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African Voices, Global Choices: Impact on Human Rights Hosted by The New England School of Law Boston, Massachusetts

15 March 200 China’s Relations with Zimbabwe, Su an, an the !emocratic Republic of the Congo By !a"#d H$ Sh#nn %d&unct 'rofessor, Ell#ott School of (nternat#onal %ffa#rs )eorge *ash#ngton +n#"ers#ty The organ#,ers of th#s e"ent as-ed .e to address the relat#onsh#/ between 0h#na and three countr#es #n %fr#ca12#.babwe, Sudan, and the !e.ocrat#c 3e/ubl#c of the 0ongo 4!3051that face ser#ous hu.an r#ghts challenges$ The recently released 2006 State !e/art.ent 0ountry 3e/orts on Hu.an 3#ghts 'ract#ces h#ghl#ghted all three countr#es for cr#t#c#s.$ The State !e/art.ent descr#bed the s#tuat#on #n 2#.babwe dur#ng 2006 7as the worst year yet for hu.an r#ghts defenders,8 add#ng that 7the assault aga#nst hu.an r#ghts and de.ocracy by the go"ern.ent s#gn#f#cantly #ncreased$8 (t sa#d 7Sudan9s hu.an r#ghts record re.a#ned horr#f#c8 and /o#nted out that #n s/#te of the s#gn#ng of the !arfur 'eace %gree.ent #n 200:, 7"#olence #ncreased #n 2006, and the reg#on san- further #nto chaos8 as a result of act#ons by the Sudan go"ern.ent and rebel grou/s$ %lthough the State !e/art.ent /ra#sed the h#stor#c 200: elect#ons #n the !30 and the end of the destruct#"e c#"#l war, #t concluded that 7the go"ern.ent9s hu.an r#ghts record re.a#ned /oor #n 2006$8 Zimbabwe 0h#na9s close t#es w#th then l#berat#on leader and now 'res#dent 3obert Mugabe date bac- to 0h#nese ass#stance for the 2#.babwe %fr#can Nat#onal +n#on dur#ng #ts struggle for /ower$ 0h#na9s su//ort for Mugabe waned #n the early 1; 0s as 0h#na sought strong econo.#c /artners #n %fr#ca$ Mugabe showed l#ttle #nterest #n th#s /ol#cy and began to turn to the *est for su//ort$ The s#tuat#on changed after T#anan.en S<uare #n 1; ; when 0h#na act#"ely sought %fr#can su//ort for #ts /os#t#on on hu.an r#ghts #ssues #n #nternat#onal fora$ Mugabe obl#ged 0h#na by defend#ng #ts act#ons #n T#anan.en S<uare$ 2#.babwe subse<uently de"elo/ed a 7Loo- East8 /ol#cy, wh#ch #ncluded closer t#es w#th (ndones#a, (nd#a, (ran, Malays#a, North =orea, and es/ec#ally 0h#na$ 0h#na> 2#.babwe relat#ons e?/anded /ol#t#cally, econo.#cally, and .#l#tar#ly$ (n 2005 2#.babwe engaged #n a contro"ers#al /ol#cy of slu. de.ol#t#on around Harare and Bulawayo that e"entually left so.e 600,000 /ersons ho.eless$ 0h#na /ubl#cly endorsed the act#on and, together w#th 3uss#a, o//osed any d#scuss#on of the sub&ect #n the +N Secur#ty 0ounc#l on the grounds #t would a.ount to .eddl#ng #n 2#.babwe9s #nternal

2 affa#rs$ %lthough .utual su//ort on hu.an r#ghts #ssues where 0h#na and 2#.babwe are under f#re #s not the /r#nc#/al reason for close t#es, #t #s a s#gn#f#cant factor$ 0h#na9s /ol#cy of no str#ngs attached to #ts a#d f#ts neatly #nto Mugabe9s conce/t of a des#rable fore#gn /artner$ %fter the *est ended .#l#tary sales to 2#.babwe, Mugabe turned #ncreas#ngly to 0h#na as a source of e<u#/.ent$ S#nce 2005, for e?a./le, 2#.babwe ordered twel"e => ad"anced &et tra#ners fro. 0h#na "alued at @2A0 .#ll#on$ 0h#na #s now 2#.babwe9s largest e?/ort .ar-et for tobacco and 0h#na #s beco.#ng .ore act#"e #n .#n#ng "entures #n 2#.babwe$ Total trade #n 2006 between 0h#na and 2#.babwe was only about @500 .#ll#on, wh#ch #s actually .uch s.aller than 0h#na9s trade w#th %fr#ca9s .a&or o#l and .#neral e?/ort#ng countr#es$ 0h#nese #n"est.ent #n 2#.babwe #s .odest1about @50 .#ll#on$ (n 2006 S#nosteel bought a sta-e #n the hold#ng co./any for 2#.babwe9s largest ferrochro.e /roducer$ 0h#na #s now e?/ress#ng #nterest #n gold and /lat#nu. .#n#ng #n 2#.babwe$ 0h#na also o/ened a 0onfuc#us (nst#tute #n 2006 at the +n#"ers#ty of 2#.babwe$ There are l#.#ts, howe"er, to what both countr#es get out of th#s relat#onsh#/$ Mugabe "#s#ted 0h#na hat #n hand #n 2005 after h#s slu. de.ol#t#on /ro&ect$ He re/ortedly only rece#"ed @: .#ll#on #n a#d$ S#nce 1;;1 the 0h#nese fore#gn .#n#ster has .ade h#s f#rst o"erseas "#s#t to %fr#ca each year, sto//#ng so far #n e#ghty>se"en countr#es, so.e on .ult#/le occas#ons$ Bnly one of these "#s#ts too- the fore#gn .#n#ster to 2#.babwe$ 0h#nese #nfluence #n 2#.babwe #s also /lay#ng .uch less well w#th c#"#l soc#ety grou/s and labor un#ons than #t #s w#th the go"ern.ent$ 0h#na #s beco.#ng #ncreas#ngly concerned about the econo.#c s#tuat#on #n 2#.babwe$ Harare has defaulted on 0h#nese loans$ Be#&#ng d#d not /ubl#cly su//ort a go"ern.ent crac-down on the /ol#t#cal o//os#t#on #n 2006$ 0h#na e"en #nfor.ed the Br#t#sh late #n 2006 that #t would reduce #ts de"elo/.ent a#d to 2#.babwe$ Mugabe has as-ed 0h#na for a @50 b#ll#on loan to f#? 2#.babwe9s shattered econo.y$ ( ho/e Mugabe #s not .a-#ng da#ly tr#/s to the .a#l bo?$ 0h#na and 2#.babwe d#d s#gn #n Cebruary 200 a @A2 .#ll#on loan fac#l#ty to #./le.ent the second /hase of 2#.babwe9s far. .echan#,at#on /rogra.$ Th#s #s a relat#onsh#/ where 0h#na #s clearly watch#ng 2#.babwe9s fa#l#ng econo.y, the u/co.#ng elect#on, and #s .ore than aware of the fact that Mugabe #s e#ghty>four years old$ Su an 0h#na has had generally good relat#ons w#th Sudan s#nce 1;5;$ L#-e 2#.babwe, Sudan has de"elo/ed a /ol#cy #n recent years of loo-#ng East where the .a&or /layers are (nd#a, Malays#a, Da/an, South =orea, and es/ec#ally 0h#na$ (t was not unt#l the 1;;0s, howe"er, that trade beca.e an #./ortant factor, /r#.ar#ly because of Sudan9s ab#l#ty to e?/ort o#l$ 0h#na began sell#ng Sudan .#l#tary e<u#/.ent early #n the relat#onsh#/$ 0h#nese .#l#tary sales and ass#stance to Sudan #ncreased after 2002 and &ust before the outbrea- of confl#ct #n !arfur$

F Sudan9s (sla.#st go"ern.ent led by B.ar al>Bash#r ca.e to /ower #n 1; ; &ust after T#anan.en S<uare$ Bash#r "#s#ted Be#&#ng the follow#ng year$ 'ol#t#cally #solated and econo.#cally stra//ed, =hartou. turned to 0h#na for hel/ #n de"elo/#ng the o#l sector$ )#"en 0h#na9s own d#ff#cult s#tuat#on after T#anan.en S<uare, #t found a w#ll#ng /artner #n Sudan$ Together w#th a 0anad#an co./any 4later re/laced by the (nd#an state o#l co./any5 and the Malays#an state o#l co./any, 0h#na de"elo/ed Sudan9s o#l #ndustry$ Today, 0h#na #s Sudan9s .ost #./ortant econo.#c /artner and, arguably, #ts .ost s#gn#f#cant /ol#t#cal /artner$ %fter %ngola and South %fr#ca, Sudan #s 0h#na9s th#rd largest %fr#can trad#ng /artner$ 0h#na9s trade w#th Sudan a.ounts to /ercent of #ts total trade w#th %fr#ca$ But th#s trade const#tutes only about one><uarter of one /ercent of 0h#na9s global trade$ %s a /ercentage of global 0h#nese o#l #./orts, Sudanese o#l has actually decl#ned #n #./ortance$ Sudan /ro"#ded o"er ; /ercent of 0h#na9s #./orted crude #n 2002E #t fell to : /ercent #n 2006, although there are fluctuat#ons #n annual /ercentages$ 0h#na #s ta-#ng about A0 /ercent of Sudan9s o#l /roduct#on$ Sudan #s one of the .ost #./ortant locat#ons for 0h#nese #n"est.ent #n %fr#ca$ (t totals about @: b#ll#on, .ostly #n the o#l sector$ 0h#nese co./an#es ha"e a .a&or role #n construct#on of the @1$5 b#ll#on Merowe !a. and the =a&bar !a., both on the N#le 3#"er$ 0h#nese co./an#es are also bu#ld#ng roads, br#dges, and h#ghways throughout Sudan$ 0h#na cons#stently absta#ned on +N Secur#ty 0ounc#l resolut#ons concern#ng !arfur but su//orted resolut#ons related to the 0o./rehens#"e 'eace %gree.ent 40'%5 and the creat#on of the +N M#ss#on #n Sudan #n su//ort of the North>South /eace /rocess$ (n fact, 0h#na fully bac-s the 0'% and now has 1AF /eace-ee/ers ass#gned to the +N force #n southern Sudan$ (t #s also try#ng to hedge #ts bets by #./ro"#ng relat#ons w#th the South$ Sal"a =##r led a Sudan 'eo/le9s L#berat#on Cront 4S'LM5 delegat#on to 0h#na #n 2005E he returned as Sudan9s f#rst "#ce /res#dent #n 2006$ 0h#na #s /re/ar#ng to fund a ser#es of de"elo/.ent /ro&ects #n southern Sudan, #nclud#ng hydroelectr#c, roads, hous#ng, stad#u.s, and cultural centers$ %lthough 0h#na cont#nues to o//ose sanct#ons aga#nst Sudan and the e?trad#t#on of sus/ected !arfur war cr#.#nals to the (nternat#onal 0r#.#nal 0ourt, there has been an e"olut#onary change #n 0h#na9s w#ll#ngness to /ut /ressure on Sudan #n an effort to end the "#olence #n !arfur$ 'ressure fro. the *est and concern about hold#ng an #ssue free Bly./#c )a.es ha"e clearly had an effect on 0h#nese /ol#cy towards !arfur$ The 0h#nese /os#t#on on !arfur began to change <u#etly #n late 200:$ 0h#nese 'res#dent Hu D#ntao "#s#ted Sudan #n Cebruary 2006 and subse<uently na.ed a s/ec#al en"oy for !arfur, L#u )u#&#n$ 0h#na began tal-#ng about the need for a co./rehens#"e ceasef#re and accelerat#on of the negot#at#on /rocess$ By .#d>2006, 0h#na su//orted for.at#on of the hybr#d %fr#can +n#onG+n#ted Nat#ons /eace-ee/#ng o/erat#on #n !arfur and #s now send#ng F15 .#l#tary eng#neers to su//ort the o/erat#on$ 0h#na9s s/ec#al en"oy for !arfur, L#u )u#&#n, warned Sudan #n Danuary 200 that 7the world #s runn#ng out of /at#ence o"er what9s go#ng on #n !arfur$8 (n Cebruary, L#u )u#&#n called on Sudan to do .ore to allow fore#gn /eace-ee/ers to de/loy #n !arfur$ (n

A March, he sa#d there #s no funda.ental d#fference w#th *estern countr#es o"er !arfur and 0h#na #s ready to wor- w#th *estern /owers$ L#u )u#&#n added, howe"er, that 0h#na o//oses 7the arb#trary use of sanct#ons and an e.bargo that only worsens the s#tuat#on$8 %t the sa.e t#.e, he called on the *est to use #ts #nfluence o"er rebel grou/s to s/eaw#th one "o#ce and return to the negot#at#ng table$ L#u )u#&#n recently called !arfur 7a hu.an#tar#an d#saster8 and ac-nowledged that Sudan9s go"ern.ent had /r#.ary res/ons#b#l#ty for sto//#ng the -#ll#ng$ The #ssue of ar.s sales to Sudan #s a confus#ng one$ % 0h#nese go"ern.ent s/o-es/erson recently stated that #n 200: 0h#na /ro"#ded only about /ercent of Sudan9s wea/on9s #./orts$ Sudan9s M#n#ster of !efense added that 0h#na 7#s not the .a#n source for ar.#ng the ar.y$8 Bn the other hand, +N 0o.trade data show that dur#ng 200A, 2005, and 200:, 0h#na sold Sudan about ;0 /ercent of #ts #./orted s.all ar.s$ Hu.an 3#ghts C#rst #ssued #n March 200 a carefully docu.ented re/ort on 0h#na9s ar.s trade w#th Sudan$ Ent#tled Investing in Tragedy: China’s Money, Arms, and Politics in Sudan, #t #dent#f#ed s#gn#f#cant sales of 0h#nese .#l#tary a#rcraft and hea"y wea/ons to Sudan$ (t #s true that 3uss#a, Belarus, (ran and others also /ro"#de a "ery large <uant#ty of ar.s to Sudan$ (n fact, Hu.an 3#ghts C#rst ac-nowledged that 3uss#a has h#stor#cally been Sudan9s largest /ro"#der of .a&or wea/ons syste.s$ Ne"ertheless, a Sudan #nde/endence day .#l#tary /arade #n 2006 d#s/layed a cons#derable <uant#ty of 0h#nese .#l#tary e<u#/.ent$ Three 0h#nese => tra#ners and three M#)>2;s also flew o"er the ca/#tal$ (t #s /oss#ble that the 0h#nese assert#on that #t /ro"#ded only /ercent of Sudan9s wea/ons #./orts #n 200: #s accurate$ (f .easured by dollar "alue and #f 200: was a year when 0h#na su//l#ed few .a&or wea/ons syste.s wh#le 3uss#a and others e?/er#enced .a&or sales, #t .#ght ha"e been a .#nor /ercentage year for 0h#na$ The 0h#na>Sudan relat#onsh#/ cont#nues to be the one to watch #n Sudan$ !arfur /oses a real challenge for 0h#nese d#/lo.acy, although Be#&#ng w#ll feel less /ressure follow#ng conclus#on of the Be#&#ng Bly./#cs$ % return to confl#ct between southern and northern Sudan would also test 0h#na9s ab#l#ty to .a#nta#n #ts #nterests #n Sudan$ !emocratic Republic of the Congo 0h#na has a long #n"ol"e.ent #n the 0ongo go#ng bac- to recogn#t#on of the rad#cal %nto#ne )#,enga go"ern.ent #n 1;:1 #n the eastern 0ongo$ (t cont#nued to bacthe los#ng s#de #n the 0ongo throughout the 1;:0s but nor.al#,ed relat#ons w#th the go"ern.ent #n 1;62 and e"entually establ#shed #./ortant .#l#tary t#es w#th the Mobutu go"ern.ent and #ts successors$ Cor e?a./le, 0h#na tra#ned e#ghty>n#ne .#l#tary off#cers fro. the !30 between 1;; and 200F$ 'res#dent Dose/h =ab#la "#s#ted Be#&#ng #n 2005 when 0h#na /ro.#sed to #n"est #n the !30 and engage #n #ts econo.#c reconstruct#on$ 0h#na too- an act#"e #nterest #n cobalt and co//er .#n#ng act#"#t#es #n the !30, es/ec#ally #n =atanga$ E?/erts est#.ate that about F0 /ercent of 0h#na9s cobalt #./orts co.e fro. the !30$ 0h#na recently

5 began t#.ber o/erat#ons #n the country$ (ncreas#ngly, 0h#na #s engag#ng #n agr#cultural /ro&ects, #nclud#ng coffee, sugar, and fru#t$ 0h#nese co./an#es began se"eral years ago to bu#ld roads, stad#u.s, go"ern.ent bu#ld#ngs, and hydro/ower /ro&ects$ The 0h#nese also e<u#//ed the state rad#o and tele"#s#on co./ound and establ#shed a .ob#le /hone networ-$ The .ost dra.at#c deal occurred #n late 2006 when 0h#na sa#d #ts co./an#es would bu#ld @; b#ll#on worth of .a&or #nfrastructure /ro&ects #n the !30 to be /a#d for w#th 0ongo9s cobalt and co//er reser"es$ 0h#nese co./an#es w#ll bu#ld h#gh>"oltage /ower l#nes and /ower /lants, e?/and the water syste., rebu#ld the health syste., construct four large un#"ers#t#es, and nu.erous hous#ng /ro&ects$ 0h#na w#ll also reno"ate the ra#lway syste. and bu#ld 250 -#lo.eters of roads$ 0ongolese and 0h#nese state owned co./an#es establ#shed a &o#nt .#n#ng "enture, Soc#ete 0ongola#se M#n#ere, wh#ch w#ll #n"est @F b#ll#on #n new .#n#ng areas w#th the /rof#ts used to re/ay the .#n#ng #n"est.ents and the @; b#ll#on #n #nfrastructure /ro&ects #./le.ented by 0h#nese co./an#es$ The deal has been descr#bed as a l#fel#ne for 'res#dent =ab#la9s dysfunct#onal go"ern.ent and could result #n h#s de/endence on the 0h#nese$ (t #s a setbac- /art#cularly for Euro/ean co..erc#al #nterests #n the !30$ The (nternat#onal Monetary Cund warned the !30 abut the /otent#al negat#"e #./l#cat#ons of such a large loan on #./orts, e?/orts, and the e?change rate$ 0h#na has for years ass#gned troo/s to the +N /eace-ee/#ng o/erat#on #n the 0ongoE #t currently has 2FA .#l#tary /ersonnel #n /lace$ *h#le the 0h#nese fore#gn .#n#ster "#s#ted 2#.babwe only once s#nce h#s annual %fr#can tour began #n 1;;1, he .ade three "#s#ts to the !30$ The !30 #s beco.#ng a .a&or /artner for 0h#na #n %fr#caE .#nerals ha"e a lot to do w#th 0h#na9s #nterest$ Conclusion %ll three countr#es are #./ortant to 0h#na9s strategy #n %fr#ca, es/ec#ally ensur#ng access to o#l and natural resources$ 0h#na9s long connect#on w#th the Mugabe go"ern.ent #n 2#.babwe and the fact that the *est turned aga#nst Mugabe, .ade #t easy for 0h#na to sol#d#fy #ts t#es$ Mutual su//ort on hu.an r#ghts challenges fro. the *est /ro"#ded add#t#onal reason to enhance the relat#onsh#/$ !eclared a /ar#ah by .any *estern countr#es, Sudan saw an o//ortun#ty to #n"#te 0h#na to de"elo/ #ts o#l reser"es w#thout ha"#ng to worry about 0h#nese cr#t#c#s. of #ts hu.an r#ghts /ol#c#es$ +nl#-e 2#.babwe and Sudan, the !30 does not at th#s /o#nt /ose a s/ec#al hu.an r#ghts /roble. for Be#&#ng$ %s 0h#na beco.es a .ore #./ortant /art#c#/ant #n the !30 econo.y, howe"er, 0h#na .ay e?/er#ence grow#ng cr#t#c#s. on hu.an r#ghts9 grounds #f the =ab#la go"ern.ent .o"es bac-wards on #ts hu.an r#ghts /ol#c#es$

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