60 Rain. 274. 261. 324. . Shores. of. 15. Sea level. 27. Rejuvenated rivers. 314. 13.

368 Sunrise colors. . Sunshine recorder. 67. 90. 112. 78 climate of. 78. 210. reckoning Water hemisphere. 95. Swamps. 68 129. 91. 53 storms. 335. 102 map. 189. 101 . perature. 150. cyclones. distribuof. Weathering. 352. 52. Trade winds. . 49. 119. W Water in earth. Superimposed rivers. 85 258. Vapor. 200. Time scale. Winds. Temj)erature in anticyclones. 336. 25. 280. velocity of. Young valleys. Tropics. 67. Water vapor. . . 351 on moon. Typhoons. Weather changes. 294. . periodic. effects of. 98 glaciers. 43. nature of. 205. Undertow. Topography of ocean bottom. 255. 15. planetary. Till. Vesuvius. zone. 161. Thermometers. 210. 320. 112. 64. 16. Wind in vane. 215. Syncline. . 298. erosion by. 269. 341. tion of. of earth's Volcano. differences in. 288. 18. Undulatory theory of light. 176. Wave-carved shores. 227. storm. period. waves. . 102. in anticyclones. Valleys in mountains. 344. effect of. dry and wet bulb. 354. 77 Waterfalls. in Volcanic necks. 119. 70. in weathering. 263. Talus. 99. 8. Valley breeze. 116. 114 daily change of. cause of. of glacial rials erupted from.. 205. climate of. 349 mateTerminal moraines. 248. of earth's interior. cause of. of. 211. Waves. 35. . Torrid zone. 35. 119 cyclones. of mountains. 259. Sunset colors. System 292. Water parting. Tides. . Timber line. . 345. 227. Thermograph. 254. climate Universe. 340. 195 seasonal range 356. 67. . 126 effect upon heat waves. Tornadoes. . . 69. 160. 99. . 248 152. of. Temperate zones. 124. Zones. in volcano. Trade-wind belt. surface. 213. on tem- Thunder. 356. . 121. Tropical cyclone. 11. 242. 116. 19. 306. 78. 112. INDEX United States. 308. . 49. Time. 22. 238. section of. 25. 84. 209. . Treeless plains. 70 Volcanic rocks. birth of. 72. of ocean. of Volcanoes. 240 . 351 importance of. T Vernal equinox. 236. 233. U Underground water. Year. 74 extremes. effects of. 115. climatic. Volcanic ash. . ocean bottom. 355 of Hawaii.

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. is an advanced and modernized phase of physical geography. uniform with Elementary Physical Geography. howwhich the majority of the committee prefer to designate physiography. is Tarr's High School Geology. Dynamic Author of Geology a7id Physical Geography at Cornell University " Economic Geology of the United States. for Grammar Grades. F. has attained wide use since its publication in February. as revolutionary. a fact familiar — the existence of a field The reason should.. will indicate New England how well the field has been covered." "The majority of the Conference wish to impress upon the attention of the teachers the fact that there has been developed within the past decade a new and most important phase of the subject.G. The Physical Geography almost ready. i2nio. The scientific investi- made very important additions to the physio- graphic knowledge and methods of study. . Cloth. but because its it emphasizes a special and important phase of the subject and of gations of the last decade have treatment. $1. perhaps. until the appearance of Tarr's book. above. by the same author." etc.. Professor of B.A." — The phenomenal rapidity with which Tarr's Elementary Physical Geography is has been introduced into the best high schools of this country familiar to the school public. to These are indeed so radical as be properly regarded. not because the name is important. and of the field. SAN FRANCISCO. is simply shown by the paragraphs reprinted The adoption of the book in such important high schools as those of Chicago.40 net. That such a did exist. " There ever. by this time. be equally field of school work in which. NEW YORK. CHICAGO.S. and to urge that they hasten to acquaint themselves with it and bring it into the work of the school-room Report of Geography Conference to the Committee of Ten. Revised. Elementary Physical Geography* BY RALPH STOCKMAN TARR. there was not a single adequate or modern American text- book. and the expressions of approval from representative schools.. Fifth Edition.S.

Principal. Northampton. I. F. Tower. Luddington. Mass. Miss Wheeler's School. Verplanck. Supt. I used far the C. N. Principal. A. So. Ct. Pittsfield. very glad to express State Normal School. Tarr's Physical satisfied School. We use Geography with a class of Grammar School pupils and find very satisfactory. High School. Mass. I Miss H. it We is have used It Tarr's Physical is Geography now for several months. am my upon great appreciation of the value of Tarr's Physical it Geography. P. High School. From those who use it in New England Schools. Flint. Principal. Previous to its publication.Elementary Physical Geography. C. Providence. E. Ct. Superintendent of Schools. Manchester. It seems to me to touch the ideal of modern geographic instruction more nearly than any other book published. H and teachers from our an advanced study of geography by a class of In both uses the book has given the highest degree of satisfaction. satisfactory in the class room Tarr's Physical it F. Miss Atta L. J. By PROF. Physical Geography gresses. High been so highly Geography. Ware. As an aid to field-work in Physiog- Miss Maud L. I know of no book so helpful. Tarr's we are more and more pleased with as the work proG. Groton. Byram. A. Mass. TARR. Geography has been in use in the Ware High School since September last. as a text-book basis for grammar grades. I believe it is the best book on the market to-day. Mass. RALPH S. Fitchburg. . For the we have been using Tarr's Physical Geography in our high school. Spaulding. Collinsville. raphy. Geography with my class last term. I have never Physical with any text-book as I am Avith Tarr's Alfred 0. most pleasing. this most important and interesting department of science was seriously handicapped by the lack of a text suitable for use in secondary schools. Tarr's Physical Dr. Superintendent of Schools. Tarr's Physical to Geography has proved highly both pupils and teacher. Lawrence Academy. of Schools. W. We regard it as incomparably superior to any other book on the subject. while the make-up of the book very much. Mass. Portsmouth. and consider it by best work published on this subject for High School or Academy use. Nutter. Now no other subject taught in a high school can boast of a more adequate text than Tarr's Physical Geography. Williams. I rely for clear statement and full illustration of all important topics in Physical Geography. The subject matter of the work and the arrangement and treatment make it the best text-book on Physical Geography that I have yet seen. A. and like both simple and scientific. past year Simpson.

of N. " " Princeton Pittsfield . South Manchester East Greenwich Academy Mr. C. . . Pasadena . . Univ. Wesleyan Univ. of Pacific.. Worcester .. Xenia " " Akron . $1. Collegiate " " " " " " San Jose Chico . Chicago Lewis . H. Wis..S. Middletown Stevens School. Ypsilanti The Fourteen High Schools. Westfield High Visalia .. Clinton High School.. Poughkeepsie Colgate Academy. Howe School. " " •' High School. Johnson . <( «« . . " Hannibal Burlington . Los Angeles Normal <« High " " . Diman's School. Riverside Hoboken Institute. San Francis>co " Pendleton . Univ. . " High " " " " " " " ' North Adams School. . " (( <« <« Morgan School. " . Wooster Webb School.40. New Britain Hillhouse High School. . Jackson Normal School. . . . New London High School. Ind (( . Columbia Grammar School Quincy School. " (( Acad. Chicago . Conn. Evanstor High School. . Half Leather.. .Elementary Physical Geography. Providence Normal School. . Newark Prep. " " " " " " Mo. Tulare Univ. • " " « «* Lawrence Academy. High " '* School. Normal School. Selma Tenn. . D. . " " " " South Bend Hanover Connersville « Mich. York Columbia Academy. . . la.. . " " " Marion Peru . A PARTIAL LIST OF SCHOOLS USING THIS WORK. Washington Public Schools. I. Bell Buckle Citronelle College State Normal School High School. . Ind. Winona School. . . N. " " Sacramento Stockton " '( . . Institute. F. " " Brandon Portsmouth Wolfboro .. Collinsville . Professor of B. . Faribault State Minn. . . Vt. Warsaw Academy. Inst. Revised.A. Hamilton Manual Training School. Amherst " Bridgewater " Natick " North Attleboro " Northampton " Pittsfield " Springfield " Ware " Weymouth . Chicago including those at Hyde Park So. New Haven Williams Mem. High " " " State School. Dynamic Geology and Physical Geography i2ino. Irvington Los Angeles Academy Throop Polytechnic Inst. Brooklyn School.. Dept. " " " " " " Cedar Falls Davenport Marshalltown Iowa City Grand Rapids . Carthage . Middletown Normal School. Kent's Hill Teachers' College Maine Nevv York . .. . BY RALPH STOCKMAN TARR. " << «« Randolph . Pa. Union School.. N. W. Billerica Englewood Morgan Park Oak Park Aurora . Ohio " Helena Redlands Petaluma St. . MorgariPar < " " << Monmouth High . Lincoln Agricultural College Normal School. Barre . Chicago Armour Institute.. 111. . Mass. R. Fifth Edition. College. << " '• " " '• Trinity School. Groton Training School. J. Newport Miss Wheeler's School.. Monmouth School. . . " Marshall Shattuck School. N. College Park Gartner Seminary. Kansas City .S. «< .. Ala. " «' " << School. . Cal. " " Waukegan Lake Forest Academy Morgan Park Academy. " Seminary. . Marion Worcester Academy.G. D. . at Cornell University. Attica .. Holyoke Tabor Academy. Neb. Fitchburg " " Framingham " " Salem .

Evening Bulletin. 486 pp.. and the style exceedingly attractive. V. Professor of ." — Phila. The student is to be envied who can begin the study of this deeply interesting." etc.40 net. and In short. direct. COMMENTS OF THE ^'We do not remember to PRESS. at Cornell University. NEW YORK." " admirably adapted for its purpose — Brooklyn Standard Union." — Journal of Pedagogy." — N. he has work so well that we do not see how could have been dope better. B. Dynamic Geology and Physical Geography Author of ^'Economic Geology of the United i2mo. States.ELEMENTARY GEOLOGY/^/"^ GRALPH STOCKMAN TARR. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. and marks an epoch in — The American " Geologist. attractive. F." — Wooster Post-Graduate is "The Geology book. Tribune.S." or European. 66 FIFTH AVENUE..S. whether American scientific instruction. Cloth.A. have noted a text-book of geology which seems to so go to the heart of the matter. it "The done his author's style is clear. . as is — that of a this text- So admirable an exposition of the science found in book and must be welcomed both by instructors and students.G. advance of it " It is far in all geological text-books. The arrange- ment of facts is excellent. the presentation of theory intelligent progressive. fascinating subject with such an attractive help as this text-book. Price $1.