University of California
•
Berkeley
yM
^
MECHANISM
THE HEAVENS.
BY
MRS. SOMERVILLE.
LONDON:
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLESTREET.
UDCCCXXXI.
LONDON
s
PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOW£!>>
Mamfortlttnat.
3S<f/(^
cj'\
K
TO
HENRY, LORD BROUGHAM AND VAUX,
LORD UIQH CHANCELLOR OF GREAT BRITAIN,
This Work, undertaken at His Lordship's request,
as a testimony of the Author's esteem
is
inscribed
and regard.
Although
it
has unavoidably exceeded the limits of the Publica
tions of the Society for the Diifusion of Useful
Knowledge,
thinks
it
for
which
it
was originally intended, his Lordship
its
still
may
To
tend to promote the views of the Society in
present form.
concur with
that Society in the
diffusion of useful
knowledge,
would be the highest ambition of the Author,
MARY SOMERVILLE.
Royal Hvtpital, Chelsea, 2UtJuly, 1831.
TJNIVKUKITV
PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION.
In order to convey some idea of the object of this work, it may be useful to offer a few preliminary observations on the nature of the subject which it is intended to investigate, and of the
means
that have already been adopted with so much success to bring within the reach of our faculties, those truths which might seem to be placed so far beyond them.
we possess of external objects is founded furnishes a knowledge of facts, and which upon experience, the comparison of these facts establishes relations, from which, induction, the intuitive belief that like causes will produce like effects, leads us to Thus, experience general laws. teaches that bodies fall at the surface of the earth with an
All the knowledge
accelerated velocity, and proportional to their masses. Newton the fall proved, by comparison, that the force which occasions
of bodies at the earth's surface, is identical with that which and induction led him to conretains the moon in her orbit clude that as the moon is kept in her orbit by the attraction of
;
the earth, so the planets might be retained in their orbits by the attraction of the sun. By such steps he was led to the the Creator has discovery of one of those powers with which act ordained that matter should reciprocally upon matter. which is the science compares and Physical astronomy
identifies the
that take place in the heavens,
laws of motion observed on earth with the motions and which traces, by an unin
that terrupted chain of deduction from the great principle and rotations of the the revolutions the universe, governs
and the oscillations of the fluids at their surfaces, and which estimates the changes the system has hitherto undergone or may hereafter experience, changes which require millions of
planets,
years for their accomplishment. The combined efforts of astronomers, from the earliest dawn of civilization, have been requisite to establish the mechanical b
VI
PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION.
:
.
theory of astronomy the courses of the planets have been observed for ages with a degree of perseverance that is astonishing, if we consider the imperfection, and even the want of instru
The real motions of the earth have been separated from the apparent motions of the planets the laws of the planetary revolutions have been discovered and the discovery of these laws
ments.
;
;
to the knowledge of the gravitation of matter. On the other hand, descending from the principle of gravitation, every motion in the system of fhe world has been so completely ex
has led
plained, that no astronomical phenomenon can now be transmitted to posterity of which the laws have not been deter
mined.
Science, regarded as the pursuit of truth, which can only be attained by patient and unprejudiced investigation, wherein nothing is too great to be attempted, nothing so minute as to be justly disregarded, must ever afford occupation of consummate
and of elevated meditation. The contemplation of the works of creation elevates the mind to the admiration of whatever is great and noble, accomplishing the object of all study, which in the elegant language of Sir James Mackintosh is to
interest
love of truth, of wisdom, of beauty, especially of the goodness, highest beauty, and of that supreme and eternal which contains all truth and wisdom, all mind, beauty and the or love goodness. By delightful contemplation and pursuit
ins{)ire the
of these transcendent aims for their own sake only, the mind man is raised from low and perishable objects, and prepared for those high destinies which are appointed for all those who are capable of them.
of
The heavens afford the most sublime subject of study which can be derived from science the magnitude and splendour of
:
the objects, the inconceivable rapidity with which they move, and the enormous distances between them, impress the mind with some notion of the energy that maintains them in their motions with a durability to which we can see no
limits.
Equally conspicuous
in
is
the goodness
faculties
of the great
his works,
First
Cause
having endowed man with
can not only appreciate the mngnificente of
by which he but
he inhabits as u base wherewith
trace, with precision, the operation of his laws, use the globe to measure the magnitude and
PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION.
Vll
distance of the sun and planets, and make the diameter of the earth's orbit the first step of a scale by which he may ascend
to the starry
mind,
there
at the
is
pursuits, while they ennoble the inculcate humility, by showing that a barrier, which no energy, mental or physical, can
firmament.
Such
same time
that however profoundly we may pass of the depths space, there still remain innumerable penetrate with which those whicli seem so mighty to systems, compare<i
ever enable us to
:
us must dwindle into insignificance, or even become invisible and that not only man, but the globe he inhabits, nay the
;
whole system of which it forms so small a part, might be annihilated, and its extinction be unperceived in the immensity of creation. A complete acquaintance with Physical Astronomy can only be attained by those who are well versed in the higher branches such alone can apof mathematical and mechanical science preciate the extreme beauty of the results, and of the means by which these results are obtained. Nevertheless a sufficient skill in analysis to follow the general outline, to see the mutual dependence of the different parts of the system, and to compre:
hend by what means some of the most extraordinary conclusions have been arrived at, is within the reach of many who shrink from the task, appalled by difficulties, which perhaps are not more formidable than those incident to the study of the elements of every branch of knowledge, and possibly overrating them by not making a sufficient distinction between the degree
of mathematical acquirement necessary for making discoveries, and that which is requisite for understanding what others have
done.
That the study of mathematics and their application to astronomy are full of interest will be allowed by all who have devoted their time and attention to these pursuits, and they only
can estimate the delight of arriving at truth, whether it be in the discovery of a world, or of a new property of numbers.
It has been proved by Newton that a particle of matter placed without the surface of a hollow sphere is attracted by it in the same manner as if its mass, or the whole matter it contains,
were collected in its cAtre. The same is therefore true of a solid sphere which may be supposed to consist of an infinite number of concentric hollow spheres. This however is not the case
b 2
via
PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION.
with a spheroid, but the celestial bodies are so nearly spherical, and at such remote distances from each other, that they attract and are attracted as if each were a dense point situate in its
centre of gravity, a circumstance which greatly facilitates the
investigation of their motions. The attraction of the earth on bodies at
latitude, the
its
surface in that
a sphere
as if it were and experience shows that bodies there fall through 16.0G97 feet in a second. The mean distance of the moon from the earth is about sixty times the mean radius of the earth. When the number 16.0697 is diminished in the ratio of 1 to 3600, which is the square of the moon's distance from the earth, it is found to be exactly the space the moon would fall through in the first second of her descent to the earth, were she not prevented by her centrifugal force, arising from the velocity with which she moves in her orbit. So that
square of whose sine
is
^,
is
the
same
;
the
moon
origin
is retained in her orbit by a force having the same and regulated by the same law with that which causes a
stone to
fall
at the earth's surface.
The
earth
may
therefore
;
be regarded as the centre of a force which extends to the moon but as experience shows that the action and reaction of matter are equal and contrary, the moon must attract the earth with an equal and contrary force.
Newton proved that a body projected in space will move in a conic section, if it be attracted by a force directed towards
a fixed point, and having an intensity inversely as the square of the distance; but that any deviation from that law will cause it to move in a curve of a different nature. Kepler ascertained by direct observation that the planets describe ellipses round the sun, and later observations show that comets also move in conic sections: it consequently follows that the sun attracts all the planets and comets inversely as the square of their distances from his centre the sun therefore is the centre
;
of a force extending indefinitely in space, and including bodies of the system in its action.
all
the
Kepler also deduced from observation, that the squares of the periodic times of the planets, or the times of their revolutions round the sun, are proportional to the cubes of their
mean
distances from his centre
:
whence
it
follows, that the
by the law of action and reaction. and in other The gravitation of respects they also would be very different. they would arrive at time. the equatorial particles would recede from the centre till their increase in number balanced the centrifugal force by their particles at equal distances . and bulges at the equator. it becomes flattened at the poles. does not belong to it when taken in mass particle acts on particle according to the same law when at sensible disIf the sun acted on the centre of tances from each other. whence proceed all the mutual disturbances that render the celestial motions so complicated. and inversely as the square tance. of gravity all therefore. For. to attract another portion and not be itself attracted. the centre of gravity of the earth would be moved in space. if would assume the form of a sphere. and equilibrium can only exist when these two forces are balanced by an increase . from the reciprocal attraction of its particles . but if the mass revolves about an axis. consequently gravitation is proportional to the masses. between the earth and every particle at its surface. the earth to the sun results from the gravitation of all its ratio of particles. which is impossible. were this not the case. the centrifugal force diminishes the gravity of the particles at the equator. as the attractive force is the same on from the centre of a sphere.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. The form of tion of their the planets results from the reciprocal attrac component particles. A<detached fluid mass. for if the planets and comets be supthe posed to be at equal distances from the sun and left to the same at his surface effects of gravity. velocity of rotation. which in their turn attract the sun in the likewise action a There is reciprocal their respective masses. IX same the bodies towards the sun is the intensity of gravitation of all at equal distances. and attractof the dising directly as the mass. Hence. and were any portion of the earth. The gravitation of matter directed to a centre. each body is itself the centre of an attractive force extending indefinitely in space. and their investigation so difficult. the earth without attracting each of its particles. the tides would be very much greater than they now are. however small. . in consequence of the centrifugal force arising from the at rest. ing to The satellites also gravitate to their primaries accordthe same law that their primaries do to the sun.
in moving uniformly received its in space. that he moves in space accompanied by all those bodies which compose the solar system. yet the satellites are near enough to be sensibly affected in their motions is by the forms of their primaries. and the surface of the earth only deviates from that figure where it rises above or sinks below the level of the sea . as the ocean and atmosphere cover the earth. the form of the earth and planets. all its parts will move with an equal velocity in a straight line . must assume that form in order to remain in equiiibrio. and a fluid partially or entirely covering a solid. its particles having unequal velocities. differs but little from a is Such sphere. If a sphere at rest in space receives an impulse passing through its centre of gravity. the action of the mass moon on in the axis of rotation. so that a contrary impulse passing through its centre of gravity will impede its progression. tbat even Jupiter. such impulse must . For. The surface of the sea therefore spheroidal. it seems probable an impulse in a contrary direction has not been given to his centre of gravity. that the reciprocal attraction between each of her particles and each of the particles in the prominent bances at the terrestrial equator. consequence of our experience that force is prothe reciprocal attractions of a system remain the same. whether its centre of gravity be at rest. Although the planets attract each other as if they were spheres on account of their immense distances. It is computed that had the earth motion from a single impulse. would become an oblate attraction. These motions are independent of one another. consequently the sphere spheroid . without interfering with is rotation. will give it a rotatory motion at the same time that it translated in space. for. occasions considerable disturin the motions of both bodies. but if the impulse does not pass through the centre of gravity. but the deviation is so small that it is unimis portant when compared with the magnitude of the earth. but the compression or flattening at their poles is so small.* PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. a circumstance that would in no way interfere with their relative moits if tions portional to velocity. or . the matter at the earth's equator produces a nutation and the reaction of tbat matter on the moon is the cause of a corresponding nutation in the lunar orbit. As the sun rotates about an axis. whose rotation is the most rapid. The moon for example so near the earth.
Thus. namely. his action overcomes its velocity. the tangent. velocity. though probably communicated by the same impulse. the earth. If the planets were attracted by the sun only. with velocities given both in quantity and — . and brings it towards him with such vity an accelerated motion. or imaginary lines joining the centres of the sun and planets. but in paths now approaching to. A planet moves in its elliptical orbit with a velocity varying every instant. and because his action is proportional to his mass. XI its Since the motions of the rotation and translation of the planets are independent of each other. of the existence of disturbing To all the rest determine the motion of each body when disturbed by is beyond the power of analysis it is therefore . the masses being given of three bodies projected from three given points. and their radii vectores do not describe areas exactly proportional test to the time. when a planet is in its aphelion or at the point where the orbit is farthest from the sun. which is immensely larger than that of all the planets put together. and the sun. in consequence of two forces. it arrives at the aphelion where the sun's attraction In this motion the radii vectores. that it at last overcomes the sun's attraction. Thus the areas become a forces. so that they do not move in any known or symmetrical curve. and shoots past him then. necessary to estimate the disturbing action of one planet at a time. arising from the primitive impulse given at the time when it was launched into space should the force in the tangent cease. they form separate subjects of investigation. pass over equal areas in equal times. gradually decreasing in . the planet would fall to the sun by its gra: were the sun not to attract it.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. the planet would fly off in . and now receding from the elliptical form. which originally was that of the moon. and the other in the direction of a tangent to its orbit. again prevails. the elliptical is the nearest approximation to their true motions. this would ever be their course . whence arises the celebrated problem of the three bodies. one tending to the centre of the sun. have passed through a point about twentyfive miles from centre. in consequence of their mutual attraction. which are extremely complicated.
to find the lines described instant. and the ratio of their masses to that of the sun : which the celestial bodies move. separately. end. and would be of infinitely greater difficulty. that the sum of any number of small oscillations nearly equal to their simultaneous and joint effect. their mutual attractions might have changed them into parabolas or even hyperbolas so that the earth and planets might ages ago have been for the nature of the conic sections in . and their position at any given By this bodies are determined. . problem the motions of translation of all the celestial It is one of extreme difficulty. when compared with the central As the disturbing influence of each body may be found force. if the disturbing action were not very small.Xll PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. by these bodies. is On account of the reciprocal action of matter. . depends on the velocity with which they were first prohad that velocity been such as to make the pelled in space planets move in orbits of unstable equilibrium. sweeping through the abyss of space but as the orbits differ very little from circles. must have been exactly sufficient to ensure the perma: nency and stability of the system. on the general mechanical principle. astronomers refer their motions to it at a given . and inversely as the squares of the distances. the stability of the system depends on the intensity of the primitive momentum of the planets. their inequalities bear the same ratio to their elliptical motions as their masses do to that of the sun. it is assumed that the action of the whole system in disturbing any one planet is equal to the sum of all the particular disturbances it experiences. Besides the mass of the sun is immensely greater than those of the planets and as . than is The orbits exhibited in the nice adjustment of these forces. There is not in the physical world a more splendid example of the adaptation of means to the accomplishment of the system. direction and supposing the bodies to gravitate to one an other with forces that are directly as their masses. and on that account. of the planets have a very small inclination to the plane of the ecliptic in which the earth moves . the momentum of the planets when projected. their mutual dis turbances only increase or diminish the eccentricities of their orbits by very minute quantities consequently the magnitude of the sun's mass is the principal cause of the stability of the .
are ellipses nets. slightly inclined nearly approaching to circles. though their own motions are rendered very turbing the irregular by proximity of Jupiter and Saturn. The and are therefore called Secular Inequalities. being the position of the disturbing body. The major axis of Jupiter's orbit requires no less than 197561 years . will be more difficult to determine their planets have no sensible effect in disthe rest. begins from zero. the ecliptic. . the points where the orbit intersects the plane of the ecliptic are its nodes. to The from the orbits of the recently discovered planets deviate more has an inclination of 35° to it : ecliptic : that of Pallas it on that account These motions. according to All such changes. The planets are subject to disturbances of two distinct kinds. troubled planet is times brought nearer to him In consequence of these. one kind depending upon their positions with regard to each other. increases to a maximum. which are retrograde and the lines of the nodes move with a variable The motions of both are velocity in the contrary direction. others some in short accomplished periods. are entirely independent of their relative positions they depend on the relative positions of the orbits alone. little both resulting from the constant operation of their reciprocal attraction. at another time below it. the sometimes drawn away from the sun.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. in a few months. in years. though occasioned likewise the by disturbing energy of the planets. the apsides. In consequence of disturbances of this kind. are denominated Periodic Inequalities. or extremities of the major axes of all the orbits. whose forms and places in space are altered by very minute quantities in immense periods of time. The paths are omitted. inequalities of the other kind. it and 20935 years to complete its tropical motion. when their mutual disturbances whose planes. . some. de creases and the becomes zero again. xfii of the plaepoch as a known and fixed position. but variable motion in space. at one time it is drawn above the plane of its orbit. excepting those of Venus. have a direct. cut it in straight lines passing through the centre of the sun . or in hundreds of years. . the requires more than 109770 years for revolusidereal a major axis of the earth's orbit to accomplish extremely slow tion. when the planets return to same relative positions.
would not be the case if the planets . while these vicissitudes embrace myriads of ages. it follows. as well secular as periodic. the inclination and eccentricity of every orbit are in a state of perpetual. decreasing. it would be 3G300 But in the years before the earth's orbit became a circle. The terrestrial eccentricity is decreasing at the rate of 3914 miles in a century . it is natural to inquire. With the exception of these two elements. and as a sine or cosine never can exceed the radius. since the existence of the human race has occubut a point in duration. which would involve our whole system. but must oscillate between zero and unity. that one cannot vary without affecting the other. but so slowly. to perform its revolution from the disturbing action of Saturn alone. but slow change. supposed liable ciently to derange the tive positions to accumulate in the course of ages suffiwhole order of nature. it appears. and if it were to decrease equably.XIV PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. are expressed analytically by the sines and cosines of circular arcs. in chaotic confusion. that in a state of and orbit is in the bodies are all motion. they decrease by the same slow degrees. which increase with the time . All the variations of the solar system. however. to alter the rela of the planets. that when the variations have by slow changes accumulated in how ever long a time to a^ maximum. and then a mean begin a new course. The proof is simple and convincing. This. The consequences being what proof so dreadful. and to bring about collisions. At the of all the the inclinations orbits are present time. they are so connected by Kepler's law of the squares mean of the periodic times being proportional to the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun. they might be perpetual change. that the inclination of Jupiter's orbit is only six minutes less now than it was in the age of Ptolemy. now so harmonious. The periods in which the nodes revolve are also very great Beside these. to put an end to the vicissitudes of the seasons. every Minute as these changes are. midst of all these vicissitudes. however much the time may increase. exists that creation will for nothing be preserved from such a catastrophe? pied can be known from observation. the major axes and mean motions of the planets remain permanently independent of secular changes . till they arrive at their smallest value. thus for ever oscillating about value.
so that the stability of the system would be ultiBut if the planets do move in an ethereal mately destroyed. The rotation of the earth is uniform therefore day and night. that though we do not know the extent limits. are not necessary conditions: the periodicity of the terms in which the inequalities are expressed is of all of the sufhcient to assure us. system endures. the terrestrial equator. mazes Eccentric. so there never can be perpetual spring. Three circumstances have generally been stipposed necessary to prove the stability of the system : the small eccentricities of the planetary orbits. occa sioned by the reciprocal action of the planets also periodical. The stability of our system was established by La Grange. their small inclinations. summer and winter. is for the preservation of which every circumstance so beautifully and wonderfully adapted. is La Grange's discovery of their periodical inequalities without doubt the noblest truth in physical astronomy and. the bodies. which at . since its resistance has hitherto been quite insensible. it must be of extreme rarity. intervolved.' says Professor Playfair. when most irregular they seem. as well planets as satellites. that must render the name for ever memorable in science. and revered by those who * ' delight in the contemplation of whatever is excellent and subAfter Newton's discovery of the elliptical orbits of the lime. or is untroubled by foreign causes. for then both the eccenthe major axes of the orbits would vary with and tricity the time. Yonder starry sphere of fixM. and the revolution tion. is subject to a minute secular variation of 52". in all her wheels intricate. 109. nor the period of that grand cycle which probably embraces millions of years. but as this inclined to is it is an angle of about 23° 28'. The plane of the ecliptic at itself. will continue their vicissitudes while the . moved "SW in a resisting medium.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. in the same direcThese. a discovery. Of planets. medium. . however. yet they never will exceed what is requisite for the stability and harmony of the whole. though assumed to be fixed a given epoch for the convenience of astronomical computation. planets. . will never coincide with the plane of the ecliptic. yet regular Then most. and Resembles nearest.
while the other is These inequalities are strictly periodical. or too long in their periods. exhibit inequalities which for a long time seemed discordant with that law. in fixed position. body property and if the mass of each be multiplied by the area described in a given time by its projection on this plane. there exists an invariable })lane passing through the centre of gravity of the sun. whence the oscillations of the system may be It is situate nearly half estimated through unlimited time. it in respect of the doctrine of final causes. but existing every system of bodies submitted to their mutual attractions only. Jupiter and Saturn. a relation which the sagacity of La Place perceived to be the cause of a periodic inequality in the mean motion of each of these planets. when it became necessary to compare observations separated by long periods. who has shown that whatever changes time may induce either in the orbits themselves. may be regarded as the greatest of all. All the periodic and secular inequalities deduced from the law of gravitation are so perfectly confirmed by observations. about which the whole system determined by this system be projected on it. the secular variations in the planetary orbits would have been extremely embarrassing to astronomers. to be detected by other methods. and is inclined between way to the ecliptic at an angle of about 1° 35' 31". however. All observations. prove affected by great inequalities of very long been have and Saturn what appeared an anomaly in the theory of was long known by observation. and maintains a inertia. that analysis has become one of the most certain means of discovering the planetary irregularities. periods. oscillates Avithin . or in the plane of the ecliptic. the sum of all This plane of greatest these products will be a maximum. either when they are too small. which completes its period in nearly 929 Julian years. This difficulty is obviated by La Place. . narrow limits.XVI PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION.' Notwithstanding the permanency of our system. the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. that five of Saturn is nearly equal to twice that motion mean the times of Jupiter. since accelerated. forming It the planets. the one being retarded. from those of the Chinese and Arabs down to the that for ages the mean motions of Jupiter present day. always remains parallel to itself. and which is that if every in the by no means peculiar to the solar system.
and the powerful action of that quantity of prominent matter is the reason why the motion of the nodes of these little bodies is so much more rapid than those of the planet. tellites always being further removed from its influence. while those of Jupiter's . The third which its superior and fourth sa always seen nearly in the same line . The same cause occasions the orbits of the satellites to remain nearly in the plane of Jupiter's equator. so that the system of a planet and its satellites moves nearly as if all those bodies than the distances of the were united in their common centre of gravity the action of the sun however disturbs in some degree the motion of the satellites about their primary. the immense quantity of prominent matter at his equator orbits of the first must soon have given the and second will circular form observed in the satellites. it may be regarded as an epitome of that grand cycle which will not be accomplished by the planets in myriads of centuries. . compression of Jupiter's spheroid is very great and as the masses of in consequence of his rapid rotation satellites like the planets. move in orbits with a very small eccentricity. The re volutions of the satellites about Ju{)iter are precisely similar to it is true those of the planets about the sun they are disturbed by the sun. The nodes of the fourlii satellite accomplish a revolution in 520 years.13'. Jupiter's mean motion has been accelerated by 3° 23'. The changes that take place in the planetary system are exhibited on a small scale by Jupiter and his satellites. XVil they depend on the configuration of the two planets . . but his distance is so great. and the theory is perfectly confirmed by observation. and from one another. were probably projected in elliptical the but orbits. and as the period requisite for the development of the inequalities of these little moons only extends to a few centuries. on account of which they are attraction maintain. and Saturn's retarded by 5°. which shows that course of twenty centuries. the satellites are nearly 100000 times less than that of Jupiter. that their motions are The nearly the same as if they were not under his influence. .PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. but the distances of the less satellites from incomparably planets from the sun. It might be imagined that the reciprocal action of such planets as have satellites would be difl'erent from the influence of in the those that have none their primaries are .
alone. but to certain planes passing between the two. spreading the light of knowledge and the blessings of civilization over the most remote regions. lations had only been approximate when the satellites were launched into space. that they are The instant of the befrequently eclipsed by the planet. there and have a very great influence on satellites move fore the time of these eclipses observed by a traveller. that system of bodies naked eye. that the mean equal to three times that of the second. : . orbit require no less than 50G73 years. The orbits of (he satellites do not retain a permanent inclination. and these have a greater inclination to through their intersection . a proof of the reciprocal attraction between each particle of Jupiter's equator and of the satellites. which has a very small inclination to his orbit. known to man by the aid of science . consequently they affect their eclipses. is always equal It is proved by theory.XVin PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. first established their whole theory. of a satellite marks the same inan or end of eclipse ginning stant of absolute time to all the inhabitants of the earth . vation. their mutual attractions would have and maintained them. in circles. either to the plane of Jupiter's equator. and longitude of the first satellite. minus three times is that of the second. The so nearly in the plane of Jupiter's equator. to render the eclipses of these remote moons instruments available to the mariner invisible to the now however. enables him to traverse the ocean. plus twice A that of the third. that if these reto two right angles. a circumstance entirely owing to the influence of Jupiter's compression. Although the two they acquire a small first satellites sensibly move ellipticity from the dis turbances they experience. when compared with the time of the eclipse computed for Greenwich or any other fixed meridian. singular law obtains among the mean motions and mean It appears from obserlongitudes of the three first satellites. his equator the further the satellite is removed. plus twice that of the third. or to that of his orbit. They extend to the synodic motions of the satellites. and consequently the longitude of the place of It has required all the refinements of modern observation. that the mean motion of the first satellite. and to return loaded with the productions of Nor is this all the eclipses of Jupiter's another hemisphere. gives the difference of the meri* dians in time.
every object. His true position is in the diagonal of the parallelogram. unfolds n property of light. these rays would strike rest. which is as 192000 to 19. would appear in the direction of these rays when that Jupiter is but as light takes some . none of the heavenly bodies are in the place in which In fact. a distance of 192 millions of miles whence it is estimated.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. that those eclipses of the which happen when Jupiter is near conjunction. whether at rest or in motion. time to travel. In consequence of aberration. which varies in quantity and direction in different parts of the earth's . moving at the rate of nineteen miles in a second. if the earth they seem to be. without whose cheering influence all the beauties of the creation would have been to first us a blank. which. discovery of the aberration of light confirmed this astonishing result. Objects appear to be situate in the direction of the rays that proceed from them. satellite by KV It is observed. . Were light propagated instantaneously. by the whole breadth of the earth's orbit than when in conjunccircumstance was attributed to the time employed by the rays of light in crossing the earth's orbit. the velocity of the earth in its orbit. whose sides are in the ratio of the velocity of light to . means of rays left him 16! 26" before but during that time we have changed our position. that light travels at the rate of 192000 miles in one second. that medium. are 26" than those which take place when the planet later is in But as Jupiter is nearer to us when in opposition opposition. we see him by . The line contained a between the and axis of the angle telescope drawn to the true place of the star. is its aberration. in order to see the star. in conjunction. satellites XIX have been the means of a discovery. that the earth. this . it would therefore be necessary to incline the telescope a little. Such is its velocity. would take two months to pass through a distance which a The subsequent ray of light would dart over in eight minutes. were at against the side of the tube . tion. in consequence of the motion of the earth in its orbit we therefore refer Jupiter to a place in which he is not. rays from a star would pass along the axis of a directed but if the earth were to begin to move to it telescope in its orbit with its usual velocity. though not so immediately applicable to the wants of man.
and whether there be not.' says the restorer of true remarkable. its orbit and its rotation is proved by the since the centrifugal force it induces of falling bodies. no less than a true place and an apparent place. perfectly corresponds with that given by the The same result obtained from eclipses of the first satellite. PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. but as it never exceeds twenty seconds. the aberration of light affords a direct proof of the motion . * a doubt. on till For it seems incredible that the species account of parallax. sources so different. occur in physical astronomy. firmed by subsequent experience. with respect to the heavenly bodies. and prove dependences which we might otherwise be unable to trace. it is insensible in ordinary cases. theory retards the oscillations of the pendulum in going from the pole of the earth in . leaves not a doubt of its truth. or not starry ' some time later. the uniformity of its velocity shows that the density of the fluid throughout the whole extent of the solar system. Thus a high degree of scientific knowledge has been requisite to dispel the errors of the senses. whether the face of the serene and philosophy. which hypothesis accords observed phenomena. Many such beautiful coincidences. move nearly in the plane of its equator. The great compression of Saturn occasions its satellites to to the equator. and light consists in the vibrations of an or ether filling space. as astronomers say. that of Bacon is not the least It produces in me.' As great discoveries generally lead to a variety of conclusions. The little that is known of the theories of the satellites of Saturn and Uranus is in all respects similar to that of Jupiter. be heavens seen at the instant it really exists. Of the situation of the . The identity of the velocity of light at the distance of Jupiter velocity is and on the if earth's surface shows that its uniform. a true time and an apparent time. derived from apparently the most unpromising and dissimilar circumstances. must be proportional to its elastielastic fluid best with Among the fortunate conjectures which have been concity.XX orbit . The velocity of light deduced from the obsen^ed aberration of the fixed stars. or rays of the celestial bodies can pass through the immense or that they do interval between them and us in an instant not even require some considerable portion of time.
computed back for the instant of the eclipse from modern observations. the place of the moon is known from that of the sun at the instant of opposition . even if they exist. seven hundred and twentyone years before the Christian era. they could not affect the mean motion. . imagine. and it was at one time attributed to the resistance of an ethereal medium pervading space at another to the successive transmission of the gravitating force but as La . have any influence on the motions of the lunar perigee or nodes. a variation in the latter from such a cause being inseparably connected with . XXi equator of Uranus we know nothing. and the perigee. From an eclipse observed at Babylon by the Chaldeans. The Our constant companion the moon next claims attention. all As the ancient and intermediate eclipses the mean motions of the planets have this no secular inequalities. orbits of its satellites are nearly perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic. difficult to inves Several circumstances concur to render her motions the most interesting. nor of its compression. but in the lunar theory the sun is the his vast distance being compensated great disturbing cause tigate of all . : Place proved that neither of these causes. inclination Neither the eccentricity of the lunar orbit. whence her mean longitude may be found . enormous magnitude. are subject to very remarkable variations. the approximations to her motions are tedious and difficult. have experienced . and at the same time the most the bodies of our system. nor its to the plane of the ecliptic. the nodes. In the solar system planet troubles planet. any changes from secular inequalities but the mean motion. than she did formerly. but the comparison of this mean longitude with mean longitude.PRELIMIN. so that the motions of the moon are more irregular than those of the planets and on account of the great ellipticity of her orbit and the size of the sun. and that the acceleration in her mean motion has been increasing from age to age as the square of the time confirm this result.AJIY DISSERTATION. beyond what those unaccustomed to such investigations could by his . on the 19th of March. shows that the moon performs her revolution round the earth more rapidly and in a shorter another time now. seemed to be an unaccountable anomaly.
At to . in studying the theory of Jupiter's satellites.XXU PRELimXARY DISSERTATION. occasion corresponding changes in the motions of the sateUites: this led him to suspect that the acceleration in the mean motion of the moon might be connected with the secular variation in the . so that the mean action of the sun on the moon varies from one century to another. from the action of the planets. The action of the sun occasions a rapid but variable motion nodes and perigee of the lunar orbit the former. That grcM variations in the two former of these elements. eccentricity of the terrestrial orbit that he assigned the true cause. however. since it would be the same as often as the sun. and which will continue to be so for a vast number of ages come because. the mean motion will be retarded from age to age. tricity diminishes. the revolution of our planet is performed at different distances from the sun every year. which has not altered the equation of the sun to the moon. The position of the moon with regard to the sun. in consequence of the earth's annual revolubut it would be periodic. the earth. either centre of the sun by eight minutes since the earliest recorded eclipses. but its effect on the moon's place increases as the square of the time. tion. has produced a variation of 1° 48' in the moon's longitude. ma thematician. and the moon returned to the same relative positions : on account however of the slow and incessant diminution in the eccentricity of the terrestrial orbit. the to a variable disturbance from the action of the sun. and analysis has proved moon would be exposed tion . perceived that the secular variations in the elements of Jupiter's orbit. a name which is very appropriate in the present age. but when the eccentricity has passed its minimum and begins to increase. and of 7" 12' in her mean anomaly. present the secular acceleration is about 10". undergoes a corresponding change . recede the of the moon's revothough they during greater part in the . If the eccentricity of the earth's orbit were invariable. It is remarkable that the action of the planets thus reflected by the is much more sensible than their direct acon the earth or moon. The secular diminution in the eccentricity. . as long as the earth's eccenthe moon's mean motion will be accelerated. and occasions the secular increase in the moon's velocity called the acceleration.
are continually accelerated. whence the three motions of the moon. *^»" and advance during the smaller. and Chaldeans. computed from theory. Greeks. that if a fluid mass of ~—^' homogeneous matter. leration so that both are retarded which connects them with the accewhen the mean motion is anticipated. Future ages will develop these great inequalities. with regard to the sun. as the cause must be proportional to the effect. that the excess of matter at the earth's equator occasions periodic variations in her longitude and latitude and.' The moon . with the same given by observation.5807. 4. is so near. They are indeed periodic but who shall tell their period ? Millions of years must elapse before that great cycle is accom. perfectly confirms these results of analysis. that both these elements are subject to a secular inequality. with modern observations. and to her nodes. and the latter. perform their sidereal revolutions in G793''"". shows that the compression of the terrestrial spheroid. and 1 . are frequent in eternity. or according to the most recent investigations as 1. must affect the motion of the nodes and perigee and it consequently appears. 6776 and 0. or the ratio of the difference between the polar and equatorial diameter to the diameter of the equator is It is proved analytically.PRELIMINARY DISSERTAWOTf^/FOR n^ lution. The secular variations in these three elements are in the ratio of the numbers 3. 4. theory as well as observation. It is evident that the same secular variation which the sun's distance from the earth. to her perigee. 0.735. though rare in time. and their secular equations are as the numbers 1. imperfect as they are. orbit. whose particles attract each other in c 2 . that it requires no less than 1(K)770 years for the greater axis of the terrestrial orbit to do the same. though its motion is sometimes retrograde and sometimes direct. in but such is 3232'*"^. and occasions the changes acceleration in the moon's mean motion. A comparison of ancient eclipses observed by the Arabs. plished but • such changes. a comparison of these inequalities. from : .4212. which at some most distant period will . or a little more than nine years the difference between the disturbing energy of the sun and that of all the planets put together.391. amount to many circumferences.265. and 0. arising from the variation in the eccentricity of the earth's .
The lunar theory is brought to such perfection. are respectively proportional to the radii vec and moon. observed under any meridian. The accuracy of that work is obviously of extreme importance to a maritime nation we have reason to hope that the new in now Ephemeris. and her inequalities not only determine the form. Thus the moon's eclipses show the earth to be round. from the precision with which the longitude is determined by the occultations of stars and lunar distances. : employed in measuring distances of terrestrial objects. compression not homogeneous. is in fact the same with that tores of the earth of its periodic time . and thence the whole dimensions of the solar system are known for the forces which retain the earth and moon . known base . will be by far the most perfect work of the kind that ever has been published. as the earth. the ratio of the distance of the sun and moon from the earth is obtained whence it appears that the sun's distance from the earth is nearly 39G times greater than that of the moon. in their orbits. when compared with that computed for Greenwich in the Nautical Al manack. results of analysis which could not have been anticipated. it would assume the form of a spheroid. From the extremities of a base the angles which the visual rays from the object form with it. but decreases in density from its centre to its circumference. The motions of the moon have now become of more import ance to the navigator and geographer than those of any other body. therefore by trigonometry. that the earth whose is j^jy. 'f From the lunar theory. Similar inequalities in Jupiter's satellites prove that his mass is not homogeneous. gives the longitude of the observer within a few miles. preparation. were to revolve about atl axis.Xxi\^ PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. all the angles and sides of . that the times of these phenomena. Whence it appears. The method however of finding the absolute distances of the celestial bodies in miles. are measured their sum subtracted from two rightangles gives the angle opposite the . is but the internal structure of our planet . the mean distance of the sun from the earth. each being divided by the square and as the lunar theory gives the ratio of the forces. . and that his compression is —— . versely as the square of the distance.
its understood to be determined by a surface at every when compared point perpendicular to the direction of gravity. unobstructed. quite inconwith the magnitude of the earth. the triangle XXV the object triangle it is consequently the distance of angle under which the base of the seen from the object. prove that the curvature of the land differs but little from that of the ocean j and as the heights sions are ascertained by actual admeasurement. with which we compare the distances. The courses of the great rivers. which are in general navigable to a considerable extent. densities. the distance thus determined on the surface of the earth. thereevidently increases and decreases with the distance fore the base must be very great indeed. or of the plumbline. . all the points of which have contemporaneously the same — is A Were the lengths and curvatures of different meridians known. . is the parallax of that ol)ject may be computed . divided by the degrees and parts of a arc of the meridian its An tude of degree contained in the difference of the latitudes. to be visible at all . but if not. the difference of the latitudes being the angle contained between the verticals at the extremities of tiie arc. at any siderable figure is rate. But the globe itself whose dimen a standard of measures. may be measured by observing the latiextreme points. and is the same which the sea would have if it were continued all round the earth beneath the continents. . will give the exact length of one degree. the lengths of the degrees will be greatest where the curvature is least a comparison of the . if it be measured on different meridians.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. and on a level with the sea This would be easily accomplished were the distance but on account of . masses. of the same length. is found. the figure of the earth might be determined but the length of one degree is sufficient to give the figure of the earth. and volumes of the sun and planets. from the celestial bodies. and in a variety of latitudes for if the earth were a sphere. all degrees would be noon. Such : the figure that has been measured in the following manner terrestrial meridian is a line passing through both poles. and then measuring the distance between them in feet or fathoms. The . furnishes of the mountains and continents are. length of the degrees in different parts of the earth's surface will therefore determine its size and form.
the innumerable obstacles on the surface of the earth. From these measurements it appears that the length of the degrees increase from the equator to the poles. have been. but the that most follows this law is an ellipsoid of refigure nearly volution. each triangle is in a different plane they must therefore be reduced by computation to what they would . and the diameter. is or ^^^^ nearly . Many discrepancies occur.9 miles. this fraction is called the of the earth. was the first to give an approximate value of the earth's circumference. who died 194 years before the Christian era.. as well as arcs perpendicular to the meridian. nearly as the square of the sine of the latitude . In consequence of the inequaof the surface. which is . so that the length of the arc is ascertained with much lities laborious computation. it is necessary to connect the extreme points of the arc by a series of triangles. another method of finding the figure of the If the totally independent of either of the preceding. is 7916 or 8000 miles nearly. the difference. they require a correction to reduce them from plane to spherical triangles. earth were a homogeneous sphere without rotation. the length of a degree of the meridian is G^^ British miles therefore 360 degrees. according compression . consequently. and the equator to the polar radius 3949. something less than a third of the circumference. Arcs of the meridian have been measured in a variety of latitudes. had they been measured on the surface of the sea. the force there is But earth. the terrestrial ellipsoid is more or less flattened at the poles . —— . Eratosthenes. the sides and angles of which are either ineasured or computed. both north and south. . divided by ^ the equatorial radius. it is greater or less. if it be of gravity theoretically ought elliptical. or 12. whose equatorial radius is 3962. by the mensuration of an arc be tween Alexandria and Syene. it does not differ much from that If we assume the earth to given by the lunar inequalities. as be a sphere. and as the earth is spherical. its attraction on bodies at its surface would be everywhere the same. because.7. or the whole circumference of the globe is 24856.XXVI PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. the convexity of the earth diminishes from the poles.6 miles.
. difference of these two forces. . be made without error. . The near coincidence of these three values. by time. if its length be increased in going to the pole. This. if the different methods of observation could . from the reciprocal attraction of all their particles. which is the vity by a small quantity. however. to the pole where it vanishes make bodies fly off the surface. XXVU from the equator to the pole. the oscillations will be more rapid . and the precession of the equinoxes. It result might be expected that the same compression should from each. This is directly proved by the oscillations of the pendulum. Another proof may be added the nutation of the earth's axis. is not the case for such discrepancies are found both in the degrees of the me . as the From the mean of these square of the sine of the latitude. as the square of the sine of the latitude but for a spheroid in rotation. to increase. the fall of bodies ought to be accelerated in going from the equator to the poles. it is proved that a pendulum. for if the of bodies be accelerated. proportionand the weight ably to the square of the sine of the latitude . shows that the mutual tendencies of the centres of the celestial bodies to one another. by the laws of mechanics the centrifugal force varies as the square of the sine of the latitude from the equator where it and as it tends to is greatest. and from the arcs of the meridian. they show that the fraction expressing it is comprised between the limits rb and ^. it diminishes the effects of graHence by gravitation. which does not differ much from that given by the lunar inequalities. result . it of the terrestrial sphethat the appears compression roid is about ^Lj. and the attraction of the earth for bodies at its surface. are occasioned by the action of the sun and moon on the protuberant matter at the and although these inequalities do not give earth's equator . and that they may always be performed in the same fall Now. tiumerous and very careful experiments.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. which makes 86400 oscillations in a mean day at the equator. will do the same at every point of the earth's surface. of the same body ought to increase in that ratio. deduced by me thods so entirely independent of each other. the absolute value of the terrestrial compression. the length of the pendulum must be altered.
and planets. when the moon is in the horizon at the instant of rising or setting. and in the length of the pendulum. under the same parallel of latitude it varies with terrestrial radius. of the lunar orbit it the earth. whole. and proves the ellipand when the moon is at her mean distance. size of the earth being determined. lines were drawn from her centre to the spectator and to the centre of the earth. at the By such contemporaneous observations Good Hope and at Berlin. . appears to be about ^^^ . it Avill not answer for the sun which is so remote. but at a very great distance from one another. varies with the terrestrial radii. or is the distance of the ticity moon from . thus showing that the earth not a sphere. that they may be dis' The compression deduced from the mean of the regarded.2 whence the mean distance of the moon is about sixty times the mean Cape of . and of local attractions. these would form a rightangled triangle with the terand as the paralrestrial radius. observe its zenith distances on the same day at the time of its passage may be found. moon. The parallax of a celestial body is the angle under which the radius of the earth would be seen if viewed from the centre of that body it affords the means of ascertaining the distances of the sun. Since the parallax of the earth divided by the distance of to the radius equal the moon .XXVm ridian PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. . Although the method described is is sufficiently accurate for finding the parallax of an object so near as the moon. all the angles and one side are given . but by thg . Suppose that. whence the distance of the moon from the . that the smallest error \n observation would letid to a falsQ result . 240000 miles nearly. if The parallax of an two observers under the same meridian. which is of a known length lax or angle at the moon can be measured. centre of the earth object may be computed. over the meridian. that given by the lunar theory has the advantage of being independent of the irregularities at The form and the earth's surface. the mean horizontal parallax of the moon was found to be 3454". it furnishes a standard of measure with which the dimensions of the solar system may be compared. as show that the but they are so small the earth is very complicated of figure when compared with the general results.
in. and Venus had no parallax.575 been quently tance of the sun appears to be about 95996000. that is. according to the position of the obso that the duration of the transit varies with the difserver . furnishes the means of computing it from the known motions of the earth and Venus. the parallax of the sun was determined by observations of . the latter observation being the The transit lasted about six object of Cook's first voyage. which depends on the parallax of the . the line described by the planet on his disc. being entirely the effect of parallax.G v for the sun's parallax. but as the sun is not so remote tude but that the seraidiameter of the earth has a sensible magniwhen viewed from his centre. a transit of Venus made at Wardhus in Lapland. and which when compared with observation gives 8".PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. or ninety. . : . and the duration of the transit. In fact the ratio of the distances of Venus and the sun from the earth at the time of the transit. and the difference in the duration at these two stations was eight minutes whence the sun's parallax was but by other considerations it has subsefound to be 8". . her nodes. the ratio of the parallaxes of these two bodies. sun. by the same method as for the eclipses of the sun. In 1769. or within 1^° of thera. is given ference of the parallaxes. she is occasionally seen to pass over If we could imagine that the sun the sun like a black spot. The distances of these two planets from the earth are therefore known in terrestrial radii consethe sun may be computed quently their mean distances from . ferent points of the earth's surface at which it is observed. and as the transit gives the difas their distances.72 from which the mean disreduced to 8''. are known from the theory of their elliptical motion consequently. or nearly in the plane of the ecliptic. the motion of the moon. hours at Otaheite. The parallax of Venus is determined by her transits. would be the same to nil the inhabitants of the earth. being inversely .six This is confirmed by an inequality in millions of miles nearly. This difference of time. transits of Venus that (iifficnlty is in XXlX When that planet is obviated. the line described by the planet in its passage over his disc appears to be nearer to his centre or farther from it. that of the sun is obtained. and at Otaheite in the South Sea. that of Mars by direct observation.
soars beyond the vast dimensions of the system to which his planet . it is still a matter of doubt whether a sensible parallax has been detected. situate on the verge of the system. Far as the earth seems to be from the sun. may rationally be supposed to be situate many thousand times further off: light would therefore require thousands of years to come to the earth from those myriads of suns.' . . The earth cannot even be visible as a telescopic object to a body so remote yet man. belongs. ratios of the distances of the planets from the sun law. but. Sublime as the idea struments. it is near to him less is no than of miles from the luminary that warms and enlivens the world to it. where the whole solar system. flying at the rate of 200000 miles in a second. when seen in the focus of the most powerful telescope. At such a dis tance not only the terrestrial orbit shrinks to a point. others. might be covered by the thickness of a spider's thread. when compared with Uranus that planet . space . of the fixed stars are not sensibly changed apparent places annual revolution and with the aid derived from the earth's by the refinements of modern astronomy and the most perfect in. Light. for the assumes the diameter of its orbit as the base whose apex extends to the stars. even in the nearest of these remote suns. If a fixed star had the parallax of one second. the inhabitant of the earth. the sun must appear not much larger than Venus does to 1843 millions . it is therefore are undoubtedly luminous like the sun probable that they are not nearer to one another than the sun In the milky way and the other is to the nearest of them. starry . their absolute distances in miles known by Kepler's are easily found. of which our owq is but ' the dim and remote compauion. would take three years and seven days to travel over that space one of the nearest stars may therefore have been kindled or extinguished more than three years before we could have been aware of so mighty an event. is. this assumption proves ineffectual. us. may be far behind them in the boundless depth of nay. and of a triangle. its distance from the sun would be 20500000 millions of miles. But this distance must be small when compared with that of the most remote The fixed stars of the bodies which are visible in the heavens. of the some stars that seem to us to be close to nebulae.XXX and as the are PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION.
the largest the perigee and nodes of her orbit. is 1070.65. moon.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. that is. but would extend nearly as far again. XXXI of such planets as have no satellites are known in the motions of the inequalities they produce by comparing the earth and of each other. is . the mass of the sun and of any planets which have satellites. of the planets. rallax of the planet. to twice the paa planet is to the real The mean apparent diameter of the sun 1920". and compared with their observed values. of the moon in is her action on the nutation determined from four different sources. or 8000 miles. — the axis of rotation from her horizontal parallax. from her action in raising the tides. from an inequality she produces in the sun's longitude. which do not differ very much from each other but. com puted from theory. and planets are determined by measurement. ^ and t~give her mass respectively equal to the ^. with the same given by observation. and from her action on the tides. may be compared with the mass of the earth. his volume would not only include the orbit of the moon. the centre of the sun were to coincide with the centre of the earth. diameter of the earth. determined theoretically. which furnishes the fourth method. The apparent diameters of the sun. part of that of the earth. and with the solar parallax 8". of the planets are directly as the cubes mean distances at which their satellites revolve. ^ . the seventyfifth part of that of the earth. as the apparent diameter of the planet to the apparent diameter of the earth as seen from the planet. In this manner it is computed that the mass of the 354936 times greater than that of the earth whence the great perturbations of the moon and the rapid motion of Even Jupiter. and inversely as the squares of their periodic times. a value that cannot differ much from the truth. which occasions the . The mass sun is . her mass appears to be about . from terrestrial equator. for the disturbing The masses inequalities cause must necessarily be proportional to the effect it proBut as the quantities of matter in any two primary duces. it will be found that the diameter of the sun is about 888000 miles therefore. The three first quantities. for the moon's . therefore their real diameters may be compared with that of the earth for the real diameter of .5 times less than the sun.
and this has been confirmed. the plane of rotation being inclined a little more than From the rotation 70° to that on which the earth revolves. Lyra. and Avith angular velocities that are senall The sun and his attendants rotate sibly uniform. whence their poles and times of rota have been determined. from west to east on axes that remain nearly parallel to themselves in every point of their orbit.XXXU PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. in most cases. The diameter of the moon is only 2160 miles and Jupiter's diameter of 88000 miles is incomparably less than that . a coincidence part every and as the revolutions of so remarkable cannot be accidental economy of Nature. by tracing spots on their surfaces. mean distance from the earth is about sixty times the earlh's mean radius or 240000 miles so that twice the distance of the moon is 480000 miles. it is evident that both must have arisen from the primitive causes >vhich have determined the planetary motions. of the sun. their rotation is Although the uniformity in the direction of a circumstance hitherto unaccounted for in the yet from the design and adaptation of other to the perfection of the whole. might go round his world in five or six hours. . than the major axis of the lunar orbit. The oblate form of the celestial bodies indicates rotatory motion. on account of his proximity to the sun and that of the new planets has not yet been ascertained. The sun revolves in twentyfive days ten hours. never deviating from his j)Osition by more than twice his own diameter. the planets and satellites are also from west to east. The rotation of Mercury is unknown. there is every reason to believe that he has a progressive motion in space. although the direction to which he but in consequence of the reaction tends is as yet unknown : of the planets. which differs but little from the solar radius his equatorial radius is probably not much less . . about an axis that is directed towards a point half way between the pole star and tion . The diameter of Pallas does not much exceed 71 miles. he describes a small irregular orbit about the centre of inertia of the system. of the sun. or about seven times the distance of the moon from the earth. in one of our steamcarriages. . so that an inhabitant of that planet.
PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. the plane of the rings will pass through the centre of the sun. Xxxiii The larger planets rotate in shorter periods than the smaller . divided it is impossible that this ficient to balance the attraction of Saturn. Their plane in is inclined to the ecliptic at an this obliquity of position to but with an eccentricity so us. by particles necessarily revolve with a velocity that will generate a centrifugal force suftwo concentric rings. which would become more and more deranged. the plane of the rings will pass through the centre of the earth when they will be visible only with superior instruments. In comparing the periods of the revolutions of Jupiter and Saturn with the times of their rotation. 1832. and viewed with a very good telescope. The appearance he is by a dark band. of rotation if they were everywhere of would destroy the equilibrium. By the laws of mechanics. they always appear elliptical variable as even to be occasionally like a straight line drawn angle of 31°. and a precession of their equinoxes. of Saturn is unparalleled in the system of surrounded by a ring even brighter than himself. till at last they would be precipitated on the surface of the uniform thickness for the smallest disturbance . and will appear like a fine line across the disc in of Saturn. and (he action of the sun and of their satellites occasions a nutation in their axes. are as 1000 to 160 . and consequence of across the [jlanet. Observation con these principles. similar to that which obtains in the terrestrial spheroid from the attraction of the sun and moon on the prominent matter at the equator. it appears that a year of Jupiter contains nearly ten thousand of his days. On the year. planets and the earth their compression is consequently greater. body can retain its position the it must its alone adhesion of . showing that the rings rotate about the planet in 10^ hours. which is considerably less than tlie time a satellite would take to revolve about Saturn at firms the truth of the same distance. which always remains in the plane of his equator. that the rings could not 1st of December the same maintain their stability . and that of Saturn about thirty thousand Saturnian days. it is found to consist of the world . At present the apparent axes of the rings and on the 29th of September. It is a singular result of the theory.
consequently these bodies always turn the same face to their primaries . as the mean motion of will the moon is inequality which ences. however. constantly brings the greatest axis. if ultimately the rotation of the moon were perfectly uniform. they would not remain same plane. though it does . But theory proves that this never can happen for the rotation of the moon. but the powerful attraction of Saturn always satellites in maintains them and his the plane of his equator.XXXIV planet. and that of the sun and oscillate about the centre of Saturn. so that their centres of gravity do not coincide with the centres of unequal breadth of their figures. The moon is flattened at the poles from her centrifugal force. This circumstance arises from the form of the lunar spheroid. it would cease exactly to amount subject to a secular to many circumfer counterbalance the motion of revolution . is affected by the same secular variations.288. The sdids rings of Saturn must therefore be irregular in the different parts of the circumference. . in the course of ages. whose periods extend to many The lites years. and remain equal.215. by must mutual action. but that directed towards the earth is the greatest. and the moon. The rings. satellites. is 11". and con attraction of the earth.073. in the If the rings obeyed different forces. would successively and gradually discover every point of her surface to the earth. therefore her rotation polar axis is least the other two are in the plane of her equaThe tor. so that her motions of and revolution round the earth will always balance each other. as . and not affected by the same inequalities. consequently there is an eccentricity ring . if it had drawn out that part of the moon's equator. which has three principal axes of different lengths at right angles to each other. periods of the rotation of the moon and the other satelare equal to the times of their revolutions. and on the other side the interval is 11". and protheir duce phenomena of light and shadow. PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. of the globe in the ring of 0". Professor Struve has also discovered that the centre of the the interval is not concentric with the centre of Saturn between the outer edge of the globe of the planet and the outer edge of the ring on one side. not partake of the periodic inequalities of her revolution.
and water coming successively would be a splendid object to a lunar traveller in a journey to his antipodes. the more so as her compression is small. these circumstances. the attraction of the earth would have recalled the greatest axis to the direction of the line joining the centres of the earth and moon . while the favoured side is illumitions depending moon all nated by the reflection of the earth during its long night. which is invisible at her setting. There are also librations arising from the relative positions of the earth and moon in their respective orbits. which makes her rotation participate in the secular variations in her mean motion of revolution. and as the smallest clear that if dis turbance would make it it is the moon has ever been touched by a comet. with into view. A similar libration exists in the motions of Jupiter's satellites but although the comet of 1767 . remains insensible. one hemisphere will be For the same reason. land. earth. It is true. and her mass considerable. which must be so splendid an object to one lunar hemiOn account of sphere. part of the western edge of her disc is visible.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. will be for ever veiled from the other. and the contrary takes place with regard to her eastern edge. but as they are only optical appearances. . the moon is on the position of the spectator at her rising. A the varieties of clouds. still their libration liable to libra. the eternally concealed from the earth. exhibiting a surface thirteen times larger than ours. so that it would vibrate on each oscillates side of that line in the same manner as a pendulum on each side of the is vertical from the influence of gravitation. and 1779 passed through the midst of them. sequently the XXXV * same hemisj)here towards us. the mass of the latter must have been extremely small j for if it had been only the hun dredthousandth part of that of the earth. and a night of the same duration not even enlightened by a moon. the remoter hemisphere of the moon has its day a fortnight long. it would have rendered the libration sensible. . No such libration perceptible evident. The great height of the lunar mountains probably has a considerable influence on the phenomena of her motion. Even if the angular velocities of rotation and revolution had not been nicely balanced in the beginning of the moon's motion.
by its does not so that the descent of the rivers previous approach affect the earth's rotation. and the contrary. the accelerate. velocity. the A fluid. in proving. jected by volcanoes from the equator to the poles. arising from the descent of all the rivers on the earth's surface. Mr. in falling from a higher to a lower level. and that diametiT of moon which always points to the earth. a variation in the mean temperature would cerfriction of the trade tion tainly occasion a corresponding change in the velocity of rota: for in the science of dynamics. which has so powerful an effect on the revolution of the earth.XXXVI PRELLMINAUY DISSERTATION. which by crease would soon disclose their proportional increase or deany changes it might sustain. which theory even proves to be the same. it is a principle in a systenj . and the system of the world. by the process of evaporation^ raise the waters back to their and thus again by removing matter to a greater sources distance from the centre. carries with it the velocity due to its revolution with the earth at a greater distance from to its centre. as period of the earth's diurnal rotation is immutable. It will therefore an almost infinitesimal extent. that Theory and observation concur among the innumerable vicissitudes that prevail throughout creation. Enormous masses pro. destroy the velocity generated . did not nature. the In the curve passing through the poles. forms the standard of comparison for the revolutions of the celestial bodies. in no way influences its rotation the constant : winds on the mountains and continents between the tropics does not impede its velocity. to which the different spots on her surface been referred. Tlie rotation of the earth which determines the length of the day may be regarded as one of the most important elements in It serves as a measure of time. Babbage observes. and their positions determined with as much accuracy as those of many of the most remarkable places on Ijave the surface of our globe. as if the sea together with the earth formed one solid mass. would in time become perceptible. The disturbing action of the moon and planets. although The sum of all these increments of earth's daily rotation. would indeed affect it. but there is no evidence of such convulsions. But although these circumstances be inefficient. nature has furnished a permanent meridian.
The what theory assigns to a fluid mass in rotation. and that in the course of ages it has cooled down that it to present state . the internal fires that have produced. high temperature of mines. hot springs. the particles in the system is temperature may be. and do still occasion such devastation on our planet. till the whole mass arrives at the its temperature of the medium in which it is placed. by constant. part of thousand years ago.PRELlMlNAtlY DISSERTATIOX. the smallest decrease in heat. that as the primitive momentum of rotation with which the earth was projected into space must necessarily remain the same. and above all. the cooling power of its own radiation. concur to induce the idea that the temperature of the earth was originally so high as to reduce all the substances of which it is composed to a state of fusion. that it is still becoming colder. being . that the mean temperature decreasing. or sum of the products of the mass of each into its angular velocity and distance from the centre is a constant quantity. contracting the terrestrial spheroid. that momentum. when their distances from the centre are diminished. would accelerate its rotaand consequently diminish the length of the day. and will continue to do so. or of particles revolving about a fixed centre. Notwithstanding the constant accession of heat from the sun's tion. or rather at a state of equilibrium between this temperature. their angular velocity must be Now since the its number of same whatever increased in order that the preceding quantity may still remain It follows then. geologists have been induced to believe from the nature of the globe is of fossil remains. it has been proved. Xxxvii the of bodies. a second since the observations of Hipparchus two the secular it would have diminished d . served effects. rays. and the heating effect of the sun's But even if this cause be suflicient to produce the obrays. that if the length of the day had decreased by the three hundredth it . indicate an augmentation of heat towards its centre the increase of density in the strata corresponding to the depth and the form of the spheroid. if the system be not deranged by an external cause. in must be extremely slow in its operation for of the rotation of the earth being a measure consequence of the periods of the celestial motions.
or. solar radiation received by the have. earth about the sun.XXXVlll PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION.* The limits of the variation . it follows. that this amount is inversely year being unchangeable in all the fluctuations proportional to the minor axis of the ellipse described by the and that. if then the appearances exhibited by the strata are really owing to a decrease of internal tempe shows the immense periods requisite to produce geological changes to which two thousand years are as nothing. However strong the rature. It is eviout the mutual dependences of phenomena. in so far as : of the planetary system. an evident real cause to account for the phenome the mean annual amount of We non. It is therefore beyond a mean temperature of the earth cannot have sen sibly varied during that time . it either indications of the primitive there is no fluidity of the earth. it can be a as only very probable hyporegarded thesis . on the total quanand the length of the tity received in a given invariable time globe. cceteris paribus. therefore. an evident cause of de That accomplished author. or that the mean temperature of the earth had arrived at a state of equilibrium before these observations. as direct proof. as we know it to be. the stant. circle. the general climate of the earth. Now it is not diflicult to show. that the total amount of solar radiation will determine. regarded as slowly variable . equation of the doubt. whether it was great enough to render our . which comes to the same thing. conand the orbit being actually in a state of approach to a and consequently the minor axis being on the increase. the mean than temperatura of the earth must have been sensibly higher it is at present . in earth's orbit are unknown but if its ellipticity the eccentricity of the has ever been as great as that of the orbit of Mercury or Pallas. that the moon by 4". whole earth must be actually on the decrease. in pointing creasing temperature. says dent that the mean temperature of the whole surface of the — ' it is maintained by the action of the sun at a higher degree than it would have were the sun extinguished. writers of but one of the most profound philosophers and elegant modern times has found. therefore. must depend on the mean quantity of the sun's rays which it receives.4. major axis remaining. in the secular variation of the eccentricity of the terrestrial orbit.
and the mean depth even of the Pacific ocean is not d 2 . and overwhelm . northern climates fit '^' xXl for the production oF^tfejfitlRl^ pIliAts. and in almost every part of the globe. which It must have engulphed others. till the surface was every where perpendicular to the direction of gravity. of the mean density of sity of the sea is only about a fifth part the earth. But theory proves that neither nutation. as the collision of a comet have happened in the immensity of time. relative quantity of heat received moments during a 20935 single revolution.PRE LIMINARY DISSERT/CTWiT* . varies with the position of the perigee of pical revolution in its orbit. the torrid zone. Then indeed. which they would continue to do. which maintains a permanent position rotation on the surface. if the earth be not disturbed in its by some which may foreign cause.?'. appears from the marine shells found on the tops of the highest mountains. have the smallest influence on the axis of rotation. Such a catastrophe would be occasioned by a variation in the position of the axis of rotation on the surface of the earth tor for the seas tending to the new equawould leave some portions of the globe. and 29653 years before it. years. at all events. the equilibrium could only have been restored by the rushing of the seas to the new equator. but as the terrestrial orbit was probably more elliptical at the distant epoch. nor any of the disturbing forces that affect the system. the perigee coincided with the sum mer . and farther from him in the winter which accomplishes a troIn the year 1250 of our era. lUid for the residence of the elephant. though possibly compensated by the rigour of the winnone of these changes affect the length of the day. But it is probable that such an accumulation of the waters would not be sufficient to restore equilibrium if the derangement had been great for the mean den. others. the heat of the summers must have been very great. solstice at both these periods the earth was nearer the sun during the summer. ters . it is impossible to and the other Inhabitants of by the earth at dif The ferent say. precession. that immense continents have been elevated above the ocean. than in any other position of the apsides : the extremes of tem perature must therefore have been greater than at present .
that our planet must have a widely cavernous structure. and it is manifest from the mensuration of arcs of the meridian and the lengths of the seconds pendulum that the strata are elliptical and concentric. and the position of the axis on its surface. acquire the density of water at the depth of thirtyfour miles. and would even attain the density of quicksilver at a depth of 3G2 miles. if it continue to contract at that rate. However we are yet ignorant of . This certainly would have happened if the earth had originally been fluid. But a density so extreme is not borne out by astronomical observation. and buried mountains in the ocean. have undergone but slight variations. and stone into oneeighth of bulk at the earth's centre. more than four miles. Thus amidst the mighty revolutions which have swept innumerable races of organized beings from the earth. but the enormous pressure of the superincumbent mass is a sufficient cause for these phenomena. which have elevated plains. sibly too this great condensation at the central regions may be counterbalanced by the increased elasticity due to a very Dr. brium. and that we tread on a a very small proportion crust or shell. compressed into onefourth. But water itself would have its density doubled at the depth of ninetythree miles.x\ PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. whereas the equatorial radius of the earth exceeds the poUir radius by twentyfive or thirty miles . Professor Leslie observes. it would. consequently the influence of the sea on the direction of graand as it appears that a great change in the vity is very small of the axes is position incompatible with the law of equili. It is beyond a doubt that the strata increase in density from the surface of the earth to its centre. for the denser parts must have subsided towards the centre. Young says that steel would be its elevated temperature. from its own incumbent weight. as it approached a state of equilibrium . the geological phenomena must be ascribed to an internal cause. the rotation of the earth. whose thickness bears Posto the diameter of its sphere. the condensation of ordinary materials would surpass the utmost powers of conception. that air compressed into the fiftieth part of its volume has its elasticity fifty times augmented . Avhich is even proved by the lunar inequalities . It might seem therefore to follow. In descending therefore towards the centre through 4000 miles.
and totally different position of the plane of the ecliptic. and observation shows. the planes of the equator and ecliptic coincide but in consequence of the rotation of the earth. it not and moon on the matter itself in at the equaits would remain parallel to every point of The attraction of an exterior it body not only draws a spheroid but. the distance. which Avould be is entirely independent of the figure of the earth. and the equinoxes would always correspond to the same points of the ecliptic. xtl the laws of compression of solid bodies beyond a certain limit . spinning preserves the Were the earth spherical this effect would not be produced. that were for the action of the sun tor. which affects its inclination on the plane of the equator. It appears then. cause the equinoctial points the same . the of the plane Ojoving equator. but. from the experiments of Mr. it gives it a motion about its centre of gravity. and force it to move from east to west. that the axis of rotation is invariable on the it surface of the earth. and gives the equinoctial points a slow but direct motion on the ecliptic of 0".412 annually. spheroid. the sun and moon acting obliquely and unequally on the different parts of the terrestrial . cause operates on this motion. which has The action of the planets on one already been mentioned. Perkins. and Thus the sun and moon. they appear to be capable of a greater degree of compression than has generally been imagined. orbit. and the inclination of the lunar orbit on the same is nearly 5° consequently. urge the plane of the equator from its direction. from the oblate figure of the earth. the inclination of the make two planes remains constant. so that the equinoctial points have a slow retrograde motion on the plane of the ecliptic of about 60". tOAvards unless when the attracting body is situated in the prolongation of one of the axes of the spheroid. as the force varies inversely as the square of . by if it were a sphere. a very slow variation in the on the occasions another and sun. to The direct tendency of this action would be . as a top in same inclination to the plane of the horizon.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION.3l2 annually. The plane of the equator is inclined to the plane of the ecliptic at an angle of about 23° 28'. at But another least as far as this kind of action is concerned.
in order to have the length of the sidereal year.256383. 1 annually. the effects of precesit was accordingly discovered by Hipof parchus. so that the sidereal year is 365. both by theory and observa As the longitudes of all the tion. for although the change in the plane of the ecliptic which is the orbit of the sun. positions on this account first on the prominent matter at the equator the motion of the equinox is greater by 0". 155 years In the time of Hipparchus the entrance of the sun before. into the constellation Aries was the beginning of spring. The utmost change '. sun is direct. be independent of the form of the earth. 1 annually.455 now than it was in the time of Hipparchus consequently the actual length of the tropical year is about 4".l.xlii PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. but much than the former . but since then the equinoctial points have receded 30° . by moving the less plane of the ecliptic. sion are soon detected . consequently the difference of the two is the mean precession. By simple proportion it is the 0. precession is The mean annual subject to a secular variation .014119th part of a day. he takes a shorter time to return to the equator than to arrive at the same stars so that the tropical year of 365. yet by bringing the sun. moon and earth into different relative it alters the direct action of the two from to age age. in the year 128 before Christj from a comparison his own observations with those of Timocharis. .242264 days must be increased by the time he takes to move through an . arc of 50". to be about 50". so that the constellations called the signs of the zodiac are now at a considerable distance from those divisions of the ecliptic which bear their names. that it can experience from this cause amounts to 43 Such is the secular motion of the equinoxes. Moving at the rate of 50". whose periods depend on the relative positions of the sua . and that of the equinoctial points retrograde. the extent of Since the motion of the this period will be slightly modified. fixed stars are increased by this quantity. which is proved. to retrograde on the ecliptic . 154 shorter than it was at that . give them a direct motion. and the planets. . time. the equinoctial points will accomplish a revolution in 25868 years but as the precession varies in different centuries. but it is sometimes increased and sometimes diminished by periodic variations.
but in consequence of the secular variation in the position of the terrestrial orbit. are 1922" and 17''. xliii direct action of these bodies and occasioned by the on the equator. the diameters of which are 16" and 20''. would cause bodies . The sun causes a small variation in the description of this ellipse .52l09. the time employed by the nodes of the lunar orbit to accomplish a revolution. a second if On should be so the contrary. that it would be impossible to stand from the excess of our muscular force. A moderate sized man would weigh about two tons at the surface of the sun. With regard to the fixed stars. Now the apparent diameters of the sun and earth at their mean distance. The period of this inequality is nineteen years. the obliquity of the ecliptic annually diminished by 0". at the surface of the four new planets we light. for a man would only weigh a few pounds. it runs through its This nutation in the earth's axis affects period in half a year. equator can never vary more than two or three degrees.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. they would be unable to move. affected The densities of divided by their volumes bodies are proportional to their masses hence if the sun and planets be . that the earth is nearly four . both the precession and obliquity with small periodic variations. be spheres. since the equator will follow in some measure the motion of the ecliptic.08. since their weight would be thirty times as great as it is here. their volumes will be as the cubes of their diameters. and therefore all observations of them must be corrected for these inequalities. Dr. Bradley dis covered that by this action the moon causes the pole of the equator to describe a small ellipse in the heavens. this variation in the course of ages may amount to ten or eleven degrees but the obliquity of the ecliptic to the . and the to assumed mass of the earth as the unit . and moon with regard to the earth. times as dense as the sun attractive force feet in but the sun to fall is so large that his through about 450 were he even habitable by consequently human beings. it is the TjrWirth P^rt of that of the sun taken follows therefore. which is chiefly owing to the disturbing is energy of Jupiter on the earth. It is evident that the places of all the celestial bodies are by precession and nutation. All the planets and satellites appear to be of .
the solar days would be all equal fore.3 the time there. The solar or astronomical day is the time that elapses between two consecutive noons or midnights . distance. clocks and watches in common life when it is reckoned by the : arrival of the real sun at the meridian. measured by the time elapsed between two consecutive transits of any star at the same meridian. and to the same equinox or solstice. such as is given by equator. The difference between the time . imaginary sun at is supposed to move in the denominated mean solar time. on account of the proper motion of the sun during a revolution of the celestial sphere but as the sun moves with . it is apparent time. have been universally adopted as the measure of our civil days and years. The obliquity of the ecliptic also than at the is less its duration. are immutable units Avith which to compare all great periods of time. lites than the earth.xUv less density PRELLMINARY DISSERTATION. and the singular irregularities in the form of Saturn. and the sidereal year. The motions of Jupiter's satelthat his density increases towards his centre . If affects the sun moved uniformly in the every day. or of one which is equator at the rate of 59' 8". and the great show compression of Mars. magnitude. it is consequently longer than the sidereal day. for in the equinoxes the arc of the equator than the corresponding arc of the ecliptic. The sidereal day. The returns of the sun to the same meridian. and velocity. Astronomy has been of immediate and essential use in aftbrding invariable standards for measuring duration. and sometimes ivmounts tp as much as sixteen is as dials. prove the internal structure of these two planets to be very far from uniform. the astronomical day is more nearly equal to the sidereal day in summer than in winter. the oscillations of the isochronous tions. greater rapidity at the winter summer solstice. and in the solstices it is greater. By these invariable standards alone pendulum measure its smaller porwe can judge of the slow changes that other elements of the system may have undergone in the lapse of ages. such shown given by by a clock and a dial is the equation of time given in the A^«utical Almanac. which is reckoned by the arrival of an the meridian. and increased in the second. The astronomical day is therefore diminished in the first case.
because of the facility in computation. minutes. and has existed among all successive generations. and the most ancient monument of astronomical knowledge. and Cajsar's 46th year is . Egyptians. purjMJses either of astronomy or civil life. the hour into one hundred minutes. This subdivision is not used in common life. four years are nearly equal to four revolutions of the sun. but in common reckonIn England it is divided into ing the day begins at midnight. and in conformity with their system of weights and measures. twenty four hours. and the minute into a hundred seconds. the 25th of December in his 45th year. all the years would be of precisely the same number of days. incommensurability and the revolutions of the sun. though their scientific writers still employ that division of time. is considered as the date of Christ's nativity . and was alike found in the Calendars of the Jews. Since the . it has survived the fall of empires. divide the day into ten hours. fraction is nearly the fourth of a day. astronomers adopting decimal division. so that the addition of a supernumerary day every fourth year nearly compensates the dift'erence. which are counted by twelve and twelve . because the fraction is less than the fourth of a day.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. The length of the year nature as a mecisure out of by pointed long periods but the that between the exists lengths of the day. though accurately determined. but in process of time further correction will be necessary. a proof of their common origin. sun were accomplished in 365 days. and would begin and end with the sun at the same point of the ecliptic but as the sun's revolution includes the fraction of a day. but in France. a civil year and a revolution of the sun have not the same duration. by far the most permanent division of time. renders it diflicult to adjust the If the revolution of the estimation of both in whole numbers. xlv The apparent and mean time coincide four times iu Astronomers begin the day at noon. nor has it been adopted in any other country. and Assyrians. The period of seven days. is the day. the year. The new moon immediately 707th year of Rome following the winter solstice in the was made the 1st of January of the first year of Ciesar . Arabs. was used by the Brahmins in India with the same denominations employed by us. is The mean length of not sufficient for the .
when the perigee comes to the equinox of spring. Some remarkable astronomical eras are determined by the position of the major axis of the solar ellipse. Were the earth's orbit circular. with nations. variations in the positions of the solar ellipse occasion In its precorresponding changes in the length of the seasons. and autumn longer and while the solar perigee continues as it now the solstice of winter and the equinox of between is. spring. but then the solar perigee will coincide with the equinox of spring whereas at the creation of man it In the year 1250 the coincided with the autumnal equinox. The preceding year is called first year before Christ by chronologists. major axis was perpendicular to the line of the equinoxes.906 annually. to be the first of assumed the it is our era. but by astronomers called the year 0. of December at noon and the date of an observation expresses the days and hours which actually elapsed since that time. but the changes are so gradual as to be imperceptible in the short space of human life. towards the year 6485. small as their differences arise from the eccentricity of the it is . earth's orbit. the period including spring and summer will be longer than that including autumn and winter : in this century the diffe These intervals will be equal rence is about seven days. leaving but confused masses of ruin to mark the place where mighty cities stood . No circumstance in the its • whole science of astronomy excites a deeper interest than application to chronology. their . The astronomical year begins on the 31st . . and . the seasons would be equal . their language. equinoxes 4000 much about man. then the solar perigee coincided with the solstice of winter. the time chronologists assign for the creation of In 6485 the major axis will again coincide with the equinoxes. and that the vernal equinox of that year should be the first day of the first year. arts and sciences. On that account La Place proposed the year 1250 as a universal epoch. Moving at the rate of 61". it accomplishes a tropical revoIt coincided with the line of the lution in 20935 years.Klvi PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. and the apogee with the solstice of summer. The than winter sent position spring is shorter than summer. 'Whole have been swept from the earth.' says La Place. line of the or 4089 years before the Christian era.
the whole founded on the observations of chronology of eclipses. of the sun from the zenith of the city of Layang are known. both the time and place of the obser. Thus the Chinese had made some advances astronomy the Chinese at is in the science of that early period . the distances years before the Christian era. it will verify the accuracy of modern tables. The great inequality of Jupiter and Saturn whose cycle embraces 929 years.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. which in former times was determined from the meridian length of the shadow of the style of a The lengths of the meridian dial on the day of the solstice. supposed by the Christian era. The Indians had determined the mean motions of these two planets in that part of . was proved by La Place from the acceleration of the moon. tables of the Indians. the exact period at which they were made may be verified if true.' Tlie ancient state of the heavens may now be computed with and proves that even and by comparing the results of computation great accuracy . consequently his declination at these times the obliquity of the ecliptic. of error. Half the sum of these zenith distances determines the latitude. If the date be accurate. which The epoch of the lunar Bailly to be 3000 before prove the existence of that empire for more than 4700 years. xlvU a few doubtful traditions. without the fear be to how many centuries they may extended. at that early period they must have made considerable progress in science. 1100 From these. has but the perfection of their astronomical observations perished marks their high antiquity. fixes the periods of their existence. the exception of history. is peculiarly fitted for marking the civilization of a people. and half their difierence gives the obliquity of the ecliptic at the the observation and as the law of the variation in of period the obliquity is known. shadow at the summer and winter solstice are recorded to have been observed at the city of Layang. with . their error may be detected. subject. in China. vations have been verified by computation from modern tables. A few examples will show the importance of this At the solstices the sun is at his greatest distance is from the equal to equator. or if false. and the observation and show good. not to be more ancient than the time of Ptolemy. with ancient observations.
and from computation it appears that x Draconis was not very far from that place about 3000 years ago . whose profound and . Now the first is the Lion as if com ing out of the temple . if the pre was ceding hypothesis be true. and that of Jupiter (he most rapid. A knowledge of astronomy leads to the interpretation of hieroglyphical characters. the epoch of the inundations of the Nile. Thomas Young. The mark The places of the fixed stars are afifected by the precession of the equinoxes .Xlviii PEELIMINARY DISSERTATION. he must have described an anterior state of the heavens. but as Eudoxus lived only about 2150 years ago. in ascertaining the date of a papyrus sent from Egypt by Mr. placed according to the motion of the sun : it is probable that the first figure in the procession represents the beginning of the year. but as the solstice now happens 21°. returns of comets to their perihelia may possibly the present state of astronomy to future ages. Salt. On the ceiling of the portico of a temple there is a long row of figures of each other in the same direction . about the time of the Every circumstance concurs in showing that astronomy was cultivated in the highest ages of antiquity. supposed to be the was determined by Chiron. same that siege of Troy. which were pro bably employed by the priests to record dates. Now Eudoxus. their positions at any time may be computed. in the hieroglyi)hical researches of the late Dr. men and animals. and as the laAv of that variation is known. a contemporary of Plato. and as it is well known that the agricultural year of the Egyptians commenced at the solstice of summer. the solstice at the time the temple built must have happened in the constellation of the lion .6 north of the years ago. and the year 1491 after it. it must have been is easy to compute that the zodiac of Tentyris made 4000 The author had occasion an instance of this most interesting application of astronomy. their periods when the apparent mean motion of Saturn was at the slowest. mentions a star situate in the pole of the equator. The periods in which that happened were 3102 before the Christian years era. among the ruins of Tentyris. since astronomical signs are often found on the ancient Egyptian monuments. following among these are the twelve signs of the zodiac. to witness constellation of the Twins.
that meridian its arise in measuring the quadrant of the rendered totally insensible by subdivision in taking The French have adopted the decimal ten millionth part. and its The form of measures for the ordinary the earth furnishes a standard of weights and purposes of life. was also parts of the imperial troy is depound. not only on account of the conIt venience. since they are derived from natural standards presumed to be The length of the pendulum would be found again with more facility than the metre but as no measure is mathematically exact. 62° Fahrenheit. the middle of which tude. xli^ varied acquirements do honour not only to his country. singular that the decimal division of the day. must necessarily is division not only in time. is nearly in the fortyfifth degree of lati Should the national standards of the two countries be lost in the vicissitudes of human affairs. of is degrees. which is the ten millionth part of that quadrant of the meridian passing through Formentera and Greenwich. and reduced to the level of the sea. and measures. both may be recovered. It has not been adopted by any other people though nothing is more desirable than that all nations should concur in using the . but The manuscript was found in to the age in which he lived. linear measure. whereas the error invariable. to be 39. whence a standard both of weight and capacity The French have adopted the metre for their unit of duced. as well as for the determination of the masses and distances of the heavenly bodies. an error in the original standard may at length become sensible in measuring a great extent. baroof the inch of water at temperature in determined meter 30. case it proved to be a horoscope of the age of a rnummy . same division and standards. weights and measures.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. by The weight of a cubic standard yard. but in their degrees. was employed in China 4000 years ago . was determined Captain Kater. antiquity was determined from the configuration of the heavens at the time of its construction. The length of the pendulum vibrating seconds in the latitude of London forms Its the standard of the British measure length oscillating in vacuo at the temperature of G2° of Fahrenheit. . weights.1387 inches. Ptolemy. but as affording a more definite idea of quantity. which affords very great facility in computation. . in parts of the imperial of extension.
it is As it depends on the action of the sun and moon. or 24^ 50" 48' of mean it is solar time. producing their effects independently of each therefore be estimated separately. long periods. Now in the tides there are three distinct kinds of oscillations. especially of the moon. the Arabians were in the habit of eraploying the vibrations of the pendulum in their astronomical observations. far the most and the least The form of the surface of the ocean in equi when ellipsoid flattened at revolving with the earth round its axis. which may The oscillations of the first kind . each pursues its course. is an the poles but the action of the sun and . which are very small. are independent of the rotation of the earth and as they depend on the motion of the disturbing body in its orbit. The second kind of oscillations depends on the rotation of the earth. and are extremely small . and the equilibrium of the seas would remain undisturbed. therefore their period is nearly a day : and the oscillations of the third kind depend on an angle equal to twice the angular rotation of the earth twice in twentyfour hours. alone trouble the equi It is proved by daily experience. One of the most immediate and striking effects of a gravitating force external to the earth is the alternate rise and fall of the surface of the gea twice in the course of a lunar day. . and the inequality of librium. depending on different causes. of which satisfactory. moon. they are of other.I PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. At the time of the solstices. that if a number of waves or oscillations be excited in a fluid by different forces. at the and that time Ibn Junis made his observations at Cairo. ocean. their directions. and consequently happen first afford no particular inbut the difference of two con. about the year 1000. the whole system of the earth and the waters that cover it. and has its effect independently of the rest. The difference of the forces. as well as by strict mechanical reasoning. disturbs the equilibrium of the If the all its moon attracted the centre of gravity of the earth and particles with equal and parallel forces. by classed among astronomical difficult problems. would yield to these forces with a common motion. The terest. secutive tides depends on the second. librio.
that is to say. they are occasioned by the combined action of the sun and moon. is which. in both instances producing an elevation of the ocean above the surface of equilibrium of nearly the same height . for the diminution of the gravitation of the particles in each position is almost the same. so . there would be no difference in the consecutive tides. it were it not for local circumstances is : extremely small. ought to La Place has hardly sensible on our shores. The mean depth of the Pacific to be about four miles. opposite to her is so that retained the earth has a tendency to by gravitation. in the inverse ratio of the square of the distances hence they have a tendency to . on account of the distance of the moon being great in comparison of the radius of the earth. this difference il be very great. they may be considered separately. leave the earth. and the nutation in the earth's axis. remarkable on our coasts The particles of water under the moon are more attracted than the centre of gravity of the earth. sea. the sea. On the contrary. whose greater axis would point towards the moon. since the columns of water under the moon and in the direction diametrically opposite to her are ren . the moon attracts the centre of the earth particles of water in the more powerfully than she hemisphere leave the waters but attracts the . that of the Atlantic supposed is From the formulas which determine the difference only three. but are retained by their gravitation. according to Newton's theory. are the same as if the sea formed one solid mass with the earth. shown that this discrepancy arises from the depth of the sea. must be nearly of uniform depth. and that if the depth were uniform. considered in a large extent. Thus the waters immediately under the moon are drawn from the earth at the same time that the earth is drawn from those which are diametrically opposite to her . that as this difference ocean is not great. there is a certain mean depth from which the deviation follows therefore. the Were the earth entirely covered by the water thus attracted by the moon would assume the form of an oblong spheroid. The third kind of oscillations are the semidiurnal tides. which this tendency again diminishes. which this tendency diminishes. of the consecutive tides it is also proved that the precession of the equinoxes.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. but as the effect of each is independent of the other.
they neither rise so high nor sink so low as the . the rapid motion produced in them by rotation prevents them from assuming at every instant the form which instantly the spheroid. is twice as great as the the because contents of the depression. tides must happen twice in a day. and on the meridian at dOf^ It is evident that these distant. and when she is full In each of these positions their action they are in opposition. The effects of the sun's attraction are in all respects similar to those of the moon's. or at the time of new and full moon. on the east it is ebbing. spheroid always remain the same. and the lowest in those points that are 90° distant. on account of the inertia of the waters. where it is always high water both in the hemisphere where the moon is. . on account of the in and smaller space to which it is confined. It is observed that the higher the sea rises in the full tide. in . lighter. since in that time the rotation of the earth brings the same point twice under the meridian of the moon. the lower it is in the ebb. On the west side of this circle the tide flowing. notbut on account of their withstanding the earth's rotation resistance. dered tation consequence of the diminution of their gravi order to preserve the equilibrium. it is everywhere low water. once under the superior and once under the inferior meridian. is. is combined to produce the highest or spring tides under that meridian. In both cases the sun and moon are in the same meridian. the axes 90'' distant would be shortened. The elevation. if the tides be considered relatively to the whole earth and oj)en sea. In the semidiurnal tides there are two larly to phenomena in particu be distinguished. and in that which is is opposite. Hence. the equilibrium of the forces acting on them requires. there is a meridian about 30° eastward of the moon.IB PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. that is. The neap tides take place when the moon is in quadrature. If the waters were capable of assuming the form of equilibrium. for when the moon is new they are in conjunction. the form of its summit would always point to the moon. that the tides are much increased in the syzigies. he therefore only modifies the form of this spheroid a little. on account of his distance . though greatly less in degree. one that happens twice in first a month. and the other twice The phenomenon a year.
the manner in which it is spread out on the earth. spring tides are much increased when the It is evident that the spring tides must in that happen twice a month. which has a great influence on the ebb and flow of the waters. which is but partially covered by the sea. The periodic motions of the waters of the ocean on the hypothesis of an ellipsoid of revolution entirely covered by the sea. Thus . Beside these remarkable variations. which happens twice every year. or trace the laws of their effects. it is required to determine the heights to which they rise. and the daily variations. the ebb and flow of the sea maintain a ratio to the forces producing them sufficient to indicate their nature. The equinoctial gales often raise coincide with her perigee. the times at which they happen. it is a happy supplement to the ignorance and weakness of the human mind. all of them causes which it is impossible to estimate. since and once full. amidst all these irregugreat mass of the ocean. the currents. and to verify the law of the attraction of the sun and moon on the sea.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. either to prove the existence of the causes. the position and inclination of the shores. time the moon once new The second phenomenon in the tides is the augmentation which occurs at the time of the equinoxes when the sun's declination is zero. La Place observes. therefore. are very far from according with observation . The greatest tides take place when a new or full moon happens near the equinoxes while the moon is moon's orbit on the ecliptic in perigee. there are others arising from the declination of the moon. but which modify the oscillations of the However. effect between cause and that the investigation of such relations is no less useful in natural philosophy than the direct solution of problems. spring titles. this arises from the very great irregularities in the surface of the earth. the problem it is of the tides does not admit of a general solution certainly . these tides to a great height. in solving the problem. the resistance the waters meet with. Like the theory of probabilities. the variety in the depths of the ocean. larities. is M is The moon in perigee. is The inclination of the hence in the equinoxes the action of the moon would be increased if her node were to 5° 9' . Both the height and time of high water are thus perpetually changing.
pours through the Irish and British channels into the North sea. one of the principal sources of our but in consequence of the rotation of the earth. and the pecuhar circumstances of the port. the rise and fall of the sea is inconsiderable. it is evident is become tides that the Pacific ocean . there is no a small annual and monthly one. reflected by the shores of the Atlantic. This great wave however is modified by the tide raised in the Atlantic. Since the disturbing action of the sun and moon can only sensible in a very great extent of water. arriving later and later at each place. ther hemisphere. In high latitudes where the ocean is less directly under the influence of the luminaries.Kf PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. tide at the poles. great distance from their estuaries. The tide raised in that world moves is transmitted to the Atlantic. so that the tides in our ports are modified by those of ano Thus the theory of the tides in each port. high water does not happen till some time after the moon's southing. of waters in which sometimes combines with that from the Pacific in raising the sea. that the meet a succession of those which are coming . or only in the river of the Amazons. this It five hundred miles so from the sea. extend ing nearly from pole to pole. including The height to which the tides rise is much greater in narrow mean of a number of channels than in the open sea. is really a matter of experiment. result from the attraction of the sun necessary to analyse the general phenomena which might to and moon. and can only be perfectly de termined by the observations very great of several revolutions the moon's nodes. so that. in all probability. the tides requires many days for the tide to ascend returning tides mighty stream. both as to their height and the times at which they take place. The ebb and flow of the sea are perceptible in rivers to a very In the straits of Pauxis. This great combined wave. and the inertia of the ocean. so that the tides only rise in proportion to their difference. and sometimes is in opposition to it. on account of the obstructions they meet with. and from that sea it a northerly direction along the coasts of Africa and Europe. still coming northward. more than are evident. but these must be corrected in each particular case by those local observations which are modified by the extent and depth of the sea.
it is must really be finite. From this ratio the mass moon soon have vanished by the friction and mobility of the fluid. both as to magnitude and time. at the mean temperature of 62". ellipsoid flattened at the poles from its rotation with the earth in that state its strata are of uniform density at equal heights above the level of the sea. ice. very is tion to the of melting to 1 . producing oscillations similar to those in the ocean. and even it if the particles of matter be infi nitely divisible.iAo ?g of gravitation at the earth's surface. and the action of the moon is little more than twice as much. One of the most remarkable circumstances in the theory of the tides is the assurance that in consequence of the density of the sea being only onefifth of the mean density of the earth. these forces • " 3 found to be only ny^th part of that of the earth. which occasion periodic variations in the heights of the e« . and ticles sensibly of finite extent. superincumbent pressure. These perpetual commotions in the waters of the ocean are occasioned by forces that bear a very small proportion to terrestrial gravitation the sun's action in raising the ocean is only the : B. The action of the sun and moon disturbs the equilibrium of the atmosphere. Iv so that every possible variety occurs in some part or other It requires a shores. the height of the atmosphere by simple proportion is 30407 feet. they must is . when compared with the radius of the earth. being of the in the ratio of 1 to 2. The initial state of the ocean has no influence on the tides for whatever its primitive conditions may have been. the stability of the equilibrium of the ocean never can be subverted by any physical cause whatever.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. Now at the temperature the density of mercury is to that of air as 10320 and as the mean height of the barometer is 29. whether it consists of parOn the latter hypothesis it infinitely divisible or not. that account the tides in the Mediterranean and Black Sea are scarcely perceptible. so as to render their influence sensible on of its . very wide expanse of water to accumulate the impulse of the sun and moon. tenuity at known by experience to be of extreme small The barometer rises in proporheights.35333.528 inches. up . or 34153 feet. general inundation arising A from the mere instability of the ocean is The atmosphere when in equilibrio is : an therefore impossible. which is extremely small.
The sun and most of the planets appear to be surrounded with atmospheres of considerable density. to a its . and which along the surface of the earth to the equator. the higher we ascend. which forms a variable base to so great a portion of the atmosphere. are so extremely small. in approaching the equator sponding parts of the earth. however. which is the direction of the trade winds. for the refraction of the air at the surface of the earth is at least a thousand times as great as at the moon. and gives all the beautiful tints and cheerfulness of It transmits the blue light in greatest day. it must therefore revolve more slowly than the correand the bodies on the surface of with the excess of their velocity. and by person supposing himself to be at rest. must be of a greater degree of rarity than can be produced by our best airpumps consequently no terrestrial animal could exist in it. to blow in a contrary direction to the earth's rotation. by rarefying the air at the equator. doubtful existence in latitudes so . the sky assumes a deeper hue. . while that is heated is carried along the higher strata to the poles. The lunar atmosphere. The atmosphere scatters the sun's rays. The attraction of the sun and moon has no sensible effect on the trade winds the heat of the sun occasions these aerial currents. La Place seems to think that the flux series reflux distinguishable at Paris may be occasioned by the and fall of the ocean. But the forming of the air rotatory velocity corresponding to its geographical situation decreases towards the poles . therefore. which causes the cooler and more dense part of the atmosphere to rush rise . the earth must strike against it reaction they will meet with a resistance contrary to their motion of rotation so that the wind will appear. that their barometer. a decide this far removed from the equator is of observations within the tropics can alone delicate point. Many philosophers of the highest authority concur in the belief that light consists in the undulations of a highly elastic . abundance.Ivi PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. or from east to west. The attraction of the earth has probably deprived the moon of hers. two currents in the direction of the meridian. but in the expanse of space the sun and stars must appear like brilliant specks in profound blackness. These.
undulations of light are much more rapid than those of sound. they are both communi medium. communicated to the nerves. as in friction and percussion . is beyond the extreme red. ^f. till at last all sense of pitch is lost. By the heat the experiments of Sir William Herschel. that the effect of radiant heat in raising the temperature of a falls. from the red rays of the solar spectrum to the extreme violet. it will not communicate a continued sound to the ear . so those of light augment in frequency. is transmitted to it through the air. unison with when similar. that as the frequency of the pulsations in sound increases from the low The tones to the higher. As sound is propagated by air. in the undulations of an elastic All the principal phenomena of heat may actually be illustrated by a comparison with those of sound. therefore. we may judge from analogy. and. violet to the red rays but that the maximum of the hot Heat invisible rays sists. indeed. for example. and Dr. heat. better with all the observed show that this theory accords of particles from the the undulations of the phenomena than that of the emission luminous body. The excitation of heat and sound are not only similar. in frequency progresthe vibrations When of a musical chord. and those of the celebrated Fresnel. resembles the sympathetic agitation the sound of another string. Young observes. which is in it. Thomas Young. produce the phenomena of vision. The experioptic ments of our iUustrious countryman. cated by contact and by radiation . which. ethereal Ivii medium pervading space. and the waves of fluids are all subject to the same laws of reflection. the undu . but often identical.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. sively as the note which increase becomes more acute. it appears that communicated by the spectrum increases from the . Dr. the vibrations or pulses increase in number with the acuteness of the note. Light. from the lowest notes of the organ to the highest known cry of insects. are less than sixteen in a second. light in all probability con like and sound. its theory similar to that of light. as of the cricket. The grave is in a great many respects or low tones are produced by very slow vibrations. The whole extent human hearing. sound. includes about of nine octaves. but they are analogous in this respect. their undulating theories are perfectly it body upon which of a string.
so that he really is a sun to Uranus. But if we consider that water would not remain fluid in any part of Mars. What the body of the sun may be. lations of the heat producing rays must be less freque.U tnan but if the those of the extreme red of the solar spectrum of hot the interference two were perfect. which probably arise from the chemical processes that continually take place at his surthrough space in all directions . and probably imparts some degree of warmth. his kindly influence can hardly be felt at the boundaries of our system. The propagation of sound requires a much denser medium . the noise of the tempest ceases. and is heard no more in those boundless regions where the heavenly bodies accomplish their periods in eternal and the thunder sublime silence. but the rays strike the northern hemiby ^^gth sphere more obliquely in winter than in the other half of the In Uranus the sun must be seen like a small but brilyear. fiftieth part so bright as however 2000 times brighter than our moon to us. it is impossible to conjecture . unless indeed the ether has a temperature. or no tide. as the intensity both of his light and heat diminishes with the square face. The climate of Venus more nearly . than in summer. The solar rays. than that of either light or heat. notwithstanding the sun's magnitude. silence ensues from the interference of two undulations of sound and still water. at a very small height above the surface of the earth. but. and that in the temperate zones of the same planet even he appears to us that is of the cold alcohol and quicksilver would freeze.Iviii PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. to produce cold. are transmitted of the distance. is the consequence of the interference of two tides. so that. its intensity diminishes as the rarity of the air increases . even at his equator. since darkness results from the interferenceof two undulations of light. rays ought analogy . liant star. which his dark nucleus appears like black spots. often through of enormous size. and the inconceivable heat that must exist where such combustion is going on. not above the hundred and . Much depends on the manner in which the rays fall. as we readily perceive from the difierent In winter the earth is nearer the sun climates on our globe. we may form some idea that must reign in Uranus. but he seems to be surrounded by an ocean of flame.
The direct light of the sun has been estimated to be equal nets. it is impossible to pass in silence the magnetism of the earth. but in pla though kindred with the earth in motion and structure. and are extremely complicated. and water would boil even at his poles. a needle freely suspended. but if it be carried successively to different places on the earth's surface. in the plane which passes through the north and south magnetic poles. which are by no means the same as the poles of the earth's rotation. In adverting to the peculiarities in the form and nature of . There are places where the magnetic meridian coincides with the terrestrial meridian . and his guide through the ocean. but changes in a few years. much too hot for animal and vegetable life as they exist Mercury the mean heat. points to the true north. . the line of no variation passed through determined. 5563 wax candles of a moderate size. whether it be magnetic or not. according to a law not yet In 1657. moon for which reason the the earth and planets. are called lines of no variation. here . that is. in these a magnetic needle freely suspended. its direction will deviate sometimes to the east and some Lines drawn on the globe through all the places where the needle points due north and south. are totally unfit for the habitation of such a being as man. excepting perhaps at her poles. llX resembles that of the earth. even when brought to a focus by a mirror. consequently the light of the sun that more than three hundred thousand times greater than of the light of the moon imparts no heat. This property probably arises from metallic iron in the interior of the earth. times to the west of north.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. supposed to be placed at the distance of one foot from the object that of the moon is probably only equal to the light of one candle at to that of : the distance of twelve feet is . must be above that of boiling quickThus the silver. but its accumulation and deficiency determine the two poles of this great magnet. or from the circulation of currents of electricity round it : its influence extends over every part of its surface. though. The direction of the needle is not even constant in the same place. In consequence of their attraction and repulsion. arising only from the intensity of the sun's rays. only remains in equilibrio when in the magnetic meridian. the director of the mariner's compass.
but it is probable that the moon has become highly magnetic. found that the variation . Captain Lyon A needle suspended found that the dip in the latitude and longitude mentioned was 86° 32'. and that the magnetic pole was then situate in 63° 26' 51" north latitude. but. their nucleus is rare. so as only to be moveable in the vertical more and more inclined to the horizon becomes or plane. of the compass was 37° 30' west. Had the mass of that comet been equal to the mass of the earth. that the time has not been long admit of a sufficient accumulation of impetus to enough to produce a perceptible effect. and in 80° 51' 25" west longitude. their motion affected is frequently retrograde. show that the length of the year has not been sensibly by the approach of the comet. of 1770 passed within 80000 miles of the earth without even affecting our tides. The passage of comets has never sensibly disturbed the stability of the solar system .IX PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. it is impossible to know. The also subject to diurnal variations. Captain Lyon. In the year 1819. It appears however from later researches that the law of terrestrial magnetism is of considerable complication. and because her greatest diameter always points towards it. London. La Place proved that its mass could not be so much as the 5000th part of that of the earth. dips the nearer it is brought to the magnetic pole. and swept The comet through the midst of Jupiter's satellites without deranging the motions of those little moons. and their transit so rapid. in our latitudes it till moves slowly westward from about three in the morning two. The paths of comets have every possible inclination to the plane of the ecliptic. its disturbing action would have shortened the year by the ninth of a day. in consequence of her proximity to the earth. and the existence of more than one magnetic pole in either needle is hemisphere has been rendered highly probable. sailed directly over the magnetic pole and in 1824. in his voyage to discover the northwest passage round America. and unlike the planets. when on an expedition for the same purpose. and returns to its former position in the evening. What properties the planets may have in this respect. Comets are only visible when near . Captain Parry. as Delambre's computations from the Greenwich observations of the sun.
In general their masses are so minute. In those positions of comets where only half of their enlightened hemisphere ought to be seen. the return of of quence the comet of 1759 would be retarded 618 days. or about 148000 miles from its surface would a be to heat 27500 times quently exposed greater than that received by the earth. the parabolic curve coincides most nearly with their observed motions.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATI their perihelia. although. they consequently remain a very short time within the planetary orbits . in most cases. Some slight indications however were once observed by Hevelius and La Hire in 1682. in consequence of their disturbing energy. they exhibit no phases even when viewed with high magnifying powers. to recognise a of. it may be difficult. and which are again condensed verified The nebulous appearance as they recede from the sun. . in its perihelion was only at the distance of onesixth of the sun's it consediameter. it is probable that a degree of heat so very intense would be sufficient to convert into vapour every terrestrial substance with which we are acin quainted. which was by the event as nearly as could be expected. as they necessarily must be. which he concluded to be the disc of the comet. because orbit would be very much changed if it passed near any of the large planets of this or of any other system. and in 1811 Sir William Herschel discovered a small luminous point. which would be very great on bodies of so rare a nature. Then their velocity is such thaF twice as great as that of a body moving in a circle at the same distance. and as all the conic sections of the same focal distance sensibly coincide through a small arc on each side of the extremity of their axis. Halley and Clairaut predicted that. or even its comet on its return. The comet of 1680 when . in consethe attraction of Jupiter and Saturn. at their perihelia all : but probably they extremely eccentric ellipses. Even if the orbit be determined with all the in move accuracy that the case admits impossible. of comets is perhaps occasioned the which the solar heat raises at their surfaces in vapours by their passage at the perihelia. As the sun's heat is supposed to be proportion to the intensity of his light. from observations made. it is difficult to ascertain in which of these curves the comets move.
the comet will disappear for ever.000 comets that come within the known . the tail is composed must be extremely a body moving with such velocity indeed ascent cannot be accounted for. but their extent and form must vary in appearance.Ixil PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. with a small degree of curvature . The matter of which buoyant to precede the rapidity of its lous part of comets diminishes every time they return to their after frequent returns they ought to lose it altogeperihelia . but no rare that stars The tails are often of very great length. a great degree evaporated. that they have no sensible diameters. three are now perfectly ascertained to form part of our system that is to say. according to the position of The tail of the comet their orbits with regard to the ecliptic. it may be computed by the theory of probabilities. 65^. there may be no less than 11. to extend over sixtytwo degrees. and ther. . In such a multitude of wandering bodies . 1682 of the comet must be that approaching rapidly poses Should the substances be altogether or even to to that state. they follow them in their descent towards the sun. . unfortunately the sun was hid by clouds in this country.200. Possibly comets may have vanished from our view sooner than Of about they otherwise would have done from this cause. . they return to the sun at intervals of 76. but so have been seen through them. but it was observed at Viviers and at Marseilles at the time the comet must have been on it. It was computed that such an event was to take place in the year 1827. at Paris. and spot was seen. but precede them in their return. The nebu. A hundred and forty comets have appeared within the earth's if orbit during the last century that have not again been seen a thousand years be allowed as the average period of each. 3j years nearly. that the whole number that range within the earth's orbit must be 1400 but Uranus being twenty times more distant. and present the appearance of a fixed nucleus this ought La Place supto happen sooner in comets of short periods. six hundred comets that have been seen at different times. The transit of a comet over the sun's disc would afford the best information on this point. are generally situate in the planes of their orbits . the nucleus being principally formed of denser strata of the nebulous matter. of 1680 appeared. extent of our system.
Sirius. because light diminishes as the square of the distance of the luminous body increases. In one quarter of an hour Sir William Herschel estimated that IKiOOO stars passed through the field of his telescope. in the depth of space. is 324 times greater than that of a star of the sixth magnitude . one may . especially /x Cassiopeia and 61 Cygni.3 to 1. without being touched. . Ixiii t is just possible that one of them may come in collision with the earth . but even if it should. . according Herschel. if gravitation pervades all space. as the sun is decidedly a star. shows that we must be one hundred millions of millions of miles from the nearest many of them however must be vastly more remote. the mischief would be local. it is absolutely nothing when compared to the number of the fixed About two thousand only are visible to the naked eye. their distances from us must be in the ratio of 57. if we be far beyond the other suppose the two to be really of the same size. by their apparent diameters but their annual parallax being insensible. but when we view the heavens with a telescope. seems to be limited only by the imperfection of the instrument.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. With a fine telescope they appear Uke a point of light their twinkling arises from sudden changes in the refractive power of the air. their number stars. come within the reach of telescopic of the stars have a very small progressive motion. Thus we can learn nothing of the relative distances of the stars from us and from one another. which subtended an angle of 15'. millions of fixed stars that vision. it is an additional reason for supposing the solar system to be in motion. and must certainly be so. for of two stars that appear close together. Many and. The light of to the observations of Mr. The distance of the fixed stars is too great to admit of their exhibiting a sensible disc j but in all probability they are spherical. It is however more pro bable that the earth would only be deflected a little from its course by the near approach of the comet. and the equilibrium soon restored. . both small stars . This however was stated as a of specimen extraordinary crowding but at an average the whole expanse of the heavens must exhibit about a hundred . Great as the number of comets appears to be. which would not be sensible if they had discs like the planets.
These double and multiple stars are extremely remote. without altering its position. and with whom originated the idea of their combination in binary and multiple systems. nothing' is Of known.Ixiv PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. only that many of them must be much larger than the sun. Sometimes Sirius. whence a comparison was established between the quantities of light emitted by the celestial bodies themselves. possibly Some stars are periodic. would appear to us to be 3. The first catalogue of double stars in which their places and positions are determined. If Sirius . In 1572 a star was discovered in Cassiopeia. imagine any thing more tremendous than a conflagration that could be visible at such a distance. which rapidly increased in brightness till it even surstais passed that of Jupiter . it then gradually diminished in splendour. from the intervention of opaque bodies revolving about them. requiring the most powerful telescopes to show them separately. and supposed to be the nearest of the had a parallax of half a second. their respective fixed stars. vanished sixteen months after its It is impossible to discovery. Dr.8 times more light fixed stars must be immensely greater than Sirius.7 times as large as the but many of the sun. By this method he found that the light of the sun is about twenty millions of millions of times greater than that of dle bears to that of the sun. placed where the sun is. from the quantity of light emitted by them. and stars.3. Many thousands of stars that seem to be only brilliant points. to whom astronomy is indebted for so many brilliant discoveries. when carefully examined are found to be in reality systems of two or more suns revolving about a common centre. and then vanished. and after exhibiting all the variety of tints that indicates the changes of combustion. have all at once appeared. was accomplished by the and industry of Sir William Herschel. by comparing images reflected from small glass globes filled with mercury. and therefore Sirius. the brightest. and would give 1. the absolute magnitude of the stars. shone with a brilliant light. an idea which his own observations had relative talents . its distance from the earth would be 525481 times the distance of the sun from the earth . or from extensive spots on their surfaces. WoUaston determined the approximate ratio that the light of a wax can moon.
star blue. which to the unassisted eye appear like thin white clouds : such is the milky way. is actually considerably advanced in its second period. the influences of contrast on our judgment of colours. Ixv completely established. no blue. some may be found near enough to exhibit disor perhaps something approaching to planetary motion. if the latest observations can be depended on. or purple example of an insulated been produced. one has as yet In some parts of the heavens. Herschel observes in one of his merely imaginary. but which has since received additional confirmation from those of his son and Sir James South. as a very remarkable although red single stars are common enough. star is or red and the small large generally yellow. observing large a full ruby red. For in a star where double the one is of example. orange. which has its brightness . or green. these appearances are due to are united. Some have already since their first discovery accomplished nearly a whole revolution. as well as Professor Struve of Dorpat. papers in the fact. and one. that Philosophical Transactions. the latter lost its colour when the former was hid by the cross wires of the telescope. or may lead to the discovery of tinct parallactic motions. by which the chronology of the heavens will be marked out to future ages by epochs of their own. But there are a vast number of instances where the colours are too strongly marked to be Mr. of revolution round a common centre of many have been clearly established. but most frequently exhibit the contrasted colours. Sometimes a white star is combined with a blue or purple. or almost blood colour. and more rarely a red and white In many cases. These interesting systems thus present a species of sidereal chronometer. The double stars are of various The hues.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. whether double or insulated. and their periods determined with considerable accuracy. and the small one a fine green. green. have The motions added many thousands to their numbers. purple. . Possibly among the multitudes of small stars. liable to no fluctuations from planetary disturbances such as obtain in our system. the proper motion of the sun. which may prove that solar attraction is not confined to our system. the stars are so near together as to form clusters. the former of whom.
which is understood to be nearly approaching its view. it is they are in revolving all and if so. a lady so justly celebrated for astronomical knowledge and discoThe nature and use of this matter scattered over the very. that there are many invisible bodies wandering in space. magnifying in space. is by the determination of the form.Ixvi PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. are ignited by the . So numerous are the objects which meet our view in the heavens. The most conspicuous of these are found in and in the girdle of AndroOrion. occasionally coming within the sphere of the earth's attraction. completion. even This nebulous matter by the highest powers. and the results of which we may therefore hope ere long to see made public. whose places have been computed from his observations. Herschel is now engaged in the difficult and laborious investigation. and a comparison of these with future observations show generations to come the changes that may now be With this going on in these rudiments of future systems. phosphorescent material obscurity. reasonable to infer that they are suns attended of probability opaque bodies. and arranged into a catalogue in order of exists in vast abundance ascension by his sister Miss Caroline Herschel. place. Mr. generally received will nebula. appearances meda. No fewer than 2500 nebulae were observed by Sir William Herschel. diffiised from the light of myriads of stars. certain it is. that we cannot imagine a part of space where some light would not strike the eye but as the fixed stars would not be visible at such distances. are never resolved into separate stars. and present state of each individual and sidereal systems. substance. if they did not shine by their own : light. . reduced to a common epoch. But there be no proof that planets not seen by us revolve although about these remote suns. however. by systems . Many of these clouds. It is travelling to the earth from probable that light must be millions of years some of the nebulae. right heavens in such a variety of forms is involved in the greatest That it is a selfluminous. in a highly dilated or gaseous state. which. but gradually subsiding by the mutual gravitation of its particles into stars is the hypothesis which seems to be most but the only way that any real knowledge on this mysterious subject can be obtained. about them as the planets do about ours.
Ixvii velocity with which they pass through the atmosphere. or by the disturbing action of the sun. and possibly by influences of which we can form no idea but whether it be rewith an ethereal time alone will show. It is clear that space is not pervaded by atmospheric air. when it is traversed in all directions by light. it would come within the sphere of the earth's attracThese bodies. The known quantity of matter bears a very small proportion to the immensity of space. since its resistance would long ere this have destroyed the velocity of the planets neither can we affirm it to be void. might ultimately penetrate the earth's atmosphere. and with an initial velocity of 10992 feet in a second. which is more than four times the velocity of a ball when first discharged from a cannon. plete their . Though totally ignorant of the laws which obtain in the more distant regions of creation. imtion. it is probable that if the various systems in the universe had been nearer to one another. and arrive at its surface. of their chemical composition. heat. that one alone re gulates the motions of our own system . that if a stone .PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. Luminous spots altogether independent of the phases have occasionally appeared on the dark part of the moon. from the uniformity. pelled either by the direction of the primitive impulse. whence it has been supposed that meteorites have been projected from the moon by the impetus of volcanic eruption it has even been computed. peculiar matter of quity which they are composed. But from what ever source meteoric stones that they have a common may come. and the explosion with which their fall is invariably accompanied. gravitation. the distances them are immeasurably greater but as design is manifest in every part of creation. that separate . the of the of descent meteorites. were projected from the moon in a vertical line. medium. which have been ascribed to the light arising from the eruption of volcanoes. it seems highly probable. we may almost say identity. . we are assured. show that they are foreign to our planet. instead of falling back to the moon by the attraction of gravity. and The obliare precipitated with great violence on the earth. Large as the bodies are. and as general laws . mutual disturbances would have been inconsistent with the harmony and stability of the whole. and revolve about it like a satellite. origin.
but it has been proved. consequently if all the bodies in the solar system. does not appear but as a change in the law of the force takes place at one end of the scale. was occasioned by the successive transmission of the gravitating force . that the gravitation and theory of the motions of the celestial bodies are independent of their absolute magnitudes and distances. and the system might be successively reduced to the smallest sensible dimensions. and their velocities. whose effects we have been endeavouring It was at one time to trace through some of their mazes. and still exhibit the same appearances. The analytical expression for the gravitating force is a straight line . matter might have been moved according to an infinite variety of laws. its velocity must be about fifty millions of times greater than that of light. as most the being simple. were to diminish proportionally. their mutual distances. lity selected by Divine It is a singular result of the simplicity of the laws of nature. as in chemical attractions. or that some new and unknown power comes into action. and the attraction of cohesion whether be a modification of gravity. . that gravitation must have been wisdom out of an infinity of other laws. and capillary it . that. form the ultimate object of philosophical research. wacannot conclude these remarks without considering the nature of that extraordinary power. the attraction of spheroids according to any other laAV would be much more complicated and as it is easy to prove that . which admit only of the observation and comparison of ratios. it is .Ixviii PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. which flies at the rate of 200000 miles in a second its action even at the distance of the sun may therefore be regarded as instantaneous yet so remote are : . in the mean motion that the moon's acceleration imagined. the curves in which the celestial bodies move by the force of gravitation are only lines of the second order . in order to produce this effect. that it may be doubted whether the sun has any sensible influence on them. and that which gives the greatest stabito celestial the motions. Experience shows that a very different law of attraction prevails when the particles of matter are placed within inappreciable distances from each other. they would describe curves in all respects similar to those in which they now move . it may be concluded. the nearest of the fixed stars.
Perhaps the day may come when even gravitation. no longer regarded as an ultimate prinmore general cause. can be referred to existing causes with which the motions of the planets and all their secular variations are referable to the law of gravitation. though ages may pass before the changes it has undergone. and for the hemisphere diametrically opposite to him. was diminished by a difficulty in penetrating the interposed matter. which is proved to be impossible by the agreement of theory with obserThus all matter is pervious to gravitation. since there is every reason to believe. whatever the substances of the celestial bodies may be. embracing ciple. They date the beginning of time . though we may not be able in every case to resolve their phenomena into general Nor can we suppose the structure of the globe principles. on the contrary. and magnetic permanent laws. alone to be exempt from the universal fiat. or that are now in prowith the same certainty gress. may be resolved into a yet every law that regulates the material world. The action of the gravitating force is not impeded by the inIf the attraction of tervention even of the densest substances. that the great far as . The traces of extreme antiquity perpetually occurring to the geologist. there is every reason to be assured. Ixix at the impossible that gravitation may not remain the same mense distance of the fixed stars. Its attraction the would be more same also. galvanic. the difference would occasion a variation in the sun's parallax amounting to several seconds. for if the action of the sun on the earth differed by a millionth j)art from his action on the moon. the sun for the centre of the earth. the tides is obviously affected. goes.PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. give that information as to the origin of things which we in vain look for in the other parts of the universe. equally attracted by it. that f . the intensity of gravitation has never varied within the limits of the solar system nor does even analogy lead us to expect that it should . and is vation. only the sun and planets. As human knowledge Not laws of the universe are immutable like their Author. but the minutest particles in all the varieties of their attractions and repulsions. nay even the imponderable matter of the jBuids are obedient to electric.
the formation of the earth was contemporaneous with that of the rest of the planets . but they show that creation is the work of Him with whom * a thousand years are as one day. and one day as a thousand years.Ixx PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION.' .
when Galileo. as Galileo and intellectual power. is the link which connects our planet with remote worlds. remained unknown the sixteenth century. as well as from having been to trace the influence of this property of matter from the elliptical mutual perturbations. and enables us to determine distances. Newton have done. B . and on the earth. To discern and deduce from ordinary and apparently trivial occurrences the universal laws of nature. that the solution of it has engaged the attention and exercised the talents of the most distinguished mathematicians . so universal in their application. till much the planets. taui the past and anticipate by means of which we ascerthe future. which Newton. but so important and interesting. is.PHYSICAL ASTRONOMY. tliat they regulate the tlie cur^'e traced by an atom which seems to be the sport of winds. afterwards extended from the earth to the farthest limits of our system. Tliis original property of matter. in his splendid motions of the planets. that might seem to be placed beyond the reach of human faculties. ohey a few laws. with as law8. its is a mark of the highest Simple as the law of gravitation application to the motions of the bodies of the solar system is a problem of great difficulty. by the discovery of gravitation. certainty as the orbits of These on which the order of nature depends. to its most remote effects on their Such was the object contemplated by bun work on tlie Mechanism of the Heavens a work . and estimate magnitudes. The infinite varieties of motion in the heavens. among whom La Place liis holds a distinguished place by the the brilliancy of first discoveries. laid the foundation of the science of mechanics. by investigating the circum stances of falling bodies.
Easier methods. a subject involved in mystery they . the general law of gravitation. Tables of the motions of the planets. may be by comparing theory with observation. and to confirm the truth of those laws. regarded as embodying the results of not own researches. similarity to the earth. be acknowledged that many circumstances seem The planets are so remote. wherein from it is required to deduce all the phenomena of the solar system the abstract laws of motion. however. that to be placed beyond our reach. in quo ista qua nunc latent. revolve round centres in various and long periods. perhaps. the higher branches of mathematical science are employed from the first. to since many of them speak more strictly. of systems of double stars. considered as a great problem of dynamics. expressed of the age in which it appeared. must ever remain. and in their annual and diurnal revolutions producing the vicissitudes of . may probably be discovered in process of time. are computed from the analytical formulae df La Place. but many generations must be swept from the earth before their paths can be traced through the regions of space. or the periods of their return can be determined.2 which INTRODUCTION. Veniet tempxis. and approximations are made to the most intricate series. obey. the most abstruse analysis is required. a wide range is still left for is The whole system of comets the industry of future astronomers. ture to predict Who can ven when their theories shall be known. and more convergent series. but the work of only his La Place. which will supersede those now in use. indeed. is Although physical astronomy now the most perfect of sciences. It must. in lucem dies extrahat tevi diligentia : — et longioris ad inquisitionem tantorum cetas una non sufficit. In a research so profound and complicated. as he to the monument it to the writer of these a genius pages. or. or what laws may be revealed by the knowledge of their motions ? but. in the appearance of their surfaces. A new and extensive field of investigation has lately been opened in the discovery of thousands of double stars. by which their places may be determined at any instant for thousands of years. their little of structure and although their but discloses observation . Veniet tempus^ quo posteri nostri tarn aperta nos nescisse mirentur. but those of so many of liis illustrious himself predecessors and contemporaries.
such there be. or impossible to form an idea are scattered the immensity of that through cloudy appearances that much is unkno\vn. wd of instead but being surprised sphcfe. were it even permitted to form an analogy from the single instance of the earth.INTRODUCTION. the only one known to us. d may lead us to fancy that they are . La Place's tvorlc§. certain if it is that the J)hysical nature of the inhabitdiffer essentially ants of the planets. but rather to endeavottf to expldin the methods by which thiese restilts ate deduced from onH general equation df the motion of matter. is impossible . admit of geometrical is demon stratiori . plan to adopt it in the Diagrams dre sar}' iidt eifi^lo^ed ih . many subjects. still less of the Nebulse. must from ours. have reason to be astonished that the successful daring of develo{)ed so much. peopled with inhabitants like ourselves yet. to the extreme cold that probably Of the use of Comets in the economy of reigns in Uranus. without having recourse to the higher branches of mathematics. to those versed in analysis B2 . and of day and night. indeed. To accomplish this. to enable them to endure every gradation of temperature. man has In the following pages it is liot intended to limit the Account of the M^canique Celeste to a detail of results. seasons. however. bbiiig unfiefcfe*3 some. liis would be a deviation from the unity of present case. but as the object of this work Place's rather to give the spirit of La it method than to pursue a regular system of demonstration. will be occasionally introduced for the convenience of the reader. nature it is . from the intensity of heat in Mercury.
DEFINITIONS. [Book I. ascer some of the cases enumerated. &c. which we have any experience are exerted by matter as muscular force. therefore. divided . AXIOMS. &c. chemical attractions and repulwhich cases.. would be impossible to ascertain whether were Thus. as we know of no particle that is at rest. we know by experience that they will remain in that state hence a body will continue to : move uniformly unless in in the direction of the force which caused its motion. in which we have tained by experience that a change of motion will take place. at rest or in motion. because there are no fixed points to which it could be referred it . is Force proportional to the differential of the velocity. 2. AXIOMS.4 I DEFINITIONS. The cause of motion is unknown. consequently. the forces of gravity. CHAPTER I. : regard to other bodies which are assumed to be at rest. all . Even after experience. 1. &c. Were a body absolutely at rest. 4. BOOK I. force being only a name given to a certain set of phenomena preceding the motion of a body. &c. then a force 5. The activity of matter seems to be a law of tlie miiverse. No idea of force can be formed independent of matter . being totally ignorant of absolute moforms the subject of investigation a body alone relative motion tion. in all another. known by the experience of its effects alone. When bodies in a state of motion or rest are not acted upon by matter under any of these circumstances. if only one particle of matter it were in existence. we cannot prove that the . electricity. and experience tends to confirm this 3. when it changes its position with is. one portion of matter acts upon sions. same consequents will invariably follow certain antecedents we only belief. be in said to motion. believe that they will. is said to act. we could not prove it to be so.
which in a given time will generate equal velocities in bodies of the same magnitude and one force is said to be double of effects .] DEFINITIONS. in t seconds or units of time .Chap. or both intensity and direction by the ratios lines. will generate double the velocity in one body that it will do in another body of the same magnitude. the space moved over or V in t seconds of time. multiplied . by —» t 1" 1" a = « —=— t t 12. which is we know about 6. The time varies directly as the space. 5 by the all differential or analytically F= — . Tlie direction of a force is is the straight line in wliich only. in a given time. Conversely. I. Boever the parts 9. it causes a body to move. « = vt. since the direction of a force the straight line in which causes the body to move. In general. The another which. 15. Tims two forces are equal. begimiiug from the point of application. a line expressing the intensity of a force is taken in the direction of the force. Hence time . &c. force proportional to the indefinitely small space caused to be 8. equal to ». how small into wliich the interval is divided. is moved over in one second of time. vt is the space moved over «. . This known by experience is In dynamics. The time. space moved over in a given time. 11. and inversely t as tlie and because = —. 14. Forces are proportional to the velocities they generate in equal tunes. the velocity varies directly as the space. and inversely as the velocity. Velocity is the moved over in a given indefinitely small time. may be velocity of a body moving uniformly. of the time. V 13. it. AXIOMS. is the straight line or space over which it moves in u given interval of tune hence if the velocity v be the space moved over in one second or unit of . Thus is it is proved that the space described with a uniform the space motion proportional to the product of the time and the velocity. 7. The intensity of a force its may is therefore be expressed by the of it ratios of numbers. intensity of forces can only be known by comparing their under precisely similar circumstances. 16. or representing the space by 10. t>.
moves over equal intervals of space. . 20. 19. the change of rectilinear distai^ce between and motion are expressed by the tities ratios of spaces we are acquainted with the ratios of quan only. at its surface. Since DEFINITIONS. by introducing an equation. from the oscillations of a pendu lum. we rectify our conclusions respecting the presumed equalit}' of the intervals. of the The descent of materials from a higher to a gyea^est ipjportance. [Book I. AXIOMS. 1. urge particle applied mA combmed action of these two forces. The only uniform motion that comes under our observation is its the rotation of the earth upon axis . and it will require^a force equal . When dissimilarity of circumstances takes place. Hence in uniform motion the space is proportional to the time. how short soever. Tlie rotation of the earth forms the To oply standard of time to which all recurring periods are referred.: g A C ter which . in equal successive it intervals of time. which is a quantity to be added or taken away. 21. Uniform Motion. or lower level alter the a change of internal temperature. 22. all other motions in nature are accelerated or retarded. therefore. is free move in every repre direction two forces. two points. it appears that force. their effects are so njinute as to be insensible. Tlie equality of successive intervals of time may be measured by the recurrence of an similar as possible : event under circumstances as precisely for example. and that the earth's rotation has suffered no sensible change from the earliest times recorded. in order to obtain the equality. C.U 17. whep. and consequently the time of rotation : length do take place but it will be shown that of disturbance causes such . motion is &c. would of the radius. Jig. 16. be and it to towards the will move by the it. velocity. A body is said to move uniformly. Let m be if a particle of matto !»* . sented both in intensity and direction by the lines and mB. Composition and Resolution of Forces. be certain of the uniformity of its rotation is.
will intersect in they m. 24. 25. in a given time t and if another force applied to cause it . and the motions of bodies by means of three plane surfaces. oB. (fig. fig. A. I. they may be placed where we assumed to be known. to keep it at rest t is then said to be in a state of equilibrium. 3. B. surfaces. It is usual to determine the position of points.Cb»p. by the space mB. xoz^ 80 that xoy. please. respectively 1^ equal to the given distances. and are therefore always Hence the position of a point m in space is Jig.) make it ap proach to the plane oQ uniformly by the space mA. and their origin o. &c. parallel to the coordinate planes. oz^ the axes of the coordinates. and draw ing three planes through A. lines. to their sum. and a force equal to their difference acting in a contrary direction will be required to keep the and if mB particle at rest. mB are equal. 5. m to approach the plane oR uniformly <. the particle will remain at rest. in the same time the particle will move in the diagonal . intersectmg at given Tlie intersecting or coor dinate planes are generally assumed to be perpendicular to each other. the pajrticle w. fig. are arbitrary that is. If a force applied to a particle of matter at m. applied in a contrary direction. are oj?. if its distance from each coordinate plane be given. yoz. . for by taking oA. oP. ^pd i» pontrary direc tions. in space. When the forces mA.] DEFINITIONS. AXIOMS. m in contrary B be greater than mA. oR. If the forces mA. angles. right The position of oy. 4. determined. 26. 23. be A. • ^3''^' applied to a particle 4irection3. will be put in motion by the difference of tliese forces. and w C. angles. mB. oC. oQ.
may be the angle they make with each other. if a be described in seconds . therefore. mB. fig. and oAm . and b t equal to he space mB. the origin of the coordinates. 28. mB are called component or resulting and mo is called the resulting force. will keep the in forces equilibrio. parallel by drawing through m the Unes ma. mb. 29. be drawn on the directions of the . AXIOMS. at hence i( at be equal to be the space described in t the space tnA. to ox. As this relation is the same for every : point of the straight line mo. hence . 7. of the direction of a resulting force mC. since the space spaces. respecand completing the parallelogram macb. which are at riglit angles to each other. situate in the same plane with the force . taken in a contrary direction. be resolved into two it ma. by the simultaneous action of are proportional to the will two For. Thus the resulting force durection mB is represented in magnitude and the of a by diagonal parallelogram. CE. we have t = ^i_ a =: .^ b . so. Hence always possible to resolve a force mc into two others which are parallel to two rectangular axes ox. whence mA = ~ mB b the equation to a straight line mo. is which  is the tangent of the angle moA. Now since are proportional to the velocities they generate in equal times. mo. &c tlicse [Book forces. perpendiculars CD. tan Aom = mB mB tan oA Am 111: tan Aom whence mA = oAx Aom. component 27. conversely these two forces may be used in place of the whatever smgle force mc. is the resultant of the two forces mA. for mB = oA.8 the forces DEFINITIONS. whose sides are mA. mA. and Tiie forces may be The taken to represent them. the partial ones. If the coordinates be rectangular. are proportional to the forces. force being that which. If from any point C. oy. oy. Since the diagonal cm. 6. mb. is a right angle. forces it is called its equation. partial forces. one second. which form the of wliich forces is it But mc may be re solved into any two forces whatever sides of a parallelogram is the diagonal . mA. passing through o. I. it may. tively. fS6 fig.
and and thus the force may be resolved into the two mo may be resolved into three mQ. &c component forces mA. if there were fig. If mo represent any force both in direction and intensity.] DEFINITIONS. if the resulting force of mA and mB be found. mB. of be a figure formed by which mo is the diagonal. intensities with which any number of be given. BQ. acting on a material point m. that this force two other diagonal . mD. mA. tliis single resulting force may be resolved into three . Therefore. mQ. mR. mQ. mB. 32. 31. 9. four forces. may be resolved into because mo is the mC. ponent CD CE CA to CB. the resolved into three forces at right angles to each It appears then. mR. ^ acting on m. Again. they may be reduced to one single force whose direction and intensity is forces urge a material point known. fnC is the diagonal mQCP. and as this is force other. that any force mo may be resolved into three other forces parallel to three rectangiUar axes given in position: and conversely. and then that of mC and 771 D .Chap. mP wP. acting on a material point m. mC. these four forces would be reduced to two. forces. 30. it is evident from what has been said. three forces mP. of the parallelogram mCoR.9. fig. For example. the resulting force mo may be obtained con by structing the figure BQ with sides proportional to these forces. Let or as their equals mB to mA. I. these per as the compendiculars are reciprocally as is to That is. mR . and by finding the resulting force of these two. 7710 may be independent of the angles of the figure. the four forces would be reduced to one. 8. and drawing the diagonal mo. Again of the parallelogram therefore it " forces forces. AXIOMS. . parallel planes seen in perspective. if the directions and Jii/. forces.
oy^ which would represent the action of the forces twA. om=F will be the hypothenuse cqminon three rectangular triangles. (1). 37. 2noC=c. Jj is j. »noA= a. its resolution into the three component forces X. 35. the resulting force must be zero. equation (2) will give a value of the resulting force. ?. Z. 36. [B90V oar. fig. is their difference to be estimated. Thus the partial forces are proportional to the cosines of the their directions make with their resultant. estimated in the direc ^ / 33. 10. according as the forces act ip the same or in different planes. 10. be three rectangular on a curved line. and c . Y. Thep. &c. making . wiB. or must be perpendicular to the The line or surline or surface. PEFINITIONS. &c. mC angles be joined. Hence ?E±llt^*= cos«a+cos«6+cos«c= P 1. mB. If a particle of matter remain in a state of equilibrium. direction. forces parallel to three rectangular ax%s oz. AXIOMS. and face resists the resulting force with an equal contrary pressure. 34. and equations (1) will determine its direction by the angles a. when the partial forces act io the same . oC=Z. and oCm. tion of the axes . acting on m. Tlius any number of forces of resolved into other forces. w2oB=5i^. the resulting force component to foyces. (2). of which o»n=F is their resulting force. Let the X=F cos a. oB=Y. though acted upon by any number of forces. then 6. if mA. oAm. may evident that be resolved into three other forces parallel to the axes. If the material point be in equilibrio on a curved surface. otherwise the particle would slide. 6. Let oA=:X. fig. mB. or. &c. their sum is the force in that axis and when some act it ip one that direction. When the component forces are known. is and others in an opposite direction. in any kind are capable of being the direction of two or of three rectan gular axes.10.10 fig.. o^m. But angles which PQ being a rectangular parallelopiped P= X« + V+ Z*. Y=F cos Z=F cos c. but if tlie resulting force be * given. each of the forces mA. which is the same thing. and free to move in every direction.
then = 90°. its component forces parallel to the coordinates will bp.Chap. ai^fl whatever has been explained with regard to the resolution to the other. y. 39. a. Y = F cos 4. u If with it the angles a. direction if F' be another force acting on the particle at m in another r'. F = 88. b. I. position of the one applies equally com The general Principles pf Equilibrium. 6. of a force F. the diar. 11. X = F cos a. c. ip om.] DEFINITIONS. r r thj^t F ilZ^. ordinates 0. acting on a particle pf the direc^on fig. Velocity and force VX* + V. the coordinates pf and X. . If o' be the origin of the co. the whole V^xay + {yby + {zcy om. z those of m . bebg each represented by the same space. by supposing O matter at m. FiiZ£) are the component forces parallel to oy and oz. The general principles of equi librium may be expressed analytio to be the origin cally. force parallel to the axis ox In the same manner it may be shown. will be given by (1). AXIOMS. "^oyi the equation of the diagonal gives r r ix ^u ^y Jz r hence the component forces of F afe Again. will gonal om. :: is force in to : its component forpe v^ \^ in oA r — (^ hence the componen). &c c. which may be represented by be r= But F. one of the com ponent forces as c Z be zero.
of forces acting on rtie &c. consequently XJjT + YJy + Z^z = (3). AXIOMS. Z. Y. (. z. we shall have If the third first by Jz. F'.F.5m = X^x + Y5y + ZJz. are the sums of the parand oz.12 DEFINITIONS. and the sum will be F. and the force will then be resulting given in functions of the distance only. F". represented by the same general symbol is the sum of the partial forces urging the particle parallel to the axis ox. 2. same manner. gravity for example. that act on the m. X. resolved in directions hence parallel to the three coordinates or if the sums of the component forces parallel to the axis x. 41.F(— ). whatever to denote the their directions If 2 be employed sum of any number of finite quantities. be represented by X. and if resulting force to vi. When the particle is in equilibrio. the second by 5y. Likewise 2. 40. &c. . Y. the preceding equation could be of no use. tial forces that urge the particle parallel to the axis oy all Now if F/ be the resulting force of particle the forces F. y. [Book I. which is the general equation of the equilibrium of a free particle. Ki) are the expressions of the resulting force F^. And any number in the particle m may 'be Yesolved may be. Were that not the case. If the intensity of the force can be expressed in terms of the distance of its point of application from its origm. and Z may be eliminated from this equation. the resulting force is zero . their of these be multiplied by 5x. All the forces in nature are functions of the distance.— i. which varies inversely as the square of the distance of its origin from the point of its application. u be the straight line drawn from the origin of the by what precedes ^m^ Ki)^ .
by means of three comparison of motions. 46. A pressure place. whatever be the values of Jx. that to X= for it 0. mm' be a wiN plane curve = V(ja)*+(y6)« the coordinates of m. Tlie normal to a curve. I. m be surface. z ^{x ^ ay + iy »m. or curve of double curva ture. in contrary direc when it would jjroduce a motion equal and contrary tlie to the resultant of the motions which would be produced by the other forces. Pressure. 45. y. then. Z = 0. bemg the coordinates of and a. Equal and proportionate pressures are such as are produced by forces wliich would generate equal and proportionate motions in equal times.  b)*+iz  cy N. fig. Jr. . As the equation is true. is a force opposed by another force. 13 42.] DEFINITIONS. when a particle of matter urged by any forces whatever remains in equilibrio. On the Normal. AXIOMS. it is equivalent to the three partial equais tions in the direction of the axes of the co'ordinates. Y= 0. c those of The . It results from remain at rest. If the point X and y being on a a and 6 those of N. is the straight line otN perpendicular If to the tangent «jT. that if a body pressures. the sum of the products of each force by the element of its direction is zero. also be zero.Chap. in which no two of its elements are in the same plane. component forces must On 43. b. 47. or surface in any point nj. they must have the a triangle parallel to the same ratio to one anotlier. mN = ». &c. Thus. as tlie sides of directions. Two contrary pressures will balance each other. its is evident that if the resulting force be zero. Jy. so that no motion takes 44. when the tions are equal motions which the forces would separately produce and one pressure will counterbalance two others. 12.
so that Jr r = N5m. N and a. c. otherwise it is would slide along it but as by experience found that reaction is equal and contrary to action. the intersection of two consecutive circle normals »nN. But whence Sr ^ = ^ixay + (yby + (^c)« Sr _ y — Jr _ z— _ "" i—'a^ "" ft. the perpendicular force will be retlie sisted by the and contrary reaction of the surface. must be eliminated by same result may be obtained in another way. The equation (3) is sufficient for the equilibrium of a particle . 6.Zlz no longer equivalent = 0. but in all and sphere. YJy + ZJ^ =  R. since one of the elements Jx. the equation of the surface. For if be the tt but as the equaequation of the surface. are changes with every point in the curve or only constant from one point to another. &c N. if it forces acting upon it it must be perpendicular . never varies in the curvature is every where the same . 49. or surface. wliicli But this equation is Xlx f YJy I. the equation Of the radius of curvature is formed ftom the equation of the curve. the resulting force of all the of matter. the equation of equilibrium will be XU Jjj Jy. Jr reduces the preceding equatioh to = .Jr. it is constant for any one point m where vary from one point to Sr := 0. curvature. which is [Book I. Tlie Sy. but to two only. then Ju =: tion of the normal is derived from that of the surface. Jr = is connected with the preceding. ^zjxtQ arbitrary : 4. AXIOMS.1« centre of curvature DEFINITIONS. that though it may another. reaction is equal. If r be the radius of By tliis property. because the other curves and sur faces the position of surface. the equation = . be free to move in any direction but if it be constrained to remain on a curved surface. to the surface. so that to the force destroyed . Equiiihrium &/ a Particle on a curved Surface: 48. m'N. ' ' c^ r Jy ~r dz r~' . hence if R^ be the resistance of the surface. to three equations. 5z. it is evident. these variations may therefore be assumed to take place in the direction of the curved surface on which the tlien by the particle moves property of the normal.
1^. N and consequently X become known.Chap. ftc. And these two. X^x where 5w is + Y5y + ZJz + X5m =: : (4). oh a curved line or surface. 50. either free or obliged to remain urged by any number of forces. llius tin tvill if a curved line or surface.ves N.* for u is a function of x. {()V (D'H ^ ()•} i. it the continue in equilibrio. equation of the surface m = the coordinates of m in its position of equilibrium.m^ ©' . And since R^ is the resistaitce ih the JjteSSurfe. made but they will zero. and is therefore determined. z. the equation . each of them may be . = /75^iA^~7^i^VTTSiA«: and if tneii %tr becoiries XSm. Jy. v on account of which. wliich will divide it into three equations be reduced to two by the elimination of X. = ym. z ^'^^ hence. Jz and as this equaelements may be. ^.] DEFINITIONS. bfe if a particle of matter. I. with tiie 0. y. . Tliese found. W consequently. tion exists whatever these a function of the elements Sx. will suffice to determine x. or 1 = m^ . . and the equation of the equilibrium of a is parlicle m. wWch is equal Jlnd contrary to the resistance.. sum of the products of each force by the clement of its direction be zero. AXIOMS.
and suppose the MA. &c. . be. sides.j A. it. Let na be drawn at right angles to ?. &c. or the cosines of the angles made by the sides of the polygon with ox to the several radii MA. then velocity of in. ab. imagine a polygon ABCDM of any number of sides same plane or not. so that ab. the whole theory of statics depends. and be = BC cos 7. ma = MA cos a . On general law of equilibriimi. &c. 52. then velocity of projection m resolved in of mn on wA I the direction of the force .. &c. so that it always remains on the curve or surface. This principle. is pressed thus : — by John Bemouilli. 7. angles above mentioned. AB. Let these forces be resolved in the direction of the axis o x. if not entirely free. ma. and may be ex If a particle of matter be arbitrarily moved from it its position through an the indefinitely small space. [Book I. ' •'^^* — to represent. wliich sum of this the forces which urge ^vill ought to follow.us. &c. Again. AXIOMS. be. may be the projections of the sides of the polygon. a. ma mA: is the virtual also the it is for mn either in the ma :: 1 : cos vma and ma = mn cos nma.. each multiplied by the element of its direction. be zero in the case of equilibrium. and calling portions of the forces the &c. city An idea of what virtual velo be formed by supposing that a particle of matter is urged is. to wiA by a force apIf m be arbitrarily moved near to m. discovered principle of virtual velocities. then will the segments ma. DEFINITIONS. /3. a6 = AB cos /3 . AB. may m in the direction plied to m. to a particle at any forces applied M. and called the perfectly general. Virtual Velocities. 51. 54. any place n indefinitely mn will be the virtual 53. of the axis represent the resolved estimated in that single direction. both in magnitude and direction.
if Hence. the its sum of the virtual velocities is zero . &c 17 &c. In if this case also. =r by the general property of polygons. must be zero when the particle is in equilibrio . whose general object is to subject to analytical investigation the changes which quantities undergo when the relations which connect them are and when the functions which are the objects of discussion undergo a change of form. the quantity whose maxiis mum or minimum required * C . by the gradual variation of some of their elements. as above shown. taken in order. . will rest. In this point of view. and the latter same whole bd as sums must be zero. 55. which had tions are only differentials variability. is The principle of virtual velocities is the same. The symbol i is appropriated to the calculus of variations. I. making up the Thus it is evident. or a system of bodies. In the former case. cd.] DEFINITIONS. AXIOMS. and vice versd. and pass into other functions altered. it may represent that direction. whose sum. as will also be evident if we consider that dm. the equilibrium will take place. and ma. one not subject to the law of variations. variapreviously been regarded as constant. will therefore represent the virtual velocities of M in directions of the several forces. we see that a point urged by forces represented by the sides of a polygon. The variation of a function may be illustrated by problems of maxima and minima. zero. 56. whether we consider a material particle. for. that if any number of forces urge a particle of matter. M be removed from place through an infinitely small space in any direction. on another hypothesis of constancy and and are therefore subject to all the laws of the differen tial calculus. the sum of these forces when estimated in any given direction. of which there are two kinds. and ^ jW' another that is. and the sum of these partial forces will /8 be MA cos a + AB cos + BC and cd lying towards x negatively the former. a body. dm. when this condition holds. ab. be. be. their cos 7 + &c. ab lying towards are to be taken positively. 57. since the position of ox is arbitrary. Variations.Chap. ma.
among tliese the infinite numdrawn ber of curves that can be between two points. J^da is the curve itself.18 ?> DEFINITIONS. that is to say. it takes the form of that particular curve. or the variation of a differential as ^. remains the same tion . real variations city it for if a appears that virtual velocities are body be moving on a curve. the that curve. depends by known relations on some arbitrary independent variable —for example. is . It is evident from the nature of variations. as to fulfil Tlius the form of the ftinctionyVi* varies so the conditions of the problem. the virtual velosaid.dy. the form of the funcis whose maximum or minimum •iV 'required. be any two given in points space. N. consequently independent of the law by which the coordinates of the curve vary. r[Book. it is required to de. 58. required. will give maxima or minima. to deter mine that whose length is a minimum. their when quantities are at their increments are zero. and that dAy = i. so that we may take the differential of a variation as d. termine the point in which the ordinate p sible. In this case.i. is variable. 15. or function m is the greatest pos expressing the curve. for. fig. in place of its retaining general form. it 59. the curve. AXIOMS. minimum. for variation now as the required curve must be a ofj^ds when made equal to zero. subject to the conditions required. and suppose it were let M . in a given cur\e MN. unless when we choose to subject it to that law. fig.^y.dy. but in the other case. that the variation is of a quantity independent of its differential. &c. From what has been . If ds be the element of the curve. may be assumed either to be on the cur^'e or not on the curve . 16.
—Suppose a same time particle impelled in the direction mA. the velocity of a change called moving body clianges. may now represent the components of a force acting Central Force. in indefinitely small and equal intervals of time. By the first A : the impulsive force alone. 48^ during the second. feet more than during the preceding second. so that a particle of matter moving by the action of a continued force is assumed to describe indefinitely small but unequal spaces with a uniform motion.. its cause is called a continued. increase or diminution of the velocity is uniform. falling every second 32^2^. The is action of a continued force is uninterrupted. whatever has been demonstrated regarding uniform motion is equally applicable to motion uniformly varied . 60. the motion will be in a straight line . Z. separated by indefinitely small intervals of time. Demomtration. SOfj. during the third. fig. VARIABLE MOTION. during the second of its motion. the increments of space which would be described in a given time with the initial velocities being always equally increased or diminished. Y. or as it must now be considered successive infinitely small times. 62. but where the direction of a continued force will cause the particle to describe is perpetually varjing it a curved line. &c.19 CHAPTER When is II. If the direction of the force be always the same. the cause of that an accelerating or retarding force and when the . which have hitherto represented the components of an impulsive force. and X. in any to but in the same given time the particle would move equably time the action of the continued. velocity either gradually increased or diminished it is but to facilitate mathematical investigation assumed to act by repeated impulses. and at the is in o. 61. 17. attracted by a continued force whose origin the force being supposed to act impulsively at equal impulse alone. 63. Gravitation is a uniformly accelerating force. would cause C 2 it to move uniformly through . for at the earth's first surface a stone falls 16^1^ feet nearly. or uniformly accelerating or retarding force. In this hypothesis. uniformly. so that the .
the mB described in an of the arc sagitta indefinitely small given time.. having described the diagonal BD. of the fig. &c. [Book I. are the ma. m. ma hence at the end of that time the particle would be found in B.. the force should cease to act at any instant. the particle would in the tangent with it move an equable motion. B. to what had acquired when the force ceased 66.I> (« diagonal particle mB. In this manner the particle would describe the polygon if JwBDE . 64. BD. We shall consider the element or differential of time to .20 VARIABLE MOTION. &c. it would move uniformly of time to C in the next equal interval .. but the intervals between the successive impulses of the attractive force be indefinitely small. D. CD. Thus at the end of the second interval and so on. but the action of the second impulse of the attractive force it would bring equably to h in the it same time. coincides entirely with the curve. 17. In tills hypothesis. om being the radius with the curve in m. BD. DE. and will coincide with the curve passing through the points m. will also be indefinitely small. 65. The lines wA. no error can arise from assuming that the for motion particle describes the sides of a polygon with a uniform . sagittifi in definitely small arcs 8fc. Tiie spaces 18. Were the now left to itself. be a constant quantity the element of space to be the indefinitely small . B6. when the number of its sides is indefinitely multiphed. the diagonals w»B. fig. the polygon. it therefore follows that when a particle is if moving on in a curved line in consequence of any continued force. DE. would be found in D. or ^"^^^ by ^ . Hence force is the effect of the cen tral measured by ma. fa17. &c. . are tangents to the curve in the points. &c. wB. . &c. B. having described the ^^^^\ . ^ =: 2 of the 67. and with a velocity equal to act. E. circle coinciding om ma. BC.
obey any forces a particle of matter perfectly free to X. urging it in the direction of three rectanz. and space. y. dt d. Demonstration. In uniformly accelerated motion. when m is free. t>= — ds dt and as the element of the time constant. II. an indefinitely small is time. Tlic general equation of the motion of a particle of matter. Y. to be the velocity that a particle would acquire.^=:Ydt'. decrease by changing the signs of the differentials and thus the is included in that of accelerated motion. for the only assumed to be constant . the elements dv and as each element is supposed to express an arbitrary unit of .Chap. by article 68. Ydt = dv . if acted on by a constant force during an element of time.— dt to =:Zdt. its kind. Y. tlieory of retarded motion 68. Thus. proportional Hence to the intensities of these forces. being perpendicular each other. — =iXdt. As a decrement only differs from an increment by increasing quantities will sign. if t. by the laws of motion these forces will produce in the instant dt. — Let m be gular coordinates x. but since a constant force. ds. and in versely as the square of the element of the time. of these quantities are dt. may be reduced to depend on the law of equilibrium. each one independent of the action of the other two. « and v be the time. Ydt. Tlien regarding velocity as an effect of and as its measure. and in their directions. Z. act ing for an indefinitely small time. when acted on by any forces whatever. the dif ferential of the velocity is <2o =: — dt . and may be regarded as . (5) is for the forces X. . velocity is —Because in uniformly accelerated motion. d. and velocity. the velocities Xrf<. hence F= — General Equations of the Motions of a Particle of Matter. force. these heterogeneous quantities become capable of compariits son. 21 and the element of velocity space moved over in an element of time. Z. dt d. produces an indefinitely small velocity.] VARIABLE MOTION. 69. the force at any instant directly proportional to the second element of the is space. any expressions regarding apply to those that . Zdt. Demonstration.
. it. are separately zero. z. Z'\ but if the equation m 0. or be subject to is a resistance. = 0. de di* Z^^ = df^ 0. there will then be enough to determine the problem. hi consequences du 0. But matter not moved otherwise than by force therefore. if the particle m be not free. separate ones. whatever constrains . Jz. which expresses the condition of Now = 0. or : a string constrains dium. be superadded to these. or with an unnatural into force .—^ rf<* . still (as for example that move in a tautochrone. first case. Z In the . Tliis is the general equation of the motion of a particle of matter. it This new force may therefore be considered as involved in is X. acted alone. of these equations be multiplied by £jr. one equation will be equivalent to the three . Z'. Thus with all its = = restraint. there are not enough of equations to determine «. only that in this an implicit and not an explicit function of the coordinates. their sum will be and since X— — rf<* . when free to case. it must either be constrained to move on a curve. Z. Y. are absolutely arbitrary lythey are so. &c. or surface. it. ix. . the force the force resistance called reaction if if a fluid me is called it a condition however abstract. 2nd — But move in every direction.22 if it VARIABLE MOTION. and therefore also equation (6). Y'. because of the unknown forms of X'. the equations are u=zO. If the first [Book I. y. by obliging it to move out of its free velocity.) this condition. is a force. Y^ X^=0. Z  — </<* . in functions of t. and the third by ^z. must ultimately resolve itself case it is course. these an indeterminate function but the equations it : di Btill dt dt subsist . Y . iy. if really contain be regarded as included in X. or on a surface. or subjects it to conditions. or other^vise subject to some condition. Y. first. is : If a curve. the second by ^y. this and independent and vice versd. Y'. or secondly. however. as added to them when resolved into X'.
u = establishes the existence of a relation between the variations ix. is modified then will the whole forces acting on be X+X'. = be the unknown forces brought into action by that condition. iQ Therefore the equation is a function of y. it becomes o = (x). Y+Y'. Y. riz qiy which can no longer be regarded ^z. and therefore So:. . and t. (v^). this is true. y. is + + X'Sx + (z). In the second case if we do not regard the forces arising from the conditions of constraint as involved in X. Y. which true whatever Sx.Chap. jr. let Sw be . . good whether they subsist or not. Now compounded (though unknown) they may which must have one direction. .. but the equation (6) subsists whether they be so or hi = p^x + + = and may therefore be used simultaneously with 5m eliminate one after which the other two being really arbitrary. as arbitrary not. and since quantity \ . by which the action of X. independent of any particular relation between and holds Sx. + and this equation is X'^x + Y'^y + Z'^z . Sz. m and under the influence of these the particle will move as a free particle . because (p^x + q^y + r^z) iu p^x f qiy = = 0. one resultant R^. + . Z. that condition. 5y. it is so when multiplied by any arbitrary therefore. But the condition itt = establishes a relation of the form p^x{q^y\riz = 0.. If this be added to equation (7). Y'. being any variations or. Z'. z. and let X'. = to their coefficients must be separately zero. Z. iy. Jz. iy. z. Z. Y'. Y'5y + Z'^z XJm. X. II. Jy. Z+Z'. X. be jinto . Y. whose element may be represented since X'. Z'. or X may be.. are forces acting in the direction x. or \^u = + rJz = 0. Jz.] tf VARIABLE MOTION.
dx Ki^=co8/3. we X'^x + Y'Sy + Z''^z = R. Z'. And must have VARIABLE MOTION. dz — and consequently R. V^j^^Y+Z^^Y+Z^^Y (9) and = and if to abridge — K_!^r=cos«. arbitrary. y. \. dz dy and X' =: R/. may remain '. Y'* + Z'* = \. since the single force R^ is [Book I. is the same thing. Y. equation still Z. so that the preceding equation becomes + and this is true R/Xs be. = ^X'* + y. Now let the condition a=:«. resolved into X'. dy. Yy = R^.cos /3. = R/ . /3. Y. or X'^x + + X — Jy + \ ^ Y% + Z'Jr = \. be the angles that the normal to the curve or surface makes with the coordinates. are the suffices to resolve the only acting forces explicitly given. . then if «.S« + Y'* = + Z'* Sj? by article and since xhi. — Since R^ is be considered which determines its the resultant of the forces X'. dx \ I dy 2r:A £j Z'=xf(i'. which reduces equation (8) to equation So when X. magnitude must 37. be represented by VX'* R. K_!f=cos7.^ dz dx dy . . we are at liberty to determine it by any convenient condition. =K . Z'. Sy.cosy. Y'. — —A — Y'=x^.cos «. this problem. = Ry. or A Let this condition be R^ Js — \hi = 0. which r^z = 0. therefore. \5m (8) whatever X may But K being thus left arbitrary.24 by S». dz. Sr. in order that dx.5s . i«. Sx. or. Z. (6). provided it be taken in conjunction with the equation he p^x q^y which establishes a relation between + + = 0. we must have X' = X^. — .
and Z'. the curve in which the . ing from experience. will only contain space and time and by the elimination of the latter. the law of the force may be determined. 72. so one must be added at each integration hence the integral of the three equations of the motion of a particle being . 25 be given in terms of Xyy. X^ de dt' by functions of the distance.] VARIABLE MOTION. or subject to any given condition of constraint. is given in functions of the indefinitely small increments of the co ordinates. unless the law according to which the force varies with the distance be known but by assum. particle Hence if the force be given.Ch»p. Z^ = X^=0. Since one constant quantity of the second order. these equations. is contained in equations (6) and (10) but the finite values of these equations can only be found when the variations of the forces are expressed at least implicitly in functions of the distance of the moving particle from their origin. Z. 73. two equations will remain. Tlie whole theory of the motion of a particle of matter . If the condition of constraint exY'. which then at least may be integrated by approximation. proved to be 70. the four quantities x. be eliminated dl' from = 0. moves may be found and if the curve be given. Y. will be determined. R^ is the reaction. which the particle moves. z. 71. if Thus M pressed by u = be pressure against a surface. that the intensity of the forces in nature . will contain six arbitrary constant quantities. or by some known circumstances peculiar finite to each problem. which are the data of the problem. both functions of the coordinates which will determine the curve in . and are determined in each case either by observation. 74. the path or trajectory of the particle depends on the nature of the force. When the particle is free. may vanish from an equation at each differentiation. II. Because the force which urges a particle of matter in motion. X'. In most cases values of the general equation of the motion of a particle cannot be obtained. Thus the general equation of a particle of matter moving on a is curved surface. if the forces X.
. &c. ». and must be carefully distinguished dx. In this case. dz. F — will be =: sum of all these forces resolved in a direction parallel to the axis x.Y^^f±M^y±J^=2. 19 of the square of the velocity for if any curve MN. manner.F — Z . 5y. — If F be a force acting on the particle. . and by second integration the ^ ^L which is evidently the half yig. wliich are the spaces moved over by . Sz. that Xdx + Ydy which is + Zdz = 7. according to some law of the distance and leaving them otherwise indeterminate. Y = 2. which it will be all forces acting its on the particle. in the general becomes in consequence equation of motion (6).y. are functions of 76.z.F — 8 8 are the sums 8 resolved in a direction parallel to the axes y and 8 so . be the other forces the X — 2. its first Am is = VaL>* + Dm* ^d?~+~df. fig.. which dxd^x dzd'z XT 1 . the particle parallel to the coordinates in the instant dt yet being arbitrary. a complete when F. we may assume them sistent be equal to these. z. Tlie integral of this equation can only be obtained first when if the the member is a complete differential.Zdz — 1 + ^—^ dV + 75. F".) a function of is x. so general that they would exist whatever the forces might in other respects be.F''±= 1 differential Yds. be assumed equal to dx. and $ the distance of the particle from cc .11 r/j dyd^y Xdx + \ay\. dz. curve hence. Though the variations differ from the differentials materially. dy. F'. F — is the resolved the axis portion parallel to acting on the particle. [Book I. its origin. 2.. or /(x. the integral of the first member of the equation is /{Xdx + Ydy + Zdz). Demonstration. 19. to fore let 5t. In the same of the forces z. &c. in whatever directions. it is possible to deduce certain properties of a moving particle. y.26 varies VARIABLE MOTION. then and if F'. d»* = rfx* + dy' when differential ds or tlie . dy. be functions of distance from their origin. be represcented by ». or to any other quantities conTherewith the nature of the problem under consideration.
called the principle of Least Action. and Z by any forces. . c. will be and the particle. c being an arbitrary constant quantity introduced by integration. are zero.dy* ^ + rfa* _ *^. z) A is 6.c =i r'. This equation will give the velocity of the particle in any point of its path. d«* =: + dy* + dz* : and as dt [the element of the space divided by the element of : tlie time is the velocity therefore. Y. Suppose a particle beginning to move from a given point A. A is given in magnitude but not Suppose also that it is urged by accelerating forces X. 20. then The veloc. then A« and «• — will be A« = c+ 2/(a. b. = '2fix. such. being occasioned by a primitive impulse. i consequently. h. a. 2/(t. y^z) \. will always take the sliortest path that can be traced between these points. it is 27 cfcr" one plane. 2. to arrive at another given point B. y.dx*\. 1 .Chap. whatever the curve may move from any given point another given point with the be that it has described. fig. and the equation becomes r' particle is not acted on = city in this case. b. from the equation being independent of any particuthe particle begins to it It is evident. that if with a given velocity. in moving from one given point to another. c) and the coordinates . and that its velocity at the point in direction. without knowing the curve described by . 77. z. provided its velocity in any other point be known : for if A be its velocity in that point of its trajectory whose coordi nates are a. Wiien the X. will arrive at same 78. but when in space . 2f(a.] is in VARIABLE MOTION. A ' ^^'^'^ 79. which is a particular case of a more general law. whence v found when given. Xf y. y. . are known. Z. Principle of Least Action. lar curve. . constant . II. Y. c). c. velocity. We may then determine v the velocity of the particle in terms of *. that the finite value of Xdx + Ydy + Zdz can the be obtained.
choose the path in which the integral J^vds is a minimum and if it . therezero = fore d<. second term v. rf< j^ . i^J r' .vds: for to the differentials. except in so far as it obeys the action of the forces X. that if the particle be free to move in every direction between these two points. iS. If ds be the element of th** curve. It has been shown that v« its differential is = c + 2f(Xdx + Ydy + Zdz).28 particle in VARIABLE MOTION.ds must ds^^ dx' + df + dz\ .vds ds = Su. A to B. it becomes + ^ Sy d1? + — dt* Sz + XJu = 0.t)« = Xdx + YSy + Zh.iS.c« ^ = —U dP .c*. when To A are fixed. vdv = (Kdx + Ydy + Zdz). it will still move in the curve in which J^vds is a minimum among all those that can be traced on the surface between the given points. The values of the two last terms of this equation must be found separately.v* be substituted in the general equation of the motion of a particle surface. Z. v'.ds + vlds. the finite value of vds between A and B will depend on the nature of the path or curve in which the body moves. Now hence h. the extreme points of the curve ofj'vds to be zero. hence in every case the term XSu vanishes. . To find d^. ^S. but r = — or dt d» = v^vdt = S St> . and therefore & vds si dt . tZs = vdt . it will in virtue of this action. moving from [Book I. iu is also must move on the surface whose equation is u 0. + Jls. it is required to prove the variation and B. Y. the mark of the method of variations ^J'vds z=fl.ds. be constrained to move on a given surface.^. demonstrate this principle. is independent of the integration being relative By y variations. If ^S. differentials into variations.l.+ value of the tlie first ^S. Since is the A value of term required. is But XSu does not enter and when it into this equation when the particle free .^=^5. + v. now be found. and changing the i on its J. Tlxe principle of Least Action consists in this.
. it will be turned back or reflected in the direction Sr.^ds=: ^'^' v. it The action principle of least was first : has been very elegantly applied to the reflection and refraction of light.vd. passed from one given point shortest path. Ptolemy from any surface. 80. and since the velocity is uniform. but it is evident from the nature of the can only be a minimum. ^ dx dt dy '^ dz^ h.^dz. which their is the value of the second term is and if the sum + + ^ly i. the last member If the given points but if they be fixed of this equation will detemiinc their motion member wliich is the variation of the coordinates of the last points. and will enter the denser medium in the direction SR. so that ISA =. Then the curve » described by the particle between the points A and B is a minimum . the velocity is constant. and the integral is vs.] its VARIABLE MOTION. when reflected to another its by the velocity being . it will be broken or refracted at S. If the particle be not urged : = by accelerating forces. dx. fig. dt dt and B be moveable in space. two be added. rSA. II. the particle will it describe that curve in a shorter time than would have done any discovered by Euler other curve that could be dra\vn between these two points.^ds *• + dy. discovered that light. uniform. If a ray of light IS.^dx sd dz. falls on any surface CD. but ds variation is ds.^d\^lx \dt dt as ±lz\ y dt of the last may easily be seen by taking the Its integral is di£fercnti*il member of this equation.ldy + = vdt^ hence ""^^^^^^ ^ =i^hdx+^^dy+— dt dt dt •*" . which indicates either minimum. in a constant ratio for any one medium. is But if the medium whose surface CD be dia phanous. Wz. as glass or water. A these points is zero a maximum or it problem that hence also hfvds 0. 21.Chap. and in the shortest time possible. so that the sine of the angle of incidence ISA will be to the sine of the angle of refraction RSB.
in crystallized bodies. which may be omitted light is . fall obliquely on CD the of a medium that is more dense. Newton however proved by the attraction of the denser medium on the ray of light. wliich has since been investigated by others. If IS. in these substances first constant for any one ray. which induced Maupertuis to apply the theory of maxima and minima to this problem. an indefinitely hence the whole trajectory of the and but IS SR are described with different velocities : passage from one to the other. (IS X r 0. small curve. tliis Huygens gave a distinct account of phenomenon. in order that the trajectory may be a minimum becomes in this case hence the general expression ^fvds =r SR X i/) J. by the ordinary analysis of maxima v' sin RBS. it is constant for the = transition out of any one medium into another. but varies with of the velocity of light being different in on account the media. If the denser medium be a crystallized diaphanous different media. when applied to the refraction of light. substance. he found that the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence is to that of the angle of refraction. that v sin ISA sines depends on the ratio of the velocities. a curve or surface. 81. Format extended the same principle to the refraction of light and supposing the velocity of a ray of light to be less in the denser . that in the corpuscular hypothesis its velocity is greater in that medium than in the rarer. arises from the different velocities of the rays two images are seen instead of one. medium. as in Iceland spar and . [Book I. constant and greater than unity. The motion of a particle. the velocity of light in it will depend on the direction of the luminous ray . but variable Double refraction. when constrained to move on . it moves uniformly from light . to S but at the ^ point S both its its direction and velocity are changed. and if t/ : these velocities be v and v'. Motion of a Particle on a curved Surface. it is from one ray to another. then the variation of IS X v + SR x must be zero. a ray of surface I moving in a rare medium. so that at the instant of it describes without sensible error ISR .80 VARIABLE MOTION. + = from whence it is easily found. As the ratio of these and minima. is easily determined from equation (7) for if the .
the veloprinciple of Least Action not only holds with regard to the curves which a particle describes in space. because a a curve or surface only loses an indefinitely small particle moving on the second order in passing fVom one indefipart of its velocity of 82. .d^x+dy. du:^^.J VARIABLE MOTION. then )8 the angle abe = . A* . Tims the be not urged by accelerating forces. ^^ a for if the particle be moving on ab with if c ==^ e the velocity v . and y.d^y^dz. cos /8 + dz . II. 0.dz = dz dx dy consequently. cos « + dy . and when the forces are functions of the distance. Hence.Y'. therefore the velocity on be differs iu . But the equation of the being u = 0. the integral 2/ (x. that equation becomes dx. z) . 2) I c rr v\ 6. from the velocity on ah by the indefinitely small quantity In order to determine the pressure of the particle on the .d^z dt* ^ . the velocity is independent of the curve or surface on which the particle moves . 81 variations be and ifX'.8'. It is nitely small plane of a surface or side of a curve to the consecutive .dx + ^. the particle be urged by accelerating forces. so that the pressure vanishes from tlie preceding equation is .2f(a. c). cos « + dy cos $ + cos 7}.dy+^. /8. \du = dx . by article 69. as before. y the angles made by surface the normal with the coordinates.«' = 2/ (t. R. and if it city is constant.Chap. Xcir + Ydy + dz . but cos =1 —^ /8» &c. P. changed into differentials. if y. the analytical expression of the radius of curvature must be found. Zdz + R^ {dx . but also for those it traces wlien constrained to move on a surface. easy to see that the velocity must be constant. and «. surface. the velocity in be will be t> cos /8 . being the reaction in the normal. Z'be elimi nated by their values in the end of article 69. cos y = .
^1^ \ d'y J = ^. dx dy by r. d'y or dx ( . cos = — dd sin d.d:'x + dyd'y = 0. or ds : dxl'A sin 0. Whence ^ = . But dj* + dy* y = I ds*. Let the angle com be represented by 0. or the oscu lating circle of the curve MN. om the radius of curvature be represented then wjoA being the indefinitely small increment dO of the angle com. rl ds 111 : dO'. = — ds . fig. [Book I. 22. hence mA mD : nic. ds =: But d . Radius of Curvature. called the curve of equal curvature.32 VARIABLE MOTION. r is whence constant = — —d'x = '—^ . also d . then if Am om be the indefi nitely small but constant element of the curve MN. The circle AmB. and =— dy ' rf0 = —— siud ^ . d^. is A vature expressed by N and it is in 'Jid'xy (d'yy a curve of double curvature + ds* >/(d'xy+{d'yy+ {d'zy ds being the constant element of the curve. com and : ADm are and similar sin .^. d^anddSrr ds ^ dx . 83. . and Ill om is the radius of curvature. In the same manner cos 6 = _i. and dO but these evidently become cos de=: + ^. ds or de= + Now if ^anide=:£L. dx* . 22. the triangles '. ^ plane curve the radius of curr. :'. for the sine of the infinitely small angle considered as coinciding with the arc: hence r f/0 we have is to be =: _. * and as ds d*!/ dx. sind do cos 9. is which coincides with a curve or curved surface through an indefinitely small space on each side of m the point of contact. fg.
iV(^x)«+(d«r)». or r = (nmy ^ ' 2«E — ds" — V rfv* 2nE id^xy + (d*y)« for the arc being indefinitely small. projection curve of Jiff.Chap. are iV('^*x)«+(d*3/)'. and it is evident that a similar expression will be found for the projection of the radius of curvature on each of the other coordinate planes.7iE. + has been showTi that r = radius of curvature is V (d*x)« + id*y) ]^£ We the may imagine of a MN to be 23. for = 2r. the tangent it. is In fact i V(d»x)* +(d*y)' the sagitta of curvature (7im)' nE . is ^„ A* . then d^ will be V (d'xy + (d'yy the projection of the radius of curvature on x o y. or curve of double curvature. or curve of double curvature. may be considered as coinciding with Thus the three projections of the sagitta of curvature of the surface.] VARIABLE MOTION. double curvature on the plane joy. II. last equation. it 33 becomes and adding one to each side of the dj*+dy' <ir« _ __ ds' _ (d^vy + id'yy dx* (cfy)« Whence dx ~ V ds ^ (d*yy hence in a plane curve the ^y But it id*xy . hence the sum of their squares is iVC^W+C^^J and the radius of curvature of a surface.
Z. — For if F be the resulting force of the partial accelerating forces resolved into X. whence dt = ds — V . its owing to a primitive impulse. are zero. Y. Centrifugal Force. in the and the other gent have their the particle. Y. in consequence of the continual effort the particle in the tangent. If the particle be moving on a curved surface. the whole pressure is would be that normal . And as v the velocity is constant. acting on the particle at m. if ds be the element of the curve described in the time dt. when the particle in motion. Z. The forces in the tan and produce a change in the velocity of in but those the normal are destroyed by the resistance full effect. it may be two forces. equal and contrary Demonstration. If the particle in the were in but equilibrio. and is therefore uniform. the velocity in the tangent produces another pressure on the surface. 85. normal mN. but one tends to the interior of the surface and the other from is it. whole pressure on the the difference of these two pressures. makes to fly off its Hence when surface is the particle is in motion. [Book I. case X. then ds = . it pressure which the surface opposes with an pressure. the pressure then arising from the velocity only. if and becomes uniform we suppose them to cease. one in the direction of the tangent mT. vdt. Y. Z. of the surface. exerts a 84. tends to the exterior of the surface.34 VARIABLE MOTION. 12. Pressure of a Particle moving on a curved Surface. The velocity in the tangent variable in consequence of the accelerating forces X. therefore ds is constant and when this value of dt is substituted in . When is motion In this the particle is not urged by accelerating forces. which are both in the direction of the normal. fig.
ticle . Y'. it moves . 87. —= !^ Ry cos a u« . Z'.Chap. it gives tr . hence its pressure is constant. divided by the radius of curvature. which thus appears to be equal to the square of the velocity. —= K. in the end of article 69.] VARIABLE MOTION. 86. The effort made by the particle to stretch tlic thread. II. = R. pressure on the sphere equal to the square of the velocity divided in by the radius of the circle which 88. «» equation (7). r The member of this equation was shown to be the pressure of the particle on the surface. COB /3 c' . Imagine the particle attached to the extremity of a thread is assumed to be without mass. in consequence of the values of X'. It is evident that when the particle moves on a surface of unequal curvature. particle exerts against the circumference in order to get away from the centre. the particle will describe that its great circle which passes through the primitive direction of tliis motion. the pressure must vary with the radius of curvature. case the circle AmB is itself its the path of the paris and in every part of its motion. fixed to it is clear that the pressure which the is equal to the tension of the thread. cos 7 considered as free. D2 . When In the surface is a sphere. whereof the other extremity the centre of the surface . is the centrifugal force. provided the particle be restrained in its motion by the thread alone. whence for by article 81 the particle may be d^ is ' and as the osculating radius d^ *Jid^xy+id^yy+id!'zy so R^ first = ^.
36
Hence
89.
VARIABLE MOTION.
[Book
I.
the centrifugal force of a particle revolving about a ce.rtre, is
its
equal to the square of
velocity divided
by the radius.
tliat
The plane of
the osculating circle, or the plane
indefinitely small
passes
tlirough two consecutive and
sides of the curve
described by the particle,
is
the particle moves.
And
the curve described by the particle
perpendicular to the surface on which is the
shortest line that can be
face, consequently this singular
drawn between any two points of the surlaw in the motion of a particle on a
surface depends on the principle of least action.
With regard
its
to the
Earth, this curve
drawn from point to point on
;
surface
is
called a
perpendicular to the meridian
such are the lines which have been
measured both in France and England, in order to ascertain the
true figure of the globe.
90. It appears that
forces, the pressure of
when there are no constant or accelerating
a particle on any point of a curved surface
is
by due to the accelerating forces be added, the whole pressure of the particle on the surface will be
at that point. If to this the pressure
equal to the square of the velocity divided
the radius of curvature
obtained,
when
the velocity
is
variable.
surface, the pressure
91. If the particle
moves on a
due to the
centrifugal force will be equal to
fig.
what
it
it
would exert against the
24.
^^"^'^
curve
describes resolved in the di
rection of the normal to the surface
in that point
;
that
is, it
will
be equal
to the square of the velocity divided
by the radius of the osculating circle, and multiplied by the sine of the
angle that the plane of that circle
X.'
makes with
Let
the tangent plane to
tlie
;
surface.
MN,
fig.
24, be the path of a particle on the surface
mo
the radius of the osculating circle at
m, and
mD a tangent to the
surface at
then om being radius, oD is the sine of the inclination of the plane of the osculating circle on the plane that is tangent to
;
m
the surface at
m,
tlie
centrifugal force
13*
is
equal to
X oD om
is
If to this, the part of the pressure wliidi
due to the accelerat*
Chap.
II.]
VARIABLE MOTION.
sum
will
39
ing forces be added, the
surface.
be the whole pressure on the
that part
92. It
appears that the
centrifugal force
;
is
of the
pressure which depends on velocity alone
accelerating forces
it is
and when there are no
the pressure
itself.
93. It
is
very easy to
is
show that
in a circle,
jig. 25.
the centrifugal force
central force.
equal and contrary to the
Demonstration.
force
—By
article
03
a
central
F combined
with an impulse, causes a
arc
particle to
describe an indefinitely small
mA,
is
fig.
25, in the time dl.
As
the sine
may
be taken for the tangent, the space described from the impulse alone
but
80
= vdt; (aA)' = 2r am,
aA
.
am
=:
,
2r
r being radius.
But as the central force causes the
particle to
move
through the space
am
in the
=
r
^F
.
d^,
same
time,
94.
If
tJ
and
t/
be the velocities of two bodies, moving in circles
whose
radii are r
and
r',
their velocities are as the circumferences
;
divided by the times of their revolutions
that
is,
directly as the
is
circular motion space, and inversely as the time, since But the radii are as their circumferences, hence v"
uniform.
:
«'« ::
i_
I*
:
!L,
t'*
t
forces of the
and V being the times of revolution. two bodies, then
c
.
If c and
d
be the centrifugal
c'
:'.
— —
.
,
r
or, substituting for v*
r'
and w", we have
VARIABLE MOTION.
'
[Book
I.
cl
.... cr
r
t*
,
r
I'*
Thus the
95.
centrifugal forces are as the radii divided by the squares of
the times of revolution.
With regard
;
to the Earth the times of rotation are every
where the same
are as the radii
hence the centrifugal forces, in diiferent latitudes, of these parallels. These elegant theorems dis
covered by Huygens, led Newton to the general theory of motioA in curves, and to the law of universal gravitation.
Motion of Projectiles.
96.
From
the general equation of motion
is
also derived
the
motion of projectiles.
Gravitation affords a perpetual example of a continued force
influence
;
its
;
on matter
its
is
the same whether at rest or in motion
recesses, and were
all
it
it
penetrates
most intimate
not for the resist
ance of the
:
air, it
would cause
bodies to
fall
with the same velo
exerted at the greatest heights to which man has been city able to ascend, and in the most profound depths to which he has
it
is
perpendicular to the horizon, and therefore varies for every point on the earth's surface but in the
penetrated.
Its
direction
is
;
motion of projectiles
lines
;
it
may be assumed
to act in parallel straight
for,
any curves
that projectiles could describe
on the earth
may
be esteemed as nothing in comparison of its circumference'. The mean radius of the earth is about 4000 miles, and MM. Biot
and Gay Lussac ascended in a balloon to the height of about four miles, which is the greatest elevation that has been attained, but
even that
is
only the 1000th part of the radius.
of gravitation at or near the earth's
surface may,
;
The power
without sensible error, be considered as a uniform force
for the
is
decrease of gravitation, inversely as the square of the distance,
hardly perceptible at any height within our reach.
97. Demonstration.
—
If a particle be projected in a straight line
it
MT,
fig.
26, forming any angle whatever with the horizon,
will
con
stantly deviate from the direction
force,
MT by the action of the
which
is
gravitating
and
will describe
a curve
MN,
concave towards the
horizon,
and
to
which
MT
is
tangent at
M.
On
this particle there
Chap. II.]
VARIABLE MOTION.
26
39
arc two forces act
ing at every instant
of
its
fig.
motion
of
is
:
the
the
resistance
air,
which
always
in a direction con
trary to the motion
of the particle
;
and
the force of gravitation,
it
which urges with an accelemotion, ac ^V
rated
cording to the perpendiculars Erf, Cf, &c. The resistance of the air may be resolved into three partial forces, in the direction of the
three axes ox, oy, oz^ but gravitation acts
direction of os alone.
on the
particle in
air,
the
its
If
A represents the
ox
is
resistance of the
component force
in the axis
evidently
— A
— ds
;
for if
Aw
or
ds be the space proportional to the resistance, then
Am
:
Ec
: :
A A
:
Am
Ec_
= A^; ds
but as this force acts in a direction contrary to the motion of the be taken with a negative sign. Tlie resistance in particle, it must
the axes oy and oz are
— A ^,~A —
ds
ds
;
hence
if
g be the
force of
gravitation, the forces acting
on the
particle are
Y= A^; X=A^; ds ds
As the particle we have
is
Z
= ff~A^. ds
;
free,
eacU of the
virtual velocities is zero
hence
^=_A^dP
'
£y
df
:=
 Ailds
'
ds
— =2— A — ds
dl'
projectile.
•
'
for the determination of the
motion of the
If
A be
eli
minated between the two
first, it
appears that
^^dy^^dx
dt dl
dt
dt
ordlogf!f ^
dt
=
dlog^; dt
40
VARIABLE MOTION.
loff
[Book
I.
andintesfratin^, ^ ^
^dt
if
— = log ^ C + log ^ _^.
dt
Wlience
— =:C^, or
dt dt
dx
in
=
Cdy, and
we
integrate a second time,
X
which
=
Cy
+
D,
C
and
D
are the constant quantities introduced by double
it
integration.
As
this is the equation to a straight line,
follows that
the projection of the curve in which the
body moves on the plane
xoy
is
a straight
line,
consequently the curve
MN
is
is
in the plane
zox, that is at right angles to
xoy
;
thus
MN
a plane curve, and
the motion of the projectile is in a plane at right angles to the Since the projection of horizon. on xoy is the straight line
MN
ED,
therefore w
= 0, and the equation —V— = — A —^
^
is
of no
dt^
dt
use in the solution of the problem, there being no motion in the direction oy. Theoretical reasons, confirmed to a certain extent by
experience,
density
is
show
that the resistance of the air supposed of uniform
;
proportional to the square of the velocity
hence,
A=
Au'
=A—
,
di*
h being a
it is X
quantity that varies
;
vi'ith
the density, and
is
constant
when
uniform
^
^
thus the general equations
become
,
d^x _^
dt'
" _t
ds
dx
^
d^z
ds
dz
;
"dt'di'
first is
d^~^""
"dt'dt'
the integral of the
^= Cc**,
dt
C
being an arbitrary constant quantity, and c the number whose
dz
hyperbolic logarithm is unity. In order to integrate the second,
tion of z
;
let
= udx,
t
u being a
func
then the differential according to
d*2 __ '~
dxi
gives
dx
,
d'x
'
d^
dt
'di
d?'
If this be put in the second of equations (a), it becomes, in conse
quence of the
first,
du
dx
__
di
"dt~
^'
Cbap.
II.]
VARIABLE MOTION.
by means of the preceding
integral,
41
and making
or, eliminating dl
_£ =
2C*
it
«.
becomes
*i
dx
=: 2ac«*.
The
u in functions of j, integral of this equation will give
and
when
substituted in
dz
it
= udx,
first
will furnish
a new equation of the
order between
r, x,
and
t,
which will be the differential equation of the trajectory. If the resistance of the medium be zero, A 0, and the preceding
=
equation gives
u and substituting
= 2ax +
+
b,
— dx
dz
for u,
and integrating again
bx
2 r= ax"
b
+
b'
and
b'
being arbitrary constant quantities.
This
is
is
the equation
to a parabola
whose
axis
is
vertical,
which
the curve a projectile
would describe
in vacuo.
When
A
=
0, d'z
= gdP
;
and as the second
differential
of the preceding integral gives
d'z r= '2adx'
;
dt =:
dx
/*f ^ g
,
therefore
t
=x
+ a\ ^/'^ S
the origin of the coordinates,
;
If the particle begins to
move from
the time as well as x, y, z, are estimated from that point and a' are zero, and the two equations of motion become
z
hence
b'
=
crx*
+
bx
;
and
<
= x / £^
S
;
whence
z=zgL+ ^
tb
^/F. 2a
^
;
VARIABLE MOTION.
[Book
I.
These three equations contain the whole theory of proje'iiles vacuo the second equation shows that the horizontal motion
uniform, being proportional to the time
the motion in the perpendicular
is
;
in
is
the third expresses that
uniformly accelerated, being as
the square of the time.
Theory of Falling Bodies.
99. If the particle begins to
move from a
state
of rest,
6=0, and
the equations of motion are
^=
The
first
gt,
and z
=
i^.
;
shows that the velocity increases as the time
the second
shows that the space increases as the square of the time, and that
the particle the time
it
t,
moving uniformly with
the velocity
is,
it
has acquired in
would describe the space 22, that
double the space
has moved through.
Since gt expresses the velocity r, the last
of the preceding equations gives
2gz
= g*<« = v\
v.
where z
from
ticle
is
the height through which the particle must have descended
rest, in
order to acquire the velocity
In
fact,
were the par
projected perpendicularly upwards, the parabola would then
:
coincide with the vertical
those of falling bodies
;
thus the laws of parabolic motion include
for the force of gravitation
is at
overcomes the
force of projection, so that the initial velocity
length destroyed,
from the highest point of its ascent the force of from as a state of rest. By experience by gravitation, found to a of it is velocity acquire nearly 32 19 feet in the first second
to fall
.
and the body then begins
of
its
descent at London, and in two seconds
it
acquires a velocity of
64.38, having fallen through 16.095 feet in the first second, and in the next 32. 19 + 16.095 48.285 feet, &c. The spaces described
=
are as the odd numbers 1,3, 5, 7, &c.
Tliese laws,
on which the whole theory of motion depends, were
discovered by Galileo.
Chap. II.]
VARIABLE MOTION.
4?
Comparison of the Centrifugal Force with Gravity.
100.
for if
The
centrifugal force
may now be compared
with gravity,
V be the velocity of a particle moving in the circumference of
a
circle of
which r
is
the radius,
its
centrifugal force
is/r:
—
r
.
Let
A be
to
article
is
the space or height through which a
;
acquhre a velocity equal to v
body must fall in order then by what was shown in
99, u* s= 2Ag, for the accelerating force in the present case
;
gravity
hence
force
if
/=
——
'.
'i.
If
we
suppose A =: ^
r,
the centrifugal
101. Thus,
becomes equal to
gravity.
thread,
and
if
a heavy body be attached to one extremity of a it be made to revolve in a horizontal plane round
;
the other extremity of the thread fixed to a point in the plane
if
the velocity of revolution be equal
to
what the body would
acquire by falling through a space equal to half the length of the
thread, the
body
will stretch the thread with the
same
force as
if it
hung
vertically.
102. Suppose the body to employ the time
T to describe
the cir
cumference whose radius
is
r
;
then t being the ratio of the circum
ference to the diameter, v
=
T
4ir'r
,
whence
/._
Thus
the centrifugal force
is
directly proportional to the radius,
and
in the inverse ratio of the square of the time
employed
to describe
the circumference.
Therefore, with regard to the earth, the centri
fugal force increases from the poles to the equator, and gradually diminishes the force of gravity. The equatorial radius, computed
from the mensuration of degrees of the meridian, is 20920600 feet, T 365"*. 2564, and as it appears, by experiments with the pendu
=
lum, that bodies
fall
at
the equator
16.0436
feet in a second, the
preceding formulu? give the ratio of the centrifugal force to gravity at the equator equal to j^^. Tlierefore if the rotation of the earth
were 17 times more rapid, the centrifugal force would be equal to gravity, and at the equator bodies would be in equilibrio from the
action of these
two
forces.
44
VARIABLE MOTION.
[Book
I.
Simple Pendulum.
103.
A
particle of matter
supposed to be without weight,
the simple pendulum.
Jig 27.
suspended at the extremity of a thread, and fixed at its other extremity, forms
104. Let m,
matter,
27, be the particle of
fig.
Sm the
thread,
and S the point
in a curve
of suspension.
to the particle,
If an impulse be given
it
it
will
move
wiADC,
as if
were on the surface
is
of the sphere of which S
the centre
;
and the greatest deviation from the vertical Sz would be measured by the
sine of the angle
arises
CSm.
This motion
from the combined action of
gravitation and the impulse.
105.
The impulse may be such
;
as to
make
the particle describe a
curve of double curvature
particle will describe the
or
if it
be given in the plane xSz, the
arc of a circle
DCm,
fig.
28
;
but
it
is
evident that the extent of the arc will be in proportion to
Jiff
the
28.
intensity of the impulse,
and
it
may be
so
great as to cause the particle to describe
an
indefinite
if
number of circumferences.
if
But
the impulse be small, or
the par
ticle be drawn from the vertical to a point B and then left to itself, it will be urged
in the vertical
by
gravitation,
which
will
cause
it
to describe the arc
;
mC
at
with an
it
accelerated velocity
when
C
will
have acquired so much velocity that it will overcome the force of but gravitation, and having passed that point, it will proceed to D in this half of the arc its motion will be as much retarded by gravi;
tation as
at
it
was accelerated
all
in the other half
;
so that on arriving
D it will have lost DC with an accelerated
manner
it
its velocity,
and
it
will
it
motion which
will carry
descend through to B again. In
this
would continue to move for
air.
ever,
is
were
it
not for
the resistance of the
This kind of motion
called oscillation.
Chap. II.]
VARIABLE MOTION.
oscillation is the time the particle
45
employs to move
Tlie time of an
through the arc BCD. 106. Demonstration.
it
— AVhatcver may he the
in
article
nature of the curve,
has
already heen
shown
99, that at any point
m,
the
V*
=
2gz,
g
being the
force of gravitation,
and
z
=
Up,
through which the particle must have descended in order to If the particle has been impelled instead acquire the velocity v.
heigiit
of falling from
rest,
and
if I
be the velocity generated by the
»'
impulse, the equation becomes
directly as the
= + 2gz.
I
The
velocity at
m is
element of the space, and inversely as the element of
the time
;
hence
,
_
(Am)*
_
.
ds*
_
^
T
,
o
whence
dt
=
~
—
.
'Jl\2g .2
The sign
of ds
is
made
negative,
because z diminishes as
If the equation of the trajectory or curve
= Am may
be obtained from
it
in
t augments. be given, the value terms of z H^, and then
mCD
=
the finite value of the preceding equation will give the time of an
oscillation in that curve.
107.
tory
is
The
case of greatest importance
is
that in
;
a circle of which
Sm
is
the radius
then
if
which the trajecan impulse be
given to the pendulum at the point
in
B
perpendicular to
SB, and
the
the plane xoz,
it
will
oscillate in that plane.
Let h be
height through which the
velocity given
particle
must
fall in
by the impulse, the initial and if BSC a be the greatest amplitude, or greatest deviation of the pendulum from the vertical, it will be a constant
=
order to acquire the velocity I will then be 2gh ;
quantity.
Let the variable angle mSC =: 0, and if the radius be r, then — SH r (cos 6 cos r cos 0; SH r cos «; Hj9 S/> Sj)
=
=
=
;
=
—
and the elementary arc time becomes
.u dt
mA =
«),
rdQ
hence the expression for the
— =
—
V 2g{h +
— rdO
r cos
—
.
r cos «)
i(
This expression will take a more convenient form,
(I
x
—
= Cp
=
<*)
cos d)
be the versed sine of
mSC, and ^
,
=
(1
—
cos
the versed sine of
BSC
;
then dO
=
and
^
dt
VARIABLE MOTION.
[Book
I.
=
—
J2x — J?*
V
.
rdx
'J'2g{h
\
+ r/8 —
—
rx).
rx)
=
ij
2g{h
r^
Since the versed sine never can surpass 2, if A 2r, the r/3 velocity will never be zero, and the pendulum will describe an indefinite
+
>
number of circumferences
at that point
;
but
if
A
+
r/8
< 2r, the velocity v
—
will
be zero
of the trajectory where x
—I—r
,
and
tlie
pendulum
and
will oscillate
on each
side of the vertical.
If the origin of motion be at the
commencement of an
oscillation,
A r=
0,
dt=.

^
y/
/r —
S
dx
.
Now
/,
X
>Jfixa^
V^^~2
2j
therefore, ;refore,
2
2
2.4
4
2.4.6
8
dt
^
By La
S
'^Pxx^X
2
2
2.4
4
I
Croix' Integral Calculus,
/dx
.
—
Q\ = arc (cos = 2x — L +
,
,
)
constant.
^
^
But the
that
is,
integral
must be taken between the
limits
a:
=
/3
and
d?
=
0,
from the greatest amplitude to the point C.
Hence
— dx
S.tj^x » being
same author
it
x*
the ratio of the circumference to the diameter.
will
From
the
be found that
J
lation,
J/ix  X*
limits.
J ^ fix x"
Hence,
if
between the same
i^T be the time of half
an
oscil
/~,
/iV^
/^1'3V^*
/1.3.5V
/3'
Chap. II.]
VARIABLE MOTION.
may be
47
This series gives the time whatever
lations
;
the extent of the oscil
but
if
they be very small,
—
.
may be
omitted
in
most
cases
;
then
T
As
= V \/ — irx/j.
(11)
this equation does not contain the arcs, tlie time is independent of their amplitude, and only depends on the length of the thread and the intensity of gravitation and as the intensity of gravitation is
;
invariable for any one place
that place.
It follows,
on the
earth, the time is constant at
that the small oscillations of
a pendulum
are performed in equal times,
whatever their comparative extent
may
be.
The
arc.
shows that
which the time of an oscillation is given however, not altogether independent of the amplitude of the In very delicate observations the two first terms are retained ;
series in
it is
so that
for as
/8 is
the versed sine of the arc «,
when
the arc
is
very small,
/3
= 3 nearly.
The term t
\/ — \~a) ~Ti Vv(^T4*.
which
is
very small,
is
the correction due to the magnitude of the arc described, and
is
make
the equation alluded to in article 9, which must be applied to the times equal. This correction varies with the arc when the
pendulum oscillates in air, therefore the resistance of the medium has an influence on the duration of the oscillation.
108. The intensity of gravitation at any place on the earth may be determined from the time and the corresponding length of the pendulum. If the earth were a sphere, and at rest, tlie intensity of
gravitation
would be the same
in every point of
its
surface
;
because
its
every point in its surface
centre.
would then be equally distant from
is
But as the earth
flattened at the poles, the intensity of
gravitation increases from the equator to the poles; therefore the
pendulum that would
oscillate
in
a second at the equator, must be
lengthened in moving towards the poles.
48
If
VARIABLE MOTION.
h be
the space a body would describe
[Book
its
I.
by
gravitatio^v during
.
the tune T, then 2A
=
^P, and
because T«
= t*
__
;
therefore
S
Arri^'.r.
this expression will give h, the
(13)
If r be the length of a pendulum beating seconds in any latitude,
height described by a heavy body
during the
first
second of
its fall.
The length of
the seconds
pendulum
at
London
is
39 1387 inches
.
;
consequently in that latitude gravitation causes a heavy body to through 16.0951 feet during the first second of its descent.
fall
Huygens had
the merit of discovering that the rectilinear motion of
heavy bodies might be determined by the oscillations of the pendulum. It is found by experiments first made by Sir Isaac Newton,
that the length of a
whatever the substance
gravitation acts equally
in the
pendulum vibrating in a given time is the same, may be of which it is composed hence
;
on
all
bodies, producing the
is
same
air.
velocity
same time, when there
no resistance from the
Isochronous Curve.
109.
The
oscillations of a
tlie
pendulum
in circular arcs being isochroit is
nous only when
arc
is
very small,
now proposed
to inves
tigate the nature of the curve in which a particle must move, so as
to oscillate in equal times, whatever the amplitude of the arcs
may be.
pendulum any point of the cur^'e are of resolved in the force direction of the arc, and the gravitation
at
The
forces acting on the
the resistance of the air which retards the motion.
The
first
is
 g
P
Am
,
or §•
.
—
ds
is
,
tlie
arc
Am
being indefinitely small
;
and
the second, which
proportional to the square of the velocity,
,
is
expressed hy
is directly
—
/ds \*
7i(
)
—
in
which n
is
any number,
for the velocity
as the element of the space, and inversely as the element of Tlius
the time.
—g
dz
ds
—
n
—
ds*
is
the whole force acting
on the
dt*
Chap. II.]
VARIABLE MOTION.
(49
pendulum, hence the equation
F
= —f
ds dt^
article
68, becomes
^o
,

ff
dz — — n—
ds
ds' d(*
=
integral of which will give the isochrorous curve in air but the most interesting
;
The
results
arc
to
obtained
when
;
the
particle
is
assumed
move
in
vacuo
then n
=
,
0,
and
the equation ^
becomes
— =r dC
—
"
«•
— ds
.
wliich, multiplied
by 2ds and integrated, gives
ds'
—=
c
—
dP
2gZf c being
an arbitrary constant quantity. Let 2 =: h at m, fig. 29, where the motion begins, the velocity being zero at that point, then will c =: 2gh, and therefore
— = 2g(h
" ^
dt^

z); ^
whence
the sign
is
dt=z
ds
'J2g{hz)
negative, because the arc diminishes as the time increases.
is
When
the radical
developed,
{ 1
dt= A^
^2gh
of z
;
+
i ±. ^
+
LJ
2
.
il
A«
+
4
&c. }
Whatever the nature of the required curve may be, s is a function and supposing this function developed according to the powders
;:,
of
its
differential will
have the form,
ds
dz
= az' +
62"
+
&c.
it
Substituting this value of ds in the preceding equation,
dt
becomes
^
= J^.z.{i + L. ^* 2
V2^
^
2
.
4
/i«
J2g
The
A* ^*
2
A h
4 2.4 2
.
— + &c.
A*
]d2.
integral of this equation, taken from 2 n:
A
to 2 =: 0, will give
the time employed by the particle in descending to C, the lowest point
of the curve.
But according to the conditions of the problem, the time must be independent of A, the height whence the particle has
descended
;
consequently to
fulfil
that condition, all the terms of Uio
•
E
m
and
is «
i
VARIABLE MOTION.
tlie first
;
[Book
I.
value of dt must be zero, except
therefore b
;
must be
zero,
+ =
1
^, or
i
=
 ^
;
thus
ds=
az~^dz
the integral of which
=
2a2*, the equation to
a cycloid DzE,
fig.
30, with a horizontal
base, the only curve in vacuo having the property required.
Hence
the oscillations of a pendulum
moving
in a cycloid are rigorously
tlie
isochronous in vacuo.
If r
=
2BC, by
properties of the cycloid
r
= 2a', and
if
the preceding value of d« be put in
d<
=/Z.
•
^_
arc (cos
its
integral is
<
=§
=
?ill^^
.
It is unnecessary to
add a constant quantity
if r
= ^ when =
<
0.
If
^T
be the time that the particle takes to descend to the lowest
point in the curve where z
=
.
0,
then
T
=
/]i
S
arc (cos
=—1) =
ir.
,^^.
S Thus the time of descent through the cycloidal arc is equal to a semioscillation of the pendulum whose length is r, and whose oscillations
are very small, because at the lowest point of the curve the cycloidal
arc ds coincides with the indefinitely small arc of the osculating circle
wliose vertical diameter
is
2r.
is
110.
fig.
The cycloid
in question
formed by supposing a
circle
ABC,
30, to roll along a straight line
ED.
The curve
EAD traced by
a point
A in its
circumference
is
a cycloid.
In the same manner the
cycloidal arcs
SD, SE, may be traced by a point in a circle, rolling the other side of DE. Tliese arcs are such, that if we imagine on
a thread fixed
it
at
S
to be applied to
SD, and then unrolled so
its
that
may
always be tangent to SD,
extremity
equal
to
D
will
trace the
cycloid
DzE; and
DS.
It is
the tangent
zS
is
the
is
correspondequal to the
is
ing arc
evident also, that the line
DE
circumference of
'}
the circle
ABC.
The curve
SD
called the
involute, and the curve Dz the In applying this princievolute.
ple to the construction of clocks,
it
is
so
difficult
to
make
the
cycloidal
arcs
SE, SD, round
lum winds
which the thread of the penduat each vibration, that
the motion in small circular arcs
Chop.
is
II.]
VARIABLE MOTIOX.
51
preferred.
Tlie properties of the isoclironous curve were discovered
by Huygens,
who
first
applied
tlie
pendulum to
clocks.
Jig.
111. Tlie time of the very small oscillation of
31.
a circular pendulum
r being
tlie
is
expressed by
T=ty/
_L
length of the pendulum, and consefig.
quently the radius of the circle AmB,
i
31. Also
= aX ^
fall
is
the time
employed by a heavy
to «.
body to
by the force of gravitation through a height equal
fall
Now
the time employed by a heavy body to
through a space
t
equal to twice the length of the pendulum will be
=y
hence
iT:<::i:ryi.: y4r,
or
1:< 2
is,
that
the time employed to
is
move through the
arc
Am, which
fa32.
is
half
an
oscillation,
to the time
of foiling through
twice the length of the pendulum, as a fourth of to its diathe circumference of the circle
AmB
meter.
But the times of
falling
through
all
chords drawn to the lowest point A, fig. 32, of a
cle are equal
:
cir
for the accelerating force
F
in
:
any
chord
or as
AB,
is to tliat
of gravitation as
AC AB,
^
But the forces
AB
to
AD,
since the
triangles are similar.
being as
tlie
spaces, the times are equal: for as
F
it
:
ff :
:
AB AD
:
and
T
:
<
::
^
;
:
^,
AB,
is
follows that
T=
<.
112.
Hence
the time of falling tlirough the chord
the
same with
falling
that of falling tlirough the diameter
and thus the time of
through the chord
through the arc
AB
is
to the time of falling
AB
as
—
2
:
2, that
is,
as oncfouith of the circumference to the dia
£
2
52
meter,
or as
1
.
VARIABLE MOTION.
57079
to 2.
[Book
I.
Thus
the
straight line
AB,
tliough
is
the shortest that can be drawn between the points the line of quickest descent.
B
and A,
not
Curve of quickest Descent.
113. In order to find the curve in which a heavy body will descend
from one given point to another
in the shortest time possible, let
2,
CP =
The
PM =
3/,
and
CM =
g
s, fig.
33.
velocity of a
body moving
in the
curve at
M will
—
dt
be^2^2,
being the
force of gravitation.
/o
Therefore
A/2gz
^ or at jt = — =z
—
da
_
V 2gz
the time employed in
moving from
=z
s
M to
m.
C/j
Now let == z +dz
=2',
=:
pm
rfs
.
y
+
s'.
dy =y',
and
Cm
is
+
=
Then
the time of
moving through mm'
Therefore the time
A/2gz' of moving from
M to m'
or,
is
—
V 2gz
+
—
V
2^20.
,
which by hypothesis
must be a minimum,
by the method of variations,
,
ds
+ J^ =
VT'
same
for
Vz
The
values of 2 and
r'
are the
any curves that can be drawn
between the points whatever the curves
M
and m'
:
hence
Mz
=
om'
^dz'
is
=
0.
Besides,
for all
;
may
be, the ordinate
the
same
:
hence dy
•{
dy'
is
constant, therefore ^(^dy
+
dy') =:
whence
Jdyr: My'\ and J
+
VI
J
—= =
*Jz'
0,
from these considerations,
becomes
^
—
is
—
^^^
ds *Jz'
=
is
0.
Now
it
is
evident,
that the
ds "Jz
second term of
this equation
only the
its
first
term in which each
variable quantity
augmented by
increment, so that
^^
dy V"
_
dy'
_
z'
^y
ds
=0,
dsV
sz
Chap.
II.]
VARIABLE MOTION.
63
whence
ds
J%
^^ = A.
But ^
is
the sine of the angle that the tangent to the curve
line of the abscissa;,
is
makes with the
gent
is
and
at the point
where the tan:
horizontal this angle
a right angle, so that
ll =r 1
hence
ds
if
a be the value of
z at that point,
A =
,
and ^
=
/_L»
but,
d^
=
dy*
+
dz*, therefore
"~
the equation to the cycloid, wliich
^
is
a—z
the curve of quickest descent.
The law of reaction being equal and contrary to action. is a system of bodies. whereas a body is balanced by equal and contrary momenta. is propor tional to the product of tlie velocity hence the only difference between the equilibrium of a particle and that of a solid body is. For the same reason. as of A gold. 116. the bodies remain at rest . Any number Momentum is each other's motion or 115. then if by two threads so as to touch one another when they be drawn aside from the perpendicular to let fall equal heights and at the same instant. 114. they will strike one another centrically. is of bodies which can in any way mutually affect rest. the product of the mass and the velocity of a body. be suspended at rest. if they be multiplied by its mass.64 [Book I. CHAPTER III. and thus the equation of the equiUbrium or motion of a particle will determine the equilibrium or motion of a solid body. that if two spheres of the same dimensions and of homogeneous matter. and momentum . is a general induction from observations made on the motions of bodies when placed within certain distances of one another the law is. so as to in the perpendicular. and the mass A moving it. 19. but of different dimensions. the sum of the momenta generated and estimated in a given direc tion is zero. that . 118. if the velocities be inversely as the quantities of matter. The experiment being repeated with spheres of homogeneous matter. Definitions and Axioms. Force proportional to velocity. ON THE EQUILIBRIUM OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES. and B It is found by experunent. the motion of a solid body differs from the motion of a particle by the mass alone. force is proportional to the quantity of momentum generated by Reaction equal and contrary 1 to Action. that a particle is balanced by equal and contrary forces. 117. and will destroy each other's motion.
a force equal and con same force tliat it is electrical attractions . III.] after EQUILIBRIUM OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES. or that equal momenta in opposite directions destroy one the quantity of another. tlmt in this case. the sum of their tendencies constitutes is the its weight of a body weight. with spheres formed of matter of the same kind. In order to show their tliat to WeigfU. tlian the ^. Suppose two masses of different kinds of matter. a mode of . trary to that which tliey communicate. A. If the move in the same or in opposite directions. them must be employed afford the mass without weighing the experiments that have been described defining their so.Chap. without depriving tlie latter body of Iron attracts the magnet with the tlie same quantity of motion. the same thing is seen in and repulsions. r^f 1 the smaller sphere must descend through a greater space larger. having arrived at the preceding it is found that one of the bodies may be replaced by matter of another kind. 121. in order to acquire the necessary velocity. the same mass or quantity of matter. attracted by it. TmC5v^i<^£^QPf4iA cases. That which produces the same effects as the mass replaced. tliis respect they are subject to the same laws as inanimate Mass proportional 120. with diffcrenwf^iwcn^^ r i and one strike the other. but of different dimensions from that replaced. and in beings. the body that impinges will Ws^^sIcMf'} US 7Y momentum tliat the other acquires. it is known by experience that reaction is equal and comJarjr to action. and as in any one point of the earth's surface every particle of matter tends to move with the same velocity by tlie action of gravitation. it is found they receive by the reaction of matter. Daily experience shows that one body cannot acquire motion by the action of another. and B of cast copper. Density. at . will 55 impinging remain at rest It is evident. for means of doing results. If A in motion will destroy the . is considered as containing is Thus the mass defined independent of weight. of ham mered gold. and also in animal forces for whatever may be the moving principle of man and animals. hence the mass of a body proportional to one and the same place. is the mass of bodies proportional to weight.
as water. and suppose the line to 'ii ^ little. therefore.p. gm' be the gravitation of the two bodies. magnitude of the second body to that of the first be as in to 1 . 124. Tlie densities of bodies of equal volumes are in the ratio of their weights. their masses are reciprocally as their distances from the point of motion. the quantity of matter in the second body will be represented by m y. same magnitude of the density will of matter in another body of the be represented by p and if the . its points «. motion of a third mass of matter C. 1 23. since the weights are proportional to their masses . Specijic Gravity. let two heavy bodies. which may will Hg be the force of gravitation. Mass proportional 122. be bent in n. free to turn round one of ^9' 34. one in the . indefinitely small angle amw. for if the quantity of matter in a given cubical magnitude of a given kind of matter. and twice produce the requi. be at tached to the extremities of ap inflexible line.56 ON THE EQUILIBRIUM OF B is [Book I. be arbitrarily assumed as the unit. is This ratio the specific gravity of a body. then the density of A is said to be double the density of B. 34. by assuming water for the unit of density the maximum density of distilled at a constant temperature. — m and m\ fig. But the gravitation gm acting in the direction na may be resolved into two forces. If two heavy bodies be attached to the extremities of an inflexible line without when mass. gm. tiplied to the Volume into the Density. which may turn freely on one of its points. Dcmomtralion. the density of be the this ratio of its weight to that of a like a body will volume of water reduced to maximum.^d to same effect. The masses of bodies by tiieir are proportional to their volumes mul densities . Equilibrium of two Bodies. For. in equilibrio. the quantity p. but so that m'nm only dif fers from two right angles by an be represented by u.
and also to be itself subject to the the action of all tliese forces on the bodies m. and that m is arbitrarily mn is the virtual velocity of m and if the per. suppose the number of bodies to be only three m. m". . are as the masses of these bodies and the intensities of the forces conjointly. acting on m' in tlie direction m'm. be dered .to. which is the law of and shows the reciprocal action of parallel forces.Chap. and when the bodies also mutually act on. it may be shown that the action of m' on ^^ u +7 wf ijut when the bodies are in equilibrio. g^»v/ "rJ iia ijut fyitu na 11 I '. for the arc b> so small that it may be taken for its sine. for simplicity. m'. The equilibrium of a system of bodies is may be found. Suppose m' and moved to 7i : then m" to remain fixed. destroyed by tlie fixed point and another . 125. m'n =J' then the is m'm :::^f+f part very nearly. body to action of each. — act on all the other bodies. when the system acted on by any forces whatever. Let the action of the forces on one body.fy and the action of m on m In is tlie same manner J . and m". as m.] direction A SYSTEM OF BODIES. Let mn = f. these forces must be equal : therefore ^^^J "^ J J =: wf or : g^ U + J wf ) ^ whence equili gmf=igm'f. which is 57 »». first consi and. attracted by a force whose origin in S. III. — Let m.. mn. m^'. Hence the wliole force gin the is to acting on J . Equilibrium of a System of Bodies. gm gm' ::/' :/. and action of is m on m'. — wi'. be a system of bodies 35 and suppose each . by the and also urged by the reciprocal action of the bodies m' and m". &c. brium in the lever. fig. is &c. m' ii na I I mm'.. It is evident that m is attracted force at S. or attract each other. Hence na=z . Demonstration. m'.
5S
pendiculars
7jcr,
ON THE EQUILIBRIUM OF
nb, nc be drawn, the lines
[Book
«tfe
I.
ma, mb, mc,
the
virtual velocities of
m
resolved in the direction of the forces which
virtual velocities, if the action
act on m.
Hence, by the principle of
of the force at S on
be multiplied by 7na, the mutual action of and m" by mc, the sum of and m' by mb, and the mutual action of is in these products must be zero wlicn the point or, equilibrio
m
m
m
m
being the mass,
if
the action of
S on
m m be
wic
;
F.m, and
the reci
procal actions of
m on m' and m" be p, p\ then
p'
wF X ma + p X mb +
Now,
if
x
=
0.
m
m" remain fixed, and that m' is moved m'F' X m'a' + p y. m'b' + p" x m,'c' = 0.
and
to n', then
And
Hence
a similar equation may be found for each body in the system. the sum of all these equations must be zero when the system
If, tlien,
is in equilibrio.
the distances
by s, have
«',
s",
and the distances mm'y
Sm, Sm\ Sm", be represented mm", m'm", hy f,f,f'\we shall
&c.
2.mFh + l.p^f+ l.p^f ±, 2
being the sum of
If the bodies
finite quantities
;
= 0,
for
it
is evident that
J/= mb +
m'b',
^f
=:
mc
+ m"c",
and so on.
move on
surfaces,
it is
only necessary to add the
terms KSr, R'Jr', &c., in which
R
and R' are the pressures or
resistances of the surfaces, and ^r Jr' the elements of their directions or the variations of the normals.
Hence
in equilibrio
l.mFh +
Now,
2.J95/+
&c.
+
R5r
is
+
;
R'Jr', &c.
= 0.
the variation of the normal
:
zero
consequently the pres
sures vanish from this equation
and
if
the bodies be united at fixed
distances from each other, the lines
are constant
:
—consequently ^f=
^(,r'xy
mm', m'm",
5/'
&c., or
0,
= 0,
in
f,fy
&c.,
&c.
is
The
distance /"of two points
m and m'
space
/=
X, y, X,
+ (y'yy+{z'z)\
;
being the coordinates of 7/i, and x*, y', z', those of m' so that the variations may be expressed in terms of these quantities: and
if they be taken such that J/= 0, J/' =: 0, &c., the mutual action of the bodies will also vanish from the equation, which is reduced to
l.mF.h=0.
126. Tims in every case
llic
sum of
(14). the products of the forces into
is
the elementary variations of their directions
is
zero
when
the system
in equilibrio, provided the
conditions of the connexion of the
Chap. III.]
A SYSTEM OF BODIES.
60
system be observed in their variations or virtual velocities, which
only indications of the mutual dependence of the different the of system on each other. parts 127. The converse of this law is also true that when the prinarc
tlie
—
ciple of virtual velocities exists, the system
tlic
is
held in equilibrio by
forces at
S
alone.
Demonstration.
— For
v',
if it
be not, each of the
bodies
would
m'F',
acquire a velocity v,
&c., in consequence of the forces
mF,
&c.
If
J/j, Jn',
&c., be the elements of their direction, then
2.wFJ«
The
bodies
 2.nir^n =: 0.
virtual velocities Jn, Jn', &c.,
being arbitrary,
may be assumed
equal to vdt, v'dt, &c., the elements of the space
;
or to
c, t/, &c., if the
element of the
moved over by the time be unity. Hence
2.wF5*— 2.wu'=0.
It
has been shown that in
all
cases S.»«FJs =: 0, if the virtual
velocities
be
;
su])ject to the conditions
of
tlie
system.
Hence,
also,
2. WW*
=
but as
if
all
can only be zero
»
= 0,
squares are positive, the
v'
sum of tliese squares
&c., alone.
= 0,
&c.
Therefore the system must
remain at
rest, in
consequence of the forces
Fm,
Rotatory Pressure.
128. Rotation
is
the motion of a body, or system of bodies, about
its
a line or point.
Tiius the earth revolves about
axis,
and
bil
liardball about its centre.
129.
A rotator)' pressure
or
moment is a force
that causes* a system
It is of bodies, or a solid body, to rotate about any point or line. multiof motive force or the the momentum, intensity expressed by
by the distance of its direction from the point or line about which the system or solid body rotates.
plied
On
130.
for
it
the Lever.
The
lever
first
gave the idea of rotatory pressure or moments,
in equilibrio, in consequence
revolves about the point of support or fulcrum.
lever
AVhen the
mm',
fig.
36,
is
of
forces applied to two heavy bodies at its extremities, the rotatory
60
ON THE EQUILIBRIUM OF
N,
tlie
[Book
I.
pressure of these forces, with regard to
point of supporirtnust
be equal and contrary. Let ma, m'a', fig.36, which are proportional to the Demonstration. and J7i' during the indevelocities, represent the forces acting on
—
m
finitely
Jig. 36.
small time
in
which the
bodies m. and m' describe the in
^
"'
definitely small
spaces
wjcr,
m'a'.
The
point N,
are
distance of the direction of the
Tna,
vn'a'
forces
from the fixed
Nm, Nm'
;
and the momentum of
of m' into
m into
Nm, must be
equal to the
momentum
Nm'
;
that
is,
the product of
ma
by Nm and the mass m,
must be equal
is
to the product of m'a'
;
by Nm'
and the mass m' when the lever
or,
in equilibrio
ma X
m.a
m'a'
X X Nm'
Nm y,m — m'a' x Nm' x m'. But Nm is twice the triangle Nmcf, and
is
twice the triangle Nm'a'
the
;
lience twice the triangle
Nma into
mass m,
is
equal to twice the
rotator)^ pressures
triangle
Nm'a'
into the
mass m', and these are the
which cause the lever to rotate about the fulcrum; thus, in equilibrio, the rotatory pressures are equal and contrary, and the moments
are inversely as the distances from the point of support.
Projection of Lines
131. Surfaces and areas
and
Surfaces.
planes by letting
fall
may be projected on the coordinate perpendiculars from every point of them on these
planes.
For let oMN,fig. 37, be a surface meeting the plane xoy
nates, but rising above
to
in 0, the origin of the coordiit
wards
MN.
If perpendiculars
be drawn from every point of the area oMN on the plane xoy,
they will trace the area omn, which is the projection of oMN.
Since, by hypothesis, xoy
right angle,
if
is
a
the lines
mD, 7iC,
be drawn parallel to oy, DC is the projection of mn on the axis ox. In the same manner AB is the projection of the same line on oy.
Chap. III.]
A SYSTEM OF BODIES,
61
Equilibrium of a System of Bodies invariably united.
system of bodies invariably united will be in equilibrio a upon point, if the sum of the moments of rotation of all the forces that act upon it vanish, when estimated parallel to three rectangular
132.
coordinates.
A
Demonstration.
— Suppose
;
a system of bodies invariably united,
moving about a fixed point o in consequence" of an impulse and a force of attraction o being the origin of the attractive force and of
the coordinates.
Let one body be considered
the indefinitely small arc
let
at a time,
MN,
fig. 37, in
and suppose it to describe an indefinitely small time, and
be the be the projection of this arc on the plane xoij. If mass of the body, then x mn is its momentum, estimated in
mn
w
m
the plane xoy
;
and
if
oP be
perpendicular to
mn,
it is
evident that
is
m
X mn x oV is its hence triangle mon
;
rotatory pressure.
But
mn X oP
twice the
the rotatory pressure is equal to the mass into twice the triangle mon that the body could describe in an ele
m
ment of time.
zero
;
But when
in equilibrio,
hence
m is at rest, the rotatory pressure must be m X win x oP = 0.
Let om7i,
fig.
;
38, be the projected area, and complete the paralleloif
gram
oDEB
then
by X and y,
Join
it is
evident that y increases, while x diminishes
oD, oA, the coordinates of m, be represented hence
;
CD = —
dj,
and
AB = dy.
OE,
then
7ioE
= j^«D,
because the triangle and parallelogram are on the same base and behence the triangle tween the same parallels also moE i^AE
;
=
:
mon
=: i^{
nD
+
AE.
o
}
/^. 38.
('
Now wD
therefore
— dx {y + and AE = xdy,
=:
dy)
T)
mon
=
i^
(xdy ydx)\dxdy
;
but when the arc
small,
mn
.
is
indefinitely
^dxdy
= ^nE mE may be omit ^
first
ted in comparison of the
powers B
of these quantities, hence the triangle
= i (xdy — ydx), tlierefore m (xdy^ydx) =
mon
is
the rotatory pressure in the plane xoy
62
when
ON THE EQUILIBRIUM OF
[Book
I.
m
is
in equilibrio.
A similar equation
must
exist for each co
ordinate plane
when
m
is
in a state of equilibrium with regard to each
axis, therefore also
m (^xdz
 zdx)
=
0,
in{ydz
—
zdy) rr 0.
The same may be proved for every body in the system, consequently when the whole is in equilibrio on the point o
^in(xdy
— ydx) =
^m (idz — zdx} =
(15).
133. This property
cities,
2m(ydzzdy) = 0. may be expressed by means
of virtual velo
the products of their
zero, or
namely, that a system of bodies will be at rest, if the sum of momenta by the elements of their directions be
by
article
125
2mF^s = 0,
Since the mutual distances of the parts of the system are invariable, if the whole system be supposed to be turned by an indefinitely small angle about the axis oz, all the coordinates z', z'\ &c., will be inIf Jot be any arbitrary variation, and if
variable.
5x
= y^zj
y'lz:
Jy
=—
xlzs
;
^x'=
the mutual distance of the bodies in
ly'=  x'lz: then / being and m' whose coordinates are
x^y,z\
x',
y\
z',
there will arise
5/= y(x'x)* +
(y'y)''f(2'2)*
^
\
So
witli
(Jx'

It) 4
2^
Jy,
(}y'
 ^)
= =
= 0.
{
(f'O
(2/'3/)
^^{yfor
J.r,
y) (^'^)
J.r',
Jot }
that the values
assumed
dy' are not incompatible
the invariability of the system.
It is
therefore a permissible
assumption.
Now
if «
be the direction of the force acting on m,
J.
its
variation
is
= ijx+ijy,
dx
Sy
since z
is
constant
is
;
and substituting the preceding values of Jx, Jy,
the result
J,
= ii
Jx
.
y Jot ^
 ^
Jy
.
TJot
= Jot
i
li
.
y ^

ii .r I
Jy
j
(Jx
or, multiplying by the
momentum Fm,
\
Fmh = Fw
y ^
—— x—
Jx
Jy

Jot.
I
j
Chap. III.]
A SYSTEM OF BODIES.
witli
63
In the same manner
regard to the body m!
 «'?!!.l3^
F'm'Ja'
= F'm'
V
a:'
?f^
Uct,
becomes
ly'S
and 80 on
;
and thus the equation SmFJs
=
It follows,
from the same reasoning, that
2mFziIt
I
I
a^lil=0,
Iz]
^
ly
In
fact, if
IzS
X, Y,
Z
be the comj)onent3 of the force
evident
tliat
F
in the direction
of the three axes,
it is
Xr=Fi; Ix
and these equations become
Y=Fif;
ly
Z
= F^; Iz
= = 27nr.X2wx.Z Smz.Y  2wiy.Z =
2?ny.X
2wx. Y
But "^mYy
—
(16).
—
expresses the
sum of the moments of
the forces
parallel to the axis of
x
to turn the
system round that of
z,
and
S^nFj
—
that of the forces parallel to the axis of
y
is
to
do the same,
but estimated in the contrary direction
forces parallel to z have
fore the equation
;
—and
it
evident that the
x.
no
effect to turn the
system round
There
2wtF [y
— — x — )=0, expresses
that the
sum of
moments of rotation of the whole system relative to the axis of 2 must vanish, that the equilibrium of the system may subsist. And the same being true for the other rectangular axes (whose posithe
tions are arbitrary), there results
tliis
general theorem,
viz., that in
order that a system of bodies may be in cquilibro upon a point, the sum of the moments of rotation of all the forces that act on it must
vanish
when estimated
parallel to
any three rectangular coordinates.
134. These equations are suilicient to ensure the equilibrium of the
tates,
system when o is a fixed point but if o, the point about which it robe not fixed, the system, as well as tlie origin o, may be car;
64
ON THE EQUILIBRIUM OF
by a motion of translation
o, like
[Book
I.
ried forward in space
at the
same
i'soae
that
the system rotates about
at
the earth, whicli revolves about the sun
same time that it turns on its axis. In this case it is not only necessary for the equiUbrium of the system that its rotatory pressure should be zero, but also that the forces which cause the translation when resolved in the direction of the axis ox, oy, 02, should be zero for each
axis separately.
On
135. If the bodies
its
the Centre
of Gravity.
effect
m, m\ m", &c,, be only acted on by gravity, would be the same on all of them, and its direction may
;
be considered the same also
hence
F=F=F" = &c.,
and
also the directions
'
Ix
lx<
tliis
ly
case for
all
^
tlie
'
Tz
f?~
^'
are the same in
bodies, so that the equations of
rotatory pressure
become
^x ^ ly ^
^
^
i
\lz
dy
^
\^x
or, if
Jz
in the three
X, Y, Z, be considered as the components of gravity
coordinate axes by article 133
X.2my —
Z.Smy
Y.Stwj? =  Y.Smz = X.'Zmz — Z.Smx =
(17).
It is evident that these equations will
be zero, whatever the direction
of gravity may be, if 2mjc
=
F
0,
2my
,
=
0,
Smz
=
0.
(18).
Now
since
F
—
5x
,
—
5y
F
—
Jz
,
are the components of the force
of gravity in the
tliree
coordinates ox, oy, oz,
F.i.2m;
^x
F.
^.2m;
Jy
F.
^ .2m;
Sz
are the forces which translate the system parallel to these axes.
But
Chap. III.]
if
A SYSTEM OF BODIES.
its
65
forces.
be a fixed point,
reaction would
destroy these
is tlie
diagonal of a parallelopipcd, of whicli
h
Jx
are
tlie
^
three
h
h
Jz'
sides
;
therefore
these
compose one
is
resulting force
equal to
F.2m.
This resulting force
the weight of the system
which
point
0.
is
thus resisted or supported by the reaction of the fixed
136. Tlie point o round which the system is in equilibrio, is the centre of gravity of the system, and if that point be supported, the
whole
will
be in equilibrio.
On
137.
the Position
and
Properties of the Centre
of Gravity.
It
appears from the equations (18), that
if
any plane passes
through the centre of gravity of a system of bodies, the
sum of
the
products of the mass of each body by its distance from that plane is zero. For, since the axes of the coordinates are arbitrary, any one of
them, as X
Ovt', fig.
39,
may be assumed
to
be the section of the plane
J^3' ^^'
in question, the centre of gravity
of the system of bodies m, m',
&c., being in
diculars
o.
.,.'"
If the perpen&c., be
mo, m'6,
drawn
a?
from each body on the plane
iT
x\ the product of the mass
m by the distance
;
ma
plus the
product of m' by m'b plus, &c., must be zero or, representing the distances by
z, z', z", &c.,
;
then
mz
+ m'z — m" z' + m" z" + 8fc. =
l..mz
or, according to the usual notation,
=
0.
And
the
same properly
exists for the other
two coordinate planes
is
Since the position of the coordinate planes
arbitrary, the properly
66
ON THE EQUILIBRIUM OF
the distances
[Book
I.
obtains for every set of coordinate planes having their oripin in
if
o.
It is clear that wm, mb, &c., be positive on one side of the plane, those on the other side must be negative, otherwise the
sum of
138.
the products could not be zero.
When
it
the centre of gravity
is
not in the origin of the co
ordinates,
may
be found
if
the distances of the bodies
m, m\ m'\
&c., from the origin and from
m
each
otlier
be known.
Demonstration.
fig.
— For
let o,
40, be the origin, and c the
centre of gravity of the system
m,m\ &c.
;
Let
MN be the sec
tion of a plane passing through then by the property of c
the
centre
of gravity just
Chap. III.]
1
A SYSTEM OF BODIES.
tliese
67
40.
But
three equations give
^+ y + The
last
l^i
is
(2m)«
the
term of the second member
sum of
all
the pro
ducts similar to tliose under
2 when
all
the bodies of the system are
taken in pairs.
141.
It is
easy to show that the two preceding values of x*+y'+5"
are identical, or that
{Imy
or
i^
.
{Imy
(2mj)* = 2m
two
Imx'^
—
2m7;i' (x'
—
x)*.
A\'ere lliere are only
planets, then
2m =: m + m',
consequently
2wi?
= mx + m'x',
2mm'
= mm'
xx'.
;
(2mx)*
= (mx + mV)* = mx* + m'*x'* + 2mm'
member
With regard
to the second
2m.2mx*=(m f m') (7nx«+mV*)=m*x«+m'V«+m7nV+mmV, and 2mm' (x' — xy == mm'x* + mm'x* — 2nim'xx'
;
consequently
2m. 2mx*
Tliis will
— 2mm' (x'—
x)*
= mx^ + m'*x" + 2mm'xx' = (27wx)*.
may be
;
be the case whatever the number of planets
and as
r,
the equations in question are symmetrical with regard to x, y, and
their second
members
are identical.
Thus
the distance of the centre of gravity from a given point
may
be found by means of the distances of the different points of the system from this point, and of their mutual distances.
142.
By
estimating the distance of the centre of gravity from any
its
three fixed points,
position in space will be determined.
Equilibrium of a Solid Body.
143. If the bodies
m,
m', m", &c., be indefinitely small, infinite in
number, and permanently united together, they will form a solid mass, whose equilibrium may be determined by the preceding equations.
F
2
68
EQUILIBRIUM OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES.
z,
[Book
I.
For if jr, y,
particles
be the coordinates of any one of its indefinitels small
forces urging
it
dm, and X, Y, Z, the
its
in the direction of
these axes, the equations of
equilibrium will be
fXdm =
f(XyYx) dm =
The
three
first
;
/Ydm =
fZdm =
;
/(Xz — Zj) dm =:
the
f(Zy  V^) dm = 0.
are
stroyed when
are the
the centre of gravity
equations of translation, which are deis a fixed point ; and the last three
sums of the rotatory pressures.
69
CHAPTER
IV.
MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES.
144. It
is
known by
it is
observation, that the relative motions of a sys
tem of bodies, are
whole
;
entirely independent of
any motion common
to the
hence
impossible to judge from appearances alone, of the
absolute motions of a system of bodies of which
we form a
part
;
the knowledge of the true system of the world was retarded, from the difficulty of comprehending the relative motions of projectiles on
the earth, which has the double motion of rotation and revolution.
But
all
the motions of the solar system, determined according to this
law, are verified
by observation.
By
article
from that of a
sidered, of
will
117, the equation of the motion of a body only differs hence, if only one body be conparticle, by the mass
;
which
m
is
the mass, the motion of
its
centre of gravity
be determined from equation (6), which
nz {
in this case
becomes
0.
m { X  :^^Ux +
A similar
equation
Y  iJ^Uy + m
for
{Z 
^Uz =
one condition to be
must be zero
;
—
each body in the system, and sum of all such equations hence the general equation of a system of bodies is
may be found
is,
fulfilled
that the
'•=^'"(^
in
f>+''"0'  ^>+ H^  §)
S^nX, 27mY, SotZ,
its
'
^'''>
which
are the sums of the products of each mass by
corresponding com
ponent
force, for
2mX =: mX
and
so 'for the other two.
H
m'X'
f
m'X'
+ &c.
,
;
Also
2m
—
rf^
,
2m —^ 2m
,
dt*
— df
are the sums of the products of each mass, by the second increments of the space respectively described by them, in an element of time in
the direction of each axis, since
Im
—
df
z=
m'f^ + m'
dt*
—{
dt*
&c.
70
MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES.
expressions
[Book
*•
L
tlie
2m
—M.,
2m —~
have a similar
signification.
all
From
tliis
equation
the motions of the solar system are directly
obtained. 145. If the forces be invariably supposed to have the
tensity at equal distances
same
in
and to vary in some
ratio
from the points to which they are directed, of that distance, all the principles of motion
that have been derived from the general equation (6),
may
be obinstead
tained from this, provided the
sum of the masses be employed
of the
particle.
146. For example, if the equation, in article 74, be multiplied by
2m,
its finite
value
is
found
to
be
\dy f Zdz), 4 22/m (Xdx Tills is the Living Force or Impetus of a system, which is the sum of the masses into the square of their respective velocities, and is
analogous to the equation
2mV«
=C
+
V«
relating to a particle.
=
C
+
2v,
147. AVhen the motion of the
degrees, and
is
system changes by insensible
forces,
is
subject to
the action of accelerating
the
sum
of the indefinitely small increments of the impetus
the same,
whatever be the path of the bodies, provided that the points of departure and arrival be the same.
148.
When
there
is
a primitive impulse without accelerating
a weight be
forces, the impetus is constant.
149. Impetus
raised ten feet,
it
is
the true measure of labour; for
if
will require four times the labour to raise
an equal
weight
forty feet.
by
their
both these weights be allowed to descend freely at the end of their fall their velocities will be as gravitation,
If
1 to
2
;
that
is,
as the square roots of their heights.
But the
effects
be as their masses into the heights from whence they produced as or their masses into 1 and 4 ; but these are the squares of fell,
will
the velocities, hence the impetus is the
velocity.
mass into the square of the
Thus the impetus
is
the true measure of the labour
effects
em
ployed to raise the weights, and of the is entirely independent of time.
150.
of their descent, and
The
principle of least action for a particle
was shown, in
article 80, to
be expressed by ifvds =:
0,
Chap. IV.]
MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES.
;
71
when
the extreme points of its path are fixed
it is
hence, for a system
of bodies,
lymvds
Thus the sum
during
tlie
=
0,
or
l^fmv^dt
=
0.
is
of the living forces of a system of bodies
it
a
mmimum,
time that
takes to pass from one position to another.
If tlie bodies be not urged by accelerating forces, the impetus of
the system during a given time, the system
is
proportional to that time, therefore
position to another, in the shortest
moves from one given
:
time possible
bodies.
wliich is the principle of least action in a system of
On
the
Motion of the Centre of Gravity of a System of Bodies.
151. In a system of bodies the common centre of gravity of the whole cither remains at rest or moves uniformly in a straight line, as if
all
the bodies of the system were united in that point, and the
concentrated forces of the system applied to
Demonstration.
—
it.
^Tiiese properties
are derived from
the general
equation (21) by considering that, if the centre of gravity of the system be moved, each body will have a corresponding and equal motion in
dependent of any motions the bodies may have among themselves hence each of the virtual velocities Jj?, Jy, Sz, will be increased by
:
the virtual velocity of the centre of gravity resolved in the direction of the axes
;
so that they
become
J J, Sy
5x
+
+
S^, J^
+ S2
:
thus the equation of the motion of a system of bodies
b
increased
by
the term.
(^1,
arising from
the
consideration
of the centre of gravity.
If the
system be free and unconnected with bodies foreign to it, the virtual velocity of the centre of gravity, is independent of the connexion of
the bodies of the system with each other
;
therefore Jl, S^, j£
may
each be zero, whatever the virtual velocity of the bodies themselves may be hence
;
m Now hence 2 . (j? m will give .. But are.'S..md^z —— — — 2.7nz r=^ z. _ mF (y . dt' d'y rf<« _2. 2.mY = = . taken two and two. __ (z .md^x^ ^_ — —— ay — .77JJ ^=^ Z.?nd'z=:dl^2.7nX.tn ^ . . element of whatever may be force with which m nature of this action..7/1 2. ^^—^ 2.m d^z dt^ _ 2. md^y . therefore generally 2.. 2.m (•22). [Book I. 2. the bodies of the system.. md'X = dl.y') / ^.mX = 0..'F will be the accelerating is urged by the action of m' then if be the .m — ^.mZ=:0. mX 2 mdy = dl^ 2ntY .. "2. 0. j?az 2.. m. . y = my .7n _ ^ = 2. Thus the centre of gravity moves as if all the bodies of the system were united in that point.. evidently arises from the law of reaction . ^ ^ mTjz'z) mF ^^g).. give the same results. „_ ax _ ^. For the same reasons. the action of m' on ^.x') / .. 2/nY. . and as on the system were applied to it. 2..72 MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES. J. 152. —This are zero.mZ 2. These three equations determine the motion of the centre of gravity.m'F(y'y) _ mF .m — _ . f mutual distance of m and m'. ' .?nZ. it has been shewn that the coordinates of the centre of gravity = 2. d»x_2. ' / m'Z' hence mX + m'X' = and as all . Consequently.m . ' y. by this action only X _ m'F(x'x) Y .mY.{v^}=o. if all the forces which act 153. 2mZ Demonstration. If the mutual attraction of the bodies of the system be the only accelerating force acting on these bodies. mY + m'Y' =zO. . the three quantities 2wX. . *' . for if F be the action that an being equal and contrary to action the mass ni exercises on an element of the mass wi'.zQ ..{z^}=. mZ + 2..
the Constancy of Areas.0. 41. for the velocity. is invariable. Thus. £Lr=. 155. it represents the straight line AB. Thus is the motion of tlie centre of gravity in the direction of a straight line. 56. If a body propelled by an impulse describe a curve A M B.Chap. IV.] MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES. d(* and integrating. and is repre sented by b and as a< increfises with the time /. in consequence of a force of attraction in the point o. a" .=zO. is y(f)^ifjm^ Thus 1 the velocity is constant. Tliese for. are equations to straight lines . the bodies of the solar system would maintain their relative motions. moving in space possible that the whole solar system may be a circumstance which can only be ascertained by a comparison of distant periods. and by the composition of motions it and as the space it moves over describes a straight line in space each axis . and therefore the motion uniform. in the'direction ox. even if some of the motion in an bodies. its position with regard to tlie fixed stars at very In consequence of the proportionality of force to velocity. 73 154. suppose the centre of gravity to begin to move at A. Consequently J1=0. 6". its velocity is uniform . that force may be resolved into two. being directly as the element of the space. 42. and inversely as the element of the time. y = aft + b'. in wliich a. b. 6'. Tlicse equations are true. increases with the time. one in the direction of the normal AN. fig. whether the system were in motion or at rest.J±. fig. On 1 58. instant. dt* dl* x = at + b. by their mutual action. are the arbitrary constant quantities intro duced by the double integration. the distance oA . z=:af't+b". lose a finite quantity of 157. o'. it is . .
MoB. stration. are proportional to the that to is. — xtra Jy = — ly' namely. when projected on planes. an impulse and a force of attracsums If a system of bodies revolve about any point in consequence of tion directed to that point. . &c. &c. tion oz^ fig. —For 43.. the area AoM will be equal to the area MoB. — yX). the second aug ments or diminishes the velocity of the body but the velocity is always such that tlie areas AoM. . described by the radius vector Ao.W? /xd^y — yd^x^ ycPj:\ = 2wJ (xY . areas that are projected xoy. the three coordinate are proportional to the time. Z' = 0. Demon. and the general equation of the motion of a system of bodies becomes If the same assumptions be made here as Ix = y^CT Sx' = y'lts in article 133.' if we only consider the on the plane hence forces in the direc. &c.74 and the other MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES. must be zero Z = 0. time . t(Py 2. tlie which are perpendicular to that plane. .t'Jct. if the from A it M in the body moves same time that would move from M to B. the of their masses respectively multi phed by the areas described by radii their vectores. with regard to the plane xoy. . [Book I. in the direction of the element of the curve qr tan gent: the first is balanced by the centrifugal force. becomes. it and if these be substituted in the preceding equation.
Yx} + m'{Xy . . are its component forces . F vanishes the same may be shown with regard m". F the force which mges the z body m towards that origin. f yd'x \ — xdy xd^z ] n ' uc ] V { zd*x — Zm 2m f i ^ ""' 1 _ rt 1=0. any two bodies in the system. These three equations. by reason of the equality and opposition of action and reacand tliis is true for every such pair as wj and m". If/ be tlie distance of m from 0.Clup. (26).Y'x' }.] MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES. (zX . then X=F_. IV. 75 In the same manner 2m . and only subject to their reciprocal attraction and to the force at o. yiPzzd'y In 1 } } } ' and their integrals arc 2m { xdy — 2m { zdx — Irn { yds xdz = = cdt. is zero. the sum of the terms m { Xy . m. Z=F / / / preceding to m'. together with 2m. 2m. &c. yoz. 159. /'f^!f_z_^'\ . ^r= 2wY. respectively multiplied by the projec . Hence the equations of areas are reduced to 2m. c"dt. When tlie bodies are independent of foreign forces. fcc. (25). — = 2mZ. are obtained for the motions of the system with regard to the planes xoz. Y=FJL. tion arising from the mutual action of . are the general equations of the motions of a system of bodies which does not contain a fixed point. m' and m". —=ilmX.xZ) (24).2m . 2m. m'. ydz — zdy As the first members of these equations are the sum of the masses of all the bodies of the system. and when substituted in the equations. = c'dl.
dx) } c'dt 2m reduced to depend on the coordinates of the mutual distances of the bodies of the system. may be expressed by a diagram. These results fig. tions of double the areas they describe this coordina*ie planes. be a system of bodies revolving about the origin .76 MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES.x)  dy) . jdy' ^ ^rnm' { (x' . m'.(y'  y) jdx' . on the [Book I. &c.. the preceding equations ^^f may be expressed thus. 44. If the centre of gravity be the origin of the coordinates. m". So that the principle of areas is 160. o. Let m. sum is proportional to the time.
Chap. is required to determine the position of mby means of ox'. or or x' =: ox I ox/ : : 1 : : cos xoxf X cos xox'. 2m { zdx — xdz }. tending to make it turn round each of the axes of the coordinates hence the principle of areas consists in this —that the sum of the rotatory pressures is wliich cause a system of bodies to revolve about a given point. is in equilibrio. after multiplying the first tliird by cos xox\ the second by cos xoy\ and the shall by cos jtoz'. in article 132. Values of the 70X' be represented by "^ and 0. 162. fig. a value of ox or x Now. having the origin as the former. It was shown. To solve this problem it is necessary to determine one set of coordinates in values of another. 45. 77 three equations of areas give the space described by the bodies on each coordinate plane in value of the time : hence. sum of these quantities be taken. that }. shall find We first. oy\ same oz\ three new rectangular coordinates. since that of the coordinate planes is supposed to be known. 46. be the intersection of the old plane xoy with tho new also x'oy' and let 70J:. . fig. a' I 1 : cos xoz' or = J? cos xoz'. the corresponding places of the bodies will be found on the three planes. oy^ or. Let us endeavour to ascertain whether any planes exist on which the sums of the areas are zero when the system is in motion. IV. be the it coordinates of a point m.] MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES. be the inclination of these two planes . ox ox If the i oy' :: 1 oz' : : cos xoy' y' == x cos xoy'. : 2m { xdy — ydx are the pressures of the system. /y. zero when tlie the system and proportional to the time when system is in motion. let . 43. if the time be known or assumed. and from thence their true positions in space may be determined. we have + y' cos xoy' z' cos xoz' = X { cos^ xoxf + cos* xoy' {. If ox. 2m { zdy — ydz }.coa' xoz' =z x. x' cos xox' f } Let 07. 163.
This may be known by substituting the infinite preceding values of x. yoz. y. and and tlieir differentials in the equations of for the angles 0. by spherical trigonome cos xox' = cos sin sin ^ + cos y cos 0. In the rightangled angle are Y' r/xx'. try. new planes x'oy'. and tri<yx'. the centre of gravity of a system of bodies. be assumed for two of them as areas on will being arbitrary. z. there be any on which the sums of the areas are zero. 164. it becomes y' { x =z x' cos { cos sin cos sin Y^ — cos Y^ sin — sin Y^ sin } sin Y' + } cos Y' cos } + + 2' sin sin Y'. the line ox' will take the place of oy'. cos + cos 0. hence. areas : 2. and the preceding equation will give — cos yjf sin 0. If these expressions for the cosines be substituted in the value of X. ^. in any equation. the values of y and 2 are found to be 6 cos Y' sin x' sin Y' cos y { cos } = + y' { cos cos Y' cos <? + } + 2' { sin } cos Y' 2' 2 = — x' { sin sin — } y' { sin 3/. xoz\ must be found in terms of 0. 70J:. cosines of xox\ xoy'. if + the angle xox' will become xoy'. among number of coordinate planes whose origin is in 0. the sides 7^. wliatever the values of and y may be 90° be put for 0. such values may make the sums of the projected . xf/. xoz. and xoz'. . 702' = 90° 70J. The angle opposite to the last side is 90° — 6. then tlie general equation becomes cos xoz' =: sin 9 sin >{/. By substituting these values of x. This equation exists. [Book I. In the same manner.78 MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES. 0. to the x'oz'. = Y'. two of the coordinate planes zero and if there be any . y'oz'. nnd the and xx' the angle is : opposite side — hence. t)»e We have now the means of ascertaining wliether. (p. cos xoy' cos sin "*{/ cos = Cos xoz' is found from the triangle whose three sides are the arcs intercepted by the angles 702'. it will be transformed from the planes xoy.
If the attractive force at o were to cease. if that point has a uniform and rectilinear motion in space. a fixed if z'. sin^cos Y^r: V>M^ c"« + c" it follows that = ^ e* + . must equally exist. the moveable centre of gravity from 47. among the bodies when the centre of gravity has a rectilinear motion in space. fig. and the principle of areas would be also true in this case it even exists independently of .Chap. oA. Bm. ^^y'dz'z'dy^^ dt bodies. Thus. . 5. which in that case areas on tiie third plane. tliis 79 incongniity in assumption. be fg. = 0. (27). it will appear in the determination of the third angle. y'. o. for is the sum of the areas on the third plane then found to be a maximum.Al AB. 165. is independent of any motion common to them all. maximum One plane . they are zero. and the angles f and so assumed that sin&sinY' = V(»+c" + cos c"* . one of the bodies of the system with regard to the moveable point o. Indeed it follows as a matter of course. IV. as the coordinates of estimated point P.] MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES. would involve some absurdity in the That. whose centre of gravity is at rest.. if J. since experience shows that the relative motions of a system of bodies. the bodies would the primitive impulse alone. move by any and also abrupt changes of motion or velocity. in every system of revolving there is does exist a a on which the sum of the projected areas at right and on every plane angles to it. Demonstration. If the substitution be made. tliat will readily appear. that all the properties which have been proved to exist in the motions of a system of bodies. is by no means the case. however. &* + wlience m ^__£ Sx'dy' itn dt — — v'dx' =^ f» ^ ^n j^ f. Tlien the coordinates of m relatively . plane. and j'. or the coordinates of m. jr. be assumed. alone possesses that property. — However.
y. the rotation will go on as before received the impulse. all if parts will a direction passing move with an equal but the direction of the of that centre. be the coordinates of dm. CHAFlER V THE MOTION OF A SOLID BODY OF ANY FORM WHATEVER. and radius is the distance of the particle from the axis. to be a system of particles. each of will describe a circle. the same time carried forward in space and if an axis. If a solid body receives an impulse its in through velocity . impulse passes on one side tlie body will have unequal and from this its inequality results a motion of rota tion in the body round is centre of gravity. The axis of rotation may change same at every instant. but it may vary from one instant to another. If a body rotates about its centre of gravity. same number of degrees in the same time hence. its centre of gravity. 169. If a body revolves about a fixed axis. or translated with same would have taken. or about an . &c. 170. 172. the angu lar velocity is therefore the for every particle of the solid for any one instant. 171. at the same time the that the centre it moved forward. the quotient will be the same for every particle of the body. and united into a solid mass by their mutual attraction. m". the different parts of velocities. that every point of the solid will describe an arc of the . Let X. had the impulse passed through it. provided we assume the bodies w». infinite in number.62 [Book I. m'. z. velocity Thus the double motions of rotation and translation are produced by one impulse. Tliis is called the angular velocity of the solid. so is at and as to stop it its progressive motion. its its particles whose plane is perpendicular to that axis. a particle of a solid body . 173. It is evident. Tlie general equations of the motion of a solid body are the same with those of a system of bodies. equal and contrary impulse be given to the centre of gravity. if the velocity of each particle be divided by its radius or distance from the axis.
. Zdm. \dm. v. urged by the forces X. — dm = ^ dm = — dm d*x dt* dt^ S S . Xdm (30) dt* J S. . z' are the coordinates of dm referred to o. 174. Xdm. all Now the coordinates of the centre of gravity being the same for the particles of the solid. zY)dm. Determination of the Equations of the Motion of the Centre of Gravity of a Solid in Space.] MOTION OF A SOLID BODY. 2+2'» be put for j. ^ (28) ^ =: S . (zX (^£±IiJ^ fy£LZJ^\ dm=S. xZ)dm.Ydm S in which x. the general equations of the motion of a system of bodies in article 159 become S S S . Y. . . }• = S .dm^^] = S. (yZ  dm=:S. 47. z.Chap. Z. solid. (29) which are the general equations of the motion of a of which m is the mass. dL* S dm = S (^JLy^J±£\ S (xY . y. Zdm di* i are the coordinates of o the moveable centre of to gravity of the solid referred P a fixed point.yX)dm. and dm for m. 83 . . in equations (28) then S . and x' y' fig. ' . dm \^l±££\ I = S . y+y'. Let I+x'. parallel to the axes of tlie coordinates then if S the sign of ordinary integrals be put for 2. dm < I —^. z. y. s.
velocity Thus the double motions of rotation and translation are produced by one impulse. z. if the velocity of each particle be divided by its radius or distance from the axis. infinite in number. and radius is the distance of the particle from the axis. to be a system of particles. its its particles whose plane is perpendicular to that axis. or the it gravity. so is at and as to stop it its progressive motion. If a solid body receives an impulse in a direction passing through velocity . that every point of the solid will describe an arc of the same number of degrees in the same time . its centre of gravity. 169. or about an . CHAFIER V THE MOTION OF A SOLID BODY OF ANY FORM WHATEVER. hence. Tlie general equations of the motion of a solid body are the same with those of a system of bodies. be the coordinates of dm. m". if all its parts will move with an equal but the direction of the impulse passes on one side of that centre.62 [Book I. m'. 170. If a body rotates about its centre of gravity. had the impulse passed through it. 173. the rotation will go on as before received the impulse. If a body revolves about a fixed axis. It is evident. the quotient will be the same for every particle of the body. equal and contrary impulse be given to the centre of gravity. 172. Tliis is called the angular velocity of the soUd. but it m. provided we assume the bodies wi. 171. the different parts of the body will have unequal velocities.iy vary from one instant to another. and from this inequality results a motion of rota tion in that body round its centre of the centre is moved forward. Let Xj y. a particle of a solid body . the angu lar velocity is therefore the same for every particle of the solid for any one instant. &c. at the same time the translated with same would have taken. The axis of rotation may change at every instant. each of will describe a circle. and united into a solid mass by their mutual attraction. the same time carried forward in space and if an axis.
all Now the coordinates of the centre of gravity being the same for the particles of the solid. in equations (28) then S . 47. _ xZ)dm. = S. and x' y' fig.dm{^l±i:i'l i I dp in which J. be put for j. y. solid. Determination of the Equations of the Motion of the Centre of Gravity of a Solid in Space.—dm=:S. . ^ dm = dp — dm = dP dm S . Xdm (30) S. v.Zdm z' are the coordinates of o the moveable centre of to gravity of the solid referred P a fixed point. S = S S ('f^!y^J^^ S (xY . which are the general equations of the motion of a of which m is the mass.] MOTION OF A SOLID BODY. are the coordinates of dm referred to o. dp . z. Z.dm{^^] = S. Let I+J'. 174. Ydm. 83 . s. Y.Chap. f^£±ZJ^^ / yd'z ^2d^y dm = .yX)dm. p+y'» 5+2'. . the general equations of the motion of a system of bodies in article 158 become S S S . Xdm.n^s. dm = ^L±i!f^ S . y. . (zX (yz (29) \ a. and dm for m. urged by the forces X. zY)dm. z. ' ^ (28) ^ S . parallel to the axes of the coordinates then if S the sign of ordinary integrals be put for 2.Ydm S. Zdm.
y'. Xc^fn m J^ = S . ^.x'dm. with regard S S S . and the forces that urge the body applied to that point. 0.Xdm S (x'd*^ .S. [Book I. in be observed that as the first of equations are the same for all the also S ixd^p — yd*!) dm =z m (7d^ yd^x) S (lY . The its solid therefore moves all in space as if its mass were united in centre of gravity. whicli therefore retains its original form. Ydm Zdm. = = = which denote the sum of the particles of the body into their respectherefore their diflFerentials are tive distances from the origin . And. and particles if it same substitution be made I. and are similar to those which give the motion of the centre of gravity of a system of bodies.y'dm because of the coordinates + J. If the (29). 175. This reduces the equations (30) to m dt^ dt* := S .S.dmssO. 2.y.S.S. x'dm y'dm z'dm .pX) dm = H. ^ = AL = dC" .y'd'J + ld*y' . to the centre of gravity. Similar results will be obtained for the areas on the .Ydm . S . differentials vanish from the equation.d^x. (31) ^ m —— = dt* S . These three equations determine the motion of the centre of gravity of the body in space. z'. are referred to the centre of gravity as the origin consequently the coordinates 7. cPy.d'x'. z.S.^ MOTION OF A SOLID BODY. p.yd^x') dm = x". and their . dm dm dm —= di* S S .d'y'. . — .S.dm — ^.
but the of rotation velocity depends on the distance from the axis. (mC)' = x' + y\ Hence if A'. multiplied by the square of its distance from the axis of rotation. fig. B'. If an impulse be given to a sphere of uniform density. determine its the rotation of the solid. is the mass into the square of the velocity. Suppose oA. Impetus the products of each particle. mC = Po» the squares of the distances of are respectively from the three axes ox. C. and let them be repre 10. situate in m. The integrals of equations (29). wliich express the properties of areas. then =S =S = C S A' B' . with regard to the time. M". then because mA = dm Ro. in a . 2 . to be the sented by J. di \ J S /ydz f^^fJZJ^\ dm =fM'dl. y. coordinates of a particle dm. oz. equations (31) give the motion of — centre of gravity in space. the angle the impetus of a revolving body is the sum of the same hence being 177. whether the centre of gravity be in motion or at rest. 176. dm (/ + dm (x« + dm (x* + r*) «•) 3/'). These equations. mB = Qo. be the impetus or moments of inertia of a solid with regard to the axes ox. .yX) dm = zdy\ zY) dm = M. proving the motions of rotation and translation to be independent of one another. v. oy. (mA)« = y' + 2% (mB)« = x« + r«. (32) S /'^^y . M'. relates to the time alone.3/^A dm T^fM"dt. oC. u other two coordinate planes. oB. Rotation of a Solid. and thus equations (29) retain the same forms. will be sfy^''^y^dm=:fMdt. oy.Chap. . tlie S expresses the sum of the particles of body. oz. If to abridge S (yZ S (zX  — xZ) dm = S (xY .] OF ANY FORM WHATEVER. (33) 178. and y .
ar. If a body rotates permanently about an axis. it is therefore of importance. tion at if may change it its axis of rota every instant . so that they are time. which does not pass through its centre of gravity.xydm = 0. S. and let w be the angular velocity of the particle. r therefore w'. the rotatory pressures arising from the centrifugal forces of the solid are equal and contrary in each point of the axis. . S. If the solid be not a sphere. so for the other. and vice versa. the rotation of the body round any effort to displace that axis . J'n. Tlius the inconstancy of areas no longer j)roportional to the becomes a test of disturbing In this disturbed rotation the body may be considered to have a permanent rotation during an instant only. pressures on the axis of rotation are unequal.y2dm:= it is . and the areas described by every particle in the solid are proportional to the time but if foreign forces disturb the rotation. provided they act equally on particles and the areas which each of its particles describes will be constant. so that their sum is zero. — Let r = V«r* + dm from z the axis of rotation.13$ direction MOTION OF A SOLID BODY [Book I. When three axes of a solid tation. necessary to prove when these equations hold. y* be the distance of a particle Demonstration. which characterize such axes. on the sphere. tlie rotatory . which causes a perpetual change of axis.xzdni = . = w*xdin. one axis causes no twisting rotatory pressure round for example. that the centrifugal forces developed by rotation round produce no y and x and . it 179. that To show this. forces. it will revolve about an axis perpendicular to the plane passing through the centre of the sphere and the direction of the force tinue to rotate about the . about which would rotate perma nently. the rotatory pressures body are permanent axes of roon them are zero this is expressed by the . 181. and a variation in the areas described by the particles of the body. 180. it gives "When resolved and acting in the and multiplied by to*rdm. direction r. By article 171 w =: —. equations S. and it will con same axis even all its if new forces act . z. to ascertain any axes exist in the solid.r = — T is the centrifugal force arising from rotation round in the direction r.
tj. because it acts at the distance z from is the axis^. and if these hold at once. f.x'z'dm. 183. of which are in fact only three different equations. The whole theory of rotation derived from the equations (32) con taining the principle of areas.Chap. oy\ oz' fig. regarded as a force tendinjr to turn the system round y. which they will become if the values of 9. or permanent axes of rotation. In like manner. that the position of the new axes ox\ oy\ oz\ in the solid.yzdm = 0.xzdm = = 0. =. so trary. will determine the rot. be the new axes that revolve with the x.z. . 0. namely. Syxdm must exist. yoz. Tlic angles Q. introduced by this change are arbi^oz'. y\ z\ equations (32) of the areas. 2. x. all S yzdm (34) be permanent axes of rotation.xzdm r= 0. when S. the rotatory pressures are simply as the distance from the same 182. when transformed and deprived of these terms. they will be the same sums. zero at once. x'oz' . f. 8? which. 48 . S. be substituted. . and 0.] OF ANY FORM VvHATEVEU. These are the areas projected on but if ox'. z\ be the coordinates of a particle dniy fixed in the solid. given in article solid. then the to functions of x'. and if the values of 163. and can be so assumed as to make the rotatory pressures S. the whole eflect zero. and in order that x should be so 0.ition of the body about its principal. all . v. in order that y should be so. y'. in order that z should be permanent axis of rotation. S xydm Sxzdm 0. the fixed coordinate planes xoy. but revolving with is it about its centre of gravity. Therefore. y. = is = 0. and let a/.xydm must exist . when projected on the new coordinate planes x'ot/'. =: 0. = = . x'. = the impetus as the square of the distance from the axis of and axis. the whole effect of the revolving system to turn round x vanishes. Therefore when S. Syzdm Szydm S zxdm . Similarly. Sx'y'dm. y\ z'. In order to ascertain whether a solid possesses any permanent axes of rotation. gives rotatory pressure = wxzdni. and these three angles may be made to fulfil any conditions of the problem. will Thus rotation. S. remains indetcnninatc . Sy'z'dm. The equations of rotation will take the most simple form if we suppose x' y' z' to be the principal axes of rotation. xoz. let the origin be a fixed point.
determined from the equations in article 163 be substituted in the preceding expressions. 2*. and ^. . 185. zz tan y. in functions of x. If the body has no principal axes of rotation. = xydm = f I* Sy*dm = 7i* Sz'dm Sxzdm r: g = Syzdm = h. there will be = (Z* — n*) s» — g cos sin y cos Y' + /(cos* Y' — ylf . . it must therefore be demonstrated whetlier or tory pressures zero . tlien if to abridge. — + s* 2/ sin + tan (cos* — sin* 6) h sin yjf (g&my{f + h cos f).or'z'dm— 8in0.y'2'dm (? = sin* — 71*) sin 6 sin { f + /sin (cos* ^ — cos 0{gcosf — h sin f) ^ cos . and substituting for tan value in Y' .y'z'dm = f cos Y'} 6 cos {Z* sin* Y' + n* cos* Y' . z. S. then if to abridge. If the second members of these be made equal to zero. real root.x'y'dm Let values of x'.g^ ^ hf} . not it be possible to determine the angles in question. To axes of the body. 0. so that S. be im* and \jf. it is This equation having at least one always possible to render the first members of the two at the same time. and sin* Y') i tan 20= — gsinY^ f sm* Y*" — ?i cos' + AcosY^ ^ — 2f sm Y' tan*0 cos Y' bm by the arithmetic of ^^"' itan2f>= 1  sines . hence. = 0.gy + {{rn')U +fi\ where u is u*)} . s* there will result cos^.a^dm S . y.S. y'z'dmy =0. as will make the rota> possible to obtain such values of 0.W MOTION OF A SOUD BODY it [Book will E 184. and consequently equations (35) zero (S . after some reduction will be found that 0=:(gu + h) (hu hl^ . X 'z'dmy + (S . so as to fulfil the requisite condition. of the third degree.S. Sx'z'dm=:0. y'. Sy'z'dm =z 0. equating these two values of its it ^ %t tan 20. f) (35) sin sin S. or the angles determine the existence and position of the principal 0. {{hs' +fg)u + gJi' .x'z'dm j cos S.
gives Y^. will and so on. x'. Sx'y'dm = 0. satisfy the equations Sx'z'dm = 0. perSix equa petually changing. and thus the three axes oy\ oz\ determined by the preceding values of 6. and the = 0. round any one of which if the body rotates. But that can only be the case = Sy'z'dm = 0. the 187. in the interior of the solid. gives 20 ox'. . is oj/*. 02'. The It value of m = tan f. yet remains to determine the condition S If substitution be it angle 0. 163. first This theorem was proposed by Segner in the year 1755. =  T> Jti . ^t and 0.. and as any one of the three axes. therefore the equation in u will determine the tangent of the angle formed by the axis x with the line of intersection of xy and x'y'. 48 .Chap. H and L Y' . now completely fixed . and belong to the Consequently the three roots of the equation same system of axes. v. may be changed into any other of them. The equation of the third degree in u seems to give three systems of principal axes. but if tlje rota be disturbed by foreign and it forces. with that of xy and x'x'. when Sx'z'dm 89 0. being functions of it known tan quantities as it must be zero. since the preceding equations will still be satisfied. in u are real. will take the form // sin tlie 20 and + L cos 20. the solid will only rotate for an instant about oz'^ in the next element of time rotate about oz".] OP ANY FORM WHATEVER. article made in S x'y'dm . Whence opposite centrifugal forces balance each other. Sy'z'dm = 0. as oz'^ tion fig. the body will rotate per manently about any one of them. 168. every body has at least one system of principal and rectangular axes. y'y z'. for x' and y' from . The position of the principal axes ox'. consequently tan 6 and 6 become known. and if there be no disturbing forces. and was demonstrated by Albert Euler in 1760. or with that of xy and y'z'. tions are therefore require4 \o . x'y'dm = 0. one for each value of u but u is the tangent of the angle formed by the axis x with the line of inter* section of the plane xy with that of x'y' . 186.
When two of the moments C=^ and all of inertia are equal. respectively. instantaneous axis 02" . z'. . the axes in the plane of 192. with regard to the fixed coordinates ox. ellipse equator being principal axes. and making . many 191. cos* 0. C the greatest of the three quantities A. for one of these. and it will rotate permanently about is any one of them. y. y their values Az^S (y'^+z"). joint coeffiit is always greater than the 190. oy'.Ami^e in + B sin« e cos* + C cos* 6. B. then all the axes of the solid are prin cipal axes. . which sin* Q sin* made by ox'. will become the value of B= S (x'^+z'^)dm sin« (p. and element referred to any axes whatever having the same origin. and for a similar reason least. C. be the coordinates of rfm.« + 2/*) dm to be the moment of inertia relatively one of these new axes. C =: S {xf^+y'^)dm C C =:. and a minimum Let a/. When A =: B :=i C. because their are always equal to unity . now be shown.4 = 2?. C. and z'. Then AC is its equator. Tlie all ellipsoid of revolution of uniform density its kind . sin* Q cos* 0. oz'. oz'. as will 189. is. that oy. In C must be less than the greatest of the three quantities cients A. . oz. the greatest and the least principal moments of inertia belong fact. as from article 163.B. three will determine place with regard to the principal axes ox'. C=S then substituting for x and (j. is The permanency of rotation not the same for all the three axes. the all moments of inertia in the same plane with these are equal of this : hence the axes situate in that plane are principal axes.90 fix its MOTION OF A SOLID BODY the position of tlie [Book I. Now if 2. a maximum let x. relative to the be the coordinates of the same three principal axes. y'. C. The quantity are the squares of the cosines of the angles oz . as . there to the axes. and exceeds the least of them fore. but there are The sphere of uniform density others. is An ellipsoid of revolution formed by the rotation of an ABCD about its joainor axis BD. then sin* + C cos* is . are the moments of inertia of the solid with regard is less than to the axes x'. a solid of tliis kind. is The principal axes possess this property — that the moment of inertia of the solid for another. y'.dm. B. oy'. with and A. z. and three more are necessary to determine the position of the principal axes themselves in space.
perj)en always meet the but surface in the same points .49 the tlie moments of rotation inertia unequal. round the axes inertia which liave their moment of is a maximum is. and y the ^r is point of Aries : hence xoy =r the longitude of ox. is tlic axis of rotation. §1* are When /ig. 50. the plane of the equator. never body whereas in unstable rotation. oz' is therefore one of the permanent axes of rotation. in wliich neither theory nor observation have detected any appreciable variation . acting . is 193. and z' its pole then oz' If : the axis of the earth's rotation. describes a cone about oz so that the motion of the axij of rotation .. slightest and may be destroyed by the cause.Chap. and pro duce the phenomena of precession and nutation for the earth . : is the longitude and x'oy or the measure of the earth's ro = The earth is flattened at the poles. v. If stable rotation be slightly deranged. . These dis turbing forces do not sensibly alter the velocity of rotation. nor do tliey sensibly displace the . yN the line of the equinoxes. or minimum stable. would rotate permanently about it but the sun and moon. chiefly of importance with regard to the and z is its pole . fig. poles of rotation on the sur face of the earth that is to say. zoz' = is the obliquity of the first ecliptic. therefore oz' is the least of the permanent axes of rotation. 46) be the plane of the ecliptic. Tliis theorem rotation of the earth. rotates about oz". the its deviate far from equilibrium . disturb its rotation. while oz" revolves a]K)ut oz'j its mean place oz' and at the same time . x'oy' xoy iji?. and never return to former state. if it will will be disturbed. the earth to it. these forces alter the direction of the polar axis in space. is a maximum. and the plane of the equator which dicular to it. and the moment of inertia with regard AVere there no disturbing forces. its it will deviate more and more. unequally on the different particles. tation of the principal revolving axis ox'. that round the least or greatest axis but the'rotation is unstable round the third.] OF ANY FORM WHATEVER.
6. + h"y' = cos Q sin ^ sin + cos y — a'x' + + + h'y' (36) yji cos c a' h' c' = = t= cos B sin "^ cos sin sin "^ — cos ^t sin a" h" c" = = sin 6 cos Y' = — sin sin = — sin cos = cosO. 6. a* a<^ 6« + c* =1 + 6« 4. c* + + 6'« 4. 2. e". y'. x =i ax' cz' by' If to abridge a h + + dz' 2 = a"x' c"z'. Whatever the coordinates of dm. by six of the quantities rt. = ax + a'y + a"z + h'y + 6"2 y' = 2' = ex + c'y + c"zy 6j (37) whence the equations of condition. of which all the points remain at rest during the time dt.fe"« c'« ac 6c c"« = + a"6" =: + + a'c' + rt"c" = + tV + 6"c" = 0. a. y. a« + + a"* =1 = 1 1 ar'. 194. . The equations (32) must now be so transformed as to give all the circumstances of rotatory motion. That axis of rotation. since they 2'*. 6'. c are the cosines of the angles c' are the cosines of the angles a". and three remain arbitrary. for changing the coordinates.t' y\ 2'. 6'. e. . <? cos 9 cos Y' sin cos Q cos Y' cos — sin ^r cos + sin Y' sin where a'. are determined the preceding equations. In the same manner. a". may origin. c" are the cosines of the made by x with x'. x* be. is called an instantaneous axis of rotation. will The become equations in article 163. fe« of these it may be found that fl6 4. to obtain .92 is MOTION OF A SOLID BODY [Book I. y\ / made by y with a?'. for the solid revolves about it during that short inters al. aa" a'a" a'. + + ft6' 66" 6'6" a'« + + re' =0 + cc" =0 + c'c" = 0. 5". as it would do about a fixed axis. in functions of x. have the same + y* + = 2* ^'* + y'* + rt'6' By means fl. c" =1 + 6"« + c"« = 1 + aa' . z' and angles made by r with the same axes . 6". very complicated. c'.
be eliminated from this equation by their values in (38).y\ z' retain the same position in the interior of the body during its rotation.x'zdm = S. 6.b"db\ ^.^. hence.a"db" zz rdt bda + b'da' + b"da" cdb r=i to abridge (39) il = S (y'« + if And it dm i S. c'. b'. c.a'db' . v. C= S (t'« +3/'*) dm.^fb'db" ' \{ — —r\— —> +(—^> it will become .j'y' dm = 2'«) . but the angles a./'c'dc"c"dc'\  dt dt / a'db" u uu I  h"da' + h'da" — a"db'\ a"dc' \ ^. m = 6c' — b'c = a'c . y'. a'.   l. . differential multiplied by a. «'. will be found that aAp by the same process it + bBq + cCr = /Mdt ."dc\ ^. if first ^ — from . D. b". plus the second multiplied by plus the third multipUed by a". c".b'dc' . = S (x'* + z'*) dm. . values of y.ac' (38) = ab' . and are therefore independent of the time a".a'b. then the making sum of the first a'. z. If the differentials of these three equations be taken. may be found that + a"Ap + a'Ap all + c'Cr = fM'dt. x'.^ ^. and if + c'db' + c"db" = . vary with the time .. the quantities vary except A.bdc . ^ ^'dc" If o'. b'y &c. + ^ a'dc" C'di' — c"da' + + c'dh" c'da" . b'Bq 196. and C. will be .y'z'dtn = 0. ^„ I ^ j. ^.c'da' . there will result a b c — = = h'c" a"c' a'b" — —  b"c' a' b' c' a'c" a"b' = = = b"c ac" — —  be" a" b" c" a"c a"b ab" 195. The axes x'.b"dc" = pdt adc + a'dc' + a"dc" = — cda .Cbap. equations (36. „ ifa'da"''a"da'\ .adb .) be substituted in the of equations (32). If values of found from equations (36) be compared with their values in equations (37). a". . b"Bq + c"Cr= fM'dt.c"da" = qdi .] OF ANY FORM WHATEVER.
qr = aM + a'M' + a"M". sin (f>. h V b"f &c. The quaDtities p. with regard to its principal all when a body lias no motion but that of rotation. may By a similar process the coefficients be made to vanish.rp Nf (40) And if a. These six equations contain the whole theory of the rotation of the planets and their satellites. be resumed. and their differentials. 198. then with regard to the axis of rotation.. r determine oz''^ the position of the real rotation. &c. dy =z 0. they will give tlieir rotation nearly about their principal axes.d9 cos ^ d^.. dt in consequence of the preceding relations between a a' a". therefore the indefinitely small spaces moved over by that axis in the direction of these coordinates being zero. Y'. ds 0. A^ + (C .INk MOTION OF A SOLID BODY [Book I. a\ become a". . the equations (39) sin O.d^^ . dz 0. the a permanent axis of rotation remain at rest but in an instantaneous axis of rotation the axis can only be regarded as at points in rest from one instant to another. If the = = since all its points are at rest. equations (36) for changing the coordinates. g.qr = = JV B^ dt at C).d^^r sin pdt =: qdt sin — + cos 0. and given in article 194. 6.B). 197. 6'. and then if aM + bM + cM + a'M' b'M' c'M' + + +  a" b" c" M" = N M" = isr M" = N" the equations in question are transformed to A^ dt + + iC (^ B). and instantaneous axis of axis 02' . . and their differentials. ^. be replaced by their functions in 0. the equations in question become. and as they have been determined in the hypothesis of the rotatory pressures being zero.dd (41) = cos rdt =z d<p — 0. h h' b'\ c c' c".
y'. a. is sum is qz' — ry' 0. which are the equawhich forms. 2'. y'* + oc z'* 'Jp* + 9' + r« 02" r= oz" '. whence and j/s + y'i + 3« = z'* 7* + y* + p' 1 I therefore Jjp^ But and then if x'. .] OF ANY FORM WHATEVER. which will determine x'. and the third by c". + y'* + 1 : 2'«. Vx* '. z'dc" = = = 0. x'da x'da' ftS x'da" + + + y'db y'db' + z'de z'dc' + y'db" + 2'. their sum qz' is py' Again. and consequently oz" the axis in the second question. the their first be multiplied by is and the by 6". third if — = = = 0. The last of these contained in the tions to a straight line oz". b. angles whose cosines are p for the q r (44) two last give x"=z'^£. v. cos 2"0C = Vx'" 2' __ r + y'* + 2'* V/>«49"+r* In the same manner COS 2'W = ^ ^ and cos z"oy' =— . y'f 2'.Chap. if the first equation be multiplied by their by a\ and the third by a". 0. sum rx' ^ p'z 0. two first. y'. (48) the second Lastly. cos 2"oc be the coordinates of the point 2".'. with the principal axes jr'. For if the first of these equations be multiplied by c. y"=:z"£. by c'. 0. (42) the second by 6'.
quantity must be divided by the distance of the particle at c' from the axis oz" but this distance is evidently equal to the sine of z"oCy the angle between oz' and oz". the principal and instantaneous axes of rotation. 3/' = 0.V^ + 1 + V* . or one to be fixed. whose determination is very imi)ortant in these researches and as they express quantities independent of the fixed plane xoy. 200. that of the earth when . they are themselves independent of situation of the it. dy. is the sine . as for example where oc = 1 . but T . t?. for the components of the velocity of a particle velocity is hence the resulting VdO* which is + df dt * sin ^0 _ Vg* + r\ the sum of the squares of the two last of equations (41). Thus. depend J). dt dt . dO — cos . and the values of da?. and the angular velocity of rotation. tion is The angular also given velocity of rotaquantities. it by these If the object be to determine for a point in the axis. 201. the instantaneous axis of rotation. three principal axes. the considered is motion can only be rotation about an axis that fixed during an instant. 201. then x' = 0. MOTION OF A SOLID BODY is [Book I. . But in order to obtain the angular velocity of the body. tliis 199. Tlie position of the instantaneous axis with regard to the on . but may vary from one instant to another.96 Consequently oz" /y. r.51. is the cosine of this angle . when divided by dt. 9« + r* ^p^ q^ and therefore is Vu* + + r^ the angular velocity of rotation. — dO dt sin0. Equations (40) determine the rotation of a solid troubled by the action of foreign forces. dMf —L sm a 0. whatever may be the rotation of a botly about a point tliat is fixed. q. hence or \^?* s/ . dz give. as for example.
dp B. v.Cr*)\h^>fAk>r{CA)). the second by <y.r.p. Rotation of a Solid not subject to the action and at liberty to revolve freely about of Disturbing Forces^ a Fixed Point.Chap.dq C:dr If the their first + + + (C (^  = = 0. when not disturbed in its rotation. Bq. order to ascertain If 202.q. (47) B*g« This equation contains the principle of the preservation of impetus or living force which is constant in conFrom these two integrals are obtained: formity with article 148. the three equations be mul by Ap. But the same equations will also determine the rotation of a solid.q. p^qwA r become known U . the last of equations (45) when resolved according to dt=z ^^^ "J^ t (49) in r. and integrated.«. (45) be multiplied by p. we suppose : that there are no disturbing B). sum its is Apdp and integral is + + Bqdq Dq^ = 0. the areas are constant hence the equations (40) become A. ^ disturbed by the sun and moon. Values of p.dt C). being its Centre of Gravity. A{AB) B{BA) dt. Cr. ^ ^ h^^Bk+(BC). and thus by the substitution of this value of r in equations (48) the tliree quantities in functions of the time. Ap* A* tiplied respectively + Cr* if = (46) being a constant quantity. Again. A. and the third by r. in all the circumstances of rotation at every instant. ^{{h*Bk\{BC). ' ' By the substitution of these values of ^ and q. 0.dt forces.r. Ay + + CV a constant quantity. they give =: /i*. r in terms of the time must be obtained. q.p.] OP ANY FORM WHATEVER. or not.dt = + Crdr 0. gives C^ .Ci^\ Tliis equation will give by quadratures the value of and reci procally the value of r'mt. (B — A).
These equations coprinciple of areas. Tlie constant article is only give values quantities i^t /. c'. there exists a plane. and 0. If xoy be that plane. are kno>vn at every instant. it is the circumstances of rotation. and contain the Tliey are not however three distinct integrals. therefore a/P + + l'" t by the projection of of each particle the body on the plane on which that sum is a maximum. or. equations (50) of two of the angles 0. incide with those in article 195. requisite to To become acquainted with know the position of the principal axes themselves with regard to quiescent space. y. the second by 6. r. It is called itself the Invariable Plane. in each of these cases the solid is a spheroid of revolution. (50) l\ I". between the angles in article 194. I". r. 8*9* + CV = + i" f' + V' + I"*. by a sunilar process ?. 204. B= Cj orAszC. q. I'* correspond with c. and its rotation with regard to the principal axes. >^. the angular velocity of the solid.98 Tliis MOTION OF A SOLID BODY [Book I. because remains parallel to during . and 9. /'. their position relatively to the fixed axes x. that But for that is. of equations (45) be multiplied by a. for the sum of their squares is AY + with (47) . = B. + + + bBq b'Bq b"Bq + + + cCr c'Cr c"Cr = = = /. q. in 164. their sum when integrated. This however all is not sufficient. Tims p. in : the sum of the areas described in the time every solid body in rotation about an axis. I and I' are zero therefore. being known functions of the time. which is the same tiling. being arbitrary constant quantities. which may now be If the regarded as kno\vn quantities. equation can only be integrated when any two of the moments of inertia are equal. on wliich the ticles sum of the areas described by the projections of the parfinite it of the solid during a time is a maximum. c". either when A 203. in consequence of the equations in article 194. purpose the angles 0. I". first tliird and the relations by c. is in consequence of the aAp a'Ap a"Ap /. But this is the same hence Z* + I"* = h* will being an equation of condition. in functions of p. y. must be determined in functions of the time. z.
there must be six arbitrary Beconstant quantities for the complete solution of the problem. and the angular velocity of the body. and the third by a". oz at every instant. 0*. of equations (50) be multiplied by a. ^'> Vid 0'. are given in terms of the time so that the position of the three principal axes with regard to the fixed axes. Now (fig. 1=0. r. cos 0'= —. q.df' = sin 0' Ap" d\U' . . As there are six integrations.pd< + sin 0' . and V> 'o ^^^ ^\tdi plane. Y^'. 0' and B' are determined. are known functions of the time. and if dO be eliminated between the two first of equation (41). Thus.) are known with regard • to the invariable plane xoy : and H2 . ox. =  ^ kdt. their the first sum is a" = —E: h in the same manner it will be found that h or. 0'. g. sin 0'. in consequence of the equations in article 194. y : is determined. are and these known in given in terms of p. terms of the time hence f. are known 205. the result will be sin* e'. because by the assumption of xoy for the invariable plane. . substituting the values h of a". .Chap. Since if / = 0. 49. Because p. r. and because + Bq':=k ^"^ . h h (51) The ^» 0> accented angles 0'. 0'. cos <i>' . last are rj/'.qdt But in consequence of equations (51). oy. : W the motion of the body it is also named I'' the plane of the Greatest Rotatory Pressure. c". sin 0' cos =z  ?1. v. r. 0'. from article 194.] OF ANY FORM WHATEVER. and as r is given in functions of the time by equation (49). </>' sin 0' sin 0' =  :^. two more will be introduced by the integration of dt and dy' Hence two are still I required. the second by a'.Cr*. sides h and k. q. Y''. p. h 0'. = h. and /' become zero. 6". relate to the invariable plane. the three angles.
100 by trigonometry MOTION OF A SOLID BODY. . it will be easy to determine values of y{/. Tliese two invariable plane new arbitrary quantities are the inclination of the fixed plane in question. 0'. The sum of the areas described round the centre of gravity of the solid by the radius of each particle projected on a fixed plane. is proportional to the moment respectively multiplied by of the primitive force projected on the same plane but this moment . 206. 52. and that introduced by the integration of d"^' depends on the origin of the be assumed at pleasure on the invariable plane. If the position of the three principal axes with regard to the invariable plane be known at the origin of the motion. m body.be the centre ofgravityofa body of whichABC is a section. 0. the two arbitrary quantities are . known. angle f\ which may 207. 0.GF will bs the moment of this . and the angular distance of the line of intersection of these two planes from a line arbi on the trarily fixed assumed on the fixed plane and as the initial position of the plane is supposed to be given.c. which are requisite for the complete solution of the problem. $'. will be and therefore given. capable and rotatory motions.fig. 208. p. and suppose that it lias received an impulse in the plane ABC at the distance GF. making in all six. and the particles. equation (46) The constant quantity arising from the integration of dt depends on the arbitrary origin or instant whence the time is estimated. Let v be the velocity mitive impulse generated in the centre of gravity by the prithen if be the mass of the . hence it is the invariable is a maximum relatively to the plane plane. LetG. will be known at that time and then will give the value of k. m. r. which will introduce two new arbitrary quantities. interesting. . with regard to any fixed plane whatever. as The determination of the sixth constant quantity h is very it affords the means of ascertaining the point in which the sun and planets may be supposed to have received a primitive of communicating to them at once their rectilinear impulse. which passes through the point of primitive impulse and centre of gravity. q. it will move forward will rotate in space at the same time that it to the plane about an axis perpendicular ABC. from its centre of gravity f9' 52. [Book I.
whose radius be in motion. As the sun rotates about an axis. it 101 impulse. is equal to f of the square of its scmidiamctcr . ?f. is R.Chap. in others most of them are observed to have a rotatory motion. at the distance with an angular velocity represented by centre of gravity will be t> = uT. which by no means Thus the sun's rotation leads us to presume that the solar system may 210. fig. of rotatory power. be a sphere revolving round the sun in S. SG then the velocity of the Imagine the planet to be put in motion by a primitive impulse. It is not probable that the primitive impulse of the planets and other bodies of the system passed exactly through their centres of its centre of gravity gravity . would retain the same degree Tlie centre of gjTation if all the particles that point of a it were condensed. to or r. for the components q and p at right angles to that plane will be zero. v. then the sphere will ^'3 ^3 rotate about an axis perpendicular to the invariable plane. the mass of the body and the velocity of tive impulse. which determines the sixth arbitrary constant quantity h. into which. Suppose a planet of uniform density. It is found that the square of tlie radius of gyration in a sphere. and therefore it would cause liim to move fonvard is in space unless an impulse in the accompanied by the planetary system.TG is . be It V/'+r+Z"* hence ^P + I" + /"* = m. though it has not been ascertained. body in rotation. known. . and multiplying by ^i.r. Were the angular velocity of rotation.GF. with an angular velocity equal to r. hence. on account of their immense and the smallness of their volumes.v. becomes I" = mur. the point of primibe determined. the distance GF. distances. the equation V/*+T«+7^ = m. 53. and I" =. product will be equal to the but this sum was shown t .] OF ANY FORM WHATEVER. contrary direction had destroyed that likely. the Bum of the to areas described during the time . passing through the point F. he must have received a primitive impulse not passing through his centre of gravity. rC. might 209.GF = h . motion.
an arc of the moon /. and the ratio of angular velocity of rotation to its angular velocity in its orbit. earth passes through 360° in 24 hours Every point in the surface of the and as the rotation is uni. t Tims. whence is r= R .3 days moon's orbit would be all and may is also be expressed by nt. and the ratio of its rotatory velocity to that orbit is known by observation to be 366. but decreases from the centre to the surface. Hence. . a = nt. the ratio of the mean radius of a planet to mean distance from the sun. as the density of the earth is not uniform. so that nt a general expression for any arc that increases uniformly with the time.25638. if « be an arc of it. the distance of the primitive impulse from its centre of gravity must have been some thing less. the ratio — r GF x> would be 0. 212. so that one of these quantities may represent the other. could be ascertained. 360° : a : : 24 : < : hence « = 24 or. . producing its motion in space. Were the earth a sphere of uniform density. and as the mean radius of the earth 160 about 4000 miles. the point in which the primitive impulse was given. u its 211. The rotation of the earth has established a relation between time and the arcs of a circle. and sin « = sin nt. the arcs described are proportional to the time. any number of degrees. thus /" =r X 1 m RS 5 if GF = ib its E r .000042665 in its . and the time employed to describe t . cos u s= cos nt In the same manner the periodic time of the nearly. might be determined. the primitive impulse must have been given at the distance of 25 However. miles from the centre. form. being 27. 213. JL. if the constant coeffi cient — 24 be represented by n. n may have values.i02 MOTION OF A SOLID BOD^ inertia [Book t hence the rotatory C becomes _ and 2 m R*. Thus.
dm =: + ydt in* =: dy . 7it. \ sin vl. = 0. equation in question d*x + dx* +yn*dt^ Let dx =: ydt. and n = b'c"'^ . + + tions of a system of bodies. (6 — V — 1 sin V . « =: (6 +6') cos 7it  — 6) + b' = M sin 11 c . which are only transformations of the general equation of the moThe integrals of both give a value of u terms of the sines and cosines of circular arcs increasing with the the first by approximation. and then or u =: Mfsin « cos nt = M sin + cos e sin (nl + e). which changes the equa dy + n* dt (w» + 3/*) If y = m a constant quantity. and because either of these their satisfies the conditions of the problem. vt) . =: 0. X = c' . in tru = R 7rM = 0. v.1 = M cos « b') .] OF ANY FORM WHATEVER. since the element of the time tion to constant. b and b' also satisfies the conditions being arbitrary constant quantities. sum u = bd"^^ and + is b'c*"^. then (Px is = 0. time be obtained by making u = cf. u = gives u = bc""^. c being the number whose Napierian logarithm is unity. The motions of ihe planets are determined by equations of tliese forms. but the integral of the second will . But c^^^=: cos 7it c~^~i=:co8 Hence Let b 7it + V— 'J — (6 1 sin ni. As X has two values. = dydf. hence whence but the integral of which m= dx is ^: 7t \/l. Whence and tlie d'u = CCd^x + becomes dx*). 103 214. ip udt y/ = = If — I.Chap.j< J  I. the general solution.
215. 1 . (J = C) prdt = qrdt 0. Since the axis of rotation oz" very near oz'. then x fit. Since a sine sin. and u Thus function it — C c"'. then the two values of x become x=:fit+at consequently. U . however much the time may therefore m is a periodic quantity whose value oscillates limits between fixed which 71 it never can surpass. Were the roots of 71* equal. its Rotation of a Solid which turns nearly round one of Axes. . sin But therefore c^' {ut = 1 4. Jdp + Bdq + (C — Ii) . because [Book e I. appears that if the roots of «* be imaginary or equal. that its cosine — yfp' differs but + 9' + r« from unity .8 . g^+««A/=T — 1 x= fit  at V 1. the u would increase without limit.c'^''^ = c^'jcos at + \/^ l sin oU} c'''^"^ = c^ . as the Earth and the Planets. u =<f\ M. is 216. hence p and q are so minute that their product may be omitted. But that would not be the case were an imaginary quantity 71 for let = »J « ± V"^ . (7?^+ e) never or cosine never exceed the radius.0""'^^= &"{cos at — J'^ sin at} whence m = sin (6 + 6') cos «< + (6 — 6) ^/~^ — A + 6' or substituting for (6 6') V— c*' { oct} . 2.104 which is MOTION OF A SOLID BODY. the integral required. . can exceed unity. fiH"" 4. C being constant. but would increase to infinity. M and can are two arbitrary constant quantities. These circumstances are of the highest importance. and u is no longer a periodic function. because the stability of the solar system depends upon them. _ c/». increase . fig. 50. which reduces equations (45) to Cilr = 0. but not subject principal the action to of accelerating Forces. /3< f i y8*^ + — — + 6) .3 (f* increases indefinitely with the time. the angle little z' z" is so small.&c.
dr ss 0. therefore. the three equations are reduced to rp satisfied. C) oz'. cos (nt+g). are zero . if the body begins to turn round one of its about that axis for principal axes. and M' It follows therefore. and the two last give dt* B ' dt dt A hence if the constant quantity AB the result will be —+ dt* n*g = . q. 217. every 219. and the axis 02" ever. for if the axis of rotation oz'' be invariable on the surface of the real position of the body. the angular velocity will be constant . 4. the three preceding equations are zero. hence dp qrdt I?. tlie 105 shows angular velocity to be uniform. is. sin {nt+g"). gr = is .] the first OP ANY FORM WHATEVER. if they will both be zero for every value of q and p. these equations will only be zero in two of the quantities p. If ^. (A  C) rpdt = 0. whence = M ^/^(^ BiB — 0. in a plane at right angles to the third principal axis but as the body then a solid of revolution. whatever will be the values of p. g. both of which will be r = 0. that is. it will continue to rotate uniformly case q and p will always be zero. but then. every case when C. that property perty of permanent rotation. When A may B =C. then q cipal axis in the beginning of the motion. that in this will always coincide with oz' . Af = 0. dg = 0. In the same manner 5 = =: M' p M' M . . natural axes of rotation it belongs to them exclusively. If oz" the real axis of rotation coincides with the prin. whence. (B  A) pqdt = 0. On account of this remarkable property these are called the . is a principal axis. as ^ = B.B) =0. r. and (C . then all the axes of the body Thus the principal axes alone have the probe principal axes. and by article 214. C) . 218. The axis of rotation . v. = 0. and p are zero hence also. inertia be equal. be unequal. axis in that plane :=. r. though they do not possess in the same degree. = 0.Chap. the real axis coincides with If two of the moments of one of the principal axes.
or 0. make if 71 indefinitely small oscillations about But be imaginary. be a real quantity. = M sin then be indefinitely small. [Book 50. and are . by cos (nt article 215. Y'. 221. oy. the coefficients M andiW' and p will cos if 71 (lit + g). give dt du . That evi dently depends on the angles 0. Suppose the real axis of rotation 02". sin (jit + g). + g). C. but unstable about the third.106 MOTlOfJ OV A SOLID BODY fig. If the third principal axis 02'. t The integrals of these two quantities are obtained by the method in article 214. be assumed to be nearly at right angles to the plane xoy. e. = or if r =r «. witix be changed into quantities which increase the time. and will n imaginary. by an indefinitely small quantity from 02'. p + g). Now . positive . for then the product iA C) (B C) will be but if C have a value that is between those of A and B. fig.. Having determined the rotation of the solid. since q:= (tit + g) are indefinitely small. and 6. therefore q and remain indefinitely small so that the real axis 02" will the third principal axis. the third principal axis. cos (nt will My. 50. then the equations (41) d<f) give — df = = rdt y^ . to deviate I. it only remains to ascertain the position of the principal axis with regard to quiescent space. Since n=^r / VAAB)iBC) AB C the it will be a real quantity when is moment of inertia ^vilh regard to 02'. the integral If sin is. and the the third prin real axis of rotation will deviate more and more from have no stability. be a constant quantity. and its cosine assumed equal to unity . will never exceed very narrow limits. 02. — — that product will be negative. the two first of equations (41). either the greatest or the least of the three moments of inertia^. cos sin sin = u. — «< 4. 80 that the motion will The value of 71 will decide that important point. B. that is. cipal axis. after the ehmination of t/y/. will be so very small that its square may be omitted. with regard to the fixed axes ox. 220. Hence the rotation be stable about the greatest and least of the principal axes. sin (n< will + g). the angle 202'. ».
and fig. and therefore cannot be represented in the diagram. 6? = r. v. . let In order to adapt that equation to the motion of the pendulum.54. it drawn aside from the oz. fig. so that the motion of the pendulum is de S ( ^ dm = ) S (yZ — gY) dm. passing through o at right angles to the it plane zoy.] OF ANY FORM WHATEVER. . oy = y. tt =C sin (a< AM + X) — Ca sin (/t^ + ff)» f and X being new arbitrary quantities introduced by integration. Compound Pendulums. or when the centre of gravity is fixed but imagine /5'. Tlie motion being in the plane zoy. and then left to will oscillate about that axis alone. Hitherto the rotation of a solid about its centre of gravity has been considered either when the body is free. « =r lot f COS {at + X) — Co. the centre of gravity of the PoA be pendulum. If the body be vertical itself. This solid its pendulum. and yb given in values of and the time. Ay=:y\ hence PA = — y'. depending on the property of areas. cos (lit + g). y a solid OP. 55. Ao=2'.Chap. The problem is completely solved. 222. let the angle P is represented hyO.. to revolve about a fixed axis in o which does not pass through its cen? tre of gravity. 54. fig. the sums of the areas in the other two planes are zero rived from the equation . 55. since s and u give 6 and in values of the time. and by the action of gravitation body of any form whatever is the compound motion is perfectly similar to that of the simple l)cndulum already described. which is supjxjsed to rotate about the axis ox.
y'dm zero . y'dm. S. moves by the force of gravitation alone in the = g. m being the mass . Hence — = — Sgydm. If the pendulum direction 02. Now 2'=:y sin y':=:ycos9 If the first of these four equations be multiplied by sin 0. cos ^ or —_ = d0* dt^ A + • r> C. rotatory inertia will be ^ = mP.. If L be the distance of the centre of gravity of the pendulum from the axis of rotation ox. hence = — Lmg * sm 0. C being an arbitrary constant quantity. in wliich m is the whole mass of A dl* tlie pendulum . of the body. it If these values be substituted in the equation of areas becomes A __ ar for =— S S (yZ — zY) 2'«) dm. S z'dm. hence A = dC — ff sin ^. a 2. and the second by cos sum is z =: z' cos in the — y' Bin 6 . same way y =: 2' sin + y' cos 0. of which / all the atoms are united in a point at the distance of its from the axis of rotation ot. 223. S z'dm — g cos 0.108 MOTION OF A SOLID BODY y'=:r sin $ zf:=z cos 9 [Book I. z'dm becomes Lm. is the rotatory pressure S. . their 0. If a simple pendulum be considered. tliis it If the value of y be substituted in becomes. ^ = Y= A (y'« + Z dm. A d^0 =r — g sin 0. 2Lme. the rotatory pressure S. Because z' passes through the centre of gravity of the pendulum.
that the length of a simple pendulum may be found. In this case I =z L. we find = dt* £. I cos + C. or ^ = — mL . provided pendulum be equal to the rotatory with body regard to the axis of motion. v. tliat if the angular velocities of the their centres com pound and simple pendulums be equal when also that the length of the simple inertia of the solid of gravity are in the vertical. whose oscillations are performed in the same time with those of a compound pendulum. Thus such a relation is established between the lengths of the two pendulums.] OF ANY FORM \VHATEVER. 224. their oscillations will be exactly the same. .Chap. divided by the product of the mass by the distance of its centre of gravity from the axis. z* 109 and for I* = ^ y'. Thus it appears. In this manner the length of the simple pendulum beating seconds has been determined from observations on the oscillations of the compound pendulum. Substituting this value A.
231. form. 225. aiid transmit that pressure in every direction. fluids of perfect mobility are divided into compressible or elastic fluids. 226. called viscous fluids but those only . and regain is their primitive state as soon as the pressure removed. Mobility of the particles constitutes the difference between fluids and solids. each particle must it. and others of the gases. 230. whatever the degree of pressure may be. indeed. these fluids change both form gases. FLUIDS.110 [Book I. Equilib Hum of Flu ids. and volume. as lately proved by Mr. and incompressible. the When compressed. but possess perfect are compressible. There are. mobility. When a fluid mass is in equilibrio. The elastic and compressible fluids are atmospheric air. and steam. 227. A FLUID is a mass of particles which yield to the slightest pressure. It is impossible to ascertain the forms of the particles of fluids. Faraday. Strictly speaking. for even liquids . and becoming liquid when com pressed to a certain degree. 229. Some of the gases are found to differ from atmospheric air in losing their elastic form. are the subject of this investigation. and steam is reduced to water when its temperature is diminished but atmospheric air. it can have no influence on the laws of their motions. considered in mass. fluids in nature whose particles adhere more or less to each other. 228. CHAPTER VI. always retain their gaseous . all fluids under very great pressure change their volume sion is but as the compres insensible in ordinary circumstances. but as all of them. ON THE EQUILIBRIUM OF Definitions^ 8fc. itself be held in equilibrio by the forces acting pressures of the sunoundiug particles. afford the same pheno mena. upon together with th« . whose particles do not adhere in any degree.
c parallelopipedon ABC D.dydz =: p') dydz . the pressures urging the mass £B and EA. x EG. Because the mass ordinates of E.) dx . urging the mass parallel very small area may be A D .Qiap. fig. if x.] ON THE EQUILIBRIUM OF ia FLUIDS. At G. y. 234. E B. in the direction E G. dz. the area ED 235. z. It sures evident. Suppose also. . forming a rectangular A. 233. will be the pressure on the face B. and \ '^~\ —vp ^ the 3 same time is ^ it is suppose its sides parallel to the coordinate axes. E A. becomes I p' = . ox. dydz. . Equation of Equilibrium. y and z remaining the it same . in a direction parallel to In the same manner. may A becomes x + dx. and — p'dydz = — ( E. z. the pressure \dxj Now pdydz hence the pressure on AB. at that urged by accelerating forces. are the area E C into the dif ference of the pressures on the faces into the difference of the pressures on E C and BF and £ D and A F. dy. hence p — pdydz is p' =— — f ]dx. hence as p is con sidered a function of x. — ( —] dx. that it is pressed B on all sides by the surrounding fluid. must be in a contrary direction to the pressure on the face C will be urged by the difference of these pressures D : hence the mass but this difference considered as a single force acting either on the face B or C consequently the difference of tlie pressures multiplied by the B will be the whole pressure.VI. the edges is indefinitely small. y.> t j^ dx J at the point G . Imagine a system of fluid particles. oy. 56. andp'dydz (p < is on CD . A to the side EG. that whatever the accelerating forces or pres may be. pdydz dx. Ill 232. It evident. they can all be resolved into component forces parallel to three rectangular coordinates. that the pressure on the face A B. oz. be the co be represented by Then p being the pressure on a unit of surface.
Kdx dy dz. to be functions of the distance.112 is ON THE EQUILIBRIUM OF FLUIDS. Y. [Book I. because expresses the general condition requisite for the existence of equilibrium. This equation will not give the equilibrium of a all fluid under is circumstances. furnishes another equation. component forces. Y. it is evident that in many cases equilibrium impossible but when the it accelerating forces are attractive forces directed to fixed centres. Assuming the forces X. that the indefinitely small increment or incompressible. But the axes. Equations of Condition. be the accelerating forces in the direction of multiplied by the volume dx dy dz^ and by p its density. AF. of virtual velocities {. Z. which shows the relation that must exist among the all. they become the momenta p. 237. or ^ Jx dx As ferentials. for . are the differences of the pressures on the faces AG. whether elastic It shows. and . d'pp + + of the pressure is equal to the density of the fluid mass multiplied by the sum of the products of each force by the element of its direction. (^^ dy ED. p. But these momenta must balance the pressures in the same directions when the fluid mass is in equilibrio hence. Z. by the principle .XUx+ {. if dxdz.Ti dx dy dz. . + ^ Jy + ^ dz dy = P {XJx + \ly 5Zr}. 236. dif the variations are arbitrary.Y  Uy Jz + {pZ  gbz + = 0.fE^ dz. In the same manner may be proved that .dydx B F. they may be made equal to the and then Zdz } Ydy (52) {Xdj? is the general equation of the equilibrium of fluids. 238. p. and on when X. the difference of the pressures on the faces it AB and C D.Y dx dy dz. in order that equilibrium may it be possible at It is called an equation of condition.
in order tliat the equation (52) may be an exact differential.pX __ d dz pZ ' dz dy dx These three equations of condition are necessary. Tlie second . in order that equilibrium may be possible. If the differentials of these three equations be taken.] article 75. Q^ and /) { Xdx + Ydy + Zc/2 } whence supposing it fi^^^^ an exact resulting force + Vt/y + = 0. VI. 113 by tial member of is exact differential dhd as p the preceding equation is an a function of x.Chap. Y. it gives the par equations dx but the differential of the dy first. pY dy dx — . is d^p _ _ d pK .Y. If the fluid be free at its surface.^ + dz dz Z. 239. ON THE EQUILIBRIUM OF FLUIDS. Equilibrium will always fulfilled . the pressure must be zero . according to x. dz according to y.^ dx dx dy an equation expressing the relation that must exist among the forces X.pY dx ^ dydx . the the first sum of multiplied by Z. By a similar process. /)X i—  = d . in every point of the surface when the mass is in equilibrio so that p =. Zdz) = constant. being constant. 2. will be = X. d^p d.^ + Y. and consequently integrablc. be possible when these conditions arc but the exterior figure of the mass must also be deter mined. hence — d . pZ ^ d . Z.^ . inte differential. dxdy and the differential dy is of the second.^ . the density The on each jmrticle must be directed to the I .*^ dy X. pY _ d .Z. Equilibrium of homogeneous Fluids. it will be found that d . of the second multiplied by X. and of the third multiplied by — Y. y.
the p must be a also . the particle along the surface. one perpendicular. 240. The pressure p will then be a fluid function of will be and the equation of the free surface of the =r constant Thus quantity. and must be perpendicular to the surface for might be resolved into two others. then equation (52) becomes dp:=p. it mass. the = resultant of the forces X. must be perpendicular to those parts of the surface where the fluid is free. and the first member must be an exact differential. function of 0. (54) The first member of tliis equation is an exact differential.d(p. Y. by of equilibrium at the surface will be 7/ =: article 69 tlie equation \dx \ being a + Ydy . and in consequence of the latter. and in order that the second density member may also be an exact differential. and their intensities functions of the distances of the points of application from their origin. the pressure will be obtained by integrating the equation dp =: jid</>. y. Equilibrium of heterogeneous Fluids.the strata or layers of a fluid mass in which tlie pressure extent. Assume (53) =f(Xdx + Ydy + being a function of j. and all. then the density depends on the pressure . and when the forces are attractive. have the same density throughout their whole Demonstration. and one horizontal would If slide . and their intensities func mutual distances of the particles. . function of x. . as in the case of homogeneity'. the pressure and the density are the same for all the points of the same layer. . and by the same article. And when given. [Book 1. be the equation of the surface. When the fluid mass is heterogeneous. z + Zdz Xdw. Z. is the same. Let the function Xdx when j Ydy + Zdz 75 will be an exact difference. which by tions of the article always be the case the forces X. Z. The law of that function the variation of the density in passing from one layer to another depends on the function in is which expresses it. Zdz). are attractive. rior of the fluid were it not.114 ON THE EQUILIBRIUM OP FLUIDS. z . Y. y.
if all its particles act on each geneous towards any number of fixed centres but in arc attracted and otlier. like till the atmosphere. when in pendicular to the direction of the force. hence an elastic fluid cannot in equilibrio unless it it be be either shut up in a close vessel. as for it fluid mass has been considereil to be at rest . and r the distance of a paroz. 242. act at the exterior surface should be perpendicular to interior. 246. but when is of great extent. If the surface of an elastic fluid be free. extend in space its density becomes insensible. to have a uniform motion of rotation about a fixed example the axis common to all the particles Let u be the velocity of rotation of the fluid. the accelerating forces acting on the surface be perpendicular to strata of the . liquid will . is a plane per tlie fluid and the surface. Hitherto the but suppose axis. that case. It appears from the preceding investigation. its surface exhibits the curvature 6f the earth.] ON THE EQUILIBRIUM OF FLUIDS. 243. and must tend to its interior. When mass . I 2 .Chap. the centre of the attractive force is at an infinite dis its direction becomes parallel throughout the whole extent of equilibrio. tent of stagnant water The surface of a small exit may is be estimated plane. it fluid if the heaviest is will be stable. 116 homo 241. If the upper be most dense. whatever the law of the force might be. the pressure cantill the density be zero . that a remain in equilibrio. the density be uniform throughout each indeif finitely small layer or stratum of the mass. tlie resulting force must be perpendicular to the surface of If there be but one force the liquid. the mass would become a sphere. If a fixed solid of any form be covered by fluid as the earth by the atmosphere. or. and tending towards the interior. is 244. having that point in its centre. will A fluid mass that if not homogeneous but free at its surface be in equilibrio. and directed not be zero 245. Equilibrium of Fluids in Rotation. it is requisite for the equilibrium of the fluid that the intensity of the attractive forces should depend on their distances from fixed centres. VI. and that the resulting force of towards the all the forces which it. or attraction directed to a fixed point. tance. the equilibrium will be unstable undermost. and the resultant of all it.
and its centrifugal force resulting from rotation.116 tide X. from consequently equilibrium will be possible. the laws expressed by the prerotation when fluid. together with the centrifugal force induced by In this case. provided the condition of article 238 be fulfilled. ON THE EQUILIBRIUM OF FLUIDS. the coordinates of dm being will be the velocity of dm. . will be Xdx The being an exact Ydy f Zdz + wKrdr = 0. the correfluid spondence of the form of the earth and planets witli that of a mass in rotation. in consolidating. does not prevent the function differential. increase of density towards its centre . 247. [Book I dm z. and. have retained nearly the form they would have acquired from their mutual attractions. added to the accelerating forces which urge the particle tion (53) will lience equa become rf0 = + Xdx + Ydy + Zdz + a. therefore. above all.« rdr. which must therefore be . y. (55) centrifugal force. And the tlie differential equation of the strata. have led to the supposition that these bodies may have been originally fluid. The regularity of gravitation at the surface of the earth the . Then wr from the axis of rotation. and that their parts. will be w'r. ceding equations must have regulated their formation. and of the free surface of fluid.
is In the same manner its motions in the axes y and 0. z are . is.^y\p^jL = \y I dt^Vdy dtn'^ dz / I Z ^U^ = d(} dt (56) 0. but. however. (57) This equation is not rigorously true. which by no means the case with for .117 CHAPTER VII. General Equation of the Motion of Fluids. 249. A may solid always preserves the is same form whatever . as far as concerns the following analysis. does not express all the fluid. the axis x arising from the accelerating forces 3 by article X— — > p dx dy dz. the effect of the inequaUty of pressure is insensible. in. its momentum 144. The mass of a fluid particle being p dx dy dz. circumstances of the motion of a Another equation fluids is requisite. MOTION OF FLUIDS. 248. its motion a jqass be. And by in the principle of virtual velocities the general equation of fluids is motion {XJx+YSy + ZJ4  ^ p = ^^ Sx + ^ 5y + ^ dl* Jz. wliich Poissoiv has proved not to be the case. The preceding equation. because it is formed in the hypothesis of the pressures being equal on all sides of a jmrticle in motion. "^ 'y "fluid Consequently the equation of the motion of a mass in the axis when free. But the pressure resolved in the same direction is (I) ox.
the coordinates y and z remaining the same. The sides of the dx ^ small parallelopiped. will be the mass of ABC D. changes forces. Developement of the Equation of Continuity. hence the volume of A into its primitive density must if be equal to volume of N E FG p dx dy into the new density . in functions of the time. The action of the forces will change during the indefinitely an oblique angled figure small time that it moves from its it into NE first F K. quently. in the density but it is evi dent that the mass must always remain the same. after the time dt. dz + or. and p. become d. the N may . and consequently the motion of the fluid.dy. from the increase of and that the varia. differ from ABCD both in same forces depends on the that change the form may also produce a for if the density •^9' ^^' change in the pressure. a property for the form by the action of the into the intervals any void. determination Equation of Continuity. the equation of continuity 0. y. Now form and density. hence. so that it always continues to fit of the surrounding molecules without leaving In this consists the continuity of fluids. fig. 252. ABCD. dy + d. tions of dy. but not in mass pressure. Suppose at any given time the form of a very small fluid mass to be that of a rectangular parallelopiped ABCD. for the number of molecules in ABCD B C D can neither be increased nor diminished by the action of the forces still . its 57. x. together with equations (56). dz.118 MOTION OF FLUIDS. to its E FG second position. «. 57. formed of particles possessing perfect mobility. fig. conse. which furnishes the other equation necessary of their motions. d.pdxdy dz be (58) = 251. [Book I.dx. will determine the four unknown quantities x. This equation. dZy arise only from the similar increments of y and z .dz. 250. observing that the variation of dx only arises d. and.
VII. irff*+ &c. equal to dntT^p. the volume of the parallelopiped NK will be for NE. sin 0.] MOTION OF FLUIDS. it is f + ±dt + ±dT + dt dx ^dy+ ±dz. dy+±dz fl+ ±dt+±dx+if dt dx dz y dy . being the product of the volume and density. sin f . = m= Fa NF. V' = 90" ± df. be repre sented by and yff. . If the angles GNF and FNE. Fa. substituting for the three edges their preceding values. N6 being at right angles to NE and RG were right angles in the primitive volume. y and dy and space hence j>. is ^ dy f ^l dz .* Chap. sin 90'' ± dQ. dz consequently. and after the time rf/. 58. they could y only vary by indefinitely small arcs in the time dt hence in the new volume but as and .NFsinV. 1. NG NF . the primiz. 119 hence the edges of the new mass are A. d*2 \ . the mass. = consequently. and the volume becomes NE . d^x dy . 1 = sin (90° ± d0) = cos d9 = sin V = sin (90° ± df) = cos df— 1 = sin Y' = and omitting d^*. is. NG. (? yo* + &c.dxdy dz .NGsin^. after tlie time dt.58. J a function of t. and omitting indefinitely small quantities of the fifth order. sin d<?*. j:. the volume after the time dt is + dxdydz{l^^ dx The density varies both with the time tive density. fig.
the motion of the fluid is Second form of the Equation of 257. 7f r= dy li. ^ dy tlie volume (60) + _£l.p da: — ^ + J dy d. both the volume and density remain the same during the whole motion therefore the increments . p. 253. 254. and as the last equation becomes obtained from the other four. occasionally more convenient coordinates of the fluid particle dniy as known and dx T"' dt its velocities dy ~iT' dz TT' dt dt in the direction of the coordinates. to regard x. If the density is fluid be both incompressible and homogeneous. In let order to transform the equations (56) and (59) to suit this case. And d. ' + d. identical. the equation [Book I. r. therefore dp = 0. (61) 255. r = z.p^ J "^ ^ dz — ^ =0 (59) the dy as will readily appear by developing general equation of continuity. vary at once . x. with regard to ^. ± dt ^ + ±dx + dx = ±dy+±dz dz dy and . of these quantities are zero d^x . 0. (dj dy dz) J = + d. It is the Motions of Fluids. y.p dz this quantity. « = dx dt — .p. as unknown. When the fluid is incompressible. dt those quantities being functions of x. 256. the five in functions unknown may be determined which remains arbitrary and therefore all the circumstances of the motion of the fluid mass may be kno\vn for any assumed time. By means of t. Tlie equations (56) and (59) determine the motions both of incompressible and elastic fluids. y. (56). dz = 0. of these two equations and the three equations quantities p. and t all Tlie diflercnlials of these equations when x. the quantities. and when . dx and with regard to the density.120 MOTION OF FLUIDS. y. z. and t. wliich is dx becomes ^ . hence. tlie constant. dz — dt . y z.
= 0. V 1 \ (63) ' /^„>. the equation (59) of continuity becomes ^ dt + LH dx + Leu + dy i^ dz 0. vdl. in which sdx + udy + vdx .vdi.s— . which not yet been sunnountcd. y. be eficctcd in a very extensive case. for incompressible and homogeneous fluids. and v. in func tions of J. in functions of the time.udt+^.udt +_. d. du = ^. X. Tlic whole circumstances of the fluid mass will therefore be known. even in the most 8iini)lc problems.sdt + —. dz^ become 121 ds =: — dt dt dt + — . VII. by the substitution of the preceding dp ox fvr I ds dt ds ds ds ] dx dy dz j dp fv i=:pJi— dy ^\ dp dz • — dt du — __ — dv du du . dz ^"^ And as ds = J^. (64) which. is it dx + ^ dy + ^ = dz dz (65) w. Integralion of the Equations of the Motions of Fluids.sdl + ^. are MOTION OF FLUIDS. however. s. j 1 (y^ I dv dt _dv dy _dv dz dx j and by the same substitution.vdt. y. The great difficulty in the theory of the motion of fluids. dx dy dz (62) dr = — dt + — . put for dx. dt dt dv = dt the equations quantities. r.sdt + dt dx — dy udt + — . dy.u~ du dx dz dy — — . It may. con sists in the integration lias of the partial equations (63) and (64).] sdly iidl.Chap. and then the equations dx = sdt dy = udt = vdl will give X.rrf/.v dy dz du = —dt+ — . 258. (56) become. The equations (63) and (64) will determine /.
of the quan tities x. d0' . If in the equation (57) the variations which are arbitrary. Z be functions of the dis tance. 259.d(^^ + ^ dt dt dt "^ ^f. the accelerating forces X. viz. by which the preceding equation becomes dp __ = dV.p^ ^ dx + d. so that sdx + udy + vdz = d<p.p^± 4 ^ = 0.^i ±dy+^ " dt dt dt J Jfunction 0.i:^ ^ de dP f dt* ^ (66) ^ But the function gives the velocities of the fluid mass in the direc tions of the axes. It is impossible to know all the cases in wliich the function sdx + udy H vdz is an exact differential.122 is MOTION OF FLUIDS. d^v — dt i_. ds. as in nature.dy.dyt. a complete differential of a function 0.J^ . du. and may be expressed by dV. dy^ + ^\ dz* \dx' J Now consequently. but it may be proved that . d0«\ is .£L ^ = dV . ^^ Tlie ^ + d.dx. Y. 260. dv.dx^^. dt dz By the substitution of these values in equation (62). and d^x consequently will . (68) dy dz two last equations determine the motion of the fluid mass in the case under consideration. rdp_^ By the _ d0 _. so that the equation in question becomes .dz^).dx + dt dzzr^d. then will Xdx + Ydy + Zdz be a complete differential. d^^d^J ^^^^ Tlie constant quantity introduced by integration included in the same substitution. /d0* dt \d7 ^ . the equation of continuity becomes .y.dz.±. and if. dx dy d'z I_._. dl be obtained in functions of 0. [Book tliree variable I. be made equal to the differentials of the same quantities . ±. z .p^ ^ d.
. 261._.—^.dx + ^. the squares and then the preproducts of the velocities a. consequently the first be one also.Chap.] if it MOTION OF FLUIDS. dt equation (67) gives ±dx+^y+^z=dW^±^ ^ dt dt dt p And if + ^ yi(^± ydjd" ^ + ^\ dy^ dz'J the density ber of tliis ^ be a function of j> the pressure. it l2^ be 80 at any one instant.dx+±dy+^dz. v. togetlier with equation (68) of continuity. dt the integral y_rd_p^d^ p dt (69) This equation. differential in the second instant. it and may be expressed by d0 d<i> in the following instant will become —. be a complete differential during the whole motion of the Theory of small Undulations of Fluids. If the oscillations of a fluid be very small. be one in the first it will therefore fluid.dy + + dt at differential. the second memequation will be an exact differential. VII. will be an exact differential during the wliole motion of a Demonstration. the first member will be a complete ferential. 262. may be neglected : ceding equation becomes dV^± = ±. m. will then be integrable. An idea may be formed of these undulations by the effect . if Ji dz dt It will still be an exact — d3beone. " dt f dt dt be a function of p. one last also. *Ac+^d3/+ dt dt dt Now the latter quantity being equal to d. fluid. and thus the function member is will adx + udy ~{ vdz if it a complete . it —Suppose that at any one instant it is a complete differential. so that the equation is capable and as its member is equal to (2. contain the wliole theory of the small undulations of fluids. therefore the second member. and consequently If j> dif sdx is + udy + vdz of integration is .
other An infinite number of such each cutting undulations may exist without disturbing the progress of one another. a series of small concentric cir cular waves will appear. wliich at once contains an infinite number of undulations.124 MOTION OF FLUIDS. still [Book t of a stone dropped into water . may also be excited in soUd bodies. its course independently of the other. a similar produced in a chorus. tlie comprehensive nature and elefonnidic. each fell. they will totally destroy each other. Batsham the interfering waves destroy each other. Coexisting vibrations show gives shower. and yet exhibits each independently of the rest. extending fell. the melody of one voice may be Coexisting vibrations distinguished from the general harmony. . which he illustrated beautifully by the remarkable phenomena of two rays of light producing darkness. The first may be seen by looking at the flame of a . the circles in opposite points. the latter Tlie and candle through two extremely narrow parallel slits in a card is rendered evident by what are termed beats in music. which effect is is : occasioned by undulations in the air. If another stone be let fall very near the point where the a second series of concentric circular waves will be produced but when the two series of undulations meet. velocity of the particular motions if the be the greatest or least —and undulations are of equal strength. principle of Interferences was first shown by Dr. the united . series continuing In sound. when two scries exactly coincide in point will of time. they will cross. independently of the others. from the point where the stone first . according as similar or dissimilar are coincident. If the directions of the undulations coincide. each undulation having its perfect effect. when the time of the greatest direct motion of one undulation coincides with that of the greatest retrograde motion of the other. same principle serves to explain why neither flood nor ebb tides take place at Tonquin on the day following the moon's passage across the equator tlie flood tide arrives by one channel at the same instant that the ebb arrives by another. In undulations of equal freparts of the undulations quency. eacli of which sum is the lations of like the surface of water in a series a single undulations. be Young applicable to all vibratory motions. The of general equation of small unduanalytical gance an infinite number of of equations. so that in . and the concurrence of two musical sounds pro The general to ducing silence. their joint motions will be the sum or the dif ference of the separate motions.
and if w be the angular velocity at the distance of unity from that axis. If the mass revolves about the axis z. = = • and from equations (63) it will be easily found that w' {xdx ^ f = dV + + ydy) . 125 Rotation of a homogeneous Fluid.] MOTION OF FLUIDS.Chap. : of a solid body revolving about a fixed axis. u r wx. the component velocities will be s zzz — wy. . the motion is the same with that — . If a fluid mass rotates unifonnly about an axis. 263. VII. . the motion being uniform indeed. its component velocity in the axis of rotation is zero the velocities in the other two axes are angular velocities independent of the time.
since the attraction moon as is inversely as the square of the distance. this and occasions is in both fluids. 266. the whole in rotation about an axis} supposing the fluid to he slightly deranged from its state of equilibrium by the action of very small forces. yet to us they would at rest. but for the sake of illustration will theory be con sidered with regard to the ocean. the fluids on its surface would assume a spheroidal form. 267. of is much more the centre of gravity of the earth. But although the would be moving with great velocity. as the square EM is greater than the square of mM : hence the particle has a tendency to leave the earth. If the earth be supposed to rotate about its axis. The whole of it perfectly general. trouble the eqiulibrium of the . Action of the Su7i and Moon. is very small in comparison of produced by the velocity of the earth's rotation. The difference of the intensity and direction of the forces alone. [Book I. The action of the sun and tides moon troubles this equilibrium. tendency the particle diminishes. and the equilibrium of the seas would remain undisturbed. the all its particles with equal and parallel whole system of the earth and the waters that cover it. which hours this after. would yield to these forces with a common motion.126 MOTION OF FLUIDS. From variations in the heights of the mercury in the barometer. is Twelve brought to m' by the rotation of the earth. but is retained by its gravitation. and is then in . and by its attraction. a molecule at m. the vast distance of the sun and moon. for. fluids and the pressure of the surrounding fluid only. Determination of the Oscillations of a homogeneous Fluid covering a Spheroid. from the centrifugal force induced by rotation and a particle in the interior of the fluid would be subject to the action of gravitation . seem When in this state the atmosphere and ocean are said to be in equiUbrio. uninfluenced by foreign forces. their action upon the fluid particles of the that ocean and atmosphere. If the moon attracted the centre of gravity of the earth and forces. under the moon attracted than M.
and consequently the position of the sun modifies these circumstances. The elevation. at the same time high water at m and n'. the moon draws the particle from the earth and when it is at m'. when the particle is at m. it 127 feebly than it opposition to the moon. their gravitation : and in order to preserve the equilibrium. The surface of the earth has then a tendency to leave the it and graviparticle. is twice as great as the depression. but the action of that body is incomparably less than that of the moon. the rapid motion of rotation prevents them from assuming at every instant the form which the equilibrium of the forces acting on them requires. . for the diminution of the gravitation in each position is almost the same on account of the distance of the the radius of tlie moon earth. in the ratio of the square of EM to the square . VII. would point towards the moon smce tiic column of water under the moon. because the contents of the spheroid always remain the same. If the waters were capable of instantly assuming the form of a spiieroid. Were the earth entirely covered by the sea. Tlie action of the being great in comparison of moon on a particle at n. on account of the smaller space to which it is confined. and is is receding from that figure. It evident that the action. so that they are constantly approaching to.\is . 268. but the gravitation of the particle retains tation is also in tliis case diminished by the action of the moon. when at be acted on by the same force it experienced at n.] MOTION OF FLUIDS.. may be resolved into two forces one in the nE. and the direction diametrically opposite to her. the axis 90° distant would be shortened. so that there that it is is a depression of the water in n and n' m'. it draws the earth from the . will It is evident that. and . latter force it — The alone attracts the particle towards the moon. direction of the radius 90° distant from m. would be rendered lighter in consequence of the diminution of whose greater a. the water thus attracted by the moon would assume the form of an oblong spheroid. after half a day. makes slide along the surface . the particle. resistance. of m'M.Chap. Hence. but on account of their notwithstanding the earth's rotation . its summit would always be directed towards the moon. which attracts more attracts the centre of the earth. which therefore called the momeii' tary equilibrium of the fluid. particle : in both instances producing an elevation of the particle above the surface of equilibrium of nearly the same height. and the other tangent to the surface.
moved by its rotation alone.) but : may be in the time the disturbing forces bring the particle to 6 ra therefore the angle nt + must be increased by BP6 or v. and any since t. Pp the axis of rotation. Eo the equatorial radius. and 7 the first point of Aries. the angle PoB In the same manner. surface. be the increment of the radius ob s. if « = ^ + r \ u. at the bottom. as also the om. represent the bottom of the sea. it is represented by proportional to the time. or from the axis of rota tion radii so that the arcs Pm. the origin of the time. The angle 7PB nt is the rotation of the earth. Suppose the spheroid to be entirely covered with the fluid Jiff. also o be the centre of the PD spheroid and origin of the coordinates.fig. B06. would be carried to B without changing distance from the centre of the spheroid. Let/)EPQ. By the disturbing forces alone. 6 be the complement of the latitude EoB. then . If j^eP be assumed as a given meridian. + rs. 60. be the terrestrial spheroid. some point m from B. Determination of the general Equation of the Oscillations of parts of the Fluids covering the Earth. and u^ its very small increment. for example ^eP. It is evident that this particle. Hence 7P6 Again. —^ /y and let ocean. the particle at the latitude would be increased by the very small angle BP6 would be diminished by the very small angle Bob. oB. PB. r. they would cause it to move to b. [Book I. CD its . not far if rotation from the disturbing forces were to act on the particle during its to B. Now. and dius. then 7PB is the longitude of the particle when arrived at B.128 MOTION OF FLUIDS. —the 60. are equal to each other. fluid om the ra Imagine particle w to be a at any point of the below the fluid surface — . if = 7J< f CT + r. all 269. and EoB is its latitude. and its B distance from the centre of the spheroid increased by/6. for example. let its depth . or pEF. (by Article 213 . the longitude of .
and the pressure of the small column of water between H and y.. j:. equation of the motion of fluids and ZJz if to abridge XJx + YJy + = Jr. they are the increase in the length of the radius. the action of the sun and moon.(^) H^^()}(70) = +^. *) sin (0 { + v). 60. 272.{()2«. however. This equation.Chap. consequently the centrifugjil force K . If these values of y..v). the })articlc at B will only be . that their But although the squares may be omitted. lateral motions s. fig.sin«. greater than the particle be very small. for 6 being farther from the centre of its fluids. be substituted in (57) the general .] MOTION OF FLUIDS. compared with nt the rotatory motion of tlie eartli.cos. 270. u and very nearly represent the motion of tlic particle in longitude and latitude estimated from the terrestrial meridian TEp. 2 p a particle in the interior of the fluid when troubled by the action of the sun and moon. 2/ = m (r z r= (r + + s) sin + u) cos (n< m) sin (ni +w + 'sj f. be the surface of the sea undisturbed in ita rotation.(^^) fl S{(r + sin (0 + m)}' + 5^^. z. 129 Hence the coordinates of the particle at b are. u of much 271. and the the pressure of the surrounding fluid.^2nsin0cos0('^^^l + + .. If DH. But the gravitation acting on the particle at 6 is also diflcrcnt from that which aficcts it when at B. cr = (r + (9 s) cos {0 + u). tide rises to y. requires modification for a particle at the surface. VII. v. These are so small.{sin. then r*50{/'. will determine the oscillations of Equation at the Surface.(^)+2nsin. gravity of the system of the earth and ticle at 6 the gravity of the par must be less than at B. particle under consideration is the forces which there act upon it will be gravitation. aff'ected by gravitation and the the action of the sun pressure of the surrounding fluid but when by and moon the brought to 6.
whence276. Hence in a state of motion. which reduces the preceding equation to !^ S{(r + s) sin (0 + is u)Y + (JF) = 0. cquilibrio. 275. Now JF is the sum of all the forces acting on the particle it when troubled in its rotation into the elements of their directions. must therefore be equal to (5F). the centrifugal When the fluid momentary . the same sum suited to a state of momentary equilibrium. lates about that state. that the difference may be neglected and if . the forces (JF). u. caused by the change in the situamass in the state of motion. its weight will be gy when the sea is in a state of momentary equilibrium when it oscil. and a quantity which may be represented by SP. into the elements of their directions. equilibrium. they must be zero. then as differentials of v. Ip = 0. In order to obtain an equation for the motion of a particle suppose it to be in a state of momentary tlie equilibrium. 273. tion of the attracting tion of the sun and and by the attrac' moon. : MOTION OF FLUIDS. g being but as the pressure of this small colunm is directed towards the origin of the coordinates and tends to lessen them. Thus a state of momentary 274. (71) for as the pressure at the surface zero. force is (iF) = is ST in — SP f gly.130 must be greater points B and b. the direction of gravitation is [Book I. the force of gravity weight will be gSy. y be the height of the little column of fluid Hy. also different at the at the surface of the fluid. The force of gravity at y is so nearly the same with that at the surface of the earth. and s express the oscil lations of the fluid about that state. and (SF) reprein sents the value of ST corresponding to that state. together with those forces whicli urge the particle when it oscillates about that state. depending on the difference in the direction and intensity of gravity at the two points B and 6. the variation in its . little But these are evidently the variation in the weight of the column of water Hy. it must have a negative sign. and the centrifugal force balance each other.
Consequently — is Jy . on account of the spheroidal form of the earth but as the compression of the earth is very small. or to fore . fig.$r 277.Chap. As the surface of the sea differs very little from that of a sphere. it is — g . ir if may be omitted . found. The direction Hy does not coincide with that of the terrestrial radius. . the result will be Jdvs ri9{f^\2nsin0cosofii^\ + r»S« whicl) sea. the same with the the centrifugal force to gravity at the equator. except at the equator and pole. these directions may be esteemed the same .] MOTION OF FLUIDS. in the present case without sensible error . hence equation (71) becomes Sr . the imaginary rotation of the arc&Bnhh' about the axisoz K 2 60. is {8in«0 f—^ f 2« =  sin ^ cos f^\ + ir. To Continuity of Fluids. complete the theory of the motions of the atmosphere and ocean. VII. to be an indefinitely small rectanfrular portion of iHiiss. the elevation of the sur face of momentary equilibrium. consequently — J{(r + 0)^X1(0+ «)}» be eliminated from equation (70). Suppose m'h. the equation of the continuity of the fluid must now be 278. and suppose the solid to be formed by the centre . particle 131 above tlie but it must vary with Sy. . situate at B. ST' corresj)und to the tlie surface of the The two variables andcr. therefore r + s — y may be regarded as the value of the radius at y. 2« sin* d f—\\ (72) g^y + the equation of the motion of a particle at variations Sy. m* sin* 6 the variation of the centrifugal force corresponding to the increased . the fluid fig. and there 288 may be omitted . + g^ + I^ ^(r + ») sin (p + m)}*= 0. 61. height of the particle and when compared with of the order — g^y tlie gravity ratio of of this little column.
m'oB = drs. dd +— dd . become + s. of gravity of Unhh' will describe an arc. da + — . Am = r sin Am. dO. for as the figure is independent of the time. + M. r' \ therefore the area Again. — r= = rdr. and cr. r' c?r .132 MOTION OF FLUIDS. after the time t. the longitude B is + CT. becomes after the time t (P + f') tliis (r + *') (1 + or / ?Vl + ^^ dO/ (1 + . ^ V^^^^^ s'" (^+ «)' dvs J hence but must be equal (1 to the original mass (/+/) (r+O + $Vl+ dry —^ rfyy (1 +^^ sin (0+7O/>''8inO. 0. which on account of the smallness of the solid. CT + r. and thus the volume m'h r= i^drdQdts sin and if p be the density. on. Now the area "Rnhh' multiplied win. Bnhh' 6. dzj. of The nt colatitude of the point B or Aom = 6. be represented by and the sectors BoA'. become also the density dr j — dr dr. are r'^dQ and rHO . then the indefinitely small increments of these angles are do. m'oK! = is r. dd. r. 0.mn = rdcr sin r = 2r. . equal to the it supposing indefi nitely small and rectangular.dvs dvj . is changed to p + j)'. is by wiA X solid m'A. [Book I. If these values be put in the it preceding expression for the solid equal to dm. and dr. in consequence of the disturbing forces. Hence if the radii oB. noh. dvsj . nt r' constant. sensible may without error its be represented by mn. consequently. radius being is wiA . dm = But r fr'drdddvj sin 0.dO. hence the area BnM' = ^illHl!) dS 2 = (r^ + r)(r^r) 2 ^^ But as the thickness is indefinitely small. hence the arc Tnn m\ X mn.
the mean depth even of the Pacific ocean being only about four miles. motion therefore r. therefore yj' 280. tlie integral will be =: r*« — (r's) + . hence. nearly the same on the small radius between the bottom and surface of the and u will sea . tlie that all the particles that are on any one radius at origin of the time. hence the equation of continuity becomes In order to find the integral of this equation with regard to r only. dvs be omitted. u cos 0) sin^ J r*7 Kdu\ do) "*" (r**) is the value of r*» at the surface of the sea. constant.Chap. . du dCT . then dividing the whole is by r*. and (73). Oscillations of the Ocean. dr dr and for as sin (0 + ?/) = sin + u cos B . the arc may be put for the sine. and observing that 2rs o —= + rids . d. the equation of the continuity of the fluid is is u expressed in polar coordinates.] MOTION OF FLUIDS. very small. (72). whereas . it may be assumed. are perfectly general and therefore will answer either for the oscillations of tlie ocean or . that r*(») may be put for (r's) . atmosphere. but the change in is the radius of the earth between the bottom and surface of the sea so small. and unity for the cosine. VII. part of the terrestrial same radius during the be v. will remain on the . and therefore very small.r^s . The density of the sea is = . 279. and neglecting the terms lifi which the ratio of the deptl of the sea to the terrestrial radius. and products of s 133 If the squares ds — dr du —— do dv ^— . The equations (70).
s may be — independent of r. But it (s) is a function of it and v appears from equations (74).» ^^ = ^« s + M(r:) which the + (^) + Now y + — . ^T of . may is therefore be omitted throughout the whole v. follows that 7 or + + «(«)=3/+7+w^ dd V 1. d"/ and as y it is the height of a particle above the surface of equilibrium. and depth. which of s would be very small for of the order of the eccentricity of that particle. when compared with u and reduced to so that equation (72) of the surface of the fluid + r*5GJ {sin* e (^^ + 2« sin 9 cosof—^  = _ ^Sy + jp. and would be to its the spheroid. dy . mean radius of the earth is [Book I. u. In order to apply the other equations to the motion of the sea. when the very small '^''^^ quantity is omitted it is : r at hence « is the same throughout every part of the radius r. nearly 4000 miles . dut dd the equation of continuity becomes Whence V = — ^^'^''^ — ^^'^^^  "y^^ ^°^ ^ * (75) de dxa sine 281. it must be observed that a fluid particle at the bottom of the sea would in is its rotation . v. from m to B nearly a sphere tlierefore the value u. ^"' (s) is the whole depth of the sea from the bottom tides rise at its surface to the highest point to momen tary equilibrium and y varies with the angles cj and 6 hence at the surface of equilibrium. the preceding equation becomes . that « mean radius taken as unity bottom of the sea.134 the MOTION OF FLUIDS. always touch the spheroid. . to . dns 8— {s)=z~y\'Ul\~v —X. as the bottom. it becomes . consequently at the omitted in comparison of u.
^p'. to the first tion multiplied and let 2/i sin 6 cos 6 by the second member of this equation be represented by — equa y'.JF + ?P  ^ . r JL dt . for r the cients of S0.or !3L. When momentary tion for the motion of a particle in the interior of the fluid becomes = in»5 { (r + 8) sin (0 + «)}«+ (^V) . Sr =: (JF) + 5r'. and there will be found the linear equation (^)^»'Gt)'The value of — dt obtained from the integral of this equation will y' is be a function of is y'. j where (5F). and as a function of y and F'. VII. If the gives = 5. Jcr. rf(F'dr K\ . then divide by r* sin* 0. (j^p). whence JF .SP.Chap.r^ sin'0. consequently.] MOTION OF FLUIDS.''^^^^^^t!f^RNl^ .^M. regard independent variation of r alone. the fluid mass is in 135 equilibrium. it 283. it will give add the diflcrcntial of the last equation relative to <. Qp) QV) Jp = = and i. «. be each made zero in equation (76). and Jp = (Jp) + 5p' . and put 2/i cos =: a.i«J{ (r f s) sin (9 + «) = }' SF' . first member of this expression be eliminated from with to the equation (70).r^ 284. are the values o(^V and ^p suited But we may suppose that in a state of motion. {dF) «»'• ™' » U) if ^"> coefl5 Nownf— jis \dt / of the ordery. the equa 282. each of which of the order s or X_.
288. as none of the hitluirto known methods of analysis have succeeded. consequently it must coincide r.136 is MOTION OF FLUIDS. appears. But as SX does not contain . if they .^{(^).si„. independent of the depth of the particle hence this equation is the same for a particle at the surface. by making the coeflicients of the independent quantities 10. or y.cose(f). Since this only. And as the function in r independent of r. and then by whicli equation (70) becomes . ^ IV> d(yn) dd _ rf(7y) dvj could be found. and tlicrefore S\ 287. then found from the second. If then equation (77). These equations have been formed on the hypothesis of the earth being entirely covered by the sea hence the integrals.. [Book I. be multiplied by dr its integral will be ^' ?=/*{(§). according is of the order — r it may be omitted .. equation has been integrated with regard to r X must be a and t.. s. JcT. or in its neighbourhood. Thus it = W g^y. for the horizontal flow might be obtained from the first. of the same order. to the theory of partial equations."'(1)} + function of 6..cos»(^)} + r'SCT {sin' /^^ + __ 2/1 sin B cos 6 (^^ = . ^ 285. the height to which they rise would be This has not yet been done. . that the whole theory of the tides would be determined if integrals of the equations . tj.5. + r'Jnr {sin' f ^'^ \ + 2n sin cos of^^^ it is = J\.(^)2. separately zero.si„. with equation (76) .gly 7WCOS0 sin. 286.
1000. and where the tides only rise to about five feet but it is very far . 289. would be inadequate to determine tlie oscillations of the ocean retarded or accelerated by the continents. in shallow seas. as the mass of the sea to the solid mass that is. In order to integrate the equation of continuity. is to the reaction of tlie spheroid on the sea. and in numerable other causes. they will always continue to be the same for that set of particles during their motion. V. whose mean depth is about four miles. islands. — dt mFb. 137 could be found. express the true velocity of the tides in longitude latitude. provided the particles had no motion in latitude . VII. The common centre of gravity of the ratio spheroid and sea is not changed by this reaction. the horizontal flow of the tides would be isochronous. u. be the same for every particle situate on the same radius throughout the whole depth of the sea at the beginning of the motion.] MOTION OF FLUIDS. and therefore the of the action of the sea on the spheroid. For and that reason m. — dt . assuming the mean depth of the sea to be four miles. or rather du dv . as they were assumed to be. r. 290. like the oscillations of a pendulum. between the observed phenomena and the causes wliich produce them. and it may be nearly so in the Pacific. it was assumed that if the angles Po6. as the depth of the sea to the radius of the earth. . The it reaction of the sea on the terrestrial spheroid is is so small that omitted. therefore all the fluid particles that are at the same instant on any one radius. is therefore is tides sist No attempt but the theory of the determined by comparing the general relations which submade to integrate the equations .Chap. beyond the reach of analysis. from being the case tides are liigh tlie . or at most as 1 to . and their velocity would be inversely as their depth. will continue very nearly fluid. and on the coasts where the because the condition of isochronism depends on omission of quantities of the order of the ratio of the height of the tides to the depth of the sea. on that radius during the oscillations of the Were this rigorously true.
the Atmosphere. 293. this investigation the temperature is assumed to be constant. will appear by consi dering p. because the densities are as the pressures. mean proportional = p'*. and from various other causes but in . p' the pressure on the superincumbent and let m be a coefficient. Experience shows the atmosphere to be an elastic fluid. If the heights therefore. the densities of the strata . at different heights. But p p' — —p' equal to the weight of the : first of these strata. is The density of the middle stratum therefore a . its Density of the Atmosphere. such that^ = ap. and p" the pressure on the third . all phenomena concur in proving density to be quite insensible at the height of about fifty miles. next. their densities are in 294. The law by which the density of the air diminishes as the height above the surface of the sea increases. and ap\ ap". It is subject to clianges of density from tlie variation of temperature in different latitudes. between the densities of the other two of equidistant and whatever be the number continual proportion. air Let p be the pressure of the on the lowest stratum. limited by the weight of ultimate atoms of definite magnitude. Wollaston to suppose that the earth's atmosphere is of finite extent. 292. the thickness of each being so small that the density may be assumed uniform throughout each stratum. But whether the particles of the atmosphere be infinitely divisible or not. induced Dr. infinitely Some considerations. Since the air resists compression equally in all directions. — p p' is is ^=^ a {p — p') and p —p =z a{p' — p"). however. the height of the atmosphere must be unlimited if its atoms be divisible. 291. from the surface of the sea. p" = Hence. and p" equal to that of the second hence pp' consequently : //' pp" :: p : /. p' = Then. p' p". no longer divisible by repulsion of their parts. strata. to be the densities of three contiguous strata of air. he taken in an increasing aritlmietical progression. On [Book I. whose density increases in proportion to the pressure.138 MOTION OF FLUIDS.
. becomes r' at the height / r=K+ the value of + (^^) &C.] MOTION OF FLUIDS. m. f gives . 139 of air will decrease in geometrical progression. 295. Since the earth very nearly spherical. g . if the quan contains be supposed relative to that compressible fluid instead of to the ocean. it may be assumed is that r the distance of a particle of air /J from its centre equal to + r'. At the surface of the sea. a property that logarithms possess relatively to their numbers. and » are zero. p=: h . same for a particle of air. and for the particle of the ocean adjacent to librio but when the sea is in equi F+ f is — 71* . very small. f. Suppose the atmosphere to be every where of the same density as at the surface of the sea. is 297.. .Chap. sea. 2 therefore ous to the sea constant. H r' being the terrestrial radius extending to the surface of the the height of the particle above that surface. All the circumstances bolli of the e(iuilibrium and motion of the atmosphere tities it may be determined from equation (70). V is . consequently the preceding equation becomes log j> = constant + f+ the it — 71* . and consequently the stratum of air contiguis every where of the same density. r* . let h be the height of that atmosphere which vity at the equator sity. and which relates to the surface of the sea. and let g be the force of grathen as the pressure is proportional to the den. consequently the substitution of Jl + r' for r in hg log. p. sm» $. which reduces equation (70) to — 2 is . by Taylor's theorem. r sm* = constant. and r^ = hg hg . Equilibrium of the Atmosphere. 296. When the atmosphere is in equilibrio r. r». not exceeding 5^ miles. V.8in»0+ r J r^= J> constant. log. VII. .
of gravitation at that surface. log p = constant —r'g' + — r'* /d^F\ . Jl sin* 6. sin*0 + H. which are known by experiment. rithm is unity. [Book I. may be places substituted for g' and g.140 MOTION OF FLUIDS. If g' and g be the force of gravity at the equator and in any other latitude. ( — ) — is j multiplied by the very small quantity r". relate to the surface of the sea where '•(f) V + JL 2 and as is the effect .RK 2 . 299. Since [ hg. whence 298. it may be integrated in the hypothesis of the earth being a sphere . log = constant + V + r'(—) + \drj !L 2 \dr*/ ( _ ) sin* 0+w«.clJ^^n) (78) appears that strata of the same density are every where sea. ^j __ j — 71* . it may be represented by g'. &c. "~ "B' ' \d^J consequently the preceding equation becomes whence p:^ f' . of the very nearly equally elevated above the surface . c kg '\ r) . \drj ^ §•' = — R* _ 2g' fi" . hg . Jl« sin" = . they will be proportional to t' and /. but m that case h  1 ) = . and the formula becomes the . pTT Whence it p' . the lengths of pendulum beating seconds at the level of the sea in these two hence I' and /. constant. an equation which determines the density of the atmosphere at any given height above the level of the sea c is the number whose loga. and p' a constant quantity equal to the density of the atmosphere at the surface of the sea. . Rr'. "" _ 2wi _. m being the mass of the earth /rf«F\ _.
the radius of the earth is also a given quantity hence r' may be found. with the exthe air hence ception of a small change owing to the elasticity of 303. in article strata by 299. are everywhere of the same density at the same elevation above the surface of the sea. From the same formula the height of any place above the level j>' of the sea may be found .71828. expressing the ratio of the pressure to the density P cannot be omitted as it was in the case of the sea. therefore ceding formula. 141 300. The attraction of the sun and moon occasions tides in the atmosphere perfectly similar to those of the ocean . Tlie motion of the atmosphere . I' and />.VII. they are probably affected by the rise and fall of the sea. this expression the at fiftyfive miles. —Hl' r' must be included in the pre Oscillations of ike Atmosphere. ter. and consequently and /. (73). 22026 so that the density at the height of 55 English miles is extremely small./) = p'c'\ = 2. which give the tides ocean. . — R _/ is very small and /' may be neg. seconds' pendulum for any latitude are known by experiment . however. and R. in estimating the heights of mountains by the baromethe variation of gravity at the height r' above the level of the sea But cannot be omitted. say lected . and I may be made equal to r' without sensible error hence Now ^ =: j> ^'c~* the height of an atmosphere of uniform density .J MOTION OF FLUIDS. is only about 5^ English miles hence if r' and as c = = I0h= 65. is determined by equaof the tions (70). and its poles. ^ p = —£_. are given by the height of the barometer. for the densities A. the lengths of the . 302. By density of the air at any height may be found. 301.Chap. . which corresponds with what was said in article 292. the term £. The atmosphere has consequence of its the form of an ellipsoid flattened at the rotation with the earth.
[Book I. Now at the sea y. 304. and of y being constant for the particles of on the same radius are consistent with the equation of continuity (73). then ^= A^ ^ + gSy'. .142 MOTION OF FLUIDS. . = in equi — + and ?P = ^^)+. p' the change suited to a state of motion hence hg ((p) p /). Let be the elevation of a particle of air above the surface of equi librium of the atmosphere whicli corresponds with y. for the adjacent particles of air and water are sub = ject to the same forces . consequently y'=h. which for the atmosphere is If the value of Lfrom this equation be substituted in h J— = y'. then ( _ I = 0. but it is necessary to examine whether the all supposition of air situate = y. because in equilibrio ^ 5{(r + therefore sin {0 + «)}> + (J&V) .. Let ^= The part y'. Let p (p) 4. it becomes The part of s that depends it 80 small. hg—^iL (/) vanishes.!(V). the elevation of a particle of water above the surface of equilibrium of the sea.Ag ££ M= . = gSy'. Also y is of the order A or — g . consequently a =: . Since the value of is the same for all the parti cles situate on the same rachus. 0.p' {p) being the density of the stratum and librio. {(^^')+(^)+!l£i^'} (79) . that may be on the variation of the angles 6 and cj is and if 0=y neglected.
the height of the its mercury is portional to the pressure on that part of surface that proexposed to is the action of the air. because the density of a stratum is aug mented when in motion by the quantity ^^ . As the atmosphere like the rises and falls by the action of the disturbing forces waves of the sea.gly' of the air. Oscillations in the atmosphere cause analogous oscillations For suppose a barometer to be fi. + r»5w {sin^^ (?^ + 2n sin = JF .xed at any above the surface of the sea. Finite values of the equations of the motion of the atmosphere cannot be obtained . then u and v being the same for all the particles situate primitively radius. Thus the equations depending on the that determine the oscillations of the atmosphere only differ from those that give the tides by the small quantity gly'. the value of y' will be the same for all these and as quantities of the order Is are omitted. Oscillations of the Mercury in the Barometer. more or less pressed by the variable mass of the atmosphere above Hence the density of the air at the surface of . the increase of density in a state of motion from the first cause. the surface of the mercury is alternately it. therefore the ebb and flow of the atmos phere may be determined in the same manner as the tides of the ocean. h:y::(p):y^^. h y. equation (70) becomes r^le ^(^\ . lieight 806. because it belonged to a stratum which was less elevated in a state of equilibrium by the quantity y. In  * . then its density is uniform. This can only be effected by a comparison of numerous observations. in the barometer. the mercury varies for two reasons first. 143 on the same particles. by estimating the effects of the sun and moon separately. elasticity 305. (^^ (80) gly.2n sin cos (^£\\ cos e . VII.Chap. and secondly.] MOTION OF FLUIDS. Now if h be the and equal height of the atmosphere in cquihbrio wlien to (/).
whether solid or a single indeed. many important truths.144 MOTIONS OF FLUIDS. its oscillations when the atmosphere when in motion will be expressed by £y (y + 2/) ^ h /gj^ The oscillations of the above the level of the sea. It is not. but we must be satisfied with approximate values in by much the greater number of instances. Several circumstances in facilitate the approximations . and that the subsequent application of the principles which have been established. particle. Conclusion. susceptible. or to a of the essential nature of bodies. have already been developed . surprising that our limited faculties do not enable derive general values of the it us to : unknown quantities from this equation has been accomplished. mercury are therefore similar at all heights and proportional in their extent to the height of the barometer. ^fL is [Book I. and the universal application of this one equation. The account of the first thus brought to a conclusion. it is true. j/'. that tary principles. must be tedious coeval with the existence of matter itself. The general equation of motion has been formed according to the primordial laws of matter. . h the increase of density from the second is Thus the whole increase n And if H be is the height of the mercury in the barometer in equilibrio. 307. will lead to the contemplation of the most sublime works of the Creator. which comprehends every case that can result from a given law. cause. : approach in every science. necessarily consisting in elemenbut let it not be forgotten. displays system analysis. the same manner. to the motion of matter in every form of which to it is fluid. and employed with the greatest dexterity. the book of the Mecanique Celeste is Arduous as the study of it may seem. these La the solar system materially Place has selected with pro found judgment. in a few cases.
that men deceived by appearances. constrained by the prejudices of the times. this great philosopher. He ascertained the revolution of the planets round the sun. CHAPTER 308. convinced minds of a higher order. which furnished a new analogy between the planets and the earth he discovered the phases of Venus. The science of astronomy was cultivated very early. Although he proved these truths by evidence which has ultimately dissipated the erro neous theories resulting from the illusions of the senses. not surprising. by which he removed : doubts of the revolution of that planet round the sun. yet no accudrawn from them. that had been accumulating from these he inferred that the precession of the equinoxes for ages . till then unknown. that the apparent could not be the true system of nature. assisted by the discovery of the telescope. was the first who saw the magnificent system of Jupiter's satellites. only dared to publish the truths he had dis covered.145 BOOK II. and confirmed by the comparison of a series of observations. showed the existence and height L . occasioned by the rotation of the earth. under the less objectionable name of hypotheses. In the seventeenth century. an Many earth . should have been slow to believe the diurnal motion of the heavens until rate inferences leading to the true system of the world were a much later period. and determined the dimensions of their orbits. of the ancients were aware of the double motion of the a system which Copernicus adopted. I. miglit be attributed to a motion in the earth's axis. and many important observations and discoveries were made. illusion . Tlie bright spots which he saw in the moon beyond the line which separates the all enlightened from the obscure part. Galileo. PROGRESS OF ASTRONOMY. It is to be but the absurd consequence which the contrary hypothesis involves. and overcame the objections which were opposed to them by ignorance of the laws of mechanics.
[Book II. judgment pronounced against liim by an odious Tiie truths discovered by Galileo could not fail to mortify the vanity of those who saw the earth. he must ' : . enlightened at the by his labours. and indignant tribunal. however vast a point in the scale of the universe. which they conceived to be the centre and primary object of creation.' teenth century. must despise the timidity that shrinks from wisdom. retract them. which liis rous observations on the motion foundation of the laws discovered by laid the pupil and assistant. vindicating the system of Coper nicus . in the year 1642. the regret of Europe. that to seek alarms the feeble. we must Icam to scorn names.' says an emi' nent author. or the beginning of the sevenTycho Brahe made a series of correct and numeof the planets. alike who was an honour to his country. He observed the spots and rotation of the sun. says La Place. forms but The force of reason by degrees made its way. The coveries. and the singular appearances exhibited by the rings of Saturn by which discoveries the rotation of the earth was confirmed but if the : rapid progress of mathematical science had not concurred to establish this essential truth. nature to give us the mastery of nature. and persecution ceased to be the consequence of stating physical truths. At a late period he ventured to promulgate his disfanatical zeal. which. There are virtues in plants. that he. and use the powers of . but such was the force of superstition and prejudice. in metals. it would liave been overwhelmed and stifled by opinions of Galileo were denounced as heretical and he was ordered by the Church of Rome to the by Inquisition. though many difficulties remained to impede its progress. defy idle fears.146 of its mountains. . the year in which Newton was bom. and no ordinary share of moral courage was required to declare it prejudice. About the end of the sixteenth. and to the human race. . even in woods. but in a different form. was again subjected to the mortification of being obliged to disavow what He died at Arcetri his transcendent genius had proved to be true. reduced to the rate of but a small planet in a system. but to possess constitutes the mighty. hate the tyranny of opinion that condemns its pursuit : wisdom is only to be obtained by the bold prejudices must first be overcome. Kepler. carrying with him. PROGRESS OF ASTRONOMY. it may seem. bars up the gate of knowledge but he who would learn.
unknown regions of science. might also be discovered between the mean distances of the planets. who appear from time to time. describing spaces reciprocally as their masses. * In his work De Stella Martis. however. If the earth and moon were not held at the distance that separates them by some L 2 . Tycho Brahe. he observes. A hvely imagination. that like two insulated bodies would move towards one another two magnets. memorable formed on in the annals of astronomy. to bring to light the great laws of nature. He extended these results to all the planets. covery He directed his attention to the motions of Mars. 147 the earth. which was : . and as it approaches very near the earth in its oppositions. adopted sounder views. describes equal areas in equal times. which disposed him eagerly to search tempered by a severity of judgment that made him dread being deceived. be cause a heavy body. from being the first that were the true laws of nature.] PROGRESS OF ASTRONOMY. published the Rudolphine Tables. afterwards found equally applicable to It all the systems of the satellites. and their revolutions round the sun after sixteen years spent in unavailing attempts. supposed to certain myste by the Pythagoreans to exist in the laws of nature. would not admit of the motion of because he could not conceive how a body detached from tliat it could fol low its motion : he was convinced the earth was falls at rest. falling from a great height. he at length found that the squares of the times of their sidereal revolutions are proportional to the cubes of the greater axes of their orbits a ver\' important law. the inequalities of its motions are considerable . and conducted him to the disof three of the most important laws in astronomy. one of those extraordinary men. whose orbit is one gate the of the most eccentric in the planetary system. I. formed a character peculiarly fitted to investifor first causes. foot of the vertical. having the sun in one such.Chap. He found the orbit of Mars to be an . that the radius of its foci and that the its motion of the planet is vector drawn from centre to the centre of the sun. nearly at the Kepler. that motions 80 regular could only arise from some universal principle pcr\ading the whole system. ellipse. was obvious to the comprehensive mind of Kepler. circmnstances peculiarly favourable for the deter mination of their laws. and in the year 1626. Kepler imagined that something corresponding rious analogies.
those Evolutes. combined the whole. that the same law of diminution takes place in terrestrial gravitation. conjecture. the planets must be retained in this to : by their gravitation to the sun . gravitation. by showing the areas to be proportional to the times but it resulted from the constant ratio found by Kepler between the squares of the times of revolutions of the planets.* the earth ceased to attract the waters If. whicli extends to the earth. that gravitation retheirs tained the moon in her orbit. [Book II. extended the laws deduced by Galileo from his experiments on bodies falling at the surface of the earth. and the cubes of the greater axes of their orbits. which led Newton to conjecture. led to the theory of motion in Kepler had determined the curves in which the planets move. contains the first De and idea of a principle which Thus Kepler's work. diminishes in the ratio of the squares of their Thus the law of diminution was proved distances from his centre. and Hook was aware that planetary motion is the result of a force of projection combined with the attractive force of the sun.' Stella Martis. H of the ocean. Having observed earth. supposing ' dense. by his grand and comprehensive views. Newton of Huygens on his successors have fully developed. to the moon and on these He .148 force. and the centrifugal force. of the would come in contact. that the force of gravitation on the summits of is the highest mountains Newton nearly the same as on the surface of the inferred. they would go to the moon by the attractive force of that body. and.' he continues. they PROGRESS OF ASTRONOMY. with regard to the planets. The curves. it was necessary to know the law of the diminution of if terrestrial Newton considered. lie had the satisfaction to find that the action of the . is the cause of the ebb and flow of the sea. and the earth the remainder. that its influence extended to the moon. the moon describing be to them equally distance. and he proved be the case. the space she would move through in a second principles determined of time. combining with her force of projection. The attraction of the moon. causes that satellite to deIn order to verify this scribe an elliptical orbit round the earth. and consequently their tendency to the sun. Such was the state of astronomy when Newton. that their centrifugal force. and connected the distant parts of the solar system most by one universal principle. if acted upon by the earth's attraction alone. discoveries of Galileo on falling bodies. in her descent towarJs the earth.
thus expresses : himself in a letter to the writer of these pages ' Je public succcssivement Ics divers livres du cinquieme volume doit terminer mon traite dc Mecaniqxie Celeste. and wliich be so while science is cultivated. an ellipse. earth is attracted by all aftenvards extended tliis bodies which gravitate towards it. qui contient le germe de toutes ces recherches. comparison of the magnitude of the orbits of the A and the periods of their revolutions.] PROGRESS OF ASTRONOMY. and inversely as the square of its distance. or Hence he also concluded. make the trajectory a circle. cipia. that the sun gravitates towards the planets. a parabola. conic sections. thus esta blishing the general principle. Kepler having established the ellipses. with the same quantities relatively to the planets. his theory. in moon her orbit. La Place. that comets move round the satellites sun by the same laws as the planets. had the that all these bodies : planets been at rest. that each particle of matter attracts all other particles directly as its mass. who jwjrhaps only yields to Newton in priority of time. He law to all the particles of matter. He observed. Cela m*a fait relire avec une attention particulierc I'ouvrage incomparable des Principes Mathematiques de la philosophic naturelle I'analyse historique des de Newton. obey he also concluded. thus fall proving the force which causes a stone to to be identical with that which retains the at the earth's surface. and the intensity of gravitation at their surfaces. is 149 on the moon inversely as the square of the distance.Chap. made known to him the respective masses and densities of the sun and of planets accompanied by satellites. a These splendid discoveries were published by Newton in his Prinwork which has been the admiration of mankind. from the equality of action and reaction. will continue to Referring to that stupendous effort of human genius. Plus . earth I. by showing that a projectile if acted on by a force directed : Newton completed in any of the move might to the focus. and in versely as the square of the distance requisite to he determined the conditions hyperbola. and the planets towards their satellites and that the whence he concluded same law of gravitation towards the sun . that the satellites move round the their planets nearly as they would have done. et dans lequel je qui donne recherches des g^om^tres sur cette matiere. point that the planets move in having the sun in one of their foci.
and acted upon by a the effects of be readily estimated. in order to arrive by analytical reasoning. en me transa (ite public. had not the improvements in analysis kept pace with the rapid advance in astronomy. in which the various motions in nature should be deduced from the first principles of mechanics. je ne doute point qu'en suivant cette m^thode avec la sagacite propre a votre nation. plus il il [Book II. separated by vast distances. Je vois avec un grand et vos mathematicians se livrer maintenant Si I'analyse . at the principle of that force which animates the solar system. we now compare those laws with the actual motions of the heavenly bodies. and many were not even known to exist. that the general which may equations comprehend all the changes which ages have produced. m'a paru admirable. or may hereafter produce in the system it mena is and in explaining the pheno.\ii^ PROGRESS OF ASTRONOMY. The laws of mechanics may on earth. and more so to subject them to calculation whereas the bodies of the force. be traced with greater precision in celestial space than it is where still the results arc so complicated. . that diificult to : unravel. j'ai necessity de I'analyse pour approfondir les questions tres difBciles plaisir pu qu'effleurer par la synthase. be most readily acknowledged by those who are best acquainted with his works. are only disturbed in movements their respective by such small forces. but some of the most important liad not been accounted for. Having endeavoured force acts in the first shall book to explain the laws by which upon matter. a pursuit in which many have acquired immortal fame will that La Place is preeminent amongst these. It would have been impossible to accompHsh this. The author of the Mecanique Celeste therefore undertook the arduous task of forming a complete system of physical astronomy. not necessary to have recourse to vague or imaginary causes. entirely independent of hypothesis. for the law of universal gravitation may be reduced to calcu . lis ne soient conduits h d'importantes decouvertes. solar system.' Tlie reciprocal gravitation of the bodies of the solar system is a cause of great irregularities in their motions . j'ai portant surtout h T^poque oh. etudi^ cet ouvrage. Mais en m^me tems reconnu I'indispcnsable que j'ai senti I'tJl^gance de la mt^thode sjTithetique suivant laquelle Newton qu'il n'a a prtlsentfe ses dtJcouvertes. many of wliich had been explained before the time of La Place.
. astronomy now become a great problem of mechanics. but so complicated in their nature. We proceed to give such an account of the solution of this problem.Chap. all . and velocities at any given time. the results of which. are the only data which observation is required to furnish. the figure and masses of the planets. as the nature of the subject and the limits of this work admit of. that observation alone could not have determined them but in many ages. is By the law of gravitation. afford its the most substantial proof of existence. therefore. by unfolding the causes of several singular motions. 151 lation. confirmed by actual observation. and so long in their periods. for the solution of which. even to the most minute details is it the phe that there . It will be seen that this great law of nature represents nomena of the heavens. I. their places.] PROGRESS OF ASTRONOMY. not one of the inequalities which it does not account for and that has even anticipated observation. suspected by astronomers.
. 312. if the curve in the curve in which moves may be found force may which the body moves be given. ON THE LAW OF UMVERSAL GRAVITATION. indeterminate therefore in applying that equation to the motion of the it planets and comets. both the force . are proved by the observations of Kepler to be conic sections. 309. that if the law of the force which acts it on a . is necessary to know move. 62. 310. and the path of the body are the orbits in which they of the force that acts on them. iii. The three laws of Kepler furnish the data from which the principle of gravitation i. fig. havwhich ing the centre of the sun in the focus S. /Iff. It has been shown. they always move in the same plane therefore the : component force in the direction perpendicular to that plane is zero. DEDUCED FROM OBSERVATION. That the orbits of the planets and comets are conic having the sun in one of their foci. sections. is the radius vec Suppose the two . Tlie imaginary line Sm joining the centre of the sun and the centre of the planet tor. in order to ascertain the nature 311. in the direction of tliree rectangular axes lites. That the radii namely vectores of the planets and comets describe areas established. be the elliptical orbit of a planet m. or. : is — proportional to the time. CHAPTER II.152 [Book II. jjjgQ assumed as the ori gin of the coordinates. but as the paths of the planets. In the general equation of the motion of a body. Let AmP. the forces acting on it are resolved into three component forces. ii. the law of the be ascertained. satel and comets. and the other two component forces are in the plane of the orbit. In the general equation of the motion of a body in article 144. is 62. That the squares of the periodic times of the planets are proportional to the cubes of their mean distances from the sun. moving body be known.
the centre is Besides.] LAW OF UNIVERSAL zero GRAVITATION. motion. or oy. whence 80 that the forces X Y : : : y . be multiplied by dx. then the is . X and Y are in the ratio of x to y. tends towards the sun. ^^ Yx — Xy = j. — ydx is double the area that the radius vector of the planet describes round the sun in the instant dt. this area is proportional to the time. component force Z and as the body is free to move in velocities Sx. If the equation f!!i df^ = X Y. — 313. and ^ = . the nature of then. 5y are zero. : 0. and thus of the sun. ought to give that law. their sum will be djxdy^ydx) But xdy _ y^ _ xy. According to the first law of Kepler. of these two equations be multiplied by — y. that these bodies alternately approach elliptical and recede from him at each revolution. The next step is to ascertain the law by which the force is varies at different distances from the sun.Chap. which tlie accomplished by consideration. djxdy therefore _. their resulting force mS passes through S. is directed towards the centre of the sun. and added to the second multiplied by x. that is as Sp to «m. that the force which retains the planets and comets in their orbits. being proportional to the time. which every direction. 153 component forces to be in the direction of the axes Sx. II. so that xdy and as c is — ydx == — ydx) cdt . and the time. the virtual the general equation of motion in article 144 into d'X dy _^ Y" divides W di? _Y ^ ' . the space that it giving a relation between If the first causes the body to describe on ox. Sy. a constant quantity. whence the force that causes the planet to describe And thus the law of the areas that curve. leads to this important result. IF^ ' each component force. the curve described by the planet concave towards the sun.
y* if the resulting force of X and Y be represented by F. because the . and v the angle mSy.154 LAW OF UNIVERSAL their GRAVITATION. r Ajc*2r'fFdr be known in terms of the distance r. [Book II. Y=  Fsin » . let r represent 62. is necessary to know the angle ySm in terms of Sm. whence dx^ and + dy^ = :: pm = y r'du" + = rsinv. force Fin the direction is mS.Fdr so that the equation (82) becomes ^{^^"' •+ d^\ ^ ^ + 2/Frfr. F= = VX« fY* Xdx + Ydy = . and r = Vj« + — ydx = r'dv dr*. this 314. Fcos v\. . fig. tends to diminish the coordinates in the . but in order to have a value of the force it F terms of mS alone. If the force F equation will give the nature of the curve described by the body.ydx c which changes the preceding equation to In order to transform the radius vector this into Sm. hence the sign is X= — negative. a polar equation. Now — xdy . then Sp = = cc r coa v. and of the corresixjnding variable angle in mSy . But the differential of equation (83) gives F= — ^ Thus a value of the variable radius vector ( dr» I  ^dUw£. xdy . by dyj sum is drd^x + dt^ dyd^y ^ xdr + Ydy. then SmiSp :: F X : i : cost?. '^ (84) in terms of the dr resulting force F is obtamed Sm. same manner it and easy to see that . ^ and its integral is the constant quantity being indicated by the integral the law of areas gives ^f sign. (83) whence rfu=:.
are reduced to two . therefore F vanes m versely as the square of r or Wherefore the orbits of the planets and comets being conic sections. as equation (83) is only of the second order. in which A is a constant expressing the intensity of the force. the polar equation of conic sections a(le^) „^ ^— ^j Then if / e. II. is inversely as the square of the distance and if is the force varies inversely as the section. Tlie planets tlierefore let ts represent the having the sun in one of their foci angle 7SP. finite equation of conic sections 315. whence as h = a(l «•) forms an equation of condition between the constant quantities a and and e. GRAVITATION.Chap. may be represented by — r* . is its if the orbit be a conic section. Now it as the force F varies inversely as the square of the distance. L. _. Thus. the three arbitrary quantities a. coefficient a(l  constant. the force . and let v be the angle fySm. = of the angle gives a value of r in terms ySm J_ r» or v. and vy. the orbit a conic The planets and . will satisfy equation The equation of conic put for sections (84) when —  • is F . which the greater axis AP makes with the axes of the coordinates Sx. the force varies inversely as the square of the distance of these bodies from the sun.] LAW OF UNIVERSAL move in ellipses. O b Sm. coefficient. 155 . and thence it may be found tliat di^i r*dxi* __ 2 aril  _ e^) _ o*(l 1  e*) which substituted in equation (84) gives P= The c' —^_. the integral. and a infinite bola when e is greater than unity and a negative. the ratio of the eccentricity to the greater axis be CP the greater axis CP = a. e. square of the distance. and is l+eco8(t?— tlT) and a hyperwhich becomes a parabola when e 1. This equation .
or the time of moving through 360°. it is said to be in In the ellipse. mean distance is in the point mean distance.eO or — — bV c« . . is greatest . the least deviation from which would cause them to move in curves of fig. from the sun. When a planet its quadrature. accelerating its velocity so much as to overcome the force of attraction.156 LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION. a totally different nature. or D. is and in the ellipse the point A from the sun the aphelion. counteracted by At the perihelion. In every orbit the point P. inversely of the orbit. with regard to different as the square of their respective distances from the planets. From the equation p_ it c ' a(l c*) 1_ r»' may be shown. half the greater axis. The periodic time of a planet the time in which it revolves round the sun. or at the B. [Book II. This alternation is continually 318. is 319. is equal to CP. a conic section with a different velocity in to fly off in every point of and with a perpetual tendency is the direction of the tangent. but c* is different in each conic section. the force of attraction which increases the velocity as the distance diminishes. farthest the perihelion. and varying according to the preceding law. is G3. and brings the planet back towards the sun. The periodic time of a satellite is the time in which it revolves about its primary. is SB or SD. but this tendency the attraction of the sun. c*) is 2SV. the eccentricity CS. comets therefore describe conic sections in virtue of a primitive im pulse and an accelerating force directed to the centre of the sun. repeated. which nearest the sun. SP is the perihelion distance of the body from the sun. and carry the planet again to the perihelion. The intensity of the force depends on fl(l . the parameter — which is invariable in any one curve. A body moves in its orbit. that the force F varies. the velocity of a planet therefore : of attraction tendency to leave the sun exceeds the force but the continued action of the sun diminishes the its velocity as the distance increases the planet is least : therefore its at the aphelion the velocity of tendency to leave the sun is less than . 317. The quantity 2a(l Bun. is 316. 320.
: ira« V1 2Ta= e* . Vl c' (85) c third by Kepler's the squares of the periodic times of the planets are proportional to the cubes of their mean . represent the time of the area described by its radius vector .Chap. the force. varies inversely as the square of the distance of each these bodies were from the centre of the sun : consequently. the values of . hence the law of Kepler gives ^cdt whence But. cdt . in different orbits compared together. But the area described by the planet during the indefinitely small time dt. T whole area of the ellipse. either of planets or comets. or where t = is If 3. the parameter of the orbit. c are as the areas traced by the radii vectores in equal times consequently these areas are proportional to the square roots of the parameters of the orbits. 2ir Hence but 2a (1 Va(l  e*) — e") is 2SV.14159 the ratio of the circumference to the diameter. is J • = /i JL in which the same for all the planets and comets .: dt : T .] LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION. Therefore. law. 157 which may be found by the revolution of a planet in this time is the Let Kepler's laws. II. distances from the sun therefore k being the same tiie for all planets. If tills value of c be put in F= it becomes Ax* F= or A. if all . therefore.
therefore. or is equal to twice the perihelion o(l e«)= 2D. In a parabola the parameter distance. sun. Comets are only visible for a short time. hence. is For. in their transit through the system to which we belong. Of more than a hundred comets. 322. the return of few have been calculated in only three has been ascertained. Five or comets seem to have hyperbolic orbits consequently they could only be once visible. 821. very elliptical general it has been found. c =: 1 and a infinite . state of rest. is a result of theory more sensibly verified by observation than any other of its consequences. however. a paraand of the same perihelion distance coincide through bola. It is probable that such bodies do exist in the creation. for comets. perhaps to visit other six . placed at equal distances from and put in motion at the same instant from a spaces in equal times instant. at is most a few months. This affords the means of ascertaining how near a comet approaches to the sun. — so that all would move through equal would arrive at the sun at the same properties first demonstrated geometrically by Newton from the laws of Kepler. whose orbits have been computed. hyperbola a small space on each side of the perihelion. difficult to determine in what curve they move. suns and other systems. [Book II. in this case. because a very eccentric ellipse. The periothc time of a comet cannot be known from one appearance. but in orbits. That the areas described by comets are proportional to the square roots of the parameters of their orbits. that comets move in parabolic curves. are thought to move in extremely . infinite variety of though their appearance is rare. that the places of comets computed in parabolic orbits agree with observation : A on that account it is usual to assume. the areas described in equal times are proportional to the square roots of their perihelion distances. Most of the comets that we have seen.158 LAW OF UNIVERSAL tlie GRAVITATION. c = — V 2D. when they are near their perihelia but it . wandering in the immensity of space. in different parabolae. they .
that. Jupiter and Saturn is But the law of the gravitation of the satellites of derived most clearly from tliis ratio. with the excep tion of the sixth. returning to our system after very long intervals. decreasing as the squares of the distance increase. are a law which is proportional to the square roots of the parameters — equally applicable to planets and comets. observe the laws of Kepler in moving round and gravitate towards the planets inversely as the but they must also square of their distances from their centre motions round that their relative in order towards the sun. lastly. II. 323. and from own observations of Mars. proves that the areas described in equal times by the radius vector of each body in the different orbits. The force ellipticity is always directed towards the centre of the sun. a time which is probably greatly exceeded by the enormous periods of the revolutions of some of these bodies. The their planets may be the same as if the planets were at rest. extending to an infinite distance in all directions. their primaries. gravitate satellites . of the planetary orbits. 199 eccentric ellipses. The areas described by the radius vector of each planet or comet. being proportional to the cubes of the mean distances. The three laws of Kepler.] LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION. that of the third inconsiderable distance of orbits of that of the fourth is evident. being the bases on which Newton founded the universal principle of gravitation : they lead us to regard the centre of the sun as the focus of an attractive force. reciprocally as the square of the distance from the sun . Each law discloses a particular property of this force. 324. of Jupiter is quite insensible . and the nearly parabolic motion of the comets. the squares of their pcriotlic times are as cubes of their mean distances from the centres of their respective . for — each system of tlie satellites. deduced from the observations of his Tycho Brahe. prove that for each planet and comet this is and. form an era of vast importance in the science of astronomy. the squares of the periodic times. shows that the principal force which urges these bodies. being proportional to the time employed in describing them. Two hundred years have not elapsed since comets were observed with accuracy. Hence the satellites must gravitate towards their planets and towards the sun inversely as the squares of the distances. The eccentricity of the orbits of the two first satellites . Tlie great Saturn has hitherto prevented the eccentricity of the any of its satellites from being perceived.Chap.
a 2v f will be the very small arc Dc that the satellite describes in a second. Now. the versed sine of the arc Dc. they will evidently be proportional to the quantities they make the two satellites fall through in a second hence F: F' 2t* Tf or F:F::ii _• Jig but the squares of the periodic times are as the cubes of the distances . if another satellite be considered. J. Let T be the duration of a sidereal revolution of the D satellite. [Book II. be a' — . being the ratio of the circumference to the diameter.14159 = ir. 64. mean hence whence F'. and would be farther from the centre of the planet by a quantity equal to aD. scribe For.F' ::— : JL Thus the satellites gravitate to their primaries inversely as the square of the distance. 64. fig. but if F and P be the attractive forces of the planet at the distances PD and Pd. PD = a. then 3. the satellite would fly off in the tangent De.160 LAW OF UNIVERSAL planets. its deflection a second . and T^ the duration of in its sidereal revolution. imagine a satellite to dea circular orbit. sine is which is the distance that the attractive force of the planet causes fall the satellite to through in a second. whose mean distance is Pd = will a'. But the value of the versed a. with a radius fig. . If the attractive force of the planet were to cease for an instant. its mean distance from the centre of the planet. GRAVITATION. .
which measures difierence of these directions. fig. were projected with the same force. that tlie force which causes the descent of heavy bodies at the surface of the earth. and C the centre A at of the earth. and therefore is not a perfect ellipse . would see the body m in the EmB but the body would . would revolve like a satellite about to its if its centrifugal force would then be equal This body would move in all respects like the moon. vacuo to from equal heights A projectile thrown a horizontally from a height. account some doubts may arise as to the diminution of the attractive force of the eartli as the inverse square of the distance. 161 825. belief that it indeed. On Parallax. at the same height. As the earth has but one satellite.] LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION. assumed to be spherical. If the force of projection . it air. and it were not resisted by the the earth. in that terrestrial gravitation causes all bodies in in equal times. 65. and therefore the ellipticity of the lunar orbit is the only celestial phenomenon by which we can know the law of tlie moon's attractive force. in the direction CmA. but this requires a knowledge of the lunar parallax. the moon would describe a perfect ellipse about the earth . If the earth and tlic moon were the only bodies in the system. because the solar attraction acts equally the on all same manner fall bodies placed at the same distance from the sun. the centre of the earth. the the The angle CmE. this comparison cannot be made.4 feet in a second. If 2 be the zenith of . It may be proved. but. to a person in C. is sufficient to retain the moon in her orbit.Chap. the path of the sensibly disturbed. Let m. is parallax of m. it would fall at a amounted to 30772. falls to the earth after having described parabola. orbit. diminishetl in the inverse ratio of the square of the distance. because gravitation. attractive force of the sun. and Saturn. person on the surface direction E. which exists between this force and the to the. greater distance and if it were greater. would lead follows the same law. be a body in of the earth. its 326. The analogy. appear. II. in is moon on this consequence of the action of the sun. Jupiter.
000001212 = — ^ . it would be inappreciable. 825082 its and thus. the sine of the parallax. of the earth. CmE. if a body be distant from •' the earth by 825082 of will semidiameters. called the zenith distance of the be measured hence mEC is known. or 3265660000 miles. the parallax. if When P is be the parallax EmC. hence. any height. the parallax will be insensible. then r sin p =: sin P sin z. m . and sin the contrary. P is is being the value of the angle CmE in this case then the parallax a maximum. p varies as sm z. and. and when P is constant. the angle zEm. for R — be eUminated. for Em is tangent to the earth. 67. will when zEm = 90°. known. may between zEm and E. P being at the horizontal parallax. T) 8m P R = — r . fig. p may be found. and sine of the zenith distance zEm . it is called the horizontal parallax hence . therefore the disfrom the centre of the earth is known. and the difference . If CwE were an angle of the fourth of a second. the sine of the horizontal parallax is equal to the terrestrial radius divided by the distance of the body from the centre of the earth. as the body seen in the horizon. zCm and is equal to z.162 an observer LAW at OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION. Cm = CE r. the hori zontal parallax tance of m determined by observation. an arc of 1" = 0. fig. 328.ime position from every point of the earth's The parallax of all the celestial bodies is very small even surface. By this method may be the dimensions of the solar system have been ascertained with great If the distance be very great compared with the diameter accuracy. body. the fourth of a second is there fore 0.000004848 of the radius. The length of the mean terrestrial radius is known. [Book II. if and Cm CmE. 327. let 66. then if CE = R. . : that of the moon at its maximum does not much exceed jj 1°. = R sine CmE = — sin z zEm r the . as in vary as remain the same. it be seen in the s.
2. z'E'm = 2'. and also the angles CEm.Chap. the sum of the lati tudes. sin p' = P sin 2' . = z. on different sides of Cm . : 163 let 329.2'. p of the + p' is equal to the angle EmE'. from observations made by La Caille at the Cape of Good Hope. the lines ZE. ^ gg which contemporaneously have the same noon. M 2 . and E'mC may be determined for P is so small. EmC.} Now. let zenith distances rEm E'. p + p' zz z + z' — 0. Tlje horizontal fig. be measured by two observers in E and Then ECE'. CE'm = 180«> . Z'E' do not pass through C. ECm + E'Cm r= 0. Suppose the latitudes ^' of these two places to be perfectly known . 66. is known. p and p' are also very small. II. being a spheroid.sin 2'. and the fourth angle of the quadri But and then if CEmE'. in the southern hemisphere and by Wargesten at Stock. when a body its m is on the me ridian. the centre of the eartlu Thc parallax of the moon and of Mars were determined in this manner. under which the chord terrestrial arc EE'. but when they are on the same p_ 2  2' sin 2' sin 2 — It requires a small correction. would be seen from the centre of lateral m. 180^— 2 + 180°5' + p+y + 0=360°. since the earth. therefore sin j9 = P sin + 7?' z. be put for and as its sine . be two places on the earth's surface . CE'm .] LAW OF UNIVERSAL parallax is GRAVITATION. that it may . same meridian of the that is. determined as follows E and E'. CEwi hence . hence EmE'. when the observers side. = 180° therefore the two values of p 2 ": \ p' give Z •* p_ — + z — sm : <f) sm + r> 2' which are is the horizontal parallax of the body. j5 = P { sin it is 2 f. which joins the two observers.
the distance of the moon. 3.164 holm. is equal to tho^force of gravity at E on the earth's surface. the horizontal parallax is chosen at the rallel mean distance of the moon from the earth. LAW OF UNIVERSAL is GRAVITATION. The horizontal parallax varies with the distance of the . 17 in the latitude in question of gravity. but CE divided by Cm to the square Cm is the sine found by observahence the force . it is clear that the fig. is 10". independent of these incquaUties. 17. Since the earth is a spheroid. [Book II. force of gravity at E. nearly on the same meridian in the northern hemi 330. reduced to the distance of the moon. 332. the constant part of which tion to is be 57' 4". the square of the sine of the constant part of the horizontal parallax. divided by the square of distance of the moon from the earth. If the force of gravity be assumed to decrease as the inverse square of the distance. The force which retains moon in her orbit may now be determined. to the same force at m. would be. of the horizontal parallax of the moon. the force of gravity increases from the equa . the length of the radius decreases from the equator to the poles. because the attraction of the earth upon the corresponding points of its surface is the mean nearly equal to the mass of the earth. difference between the at the poles. the with the parallels of terrestrial lati less the parallax. It is on this account that. being a spheroid. 331. whose equatorial diameter is greater than its polar diameter. The mean horizontal parallax at the equator and from this cause. the square of whose sine is ^. the earth. Force of Gravitation at the Moon. 67. body from the earth for it is evident that the greater the distance. In order to obtain a value of the moon's horizontal parallax. as of the square of CE . which sphere. It varies also tude. multiplied by sin' 57' 4". the horizontal parallax observed ferent latitudes varies. proving the elliptical figure of the earth. at the in dif mean distance of the moon. This is called the the constant part of the horizontal parallax. and on that pa of terrestrial latitude.
the whole effect of terrestrial gravity in the latitude in question is 16.0372. that the action of the sun on the moon diminishes its gravity to the earth by a quantity.] LAW OP UNIVERSAL . GRAVITATION. and adding to 16.00448474 75 moon would deIf of a foot in a second. scribe in fig. . since that force has a tendency to make bodies fly off .Chap. is 432nd it part. but makes this quantity less than it would otherwise be.1069 X 8in«57' 4". Again.1069 . the quantity more exactly constant part of which is equal to the 358th part of that gravity.0697. be the small arc which the let her orbit in a second. from the but as earth. it must be multiplied by ff because the moon in her relative motion round the earth. the attraction of the earth were suddenly to cease. as the unit of measure hence the sum of the masses of the two bodies is 75 75 Then if the terrestrial attraction be really the force that retains the moon in her orbit. 333. because it is found by the theory of the moon's motion. earth's surface in the same would fall during a space through which a heavy body second in the latitude the square of whose sine is ^. all 165 points of the tor to tlie poles but it has the same intensity in latitude. It is mass of the moon that the appears by the theory of the tides is taken the which that of earth of the only i^ . But in order to have this must be multiplied by ^^. the force of gravity in that latitude the square it is equal to the 288th part of gravity it whose sine its is ^.0697 is 0. But only diminished by twothirds of ^^ or by the 432nd part of 16. the moon woidd * . their mutual distance. II. and at the distance of the moon is 16. it 1069 feet . At the equator decreases from the equator to the poles as the square of the sine of the latitude. she must fall through 16. and C be the centre of the earth.0697 feet. 17 X ^^ 358 X — = 0. Let mS. sin* 57' it 4'M7 nearly. has been ascertained by experiments with the Now the the effect of the centrifugal force pendulum to be 16. 68. is urged by a force equal to the sum of the masses of the earth and moon divided by the square of Cm.
Cm. [Book H. 32166. periodic time of is The Sm 27^^'. and in T be would she second end of the instead of S . or if 113 : be put for ». is of the earth in the latitude the square of whose computed to be 20898700 feet from the mensuration of : the degrees of the meridian and since CE Cm Cm = consequently. . 17 = which 2(355)^ (20898700) (113)" (2360591")" sin 57' 4". so small that it may be chord. found by simple proporthe moon is the for tion. . consequently ^ ^ mn= — C£ 2(355)« ^^ Cm : — . or 2360591". is equal to mn the versed sine of the arc arc Sw. is the moon. (113)* (2360591")* Again. the But the space described by a body attraction at measure of the deflecting force at the in one second from the distance earth's of the moon was . therefore (toS)" = Cm mn . ir. 20898700 sin 57' 4". at the go off in the tangent mT .166 LAW OF UNIVERSAL fig.mn. hence 4(355)MCm)« (113)» (2360591")* . 2Cm : . ^gCm. 17 sin 57' 4". «»n r<i? CE = 8in57'4'M7. and since the lunar orbit without sensible error may the be assumed equal to the circumference of a mean distance of the moon from the earth circle it is whose radius is . 2Cm therefore .. hence the space that the attraction of the earth causes the moon to fall through in a second. GRAVITAXION.00445983 of a foot. 1taken for its 113(2360591") Sm is . 17 =0. 68. 113 2360591" 1" : : 2Cwi i£l 1 Sm ^ lo ^ The arc Sm = 2(355). the radius sine is .
334. they concur in proving its existence. by comparing her motion with that of bodies falling at the surface of the earth.Chap. satellites attract their common to planets.00448474 of a fore only the foot in a second. In this demonstration. the difference foot. diminished in the ratio of the distance. diminishing to infinity inversely as the squares of the distances. 335. 337. being attracted : towards the sun. square of The same law then. for supposing the planets and comets to be to the action of gravity. II. comets. 336. must reciprocally attract the sun towards them according to the same law for the same reason. The they gravitate like their planets nearly circular orbits of the satellites prove that towards the sun in the ratio of their . and left wouhl fall through equal heights in they equal times. which includes all the bodies of the system in its action satellites . the gravitation of the heavenly bodies towards one another may be considered as a general principle of this universe . and the planets which have exact a similar influence over them. in computing the effects of their attraction on substances at their surfaces. a quantity so small. Analogy would lead us to suppose that the same force exists in but that this is really the case will appear.00002491 of a GRAVITATION. is 16? thereit shown to be 0. Thus the sun possesses an attracting force. even the irregularities in the motions of these bodies are tliat susceptible of being so well explained by this principle. that may safely be ascribed to errors in observation. which was proved to apply to a system of satellites. Gravitation is proportional to the masses at tlie . same distance from the sun. with the cubes of their mean distances. by a comparison of the squares of the times of their revolutions.] LAW OF UNIVERSAL 0. or on bodies in space. has been demonstrated to apply equally to the moon. and satellites. all the planets and comets . Hence tlie it appears. the distances were estimated from the centre of the earth. that the principal force that retains the moon in her orbit is terrestrial gravity. This property of attraction being planets. and since the attractive force of the earth the same nature with that of the other celestial bodies. by considering act that it is a fixed law of nature that one body cannot action from that body upon another without experiencing an equal and contrary rehence the planets and comets. . is it is of follows that the centre of gravity of the celestial bodies the point from whence the distances must be estimated.
gravitate as their masses and as reaction equal and contrary to therefore their action action. lead to this great principle of nature. masses. which in their turn attract the sun as their re spective masses besides. 80 that their orbits will deviate a little from perfect ellipses. Thus the planets. in a striking manner. all pendulum bodies would fall towards prove. the centre of gravity of the earth would be moved impossible. that were its not for the resistance of centre with the same velocity. extending throughout the system. It appears then. that all the particles of matter mutually attract each other as their masses directly. for the sun acted on the centre of gravity of the earth without acting its on each of greater. and the satellites This conformity of nature with itself upon the earth. the smallest deviation from that ratio would be sensible in their motions. on the earth. it 342. 339. and satellites. and . in space in virtue of this gravitation. comets. and attracts it in the same ratio . The same law obtains on earth . but none depending on that cause has been detected by observation. and were any part of the earth however small not to attract the other part as it is itself attracted. and in the immensity of the heavens.168 masses : LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION. 338. when at the same is . . as the planets gravitate towards the sun. that the celestial phenomena when compared with the laws of motion. would be incomparably from what they now are. [Book II. shows. everj'thing centre of the earth proportionally to acts on earth gravitates towards the its mass the particle then re. From the universal principle of gravitation. distance from the sun. and as the squares of their distances inversely. The attraction of the celestial bodies does not belong to their mass alone taken if in its totality. Thus the gravitation of the earth towards the sun is the sum of the gravitation of particles separately. may be fore seen. . 340. for very correct observait tions with the the air. but exists in each of their atoms. wliich is 341. were that not the case. that the comets and planets will disturb each other's motion. that the gravitation we observe here on earth is only a particular case of a general law. Terrestrial bodies then gravitate towards the earth in the ratio of their towards their planets. they attract the sun in the same ratio on the sun is proportional to their masses divided by the square of their distances from his centre. the tides and very different each of its particles .
and with a different intensity from the nucleus of the earth. it is clear tliat the particles of the ocean being unequally attracted by the sun and moon. . that centrifugal force arising from the rotation of the celestial bodies must alter their phenomena of gravitation. that the celestial bodies attract each other directly as their masses. produce those motions that are observed Lastly. Having thus proved from Kepler's laws. ought to produce there all the appears also. : 169 that the areas will no longer be exactly proportional to the time the satellites. he determines the motions of the planets by the general theorem in article 144.] LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION. and assuming the law of gravitation to be that of nature. II.Chap. and : by of the sun. and compares the results with observation. will in their axes of rotation. and that the resultant of their action at the surface of the body. and that the resulting force of their mutual attractions not passing through their centres of gravity. must produce the ebb and flow of the sea. must form a mass nearly spherical . It spherical form a little by flattening them at their poles . united by their mutual attraction. and inversely as the square of the distance. 343. will sensibly deviate from elliptical motion that the particles of each celestial body. tliat troubled in their paths by their mutual attraction. La Place inverts the problem.
are J+x'. Then the coordinates of ferred to for it is m when re 0. it thing of its absolute motions our is . the same with regard to satellites and 345. i*" ON THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF THE MOTION OF A SYSTEM OF BODIES. the coordinates of m'. moves in consequence of the difference It is between its own and their that of the sun. considered as points revolving about one body S. which thus action. m'. &c. which motions — is the centre of their Let J. be the coordinates of S referred to o as an origin. the sun is supposed to be at rest. s+r.170 CHAPTER V. the coordinates of the bodies referred to S as their origin.y {y\z y z= OB + Bb. SUBJECTED TO THEIR MUTUAL ATTRACTIONS. primaries. &c. In estimating the relative motion of planets. m'. x'. observations must therefore be limited to its relative it is motions. and so for the other bodies. z + OC + Cc. To determine the relative motions of a system of bodies 7n. 344. m". is As the earth which we inhabit impossible for us to know any a part of the solar system. but in estimating the motions of a planet. y+y. fig. &c. 5. . z. z'. when referred to o. In the same manner. or Sm = VxHV+P Sm' = ^x"+y"+z'% &c. y.y + x'. y'.. usual to refer them to the centre of the sun. y. and all the motion is referred to the planet. 69. are + + z. and X. Let the dis tances of the bodies from S. III. m. The sun and planets mutually attract each other . z =: easy to see that S ^ + X = OA + Aa. and those of satellites to the centres of their primary planets.
m'. &c. and the masses by m.y' For the same reason. action of the bodies m. for the force because the body S draws m towards the origin of is This force when resolved in the direction ox — — .. The distance of m' from m is iy' V(x'  xT + . in". the distance of in" from is — y. of m will m\ &c. being the coordinates of m and m' referred to the z. &c. z' — m VCr"  o^y let + iy"  yy + (z"  zy. z. 171 be represented by S. as . J_ m f^\ = \dx) {(x' . the distance of these bodies from each other —• diagonal of a parallelopiped whose sides arex x. &c. tliat is as r to x. r'.^)}f + { (x"  X)' (z" . y. z'. . Of the Of the Of the action of S on m. In order to abridge. S —— is to its component force in ox. Hence the whole action of the system on m resolved in the axes ox is 1 /d\\ Sx . S as their origin. on m when resolved in the direction ox. all ^^:. The The whole : equations of the motion be first deter action of the system relative to/ three parts 1. y'. m". It has a negative sign. &c. 2. the coordinates. r".] MUTUALLY ATTRACXn^ BODIES. Tliese will be determined separately. and inversely as the square of distance.^^/FORNlA action of all the bodies m". that is directly as its mass.z*) }f + &c. on S. 3.«)« + (y'y)' + +p^l::^ (y" y)« + all tlie («' .Chap. m'". &c. • S^n to Aa. r. x'. r* ii. III. The action of S on m is — its S — . b the sum of the actions of bodies m'. i. and 346.yy + iz'  zy is for X. in'. \= ^{x'xy+iy'yy+{z'z*) it is +— 'Jix'xr+{y"yy+{z"zy m'(x'x) evident that +&C.
and vice versd. when re fdX\ which is the whole action of the system relatively to solved in the direction ox. &c. and if S + fn the sum of the masses of the sun and of a planet. 347. however. but by the general theorem of motion 1 m for /dK\ \dxj Sx r' _ dXr + x) (S6) dl^ tlie S + X is the coordinate oa. m". or distance of 7n from o in the direction ox iii. HUL. but by the general theorem y for the coordinates of fnx ' __ d^x ~? HF' this action. =: —+ "f^^^ 1 may be put under a more convew»'J^' —— + 1 &c. if 2 — d'Y be put for_l. may &c.y'\ y'. on S. when resolved in the same ^— .Lf^X m y mx motions of m'. &c. m". likewise the actions of m'. and because ' ~? the other two IF' ~7^ IF ' component forces are = ^ + ^ + 2^dt* r^ r" —(—\ \dzj if z. These equations. nient form for ^^ v Z. y mx r'^ m \dxj m. x\ 2". are m". x". be successively put for m. and the equations equations will give the d!*I dF~ 'V — d^y y my ' d'z __ y mz ' 'dF~ ~?~' dt*^ "^' determine the motion of S.172 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF [Book II. The action of m on S is — . x. and its component force in ojt is _ . y. = The same . axes. hence the action of the system on S in the axes oj. round S. S alone vary by it Now. z' &c. r' . m!. ^ + ^ + 2^ . be expressed by 2 — . or . in dt^ tlie equation (86) 1 becomes __ 1 ^ _ d'X dl^ Sj.
tains —— tn — con) \dxj . JLf'^Y + ^^' m \dyj r"^ m"z" _^ r"* dR^ dz m'z' r'^ . ^= dy J!i^ r* + &c. on m but in is also troubled indirectly 18 . m . .] MUTUALLY ATTRACTIVE BODIES. the direct action of the bodies m'. its satellite. „ «c. tn/^ _ m"(x"x+y"y+z"z) ^ ^"" ^^^ V(x"j:)« + iy"yy+iz"'zy r"» whence it is easy to see that dx r'" if) ^ ^. m"x" is + . m is drawn to or from S in both cases altering the relative posi tion of jj S and m. dt* HX 1^ _ ~ f<lR\ i^y di* + = '^ D \Ji/ (^'> = dl* r' m . J contamed . L— it is relates only to the undisturbed elliptical m round S much _j_ greater than the remaining. III.Sic. By the latter action S dra^vn to or from . 173 of a planet and by represented by /t..m". 1 m (dX\ \dz ) and therefore the preceding equations become .Chap. the equation in x becomes = Tlie part tion of ^+^ di* r* + 'i^' r'^ + &c. and by the former.Jf^^ m \dx mo — + . Let m _ m'(xx{y'i/ r'" + z'z) ^(^x'jcy+^y'yy+iz'zf .part m'x' r'* m"af' r'" _^^^_ l/d\\ m \dx/ m ( wliich contains all the disturbances to which the body is subject from the action of the other bodies of the system. by the action of these bodies on S. m'x' ni + . this part .
and the most refined and labois rious analysis equalities to requisite to select among liable. system. rectilinear. distances. and m. the disturbing action of all the planets on any one may be found. &c. provided that in functions of the distance exist . wliole motions of the planets and satellites are derived from these equations. but by the attraction of the other planets.rceptible. Although this problem has employed the mathematicians from Newton to the present day. or of a satellite on its . the infinite number of in which the planets arc those that arc x. mutually attracting each other. for its satellites. and positions of the bodies being given. The problem of planetary motion when so limited is. If one planets . to determine. it is This is the celebrated problem of three extremely complicated. are the principle of areas and and that the motion of the centre of gravity is uniform. 350. whatever it could be expressed it evidently follows. and or S may be taken for a planet. its motion is very much altered. and in no way affected by the mutual action of the bodies. but as this cJin be repeated for each body in the system. for m. and rendered extremely complanet plicated. As these properties have been already proved to exist in a system of bodies the law of the force might be. which is only a particular case of the more As no other results can be obtained from these the effects of general equations in the present state of analysis. its orbit would be ellipse. The action of a planet on the sun. is the determination of the motion of a body when attracted by one body. the place of a body when attracted by one 349. the masses. S may either be considered to be the sun. that they must in the solar square of tlie general theorem. The only results that can be obtained from the preceding equations. and to assign their values. in its most general sense. bodies. that the problem of planetary motion. where the force is inversely as the distance. a perfect elliptical only moved round the sun. at any given time. body and disturbed by another. which express living forces . one disturbing body is estimated at a time. it can only greatest be solved by approximation. 348. m'. It appears then. this general problem. m'. &c. and disturbed by any number of others.174 The DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF LBook II.
must be very small in comparison to that of the sun and it is the same with regard to the satellites and their primaries. that the action of estimated to the disturbing force move tion is. greatest effects of the disturbing forces are found in the tliird. But as the law is nearly the same for all the planets. The same method applies Fortunately. is incomparably smaller than the sun. form some idea of his magnitude . that they may be omitted in computation without sensible error. their disturbing sible. must be insenAs the masses of the planets are so small. These systems are such. Thus any modifications in the periodic times. Kepler's law would vary in the different orbits. By these approximations. for. 351.Chap. according to the masses if they were considerable. its 175 when pri primary. In the second approximation. III. the same on the planet and on . the . and so on progressively. to find at first be neglected. but would extend as far again. their masses . till they become so small. the formation of the planetary system affords singular facilities for accomplishing these approximations : one of the prin cipal circumstances is the division of the system into partial systems. forces are very their orbits. as the ratio of the cube of the greater axis of the orbit is to the square of the periodic time proportional to the sum of the masses of the sun and the planet. are nearly so areas described so nearly proportional to the time. and even Jupiter. much less than the force of the sun. and that accuracy by comparing its computed place with to the satellites. the largest planet of the solar system. and the although not strictly elliptical. or the satellite when compared with its mary . its observed place. his volume would not only include the orbit of the moon. that the distances of the satellites from their primaries are very much less than the distances of their primaries action of the sun being very nearly the from the sun. whence we may . Hence the first approximathe place of a body revolving round the sun in a per may in fect ellipse at a given time. and therefore . tliat could be produced by the action of the planets on the sun. the next greatest. The volumes of the sun and planets confirm this if the centre of the sun were to coincide with the centre of the earth. if the planet be very large compared with tiie sun. Whence. formed by the planets and their satellites.] MUTUALLY ATTRACTIVE BODIES. the place of a is body may be found with verified very great accuracy. shortens periodic time. then the body may be a perfect ellipse.
when resolved m. its centre of gravity. as the sun. &c. the centre of gravity of the systo S. m'. y'. move very nearly as if they were only influenced by the attraction of the planet.(x in the direction Sx. The action of the is body m on the sun at S. tem referred and let x. for example.x) in which m is the mass of the body. m". ing to the system. that common also. is equal to the sum of the forces which urge the bodies m. y. &c. is very nearly the same as these bodies were united in one mass at that point. m'. 352. are very small in comparison of SC... Sx. in the first book. &c. It was shown. as . their gravity. 4. effect was also shown. Cm'. of the bodies from tlie their centre of gravity. parallel to this straight line. . whether at rest or in motion. 70. &c. dis tance of the centre of gravity from the sun. ordinates of the bodies referred to C. be the coordinates of C. I". that the mutual action and attraction of bodies united together in any manner whatever. m is to the action of m on the sun. be the co&c. From if all this formation it also follows. therethe not sufficient to determine the action of fore. z'. It is. the whole being divided by the It sum of their masses. of a planet and its satellites. belongbody S. the centre of the sun x'.17G its DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OP the satellites [Book II. and 'J {x r = + xy But the action of the sun on { (3 + yy + {z + zy. m. and let Let C S be any body not belonging to the system. 5. satellites. on 70.. y. as. m'. multiiilied respectively by their masses. centre of Imagine the dis P « lances Cm. z. Motion of the Centre of Gravity. be the centre of gravity of a system of bodies m. m". that the force which urges the centre of gravity of a system of bodies parallel to any straight line. Let /^« fig. that the its motion of the centre of gravity of a planet and satellites. has no on the centre of gravity of the system..
f the quantity = SC = V 3» + y» + ?. or(l + x){r« + 2(Ij + ^ + 5z)}f.ttu: will .. it And expanding this by the binomial theorem.] MUTUALLY ATTRACTIVE tlie BODIES.Chap. when ^ 7^ — 27/1 ~ S. III.»J2 0. hence the action is of these two bodies on C. is equal to distances of the sun and of the + pa. to m.. ~^'^ becomes X +X . and also the squares of y and 2. Now..m. or that is. the centre of gravity of the system. X as 2. 0. &c. r'. Sp pa is incomparably less than Sp. 70. z. be found for x\ y'.y by ^' m(x + x) 7—' m(x+ x) and the sum of the masses by 2. the whole force that acts on the ceytre of gravity in the direction Sx will be s.J F • the squares and products of the small quantities x. 177 5. becomes ^ Now. m (J + .wjy = = the expression y m(I}x) — S ? V becomes — — S. mass of the body x) . y. S. and as by the nature of the centre of 2. tlie mass of the sun. m each of the bodies . 2. the ^ _ 3x{7x^yy + zz} same expression S.W + X. but Sp and pa are the body m from C. are omitted hence the centre of gravity of the system is urged N .2. &c.s. fig. together with the products of these small quantities then if . estimated on Sx. if we therefore represent the sum of the actions in the axes ox . The same relation exists for zzzi. the co ordinates of the other bodies gravity = 0. the square of pa may be omitted without sensible error.Ir. .
178 by the DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OP [Book II. or by centre of gravity urged in the direction {S + 2. action of the sun in the direction Sx. m'. have vanished from all the preceding results..m}^. . z. common centre of gravity. its appears that the system of a planet and nearly as if satellites. are x. as if all the masses tlieir were united in C. m'. the system round S. &c. acts on the other bodies of the system. 353. r (88) and thus tlie centre of gravity moves as if all the masses »n. &c. Attraction of Spheroids. In considering the relative motion of the centre of gravity of it will be found that the action of the system in the of bodies m. if all their masses were united in is their common and the centre of gravity of the axes by the sum of the forces.. were united in their common centre of gravity since the co ordinates of the bodies m. leaving only x. oy. m'.2m when their the squares and products of the distances of the bodies from Tliese act in a direccentre of gravity are omitted. 354. The heavenly bodies consist of an infinite . on S axes ox. From the preceding investigation. according to the by the same law. owing to the distance than that of satellites between planets being comparatively so much greater from their primaries. m". {S + 2.2m^ 5. those it of the centre of gravity. It is evident that are the forces urging the centre of gravity in the other two axes. number of particles of gravitation subject to the law and the magnitude of these bodies .^m^ 3/..m} ^. &c. oz. were united in their the planet and . m". common is nearly the same as . its satellites common centre of gravity and this centre of gravity is attracted different bodies of the system. Whence the action of the system on S tion contrary to the origin. p. m".
This approximation spherical: is rendered more exact by their form being nearly these bodies may be regarded as formed of spherical If the attraction of layers or shells. then. can be found. Let C. in space. and /=: wiP be distance from the point attracted.cos 7 =/^ p The position of the element dm. ^?^ bears so small a proportion to the distances between them. fig.] MUTUALLY ATTRACTIVE BODIES.Chap. and CP = a. resolved in the direction CP. assuming the action to be in the inverse ratio of the distance. and from the triangle CPm it appears that the angle . thing is P from the every / ^ ^ ^ As symmetrical round CP. cos 7. = CB to r = CD. be the centre of a spherical shell of homogeneous fig. this action. matter. one of these layers. dm be an element its of the shell at m. r= 2r.drdrsd^ a— r CO8 . of a density varying from the centre to the surface. by article 278. on a point interior or exterior to itself. the attraction of the whole spheroid may be determined. will be determined mCP =: 6. » being the semicircle whose radius is unity. 71. will be P . that they act upon one another as if the mass of each were condensed in satellites are therefore it6 centre of gravity. and from = N 2 = to = t. The planets and considered as heavy points. the inclination of the But. the whole attraction of the spheroid on P must If be in the direction of tliis line. —— is the attraction of the particle on P . will be Vm. <i' must be <? taken from r ii. Tlic vahie . the attraction of the whole shell on P. dm = r* sinG drdvs d6 plane PCm on mCx. Cm = r. for the integral 0. placed in their respective centres of gravity. and the whole attraction A of the shell on P. by y« hence is — a' — 2ar cos + A "= r* . III. and by w. cos 7= a — r cobO f fr^ waO. the distance of the attracted point centre of the shell. 71. whatever the law may be of that variation. and if CPm = y.
ar F=z—frdr. and 6 are independent of d/r* sin e. but at these limits/* must (a r)* and/* (a r)* and as always be positive. and / a + r — = . jj. and divided by da. in the first case.dr P is obtained by taking the differential of 'r* sin dwd9 faccording to a. di ~.180 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF df Ta _^ "" [Book II. r= and in the second. and dividing it f by da.!_ Thus the / da whole attraction of the spherical layer on the point O. A = ^fr^. 7 to = w = 2t.de sine a. sin 6 dr dco dO a. according to o. hence but as r. Air frdr.df. and when the attracted point P is without the spherical layer / =: a r. a 355. But the differential of F. of/ a—r COS0 gives 7 ./ _ J sin 1 / it is easy to find —— hence = _ df. oi. . is = But from the value of/. . when tlie attracted point is within the spherical layer = — = + / f=zr — a. Tgf This integral from oi J p r^ sin dr d(v do _ «. must be taken from The integral with regard to = . do ^^r^dr. to ^ = » . and/= r + a. hence.drdw dO " .
is the whole attraction of the shell on P. the shell be changed into a sphere whose radius is R". from the first expression. is same as if its whole mass were united centre. . solid Tliese results would be the same were the attracting com posed of layers of a density varying. If will R\ the radius of the interior surface. III. Hence. from the centre to the surface for. 357.] MUTUALLY ATTRACTIVE BODIES. hence 3 and therefore A =: M — a* . be zero. is the same as if its mass were united at its centre. 356. The second expression gives da The integral of this quantity a*"^ from r = CB = R'jo r = CD = da 3a* B". The celestial bodies then attract its very nearly as if the mass of each was united in centre of gravity. Hence the attraction of a homogeneous sphere on a point at its surface. as they have been proved with regard to each of its layers. — R\ it R" and R' . dF = da 0. or beyond it.Chap. according to any law whatever. not only because they are far from one another. they must be true for the whole. which If is be the mass of the layer whose thickness is R" will be equal to the difference of two spheres whose radii are M the action of a spherical layer on a point without it. is Tlius a particle of matter in the interior of a hollow sphere attracted equally on all sides. but because their forms are nearly sphe* rical. . Thus the the attraction of a spherical layer on a point exterior to in its it. 358. 181 when the sign is changed.
which is the intersection of the is NPn plane of the orbit with the . ON THE ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. For example. or below the plane of the ecliptic. is the line of always passes through the centre of the sun. although these points have not coincided for 2230 years. it. estimated on the plane of the ecliptic. If the earth be in E. Let EnBN represent the plane of the ecliptic. on account of the precession or retrograde motion of the equinoxes. The : The vernal equinox is assumed as an origin from whence the Astrono angular distances of the heavenly bodies are estimated. are sometimes seen above and sometimes below it. The earth alone moves in the plane of the ecliptic. fig. When the . is longitude. 861. 362. 80 that the planets. the first point of Aries.182 CHAPTER IV. point of is 72. The line NSn. Angular distance from the vernal equinox. S the sun. 359. The angular distance of a planet above that plane. south the planet when from zero to 180°. the orbits of the other bodies of the system are inclined to it at small angles . tude. or first point of Aries. mers designate that point by the character oo. orbit NAn nodes supposed to be above the plane of the ecliptic. above that plane. the direction in which the bodies of let the solar system revolve round the sun. and let m be a planet moving round the sun S in the direction mP/i. is is its latitude. it is said to have north latiwhen and below Latitude is reckoned latitude. the orbit being inclined to the ecliptic at the angle PNE the part of the . or vernal equinox. in their revolutions. it plane of the ecliptic. the elliptical orbit of the earth is the plane of the ecliptic cuts of the terrestial the of the in a line equator plane ecliptic plane passing through the vernal and autumnal equinoxes. and op the its first Aries. 360. and below it. represent the ecliptic. longitude the angle cipSE. which is reckoned from west to east. E/iBN.
corresponding to any assumed time. and distance from the sun. cipSP. only in having earth differs it no latitude. or <Y>Sp. 72. order to ascertain the real place of a body. the eccentricity. present. is As the position of the point of Aries is known. evident that the place of a planet m in its orbit is found. it is also requisite to Sm. the inclination of the orbit on the plane of the ecliptic and on the longitude of the epoch. when the angles opSm. in 183 it planet its N. the ascending node. the angular height of is its it m above the plane of the ecliptic. the descending node. called the yig. are known know the nature of the orbit in which it moves. and the position of the orbit in space. the longitude of N. This depends on six constant quantities. and from them to compute tables which will give values of these three quantities. AP.J is ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. Sm. The lon<Y*Sm. the greater axis of the ellipse. pSm. since from that of any other moves in the plane of the . 363. and Sp. therefore is to form equations between the longitude. ^ latitude. the longitude of P. and is the curtate distance of the planet from the sun. which are more generally employed. at mSp. on the and mSp. first latitude. ENP. it is in its ascending node . and it is clear that the longitude gitude of orbit. its distance from the sun. the longitude of the ascending Let mp be a perpendicular from on the Sp is the projection of the radius vector cyoSN m is node . or m is of n. is in descending node. according as it is estimated on the ecliptic . are deter mined by observation the object of analysis .Chap. CS — __. the perihelion <V>SN. or future. . elements of the orbit. in values of the time . IV. the body at the origin of the time. is 180° greater. when in n. for a planet or satellite. Tlie motion of the planet. or position of . for any time past. These six quantities. plane of the ecliptic. so that the situation of every body in the system may be ascertained by inspection alone. or But in cf>Sp. and any given time.
ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. its their orbits. wliich determine the six elements of the orbit. six arbitrary constant quantities will be introduced by their integration. but the equations ^ d}x ^IF ___ mx ^ Q __ d'y __ my "r^' ~d^ V . It will therefore will unless the contrary be ex pressly mentioned. and the positions of known position of this plane at some assumed epoch. (89) ^+^= put for S 0. ^ + ^= ^+^ where ^ planet. will be referred to the 364. say 1750. which may be assumed thus the place of the body in its elliptical orbit will be known at any instant. and as the equations are of the second order. z. the position of the ecliptic tion is is variable to a very minute extent position can be ascertained. is := 0. values will give x. The motions of the celestial bodies. = is inversely as the square of all the distance they ought therefore to give Their finite the circumstances of elliptical motion. If the undistiurbed elliptical 8un be considered. 366. + m. be assumed to be the plane of the coordinates x and y. in values of at pleasure : the time. but as the varia known. In these three equations. and be called the Fixed Plane. [Book II. the force . which passes through the centre of the sun. y.y* + z*. the sum of the masses of the sun and and r V ^* +. . In consequence of the mutual attraction of the celestial bodies. These give the motion of the planet with regard to the sun . 365. Motion of one Body. « _ ~ ePz dl* ^ W mz . the equations in article motion of one body round the 146 become 0.184 ecliptic.
first of the equations (80) of elliptical motion multisubtracted from the second multiplied by x. the equations Since these equations are linear and of (89) must be integrated.. 185 of article 346. IV. X =: a in the same manner. — — ydx ^ — =: c. dt . ^^ • xdy consequently.. will determine the absolute motion of the sun attended by the whole system. when the relative motions of m. that any one of the vari able quantities x. their sum will be (S the integral of which + VI) is ^ dt* + m £1. m". + multiplied by m. 37. will be 368. + bt — S +m' "^y y = = a'+b't  S +w *"^ .Chap. give values of J. if 2m be substituted for m . = di* 0. If the x£y^y£x_ dt* . the second order. the result be plied by y. are 367. y. in terms of the time which will determine the motion of the sun in space for if the first of them be m. depends on the other two. z. m'. y. and added to multiplied by S . 5 a"+5'7 S + m These equations give the motion of the sun in space accompanied by and as they are the same for each body. 2. Pontecoulant has determined these integrals with great elegance and simplicity in the following manner.] ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. 2. their integrals must contain six constant quantities. &c. M. they known. They are also symmetrical and so connected. But in order to ascei^ain the values of x. m.
J^ ^ c'dx^c"dy r similar process values of fi . ' where c.^. . &. and the integral of the preceding equation dx^+dy^+dz^ d(^ A = a 0. [Book IL In the same way it is easy zdx — xdz dt ydz — zdy di _ . their sum will be 2/t 2dxd^x+2dyd'y+2dz£z But whence rdr r« (xdx+ydy + zdz) _ q = a:* + y« + s* . = xdx +  ydy H^ r + + zdz is ._ ydz — zdy dt ^ ' . / c' the result will be c'd^xc"d^y dt _ f^x r^ ^^^.186 ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. __xdy—ydx d< . Whence and by a ^^ . ^ (90) JL being an a If arbitrary constant quantity.. be subtracted from d'x liz dt' = — luo CI. ^ = . . c"..IJ^y __ d'dz—cdx dt . Thus the integrals of equations (89) are.. may be found. />/ /iJ _ cdy—ddz dt r r 369. to find that . dt^ r" multiplied by c" = tlZl^. the integrals of which are r. if the first of the same equations be muUipUed by the second by 2dy. Again. ^ zdx — xdz d< . . dt = zdx — xdz dt . and the third by 2dz. 2rfx. . andjttd r — r . d i.. multiphed by ' ^ r^ K V 1 1. . are arbitrary constant quantities introduced by inte gration. _ ^^^) _ ^^ fH (^^y _ ^ ^ y^^) __ fijrdzzdr) r* _ dt _z^ r .
the sixth integral results If the squares of/. containing the seven arbitrary constant quantities c.] ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF TUE PLANETS. and/". c" being connected by this equation of confrom the five preceding. and the third by x. c'. 370. /''. For if the of these equations be multiplied by the second by y. consequently two of the seven first integrals are included in the other five. but this coincides with the sixth integral. from the fourth. The six arbitrary quantities dition. r dt but cz + &y ts ^ 1 /i ^ r c"x . (92) Again./'. As two equations of condition exist among the constant quantities. IV. hence cdz + c'dy + c"dx = . hence Jttfl + c" = '^1^:^ dt . ^dy r — dt c'dz J^ __ a ^ r ^ dj^±dy^±d^ ^ dt* " Q /. their sum is cz + c'y + c"x = 0. and sixth in and f'+f* { +/"= ?. 187 J . if the fourth integral multiplied be added to the fifth multiplied by c*.Chap. fifth. . tegrals be added.] cdz+ c'dy+ c"dx Y + c'y\(/'x=zO. and a. ~r ^z r — r _ — c'dx — dt 3 c"dy » f+ fit f^=z ^"^^ ~ dt ^'^^ ^ (91) ^ (^ —. by c. ( they give P ^• = (c«+c'«+0 but CZ d^ + dy*+dz^ _2f. z. c". /. f. they are reduced to five that are independent. yvr when _ _ fc + f'c'^ or/V +fc' +/c = 0.
Thus moves is in one plane.73. (ydzzdy) dt dt J c {xdy . which the body m For the equation C2 is + c'y + c"j? = that of a plane passing through the origin of the coordinates. their sum will be fz+f'y +f"x+ /*(^+y'+''') = dt (zdx. if c' [Book II. 'la L. the fifth by y. and in of the integrals m the sixth by x. if the fourth the curve in which article 269 be multiplied by r.188 ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. Q _ di" + dy^ + rfz*  /^' and comparing 369. &. z. Thus the in planets and comets move conic sec tions having the sun in one of their foci. it this equation with the last of the integrals in article will appear that ' h* a . c'y + c"x = and r* = j?'  y' + z'. 372. it be comes or o = + fir  {c* /tr = fig. tions of the time. + . c".A« + /z +fy + f'x. the last integral is contained in the others so that the seven integrals to five distinct integrals and the seven constant quantities are in reality only equal and five constant quantities. c'» + c"«) +fz +fy +f% This equation combined with cz 0. the origin of r the focus. and their radii vectores describe areas proportional to . they give the curve in 371. Again. consequently. being in gives the equation of conic sections. thus. + c" + c"« = h*.yds) first but in consequence of the three integrals in article 369. whose position depends on the constant quantities c. Although these are insufficient to determine x.' ^^. y. in funcmoves.xdz) f.
or dl^ hence dv r= hdt (93) is 373. be observed that in the tions (89) the coordinates x. that the orbit. c". 74 . contained between Sm then but the (x* = r and 86 = / + dr. that . Determination of the Elements of Elliptical Motion. Thus the area i^r^dv described by the radius vector r or Sm proportional to the time dt. and it is evident. and if SN 2'. 74. IV.f'\ and JL. z> if are SB. inversely angular motion of m round S is in each point of the as the square of the radius vector. for if 189 fig. Tlic elements of the orbit in which the body m moves deIn pend on the constant quantities order to determine them.] tlic ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS.Cbap. but they be referred to 7S the line of he equinoxes. /. pm. so that SD x'. the squares of the three first of equations (91) is + y« + 2') (dx' + dy' + dz') _ dC dC {xdx+ydy + zdzY di^ _ ^. consequently the finite area described in a finite time is proportional to the time. a must equa3/. Bp. 7 y'. It is evident also. 73. pm Dp ENP. dv represent the indefinitely small arc mb. the longitude of the node = = = and inclination of the orbit on the fixed plane be represented by . from the method of changing tlie coordinates in article 225. imby sum of = dx« + dy« + dz^ = r'^dv^ + dr' . ji^. the preceding equation will give the horary motion of the planets and comets in the different points of their orbits. and as very small intervals of time dt. f'. fig. it c. time . c'. may be taken instead of the indefinitely small instants without sensible error. 374.
c" =: c sin c" tane=_ (9^) whence tan = '^ c** + c g'^' Thus the position of the nodes and the inclination of the orbit are c. tants. Z/. will be found that (/ =z — c cos 6 tan 0. and rdr = xdx \. c. the projection of the longitude of the perihelion on the plane Np». x' [Book It = :=: a: cos 6 cos + y sin 0. tan 0.190 ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. and dividing the one by the ^L the result in consequence of the preceding relation will be = /!. = rL. </. y' =z z' y — X sin 0. c". hence dr = 0. f and /•" of the same number. then ili = . But if w^ be the angle cyoSE. from 269 in the equations other.. y tan 0. c'. therefore xdx + + zdz =: Let j:. cos 6 tan consequently but if this z = y — 2? sin tan . y^. . c". given in terms of the constant quantities 375. substituting the values of in be the coordinates of the planet when in perihelio. hence tan CT. be compared with = it c"x + c'y + cz. ^  —1 dP be eliminated from the equation ^ . then. ydy f zdz. which determines the position of the greater axis of the conic If section. Now r* = a:* + y' + ydy 2*. but at the perihelion the radius vector r is a minimum 0.
r must be found in terms of the same. so also Thus and all the elements that determine the nature of the conic section its position in space are known. gives therefore = a^ — e") = V/* ~ x/2rlla(leO ^ a a value of r must be found from To integrate this equation. y. = 0. 377. Resume the equation but in order to have values of these coordinates in terms of the time. the major axis of the orbit.. . IV. therefore at the aphelion and perihelion whence r = o±avl — — is . and \/ axis. z. The three equations r«=j^+y«+z«. and c"x\c'y'\'Cz = 0. /*rA'+/2+/'y+/"z give X. major tliat Let this ratio be repre sented by then as it was shown ^ ~" = A . because the radius either a maximum or minimum at these points. these two values of r their difference is is the major axis of the conic and FS fig.Chap. which requires another integration. The sum of section. ' \/ h* dt 1  —= (1 e. or double the eccentricity.] ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE MOON. it is the mean distance of m from S . is the ratio of the eccentricity to half the c. in functions of r . 1 —— . 75. last 191 by means of the of the integrals (91) the result will be '^ a d1* but at the extremities of the greater axis dr vector is = 0. Thus a half of AP. or 376. o «r* r'dj^ dt* ~~^ then — .
— e cos u }. its axis is major minor axis 26. and when ^2rlla substituted in dv = is O Arf^ the result dv = dr . .r*a(le*) . Sm = Let the circle PMA be described on axis. be an whose 2a. = Sp Cp — CS = a cos u — c = — Sp* = a* (cos = b' sin*M = 6* (I . and if MCP = u. the conic sections. This equation gives u and consequently r in terms of /.cos* w) jsm' = a*(l e«). . (95) being an arbitrary constant quantity. but hence and r* = a« (1 — + pm«. CM. and as X. and join the SM. 2 are given in functions of r. a {I This value of r and dt its differential being substituted in the value of it becomes dt = is < . and Cm.192 ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. [Book I.2 _fL_ (m w} . the (fi eccentricity CS = tor and the radius vecr. y. the values of these coordinates are known /« at any instant. When := 1 the values of dt and A* become . e'« e*) r = (1 — cos* u) + a* (cos u — e)'. c?M (1 — c cos m) e sin the integral of which A: + A: = r. = It e)*. 75. ellipse fig. major draw the perpendicular Mp through m. 6« = a" e'. Let A?nP. Va(le*) •y^2ri. and a(l — e'). . fig. Then r« Sp« or making Again. 75.
reciprocally = — 1— "^ eco8(u— w) when the origin wliich is the general equation to the conic sections. 77. • e. the longitude of the ascending node. projection of the longitude of the perihelion.4NETS 193 or dv = — \/l .. 379. which the same depends on the instant of passage at the perihelion. and («©)=: cos (cipSw — qpSP). last is relative to is the jiosition of the thing. the CT. Six arbitrary constant quantities have been introduced. mSp. Elements of the Orbit. fig. 378. The two its first determine the nature of the orbit.] ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF TUE PL. at and the . the longitude of the epoch. 2a. it body a given epoch its or. the inclination of the orbit on the plane of the ecliptic.Chap. 6. of T ihe radius vector cos is in the focus . elliptical of the longitude and latitude cyaSyn. namely. a is half the greater axis. Equations of Elliptical Motion. in terms of the time from whence tables of the satellites motions of the planets and may be computetl. and e. the three following position in space. to determine three equations which will give values distance Stm. and the 72. IV. O . Thus the finite values of the equations of elliptical motion are completely determined. the greater axis of the orbit the ratio of the eccentricity to half the greater axis. It now becomes necessary fig. 0.'(leOli r' ( the integral of which is V ss a+ r arc (cos = «(l0ll r h e ' ^ .
radius. coincide it it is is maximum of the 383. PSm the angular distance be. for is the the centre. and from aphelion to perihelion the true place will be behind the mean Tliese angles are estimated from west to east. may terms of tric its mean place by help of the angle PCM. the equable description of areas. in which the bodies of the system move. beginning at the perihelion.194 380. be described from the centre of the semigreater axis CP. fig. the result will be the true place of the })lanet in its orbit. If then mean anomaly be increased or diminished by the equation of Tlie equation of the centre lion. 75. with the angle PSm. The angular distance PCB between the perihelion and the mean place. velo greatest at the perihelion. = 0. This is called the mean motion of a body. The true place of the be found in planet in its orl)it. The mean may be found by simple pro])ortion from its periodic time. the true place of the planet will be before the mean place in going from perihelion to aphelion . / called the eccen anomaly. the direction place. If the time be estimated from the perihelion. however. both at the perihelion and aphe at these jHjints the true . tween the true place and the perihelion mSB the angle at the sun. which is the true angular motion of the planet but if the circle PBAD. they are estimated from the aphelion. and mean places of the planets its greatest when the planet is in quadratures. zero. The motion of a body in [Book IL its an ellipse is not uniform. varying . contained and the true anomaly between the true and the is mean place is called the equation of the centre. and at equal to an angle measured by twice tlie eccentricity place of a planet at any given time orbit. city is ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. it is only necessary 382. ellipse with the 381. and its distance from the sun. is the mean anomaly. If. or time in which might be found by simple proportion from knowing the periodic it describes 360° but in order to preserve . the angle PSm de scribed by the planet in any interval of time after leaving perihelion time. and least at the aphelion. to add 180° to each. which reduces equation (95) to . or mean distance from S as the motion of the planet in this curcle would be uniform. Were the motion of a planet uniform.
it 7i = —7. fig. and the time becomes T= ^ . r = a. 360° . when u becomes having moved ^ u f 360°. mean distance. whence cos v = — e cos u ^ u — e . 385. u — iit. If the angles u and u be estimated from the perihelion. = radius is a. 75. sm v e .^ (u —e .Chap. a compa rison of the values of r in article 377. a/I —^ ' I 1 e cos m +— ylr~z 384. ^^ i "• The motions of the celestial bodies in elliptical orbits are therefore obtained from the three equations n< r = = i« (1 e sin ?«. and the planet moves uniformly in the circle whose . = PCB =: = PSm = u = PCM = r = Sm = a := CP = e == mean anomaly. the major axis of the orbit if . a  c cos m) (96) tan i^ « = v tan ^^ ^ u. through four right angles. Where n( t. r remains the same and as v is then augmented by 360°. n/ the arcs described are therefore proportional consequently r to the time. or nt=: u — e sm ?«. radius vector.] ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. so that the time of a complete revolution is independent of the eccentricity. it is con sequently the same as distance the planet described a circle at its mean from the sun for in this case e =r 0. t? = u. Generally ni represents the arc that a body would • 02 . = • — sin ^ M  . sin »i). true anomaly. IV. gives 1 — e cos w cos =: 1  c« l+ecost. eccentric anomaly. its the planet returns to the same point of orbit. 195 t = —. It appears from these expressions that . and CS rr the ratio of the eccentricity to the mean dis tance. and only depends on 2a. ..
for a few of the first u cannot be ob terms being computed. The small eccentricities of the orbits of the and satellites afford the means of approximation. would be known from the two v. and according to the panded into a series in functions Tliis may be of e. [Book IL describe in the time if it set out from the pcrilielion at the same velocity repre instant with a planet m. . same instant with the planet m. and moved with a uniform on the major axis of the orbit as This body would pass the perihelion and aphelion at the diameter. estimated in mean solar days. Astronomers generally compare the motions of the solar system with those of the earth they take the mean distance of the sun . arc and its sine are incommensurate quantities. for e the planets the of ratio eccentricity to half the greater axis is still smaller. from the earth as the unit of distance. conof such quantities decrease rapidly. from the first of the preceding equations but unless the terms of the series decrease rapidly in value tained. the unit of time will be represented by its the arc that the earth describes round the sun in one day with mean motion. and theresequently the powers e sin u may be exfore the second part of the equation u =^ nt + powers of the time. l. Now an series. <. 386. but in one half of its revolution the sented by in n a circle described behind in the other half it would fall planet would precede the body. the value of the series must be so small that it may be neglected of the remaining part without sensible error. Ifa=:l. the sum of the masses of the sun and earth as the unit of mass and supposing the time to be . t. the time will there.^ = = = fore be expressed by the arcs described by the planet in the circle whose radius is unity. wliich will be sufficiently convergent. both r and planet in last. so that the in functions of the other one can only be obtained infinite series by an infinite Therefore a value of u in terms of 7it must be found by an . If a value of u could be found in terms of nt from the of these equations. its first orbit and consequently the place of the at any instant.1% ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. Determination of the Eccentric Anomaly in functions of the Mean Anomaly. and and r then w 1 it.
+ Tliis series ^ . or when d*u c = 0. Tkcoran. M = n/ + esia nt — £ 2sin2/j< 1. de 1.5.j< .2 sin nt * \ + &c. IV. &c. Having thus determined %i for any instant.4.3.2' _{4»sin4n< bnt  4. most of the planetary orbits on account of the small value of the fraction which e expresses. when d^u' e = = 6 sm C nt cos' nt — 3 sm^ 7it. hence —— de =8inn<.4.3 de" But when the c = 0.3.3' sin Znt + 5 4 — '— 1 1.2* { ^ 5* sin — 5. ^ = sin de 2 cos u sin u (1 e sin' u ' Again.] ELLIPTICVL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. &c. 2«^ ^ consequently. But and 6 sin 7i< 2 cos 7i< sin nt = 2 n^ — 9 sin' n< =: — f sin w< " — 4 ^^^ 3. 2.2 + —£ 3sin3/i«3sinw< ^ 2.2 (it* 1.3. &c.2. &c. m = n< + du de c sin m. for if 197 accomplislicd by Maclaurin's u be the value of u wlien c = 0.Chap. —= de* 0. corresponding valuesofvandrmay be obtained from the equations r=fl(lecost/) . de* (1— fcosw)* e — ecosw)* or if = 0.2'^ — 2. converges rapidly in 397.2. becomes m' = ni . de' or _= d?u' sni w< — 9 sm' sin nt. 2 cos n/ sin nt in the same manner. de« =i ^ sm 2nt) + ^ !lll de« = _ (3'sm3/i<— 3smw/}&c.2»sin2n/}. and from same equation sin u 1— ecosM nt.
. il dCsin nt.dr . tan r [Book II. are .2 but as r is and u is a function of e hy dr" a function of e by the equation r a (1 e sin m. but ifysin nt. and usz nt 0. Let r be the value of r when e = 0. dr d J' sin nt. .198 and but it ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. 1. dr de __ df^in* nt. Determination of the Radius Vector in functions of the Mean Anomaly. dr du de de de 1 du Now when e = 0. when e = dr — de consequently. rfV de* +&C. . u =: nt = — e cos u) . ndt til de* = d'f^^nnt.dr ndt And if this be bubstituted in the value of — d^r' it become .1 . — cos nt . then — a r dr'. therefore. —= — .dr ndi. de Again. J and du — = de .de .dr be put for r in dr de . sin nt . is better to to the powers of e expand these also into series ascending according and in functions of the sines or cosines of the . + __ dr . ndt or it may be written. ^ = ^/ Jjili' tan e l — J u . cos nt + . = r+e — + de . mean anomaly. But the differentials of the same equations. for du = ndt . — = a =: . — — e^ . d/sin nt ndt . . — = de dr — cos nt + sin nt. r.
' \ndty.2. 199 d.^ 2 . thus = — a — re* + — 1 — cos 7J< .3. dr\ dCsin*/!^. j d* (sin* nt _ d^fsm'iit. dr !!!'_/.3* cos 3/i< 1.rfr. rfV _ d'fim^nt. Tliese coefficients being substituted.2« !^ cos Znt {3 ^ — 3 cos n/}. cos knt {4* ^ — 4.2» ^ . ' 1. — cos 2 2/1/. becomes . &c.3.(s\n*nt . ^ cos bnt {5« ^  5.sm ni.4. ndt = — a 1 — e cos n< + d 8in*//< e" Bm'n< wc?nt + 2 7id< + 1^ .2* cos 2n<}. Now „ =^ — cos 2nt.—r r = a — ae cos 7i<+c sin nt.2.2 n<}. . 2. The differential of the Litter d^r' expression according to e is d? and making the same d*/ __ fP/sin»?i<.Chap. • 3 8in*n< cos nt .de it substitution. &c. IV. dr 7id< + e* "^V ) 2 dr ?idt + ^ &c. = «df  {cos nt — cos 3 w<} ^ ^'"— = {ndt)* 2 cos 2/rf e 2 008 4n<. ' — &c.3 n*d<* + &c. This gives a value of the radius vector in functions of the time. and 80 on.2* + ' ill cos 1. dr "^< / ) .] ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. — ^ 1. But hence r = a (I ^ —e cos tjO Rives ^ ^ = ae.2.
(H^. The determination of v in terms of nt is Kepler's problem of finding the true anomaly in terms of the mean anomaly . or.200 ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. i±^ 1. 2 3 The true anomaly may now be found in terms of the mean anomaly.. . Kepler's Problem. to divide the area of a semicircle in a given ratio by a line drawn from a given point in the diameter in order to accomplish this. e therefore let = 1+^1 e« then e = ^u HL. [Book II. ^^ VL±J — 1 . = ^"' *^~* ~^ . number whose logarithm unity hence the equation in question becomes whence or taking its c""^ logarithm. ^ log { lX^T^^l log I 1  XC^ \ Q^ but 2 V = 1 sm mu . and /H^ = 1. a value of — V in functions of u must be obtained from tan iw = X. 388. Again. tan iM . m being any whole positive number. tions To find a Value of the true Anomaly infunc' of the Mean Anomaly. therefore V = u + 2X sin M + sin 2u + —— sin 3u + &c. c being the sin = c""^ — cos Ju is = c*""^ + .
&c. but the same article may be effected very easily ftovk the expression dv =: —— of 372. La Granges Theorem. &c. X'. so — if = sin fU. successively equal to nt. The and of the powers of X. « for if ' l + ^^^^^ 0' * when e = e 0. Values of u. If we assume which is a function of c = . tliis ex pression by making substitution of these.3 d* sin* nt. &c. or rather from . this equation will die powers of X in series. {ndty 2.. 2. Both may be accomplished by .3 2'^ If t ^2y 2 V^y \2j ^ be successively assumed to be 1. u = 72< + « sin n. And it de — de = sin — du Whence by the same process will be found that u=z d) + am nt indty . sin ti. is a fimction of u hence ^ = ^. values of u.d<i> + .] ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. must be developed into sines of jit and its multiples series according to the powers of e. « sin nt.so 2* that 2 \2j dot 2 \2j . 2 ^= da 2 J. 3 ^2/ or generally C)'=JL ^':=^ 2'' consequently JL 2'+'' 2. In order to have v in terras of the mean anomaly and of the powers of e. 201 389. + . . « = ^ 2. must be found in terms of the and X. ^. sin ». &c. —^ ndi o + „ — 2 . will complete the development of v. IV. Again. ascending according to the powers give all off. e = 0. de dti de and as 0^ = nt n<. 3. when .. = i_.Chap. &c. sin 2t/. sin 2m. &c. may be determined from .
&c.sin*.3. dv [Book II.co8.7i<)^* » 2.7i<)*~' 2/id< i. and id ia* (1  cos nt)*~^ nty~ . but if they be estunated from the aphelion. —= a' r* + cos n< + — e* . then . i = .l!^}8in3.sin'.n*di» whatever i may 1 be. 391. . nt) + + L • J (13 . nt) — — (103. the integration is accomplished. cos + . Let 2e . it becomes (I —=  c cos s TiO* + i. «<)*"* + .nt (1 —e cos. The angles v and 7it which are the true and mean anomaly.e^.c*d*.202 ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS.n^ (1 c cos.4n<+8. begin at the perihelion it will only be necessary to make e negative in the values of r and v. This expression gives » — Tii the . cos .7J<(leco8. e"} sin 4nt. 1. ^ . If this quantity be substituted in the preceding expression for dv. 7idL 390. and the approximation only carried to the sixth powers of e. cos . = c '/T^ cos iit)' .2n<+9) —^ jv • o + when &c.2.cos.i< ^ 64 112 e*— 96 480 &c. or to add 180° to each angle. + + . ^ 192 l4 24 il^c».2 3n< (1 + 3 5 . the result will be V =i nt + + {2e ^ — 4e*+ * 5 — 96 e* ^ sin nt ensin2n< Ae«ii:e*+_lI.sm'. equation of the centre. If r' = a* e (1  be put for r = a (1  c cos 7i<).e'. i. e sin n< for — ndt in the development of r in article 387.
as E. these series con + — ta . 80 that /ig.\ : e* is the coefficient. the values the argument. let it be fixed at any point what ever. commonly called the longitude of the epoch. 76.^ e*) sin e («< is + — e ttt) the part . from whence the time is estimated.Chap. &c. nt = ECB. then by adding angle e. V is {i ^' — &c. the angle «< + e for nt. as a sine or cosine never can exceed the radius. time increases without limit. Mean 392. 203 Tnte Longitude and Radius Vector in functions of the Longitude. arguments 2e : for example in (2e . and the preceding values oft? and r become. planet the true longitude of the and nt ^ its mean longitude both being estimated on the plane of the orbit. e &c. In astronomical scries. The angle g = <y>CE is the longitude of tlie point E. ct bo represented by tsr. e»} cos (nt + e 8  w) 6 (98) — 393. Instead of fixing the origin of the time at the instant of the at planet's passage tlie perihelion. i «*} COS 2 (n< + — w).!. + + ie« — {e . the quantities which multiply the and cosines are the coefficients and the angles are called the . and nt 395. sines 394. L = 1 a + Ae».li c«} sin2(n< + e &c.] ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. fig. t> = «/ + 6+ {2e  i e»} sin (n< +6— (97) ot). and if v be estimated from <Y>. 76. and if the constant angle <Y>CP. being the equinox of Spring . IV. then v — = PCB must be — is must be w) put put for V. which is the longitude of the perihelion. the consfcmt cysCE represented by the whole angle cyaCB = nt +e is the mean longitude of the plaop net. Although tlie verge for.
NSw =  And be the inclination of the two planes. Determination of the Position of the Orbit in space. also let Vj=:opSp be Q. it will be the tan gent of the latitude mSp. Let cipSN the longitude of the node be represented by Q when estimated on the plane of the orbit. 396. but not taining The its it. and as the powers of e soon become extremely small.204 ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. (99) Projected Longitude in Functions of true Longitude. values of v and r give the place of a body in . that tan (v. in terms of r.. The values off and r answer for all the planets and since they are independent of the masses. of the sines and cosines unity. it the true ecliptic. they converge rapidly. if and the ecliptic. This gives o. is mass of a planet so inconsiderable in comparison of that of the sun. when projected on the plane of the v Then NS/? if = i\  0. and as the mass of the sun forms the standard of compari son for the masses of the other bodies of the system. for the satellites. however much tlie series never time may can be greater tlian increase. appears from the right angled triangle />Nm. 77. 398. But these two . in these [Book II. 397. on which the plane of the orbit P^tAN has let /y* 77. — 0)= cos tun (r  €). a very small inclination then N» is the line of the nodes S the . and let 6 represent the same angle when projected on the plane of longitude of>Sm or r. fig. mp be a perpendicular from the planet on tlie plane of sun. to be the unit of measure. position in space they however afford the means of ascer For fixed plane at NjpnG. that it may be omitted. be the plane of the ecliptic. . and the contrary. or the epoch. it is assumed The same holds with regard to a planet and its satellites. tlie ecliiHic . its orbit.
u — C for ^m. 205 angles series may be obtained in terms of one anoilier in very converging by means of the expression.8in4 (tJC)&c. series. if t? — C be put for i^r. or NS/?. .] ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF TIIE PLANETS. wliicli was derivetl from tan ^r = ^/ Lt_f tan by making \ = 1+ Vle^ If v^ — cos be put for ^u.0 + &c. &c.cr) + — 6 11. from the scries e« vzznt \e +{2e\^} sin {nt + g . (100) True Longitude in Functions of projected Longitude. On the contrary. ascending.11 e\ sin 2{nt + n/ e ct) + &c. and multiple arcs. may be found . sines A value of v.sin2(pe)+itan* J^0.. and then for / ilLf ^ 1e . and the sines taken in jdace of the arcs.e+tan'i0. according to the for tlie powers of of V and r by the if method already employed development = Whence it sin (o O = that. and r — for i^u.. be expanded into a e. = ^u +\ sin u +— 2 sin 2u + — 3 sin 3m + §?^.sin 4(t. 1 and the series becomes ». may . IV.8in2(i. which may be written r If = it + + of eQ. sin {nt + e C + cQ). 399. — 0. (101) Projected Longitude in Functions of Mean Longitude. sin wliicli (tj becomes sin (n<  f) = +e C + ''Q). tliis Q be subtracted from both sides equation. X=^£i^JLi cos + = tan«i0. ^i.0=tJCtan»i0. its may be found in terms of tlie and cosines of tj/.Chap. the rcsuh will be vC=r.0) + itan«0.
hour.2. and curtate dis tance of the planet are determined in convergent series of the sines and cosines of nt and its multiples.} ^ X cos i (nt + e + Latitude. Let angle. the tangent of the latitude. . from which their elliptical places may be ascertained at any instant. Fortunately for the facility of astronomical calculations.2 l!!£^*4 ^^^ — &c. and minute. A particular period is time is estimated. the orbits of the celestial bodies are either very nearly circular. latitude. and the means are thus fur nished for computing tables of the motions of the planets and satellites. these are arranged in tables according to the time place of the body ecliptic so that by inspection alone the corresponding the referred to the fixed plane. then Spm.3 ~. if necessary.4 X sin i(nt ^  +{i«Q " ^2£^+ ^ ^f!9L_ 1. be represented by s.5 &c. = r(l s. orbits are determined by observation and the longiand distance of the body from the sun are computed and for every succeeding day.3. LBook II. 403. if therefore the time be assumed. Curtate Distances. which chosen as an origin from whence the called the Epoch of the tables the eleis : .206 Bin ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS.3.} (102) 402. +s*)i r. If mp. r. = ^{l — is' + i^^SfC.2.} ^ 1.4. Thus r„ and the longitude.2. as in the . may be found. being a right Sp : Sm : Sp : 1 : hence = — Vl + ^^ «*. or position of at the epoch. the rightangled triangle mNp a gives = tan sin (v. t (u ^  O = sin + c i (nt +e€+eQ) = { ^1.. 401. — 6).€) 8fC. . the place of the body will be known. latitude. be the curtate distance Sp. for any number of years . 400. Vl + «* or r. ments of the tude. for that jMjriod. 1.
the longitude of the ascending node at the ci)och. of the eccentricity to the greater axis be nearly equal to unity. Arbitrary Comiant Quantities of Elliptical Motion. the cosine of half the true anomaly by the square of PSm. 405. D being the perihelion distance hence. then the value of the radius vector becomes cos* : . . If the ratio made very eccentric orbit. and the inclination of the orbit on the plane of the ecliptic. or Elements of the Orbits.] ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. When the botly true moves in is a parabola. reduced to a the equation between the mean and anomaly cubic equation between the time and the tangent of half the true anomaly PSm. Tliere are six elements in the orbit of each celestial body: four of elliptical motion. the eccentricity the mean namely. )g V the parabola. Tliis difference is zero in the parabola . namely. the mean distance of the planet longitude of the planet at the epoch and the longitude of the perihelion at the same epoch. instead of a very small fraction. as coeflScients. Motion of Comets. whicli would not be the case the eccentricity bore a mean ratio to the greater axis. instead of the powers of that ratio itself. with this difference. IV. the distance divided If. from the sun . then. as in the comets. The mean values of all these must be determined by observation. Tlie other two elements relate to the position of the orbit in space. vvhicli circumstances the series determine the motions of the body if may be made to converge rapidly. . the true anomaly were known. satellites. in Sm is equal to the perihelion distance SP. before the . 207 In both planets and or very eccentric.Chap. the preceding series will then give the place of a comet in a very 404. the distance of the comet from the sun would be deter mined from this equation. that the terms have the increas ing powers of the difference between unity and the ratio of the eccentricity to the greater axis.
latitude. fig. if the sines of that quantity. All these coordinates are connected by spherical triangles. 407. In the theory of the moon. and distance are determined in functions of the true longitude. may be first obtained from its geocentric longitude and latitude. coordinates are given in scries of the sines and co. latitude. only the mass of the planet is to be employed sun. and Sm. however. the right ascension and declination of m. number. or tables computed. which are the heliocentric longitude. the series are rapidly. latter. found to converge more mean longitude. besides those of the moon and satellites. same scries that determine the motions of the planets answer equally well for the elliptical motion of the moon and in place satellites. [Book II. and the theory of the four new . of that of the Coordinates of a Planet.208 ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF TIIE PLANETS. but these have been changed into cyoSj?. equator. and Sp. Hence there are fortytwo elements to be determined for the seven principal and twentyfour more for the four new planets. mSp. and Vesta. the values of the elements . that any one set may be expressed in For example. and curtate distance of m. from the the geocentric longitude. Juno. lastly. which are arbitrary and infinite values of any other. that is. 77. Again. Pallas. but so connected. Ceres. Tliese quantities are given in terms of the since the mean longitude or time. planets Tlie is still imperfect. and distance may be deas seen from the earth duced. or its place referred to the m . motion of tlietbdy can be ascertained. The simplicity of analytical expressions very much depends on a in skilful choice of coordinates. Tables planets. pSm. 406. the place of the planet has been m determined by the angles cyaSm. latitude. the place of and. Determination of the Elements of Elliptical Motion. have been computed for most of these bodies some of the satellites. so that they are easily deduced from one another. AVere the primitive velocity with which the bodies of the solar system projected in space known. are but little kno>vn. omitting the mass of the satellite.
or hyperbola. according as V is less. and city. the intensity alone has that effect. and /x half the greater axis of the conic section. which the square of the velo be represented by F*. or greater than /2 remarkable that the direction of the primitive impulse has no influence on the nature of the conic section in which the planet moves . infinite in the parabola. the radius m makes with cos a . :: ds : dr :. its distance from S. then mn mv '. of m. and 78. m parabola. then r If u be if it =a= and the preceding expression gives u* sz fi. a . velocity is being the masses of the sun and planet. if for if the is the first member. Thus the de1. de ^\r u < — — — a) > . .] ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE . thus the orbit of and negative in the hyperbola is an ellipse. equal to. dt dt or if V cosa= be put for V.Chap. the angular velocity which the planet would have scribed a circle at the distance of unity round the sun. that the direction of the relative motion of vector r . To a be the angle TwS. tive velocity primitive velocity with which the Tliis equation will give a value of body moved in a conic a by means of the primifig. I i then hence ifco8a dt = ^. hence l r a J V being the section. a is positive in the ellipse. independent of the eccentricity of the orbit. fig.n. of their orbits might be determined resumed. let determine the eccentricity of the orbit. then Ir in a a is } which r is the radius vector. IV. but^=r.
the inclination of the orbit. and. found. gives sin mRs sin r then f (C + ' a) mR . the instant of the passage at the perihelion.210 ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS.^). So that 0. that the radius vector is makes with the perilielion distance. that purpose. which is given. with regard to a fixed let plane passing through the centre of S. The equations (96) will then give the angle m. by means of it. r sin f sin mp = 2 = 2. = sin \. = /»•{ \r — — — >cos*a. mSN . \ — . consequently. determined. a) but by article 377. then plane. 77. NSm r= C. ~dF hence = \ fia(l. the primitive direction of the relative motion of m with the plane in ENB then the triangle mSR. also let be the inclination of the two planes. rfr* [Book II. fig. a (1  e«)« = r* sin'a {A — r orbit —I. be the angle made by mR. and C = be the primitive elevation of the planet above the fixed which s supposed to be kno\vn . fig. or eccentric anomaly. supposed immoveable. and . a ) which gives the eccentricity of the sections. Sm = r. which SmR = «. 79. and. In order to have the position of the orbit. The equation of conic 1 + e cos e*) V gives cos V = —i—  r Tlius the angle v. \ = jnRp. the position of the perihehon. because X is supposed to be known 2 sin therefore tanC = r sin a 8 COB. will Jiff. be known when C For shall be let 79.
in F will express the velocity oim. so. but when these are determined. If the equation . to be easy. corresponding its to the supposed variations in the velocity and direction.1] F«=M«— Ir a } be resumed. 408.Chap. may be ascertained. 80.] ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS. 211 The elements of the formulae in its being determined by these terms of the velocity of the planet. then in the circle r =za. Velocity of Bodies moving in Conic Sections. as would have 1. if it moved in a a radius equal to V 2 to 409. the velocities with which the bodies of the solar system were first projected in space. hence — Thus the cally as 18 zero. fig. and . thus the velocities of planets in different circles are as the square roots of their radii. When an ellipse is infinitely flattened. IV. _ = a P 2 . becomes a straight hence. and the velocity in is each point circle with to the velocity the planet r. by means of methods that will be have the differential variations of these elements. orbit of the planet r. to descend jig. As the actual motions of the bodies of the solar system afford no information with regard to their primitive motions. would coincide with SA. . the variations of these elements. aTF. In the parabola. line . point. since the eccentricity is zero . and the direction of motion. that 0. .'. may be obtained . therefore V : u '. 1 . and it will hereafter given.^ F= \/ A — it . in this case. velocity would be zero hence 2 r 1 at. arising from the action of the disturbing forces. velocities in different points of a parabolic orbit are recipro the square roots of the radii vectores. the elements of their orbits can only be known by observation . If m were to begin to fall its from a state of rest at A. hence v =u v — r . if it were a straight line towards the sun for then Sm. a is infinite 1 . z.
which gives An =r r . suppose from A to n. A?j. the moving in a conic section the velocity of ^ If these /2 r — Aa Imagine the body vi to same velocity with a body tlie latter body is r a two be equated. and therefore An is greater than ^r. from the extremity A in order to acquire the relative velocity which . that. fall. An = (r/) = !l!!^m>. a is infinite. the body had acquired the velocity F. . in falling [Book II. then the equation would be and eliminating a. Now. — r a conic section must This expression gives the height through which a body moving in of the radius vector. by through . '2(r rr /) in which /•' = Sn. An ^ is less m the parabola. In the than \r: circle a:=z r^ hence An = ^r in the ellipse. which is common to the two last equations. from This is the relative velocity the body r — r' m has acquired in falling A its through fall = Aw. and in the hyperbola a is negative. it had at A. have acquired.212 ELLIPTICAL MOTION OF THE PLANETS.
caD. space. latitude. according to the position of the disturbing ^ \ \ ^A„^ 1 Ap I sWuT'TT'' 7\ \^~^^^'^^~liiA/\l a^/^y^ —^" ^ body. the longitude of by B6 its latitude is changed m . is the aD is the second increment of the : . approximation to the celestial motions. It is theretion. but will be drawn \ will out of that orbit. ^X fig. and distances. and radius vector of a planet moving in 411. The tables computed on the theory of perfectly elliptical mo soon found inadequate to give the true place of a planet. moves round the sun in an ellipse NmPn. latitude. with the ellipse through an indefinitely small space ca in the second infinitely small interval of time. 410. are fore necessary to investigate what these disturbances are. increased by the differ three quantities are the pertur bations of the planet in longitude. at a /y. FD. the mutual it then appeared : m. In the first infinitesimal of time. and move in I \^ some curved line. and as the longitude. and aD will be its path in its troubled orbit . introduced by the action of the disturbing force. v. 81. by the angle DSE. THEORY OF THE PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS.i. on account of the reciprocal disturbances of the system. In consequence of the addition of is increased FD. and the radius vector is ence between SD and — these Swi. inclined to the ecliptic NB. Now. which is much smaller than the sun. if be attracted by anothey)lanet m'. it m // 3r^^^ \ // / [ will no longer go on in its clhp tical orbit Nmn. and to determine their effects. ^ the plane of the ecliptic. the perturbations are true variations. the troubled orbit coincides . It is evident that . : scribed in consequence of the action of the sun alone am is deaD by the combined actie a of the sun second increment of the space and of the disturbing botly am.Chap. very small angle Pup. which may \ either be nearer to. or farther from.] 213 CHAPTER V. am will be the path of the planet in the ellipse. together with some very small space. 81. In the first action of the sun and of one planet was considered that a planet.
provided the elements contained in these functions be considered to accords with observation. are renewed as often as the bodies return to the same relative positions. as the curve aD . variations of the elements are independent of the configuration or relative position of the bodies. nodes. after going through a certain course of increase and decrease.214 an PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. J«. and distance. In fact. and are therefore called Periodic Inequalities. latitude. Inequalities. whereas those depending tlieir changes in short periods. s + h. are modified by a variation in the elements of the ellipse . These inequalities. may its true orbit. to arise entirely from 414.Jr. Sr. 5t>. moving in its troubled orbit will be determined by the coordinates r 5«. caD. are the variations of these — = coordinates. s. The perturbations in longitude. be regarded as the coordinates of the planet in vary by very slow degrees. r + 5r. r f. to which a planet is liable. tlie arcs and SD Sm Jr. but many ages elapse before they accomplish their revolutions on that account they are called Secular . elliptical orbit. thus referring all the inequalities. 412. took a new and very elegant view of the subconsidered the changes Su. and r. and have a very slow direct motion in space that the nodes a slow have retrograde motion and that the eccentricities and inclisatellites . B6 = ED = Js have been represented by v. whence it appears that the perihelia of the orbits of the planets . nations are perpetually varying by very slow degrees. depend on the configuration of the bodies that is. 413. ject : —he La Grange periodic and secular variations in the elements of elliptical motion. on the position of the bodies with regard to each other. to their perihelia and to their . Thus the place of a planet. m. however. Jt>. the path of the planet being changed the elements of the ellipse must The NmE many tions. « + + These. accomplish Thus v + ^v. Thus the Periodic Inequalities only depend on the configuration of the bodies. vary. [Book II. whereas the Secular Inequalities depend on the configuration of the perihelia and nodes alone. to distinguish them from the Periodic Inequalities. Tliis perfectly on the configuration. These very slow changes are really periodic. for to it is from aD. which pass rapidly from their maxima to their minima. to changes in the elements of its orbit alone. and are only sensible in revolu aE evident that.
A/ in a. whose nature depends on the ing forces tlxis oscillating motion : disturb will re :^v_y m in its m represents the The present the periodic inequalities. Tlieir dis small fraction. 415. and of the disturbing planet constituting the Periodic Inequalities but a portion will remain uncompensated. but. in the elements of the ellipse. f^ 1^ ^ ~ / dR \ {CdT/ d'y dt* IF r* \dz )' . v. curve mab.Chap. is a very different from those of the periodic inequalities. and entirely independent . fig. of the position of the bodies with regard to each other. by article 347. Demonttration of La Grange's Theorem. 82. though also periodic.82. their effects stitute on the motion of m partake of that character. it may be regarded new ellipse. 215 tion of a original as a porvery nearly coincides with the ellipse. by arguments are not only article 350. equations which determine the real motion of troubled orbit are. Of these a portion will be compensated in a whole revolution. and the whole compound motion real motion of a planet in its troubled orbit.] PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. late by very slow de X r\^^ Then. AP. 416. or many revolutions of m. in La Grange's view. their periods are immensely longer. d»x d(* . Both periodic and secular inequalities by supposing a point p to revolve in an ellipse may be ^ represented ^ff. 417. The secular inequalities depend on the ratio of the turbing mass to that of the sun. both by periodic and secular variations. where all the elements are perpetually varying grees. suppose a planet round the moveable point p m to oscil. VL^ W. These uncompensated parts increase and diminish with extreme slowness . having elements differing from those of the one by infinitely minute variations. the coordinates of m in orbit are modified. which. and con what are called Secular Inequalities. its elliptical Thus.
y^. y. when Jl = ^z.) be the values of i// x^. J because. dy. . Func. = (y.~. (y^). iz.). dt . the velocities Xy. + be ^ dz.). it will evidently satisfy the same equations when not zero. dR .). dy is no longer constant.) + = (dz. y„ Zp are respecaugmented.z. = z. then will differential of equation (103) s = and the differential of the func. z. since these quantities only differ in the two curves by their second differentials. ferential the quantities var)\ result will If the first dif be subtracted from the second. = (x. x. 0. z. (x. . instant dt. r. \dxj i^ dx + i^. will be da r= func. the correspondmg variation of a Zj is are increased by da==(±. \dx. these equations would be the same with those in article 365. X.z. y. y„ Zy. ) .y. the . — (dy. or elements of the orbit of m.z^tt) be the when R 0.. dy. (z... and troubled orbit coincide is (103) j there have the same values in both. because the values o(xiy.) + Let func. z„ t) same equation. = ^. dt a During the fore X. 2. and dxj = (dx. . y.:=^ dl (x. z. are supposed to be the same in each orbit. = (z^).) + Jx^. (x. then Ti / dx dt dy dt dz dt .x„y. When H = 0. K= 0. by the indefinitely small quantities dR dx then a . when R is not zero. or. ' dR dz at. if to abridge = ^ dt y. already integrated. those quantities.dt. and a constant. z..216 If PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. (87). x. (104) dz J If equation (103) be regarded as the first integral of the equations when JR r= 0. Let a be one of the arbitrary constant quantities. y.. y. in the latter case. all + ^^y. R is Hence. ^ dy + ^. dzj J?\dt. from the action of the disturbing forces.yt. and when x^. [Book II. ^y„ dz. z^dt. then if (x. dy. introduced by integration. may represent any one whatever of the integrals (91) ^. But at the tively end of the instant dt. Xjdt.. (x.. y„ z„ t)+(^^x. x„ y. the ellipse x„ y„ z„ t).
It appears. answers the differential equation for both orbits during the first instant of the time. when R is zero. drz + dlz will belong to the variable orbit of m. = ^ dx dt. if d*x. da 217 = (^ \dT. from what has been said. be put in equation (105). of the first order. and taining the disturbing forces. or not. v. the only difference being that. (d«. Since (dx^).) + 5yy. the elements of the orbit being constant but in the troubled orbit they have the form ^ do + n»r + R = 0.). 5?/. ) (105) But if (rfjr. (dyj. in the second increment of time. d'y + d^y. d'z. = ^ dz d<. a must be regarded as a variable quantity. it If the preceding values of Jar^.) + Sx„ d*.Chap. is 418. dy. are alike in the varied and unvaried ellipse. 5x. ^. the equa tions of elliptical motion have the form ^ + d(* n'v = . in the whether the disturbing forces be included first case. 0. That as the motion is performed in the variable ellipse during the second element of time. where the elements of the orbit are variable. y. Uie elements of the Hence orbit being constant . that as the motion i)erformed in the unvaried ellipse during the first element of time. Jyy. + ^z\ ^^y. d'y. Iz. which determines the motion of the body. Ist. be considered as belong ing to the unvaried ellipse. 2. and in the last it is constant. be put. dy. becomes identical with equation (104). Hence the integral (103) satisfies the equations (87). The same may be shown of all the first integrals of equations (87).^^ dz. (^Z/) + ^«/. dt in place of their equals. = ^ dy d<. dsf. dx. J. are supposed to satisfy these equations when /?= 0.] PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. 2nd. R is the part con .r (dy. d^y ' d^z "rfT' ~dF' they become Ix. d'x + d^x. in equations (87).
c'. due to the disturbing forces If. that is. and a. in longitude. the differen of equations (91) be taken. introduced by the integration of the equations (87) of elliptical motion but it was shown that the elements of the orbit. and distance. Jr. alone. to find those of the planets and satellites. alone as variable. any eccentricities second place. considering c. + de. the inclination becomes f d0. d'y. PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. all of which have nearly circular orbits. dz. in the . slightly inclined to the plane of the ecliptic and then to determine the periodic inequalities. rentials di. and then the differentials of the equations (91) will afford the means of finding the variations of the elements. Ss./". latitude. Jc. first. c".218 419. Variation of the Elements^ whatever the Eccentricities Inclinations and may he. the elliptical part being omitted. dz. dy. c'. whatever the eccentricities and inclinations of the orbits may be. &c. Equations (87) give which are the changes in dx. La Grange first applied it to the celestial motions./'. a. &c. tials therefore. All the elements of the orbit have been determined from the seven arbitrary constant quantities. It is proposed./". the elements of the orbit only vary during the second is increment of the time. dz^ vary during the second element of time by the action of the disturbing forces. 422. c. d'z are substituted. as well as the diffe. As [Book II. The is quantities elegant theory of the variation of the arbitrary constant due to Euler. when the preceding values of d^x. they become — {<^)<^> . dy. 421. dr. dy. to determine the periodic and secular and inclina variations of the elements of orbits of tions . c". 420. their variation the eccentricity e becomes e of the first order .yi /". /.
Chap. = A a  2dil. c". provided the same substitu tion be made. cf'dx + (/y + cz =: 0. for . . The and equations /*r c"x . If values of c.] PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. their differentials + cfdy + cd« = 0. = ^.e«) = c« + c'» + and /«e c"«.f. 424. v. /tdr + /"dx + f'dy + /dz = will also 0. or more which corresponds with the mean motion in the elliptical orbit . in equations be substituted instead of their constant values tan r= '^^'^ + c C'\ tan = —. *^ /»« = /w (1 . 219 <'>"^{<4^)<^)}{<^)<^)} +«"(^)^'<4^> d 423. </. mean motion of m. tan w.h' +f"x +f'y +/z = 0. answer in the disturbed orbit. they will determine the elements of the disturbed orbit. = *Jf*+f^+f^. Tlie mean distance a gives the correctly that in the disturbed orbit. given in article 374 and those following.f\f"f derived from these equations.
2ft. r* t _ = r* it is (1+e cos(o — a'(l>e»)« i c oy))* . then in the elliptical orbit. the longitude at. (1 L_Zl2 • + c cos (yvs)y .220 If f be the PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. all the elements of the e. mean motion of m. dR.—ffandt /* . evident that dv. e«. = ndt. But dd^ = dndt. Since R is given in article 347. hence =: — Zandt d/J the integral of which f 425. but this equation also answers for the disturbed orbit. so rfn =. a is and as the last of equations (106) d A =a dd^ is 2dil. = a"^A^7''^^Cle*) = n Vl 3 therefore ndl = dv. cj))* (u— a" A= __ or V/ia(l — e»). d'C [Book II. when the arbitrary quantities are replaced by their variable values. = hdt . (107) The seven arbitrary constant quantities are only equivalent to five in consequence of the two equations 0=/c + fc'+f'c'\ = A + r+f"+f"'p^ a c« + + c"* c'* These also exist in the disturbed orbit. since the two orbits coincide during the first instant of time. = . dfl . disturbed orbit are determined with the exception of of the planet at the epoch. Ban if!i fi. From the equations . But hence llr^! (1+e cos = **. 426.
t } . substituted in the second 1 l f member of the last equation.Ca»ap.] PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS.ct) iip 2 cos (u . which. Again. but c'C^«>^/=T + c'<«)'v^ = 2 cos 1 i  ct) .w) VlT? i Vle' being any whole positive which is the general form of the series. i = 1 . number. + Xc^"").} (u .Xc^—'^^'^ + XV^""^^^ — &c. Hccos(i.X (cC^)^^ + c<''*'>'^^} Vle* X« (c« <'^'J=T + c*c>«)^ — &c. v.^! 1 + Xc<''**^i is And 1 the difference of these ^ = + ^ { 1 + ecos(wt«T) . .CT) V^^^\l + + Xc^"'"^^'^]' By 1 division. = _ 1 . gives  X' 1 + ecos(uCT) numerator of the 1 Vr^ U + + >* > [c^'^^'^^ + c^"^^^}]' The last term is — x« = (1 + xc^"^^^) is xc('^>^^ (I + ^c<'^)^'^) And the denominator equal to (1 (1 + \ c^"*^'^"^) + Xc^*^^^^) hence 1 ]^_ f 1_ ^c("«>^^^ _ 1 Xc^'^^^ 1 l+eco3(t.2x cos (u . hence l + eco3(ooj) + 2x« . 22l 2 be put for a/I 1 cos (t? — w). then e = 1 . 2 X e* + if c cos (v — _ ct) Vl — e« 2 + e{c^''~*°^'^'^+c"^''~*'^'^'~^^* ^ . = —==: { ^i_e* . or = —___.w) cos 2 (w — cj) — &c.
} + 2d0 tan* ^ {cos 20 cos 2 (cr. it hence therefore C=e + tan* i sin 20 + i tan*^ sin 40 + &c.ct) + £(*> cos 2 (w .0) + &c.0) + &c. but in order that it may also suit the real orbit. (1 + Vl e')' the value of ndt becomes. 7idt = dv{l + E« cos (u — ct) + E^*^ cos 2 (u.©) + &c. cr. This equation is relative to the invariable ellipse .} CT the true anomaly of m estimated on the orbit..— Again. — 0) + &c. and the two orbits coincide during the first element of time. ± 2 cos (t>CT> d — !^U1 and d ^^' but = is = f ^M 1 + — when i Vn^ odd.222 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. . e cos i_ d ^ . (108) the integral of which fndt e + ez=v+ £(') sin (u  nr) + JE^*' sin 2 (u to) + &c. e) is + V being the longitude on the orbit. becomes we make v and zero in equation (101). we shall have dcr from this and from thence equation. — 0)} + &c. — 0) + &c. {1 + 2 tan* ^ cos 2 («t. / d —i ^^ . de. » [Book II. then CTC=CT. tj =: cr^ + tan*i^ {sin 20 + sin 2 (cr.dcT {E^'^ cos (r . is } . + e cos (u — ct) + .ro) + &c. it must vary includ ing and this differential must coincide with (108) since e. .} + ^"^^^"^^ {sin 20 + sin 2 («t. . every quantity in .ct) + &c. d0.zs)+^f^^^ sin 2 (» . if tan' 1^ sin 2 (ex. and If cr be put for v and ct^ for Vj plane.} cos* i Tlius drs.}. projection on the fixed . } de Vle* the sign if to (le*)^ i Vie* is (l_e«)t(l it is + ^i^I^7 Hence + used when even. and e they arc of the first order. Now 2 (r.! de * 1 (1 1 ^ (w— to))* .— + tan* + v. . being determined. being arbitrary. dcr r= da. do. 1^ sin  equation (101) &c. Their difference is de s= de u  l/^^\ sin (v .} . Now. and cr is the is longitude of the perihelion on the orbit. and abridge ECO = ± !fMi±i^^Zl. v^ its v — C =v.
but the orbits of the planetary system are nearly circular. it A=2/dJl. of the radius vector. and tliose following. and its projection on the fixed plane. /»e = =^^. unit. r. consequently these expressions will answer when the elements These investigations tricity .Ch4p. andj'ridtf are the same in mined independently of are variable. It appears from the preceding investigations. jr. that one cannot vary independently and as other . /* = 1. and of the latitude in the invariable orbit will answer for the disturbed orbit. V/» + /'«+/'" when projected on the w^ being the longitude of the perihelion of If the orbit of the planet m at a given fixed plane of the ecliptic. and all the elements of the variable orbit be determined finite both cases. of its projection on the fixed plane. 428. y. still by the preceding equations.V. relate to orbits of any inclination and eccen and very ecliptic.] PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. little inclined either to one another. epoch be assumed to be the fixed plane containing any inclination the entirely orbit m may have at a owing to the action of the disturbing forces subsequent period being must be so will only differ from small. and equations between r. that tlie true longitude of the perihelion . = 2a«dR 429. 223 427. for the s. v. and the mass of the planet omitted in it. of the longitude. provided nl be changed into J'jidt. If the mass of the sun be assumed as the comparison of . that the expressions in series given by the equations in article 392. Tlie inequalities in the eccentricity and longitude of the perihelion are obtained from tant^. the axes j and y. The equation n = a « \^ shows that the mean motions and greater axes of the orbits of the of the planets are so connected. all the equations in the articles alluded to are deterthe constancy or variation of the elements. or to the plane of the Variations of the Elliptical Elements of the Orbits of the Planets. and da 2a being the major axis. a taken only with regard to nt the is clear that the differential of R is mean motion of m.
c' and c" are extremely small. c'. 430. so that sequence of the preceding equation may be e = V/"« + /'« whence and ede = f'df + fdf f":=e cos cr . fig. which reduces the values of the fifth and sixth of equations (106) to ''/'*Kf)<s)}(f) 481. or dz( — may be omitted. therefore the fourth of the equations (91) may be omitted as well as ddt zdx xdz^ and d'dt ydz zdy. the other two coordinate planes are nearly at right angles to it hence areas described by the radius vector of m on .f'df". — = — is 80 small that its square may be neglected j . c" are the its orbit. Since /is very small df'xi still smaller. Now c. therefore quantities having the factors zdz. by quantities of the order of the squares of the disturbing masses respectively multiplied by the projection sensible squares of the inclinations of the orbits. on that new fixed plane.224 its PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Book II. = . when projected but as the orbit nearly coincides with the fixed plane of the orbit at the epoch containing the axes x and y. the height of the planet above the fixed plane of its orbit. /" whence sin vs _ = /' V/"=+/" and cos cr = c /" V/« + /"« But by article 370 /= ^f'^+f"^". e'dr^ = f'df . therefore without cj . = making /*=:!. perihelion estimated on the orbit thus tan V3 f = iL. If r. 77. on tlie coordinate planes . be the radius vector of m projected on the y . on account of the smallness of & and c". = Sp. fixed plane of the orbit of m containing the axes x and and if the . ct being the longitude of the error it may be assumed that ct. and as it y is of the same order in conomitted. /' = e sin cr. . Also 2.
^' dx =z  ^ Tf sin v.dV/ sin vA \dvj r^.(f) f. r. and cos Vf . _L_. v.(^N. = Since x is a function of r. dx dv. then X =z Tj COS Vj y z Ty sin t>.Chap. _i_. dx dv. f—\ \dr. sin t>.^. dx will be. _ (dR\ \drj .. = . co8*r/.J —\ — . dR _ dR dVf dx ^' dx = _1_: cosu^ dr. cos vj) dy = d(r. '. manner it may dR dy whence consequently. dv. sin t?/ equation be multiplied by and the second by sinV^ sinu. cd^ = xdy — ydx = r/dv/ so that : . = . )r/do^ cos vJ — \drj same from 432. by a right angle. ) \drj df ^ — {dff COS V. r^s. gjj^ ' (dR\ \dvj coso. dv/ \dy J \dx J but dx and df" := = d(r. 2r./ be found that \dv'J r. . sin v.] PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. . 226 the tangent of the latitude angle NSp be represented by v„ and of above the fixed plane of its orbit by «.dc. dr. sin V) +  2r. Tlie values of dr. r. are the \dv. + {dr. pm m .). sum dR dx In like _ = /dR\ ( JCOSt)^ — /dR\ ( ) \dr. and v„ OR dx dx But _ dR dr. cos r^} ( — — ( ) \dvj ( + rj'dv^ sinv. cos u^ ^ = .J but by diminishing whatever point the longitudes may be estimated the angle v. hence If the their first ^ = ^. ( — ). becomes cog v.
1 — + cos (u — cj) a(l = a^.f— ^ + cfl.ndt'J\ — e* But cos v —V e sin ts \drj /" = e cos CT. 0. By articles 398 and 401. r^ = r.2cj) and e'dcT =r f'df 2 cos' (u — — fdf .tan*i0 r. —d= v—Q.} epoch is assumed to be the fixed plane. whence follows. arises entirely from the action of the disturbing forces.226 becomes sin PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. v„ so that it [Book II. S'.e sin (w — cr) e*) c. dr. zs'. that the value of df" be developed into a the time. and when substituthe last values of tion is made ^'" for r. and and cosines of angles increasing proportionally with each of the angles e. and is so very small =: r{l  + But when the orbit of m at the that the squares of the tangent of that inclination whence.  O + &c. the projection of the longitude on series of sines if the fixed plane of the ecliptic. = — fff) 1 become (109) de = 4l?£^{2cos(t'cj)+c+eco3'(«w)}. tlie expression of rf/"is changed into that of if df.ndt \^1 — c* sin (u— cr) ( r \ . they become {2 cos tJ df = + 4c cos CT + r ie cos (2i. be diminished by 90°. But these equations answer ellipses coincide during the also for the variable orbit. Vj and the curtate distance sin 2(w are. r^ — fl(l e may be neglected.dt ^/ — 1 T^dv . 433. = r — C. e'. and r*rfr in df" and df. — w)}  'dR\ __ ^ ) + df aKndl'Jv—e sin u sin (^^^\ ie sin (2y = ^^^^ Vle« {2 + 4e * sin w + ( — zs)] (—\ \^V — a^. since the first two element of time. the value of df will be obtained. U. — e') r'rfw .n. is« &c. w. In the invariable orbit. = v. and = C. /' = and by means of these equations the expressions ede—f'df+fdf in consequence of cos (2v . any inclination it may have at a subsequent period.
1  ^') + (/m e cos (y — ct) In the invariable orbit. a{\  e'')m.£• ^'^^ — (wct) {2 + cco3(u.e the cj. — ct) = <1 ^/l+_f —e 1 and .e sin M.Chap. for dc equation c = ^^^0(1— e) _ e^e \/~a article 422. = rt (1 — e cos u).a. tan ^j/. in article For was shown 392. nt •\. t'* dt \dyj \dx) hence by comparing the two values of atid observing that ^=dB. sin 227 edsT = . c' _ f/rt *Jri{\ — e*) 2« Vl \dv) rfc. v. and u to vary only in orbit. 2a^ ede=z. then in the troubled tf« — dra = __ dtt (1 — e cos t<) — de sin «. which u varies with the time. But if we suppose the time conconsequence of the variation of e and cr. From the third of the preceding equations. stant. jMjint that if any other or than the rathery/irfi + e — mean anomaly be estimated from — x^ may be put for nt^ perihelion. ndt in = (1 — e cos u).ndt>>rr7*f—\+ 434. (Ill) The variation in the longitude of the epoch may be found it by the preceding equaticms (109) and (110).cj)}^^^ (110) a^ndt Vle* cos (u — i^)} ( — )• The variation of tlie eccentricity tlie however may be obtained under a more simple form from and c" being zero.] PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. hence the equations 6 in article 385 are J^ndt r tan i (t> + — CT r= 7f . dra du cos»iti cos« i (r _ c) V/T+e i_e j_ 2r/e tan^M (Ie)/r^ Q2 .
given by equations (109) and 110). (rr^)^ ^j^ ^ A/frp 1 sin (j'ct) l+ecos(ccT) + e cos (u — . c .rf^—] hence de =: dta {l JT^) . and in the longitude of their nodes.7idt. whence cos u = g+^os _. C for tan cos ^ =— — c' .vle*i + e cos (t) — de . The variations in the inclination of the orbits. the result will be de = dw{l  VI O  2a. ro))* 1 + cos (v — ct) }{ <? — cos (v—rs)} ^^ <i sm (u— w). {2 cos u — e — e cos^ u} 4 — . ro) And substituting these. be substituted. . Now r = ^^^ "" ^'^ = a(l ' e cos u). 435. or de— rfcT+rfCTVie' = . ^ (1 1 \2 + c r. are obtained from tan (p = Vc' + ^"\ c tan = . j]^hence dedsrr: ~r^^^' <^«^(lg co3uy _ de sin n(2c'  e cos ii) . tan am = — c" c . • / n If the values of ed'cs and de.2a^f—\ndt. its e cos value from the same equation. the result """" dtj (1 — ?/) __ de sin u . which is tiie variation in the epoch.228 and PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. Zi!.e cos v). — ct). l+ecos(r— to). substituting for cos* ^(v is . sin M (2 — e' . [Book II.
c made for If substitution be — — dt dt t?. sin (« They give (/ — (?). f — . _ 0) f<'«^ \ds J (112) + Tliese two (L±f)^si„c<!)rfv equations determine the inclination of the orbit. .tan if to = f!i sin (t) e) ('l^V cos abridge •p = c tan sin 0. that the squares of s and tan may be (tJ omitted. and motion of the nodes. g = a tan 0. — dt of their values in article 422. tan 229 dc tan 0}.cos (v — 0) tan (p = 0. — + (L±£)* c cos (. and making X =: r cos * y := (t) r sin u. = JL a*/*' . which may also be obtained from « = tan m sin (v — 0).Ch&p. there will result — 0) fdR\ . ^n /dR\ .tan0=i\T[ )sm(o0)+( )cos(»0)} c \dr J \dv J i.] PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANET& d. and as = »Ja{\ — c*) . 0). If the orbit of has so small an inclination on the fixed plane. 436. tan — d0. do tan = — {dc" cos 6 + dc' sin 0}. v. = tan sin — . then d . whence =— c {dc" sin — dc' cos d — . ^s^ J «^ d^tan0cos(y i d. tan = il c cos  0) f'ISX \ds ) dd. ^ c these become 4V^r^ .
230 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. — Vl e« sm(n<+e)( _ Ms/ ).^+c) dH . and rs. Since the elliptical and troubled orbits coincide during the first element of the time.?/ 1 cos v /dR\.cos(. whence dR _ sin V /^Y \dq J dR ds _ Yff^ V^. („( + . r sin r. dq J [Book II. . may be put for x. 438. . therefore the variation of the elements must be zero.sin V fdR\ [ j. =  gy — px. cos u ( — — ). the of motion are for identical equations that period. = (^_j. N .. dp But and as the orbit is andt =— z . supposed to have a very small inclination on the fixed plane.) e). \ — = g sm (nt + whence d(? — J9 cos (nt c) = _^^i_ cos (w« + c) (i3\ dp= " for . and z. . But V?/ is when the inclination of the orbit e) very small. y = c sin («< + . = — . consequently. y.m + e). and x s= « cos (nt _ /dR\ ^(^_j. the last equation becomes s = q sin V I " p cos V. \dp J ' consequently dg =  ^"^^ Vl  e« Vl e« 437. r cos v.
dR therefore . (^^^2a^(^\ndt.Chap. e' whence de = a/'d< Vl is  (i _ VTZ^) . . = ^. ^^ ndt + ^ dv3 e de. therefore — = do e If this value of de. ^ de ndtj so that Whence nd</^'?^^ = dJl j \^«/ da may also be expressed by da = 2a»nd« f^^\ . df = — Sfandt. is 231 Because nt always accompanied by — cr. The differential equations of the periodic variations of the elements of the orbit of m are da = 2a'dR . mean motion. be so that the differential de becomes \^^/ and the preceding values of da. df =  Sfandt. ndt substituted in equation (113). v.dR. dg. dp. By article 424. it will be reduced to rfcT= andt>/\T?(dR\ \de) . de =  e* a^^^^^^. observing that may be put for — de and dR — dw .g' ('J?Y (ih) dra= andtJl^ (^^\ dg Vl.] PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. the integral of which the periodic inequality in the 439.^)dilf^^^I^' e g»<^^^i .e*\d9/ = .«"^< (dR\ e Because always accompanies nt.
that do not contain the time. all terms of that scries varia do contain the time must be rejected. [Book II. and is of tlie first order with regard and the squares and products of the masses be omitted. 440. be a function of the time. ments. In the determination of the periodic variations of the eleall terms of the series R. qualities to secular variations in tlie rotation of the earth and planets may be . or relative position of the bodies.. rff = rdF\ de=z ^ mdt>rr:r.231^ PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. consequently when F is . E is the coordinates of m. in the elements of are sufficient for the determination of all the ineelliptical motion. As F docs not is contain the arc nt. being a function of the elements of the orbits alone. be omitted that and in the secular variations. the periodic and revolutions round the sun. and may therefore be developed in a series of sines and But the first part of this scries is inde pendent of the time. zero. must . andt /dF\ The integrals of these equations are the secular variations of the elements of the orbit of»i.^ . the elliptical values o( and then orbits. put for R in ceding equations they become da = . x'y' z\ &c. which the bodies of the solar system are Uable in their On the same principle. By article 347. These periodic and secular variations. as will be shown immediately. a given function of ocy z. and their secular variations do not. and of the elements of the cosines containing the time. m\ if in". maybe substituted. Thus the periodic tions in the elements of the planetary orbits de])end on the configuration. R will x y z. &c. its differential with regard the pre to that quantity. x' y' z\ &c. and may be represented by F. to the masses . 443. . 441. 442.
The analysis by which is La Grange has united the two great problems of the solar system science of astronomy. be the fixed plane of the ecliptic at a given epoch. 2 r: 0. and n the longitude of the line of common intersection of these two planes. if it the tangent of z latitude sin would be (iit = z' EP = tan + e And were moving on the orbit P'N'. and as the perturbations in these two mosame cause. The expressions of these variations are identical in the motions of translation and rotation tlie tions arise from fonnulue. V. Observation shows the inclinations of the orbits of tlie planets hence if EN.py + 5' — </ (117)  q)\ Now orbit at if EN be the primitive orbit of m at the epoch. cpSN' = its d\ the longitudes of their ascending 'YV nodes on the same plane. P'N' the orbit of m'. ENP tlie = = EN'P' = 0'. and . the inclination of these orbits on .J PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. 83. the ecliptic to be very small . and 7 = tan 0' and is . then if the planet orbit m were — 0). PN its it any other period. Hence orbit if 7 be the tangent of the inclination of the orbit P'N' on the PN.j = n tan q p' =: tan 0' sin 0' there will be found = ^= tan cos 9 . fig. the most refined and elegant in the on the plane of 444. moving on the PN. = 0. PN the orbit of m. the tangent of its latitude would be = EP' = tan 0* sin (nt + — e ©') . or of the ascending node of the orbit of m' on that of m. six 233 quantities found from the variation of the introduced by tlie arbitrary constant integration of the equations of rotatory motion. Uien tan 0' sin (nt 7 sin (nt + c — 0*) — tan sin (nt + e — e) = + e — 11) z= z' — z = PP' nearly. they are expressed by the same . plane of the ecliptic and cpSN 0. sin If then as before . (116) tan 0' cos 6' 7 sin =: ^' 7' = — p (p' 7 cos {q' n= .Chap.
mm' = '^ix'xy^iy'—yy+ (2'.234 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. may .)+r. y' = r'^ sin v'. and 2' will be very £^ Let».r'/ cos(v'jv) + r.m' Vr'/— 2r. hence B= Vr72r. then = I sin Vj . . m'{2'~zy +&C. 2{r'/2r'r'^cos(o'r/) +r/} . . nation on the plane of the ecliptic and their greatest inclidoes not exceed 7°. It is now R into a series of the sines and cosines of the mean angular distances of the bodies.1\) m'.cos(i/t—v). z''cos(v\ ^ . since any inclination the orbit to the epoch is may acquire subsequently owing to the disturbing requisite to develope forces.22' _^_ Zm'r.=cyoSp. 84..*+(z'2)* or 2 and 2' m'(ryf.tJ. v\=of>Sp'y be the projected longitudes of m and m' on the let fixed plane. . conse quently 2 small. inclination still less. will be of the order of the disturbing forces . and therefore very small. the plane of projection Np/i. fig. If the disturbing action of only one body be estimated i? at a tune = r m ^(x'xy+{y'yf + iz'zy _ m'{xx' (j/« + yy' + zz') y'* + + s'*)i' in which = Swi = V^«+yTz* = Sm' = VP^y^+T". = Sp r/ Sp' be their curtate distances. and r. Tlie orbits of the planets are nearly circular. 445. [Book II. R developed according to the powers and products of these quantities must necesis but as sarily be very convergent independent of the position of the coordinate planes. __ r.rV cos (»'. the tangent of the mutual inclination of these two planes. 84. r' 2)'. cos (v'^'v^)+zz') being extremely small. evident that 7. R be so chosen as to make the Jig.
a' the mean distances of m lialf the greater axes of their orbits.1?) cos (y3 1>' + = cos cos cos — (o' because o' —v . posing the orbits to be circular and one plane.=: nt i/. da + aV d*R' . acr.^ JtJi a'« . that r. or ties and inclinations. that all in is. u. being very small quantities depending on the eccentriciand m'. for if development of a function of any number of the value of R' be sup R when these small quantities are zero. 2{o'(l+w)*2aa'(l + «)Cl + M'). (tj' — — — v) sin t?) sin /8 . az'*{v' v) sin /8 « 446.] PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. thus Rz:z^m'.2aa' cos cos /S} + a'*)"^—^ o" . r'. r'/ = a' (1 + uO . — ap* ~ 3m^ . cording to the powers tt. . then R^R' + . v. and a. v'. sin/S (l+u')' 7n/ {o'(l + uy — m'jz 2aa'(\ m' . . . + e+v. co8)8+m' .Chap. u\ V. Jl±Ji (1+M')« . sin (t)f u) =s /8. u\ and z' is and products of the very small quantities easily accomplished by the theorem for the variables. and those following. = n't + e' + v' . cos/8 .n< /8 /8 . If these quantities be substituted in n'i B. But R'czm! { (o« . 6' to abridge observing also that. and v). au . da' +(. 2. it appears from tlie values of the radius vector and true longitude in the elliptical orbit developed in article 398.vv) * . v. — a" . a' with u'. . + — e = ^. cos^S +  o'* (1 ^__ + M')*ji . ndt aV * 2 because with (i/ da* a^ 2 j8 £R' da" ^^ t a  is the only quantity that varies with u. 235 and Because the eccentricities and inclinations of the orbits of the planets satellites are very small. and if . (tj'») .co8i8 + a'*(l + M')*}i The expansion of this function into a series ascending. is so small that it may be taken for its sine and unity for its cosine. . + u) (1 + u') zz' + 3m' ar" . = a(l+M).
COS ifi. the other coefficients are similar functions of the powers of u bat a general method of finding these coefficients in more convergent series will be given afterwards. is . cos tp.« ifi. da' \ ^ 2 ( dA^*da' J \ .2.. R= — Z • ^4 . — cos . 1 ) ^^„ cos . Ai. a and J. it cosines of the inultij)les of the arc developed according to the will have the form /8 (a" .. dR_=— — t ndt 2 . — laa' cos ^ + a*) be )8. if (a'* 2aa' + a«)~^ 2/8 = .1?....\ ^ \ i \da J .. Again. the a' alone . t^( .(iJ.. ii?o its + I?.. da" I 1 .236 and if PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. cos + B. in fact if to abridge —= binomial theorem gives .. \da*J &c The development of R is . — be put a" /8 for Ai.2aa' cos y8 + + a*)"^ A^ ._ ifi . Jj . da / dA.. i = — /3 1. sm 2 ^ : ' = — . («'* [Book II. coe 2/J in which Aq^ A^ &c. Thus.Z. . "^ _ dR' — = m' 2 2 &c. .. cos 3fi + &c general term — . ( . . cos i (n't  71^ + e' — 6) . the general term of this series R' provided that when = !^.} if i represent every whole namber either positive or negative is including zero. cos . cos 2fi + &ic. = oH(l)W(ii)V. cos + B. R' and = m' {^Ao + (^1  —V cos a"/ /8 + Jg . = \A^ + A^ cos + cos 3/6 + &c. are functions of «. and as cos //8 dR' m' ^— = 2 . . 2 2 .
Vt be the projection by articles 398 and 401. cos (n7 nt e' . If tlie ^'•"•^'' . da' (nt'—nt+e'—e). cos iin't nt + e'  e). (t)' — .(v'vy. WM' . + .— . (u' — r) 2 . sin f (ii't  7i< + c'  e). v.w^ + . • COS I (n7  7i< + c' €). = a (1 + i . cos i (7t7 i nZ +  6' + £) + + 447..c).«). \ da J cos i(n'l —  /i< + — c' e).Chap.  ^ . (u' 4 &c. r) 2 .da'J . J . = r(l { V. rzv — e» tan*i i^+i«* sin 2o + ^ tan* c &c. m( V <^a i 1 . Ml\ + ^. 2. or. r) 2 . in article 392. + ?^ + . i . 2. v.«'* z'* . a« (^^^^ cos i (n't  nt + e' . a. B.}. .2. '^ 2 .nt . i^Ai m'. c). m'«. . fla' T^^^ \da. .a!( 2 \da' J . and r. sin f ^ (n7 — n<+e' — e) y ] . 2t? e — tan*i^0 {sin 2p + ^ tan* sin Av + &c. a( i ) . . • cosz (n't . if tl:e values of r r..*"'^''~^)' 4 .). .I. + . \ da'* / . . . 3m'. oft?.e) c' + ^' 4 2 . sin 4y +} i «' &c.) = nt e + sin (nt + — ta) + &c. m'.l.— . M» 2 rtY^^ . ia'( s'mi \ .zz' a'^ cos i (n't  nt + — e' v e). — 2 . and curtate distance are r. a series that may be extended indefinitely.). 2 . JB< .^. ^ 2 4 . . . i .] PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. (v' ^ — v) . .u . 2 .ct) + &c.e cos (nt + . be substituted. &c.u'. Vi '\ (1  + &c.. c' . 237 +— 2 u . cos (n't .
sin (n't +  w') sin 2 (n't + e' 13') — tan* i 0' 448. the longitude of the ascending node. + e'). = 2e' . on the fixed epoch.i< — e' + — c + w' — ro} become cos {i (n't n< + c' t. . and r. e' +  2xs) become cos {i (n't cos {i (n't — w< 4. +6 — tan* d^ = + e + r 'cr)4Je*(l— . zs is PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. cos \i (n't — nt + — e) + 7i< 7i< + «? — w}. cos 2 (/?< + e — w)) . + + . In the same manner^ w' = e' .(1cos 2 (n't +  e'ro')) tj* i tan* 0' e' sin* (n't e'* . cos in't+e' _ w') . But = a (1 {iii hence m = — e cos + m). .c' — e) — CT + «j'}. 2 y^i JIfo .e' . sin (7j/ +c— cj) . cos (n't  nt + e' _ c' c). — nt + c' — e) + ^nt + 2e — i 20?) by the substitution of cos {£ (n't — 1 for c) »> and cosines of the form — n< + e' — —  n't + . i f c" .296 "Where a tricity. sin 2 (?i't + e') The substitution of tliese quantities will give the value of R and cosines be replaced by the cosines of the sums and differences of the arcs. — e) + it ta' cj}. by the substitution of t + i 1 for 449.\ t) sin* (jit + . Jl will be found that (118) = + + !^ . ecliptic at the the inclination of the orbit of 7i< m . M^. if the products of the sines sines of the forms cos {i (n't cos {t (n't — n< — + nt + e' c' — e) + n7 — — e) + n't + n< nt + + e' — 6 . e).CT e + «j'}. — — fit . e . e the eccen the longitude of the perihelion. + e the mean n< longitude of m. observing that coin series. = 2 e . + — when f e' sin 2 (7i< + e — cr) tan* \<ti sin 2 (n< + e) the approximation only extends to the squares and products of the eccentricities and inclinations. half the greater axis of the orbit of [Book II. Attending to these circumstances. m. COB {t (n't + 6' — e) + w< + c to'}. .
ee' COS {t (n't — n< + e' e) + — e' cj — cj'}. Q. 2 . Q. (Z . iV. /• . cos {i(n't nt e' e) + 2nt+2e + 2n< + e). e . + + ^' . co8{J(n'<n<+6'c)+3. e'« . e« . N. + + —.z'* cos (n't . + n +— — m' . .Chap. . . coefficients being . e . COB » (7i'< 7i< + —  e' + _ . co8{t(n'<7i<+«'— e) + 3n< + 3e2cT'— ct}. + 7i< + € ^ 4 . Bi . + + . COS {i(n'< n< e'  e) 2e . cos {iin't — —  nt + + +  ^ — — e) + 2nt + 2e  2ct}.] PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. COS {i(n't . e") .ee'. + — + c' e). (e» + . «" . c» . . + _ . . + The &c. i5< .Ni. e" . ^ _ 4 . C08{t(7l7 ..nt +£'c) + v!t + e'w'}.i<+3eta'2cj}. . .3ra'}.. 2J?i . e' . 2 .. m' 4 Qo . z'* . iV. Qi . . Sm' a . — n< + . iVo . cos{i(7i'< . c« . cos I (n't — + 71/  e). + !!l . cos {i («'<  «< e' e) + 3n< + 3c . &c. ^ !^ 4 .2w'}. iV^ . e' e) cj ra'}. . ee' .n<+ e'  e) o}. cos {i(n't  71/ +e'  6) + Znt + Sc  3ct}. — n<. v. zz' + . . — + + *"' ^^ ~ 4 ^'^* .ct w'}..
9). da' J (2i = l{(i. = i {4 (i ^ lyj. tan the of and in article 447. 2 = 0. But z =1 r^ sin (u/ . = Y.„ .3) a' (^^^ ^.. to' being the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit of on that of m. tan sin (n< (7i'< also z' — a' . and rejecting the provalues r/ stituting V/ duct e tan 0. it = a becomes z =: . .i) + ^ 2 (i  1) a (j^f^ \dada' Jj \ N. the mutual inclination of the orbits of m and 7n'. or sub* r.=  DH.240^ PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS.. by article 435. i{4(i [Book II.^.2) (4t .n). consequently the terms of z' and e'7*.2 . N. 0O» and 0' being the inclinations of the orbits of m and m' on the ecliptic These values of z and z' are referred to the ecliptic at the epoch. but if the orbit 0=0. with regard to 7'. then II tan 0' of m at the epoch be assumed to be the fixed plane. become .3) ^. &c.da'Jj ^ \ da' J^ &c.  2 (z  1) « (^^%^) Kda. 2' = a'y sin (/t7 + R depending on c' . 450. tan 0' sin + + t e' — — 0) . cy*.
sum of the terms iude« is 451.2n}.c) + Znt + 3e + e* C/} — 2 4 &c. • 11 . for factor. 7" . cos {i {n't . It may be observed that the coefficient of the sine or cosine of . 241 + — iV. COS {» (ii't — lit + + c'  c) + '2nt + 2e . cos {»• {n't — w< + .] in' PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. &c. b the same as if the orbits were circular and in one plane. 7«e. 8cc. Ai cos t (jl't — 7l< + 6' — e). + — . It appears from this series that the pendent of the eccentricities and inclinations of the orbits. Q* . . iVy . — which tricities 1. + !^ 4 .e) €' + Tii +e+ 17'}. . C03 ) (7i7 nt 6' — c). C08{i(n'i — n<+6'e)+3«<+3e — cj — 2n}.2n}. . the sine or cosine of 20 has tan*. ^2 M — Z2V + are cos {i {n't .Cbap.. the sine or cosine of and so on : also the coefficient of the sine or cosine of B has tan. 7' . v. 4 Qj.0 for factor &c. e > Those depending on the squares and products of the and inclinations may be expressed by . cos {i {n't  71/ +  e) + L'}.13' . + ^. e* for factor . The sum of the terms depending on the first powers of the eccenhas the form . eccentricities cos {t (ri't  7i< + e' — e) + c' 2nt + 2« + L} ^2 iV' .n< + . Those depending on the third powers and products of these elements ^ 2Q 4 + . co8{t(7i7 — 7i<+6'6)+3/ti + 3e .n< + e' — e) + n< + + ^}. 7V . Q' . . the angle ct has always the eccentricity e for factor the coefficient of the sine or cosine of 2ct has SsT has e*.
+„. aa' (3~«) j^^ (t1) in which i (a'+a^')^(i.} + &c. Bi B^^.. Co + B. multiplying both sides of this equation by A.)(i+^2)ag^i4(i_. the coefficients Ai and B{. . Ai can Let A^» = i^o (a' + /8 + /3 B. 452. ^' and generally _ 2(a«+g^M8(l +s)aa'Ay..242 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. in series and substituting the value of A"* = (a« . + 2Aa &c. or negative.^o. must be determined. cos 2/8 + + At cos 2fi &c. when accomplished.) . (i — «) ^j^g^ aa' positive may be any whole number and 1. the the multiplication is comparison of the coefficients of like cosines gives J ' _ (fls* + «'*) Ai . with if . Let (a"  2aa' cos ^ + a*)"* = A"* = i^o + ^i cos + 3Aa fi + A» . Hence At Bi cos will be known. [Book II.) = +   But as relations must exist among the coefficients B^i^^. «</ B. and their differences.saa' Ao . B^.2aa' cos + /3 ^Ao + A^ cos fi a'«) (J^ + &c.) the comparison of the coefficients of like cosines gives aa' . cos 2/3 + &c sin 2/3 sin 3/3 The differential of which is A^^ 2saa' sin y8 = Ji sin /3 A"^. co8/3 + B. B{i+i). Determination of the Coefficients of the Series R. In order to complete the developement of jR. the exception of be found. it + 2^^ + &c. multiplying this by — 2aa' cos + d'^. cos 2/8 + &c.} a*) {A. Ai (a* a") . and substituting for becomes 2saa' sin = (a" — 2aa' cos If it ^ {i ^o /3 + + A^ cos fi + At cos sin/S 2/3 + &c. sin 2/8 be observed that cos )8 sin i8 = i cos 2/8. aa! (2  ' s) . and the sines and cosines of the multiple arcs put for the products of the sines and cosines. .
+ \ . ^^^g^ whence may be obtained.. therefore.(i + «')yf(.^(^. the equation (119) i.= _£ which (1 +«0. wlien « A{. All the coefficients A^..s) a (i «*)  2) . + 1 and ' 2?(^. .^< + — (« + «? 1). becomes I  or if . to determine these quantities.1) (1 divided by take the form a + .i(i . J(^i) . when Aq.aai?. several ji^^ members are a . R 2 . —= a' «) the two last equations. by the fi(^.9(a' t  s + a')B. ^_^ of = 2. i (i  « + 1) . B^.^x.) .= («  ± 1) (a' + o'*) ^. — fl. ^(un) 5 (1 .  ay 1 (i or substituting for ^(^.) rr + 1 are put for s and ~ ^' + ") ^"' ^(''> ^^' + """^ ^' i • (f If tliis — *) aa' it (120) quantity be put in the preceding value of ^..i) value given by equation (119). as well as cqua when both the numerators and the denominators of their o*". &c. ot . there will result. &c...1 * + 1) «' .. (125) is very convenient for computation.) . aa . (a'* +  + s  1) .. + 1 be put for i. Ai two are known . substitution of the preceding value {i  «) (t  s + 1) • flfl' If i?(.) a")* If to abridge tion (119). will be obtained from equations (123) and (125). . J2?. ^(i^i) ^^23) — ^= ^ 0" + «) (1 + ^. «'... 243 similar to those existing gives.)._i) be eliminated between this equation and (121). among J(<_.Chap. it only re mains.. J^i+l). aa'^(i_. v. ^ (124) «*)*a'* J(«i) £.] PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. (i =^ + «) (a« + a'*) ^i (a'« its 1.) . Aa. jB.
454. Because COS c being the a'* ^ = . a'«'^ V 1 • 2 y 1. . 2 ^1. consequently.} . + &c.2 J \ \ .3 ^ .c~'^'^~ ^ = 2 cos //J. Ao and become the first and second coefficients (a'« of the development of — 2aa' cos fi + a*)^. and c'^^"^ have always the same coefficients . . Let then S and S" be the values of these two coefficients in this case. then.ac^"^"} .fffr'^. number whose hyperbolic logarithm 2aa' cos/8 is unity .2. A* but (a' = {a' ac^^~}'. however.244 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS.2 s 1.}. (a' = Jl_{ 1+ a'^ s «c^V^+l^i±l2 o?c^^'^ 2 the product of which is «'*• \ \ .2.ac^^^) = J(l+ a" s «c^^^+ fL*jti2 2 + &c. and as c****^ j.2.2 + c'"^/^) 1. Tliese series do not converge when but they converge (4i rapidly when = — ^ . Z J ^ a«' ^ ^ it 1 . cc'c^'^ . 2 . [Book II.3 (c^^/^ + &c. whence appears that c'^"^. {a' ac^'^]—. therefore  + a« = {a'  {a'  ac'"^} consequently.3 ^ J ^ ^ a'*' 1.2 « == 1. it is easy to see that this series is the same with 2aa' cos)8 f a*)"' A* = (a'«  = V ^ Jo + ^i cos )8 + &c.
then  2a. it and substituting the preceding values of Aq and 2. It with regard to a.6. v..cos .A—^ =^ ..1. observing that ^= da 2(a  a') cos /8 .2.8 + &c.5.1.Chap. + J?^ aa ^ aa .^. becomes Ai\ Because A^^ At become S and S' when s r= . and i 0. the two last series form the basis of the whole computation.S' ' (I «*)* .1.S " becomes a'. and i = 0. /J . take its differential with regard to a. equation (125) givc^ A ~ ^« ^ +3 (1 + «^) . and = 1. equation (125) gives n _ (l+«)^o .8.(a  a') 008/8 . .10 and as the values oi Aq.6 4.6. and that — i^. .7 ^y._ 1.2. may be obtained in functions of S and S'. A.3.2«^.a'* g' + =: J^. ^ 245 t „. . cos ^ + But crivcs . — rt' .5. now remains to determine Resume the difTerences ofyfjandl?< A* and = i ^0 + ^i cos fi + Ai cos 2^ + &c. .3. 4.8. a'Hl«*)* y/.(1  «')*' In the same manner it will be found that 451.4.j^. equation (124) gives if s /?< = ** = J and if s =2 i (! * + «') 3«'S\ (l«*y.«'• =A .^ da a" cos 2. a'* If s = ^.] PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS.4 1. A= a _ — 2fla' cos ^ + a' — a' — + ..1.1a 2.4.3 5 1.
substitution be made dA for . ^(i+s). and in the resulting equations. . U da I _ / m>^ + ji +  2. 3. J. ^ s .» l)a' \ \ aia'^ a*) J \ a'*  ^ a« (Hi)' J if. If the difiFerentials of this equation be taken with regard to a.} = . 1.0) a» \ ^ _ ' / 2(i .^^ da i is d'A is always multiplied by a. &c. (126) Bi value in (124). . and be observed that in the series R. functions of ^(<+. da from the preceding formula.). a it . Ml. and so on . then where successively made equal to 0. dA^ da or. 455. the coefficients and their differences arc. B. A"* [Book II. x — ^ . the successive differences of Ai. L cos da — — s da i cos 2^  &c.i. becomes dA. L — da — » . in Coefficients of the series R. dA ^'+'^ da ^ . article 446. J _ 2(l+a')S + 6«S^ J _ ' 4«SH3(1+««)S^ a'^Cla)" . and the comparison of like cosines gives the general expression. substituting for = <a^al a its . will be obtained. (a«  a'") A"*"* r=  ^ . If }g be put for « in the preceding equation. + . L do' by o*. substituting the values of A~* and A~*~' in series iiAo+ Ay {^Bo cos + A^ cos fi 2/8 + &c. 2. 2/8 + Bi cos + Bi cos /8 + (a* . and in equation if it (123).+ .a") + &c. or. da — — s — da fi L cos ^ — — s . i cos da 2fi — &c.24G therefore PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. — s .
— Toe.}. . =1.Chap.} = = 1. 4«') J.9. By the aid of equaliun (120).«M.]. }. easy to see that D = " ^^ (a* ay . A. =: 247 y. &c.11. 4^.r 7.} } ^3 . I or . +5««)«+9«'(l+a«)9. 7«J. {8(1 + (^)A. &c. it is 4(1 «»)'} A 450.7«(7 +\\o?)A. {2(1 + 3a A.] PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS..{(l'+ 20 ^.^ (l««)* («3«Vi}. v. «*)J.«^o} 3a^.aM.} a (^\ /<P^o\ = _1_ {(3 + &c.  5«J.)^ Vda* ^ . &c. + a'^^^ ^^^{{(4 9«(9 + 13«')^ + &c. &c.3«^4 = (i:^ \ da / J_ {(2 + ior 3«') A./d*^A — !__ 1^2 _  («  3«^) y/o} "^ '''(^O =: nhy ^^^^ "^ ^'^'^* "^ 7«^(i+«03(i ~c.~7uA. ^ ^ 1 ^2^. 5a {4(1 + «V« + oc')A. a (i:jdi) \ da J a = J. J. {6(1  5ckA^} A.
} &c &c.^4^ 1 1 «* — «* &c.} «') B3 5^  7« &c. Bo J _ A 2aa'Bt  («'« + o")!?. } &c.(«'* + a^)B. » 5 &c.248 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. [Book II. = = = —{2(1 + « o?)B. . V da y \ da J &c.  era' J5J « (4^) ^ ^<3«'" 2a») i?a  aa' B. I?. B. o (4^) = = i ^(2a"  a') /?.2aa'Bi .  3«i?4 B. Tlic coefficient form. &c. = (o" + a') 2aa' Bo . and its differences have a very simple when expressed in functions of £„ for equations (121) and (126) give Ao = ^. 457. J.{4(1 J_ {6(1 + + ««)^«5«B. .
to a'.+n2il)a(^^d^ya*(^^^ N..^. By means may of these. all the differences of Ai.. — 2aa' cos^ f a'^"'.= .da'J \da J \da* J &c. 8ec.] PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. Likewise Bt being a homogeneous function of the dimension — 3. The differences of Ai and Bi with regard to for 1. so that the coefficients of article 449 become 2i^. 2a!* B. 458. v. \da. &c. a' are obtained from their differences with regard to a. = i{(4»7»+2)^. (^)} N.a (^) Jf. M. Bi. 459. with regard be eliminated from the series R. function of a and a! of the dimension — Ai being a homogeneous as readily appears from (a* therefore. f^^ = 3aa' Bo 8tc. = =i a ^» m (^^^)  + 2(i  1) J(^„ 5) ^.Chap.^«+2(2il)a(^!^)+a«(^^!^)} . 249 a*f^dl\ «« = 2a* Bo  a'aJ?. = ii{(2i2Xiil)A. + 2(2i  + l)a(4lL) a.
No. the values of S and S' will be sufficiently exact or.l)^. My. the denominator of less than unity. the values of S and S' will be exact to the sixth decimal. 2a(^)  «' (%i>)} &c. and consequently the coefficients Mo... a* and when employed to determine the perturbations of Jupiter's satellites. Bi. jBq When « = 1. the ratio of the mean distance of m to that of m' is functions are symmetrical with regard to a and a given number.250 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS. 460. [Book II. The series represented by S and S' which are the bases of the computation. All the preceding quantities will answer for the perturbations of m' when troubled by m. considering them as geometrical series whose ratio is 1 — «*. . iNr. and i — a'* must be added to Nj. and as the a'. which is sufficient for all the planets and satellites. in functions of which the mean distances of the four satellites from the centre of Jupiter are expressed. the mean : distances of the other planets determined by observation. of the series R arc known numbers depending on the mean distances of the planets from the sun. are numbers given by observation for if the mean distance of the earth from the sun be assumed as the unit. = MC22)(2. therefore — may always be if so chosen as to make » eleven or twelve of the first terms be taken and the rest omitted.. may be expressed in functions of that unit. 2V« = iaa' —i— a* . is assumed as the unit of distance. which becomes ^1 — — a' . the equatorial diameter of Jupiter. &c. their dif ferences. viewed at his mean distance from the sun. Thus A. so that u = — a' . 461.. . with the exception of ^4. &c. if their sum be found.
with regard to the Mean Motions of the Planets and the greater axes of their Orbits. eccentricities. c are quantities consisting entirely of the elements of the orbits. in article m'k cos {i'n't — int + c} =: R. that is. therefore bodies in are exactly . When how ever far the approximation tricities may be carried with regard to the eccenand inclinations. the integral of which — — = 2a^im'nk i'n' — . the general form of the series represented 449. the solar system Now mean motions of no two commensurable. this value of la must contain terms independent of the sines and cosines of the angular distances of the bodies from each other. the squares of the disturbing masses are omitted. Stability of the Solar System. and c a function of the longitudes of the epochs of the perihelia and nodes. It is evident that if the greater axes of the orbits of the planets be subject to secular inequalities. SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN THE ELEMENTS OF THE ORBITS. being a function of the mean distances. by R. The differential of this expression. in COB {ihi'i ti —  vit i + . . ndt sin {i'n't — int + n c}. gives da = Sa * 2a^m'ik is . is . unless the mean motions of the the bodies m be commensurable. with regard to nt the mean motion of m. Tlic expression AR always relates to the mean motion of m aloue . But a must be periodic unless i'n' — and in =: in' . k and A. 462. i c}. is (\R = m'kindt sin {i'n't — int + c}. and inclinations. when substituted in da =: it 2a*dJl.251 m^'l^T'^ tKJVERSITY CHAPTER VI.
252
i'n'
SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN THE
[Book
II.
in is in no case exactly zero consequently the greater axes of the celestial bodies are not subject to secular inequalities
;
—
;
and on account of the equation n
uniform.
Tlius,
=
a~^,
their
mean motions
m, m'
are
when
tlie
squares and products of the masses
arc
omitted, the differential dil does not contain any term proporlional to the element of the time, however far the be
carried with regard to the eccentricities
or,
approximation may and inclinations of the orbits,
which
is
the
same thing,
dil
does not contain a constant term
ndt
;
for if
it
contained a term of the form
a
=
2/a*
.
dR
would become
m% then would = 2a^m'knt, and =  3 ffandt f = — 3/faji^m'kdt^ = — 3anhn'kt^,
g"
.
dR
mean
80 that the greater axes would increase with the time, and the
motion would increase with the square of the time, which would ultimately change the form of the orbits of the planets, and the periods
of their revolutions.
it is
The
stability
of the system
is
so important, that
necessary to inquire whether the greater axes
and mean motions
is
be subject to secular inequalities, when the approximation
to the squares and products of the masses.
carried
463. Tlie terms depending on the squares and products of the masses are introduced into the series by the variation of the ele
R
ments of Hence,
e
if
tlie
Sfir,
orbits, both of the disturbed and disturbing bodies. Jc, &c. be the integrals of the differential equations of
the elements in article 489, the variable element* will be a
+
Ja,
+
Se,
&c. for m, and a'
j 5a'.
e'
+
5e',
&c.
for
m'
;
and when
takes the
these are substituted for a,
e, a', e',
form
yR; R, = R and from what has been said, the greater axis and mean motion of will not be affected by secular inequalities, unless the differential
+
m+
&c. in the series R,
it
m
dR,
contains a term that
is
=
dR
+
d.5R
+
d.5'R
not periodic.
dR
is
of the
first
order relatively to the masses, and has been provctl
is
in the preceding article not to contain a term that
not periodic.
d.SR andd.S'R
the
first is
include the squares and products of the masses;
the differential of
iR
with regard to
tlic
elements of the
Chap. VI.]
ELEMENT.? OF THE ORBITS.
m, and
d. J'H
is
253
troubled planet
disturbing body
m\
It is
is
a similar function with regard to the proposed to examine whether either of
not periodic, beginning with d ^R.
.
these contain a term that
464.
The
variation
^R
rft
regards the elements of
m alone,
dq
and
is
da
de
da
dp
If the values in article 439, be put for Sa, Se, &c. this expression
becomes
5R
=
2a'
{^ r^ «di\da
J
de
*? r*?.»*}
de
J
da
+_aVw (1 _ VIT?)
g
\dJl [ de
r^R ndl
J
de
^ JCde
de
ndt}
+ a^)T?
g e
\dR
Iricj ^'^''
J
rdR^^^^_^dR fdR ^^^. dvj de dc
J
^_a_\dRrdR^^^^_dR
Vl3>
And
is
ydpj dq
dq
J
M_R^^^^^
dp
its differential,
obtained by suppressing the signs
alone, according to the elements of the orbit of introduced by the integration
m
y
of the differential equations of the elements in article 439, which reduces this expression to zero therefore to obtain d.lR, it is sufll;
cient to take the differential according to nt of those terms in
^R
that are independent of the sign f.
When
the form
the series in article
449
is
substituted for
If,
JH
will take
P
./. Qdl
 Q ./. Pdt.
int
Where
P and Q
represent a series of terms of the form
Ar.
^g?^
i'
(i'tit
+
c)
c),
and
i
being any whole numbers positive or negative.
Let
k cos
{in't
—
int
+
int &) be the corresponding belong to P, and let k' cos (^i'71't term of Q, A, k', c, c', being constant quantities.
—
+
A term
if it
that
is
not periodic could only arise in
d^R

d{PfQdt

QfPdl},
c' }
contained such an expression as int kk> cos { t'n'<t/t<+c} cos {i'n't

+ iU' cos {2i'n't or a similar product of the sines of the

+ 2inl +
= JU' cos (c — c')
c'j
;
c
+
same
angles.
But when
254
Ar
SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN THE
(i'n't
[Book
II.
cos
—
int
+
c) is put
for P,
and
k' cos {i'n't
—
int
+
c')
for Q, dJi?
becomes
.
d.^R
which
= kindi
.
sin {i'n't
—
int
+ c) .fk'dt
c')
.
.
cos
(i'n't
— «n< + c')
int
—k'indt
is
it
sin (i'n7
—
zn<
+
fkdt
.
cos (i'n't
—
+
c),
equal to zero
when the
integrjitions
are accomplished.
Whence
465.
It
may be concluded that d. 5/2 is altogether periodic. now remains to determine whether the variation of the
orbit of
ele
ments of the
Tliis
m' produces terms
that are not periodic in d.^'R.
cannot be demonstiated by the same process, because the function and m', R, not being symmetrical relatively to the coordinates of
m
clianges
its
value in considering the disturbance of m' by m.
Let
li'
be what
then/2'
R
becomes with regard
^
to the planet
m' troubled by
^*
m
'
;
= m\ R= — R'{^'R
 ^fltyyl+f^l
{^{x'jry+iy'yy+iz'^f
hence
m'(rj'
+
yy'
+
zz')
(—  1
and
=
!!i!j'il'
m
+ m'J'{(xaf'.jyy'+2z')f— \r'
—Mr'v
j
If the differential of this equation according to d be periodic, so will
d yR.
.
Now
m,
in consequence of the variations of the elements of
the orbit of
I'R'^^^la'
da'
+
^}^^e'^•^^l.' de' de
+
^ w+ ^'v + "^Hl
dvs'
^
dp'
is
dq'
in all respects
And
as this expression with regard to the planet m'
gimilar to that of 5/? in the preceding article with regard to
m, by
the same analysis
it
may be
proved, that d S/2'
.
is
altogether periodic.
Tiius the only terms that are not periodic, must arise from the differential
of
»n'S'{xr'
+
yy'
+
zz'f^
("1

\\\.
L.
Let
m'{xx'
article
+
yy'
+
zz'}
 l^ =
X
Then by
346,
T
"^
m' /dR\
~s\diy
^i!
'
fl
r''
+
(
dR'\
dx'
S
\
J
Chap. VI.]
ELEMENTS OF THE ORBITS.
y
z,
255
Thus,
The
coordinates
\
y
z',
furnish similar equations.
L
AT
r=
^' ^
^^^
"
^^ ^ y^y'
+
22'\
"
y'^y
^ ^^^'
/xx!
'
^'^^"^
X
+
N
where
_
*"'*
f ^^'
"^ yy'
__
mm!
+ yy' +
zz\
(f)}If iV be omitted at
y
•
first,
T
_ " m' ~
"s"
,( d (a/dx
*
—
xdxl
+ y'Ay —
d^
ydy^
+
^dz
— zdz')
1
'
1
elliptical
J
466. Tlie
values of the coordinates being substituted,
For example, if every term must be periodic. c y a' cos a cos (?j< X ct)
=
.
j/(/j
 xdx' _
+ — 1^^//^ _ nf^
=
.
(ii't
+
e'—
ro')
.
sin { n7  w/ + t'  6  to' + CT }
;
a quantity that must be periodic unless n't  nt 0, which never can motions of no two bodies in the solar systhe mean because happen,
=
tem are exactly commensurable were to occur, it would vanish
;
but even
if
a term that
is
not periodic
;
in taking the second differential
and
as the same thing may be shown with regard
to the other products
y'dy
 ydy' z!dz m
zdz',
dL is
clli])tical
a periodic function. AVith regard to the term dL diV, and m' be substituted, values of the coordinates of
is
=
if
it
the
will
that this expression readily aj)pear
periodic, for the equations of the
m and m', in article 36.5, give elliptical x'J^x + y'd'y + z'd^z xjf + + zz' __ ^ (6* + m)dt* xx' + \zz' _ _ xd^x' + yd^y'+ zd^z' ?* (S + m')d<* N becomes the function that 10 m" xd'x' + yd*y' + zd'z' \ "" _ df* S (S + m) \ \ _ , /r//?'\ mm' / x'd^x + y'd^ + z'd'z \ m' j ^, fdR dl* ysr\dx) \dx'J S{S + m)\
motion of
tfy'
___
'
xjy'
.
f
J
256
467.
SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN THE
From what has been
said,
it
[Book
II.
terms of this
appear that the &c. expression, consisting of the products x'<^x, xd^x\
will readily
&c., are periodHf»ehen the elliptical values are substituted for the coordinates, and their differentials.
468. Tlie last term of the value of
and m' be put in jR, it may of the coordinates of elliptical values be developed into a series of cosines of the multiples of the arcs nt
N m
is
also periodic
;
for, if
the
and
n't,
and the
differential
may
regard to the quantities belonging to
be found by making jR vary with alone hence this differential
m
;
may
contain the sines and cosines of the multiples of n/, but no sine
;
or cosine of n't alone
x'
and as
=
r'
cos (n't
+
e'
—
a/
ct'),
the
mean motions nt, n't, never vanish from
;
(
—
which
],
is
conse
quently periodic
the products
and as the same may be demonstrated
for each of
d 5'R. its differential are periodic, and consequently has been proved that when the approximation is carried to the squares and products of the masses, the expression
not only
Tlius
.
N but
it
dR,
=
dR
+ d.m +
A. ^'R
planets
relatively to the variations of the
mean motions of the two
m
and m'
is periodic.
469. These results would be the same whatever might be the
num
ber of disturbing bodies
;
for
m"
motion of m,
it
would add to
fn"
R the
being a second planet disturbing the term
.Jix"

x)«
+
(y" 
yy
+ {z"  zy
j)lanets,
^
m"(xx" + yy"+zz")
r'»
The
variation of the coordinates of m!
and
m"
resulting from the
reciprocal action of these
two
by
mm"
it
and m"*
in the variation
all
of
R
would produce terms multiplied and by the preceding ana;
.
lysis
follows that
the terms in d
i>"R are periodic.
l"R
re
lates to the variation of the
elements of the orbit of m".
m"
Tlie variations of the coordinates of m' arising from the action of on m', will cause a variation in the part of depending on the
R
action of
m' on
m represented
by
Chap. VI.]
ELEMENTS OF THE ORBITS.
257
There
will arise
terms in
7i"f,
il,
multiplied
is
by m'm"., which
will
be
functions of «/, n'^
when
;
substitution
made of
the elliptical
values of the coordinates
and as the mean motions cannot destroy
each other, these terms will only produce periodic terms in dil. Should there be any terms independent of the mean motion nt in the
development of JR, they will vanish by taking the differential djR. And as terms depending on nt alone will have the form m'm" . dP,
being a function of the elliptical coordinates of m'm" arise terms of the form m'm"fAP iny*d .
P
m
.
.
,
there will
R
=
P, since
dP
is
an exact
differential.
These terms
will
then be of the
second
order after integi'ation, and such terms are omitted in the value of
this function.
The
variation of the coordinates x, y, z, produced
by the action of
m"
on
m
only introduce into the preceding part of
R
terms multi;
and as plied by m'm" and functions of the three angles nt, n't, n"t these three mean motions cannot destroy each other, there can only
Tlie terms de})ending on nt alone, only dil. produce periodic terms of the order m/m," in dR. Tlie same may be proved with regard to the part of JR depending
be periodic terms in
on the action of
m"
on m.
470. Hence whatever
may be
the
number of disturbing
bodies,
when
the approximation includes the
squares and products of the
masses, the variation of the elliptical elements of the disturbed and
disturbing planets only produce periodic terms in dR.
471.
Now
Jf
the variation of
=
Zf fundi dR is  Sanffdt d.SR + Zaffindt dR ./dR).
f
.
. .
=
It
was proved
in article
464
that
dSR
=
in considering only secu
lar quantities
of the order of the squares of the masses.
see from the form of the scries
R that
diiydR
=
It is easy to with regard to
these quantities, consequently the variation of the
mean motion of a
second order planet cannot contain any secular inequality of the first or with regard to the disturbing forces that can become sensible in the
course of ages, whatever the
its
number of
S
planets
may be
that trouble
motion.
And
as
da
=
2a*dil becomes
258
SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN THE
5a
[Book
II.
=
{
2a'fAR
+ Sa'fimfdR)
when
}
,
by the substitution of (a
inequality if
+
Sa*) for a*,
Sa cannot contain a secular
^^ does not contain one.
therefore
follows,
472.
It
that
periodic inequalities are
omitted as well as the quantities of the third order with regard to the
disturbing forces, the
mean motions of
the planets, and the greater
axes of their orbits, are invariable.
The whole of this analysis is given in the Supplement to the third volume of the Mecanique Celeste; but that part relating to the second powers of the disturbing forces is due to M. Poisson.
Differential Equations
cities,
Inclinations, Longitudes
of the Secular Inequalities in ike Eccentri' of the Perihelia and Nodes, which
of these four elements,
which
is
are the annual
and
sidereal variations
473. That part of the series
of periodic quantities,
Sin
is
'i
JR,
in article 449,
i
independent
found by making
=
0, for then
(n't

nt n<
Cos
and
if
t
— (n'<
+ +
e'
e'
= 0, — e) =
c)

1
;
the differences of
A^ A^ with regard
to a' be eliminated
by
their values in article 458, the series
R
will be
reduced to
But
—aa'B.y*,
8
the formulae in articles
456 and 457 give
+ ^a^(^^\^.j5£.L^^ a(^\ 2 (a" \daj \da*J
'
""
ay'
>4,af^Via«/'^^ =
\daj
—
\da* J
aa By
S(aci'S+(a'+a")S')
{a'*
ay
=
consequently
Chap. VI.J
26Q
475.
SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN THE
But tan
[Book II.
=
Vp*
+
9"
and tan
= ^, and when the
9
squares of the inclinations are omitted cos
=
1,
hence
.
d<^= dp sine + dq co,e; de
= ^/>cos0d9sin0
tan
and substituting the preceding values of dp, dq, the variations in the incUnations and longitude of the node are,
^=
dt
(0
.
1)
.
tan
.
sin (6

6')
'
^
dt
= (0.1)+ ^ ^
^ (0.1). ^
^^IL^.
tan 0'
cos
^ (90'). ^
476.
orbit of 771
The preceding quantities are the secular variations in the when troubled by m' alone, but all the bodies in the syson the planet m, and whatever
effect is pro
tem
act simultaneously
duced in the elements of the orbit of
similar cftects will be occasioned
m
by the disturbing planet m',
by the disturbing bodies m', m", &c. Hence, as the change produced by m' in the elements of the orbit of
it is
m are expressed by the second terms of the preceding equations,
only necessary to add to them a similar quantity for each disturbing body, in order to have the whole action of the system on m.
The expressions (0
.
1), J0.i[
have been employed to represent
the coefficients relative to the action of m'
tive to
on 7n
;
for quantities rela;
m which has no accent,
m' which has one
are represented by
and those re
lating to
accent,
by
1
;
foUowmgthe same notation,
be (0 2), J0.2I
. ;
the coefficients relative to the action of
m" on m will
;
those relatmg to
m'" on
m by
(0
.
3), 0.3J
and so on.
Therefore
the secular action of
will
m"
in disturbing the elements of the orbit of
m
be
IM
(0
.
e" sin (tsj" CT)
;
(0
.
2)

I^Ol
— cos (©"©)
e
2) tan
sin (6

0")
;

(0.2)
+ (0.2)
Ifli^ tan0
cos (0
 6").
of
477. Therefore the differential ecjuations of the secular inequalities tlie elements of the orbit of tw, when troubled by the simultaneous
action of all the bodies in the system, are
Chap. VI.]
ELEMENTS OF THE ORBITS.
261
+
03 e'" sin (ta'"—

w)
+
&c.
^
dt
=: (0
.
1)
+
(0
.
2)
+
&c.
&c.
Tl)
i! cos
(w'
 w)
(128)
IdTa
—
cos (ct"

ct)

^=(O.l)tan0'sin(0e') +(0.
2) tan0"sin((?O'O
+ &c.
^={(0. dt
/ V l)^!ill^cos(00') ^ l)+(0.2)+&c.}+(0. / V
J
tan0
+ (0.2) ^^^ cos (0  9") +
tan0
&c.
478. All the quantities in these equations are determined by observation for a given epoch assumed as the origin of the time, and
wlien integrated, or (which
is
the
same thing) multiplied by
/,
they
of the orbit of a planet, on give the annual variation in the elements account of the immense periods of the secular inequalities, which
the elements
admit of one year being regarded as an infinitely short time to be constant. e, w, &c., may be supposed
479. It
is
in
which
evident that the secular variations in the elements of
the orbits of m',
m", m"\
&c., will be obtained from the preceding
sponding
be changed into the correto equations, if every Uiing relating to m', and the contrary, and so for the quantities relative
m
other bodies.
Thus
the variation in
tlie
elements of m', in", &c.,
from the action of
all the
bodies in the sj'stem, will be
—
^'
dt
= [l3
.
e
.
sin
(w 
ra')
+
(TT^
•
e"
•
8in(CT"ro')
+ &c.
= rO
'
.
e
.
sin (ct
 o") +
&c.
IJjl
.
e'
.
sin
(T3'Ta")+&c.
&c.
^=
dt
(1
.
0)
+
(1
.
2)
+
&c.

[To)
.
^
^
.
cos (CT

1=0
—
113
•
^C08(ra"ro')
.

&C.
262
SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN THE
(2 .0)
[Book
II.
*^ =
dt
+
.
(2
.
1)
+
&c.

[273
&c.
.
^
e'
.
cos
(w

cj")
—
1^1
.
£l
&c.
cos
(ro'
 w") &c.
(129)
^'= (1
dt
.
O).tan0. sin(0'0) + (l .2). tan0". 8in(0'^O+&c0) tan
.
^=
di
(2
.
.
sin
(0"0)
+ (2.1). tan 0'
.
sin
(0"
0')
+&c.
&c.
&c.
+ ^={(1.0) at
(1.2)+&c.} + (1.0).
(6' 0")
tan 0'
!f!L
cos(0'0)
+
(1.2) H1!L^
.
cos
tan 0'
.
+
&c.
=  {(2 f^ vi
+ (2
As
.
0)
+
(2
.
1)
+
&c.}
+ (2
&C,
.
0)
.
*J1!L^
tan
.
cos
0"
(0"0)
1).
^^L^
tan
.
cos (0"
0"
 00 +
8k;.
&c.
these quantities do not contain the
mean
longitude, nor
its
sines or cosines, they
depend on the configuration of the
orbits only.
Approximate Values of the Secular Variations
ments
in Series,
in these four Ele
ascending according
to the
powers of the Time.
480.
The annual
;
variations in the elements are readily obtained
from these formuUe
that they
may
but as the secular inequalities Vary so slowly be assumed to vary as the time for a great many cen
turies without sensible error, series
rate values of the elements
may be formed, whence very accumay be computed for at least a thousand
Let the eccentricity be taken as years before and after the epoch. an example. With the given vahies of the masses and mean longitudes of
tlie
perihelia determined
by observation,
let
a value of
de ^
dt
,
the variation in the eccentricity, be computed from the preceding
Chap. VI.]
ELEMENTS OF THE
ORBITS.
263
If the lat»
equation for the epocli, say 1750, and another for 1950,
ter
be represented by
(
—
),
and the former by
—
dt
,
then
\dt J
f^V=200.^"; dt^ dt \dtj
the quantities
or/^^
\dtj
=
^ + 200
dt
.
?£
df
Hence, e
f
dt
,
— d^
,
being relative to the year 1750.
bemg
the eccentricity of any orbit at that epoch, the eccentricity e at
t,
any other assumed time
may be
dt
found from
^
dP
with sufficient accuracy for 1000 or 1200 years before and after 1750.
In the same manner
t^
all
the other elements
may
be computed from
= e + ^.
dt
264
linear
SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN THE
equations capable
[Book IL
following
of being integrated
by the
method of La Grange. Let A =: e sin w
h!
•=!
i
:= e cos cj
ef
d sin
cj'
V zz
cos
to',
&c.
*i,„„ *nen
.
&c.
de — sm
.
dh —
dt
dl
=:
cr
dl
rs
— cos — = de dt
dt
— ——
+
,
drs
dt
.
e cos
ct,
driT
.
e sin
tiT
;
dt
and substituting the
differentials in article
477, the result will be
[oTTI
^'
^ = {(0
 [o3
.
1)
+
(0
.
2)
+
&c.}
/


IHhI
I"
I'"

&c.
+ (0.2) + &c.}/i^={(0.1) dt
\oT\\ h'
+
[o^l
h"
+
like^vise
WM
^'"'
+
&c.
(131)
+ (1.2)+&c.}r^={(1.0) at
[O/
 ITI/"
'
fit/
(TT3 I'"

&c.
,
^
+
= {(1.0) + (l.2) + &c.}A'+
[iT§ h'"
&c.
Ij^l
A
+ [TJ
h"
+
&c.
&c.
It is obvious that there
must be twice as many such equations, and
as
many
terms in each, as there are bodies in the system.
482. Tlie integrals of these equations will be obtained
h
h'
=z
N sin (gt + O
N' sin
&c.
{gt
I
/'
=
=
+
f)
= N cos (gt + Q) = N' cos {gt + Q)
&c.
i'
by making
It is easy to sec
h! 0,
why
h"
=
these quantities take this form, for
0, &c.,
/
if
=
;
=
0, &c., then
A.
at
^=(0.1)/;^= dt

(0.1)
Chap. VI.]
ELEMENTS OF THE ORBITS.
dh
dt
265
Let
_
but
2) m /a" . . . iVg.2^ m" ^o" = &c.2V'. a^ .266 l'= N' cos igt SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN THE ^ [Book II. g'j. But if the mass of the planet be omitted comparison of that of the sun considered as the unit..0j . N' g. € . 7i. and a'. and a. be put for m'.. or that of is to say. C) + N. N^.&c. n* =: J. &c. will remain indeterminate.) + 2V. these equations will only give values of the ratios N" N' —— N .. for coefficient. (0 (0 .' cos Cg^t + f . n'a' = = l. 1) wi .t + Q Ci. 0) m' in . na.1 »)i  . S and S' are the coefficients of the first and second terms of the development of (a*2aa' which remains the same when a' cos is ^8 + a'*}^. + &c. Since each terra of the equations (132) has one of the quantities iV. 0. m' . Ni. 7i'. It is also evident that (0 . &c.0) mV"^ = 0. n" =z L. m v^T (1. cos (g. &c. one of the quantities 80 that for each of the roots g.(2.0) m"\^'^' =: 0.. put for a and the contrary. &c. &c. na. 0. &c.2 m^a &c. To show how expression these are determined. whether the action of m! on m'. &C. it must be observed that in the of article 474. N. m m consequently 0. . a" therefore oTl mj~a 1 [TT§ m' ^~a/ = 0. Hence if m.' &c. n'a' (1 . that on be considered. . 1) &c. for each term contains two arbitrary quantities N. 484..
and the preceding equations m /o _ fa+ N' . A'. A". =i Nhn Va + N'^m' fa< +N"*m" f^ + &c. Tlie eccentricities of the orbits of the planets. /'. . N'ln' 4^... &c. + &c. Nmk 'J'a + Wm'h' f^' + N"m"h" { fP + + &c. A I = 2.m'fa! + hc. e sin ©. a comparison of the coefficients of like cosines gives Qrz NNym 'JT + N'N\m' ^'+N"N'\m" fa" + \Wir^w! f^''\N"N\m' A'. be found that ^ ^ m f^ \. . h' I' sz e cos «. N. = Again. will and the preceding relations. they give N'm' faf. NN^m fa if fa" + the values of A. l\ &c. let 267 485. ©.. are known by observation at the epoch. m" V^ + &c. are give^i at that period. &c. &c.Chap. in equations (133) be respec tively multiplied by Nm fa. by article 481. &c.. &c. N*m fa + iV^W f7 + N"^m" ^/^ &a } sui in consequence of the preceding relations.] ELEMENTS OF THE ORBITS. m'm!'/^ +N"l>'m" Va^ 8cc. &c. &c. &c. h\ h'\ &c. =s (134) (g<+C). &c.. And if it be taken as the origin of the time give = 0. then. — dt .m . give Nml { fZ + iV'm7' V7+ i\r"m'7" f7> + kxi..e sin «.} cos {gt + f) and the longitudes of their perihelia. &c. therefore A.e' sinfH^ . the preceding values of A. in consequence of equations (132). N. Now those of equntions (131) that give dh dh' o — dt . /'. ^y &c. N"m" JaF'. &c. VI. e'.N'—m' f^+N" dt dt = g{Nlm ^~a + if — dt /.mfa\N' .e' cos ^'. and if these be represented by e. } .m' fa' + &c. be put in this. be respectively multiplied by Nm it 'fa. to'. = e' sin = e' cos f ro'.. By the same analysis the values of/.. i".ecoa&.
. The equations (133). what their . 486. for . for the root g. and the remaining coefficients equations (132). mean motion for nt e \ being the its mean longitude of a planet.. being constant and given quantities therefore . it If these values of iV'. concur in tlic proving that the perihelia have a motion in space. or extent is. mean secular motions of the perihelia.. But. g< any time t so that + C is the mean . N'" = C"N. tan b = e sin CT .e' sinw'. N" = C'N. the periodic time of the earth hence n s= . g^. the equations (132) give C. for the earth. however.m' j= V a' + f &c. . the may be computed from gj. longitude of perihelion at any given time. that variation might in the nature of the orbits so much as to destroy process of time alter the stability of Uie system.m m ^fa+C. tliis manner the indeterminate quantities belonging to &c. &c.. &c. g sin €» m V a + Ce' sin ctW '/a/  &c..268 SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN THE [Book II. and that eccentricities vary slowly. N' = CN. is For example. As. for the root g. in a century g ^ and gt = is J^ the = 19' A". N"i &c. The roots g. Tlius the equations (133) are completely determined. &c. ~.m' /IT' V y= a +C^. N". about 365^ days . 7 113270 .. sin C* {mV~^+ CW Va^ + iST C'^m" Va^+&c. whence the eccentricities of the orbits and t. ^^ e cos CT. &c.e'cosro'. in the same manner that n represents the mean motion of a planet. which is the mean motion of the earth for a day. be eliminated from equation (134). ^' 365i' and nt is its mean motion terrestrial orbit any time t Tlie perihelion of the moves through 3C0° in 1 13270 years nearly hence. C" C. as well as observation. g. the longitudes of their perihelia may be found express the for any instant Zf before or after the epoch.} Thus tan € and In are determined. 487. other roots §„ may be found. it is of the greatest importance to inquire whether these variations are unlimited. if limited. gives ^ ~ iV.
/. g is. if . will introduce circular arcs or exponentials into the values 489. which could never happen unless the time were to vanish unless thus.= 0..Chap. If however any of these roots be imaginary or equal. g. For that purpose let the equations — = dt roTT l e' sin (w' — ct) f [O^ ct') e" sin (to" —  ra>) + &c.« + &c.  f} + &c. A'. . &c. . + 2NN. cos { (g. : the roots g. but would increase till the orbits of the planets. &c. + jv. m'. e* I = A'  ^ J and in consequence of the values of h and square of the eccentricity of the orbit of e« in equations (133). g. . &c.. Because A = e sin CT. &c.? = 0. always than &c. the eccentricities would no longer be confined to fixed limits. for . the m becomes C} = 2V+ iV. and as these quantities would then increase indefi nitely with the time. l\ &c. + (fi. if g. 269 Stability of the Solar System with regard to the Form of the Orbits. . m". g)< + C. —= &C rrrol e sin (cr — + (TTl"! e" sin (ct' ta") &c.^ = 0. g„ g. . the value of c" will be limited. in the the bodies easy to prove that they will m.] ELEMENTS OF THE ORBITS. + 2Nn^ + &c. that .» + 2V/ + &c.. + &c. 488.. = iv» + it iv.e = 0.^)< + C. + 2NN. taken with the same sign.)» (2v + ^. which are now The all become very eccentric. + 2Nn.ff)< + f . maximum . 8tc. cos {(g. 490. the cosines in this expression will oscillate between fixed limits. are all real and unequal. in the sys tem revolve same direction. they of A.. Z = e cos ct. . however if all it is be real and unequal. gi  ff)< + f.. and c" will ( 1 35) When be less the roots g. of the stability system therefore depends on the nature of nearly circular. &c. &c. be real and unequal. VI. . gr„ ^j. could only obtain that (g'.
and consequently positive signs . but as all the planets and satellites revolve from west to east.m" JV' its \ &c. must have the same sign the planets revolve in the same direction . increases indefinitely with the time fir> any quantity that none of tlie roots equal or imaginary. respectively multiplied by the coeflUcients m 'J~a. But observation shows that the orbits of the planets and are nearly circular. they have the singular proof compensating each other's variation. since by Kepler's law they depend on the periodic times and in analysis motions in one direction have a different sign from those in a contrary direction : . the sum will be = eie.. hence each of the quantities satellites e'm vo. m'e' Tdy m'V V^. so it never can change while the system remains the so that same therefore equation (136) cannot contain .270 SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN THE [Book II. is. be respectively multiplied by me and added because sin («T sin . Since the greater axes and masses are invariable. remains constant and very small. first observation. &c. then in consequence of the relations in article 484. the all radicals. being a very small constant quantity given the number of equation (136) is very small. m' '/aF. &c. by As C never could have changed since the system was constituted very small . 492. = all C. and (o — ct') = — sin (cr' — — ct") = — sin (cj" — «y) cr).. . and the g"i» gti &C'> are either eccentricities are perpetually changing. fn' J~a'{e!'de" . the terms of the preceding equations is less must have therefore each term than the con stant quantity C. . &c. and C as it now .. if /a+e'de' . so that the sum of their perty squares. integral is V^+ ^m' 'fa' + radicals 4~a. e"^" V^ + &c. e'*m' is V «'> &c.. W.m e*m 491. &c. &c. (136) The 'To/. and as the greater axes of the orbits are constant.
are If the roots g and be equal. If Dcr't C'(f\ D'C". and therefore the roots of g. h'. thus. V a'» move &c. then . same direction. D'.. to be imaginary. this cocflScient is can only be zero when each of the quantities C. doubts on a point so important. = 0. CT. g. h'. A'. &c. &c. that if the bodies m'. V. VI. and if f be the highest power of in equation in A. hence &c.}. A'. then e* would contain a term (C* D*) c*"*. roots would introduce the terms value of/. the radicals 7h. g^. + its &c. tion (136) would contain D«) C^{m ^/V(C« + + m' Va' (C" + D«) + &c. &c.] ELEMENTS OF THE ORBITS.. To remove g. by article 215. then the preceding integral becomes A = (6 + h') C* = (ft + 6') (1 + fi + _f^ + &c. &c. c being the (133) is number wiiose hyperbolic logarithm unity. &c.. in the general would contain the term 1* {m J~a(C' t + D«) + m' V a^ (C* + t D'«) /'. C.. If C** be the greatest exponential that h. that its first member may be reduced to a constant quantity. a quantity that increases indefinitely with the time. /. &c. have the in the same sign. gi.. l\ g.. Thus the general value of A will contain a finite number of terms of the form Cf which increases indefinitely with the time the same . zero separately . the coeflicient of C*^ must itself be zero . l\ &c. all real.} . &c. &c... e'* would contain (C* hence the first number of equaD'*)c*^. A'. all 271 493. contain. In order. do not contain exponentials. V a. therefore.. is.. D't\ first member of equation (136) &c. the would contain the term Cc''. be the corresponding terms introduced by these imaginary roots in A. A. I.Chap. /.. of the roots. C" will therefore be the greatest in the first member of equation (136). . D. and so on + + . m \r7(C» + DO + m' 'fa' (C + D'*) + But all if = 0. . j therefore the Dr. suppose some some of the cosines or sines will be changed into exponentials general value of A in and. .. the preceding term cannot be destroyed by any other term in that equation. &c. /* will be the first highest power of (136) consequently member can only be constant when mW{0 + jy) + m' a/'o' (C« + D'*) + &c. /'.
e cos cr = i give tan cr =: — + .C}+N. 495.272 SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN THE all [Book II. h'. are all and unequal. on account of the roots g. + + Q+ C) &c. arcs. helion is g( f.C} N+Kcos{{g. for in this case — C never can attain to a quadrant.coB{ig.. tan (ra  " C) sin {g. the eccentricities increase crease with the cosines. and compound periods esta blished. &c. . and that the eccentricities themselves and their and de variations are extremely small. real and as they do &c..C. &c. I. tan CT "* NCOS igt\C) + N.. and substituting the values of h and / in article 483. but will oscilthe angle in gt 90° hence the true motion of the perilate between •\. sin (g. The positions of the perihelia now remain to be considered. g^. g< — /o\ t) = tan CT 1 — tan (gt ^:^^^ + gt tan CT tan (gt —+ — +  C) ^ . D r= 0. in immense periods of Jupiter and : for. considering only the mutual disturbances the eccentricities Saturn. . being real and unequal. f) and when substitution is made for tan t7. l\ &c...414 years to accomplish their changes if but more than two planets be taken. e sin zs =: h. neither contain exponentials nor circular the when the bodies of the really solar system revolve in so.t ^ sin (gt + C) + N. between fixed but very narrow limits. 494.g)t^C. the roots g. . take no less than 70.C} + N. ' or. . §•„ gr. which cannot happen when tion.0\^y Tliis + tangent never can be infinite. same direction. tan (ct — . Because the equation (135) does not contain any quantity that increases with the time. D' = 0.90° and — — .g)t+C. C= 0. A. &c. they would evidently extend to millions of years.g)t +C . 0. ""  iV sin {(g.  g)t + C.t {g. if the sum of the coefficients in the denominator be less than N N^ + N^ + &c. N with a positive the denominator never can be zero . so that sign . cos vj. unless the planets revolve in the same du'ec C = Thus. of their orbits would . if gt + C be subtracted from .
Tliese secular inequalities depend all on the angular' distances of the perihelia of is. to which no limits can be assigned. when m' alone. 498. In order to determine the secular inequalities in the inclinations of the orbits article and longitudes of the nodes. at least when the approximation does not extend to the higher powers of the eccentricities. and that they may experience variations in tlie course this equation From of ages. Because the equations which give the secular variations in tlie eccentricities and longitudes of the perihelia do not contain the mean pendent longitudes nor the inclinations of the orbits. helia alone are subject to unlumited variations. hence T . them will caused by the action of m . taneously on m. 496. that when are omitted.1)(p'p).Chap. VI. multiplied by Tlie i)eriis of the greater axes of their orbits invariably the same. each of tion of its orbit. the planets taken two and two. and would be the same bodies revolved in one plane. But as all the bodies in the system act simulinclinaproduce a variation in the those to similar and in the longitude of its nodes. incliif all the nations. which. it 273 appears that the motions of the perihelia arc not uniform. they are indeof the configuration of the planets. the orbits. though observation shows that the variations are very slow. from the circular form greater axis invariable. the mean motions of the planets are jKjriodic inequalities uniform and that the system is stable with regard to the species of .] ELEMENTS OF THE ORBITS. let the equations in 474 be resumed at and at ^=(0. that on the configuration of the orbits. retaining little tlie . deviate but the eccentricities being subject to the condition that the sum of their expressed by equations (136)— the masses of the bodies. It may be concluded from the preceding analysis. and the square roots squares. or masses. troubled by which express the variations in the position of the orbit of w. Secular Variatiom in the Inclinations of the Orbits and Longitudes of their Nodes. 497.
Cj.}g + (0. p)^=zi0.2)+&c. g' = N' cos (gt + p zz N sin (gt + + + N. sin (g.2) + &c. &c.2)9"+ &c.2)(9" (0. are determined in a similar manner to what was employed for the eccentri cities.2) + &c. + (1. sin (g.t + C) + &c. dt ^ = {(0.I)^'+(0. article These equations are perfectly similar to those in may be integrated on the same principle whence .1) at will express the iq q) + (0.274 SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN THE [Book II.2)y&c. cos (§/ + O + &c. if all the inclinations of the orbits of the planiets.}. p p' =z X&nip cos 6 9 =: tan 9' sin 6 = tan 0' cos W &c. has g.N„ &c. For since 0.0) dt &c. ^={(1. &c. p' + N/ cos (g/ + C) + &c.{(0.N.0)i7(1. hence. for its roots.)(0. = tan 0' sin 0'» &c.2) + &c. and + C) + &c. dt (137) ^= dt {(1.}p'(1. &c.1)p'(0.t (138) Siabiliiy of the Solar System with regard Orbits.&c. 0.2)9"+&c. q =N cos (gt + C) = mn N' (gt + \. and the constant quantities N. 481.0)9+(1. there system : ^ = .2)  q) + &C.1) + (0. will consequently be the following series of equations. Tlic equation in g resulting from these.2)/'&c. and C.l)ip' at (p"p) . to the Inclination of the 499. . ^ = (0.0) + (1. are the values of 0.}9' + (1. whole action of the system on the position of the Similar equations must exist for every body in the orbit of m. &c. 6.1) + (0. and the lon be gitudes of their nodes known by observation at any given epoch. f„gri. &c. iV. when » < = 0.
.] ELEMENTS OF THE ORBITS. there will 276 to deter when mine < = be a JV^. The expression 2NN. — g are never zero and as the inclinations of the orbits of the planets on the plane of the ecliptic are very small. + iVj + &c. since the differences of the roots g.}. the (j3« a .. and will late always remain so. C> &c.C} ^{JV + N* + &c. q.2)m'/~a = (0.Chap. T 2 . m! »J a' . ^/ + + which gi it never can attain. cos {(g. Whence we may be assured by the same reasoning employed with to the that this equation neither contains arcs eccentricities. and C. sufficient number of equations if all the quantities N. cos {(g. (l. y' m *j a' . Also the roots g. the coefficients Ny Ni.g)t + f.g)t + C . Now tan r= ^P' + g*. wliich depend on the inclinations. p\m ^J and added. 500. _ f } + &c. for the equa tions (137) be respectively multiplied by \ m 4~a. — g. each producing a and retrograde motion in the intersection of the plane of the ecliptic. &c. The maximum of tan &c.O)m' 'fa' (2. so that all revolve in the same the roots are real and unequal. And the inclinations of the orbits will oscilbetween very narrow limits in periods depending on the roots the ecliptic in which the earth moves. + 2NN. and if the values ofp and q be substituted tan = Vp*+g' = H . VI. on account of these coefficients being multiplied by cosines which dimiwould be iV" nish their values. &c. ^c.0)m"Vo^» &c. g^. regard all of circles nor exponentials. are very small also. q. The plane of its position in space .\)m>ra &c. &c. »Jp*+^ is less than N+ iV. integral of their sum g'«) will be + 7») m V~^ + (p" + m' V «' + &c. changes from the action of the planets. . are real and unequal. 0. that if EN be the orbit of 502. . that of its own orbit whence it appears... = C (139) in consequence of the relations = i0. when the bodies direction. 501.
so that this expression will remain for ever constant. therefore the equator never has and never will it coincide with the is ecliptic. AN' will be its position at a subsequent period. r= constant. 3°. and the bodies revolve in the same direction. p' + in >Ja" p" + + &c. Other two integrals (137). will always be the same. If this sum be very small at any one period. &c. that is. the inclinations of all the orbits on the plane of the ecliptic are very small. may be their obtained from the equations For if the first be multiplied by mV will a. =r C. the third by »t' Va'. but as it changes the obliquity of the eclipit is determined from equations between narrow limits. and so on. 503. &c. With regard to the nodes tan = JL. and sign. and substituting for 9 p and 9. so that there never was. it always remain so and as in nature. supposing the system constituted as at present. small. f mVa' . [Book IT.q 505. the integral of which is mJa p . the fifth by m" JaP. if all the radicals have the same will the bodies revolve in the same direction. The secular inequality in the position of the terrestrial orbit tic . if all . and there never will be eternal spring. . and by the squares of the tangents of their inclinations on a fixed plane. &c. &c. the variations of the inclinations compensate each other. = constant. In a similar manner the difiercntial equations in g. + m'^J c^ q' + m"'/^ ^' &c. q\ give fmTa. Since p'' + q" — tanV. sum be at (It dt in consequence of the relations in article 484. (138) oscillates never exceeding coincided. equation (139) becomes m 4~a tanV + Whence it m! sTa' tan*0' + (140) all may be concluded that the sum of the masses of the bodies in the system multiplied by the square roots of half tlie greater axes of their orbits.276 SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN THE the earth at a given epoch. p'^ + q'* = tan*0'. and very 504.
The Let m French tables. From these equations it may be seen.C\+&c. tan (0 gt— C) — gt — C will oscillate never can be infinite hence the angle between 90° and — 90°.Chap.C\+N. 7. and ySn' =: g't C' the longitude of the node n' . so that g< f is the true motion of the . the longilast tude of the node n" circle will . and g =: As in gene indefinite and variable. + period of SI of m. But m" : acting simultaneously with the orbit into the position m' brings Cn m" ceding bodies changes it to Dn".t + + &c. after a certain time. liis and limits cular variations in the elements of orbit. the be the orbit of m. cos (g.< + N cos igt + + C from C. ral the periods of the motions of the nodes are great. equations which give p.co8{(g. 277 . be given in of the se whence the laws. that the motion of the nodes is nodes of the orbit of m. and brings it to the position Bn. tan e = ^ ^'" ^^^ + O + ^/ si" (g. and ySn =z gt + Cthc its ascending node N' the inclination of the circle Cn' longitude of N" the on Bn. It is evident that the of the orbit of of the finite So the whole inclination m m on the plane An. • or subtracting gi 0. will be determined. and ySn" = g^t + C. sum of the coefficients N + Ni + N^ + &c.g)t+C. inclination of the circle Dn" on Cn'. last orbit will be that in which acting along with the preand so on. changes the inclination of its orbit. ^ If the in the ^ N+N. Hence if N be the inclinaBn on the fixed plane An.g)t+i:. the action of the disturbing body m' alone on the planet m. the inequalities increase very slowly. diagram. VI. will be the sum tion of the circle and simultaneous changes. of the cosines — + denominator taken positively be less than iV". 1750. + .cos\{g. The method of computing the theory of Jupiter. p' q' may be expressed by a An be the orbit of the planet at any assigned time. After a certain time.) + N. the constant quantities will jieriods. moves. and so on for each disturbing body.] ELEMENTS OF TIIE ORBITS. as the beginning of January. . which is' the epoch of many of the 506. C) + &c.
are the same as if the orbits of the planets were circular. be the centre of a circle . it is evident that =zp. with regard to the variable Plane of the Ecliptic. The by another construction values of p and q in equations (138) may be determined for let C. €'"6 be perpendicular to C'^6 Ca produced. and take .0" the arc on C as a centre with radius equal scribe a circle. and if CC be joined. take a'C Ca' to = g. but important to know the secular variations in the position of the orbits with . Annual and Sidereal Variations in the Elements of the Orbits. but astronomers refer the celestial motions to the moveable orbit of the earth whence observations are made is .278 SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN THE [Book XL found 507. tions 510. 9 e being the angle C'Cft. Equations (128) give the annual variations in the incHnaand longitudes of the nodes with regard to a fixed plane. Let a" C" be the arc in the last • circle. tan G =: L. fixed plane . fig. draw any diameter Da. de and having parallel drawn Ca.t + C to Ng.. Applying the same construction to h and I (133). its motion occasioned by the it is action of the planets indeed extremely minute. tan = Vp^+q*. The equations which determine the secular variations in the inclinations and motions of the nodes being independent of the eccentricities. 90. m 508. whose radius Sn 87 * is N . ow C" as a centre with radius equal and having drawn C"a" parallel to Ca.Cb = q. describe a circle. take and so on. 509. to N^. it will be tliat the tangent of the inclination of the last circle on the is and that the equal to the eccentricity of the orbit of the same with plane is longitude of the intersection of this circle equal to that of the perihelion of the orbit of m. the a" C" then = g»t + if Ci.
EN By is wliose position with regard to be determined. cos e' . Suppose fig. tan 0* cos z= q' — q. sin 0' + (dq'  = •— . m' 0' If 0* be the inclination of m'N' the orbit of ecliptic.0) + (1.3)}. but neither dp nor dq are zero hence . 88.2)} tan 0" sin (d' 0")+ {(1. 0" cos (0' tan 0* e") + + {(1. q := 0. EN the variable will and & the longitude of its ascending node.(dqf 498 — dq) dq) cos 6'. to be the plane of tlie ecliptic or orbit of the earth.2)  (0. sin 6" = p' — p.] ELEMENTS OF THE ORBITS.3)  (0. .0'").3)(0. cos (0' . article 444.2) + (1. ^ = + {(1. then tan 0* . then =: 0. cos (n't + e^ + e') is the latitude of m above AN and the latitude of m' above AN' is — p' cos (n't + c').2)(0. &c.2)}. there will result in article in place of tlie differentials ^= dl {(1. VI. or m'A  EA is very nearly equal to m'E to the latitude of m' above the variable plane of the ecliptic EN. EN d0' dd" = (dp' (<^y dp) dp) . Whence If tan 0* = tj(p'^py +  (cjf—qy tan 9*=^^ q'^q p be assumed to be the fixed plane at a given epoch.J^' tan 0' &c.3) + &c. the variable AN EN ^X plane of the ecliptic in which the earth is moving at a subsequent period.»'.Chap. sin d' tan 0'/ and substituting the values dpf dq. Am' = q' sin (n't «') EA = q sin (n't —p .3)} X at tan 0'" sin (0'  0'") + &c.1) (141) tan {(1. . and m'N' the orbit of a planet to . 279 regard to it. f As the inclinations are supposed to be very small. the difference of these two.}  (0.
is the longitude of the epoch. g=0. the inclination Since the greater axes of the orbits are constant. the longitudes estimated from that point would be affected by it to ascertain . tan* 0' = tan« 7 = p'« + C. being the origin whence the antecedent and subsequent longitudes are estimated. 5^. and the second proves the motion of the node of the orbit of m' on that of uniform and retrograde. in consequence of their mutual attraction. the secular inequalities of that element is therefore of the greatest consequence.0)<. The 441. (140) and (128) become m' 'fa' tan« 0' = — = dt m to be  (1. be assumed as the fixed plane m at the epoch = 0. and In this case. If the mean place of the planet at the origin of the time should vary from the action of the disturbing forces. is differential equation of the longitude of the epoch in article de = gnVrr^ . Imagine two planets remotely from the rest of the system. 512. one of the most important elements of the planetary orbits. equations 7=0'. will be — (1. The mean place of a planet to in its orbit at a given instant.280 SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN THE [Book II.0). — de dt  2a'n ^dt. » VT^"?). m Let 7 = ^y {p'pY + iq'—qy be the mutual inclination of the If the orbit of two orbits supposed to be very small. i»=0. da . assumed It is be the origin of the time.d . orbits and the motion of the intersection of the two on the orbit of m. Motion of the Orbits of two Planets. the first shows that is constant. and m' revolving round the sun so 511. that they are not sensibly disturbed by the other bodies. Secular Variations in the Longitude of the Epoch.
} dF___ 3m'aa'. VI. and if to abridge ^_ ' m^yta^(2aS+3a^S0 {a!* ^ _ _ 3m\ na^a'i^aa'S (3g'" a") SQ 2. 281 By article dF__m!^ da 2 / 3a'S' ' \ + 2aS\ a*)* J (a'« i —— ^ .S' + — ~4(a'«a*)* fir {(«'« + a^)S' + fla'Slc' cos (ra'  ro)._p).(a'«a*)' ' ^' _ 3m\7m''aX2a'SgS0 4(a'«ay de becomes ' ^ = C+ + But h' Cjc" + C^e cos (tB'w) C.) coi {§.A" tsj' . hence 7' = (p' iV« .+N'N.g)* . their mutual inclination will be constant by article . 513. = iV* + h'*+ + 2N'N/ cos {(^g. Agun A« by /• i'« article 483. m 511.4.{(p'p)'+(9'9)«c"}. This equation only expresses the variation in the epoch of when troubled by m! . cos {{g.N/+iNN'.'S)t + C.  g)t + C  C} . in order to have the effect of the whole m system in disturbing the epoch of m. c?. (AA' + «0 + {(/>' ?)• + (g' . hence = sin o' = cos ^ = C + Ci (A« + T) + C. «)< + C/C}.4 \(^a'*—d?y ) /6a._(g.S3aS'\ ^^ . ( iJ 1 ee cos (ct'  xa) \ ^ {a'*a*y .Chap. a constant quantity. If these be put in the value of de. . C} = hh'^W NN'+N.'« + (g'g)* = M*.«5).{(o»5a^«)aa^ S+(a* +6a*a"5a'*)S^} 4. (a'«a*y ay ' ^ _ _ 3m\wg. rejecting the powers of c above the second. a similar set of terms must be added for each of the planets but if the two planets and m' alone be considered.p)* iV. 473. ^'•}. but.] ELEMENTS OF THE ORBITS. A := «' e sin CT i' / = e cos e' t>T. + = + + 2NN. ) _ ( ^ de m' 2.« 2V. — a ^^.
<*.C) di. like the other secular inequalities in 480. but although in it is insensible with regard to theories of tlie of much importance tlic Moon and of Jupiter's Sateliitefi. in tlie course of many centuries. This inequality is not tlxe .288 SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN THE making [Book II. sin {(g. ^beiugany number of Julian years from 60th part of a sexagesimal second Like ail other inein a century. will be expressed in series ascending according to the but as the term depending on its first power is . powers of the time insensible. and to abridge. on account of the small divisor g^—g introduced by integration the planets.^ for Jupiter. + B= it 2C. .N" — iV/0. and for Saturn ie'ss+0". Substituting these in de. A^7it only augments the mean primitive motion of the planet m in the ratio of 1 to 1 + ^'. though of the order of disturbing forces.} (142) The article variation in the epoch. 0000006301. it is . ^) < + €"/.N'). become sensible. Jupiter and Saturn no less than 70414 ^'cars. a quantity altogetlier insensible. becomes de=z A' The ndt + B cos {{g. mean distance is insensible. so that the secular variation in the epoch Se = _JL gtg may it sm{(ff/  g) <+ r  C. . so that the mean motion A')ntf cor which should result from observation would be (1 + responding to the mean distance Knowing this distance. but its period. have the form Se = If <« + &c. The variation Se. m and m'. The term Ant may is therefore be omitted. A'n= C+ C. integral of vvlxich is Je = Ant + The term ^  g)« + C. is for qualities it is periodic 1750.2CaN'N/ + C^iNN/ + C^(M* (N' + N. the primitive distance a may be determined is an infinitely small fraction of the order of the masses this correction in the given by a comparison of the but as A*' . . This inequality is insensible for the planets its greatest effect it is produced only Se in the theory of Jupiter and Saturn : but even then is =:  0". . mjiy.NN' .  C} 514. 00000 15114.) + C^iNN' + N'NJ) N. which is periodic times. which depends on g^g.
283 Stability of the System. but as the same results may be derived from the general ecjuations of the motion of a system of bodies. — m'x' + m' . ^ de . . x\ &c. If the equations of the motion of a system of bodies in article 346 be resumed. with regard to stability of the system has been proved extends when the the even of axes orbits. &c. . y'.Chap. and when the approxhnation includes the squares of the disturbing and they remain the same whatever changes the secular in equalities may introduce in the lapse of ages. . and to all powers of the 515. VI.m. multiplied respec by 2m y xmy — m . and the equations tively in x. S+lm d^ '2. they inclinations may be. . ^ ' i^)d those in y. m'y' — m' . equally exist whatever the eccentricities and forces. 2m —^ l. S+lm jm . tchatever may be the powers of the Disturbing Masses. ^ &c. "^^ .my + Im rf»y .] ELEMENTS OF THE ORBITS. y . &c. . and very little inclined to each other and to the plane of the ecliptic . 4> +2m by .mx _ .. . Its invariability with regard to the other elements has only been proved on the hypothesis of the orbits being nearly circular. tlxe The eccentricities and inclinations.. — mx + m their . 516. sum will be / xfPy y<Px\ ^ J S y l. . approximation greater to the squares of the disturbing forces.
and may be regarded as constant. the last periodic quantities and those of is of the constant.f ydxfx'dy + y'dxxdy' \ ^ ^^ ^ ^ *Ja (1— e^) cos If the elliptical values of x. and when + m' . &c. the variIf the mm' y'dx. TIIE [Book IL A S similar equation and y. 2 . if destroy one another in the expressions ydj/. y. Now ^ — dt is . periodic part of the values of the elliptical elements be substituted in the first member of the preceding equation. and be the inclination of the orbit projection. and so on. on the plane xy. The second member of the equation Hence. they would be of the first order with re gard to the masses . be substituted. . and as is tliey are functions of the elliptical ele. C. any terms resulting from that substitution that are not j)eriodic will be of the third order.e'*) cos 0' + &c. in the second member of this equation must always be periodic consequence of the observations in article 466. is of the fourth order. ments. = 1. number equation contained constant terms. it will be found that ocdxxdy dt ^^^^. Tliis area on the orbit va(Ie*) . C".Mm' ( v'd  \ ^dy' +y'dz dt  zdy' \ _ ^„ J C. the first .^^ ^ dt is Uie the area described by the projection of the radius vector of mf on same plane. being constant quantities. consequently. in question may therefore be esteemed constant. the fourth order be neglected.ydx' \ J ^ ^ (143) \ 2m ^^" .y'dx^ dt x'dy . n't. If the products ydx'. tenn of for. the arcs ?it. cos Va(lc*) is its In the same manner y J y'dx''X'dy'^^^^^. never Hence. = ^^. In consequence of these the first of the preceding equations becomes m + m' Ja' (1 . &c.is double the area described in the time dt by the projection of the radius vector of if m on the plane xy.284 SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN may be found in x. &c. x'. f xdy' . their variation ation of the terms of the second order .. x'dy.. a/dy.y'. 2. '^ + 2mmY^^^^'^" + "'^^^^^ = C yrf^ zdy dt 2.
the variations . pro jected on the coordinate planes x and y z. But it is easy to see by trigonometry that the cosines of the these planes arc sin cos 0.^) sin _ ^^iZT^ sin all cos 0. ing aj)plies to the <!«) two last equations (143). and as the same reasonfirst. derived from them. =m ^ I tan' consequently im Va («!*}tau»0) + Jm' /a* (e't + tan«0') +2C. = C.C".sin m ^rt(I — 1«) sin tions cos sin + m' Va'(le'«)'sin 0'cos 0'+&c. m in the time dt.] ELEMENTS OF THE ORBITS. Again. and sin hence. C) cos 285 m Va (1  + wi' V"' (1 . : f &c. as to the they give m \/fl(l. inclination of the orbit sin . =r — Vl + tau«0 equation (144) gives ^ If c4 1 + iaii*0 ^ l+tan'0' and e%* be omitted.= C\ (145) e+7n' Va'(l e'*) sin0' sin(?'+=&c. A variety of results cos may be . m A/^iil ^ 1 tan* f ^ = m ^a(le«) — Jm ^ a (e* (1 + tan«0)" 0) . the approximaand even to the squares Because tion extending to the third order inclusively. 518. in the course of ages and wliatever may be the changes that they undergo from tlieir secular inequalities.Chap. (Ill) 517. f^izi^ tlic and ^^[^^Jli^ are the areas described by radius vector of 2. of the disturbing forces. Similar expressions exist for the bodies . on xdz inf zrfy — dt zdx l!if and dt ydz = J a{\ . 519. VI. = 2m ^/T + 2m'^' But the last •\ &c. member is altogether constant hence m '/a'{e'+ tan«0) + m' 'To' {e'^+ It cities tan«0') + &c. sin 0. These relations exist whatever the eccentricities and inclina may be. was shown that when the squares and products of the eccentriin the eccentricities and inclinations are omitted. = constant.e'«) cos 0' + &c.
286 are the same as SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN THE if all [Book II. same as if the orbits were circu&c.. so that by the substi tution of jp jj' = tan sin = tan 0' sin &c. 0'. Va'(l— e'*) (146) all constant. q=. cos 7 =3 1 7. and that tlie variations in the inclinations are the lar. e"« + &c. . tan cos 0. consequently. it becomes the con mw for I — a . is The constant in the second part of this equation equal to the . Vo^ in &c. ^ . e'. and putting stant quantities in the second member. the tangents of the very small quantities 0. q + m' >J~a' .. e"" + m" Va^ Va tan'^ + results that are m' ^^tan20' + m" tan* 0" = constant the same with equations (136) and (140). 0'. have tlie same is signs. m 'J~a wi . provided the radicals wa. as these quantities vary independently of one another. . p'  + m" 'Ja!' q" + &c. the planets moved in one plane . if it the bodies all move one direction. = constant.w»' iJaJ . p 4. Let there be only two bodies and m'. 521. the mutual inclina m tion of their orbits being cos 7 =r cos cos 0' + sin sin 0' cos (0' — 6) . then if the squares of the equations (144) and (145) be added. e. 0'.=: constant . = constant. Neglecting quantities of the fourth order. the result will be m«a(l e«) + m'a' (1  X COS Y = e'«)+27nmVa(l  e*). 0. in equations (145) they become q' m ^fa m vo . maybe <^ alternately zero in the last equation. (* i> rr e* n + m <Ja' + I / I 47nm' ^faa' sin' v i ii . m V^+ m' xja!^ — 2 sin* j^ =r constant. m" *JaP p" + &c. If quantities of the order of the squares of the eccentricities and inclinations be omitted. which the case in nature may tlierefore be concluded that the elements vary within very narrow limits. the constant quantities in all the preceding equations of condition must be very small. . Since the eccentricities and inclinations of the orbits in the solar system are very small. &c. that is. + 7n' '/a' . $'. g = tan 0' cos &c. .. and 0. may be taken in place of their sines. all 520.
. it becomes e' ae» + m'« . sign. at a given epoch. . C^ being an arbitrary constant quantity. VI. it becomes + m'Wef* — 2mm' a'^a'^nn' cfin 'J \ — t^ vl — e'* cos y = con and if it by the substitution of be observed that c* and a'hi! for v~a and vo^.f^X1+ Vl — e« + 2nim'a'«a«nn' _!!!ll2_ I + C0S7 = C. But because all the . as really the case in nature. dependent of the variation of the elements will be and 7 : its variation m ^^. This relation must always exist among the secular variations of the eccentricities of the two orbits and their mutual inclination. _!!!. each term will then be less than C^. a*a'*nn'. member. a very small quantity with regard to the squares and products of TO and m'. since they are multiplied bye*. Vl  = 1 1 1 + Vle" a/1 7 ' e'« = 1  ^ 1+ Vlc"* cos 7 = 1— . e'*. e'. it ought.] first ELEMENTS OF THE ORBITS. for eJe + m' ^ die' + ^^^' '^^'  yh ^ m v<r+ Jn' V a' 0.o«a'«7in'.e« _ '" ^q^ y 1+^1 _e'« all + 7 cos 7 constant If this value be put in the preceding equation.Chap. to be ine. for at that 287 the elements are member epoch all supposed to be known by observation . aV» + 2mm' Vl — 1 e' . Each term of the first member same of this equation will therefore remain very small with regard to the squares and products of m and in' if all the terms have tlie . If the constant part of equation (146) be included in the second member m*ae' stant. (147) a and a' are constant. cos 7 e« + V 1  + 2mm'. 8in7' and that the mutual C^ is . inclination of the two planes and is their eccentricities are su])posed to be very small. sin* 1 + '' cos 7 then will sjr:r^ JT^TT^ cos 7 =1sin* 1 ^^f'^'^^y 1+ Vl . therefore. and in the second quantities included »»• .
however far the approximation may be. which reduces the equation to m«ae« + «j"aV« + 2mw'aV*//. and remain very small with regard to the squares and products and m'. 1830. and that the other terms of the first member arc positive. that. That is to say. . sitive as Hence the terms in the first member will be po1 . Tlius it may be concluded that the planetary system is stable with regard to the eccentricities. as cos 7 never can become negative. 522. the major axes. Mr. the coefficients e* e'* sin' 7 of the masses will m always remain very small. similar to tliose it. cos 7=0. that their secular variations oscillate between fixed limits in very long periods. whatever the power of the disturbing force whence ried. the inclinations. long as y is less than 90^ But if y = 90°. for. because they are small at present. impossible. in a system subject to the law of gravitation. . then sin 7 = C. Lubbock has shown that these conditions are not necessary He has obtained expres sions for the variations of the elliptical constants. httle inclined to each other but in a very able paper read before the Royal Society on the 29lh April. which are rigor ously true. 524. it follows that 7. contain no term that varies with the time. every term member of the equation under discussion will be positive. planets revolve in the direction rounrl the sun. because the angle 7 never can the inclination.t' = last and the is term is no longer very small with regard which very small with regard to the product of 711 and m'. and the inclinations of the orbits to a fixed plane. to »«»/. II. however far the approximation may be carried with regard to the elements of the orbits. it appears. and the eccentricities attain to 90°. and greater axes of the orbits. since is Q Thus. nt. e. since each of them would only add terms to the will first member compose of the equation under consideration. Tills reasoning would be the same whatever might be the number of planets. of the two orbits. on the hypothesis that all the planets revolve in nearly circular orbits. will have the same sign. e'.288 SECULAR INEQUALITIES IN THE same all [Book n't. even including the second powers of the disturbing forces. La Place and Poisson have proved the stability of the solar system when the approximation extends to the first and second powers of the disturbing force. will always be small in the first . that 523. may be carand the eccentricities.
which. and the sum of the projections on any it is other planes at right angles to solar system that this plane is zero. notwitiislanding the secular variations in the elliptical elements of the planetary system. even in carrying the approximation to the squares and products of the masses. these two equations liave been proved to + be invariable. which of stars. separated by very long intervals of time. 'JaO—V) cos + m' Va'(lc'*)cos 0' + &c. always retaining a parallel position. 289 The Invariable Plane. this difficulty indeed is already perceptible. tan /cos J). and will increase when very accurate observations. C. The second members of c*) cos m'Ja'^l c") cos 0'+&c.Chap. is maximum on that plane. It has been already mentioned that in the motion of a system of bodies there exists an invariable plane. T I ' —^ m m J ^«(le*)sin08ine+m^ \/a'(lg^)sin0^sine^+&c. by article 166 ^ be the longitude C = — c . Tan /sm <J^ = C" — c . The determination of this plane requires a knowledge of the U . may be hence it follows. that the invariable plane retains its posi induce in the course of ages . whatever changes the secular variations may and. VI. by what Mr. because the sum of the masses of the bodies of the system respectively multiplied the areas described by the projections of a by their radii vectores in a given time. C". Lubbock has shown. is easily found.] ELEMENTS OF THE ORBITS. If J be the inclination of the invariable plane on the fixed plane if which contains the coordinates x and y. It is principally in the of importance. proper render it difficult to determine the celestial motions with precision. 526. 525. on account of the motions the and of the plane of the ecliptic. given by equations (144) and (145).e'*)8in0^ cose'H&c. must be compared with each other. and substituting the values of C. whatever the power of the disturbing force they must be constant. si n — *" 'Jo'i}^) m Va( 1 cos g + m''Ja\ 1 . : tion. and of its ascending node.
but he adds. 1767 and 1779.046 days and if its mass had been equal to that of the earth. the comet of 1770 approached so near to the earth that its periodic time was increased by 2. according to the computation if La Place . is the action of the comets on the planetary system insensible. when he computed his astronomical tables from the observations of Dr. as the mutual gravitation of the planets it is sufficient to represent all their inequalities. whereas the celestial bodies are neither homogeneous nor spherical but as the been determined hyx)thesi8 . it would have increased the length of the sidereal year . will appear that in . 528. that had taken place in the length of the year. and its inclination on of the invariable plane was Si = the ecliptic 1=1° 35' 31" . have hitherto been insensible. shows that. = . they do not appear to produce any sensible eflFects by their reaction. the position of the quantities omitted it is here as given. will enable future astronomers to ascertain plane the real changes that tions of tlie may have taken place in the forms and posi planetary orbits. 527. The same comet passed through the Satellites of Jupiter in the years effect. though comets are greatly disturbed by the action of the planets. and of the elements of their Approximate values of these are only known with regard to the planets. is found that at the epoch 1750 the longitude of the ascending node 102° 57' 30". but of the masses of the comets we are in total ignorance . and if the values of the elements for it 1950 be substituted in the preceding formulae. and line of the equinoxes be taken as the origin of the if the it longitudes.290 masses of orbits. hitherto at least. without producing the smallest Tlius. [Book II. since in the it has of the solar system being an assemblage of dense points mutually acting on one another. Maskeljaie whence the mass of the . Besides. J =: 1° 35' 31" The position of this plane is really approximate. all SECULAR INEQUALITIES. by nearly one hour of fiftysix minutes. comet must have been less than the 3^0*5^ part of the mass of the earth. . an increase of only two seconds it would have been de tected by Delambre. the bodies in the system. If the position of the eclijitic in the beginning of 1750 be assumed as the fixed plane of the coordinates x and y. 1950 102° 57' 15" SI Which differ but little from the first. however.
the mean motion dg" = . The differential dfl relates to the arc nt alone. . SJ^ sin .nt + e' is +nt +cct} integral of this equation ezu'}. in . Inclinations.Sfandt dR !iL—= 4 m'a sin SJ.m'a'e m'aV 0~^)^ t(7i'M)+n 3foCos{i(n77i<+6'c) + «<+€CT} (^^^"^ . . — + e' — e) e) e) + m'a^en (i . it From the other dififerential equations in article 439 found that the periodic variation in the eccentricity is 5e may also be = if m'a i(/i' — 7i)+.i Mo co8{f(n'<7J<+«'6) + n<+«w} US . i (n't  ?j< + c'  e) I (n'— n)" ^ + + 4 w'ae ^ i  —^^——— MnSm{i(n't — nt+e''e\Ant\e''cy\ /r r j {i(n'n)+7t}« mW^ (t~l)n' {i(/i'n)+n)}* .1) The distance. . Mq sin {i(n'tjit + e' — Ml sin {i(n't .M^Bin{i(n'tnt{e'^e)+nt+e'a'}.1) + mfa^e'n (i. i{n'n)+n In a similar manner may be found that the periodic variation in is. consequently in article the difTerential equation da = i 2a' (n't . Variations depending on the first Powers of the Eccentricities and 529. <*.291 CHAPTER VII. the periodic variation in the mean + nt + and if represented by Ja. dU nt 439 becomes da =+ m'a* . Ja = — m'a* H— n'n 2 Ai cos i (ji't — n< + c' — e) . then . PERIODIC VARIATIONS IN THE ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETARY ORBITS. Ml it cos {i(n77i< + e'6) + n^+ew'}.
i) + 2/t ' + lm'a. — nt + e' — c) + f„.2/i ^'lC08{/(n'<JJ<^e'e)+2. \V1ien ticle e*.n) + im'fle' —r—r 1(«'7Z) iV. tlie differentials of p and 9 in ar 437 become dp dq = ahidt sin = (tj^ f e) i? dz a'wd< cos (nt + c) '!^.0 . sin i (n't — 7U + e' — c) + imW' _—JL__ l(/t'7j)+2/l iVTi sin { j(n'/. + Im'ae 71' —n ^ 4. s Tlie variation in the longitude of the periheHon cla= ^m'rt i{n' — n) + n Mosin { t(n'^— .J<+26 ctct'} 7ii) .w/f 6'.m'a^e' —^ iiti'n) —' da sin { ^ ^ i(n'tjit+e'c)47il+e Jr r zs'}.e' i (n' — n) j.cr'} e) 7J) (. .i7 + i m'at?' —^— iVi cos {i i(n  n< + — e'  ct n) + c) ro'}.292 PERIODIC VARIATIONS IN THE cos i (ii'l [Book II. ey.j^ + t'c) + 7j/+cCT } \ +m'ae— i{n7i)+2n N^&ln {i (n'tnt + e'e)+'2/U + 2e—2m + mac . e'y. —— V 2V. The ie variation of the epoch ( L ) = — ma' —— — \da — J a iin'ii) i sin i (n't nt + e' c' — e) + im'a<? i{n' — n) + n +n +n Mo sin { i (n't  nt + — + nt\ e— ct[ e  vi'a'e ^ da sin { i (n't^nt + e'  c) + 7it + rs} i(/i'— .i mfae »(/t— .6) + 2/j/+2c cTto' } • + i m'a^ —— ^  Nt • sin { i (^n't «<+«' — c) '^ + e) ct — to' } •• »(»'.i mW —^ — Nt cos {i (n7 — z(/i +c' — c) + ct . »»" { » («'<  7J< + «'  — cr + cr' > ^ . are omitted.
Tlie equations which determine the variations in the greater axes and to very mean motion show that these considerable periodic variations. aV«2 5c^.) 7 I u(. z = 0. VII. 11). dq.n } .^. and = its a'7 sin (n't + e' — the products of the inclination by the eccentricities being omitted. 1 I e' n) TT\ a'* + where zero. i 530. therefore dR —dz must be determined from R rr a" + — — i L 4 2 Bi cos t (n't — «< + + e' — c) . ^y\}—sm(n'tsin (rt7 nt + e'  eII)  L_x + + en)}}.] ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETARY ORBITS.i'— n i —L_ (n't cos (i (n't 7i< + e'  e) + H) + — 1 n) + 2n cos { _ 71/ + e'  c) 4 2nt + 2e . tlieir integrals are When So = . Jfi cos t (n't — 7J< e' — €J. dR __ az — m' = __ y sm { (n't + ' r / /. _?_ 7^'7» cos { n't nt +  e'  e) . whence —= and 2. £ ^ a'l may I?(^_.) Ysin { i(?i'i  7i< + e'  6) + w<+en } be any whole number. two elements are subject depending on the con .Chap. except this quantity is substituted in dp. ^ 4 y [}— cos (n't +  W< + £' + e ._. 293 When the orbit of m at the z' epoch is assumed to be the fixed plane. differential is not.n} J  ^ aV/j2 4 i(n' 5(. positive or negative. 1 sin { I (n't nt + ii' 'e) 2nt + 2€^m\ II) — .) Y \—l ^ — n) sin u 4 + 7t'/ + 6' ( i (n't + nt + e' e)_ ri) ' («' — Iq =. Now although z be zero.
. may be stead of a. when the &c. the divisor i'nf — in. + of Sa = 0.t»y^  q + q. e. arbitrary constant quantities &c.294 PERIODIC VARIATIONS. ff.. evidently arising in the former. + «/ e {. e^. as in reality contain but six arbitrary constant quanti they ought to do. that . [Book i (ii' II. in the troubled orbit they are + Of + la. suppose the }>erturbations of the planet val of time. . Ja^. increases the values of these periodic variations very much.... being the values of 5a. + tq. &c. &c.. 5e. tion. &c. during the time under consideration. p+p„ J.e^ + Se . tliey will then be functions of the time and of the six constant quantities a + a^. &c.. &c. &c. for they unnecessary to add constant quantities to the preceding may be included in the elements of elliptical moe tion. arise entirely from the disturbing therefore. is There lestial no instance of the mean motions of any two of the i'7i' ce bodies being so exactly commensurable as to have — in=0.\ . Je. e^ + Je. tlic they must also be zero at the epocli a^. m were required during a given interc. cr Scr + Je . Since to'.. are obtained from the equations a. The < epoch when = quantities a. elliptical ele Ja. e + e^. e Je. 5e. periodic variation in the For tliis reason the mean motion is much greater than that in the greater axis. : so that the formulae of troubled motion ties. values of force. e. and still more its square. from the double integration 531. at the epoch. &c. It is integrals. are very small quantities of the order substituted in the latter quantities in o f + e„ &c. therefore the greater axes and mean motions have no secular in but in several instances this divisor is a very small fracequalities. &c.. 6 f e^.. &c. p+ p. ct^ + Jct = 0. e„ &c. f SJ = 0.. e^. in the elliptical orbit.... divisor — w) + w or iV — in b very small. and as a quantity is increased in value when divided by a fraction.\lp\q\ q. a. In order to determine cfy. The ments effect will tiie disturbing forces upon each of the be completely expressed by a. e. assuming the dis turbing force to be zero but as a^ + 5a. are given by observation at the is. CT f CT/. which then become a and + a„ a e + e^. + variations of the elements of the orbits are determmed. + Sa. ^gurations of the bodies. &c. Thus both the periodic and secular.
was employed by La Grange but La Place's method. quantities in series tricities ascending according to the powers of the eccenin article 399. In the elliptical hypothesis the radius vector and true longi tude are expressed. . the troubled orbit as an ellipse whose elements are . these quantities as well as those of . chosen to make it so. and its latitude pm.295 CHAPTER VIII. varying every instant. projected longitude and curtate distance only differ from the true longitude and distance on the orbit by quantities of the second will determine the 533. when its curtate dis tance Sp. being arbitrary. its projected longitude ySp. and inclinations are given and those following. can only have arisen from the besides the epoch may be small secular variation in the elements if it . especially in the higher approximations. The by considering following very elegant method of finding the perturbations. the same series motion of the planet in its real perturbed orbit. in article 392. The position of a planet in space is fixed fig. supposing the planet to move in a perfect ellipse but if values of the elements of the orbits corrected by their periodic and secular variations be substituted instead of their elliptical elements. PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS IN LONGITUDE. as will readily ap pear be considered that any inclination the orbit may have acquired subsequently to the epoch. The order with regard to the inclinations and when the orbit at the epoch is assumed to be the fixed plane. 534. these are known. AND DISTANCK 532. provided the orbit at the epoch be taken as the fixed plane : circumstances which greatly facilitate the deter mination of the perturbations. The determination of these is three coordinates in func tions of the time the principal object of Physical Astronomy . which will be explained afterwards. has the advantage of greater simplicity. Hence the perturbations in the longitude and radius vector may be determined as if the orbits were in the same plane. 77. and the latitude may be found in the hypothesis of the orbits being circular. LATITUDE. by . the latitude that depend on the product of the inclination by the eccentricity are so small that they are insensible. .
it a differential of the its first order . dl.rfu2a But J f— . C^. da d^ rfe de de dru rff de drs and if 529 be substituted instead of the values of the periodic variations in the elements in article ia. radius vector and true longitude will be obtained extending inclusively. dv = Vg(ir* O . &c. e. (n< a (1 + Je* — e cos + — ©) — Je» cos 2 (n/ + e — o)) . e. ct + Sar .U./de. to the first 535. (f.dv. Perturbations in the Radius Vector. therefore Xo = Cf^ . J^. The perturbations in longitude . the perturbations in the the approximation and inclinations the of eccentricities powers . Aa. r s= By article 392.—^5c 2a 1e* .du2. cr). + ^r. V = = 2" functions functions .^\dv when those (148) in the radius vector will give the perturbations in longitude are known. the integral is Su=Jl. c. 536. . ought not to change form when the elements vary hence and neglecting the squares of the disturbing forces.. (a. e + Se. an equation belonging both to the since it is elliptical and to the real orbit. 1 — e* J T h A = Va. ' then^ = —. but in the true orbit these quantities become e a therefore + Jo. S". e. may be expressed under a more simple form for by article 372. + ^e. on that account .(lc*). .296 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS IN r [Book II. «3).
and substitution for JWo. sines after be substi the reduction of the products of the and cosines to the cosines of multiple arcs.] LONGITUDE. 297 whence Jr = (Sa . Having thus determined the perturbations in the radius vector.Z. Sf.2. .e'. If the values of Ja. . N^. (149) m' . 5ct. — h will be obtained.Gi. + an' ^l da ) ' J 1 7l' 3/t +« }*.Ci. the term is known . cos {i(n7 — f — e) m'. LATITUDE. 537.^.) +n da* J » (n' da The Perturbations in Longitude. Ni iVj. 2.f^i. and if substitution be made for ia r and Je. sin {iOi't — nt + c) + 7it + m'e'.F. from article 529. + w< + e — t^}. VIII.i'_/. AND DISTANCE.w'}.. sin { 7(7i7  7i< } e'c) + 7j< + eo} + e . cos i {7i't  vt + 7i< 7l< e> «' e' c). = ~ 7i*— i'(n' j^ ' __ t— 7t n)* Ui /_22_ a^.aeJw sin (/tf+c^cr)) ( H2e cos (7j<+6ct)) — 3e^a cos (nt + — rs) + 2ae^e+ae (^(T+^O sin + e— e (/J< cr). Je. from article 459. Se. tuted in this expression. and the integral of ecjuation Jt7 (148) will give = + ^ 2.2.aje cos (. cos{iOi7 + — e) + w< + e — w}. sin i(ji't nt{ e' — t' c) m'e.Di. it becomes ^=^ + + where C. Ml. from article 529.i<+e .Chap.Hi.'^* { »(«'«)  ^j _ ' i'(n'Ji){i(n'n)n]3n* 7l« ^ * 71 {i(/l' 71) + «}*»' — n) + n I i(. <?.to) .
In order to find it. 540.l)(2z.i) . whence where Ir = ^ 2 Ml.29S Where PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS IN [Book II. = 1.2 n'*n i A^. the be Iv = m'a \. the only constant R term introduced by this value into Jr will be 2 \ da J Again. let 'the origin of the time be at the instant of the conjunc7n'. in the series 539. 2 (/I — !L 7t') I 71 — 7l' G. 2 extends to all positive values of from z = 1 to i = oo. includes : zero excepted Sr and determined in the latter case. oA. ii'n Ai. either positive or negative. . nU . If i rr in article 449. would produce a constant term in Jr.0. in finding the integral Sa the arbitrary constant a^ that ought to have been added. and the Sa first term of Sa in article 529 becomes = a"  27w'o2 JL. tion of the two bodies 7n and when whence cos 7i't — 7j< + e' — 6 = 2 . which is very important. because gives the part of the perturbations that is not periodic. da 27n'a« JL. In these values of &r and Jr.l)wa' 2 (i (n' il  n) + i ± all 1 7i) 2E'J \ whole numbers.i' — —n} +67i ^1 ' 2^ jy I = i(7i' ^ — 7l) + 71 ^ ^'"'^ f . If these values of Sr result will and la be put in equation (148). Jt> will now be it 538.(i.2A i{/(.l)7iaJ(i.^^Aia(M±^ Kn'n da \ J) . = i(ft'— 7l)+7ll 7l'— \^lr2> 7i n) .
and are applied as corrections to the equation of the centre. orbit of ii/l at that instant the disturbing forces were Let mean motion of m given by observation. must therefore be determined so that the mean motion of the troubled planet may be entirely contained in that part of the longitude represented by v. and of the perturbais the only quantity in the : problem of three bodies that increases with the time the equation of the centre is a periodic correction which is zero in the apsides and at its maximum in quadratures of the sines of the mean and the perturbations being functions longitudes of the disturbed and disturbing . — the tions.Chap. and riodic. The arbitrary constant quantities introduced by integration. and in the preceding equations. c. of the equation The mean motion of the planet of the centre. mean motion. The values of a. This term only introduced by integration. it is therefore equations their nature. n. then the second of the equations under consideration gives . since the differential of the perturbations contain no such terms . are r «: those parts of the radius vector and true longitude that And as by 392 the elliptical parts »=«< + are not periodic are expressed by n'—n \n'n in the real orbit. < e. of longitude of a planet in its disturbed orbit consists of three parts. which vary periodically but in immensely long periods. VIII. bodies are consequently periodic. elliptical values are for the epoch = 0.] LONGITUDE. AND DISTANCE. were that really the case. ct. be the and would be the if of the ele ments of the to cease. \ da J \ da J) Tims the perturbations in longitude seem to contain a term that increases indefinitely with the time . or that do not depend on sines and cosines. 541. the stability of is tlie solar system would scon be at an end. All the coefficients of these quantities are functions of the elements of the orbits. m. and may be made to vanish by a suitable deforeign to however In fact the true termination of the arbitrary constant quantities. LATITUDE. article 299 of r and v that are not pe=i a.
&c. PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS IN be the [Book II. in consequence of the introduction of the arbitrary constant quantities n^ and a^.. n + n^ and a + a.'). first powers of the eccentricities found by making i in the values of Sa.St> = a. in article after which their substitution in Jr of article 536. The 529 may be .iy  7i)*» (<^/^)*> which are very small be omitted. it —C = become 2m'a' \ da J) and as a may be put tions (150) for a. will give part of 5r depending on the = The corresponding part of So from article 535 is + a^{2A2. . 542. resulting from the equation. instead of n and a.. and the motion of the disturbed planet is altogether included in the part of the longitude expressed by v. mean distance corresponding to n. the equa ri^r r j. in the terms multiplied by m'.  be put for and ttj. and substituting «5 for n^ .300 and let a. and if (. n* If in this last expression W/ = — ?. — a.(^)K(^)} and if Bin („* +. = n^< + Thus So no longer mean contains a term proportional to the time.^mW^^ 6. If the different parts of the value of Sr and iv be added. . 5e. then 2/1 (n^ — n) = — becomes (n'—yi — a (a^ — a) .
m'. tjp &c. they must give c^ \ U— 0.2. COSl{7l't~7lt\c' — e) — + it? + e — cy) — m'e'f cos (lit + e— cr') + e — ct} m'. which complete (149).f. no longer contain any arbitrary quantity.e) + + e . It has been already observed that each of the periodic variaSfl. &c.H<. &c. (r) (») be the elliptical values for the given ^^ i^rticle 392.. and the sum of all will be perturbations in these two coordinates arising from the disturbing action of the whole system on the planet m.Z>i.Ei.e'.e rs} . AND DISTANCE.ra'}. their integrations. sin(7if + + m'.e. ci^ f id r= 0. VIII. so that their true values \'te.(^)ia.2./. &c.] LONGITUDE. byt corre<?te^ secular . 5e.. resulting will Substituting these values in place of 5e. 543. 2 Cj. e. r. Hence. sin (n« + cct') — nt + — t) + nt \. action of each disturbing will produce a similar effect tions f^.2. ouglit to contain an arbitrary constant quantity a^. 5». the values of 5r. these constant quantities must be so determined.Chap.+ e) + + ccj'}.f". LATITUDE.. Now.(^)} and true longitude of m The periodic inequalities in the radius vector when troubled by m'. sin { The c .e'.e'. sin { + m'. introduced a^ if by .e.2.e. as was done with ia.2. cos (nt 71< 71/ 7j< W .. &c. cr^ are + Sa e^ + Sci . e. cos {i (/*'<. Gi.F<.+ . 301 r=i{3«A3.. Sct.2.w) i {ii't i (ti'^ + 2m' . =_ 2 sin I (n'<  7i< + c'  + 2m'. are J_ = 6 a °a/( ] \daf J + . in equation will values those the of 5r and Iv. but will express the whole change of r and in the longitude and distance arising from the action if of the disturbing forces. that when < = 0. &c.C08{l(7l7— n< + e'— e) + c' + m'.' 7i< e' 7i< body on the radius vector and longitude of m. arc to express the effects of the dis turbing forces on the radius vector and longitude during a given time. &c.
Perturbations in Latitude. be the inclinations and longitudes of the nodes of the orbits of m and m' on this new plane inclination of the tersection. 6. 0'. the radius vector m in its troubled orbit will be determined by r =: (r) r Sr. .«) f.sin (nt + e) — 5p cos (nt + «)> sin (nt Sg. + = (t?) + Jr. variation of the elements. Y latitude of sin n =y— 9 sin (nt jj .n\a'a' ^^ 2 n* "^''^^ »i'« ~ n' a'*' f! 7 sin ^ (n't + . and if 0. 0'. then by article 437 a and in then this case y = a — a + e). y cos U =: q' — q. x =: a cos (nt + «)> = Sg.9)8'nC"'< {i(7i'—n) +  (P' P) cos (n7 + 6')} + n\*—n' e) sin (i(n't — nt + e — — nt 4" « { + nt + e) 2 gin (i{jU {i(/»'n)*ln)*n* — »»' 4" *)• .302 PERTURBATIONS OF THE PLANETS IN and longitude of [Book II. then will « = + e) — p cos (nt + ^') e) + ^T^ n'* — n mn I 2 ^ a'* {(«' . two orbits.n) ^ — (n+i(n'—n)ysin{i(n't'nt+^'€)+nt+€^n). and if (. 544. . and then as y is the tangent of the mutual 11 the longitude of their mutual in by article 444. If these values be substituted in 5s. the orbit at the epoch being the fixed plane. and substituting the values of from article 529. B^^ Now if a plane very little inclined to the orbit of //i be assumed for the fixed plane instead of that of the orbit at the epoch. and the products of the eccentri cities by the inclination.5s r= s be the whole m in • its troubled orbit above the fixed plane. ^p. e' h= ^m'. If the second powers of the masses be omitted as well as tlie squares of the eccentricities.
but to long would lead and intricate reductions. in! 303 the Tlie two terms independent of fixed are the latitude of m above remains on the plane of its primitive orbit. the perturbations depending on the may be obtained. If the exact latitude of be substituted for these two terms. Each the disturbing planet will add an expression to s similar to Is the whole will be the true latitude of sum of all m when troubled by the bodies in the system. tliis plane when m m expression will be more correct. By other powers and products of the eccentricities it a similar process. 545. deduced directly from the equations (87). VIII. exempt. LATITUDE. AND DISTANCE.] LONGITUDE. . .Chap. from which La Place's is method.
dy. because the motions of that body alone are under consideration .^^^^ Tlie integral of which is evidently d^+_dyl + d£ dt* _ 2^ r + Ji ^ayj^^ a (152) is Tlie differential of only relative to the coordinates of w. SECOND METHOD OF FINDING THE PERTURBATIONS OF A PLANET IN LONGITUDE. y. It 1^ Tlie sura of these equations respectively multiplied dz is dxd^x + dy d^y dt* + dzd^z . h from the three general equations. Determination of the general Eqttations. 546. the same and added to the preceding integral. R the greater axis of the orbit of m when R is zero. AND DISTANCE. fiz ~ dR dz' by dx. respectively multiplied by j. fijxdx + ydy r' + zdz) .304 CHAPTER IX. and Again. give zd^z xd^x yd'y + + " dx* + dy* dl* + dz' . LATITUDE. a is an arbitrary constant quantity introduced by integration it is half . /*(j' + y* + r» a?*) d^ . z. To determine the perturbations h\ ^r. equations. ^+ d(^ f^ r" = ^ dx d^z .
then mh* = ma* ma wiA* =: dr* jrtTx j. ^r. hence But = dx* ^V* + = + d{xdx ydy + zrfz) . and if to <rf)0(f) the equation becomes i^ii4. mSh. <Zr. tion Consequently.il Letrfy be the indefinitely small angle + rH'. the equations in ques become dt* f* J ^ Sfirir 2i*dv . including the terms that were at first omitted. members of this equation are equal abridge rR' be put for to 305 J the third The two is lL. 80 that the equation in question becomes. In solving equations by approximation. then the value so found is substituted in the equation.d^r  rR' dl* dt^ and eliminating t^^L.^ = 2/d. and the remaining terms will give the perturbations. the parts containing the elliptical motion may be omitted. + It in is evident. but if r . and SA =r+ =: rclr. dSt) _ r(P^r — ^r. since contains the first powers of the disturbing action already.r'du* + r*dy* rf**» zd*z j . and a sought.Chap.^r Now r Xr be put for r and v in the preceding equations. 89.JL^^Lr'. Td^r7».(c/x« + dy« + dz*) = rd*r . fig. new value is values of r and v have been determined in the elh'ptical orbit by omitting the parts containing the disturbing forces. r» r 547. first . iL r = rR' whence d^ de __ d^ rdi* .3/d*y and ah = f" + ah* . a value of the un known quantity is found by omitting some of the smaller terms. that this substiit tution must not be made B. contained between Sm but = r. IX.] SECOND METHOD. from the second by means of the first .dv* dl* ^ . however.
be taken in place also of their sines mh* and as pc» rdv' = mE» + EA« mE = + „ cB* + EA» r = mh\ (I pB. there fore both may . right angles to scribe the arc and de dius Sp. curtate distance at 89. . cB *' = J. will be zero at that instant . and the J!ff. Sp= Vl r Draw inE + BA . Now pc with the rathe arc mh being its indefinitely small. if the latitude be estimated from a known position of the orbit of the planet itself at any given epoch. and must on that accoimt be very small. = cio v/o + Vl (154) + s» rfo' is known when dt is determined however. and any latitude the i)lanet may have at a subsequent period. __ dr(l\s*) — rsds V1 Again + + O^ mp ^ sr Vl + s* And (1 + «')i hence but mh* = J£^ + mA« dT^+ = i^dv f dr». the tangent of the latitude. d^r}  dl^jS/dR + 2rR') does not lie all r'dv The integral of the angle dv = mSh in one a value of that indefinitely small angle in functions of its projection pSB dv'. but easy to obtain = mp = s. = ^(^> .. .306 d^v 548. ^r + 2r . it Thus . SECOND METHOD OF FINDING [Book II. it is plane. projection ^B is indefinitely small. then Sm := r. «•)« and lastly. dv' ^. For let pB be the projection of the arc mh on the fixed plane of the ecliptic. can only arise from the disturbing forces. instead of from the fixed plane of the ecliptic.
hence. 89.^r+dr. m at the epoch is taken as the fixed plane. substituting this value of z in the third of the equations article 546.550.Ch»p. (157) if it A little value of h may easily be found from and be then is which desired to refer the position of the planet to a plane inclined to that of its but primitive orbit. small quantity tude V so that i^ra* which may be r cos » . and may therefore be represented by hence a := ri*. therefore 307 . omitted. must J« . 0. Since the orbit of m in longitude. Also the radius vector at = only differs from the curtate distance — s= by the extremely true longi.dRi2rr(^)dt)}(lb6) which determines the perturbations of 551. and then dv dv'. fig. d< hence the value of rfSi? becomes and its integral is ^ ^r= i2rd. 549. therefore i^dv = \//*a(l — e*) dt = na* Vl — e* .^r_an ^s/fdt. 8 and ds will be so small. may any given time. DL] THE PERTURBATIONS OF A PLANET. It was shown in article 372. that r'dv is the area described by the body in the indefinitely small time dt. X8 it will only be necessary . to have been the orbit of the planet m squares r. the equation which determines the perturbations in the radius vector becomes ^ d«« r» \drj . it And of motion in becomes £^s dt* /i_^ _ r» ^= dz this . and then the may be estimated on the plane SN =r ( x = NpB y without sensible enor Nj/ = r sin u . the only latitude the planet will have at a subsequent period arise from the perturbations. Assuming NpB. and as z — is ] so small that it may be omitted. that their be omitted.
. When JR i = {n't . n< + «' — c) = n< 1. and as HR the diflerential of JR with regard to nt alone.ia(^dl)\ cos i \daj\ (n't  «<+e'e). cos m' — ^Ai i cos j (///  nt + e' — «). Supposing the orbits to be circular. + n^rir n^rSr = 2m f 2m'g ^2 2 — (^) V da J \daj ( ) + "^^llJlL 2 ln7i' A. = is — A^ + — 1. the preceding equa tion. to add to this value of is the latitude of the planet. therefore 2/dil + r f^\ = + — —a « + !^ e' cos i whence ^ df} dt^ (n't — nt c) . A— n*. less than the errors 553. and so on. . Ai C09 i (n't — + *' — «). till the remaining or rejected quantities are of observation. 552. containing the squares and products of the eccentricities and inclinations. first powers of the eccentricities that is again and a third value of Jr is obtained. after tiiese substitutions. and a new value of Ir found.308 SECOND METHOD OF FINDING [Book it II. and by 383. not Perturbations in the Radius Vector. . becomes and in this case 11= 0. including the substituted. then r~' article = a~^ . These arc obtained by successive approximations from the equation A value is ^ ^ + of Ir is first = 2/dR + r (^\ . . that value is determined by omitting the eccentricities substituted in the same equation. supposing to quit the plane of its primitive orbit. And if the mass of the planet be omitted when compared with that of the sun taken as the unit.
first powers of the eccentricities are included. 2. then + B'a* (n*  »• (7i'  71)*) cos i {n't  7i< + e'  e).ir. n< 71 + af4£LM.«<+ e'.cos{»(nVr. When the approximation. IX. and because by article 536. ft . X cos « p __ \nn' \ da J) n*—i* («'— 7t)* — = 2m'ag^ — a 2 which is a« f \ da / ^^ + ^ 2Q cos 2 t (/i'<.He^0 +«— \ da /J o'}. B^2m<ag+V^a^(M^.+ a f^^iMc cos{i(n'<n«+«'e)+n<+««) 2 \x{ji—n')—n \da 20l)n + ^x{ — 2 u(7i 71')— + M. 2 da \ J B' = ^' «"• . r» = Ja' { 1 + 3e cos (n< + c  tsr) } .e cos (n<+«w) = 2/di2 + r(^\ \drj R = — 1 Mo e COB {i (n't nt^ €>€) + nt+ew} j —2 Aft c'co8{t(7t7— n<+o'— €)+n< + 6 — w'} therefore 2/dJl + r ('^^ J) = ' ^ 2{l(!zI>L. Af.Chap. the first 554. {_?^ ^. „«_i«(„_w')« .«) . ^ dC but and therefore + nV5r+3n«a . 309 The integral of this equation is —=: B + a* B' .] THE PERTURBATIONS OF A PLANET. + « fj^^l and so «• 2 Vda/ in the first 2 or if a be put for r (n't—nt + e' — c) member. B and B' being indeterminate coefficients. e>. cos i Oi't — nt + e'  e). And comparing the coefficients of like cosines.
^.cco8{t(«'^7i<+e'e)+7i<+et*y}1 where i 2{Krt'70+n}«2»»\+2. and of the preceding value of — j 1.w} . a de 2 ^ i X 2 .B'a«{n*(t(7»'n)+7i)"} e'co8{z(7i7n<+e'6)+7i< + 6tD'} If to abridge i(7i— n') — 71 da da i(/i — 7i')— 71 7l«{z(/t7l') and because a*ii* = + 7i}«' f 7i*{2(7i7l') + ' 71 }» 1 . according to the theory of linear equations the integral of —— + Ti'rJr = dl* must be added. cos (/i/(l + c') + ecj') .e/cos{i(7i7n<+«'e)+7i<+ecj'} J may have any whole value. + ^'. e cos { I (7i't — nt + e' e' — („_„') _n e) da + nt + ^ cs] e « •— li(n7i')« e' .310 SECOND METHOD OF FINDING [Book II.cos{i(n77J<+6'€)+7i<+€. where c and & are given functions of the elements but if it be assumed generally done.n« + €' — e) + e — ct'} B and B' being indeterminate coefficients. and then . iHS dt* + 7i*rSr = VL Ba«{n«(i(n'n)+n)'}. The true integral of this equation is = m'fe I^ tr as is . that the elliptical elements have already been corrected by their secular variations c and c' may be omitted. r5r__y "~ a* m'n^ +^i. except zero. But in order to have the complete value of — . cos (7i<(l+c) + cci) + m'/V.c. cos Let — = — 5e a* { i (^n'l — n< + — e) + i \ da J) n< e) + t«y'}. By the substitution of this quantity. 2 cos { {n't — n< + e' — + w< + + 7i< e — cr} + then — B'e' cos { i (ji't . positive or negative.
e) + {i (n't (7i< . and be put for r.cos n< + + . so that + a<^^l n«2:^aJ. { i (/t' — 7i) + 71 }* — W' consequently ?L a = 2m'<7^+ n^ 2 . perturbations in longitude may now be found from equa tion (156) which becomes. + +^ 2 I \. . \da J {n'tnt+. it will be found that the coeffi cients in this expression are identical with those in article 536. By the substitution of the preceding values of found that the perturbations in longitude are R and ir will be .2. m'f. .cos{i(n'tnt+B'€)+nt+*^in} i'w n)+n}*n*J l.] THE PERTURBATIONS OF A PLANET. z= m'fe COS (nt 311 ^ a* first {€.Chap. 555.1. 1 !iJ^f If substitution be made and Z. cos t (/I'i . cos { i 7t/ Perturbations in Longitude. 2^«^..e'. Fi.'^e) ^! 2 {n^iXn'Jif) e .e.+ !!!^^ ^ =rA. IX. c' .+a'^^Mcos \nn' \da J) e' . then will a (1 — ? ) cos {nt + e  cr) — a + + "HL. cos (n< + e — w) + e — ct) + in' /' — — nt^e' (n't e) +nt + e rs] — — e e' e' .ir a*.w'}.1. a« /'^^ + \ rfa / ^ 2 2 . for Ki + ^ . The . when e' is omitted.cos{z(n'<7i/+6'6)+n<+6CT'}. cos (n< + e — ct) + ^J?i cos (nt + c — cr') .n< + ^' + + + m' .. = '2m'ag + — aM — 2 m'f' . If all the parts of that have been determined in this a* if and in the approximation be collected.7idt _ g^^/j^^^jj^ ^^ _ ^anfr ^ (^^ \drj it dt. c.. 5r = ^rd. c . l/tn' \ da Ji — 7/)* 71* — J* («' C. C.fe cos m' 2 D< .^r+dr. tn' . rs) + m'f'e' cos {ixt + e ~ ro'). . and fi — or'n' = 1.
orbit of the planet. da + 2 a^ ^ rfa* ts') { C. is the constant part of the radius vector in the troubled Tims a is not the mean distance of the planet from the sun in the troubled orbit.2m'ag S» + i^m'a'* f^^ + a' T^^") • r t) + = n< + 6 m'(3ag ^' 5 + Su if it is the mean and be asumed that end of the time t longitude of the planet at the this longitude is the same as the elliptical .^\ ^r + = a . will and in the orbit it really describes. r g = ^^af. + 2^^  2/ = i_a^^ .Al±aA.^ da* 2/'.n'Y nt + e i {n—Ji') [li'i^in' «> } J t' — c) .i.e sin (nt — 2 Gj sin { i {nt rn'e' 2 i/j sin {i (nt m'e + wi'/V sin {nt + c — w') —nt+e — vj^+nt + e — ct} — nt ^ e — \.(^^\] i (71 2 sin I i {n't — •{• .312 SECOND METHOD OF FINDING St) [Book II.—a' (^:d±\ 6 \ da J which orbit. as it is in the elliptical orbit.m'a (3s + a ( Ml\ . 556.nt + e — rs'] zj) where / = f' •^ Za'^Ml. this condition determine g. Whence and. nt \ da J f 2. + + + m'f. they become lr=ia\. as before. + a. a' J^ 2 as da . In the latter case a is deduced from the mean motion by the equation 1 a' whereas in the troubled orbit it is 6 Therefore the \da J mean motion and periodic time are different from what . If all the periodic terms be omitted in the expressions r ^ "^r and v r + + ^f . = .
and i may have any 557. be made zero .] THE PERTURBATIONS OF A PLANET. co&(nt+€i3) \m' . was very very embarrassing to mathematicians.c) + nt + s . longitudes .Chap. cos (w<(l+c')+cro').e' .f. The integral (/j/(l !!^=m' .e. but they will vanish from tv if f. cos (/»<+«— w') — m' . The on the perturbations in the coordinates of a planet depend on is.f.//'e' sin (nf f  cr') belong to they form a part of the equation of the centre. the per and as the arbitrary constant quantity C may i turbations in the radius vector and longitude of 5r m are nt = + !!L' o» 6 + (M£\ da \ J ^ 2 2 + n< C. but terms of the form + e s cT). c'nt. except zero.ct'}. the angular distances of the disturbed and disturbing bodies. and unchangeable in their quantity by the subsequent action of the other bodies of the system. IX. and //.cos a* +c) +ew)+m'. cos (n't + e'  e) (158) m'ft cos (nt + 6 — ct) m'f'e' cos (nt + + Jo m'e^Di cos { i (n't m'e' 2 El cos { i (n't — — nt + + t' e' e' — — t) e) e) + e — cj') + + « — ct} + + e — ra'} 7j< jit . c. because the tcnns containing .f . . that differences of their ffi sin {lit mean . 8in(«<+e— ra') it .e and as it cnt . The coefficients being the same as whole valu&. is given under form by direct integration. c'. in that case da '' da* »^J ' ^ ^a da*) be made zero./'./. ain (nt+evs) this —m' f . . which are perelliptical motion fectly arbitrary. in article 537. by the resolution of the cosines becomes !^ = a' m' . but wlien once they are produced they are permanent. e! . 313 they would have been had there been no disturbance. =^ + + m'e 2 Fj sin i (n't — nt { — (159) 2 Gi sin { i(n7 — 7J< + «' — e) + n< + « — «»} m'e' 1 Hi sin { t (71't — nt + e' .
the next fit. the arcs cnt. Herschel observes. as coefficients. Set. yf* + + &c. as Mr. e .n) sin { i + — m' 2 J3(<. such as cj). cos (nt periodic terms.314 SKCOND METHOD OF FINDING [Book II. increase indefinitely with the time. and in the fifth chapter. c'nt. by this manner of integration. 1772. 558. by which. Acad.) 7 (n't  7i< + «'  e)+7t<+«n} in . the differential of which y would produce them. that liave the arc 7it as coefficient. Wlien. from the effect of an imperfect approximation. and would lead to erroneous conclusions as to the stability of the system and the general laws of its perturbations. R form A . its sta expression (98) bility vector does not contain a term that increases with the time. is it is obvious that we should mistake the nature of this inequality. but never the sines or cosines of the powers of arcs . that degrees a first In stopping here. . and that a really periodical function. Now. and. of the Mecanique Celeste. cos ( <x \ + ftt + y(^ + Sfc. at end. neither would soon be The for the radius consequently the arc nt could not be introduced into the differential equation (155). but by approximation giving only «. are introduced under A « their developed form + ^< 4. unless R contained terms of the does the series . Perturbations in Latitude. . terms that increase with the time are introduced. the powers and products of sines and cosines introduce the sines and cosines of multiple arcs. in the Mem. and so on. and therefore the differential equation (155) does term that contain increases not with the time. the method of reducing tlie integrals to the periodic form will be found in a Memoir by La Place. and if such inequalities really had existence in our system. second book. consequently jR does not contain terms of the preceding form. in the course of integration.. Terms in the any finite equations. not done at once. These are found by substituting £? = dz !!L' o" Y a' Bin (n't + «' . really arise from the imperfection of analysis. would appear under the form of one not periodical. ).
posi: tive or negative. ^Uo8{j(n'/7i/+€'6)+2n<+2«+L} ^ i^L_\ cos { f t(/i'n)+2nj ^ 2 2 {a^' art  (n— n)J Jr.{1 + iV 3e 008 (7i< + e — w) + 3e« cos  2 (/i< + c . iV' . they are assumed to be zero. —i iV . IX. which does not interfere with the generality of the problem. Perturbations^ including the Squares of the Eccentricities Inclinations. i and is more convenient for use may have any whole value. and the product of the eccentricity by the inclination neglected. because.Chap. being arbitrary. + 2Nr i{a__ da . that in article 544.tn)} . ii a = + ^ — n* n* ^7 a'* is sin (n't + e'  U) (160) ^ . where the primitive a*n* orbit of m is assumed to be the fixed plane. zero excepted. = + ^ ^ . When the approximation extends to the squares and products of the eccentricities and inclinations r"* = J. („7n<+6'c)+X' } hence + wVJr+Sn'a . This expression same with No constant quantities are added. 2 Z . and integrating. whence _ 2 + .] THE PERTURBATIONS OF A PLANET. result is Making = 1. cos { i{n't  7J^ +  + L' } . and by il article 451. 315 + at* n* . the .^y 2 a l^iU n*(i(n'w)+n)* the 8in0(n'<n/+e'e)+n<+€n). and 559. rSs = — dz . cos { i {n't TJi + e' •' c) + 2nt + e) 2c +L } . {«r co8(n/+t— CT) + e" cos 2 (n^+e— ta)} .
^^T. C08{ i(n't iC. may have be every value. the only part of and — a  that is requisite is ^ a where = + ^' 2 2 . £'. _ ~ {i(n' { m' . this quantity is substituted in the last When ber for term of the first memdiffe ir.cos{J•(/l'^w< + c'c) + 2/l<+262ra} . the rential equation becomes. E<. positive or negative. rir ~^ f<* ^ .»< .316 SECOND METHOD OF FINDING . given in article 5r)8. must be substituted all term of the first member . C. 2. when integrated by the method of indeter minate coefficients. 2 { ^ a—+NJSl^I^}l—}. but now i can only be a positive whole number. and if D'. but as terms are rejected that eccentricities do not contain the squares or products of the inclinations. =^ 2 . and terms of the second order alone retained. in the But two if made negative two last terms. then ^ a = + + + + ^ 2 2 m'e C< cos i (n't — 7i< + 7i« e' «' e) (161) + e . in the 7i)j The value of a last . zero excepted.+ D^}.e) + 2 Di cos { t (n't — + — e) + 7t< { » . ^ 2 {a— +^ 2 rfa N' Jl—X i(}i — cos { i (n7  nt +c'  c) + L'}. be the coefficients in this case.C0B{i(n't'^t+e'e)+2n+L} ' da i{n' 7i) + 2ii\ .c)+2h<+2cct— cj'} gy + «*^lco8{i(n77i<+66) + 2/t<+L} '^Aun'+(2»)n '^.w} tn'e^D'i cos { — i(n't — nt\.cj'} m'e'2E'<COs{i(n7H< + e'.nt + c'. yt' .e' — e)\nt + c — ct} .jf .nt + e' — e) + nt + e — m'e' 2 Ei cos (n't rs'} + e .^l da) . [Book II. f «'. n) \3n\ {i(n'  n) + ^ n} r\r9\ 2. cos i {n't nt + + \ e'  e) + i 1 2 Di mV 2 Ei m'e cos cos { i (n't { i — ~ nt nt e' e' e) e) (n't ^ + + e — ct} + nt + e ^ r^' } . or otherwise.
it {ie«  e cos (n< + c cr) ic«co8 2 (n<+ero)}.e) . ce' . 2 + 2e — 2w} (163) {«(/i7n<+e'e) + 2/i<+2€otD'} c'  «) + 2nt + where 560. e' ^ da . e« .e+L'}.oi' f cj} — 7d + 2 £j cos {i ^ — .ta} 2 E'i cos {/ (n't nt + +I c) + ct' . that the perturbations in the radius vector depending on the second powers of the eccentricities and inclinations are expressed by be found. Eice' . . !— represents equation (162). i e' n'~n Now in order to obtain the value of — a i!l from this expression it must be observed and when the that I^ a* = J!L . cos { I (n't — 7l< + w< 6'  + e)  fST'} . a a .e) cos {n:t . cos { i (n'<  + e'   w + «'} . . { i (/i' . value of r is substituted it becomes —= — whence a' {l + Je*— e cos(n<+€ — ci) — ^e'cos 2 (w< + e — ci)} — = 1^.nt + + ^ 2 { A + D'j} . elliptical . 2 2 Eite £i .i 2{a« .Chap. e« cos i (n't e) n< + CT e'  e) . . 71) — n} . m' .il a a member. equation (156) gives the pertur bations in longitude equal to « .nt + cos + + + !!i!! . t e' . . substituted in the second If the value of will — from equation (161) be a after the reduction of the products of the cosines.n< + . a a' e* . 2 . . 317 ' ^ — n) + n} {i in' . (ji't e' ee' .] THE PERTURBATIONS OF A PLANET. — . IX. together with those terms of R that depend on the second powers and products of the eccentricities and inclinations. 4 cos { i (n't . With the values of i^ in (163) and a (161). 2{ A + Ui — ^iCi} . — ^ ^ o* ._?^ aN'} cos { {n't .
Ei .nt\€' . 2 . 2 '^EiCe' . The inequalities of this order are very numerous. 561. that is.2.sia 2 .aJy+a». and m' be so nearly comFor if the mean motions of the bodies m mensurable as to make any of these a small fraction. Rzz — Qoc" 4 cos {i(n'<n<+«'e)+3/U+3e  Sua'} . 2 {iC<+A}e«. 563. E'ice' . 562.n) + 3n. motions of the two bodies are nearly commensurable e' divisor arises from the angle i (nft .{D.8m{i(n'<n«+6'6)+2n«+2e2w} .jidt ^ ^. is a very small fraction. X + 6 . The inequalities in latitude will be determined afterwards. Rndi(n' n). sin{t(n'<n<+e'6)+2n<+26CTcT'} .Zy.e) + da +  i}. i (n't . _ ^2/ <^^^'>^' Y(n'n) + 2ny gin { »(n'<7i< ^ da 2n< i {ji' . Perturbationt depending on the Cubes and Products of three Dimensions of the Eccentricities and Inclinations. {(n'n^^n.le'.7i< 37it e) but as tliis + + + 3e alone. is the only part of the series R that is requisite by article 451. it is there fore necessary to select those that reject the rest. Bm{i(n7w< + e'€)CT + ©'} (164) . t These perturbations are only sensible (n' .318 ^v SECOND METHOD OF FINDING 1 [Book II. 2 . ee' sin { i (n'<  n/ + e'  c) +  ci'} — _ _ . t(n'— n) + 2n. 2 U (ti'  7i) 7i)» sin { i (n't  n< + e'  e) + L'}}. = +  j2d(r^r) .e) cr _ . when the divisor when the mean . have tlie greatest values and to which can only be done in each particular case from the values of the divisors t(n'n)+37i. ^Jt i(n'7i) + 2nj I. the inequality to which it is divisor will in general be of sufficient magnitude to be computed. — —.
be resolved in the same manner e«. IX. ^*e sin (2^^ + cr) + (165) + 2ct) + ^36^ sin 3cj) }Qg Q.e + B + ct}. 4.ee'» cos (ta' f 2ct) + QgC^ cos 3ct) + Q^e'y* cos (2n + ro) + Qj cy' cos (2n + ct)}. when integrated.nt + s'e) + 3nt + 2e + B — cr} + i m'ciC cos {i{n't .n< + .ey* cos e' n< co8{t(n'< := cos 3GT.] THE PERTURBATIONS OF A PLANET. eV «in (2n + ct') + Qjey' sin (2n + w)}.e) + 4.Chap. and of the preceding value of i2.^« COS {z(n7— n<+e'6) + 3n<+3cCT2n} {i(n7n<+6'c) + 3rt<+3eCT2n} ^' 4 Q. Bin 3cj' sin (ct' .C03 {i(n't  + each cosine Bin StiT. cos 3ct' + Q.e'*e cos (2CT'+t!j)+ P' = I {Qo (166) Q. . by the substitution of this. may . r^r___ 2(i—3)m'n ^aP8m{i(n't—nt a* »(n' + e'— c) + 37U + 3e} + aP'cos {i(7i't—nt + e'—e) + 3iU+8e} — I m'eK cos {iin't . equation (155) gives.3ct} nt + e' — + 3/i< + 3e) *' 8/j< + + + {i(ii'tnt Se} + — e) e') . 319 + — <?.sin + 3n< + 3e .e^«cos{i(n77i<+6'6) + 3/i«+362ro'w} 4 {t(n7n<+6'c) + 3«<+36CT'2CT} + ^Q^e"cos 4 + + + But — 4 a^ 4 Qgc" cos {i{n'tnt+e'—6)+3nt + 3e—3Tj} Q/r. This part of R becomes K = m' P sin {iin'tnt + e' — c) + 3nt + 3e} (167) cos {i(n7 + — 6) + 3nt + 3e}. a* tlL a a = — m'K cos {i(n't  n« + e'  e) + 2n< + 2« + B} .wfP' 564. and if + Q. Let ==m'K cos {i(n7 n't+e~e) + 2iU + 26 + B} P=l {Qo ee'« e"» . lit 6' — o" be the part of the equation (162) that has the divisor i(n' — 7j) + 3/1 . 7i)3/il e' ?<< and because _ = —.
the whole perturbations in the radius vector having the divisor i {n' 3h. having the divisor i(7i— ti) + 3/i nearly S^ = m'//e sin { i (n't — nt nt the terms f TTi'eiC. {i{ii'n)\Zn}AaP cos{i(w7n<+e'6)+37i<+36} ) 2m'n i ^ I + i(n' — n)+3/ii I a« \da) /dW\ 3? ( <^°^ ) {^"0^'^ . — iit . in equation (156) the result will be. If this quantity and the preceding value of R be substituted 7it — mfKe cos {iQi't i(7i' . Secular Variation of the Elliptical Elements during the periods of the 566.w + 1?} ^ And is JS: sin {i{n't  «< f _ e' c) + c) 3n< + 3e + e {—m'eK sin {i(7i7 — 7i< + — + 7i< f cr + B}.jgg. Inequalities. and if 57i'— 2n be a small fraction. as that part of Jy article 560. .cr + i?} + e' . which will then be the whole perturbations in longitude having the divisor in question.sin {((ji't + e' — e) + 2nt + 2e + + — e) + nt + e + tj + e' B} B} must be added to the preceding value of Jy.nt + e'— 6) + 3h< f 3e}[ 565.nt+e' — e) + 3nt + sin iaP {i(n't "" 2(t3)?m' 3c} — n) + 3h\ + aP' cos{ ii?i't . the coefficient C {bn'2n}* .j<+3e}l . An inequality "" l(57i' {57i'— 27t} cos is at its 2n)t + B\ is I maximum when the sine or cosine unity .320 SECOND METHOD OF FINDING [Book II.zs + B} + m'Ke cos {i(n't .w< + 6' — e) + 3n< + Se} _ jsm {t(7i77i«+ e'e) e' + 37i< + 36} . are Ji) — = m'A"co8 ^ a {i(n't  «< + e' + . ^~ _3(3i)mV_aP'sin{2(7i77i<+c'e) + 3.e) + nt + e \.e) + 2nt + 2e + B} (168) + «'€)+ Snt + 36 .
dR of must be integrated by parts in the hypothesis P and P' bcmg variable functions of the elements. the perturbations by }^„__ 3(30mV {/(n'/0 + l iaP' sin {i(n't—nt+e'~e) 3nt{3e} cos 3/t}*'taP. evident that the period will be the greater.m'P'. (3 and sin { . = + m'P . the expression So = — 3ffandt . Tlie period of t 321 be very great. In centuries . =z 3a (3 ni'ffP' .Chap. dR . The square of tlie divisor could only be introduced by a double integration. which is the periodic inequality in the mean motion of m. . cos { i (n't i . an inequality is the time the argu ment or angle (5»' — 2/i) it is + B takes to increase from zero to 360°. Now e' R = m'P sin { i (n't . {i0i'tnt\e'c)i3nt+3e}] + are very great. to mean motion of the 568. when i (ii' . in article 439.nt + + m'P' cos { i {n't ~ nt + whence dil  e) c) c' + + 3nt 3nt + + 3e} 3c} . when the mean motions are nearly commensurable. the consequently preceding value of 5u is the integral of the part Sy =  3affndt .nt + .+ . all terms having tlie small divisors in question. Thus.] will DURING THE PERIODS OF THE INEQUALITIES. n^dt* . fraction. must be applied as corrections to the troubled planet. when troubled by m'.e) +3/j<+3c} .n) + 3« is a small 567. the less the difference 5/t'  2n. sin { i(n'tnt\e'~e) i(n't^7it+e' e) it + 3/it + 3e} — 3a (3  m'ffP n'dl^ cos { + 3nt^3c}^ From the integration of this equation will be found that the y . in longitude expressed Thus. dil of equation (156). secular variations of the elements of the orbits have a very sensible influence on these perturbations and in order to include this effect. IX. some cases the periods of these inequalities extend in so long a time the many . and of long periods. (3 — i) t) ndt ndt . (n't .c) {3nt +3c} 7i< e' «' — • 3affndt .
Since P and P' are known quantities. 569. By the may method employed in article 563 the sum of the terms in equations (164) depending on the angle i{?i't  lit + e'  e") + e' 2nt + 2€ may be J)ut St> under the form {i(7i't e' — n< + — f ) + 2nt + 26} = m'P sin + m'P' cos {lin't — n< + — e) + 2nt 26} P and F' being functions of the elements of the orbits of m and m' f. periodic inequality in mean motion. 5y = Sr= (170) cos {i _. and P sin Vj«_j. depending on and inclinations. which will answer for several centuries before and after the epoch. 3(3 Qm^n' (n7— 7i/+e'6)f3ni+ 3e} 2a. let £^ = tan L'. — n) + — n) + 2n}« 3n long periods a small and in general to all inequalities of having small divisors. The same method of integration may be employed for the term in equation (164). Tlie variation of the elements during the periods of the inequalities be estimated by the following approximate method. in the elliptical must be applied to the mean motions part of such planets as have their motions nearly commensurable. that has the divisor n«  {i(n' i(n' when is the quantity fraction.i)*"^ {i{n'n)+3tiYdt* sin {i (n't— Tliis correction w^+e'— e)+3n<+36}.322 SECULAR VARIATIONS IN THE ELEMENTS tlic [Book II.p'« — J? E having the same sign with F' and cos E wiih P 2«< . hence h= m'F sin {i(n't  «< + e'  «) + + 2e + £} .^ {i(^n'n)+3n]dt } X {t(«'?0+3. dP !fi^!^L_+&c r^. say 1750. is its the third di mensions of the eccentricities and affected by the secular variations during period. determined by observation for a given epoch.
} sin {i(n7wf + e'O + 2nt + 2e + E . ^ d(^ t of the variable coefficients for any time during many iv centuries. with 480. . and their immense magnitude. They may be regarded as forming with the sun a system by themselves and as there are some circumstances in their motions peculiar to them alone. as to be almost beyond the sphere of theirdisturbing influence but their proximity to one another. Again. Y 2 . render their mutual disturb. except those of Jupiter and Saturn. the series P and E=S+ will give values ^ dt < + i^<« + &c.] DURING THE PERIODS OF THE INEQUALITIES. ances greater than those of any of the other planets. values of P which new values of values of F and E may be computed for that era. and by the method employed in article 480. The formula: that have been obtained will give the places of all the planets at any instant with great accuracy. 8fc. relative to the (171) will give the perturbations. P' may be obtained from the same formulae for the year 2750. 323 are the perturbations in question for the epoch 1750.} elements of the orbits during their periods. Now if the time t article be made equal to 500 in the expressions for the elements in and P' will be found for the year 2250. consequently = m' {F+ r£ dt t{. which are so remote from the rest. IX. + ^^+&c.Chap. P. including the secular variations in the E and their differences being epoch 1750. their theory will form a separate subject of consideration. 570.
Halley dismean motion of Jupiter had been accelerated. wlilcU accounts for Halley finding the meau motion of Saturn slower. and accomplishes its 929 years and that the mean motion of Jupiter is also affected changes in about by a corresponding and contrary inequality of nearly the same period. La Place. the planet. or bn'— 2«. 62 at its maximum. La Grange. which diminishes the mean motion of Jupiter. that the difference of these two quantities. and other eminent mathematicians. By covered that the comparing ancient with modern observations.324 CHAPTER X. and Halley. do not depend on the configuand as La Place proved that they are not occasioned by the action of comets. that of Saturn retarded. . which led liim to conjecture that the nearly commensurable ratio in the Observation had already shown that is so nearly equal to twice the five times the mean motion of mean motions might be . only amounting to 19' 46". the cause of this anomaly in the theory of these t>vo planets a conjecture which computation amply confirmed. 207 at its maxi mum exists in the theory of Saturn. mean motion of Jupiter. from that period. THE THEORY OF JUPITER AND SATURN. showing that a great inequality of 48' 2". being about the 74th part of the mean motion of Jupiter. or bodies foreign to the system. were led by their researches to the certain conclusion that these inequalities ration of the orbits . La Place perceived that the square of this minute quantity is divisor to some of the perturbations in the longitude of Jupiter and Saturn Saturn. he could only suppose them to belong to the class of periodic inequalities. 571. is an extremely small fraction. Euler. and became equal to them in 1790. These two inequalities attained their maximum in the year 1560 . which at the present time increases the mean motion of . the apparent mean motion of the two planets ap proached to their true motions.
by a comparison of ancient with 325 and that of Jupiter faster.Chap. has been the fate of that brilliant dis a law of nature. agree with their oppositions. although the sun's attraction on Saturn is about a hundred times less than that exerted on the earth. 96. These formula? also repre sent with great precision the observations of Flamstead. when it is to be recollected that only twenty years ago the errors in the best tables exceeded 1296". leaving no grounds to doubt that La Place has succeeded in solving this difficulty. were 3102 years before the Christian era. proves the stability of the system. and of Ptolemy. which had for so baffled the acuteness of astronomers . has formed a new subject La Place. wlien the mean motion of was at its Jupiter maximmn . do it in fact furnish the strongest corroboration of the universal influence exerts throughout the solar system. and 1491 years after it. Recorded observations of these mean motions at very remote periods enable us to ascertain the chronology of the nations in which science had the made early advances. the sure characteristic of it. that every difficulty which has been raised against of triumph. the error not amounting to 12". Such. modem : observations. ter and the quantities of the inequahties found by these astronomers are nearly the same with those determined by La Place. of acceleration. and that of Saturn at periods at wliich that its greatest retardation the two was the case. by assigning the true cause of these inequalities. and a retardation in that of Jupi. than modern observations alone showed them to be whilst on the other hand. modern observations indicated to Lambert an acceleration in Saturn's motion.] THEORY OF JUPITER AND SATURN. . many ages so that anomalies which seemed at variance with the law of gravitation. Tims the Indians determined mean motions of Jupiter and Saturn. since Saturn has experienced no sensible action of foreign bodies from the time of Hipparchus. says covery of Newton. of the Arabian astronomers. The formulae of the motions of Jupiter and Saturn determined by La Place. X. The precision with which these two greatest planets of our system have obeyed the laws of mutual gravitation from the earliest periods at which we have records of tlieir motions.
[Book II. is 572. sin (5/i7 — 2nt + be' — 2e + + /8). 573. sin (bn't  2nt + 5e'  2e  «? + /8) 5^'. If Ju ^"''''' . >vhich must be applied as a conrection to the mean motion of Jupiter. when m'. Periodic Variatiom in the Elements of the Orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. and the second by . Because of the equality and opposition of action and re action.8in (5n72/i<+56'26) {aP — _______ (5/1'. &c. ' df r may be assumed to belong to Jupiter. including the secular variations of the elements of both orbits during its period of 929 yeajrs. and vice versd . = • 5^= (172) { aP' + ^±L^_ (5/1'.}. dil and dR' relate to the coordinates of is m and m'. depending on the First Powers of the Disturbing Forces.2nt + 5e'  2c + ^ + ^8) ct + m'.2e) 26) J b7i'2n o'.2/1) a* .C03 (5/i72n<+6e26) 2m'7i _ da da . and to Saturn. determined when that of Jupiter article is for by 546.326 XnEORY OF JUPITER AND SATURN. the great inequality in the mean motion of Saturn may be known.}. eK. 2 sin (bn't .sin (bn't  2nt r Be' + — + m/ 11 2 . / be made equal to 5 in equation (169).2n)dt _ &c.^. cos (bn't  2nt + be' .He . Their sum. cJT . is the first equation multiplied by m. the great inequaof lity Jupiter.
Chap. Sf fn + m'(S + m') . dx* + dy^ ~ dt^ —+ ! rfz* . (S + m') . — under consideration. be omitted. . in comparison of the mass of the sun taken as the unit.X.] THEORY OF JUPITER AND SATURN. when tlie elliptical values are substituted instead of x. if. whiclx can only arise from tlie integration of the sines or — cosines of the angle bn't — 2nt . because.l^ . Sf = = V ^'+ a^ „/— 'fs'+ m' a'^ and if the masses m and m' be omitted in (S + . 327 2m/dfl ^ =+ 2m/dil' i r' 2m <^^±!!}) r +m ^^^ + dy' dt^ + ^=' dV> Tlie second member of this equation does not contain any term of the order of the squares of the disturbing masses having the divisor bn' 2/1. . and the remaining part of the second member is a function of n't only and as such terms as have the square of the divisor bn' 2/t are alone . an . m/dH + m'fAR' = (173) + wi = is /* restored. miS But + m) n . y.«). the general expression for the periodic mean motion of Jupiter is o+m Tlie corresponding inequality in the mean motion of Saturn is ^. 5? =  m' /^ .. + And 3m'. a'n' . ig" + m'iS + m') .an.0. miS + m) a'n'.^_^rr '' From these a'n'dtAW S+m' fmd two it is easy to . the preceding equation becomes m vT^ . an . z.ffa'n'dt a'li'ffandt . dR in consequence of equation (173) . Wlien S' may 0. . the part — will 2m(s + 7n) ~ r +m . which has hitherto been assumed equal inequality in the to unity. 3m + dR' = 0. only contain the sines or cosines of the angle nt. the second member then 574.
sm X}. trary to that in the mean motion mean motion of Jupiter is conof Saturn when n and n' have revolve about the sun in the same direction. \dcj \daj dK. which corresponds with observa These in the ratio of inequalities are mva to m' "^a'. cos (\ . it will be represented by X for the sake of abridgment. longitude of the periheand semigreater axis of Jupiter's orbit. by the substitution of — — de dzs dR dR in equations (1 14). \ — de . the periodic variations in the eccentricity. if the same signs. . but equations dtsy (165) and (166). \de J . cos (\ o) . are obtained from 576.2n . The periodic inequalities in 7 and R^—. are easily found to be .. it If i be made equal to 5 in equation (167). m'.Q..328 Tims the THEORY OF JUPITER AND SATURN. the inequality in the mean motion will of Jupiter be known. so that one body celerated tion.m'P From this.».an [dP } bn' — 2n \ de — sm X cos • . hence. cos \. periodic inequality in the [Book II. As the whole of the following analyses depend on the angle bn't  2nt + Se' — 2c. r= + . f — de dP* . . 4 + e'y*. becomes R . . Qj cy». . that in the mean motion of Saturn Sr' be found from (174) = .^v cosX} (175) eJcT. ing node of the orbit of Saturn on that of Jupiter. show that \dtnj conse(juently. + m'P'. ' =— bn' 2n\dc { — . . — — de may be found . because both planets is ac when the other is retarded. sin\ . the mutual inclination and and the longitude of the ascendof the orbits of Jupiter Saturn. depending on the third powers of the ^ Se^ eccentricities and inclinations.2n  vs') _ 4 . which must always be the case. values of d/?. lion. or . ^ (176) ^ ^ U.^'^ K m'wa' 575.
Q«. sin2n=2(g'9) (p'p). "211 sin ^ (\ + ^ II) ' + ^ dy • C08(\ + D)}. . Q. may .5« = _!^lf!i_ — bn' 2/1 ^. e' sin (x— ct') .sin(Xcj'n). c'cos (\'cs') + Q.eYcos(CT+2n)}. + II) — ri) = cos (CT + 211) — cos (\ + H) — ct' . dp 2 8in(t3'+2n) + <?j. sin (ct + 2n).fy • 8in(cT+2n)}. with these values the two last of equations (114) become. or to abridge = ^ 4 . ey .Chap.cos(X+n) + 2?[{Q^. d^ In the same manner ^ dy m' . .B.e'7cos(CT'+2n) + Q».^ . whence 4 and 2 4 ^ = V^(p'p). 7 cos 2 n B . c cos (xro)} . + Qj . ^= . and reducing the products of the and cosines. dp dp 2 or _— = 2 7 sin n ^— . hence ^ = ^{Q«.4 + — 4 7* . article 444 appears that cos 2n=(^gy. 329 Ji ^ +^ = d /2 7« cos2n {(?< .sin(x + 1^7 ^ n)}.an ^^ bn! J^ \dy . sin n)  ^ dy d'l . ^ dy .sin(x+Il) and from equations (165) and (166) it is . cos (\ it + n) + m' . . in . . X.e'v. .ex. m' . 7» cos it 2n . clear that £5 dp = m' ^ . Y* sin 2n .sm(X—aj U). cos (X + n) when .— 2 2 dp But sin (X sin (\ . .A'^(q'q).(/>'/))*. sin (\ + II). m'. But from 7« . restoring the values of sines A and J5. 7« sin 2n { Q. be found that (\ ^=dq tegrated.cos(\ + n)^. <? sin (x— ct)} .] THEORY OF JUPITER AND SATURN. B. .
+ . sin(Xt. = _ is ^'^^ 5/t' — 2/1 1^ 1^7 .an . substituting for tn' n and n'. m'. jfv' ' — m' bn' .\ — dF smXk . The corresponding periodic inequalities in the latitude and elements of the orbit of Saturn ar« . for Jp. dy .+n)} (177) which the only sensible inequality in the latitude of Jupiter in this approximation. s\n\\ ^ . . cos ^ A.i m' . the whole variations in the two ele ments in question are m'. by article 436 hence = qnn V — p cos v h = iq sin v — ^p cos v. dP — . 'J'^e latitude of Jupiter s above the primitive orbit of Saturp is = — 7 sin (v Tl) — 11) 7SII cos (o whence — ^ Js = Jy sin (v — — — 11) . A. but Jupiter produces a corresponding effect in these two quantities. then the whole variations 57 but by article = 5y' jr h"* 5n . y5n'=:— . and substituting J. gives ..an bn' idP < — — cos . [Book II.=s m + m" . . and a comparison of the two values of h. will and be if it be expressed by Sy". 577.an or.  an idP' 2n \dy ) — . an r J dP' dP ^77^^^ l^^^nX^cosX}. cos(\ v + U)^ d7 . and in the ascending node of their common intersection. ^q. s . 7^11". 2n Idy dy J These are the variations occasioned by the action of Saturn in the mutual inclination of the two orbits. .„. m'. If s be the latitude of Jupiter.330 THEORY OF JUPITER AND SATURN. .an m J~a ^ m' *J a^ i— a + m' v a' m */r• • j dP' dP (I'J'S) 'y^? = +5^:r2.
cos {bn't  2nt + be' .Chap.8m (5/i72/J<+5e'. andt . 2. ^2/1 I It is evident that the variations mean motions the greatest. m sin {\n't  2nt + 4e' — 26 u + n}' dy fill (5n'— 2n)m' co3{4n72nf + 4e'2ev + n} 5r =  m aJ a ' 71=. the equations in question give secular as well of both orbits. which determine the the orbits of Jupiter and periodic inequalities in the elements of 3atum.2€/8}. Sff. depending on the periodic inequalities in the elements the disturbing masses. (179) eoci' = — bn' i cos X de' in the sua de' A. m V a cos ^^' 3e' =— __ ^___ \ + — — sin \}. 331 '— 2a'n' . dJl. equations in the preceding articles. if the value of fi.Gm'ff. in article 563. X. Tlie substitution of i? =. The and when the mean motions are corrected by the application of their great inequalities. 578.2e  common in a function of the longitudes of the perihelia and node of intersection of the two orbits. are functions of the sines and cosines of their mean motions. \. be expressed by fi}. squares and products of Tlie great inequalities may be put under a convenient form for tliis analysis.] THEORY OF JUPITER AND SATURN. Q . (180) . an*dP 2Q. R=z where the tliis /8 is m'. on account of the divisor (bn' — 2n)'. gives 5^= . are by much Periodic Variations in the Elements of the Orbits of Jupiter and Saturn^ dejyctiding on the Squares of the Disturbing Forces.
as Sg" =— »Ja . and on account of the . o . . 2(5n72.. a' m' V. — /8) may be hence omitted cosine . ^K)and unity for and as quantities of the order of the square of the disturbing forces are alone to be retained.an'. .^+ ' 55r — 25f) = ' (3m^an'.^osCx^) (5w' — 2/0 consequently sin (\ . {bn'i  2nt + 5e'   ^8 + (5f) being 5Sr  2Sr} (181) are corrected. great inequality of Jupiter when the In order to abridge. may be taken for its sine. Bin (\ . let bri't mean motions —  2nt /8 + Se' — 2e s= \.Q)' (5n'  / \ 5m VV+ 2m^ V"^ ! 2n)« ^^^^ "" ^'^ " 2^> ) When sine. (S^) it becomes 26 = . [Book II. an*dt^ 2Q sm .Gm'ff tlie .— K therefore sin(x^+5Sr2^D=(^^^ but the integral of equation (180) VT + 2m^ygl is ^ j^. and. this quantity is substituted in equation (181). or.2Q)« f .+ /8 5Sr'  2Sr) = 771 . that . r ^^®!^ '" o/r. S.^.^+5e'2e/J) . / ]' the variation in the mean motion of Jupiter. Sg".332 Since Sf and THEORY^OF Sg"' JXJPITER AND SATURN. sin (X. instead of the its integral (3m'. {5^r'  2Sr} cos (X  /8J . by the substitution of these in the preceding equation. and n't + 5^ ..'>m^/7+2mV?l ^^f^= is W^^^'X m'^' . their corrected mean motions are 7it + . r= sin then sin (\ sin (\  ' /8) cos (5Sf ' + 5S?' . represent the great inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn.21^) 2S^) + cos (\ it ^8) {hrc — But 5Sf — its 2S^ is so small.
andt . the corresponding inequality in the 333 mean relation in article 574.. de pending on the squares of the disturbing forces. the first term of the in the mean motion of Jupiter (172). 579. These inequalities have a sensible divisor (5n' effect. . The great inequalities in the mean motions also occasion variations in the eccentricities and longitudes of the perihelia. that {dP de — • .i^Pcos\P'sinX}. X. by the same analysis that was employed in the last article. (5/t' 2/0* m' yf a' If these be applied as corrections to nt and n't. or d^e =+ f m' . andt . — ^ (5/1' 2ny The correspondmg inequality in the mean motion of Saturn is ^ _6m^. } A 2/1)* J {P co8« X — P' COS X . cos X — dP' sin do bni' »/a' X} — m! ./ — 2e. andt dP . ——<d<? 1(5/1' .Chap. on account of the minute — 2. in the differential of equation (175).j)*. dP' . \ I cosX — — dP' de — de sin X}._^. when \ is put great inequality for bti'l  2nt + S. . Tlie principal term of the great inequality is sufficient for pose . — de . l(5/t'  . an*  —— 2m 'J a~] + = > • X (184) 2/. < 6m\an* — .)« jn'^fT' 8in« J {P  cos ( X sin X — P> • X) } • M . motion of Saturn is 2(5n'  2/0* m'V7' 2nt WT' (183) sin 2{bn't — + 5e' — 2e}. bm^+2jn —z /a'] m' 4^' sin X)}._^^l_Lf^{Pcos\P'sinX}.] THEORY OP JUPTTER AND SATURN.. . it will be found. this pur and if the secular variations in the elements of the orbits during the period of the inequalities be omitted. is. dP\ 6m'.
the same process it may be found that the periodic variations and n'<. [Book II.27i)' ' * m' 'fa' cos 2(57i'< I de de J  2n< + Be'  26). . and Saturn depending on the powers of the disturbing forces.334 But THEORY OF JUPITER AND SATURN. These are thfe only elements of Jupiter's orbit of Corresponding variations obtain in those of the orbit of Saturn. P COS X sin X . as terms depending on the first powers of the masses arc to be rejected. p ^'1 . The secular variations in the elements of the orbits of Jupiter first 580. common with the other but to these must be added their variations dependiiig on ^he squares of the masses. dP\ de J rfe + 5e'  2c) (186) 3m" . By of 7i<. Secular Variations in the EhmenU of the Orbits of Jupiter and Saturn^ depending on the Squares of the Disturbing Forces. the periodic part of the preceding equation is le' . g'/t" ' bm fl { 2m' V~^ m' >ra' fp "^ 2e(5/i'2«)' ^^ ^ . in the longitude of the perilielion of Jupiter.1* sin'x = i P sin 2X + i P' cos 2X . arid.aV 5 ~ m>/g'+2mVa^ [p m' 'J~^ '^ * ^ + p ^'Iv * "2(5re'2n)'* sin ^^ '^^ ^ 2(5n7  2n< + be'  2c) (185) 2(5. produce the periodic variation «'^' ' Irs' = ^^"^ • 5m \r^ + ^> 2(5n7 2e(pn'2ny Bin ^ 2ni \tm' 'J~a' ' f I _ p dP ~ ' p. ' ^^^ cos 2(5/i7 — 2nt + Be'  2c).i' . quantities only sensible in the motions of Jupiter and Saturn.^ F P C08« X ._ 3m^'. in planets . sensible periodic inequalities in the this order.F cos X sin X = i Poos 2X .J P' sin 2X + i P . are determined by the formula (130).
. de J (187) and the corresponding variation in the longitude of the perihelion of Jupiter's orbit. 335 corrected The secular part of equation (184).^X (Sw')= ^^' • (189) ^^'"'^ bm»J~Z^2m' fa' x + F. {P. making bn't — 2nt + 5^' is — 2e = X. \de and when effects all the elements are variable except the mean motion.^'l. periodic . is (Sct)= ^^"°'"' t ' bm 'fli\2m' ^~^' * ^ e(5n'2.0* ^77^^ The corresponding Qc'^ inequalities for Saturn are. . the ^ of which have already been determined.andt \ — cos X — de sni X) .^ de' de' ^ J 581. {P. —~ ^^'^'""^ 5 m 'fa + 2 m' <fa ' ^ {P. is values of nt. i.^ P'. ^ ^ ibn'2ny' '' ' ri=' a my P' . sinx^. Thus the periodic inequalities in the mean motions cause both periodic and secular variations in the elements of the two but the orbits of the order of the squares of the disturbing forces the same effect have elements in the other variations for. arising from the n't.de zz m' andlAle ( ^ V ^^ de« . de« cos X) . depending on the squares of the disturbing forces. X] THEORY OF JUPITER AND SATURN.^ de ^\.Chap. the differential of equation (175) d6 = f" ftv .
.df^ d'P' de.j£L. Jupiter's orbit. 8in A.dy .drs' iin de. de\ 5w'.) \de.dts' . observing at the same time. cos X) de' .dxsy d<* de.836 THEORY OF JUPITER AND SATURN.  ^tJ (. de. that equations (165) and (166) give de. (5n'2/o4 — — w=^' 2n bn' is j I \^) U«yl ^  \\dej' \de^J \dej' Kde' J \dy \dy)' \dedyj / \dedyji bn'2n " W/* \ded^)y .d: dy sin d*P __ de.dy be found. from article 575. cos X) } \de. cos a) ^de dcT sin \ — d^P .dl If tiie values of Scr. be substituted. . that the whole secular variation in the eccentricity of depending on the squares of the disturbing forces.dll it will cPF de. co» X) X _ . when the periodic terms are omitted.def d»P de.. [Book II. and equation (187) added.dns de* £E^zzer. \de de' de sin A. and those that follow.dll __ _ d«P de.dra' (190) de.£ELi de.d^ £EL=ze'. \ — — \de. and jn. COS A.drn' de. Jy. ie. — de dxas .
it 337 By the same process may be found. '^ \de'J t \d^J\ (193) + X \\de'J\defO \d^)'\de'^J \dyj'\d^dyj) ' \dyj'\de'dy) bn'2n ' \\de J' \dede') \ de J \dede'J .\ yde'J /^\ \dede' ) fdP\ fd}P\ \dy J \dedyj ' + 582.il 5«' — 2n . \dy J \de'dyj dP\ (dyj'\de'dyjr Q„r^^ 8m«. depending on the is squares of the disturbing force. including the equation (188).X.< ' f^P'\\ aV(5n'2/0« 5m V a+2m' m>r^ • I . are. the secular variation longitude of the perihelion of Jupiter's orbit. e{bK'^2n) ' f_£P\ \d*. that where the periodic terms in the which are quite insensible are omitted.dd J fdP. e(bn'2n) \dyj (fdP\ Xyde'J ' ' \de.] THEORY OF JUPITER AND SATURN.Chap.dyji ./ a' rp /'£^^+i>Y— '\'^'/ M ^''*'/J (194) . including equations The corresponding (189). (^)(S)}variations for Saturn.oV. o'C5n'27i)»* ^^ ^.
\de)' \dUTy)\ . .. ^ „. \de' J \dt/ .^ WJ a*n^ .au . will give.aa'. \dyj m' Af^' \drj bm^/~a 4.aa'. in consequence of periodic variations \dy) . depending on the squares of the disturbing forces.Tin mm'.2n ' m.338 THEORY OF JUPITER AND SATURN.nn' bn' .^m'^Taf V 3m". ~ iV'rfc"/ KdiTdy) . arise from the same cause in the mutual inclination of the orbits. /*n\— 3m''. aV m'/~a+m'>/~a' bm*r~a\2m'>J~a' y{bn'2ny jn'^i ^V „/ * • * ' 7(5«'2n) ^'/^ [\Te J \dtdyj .'<ra\m.>_. wV~a+m'\^a' (5/t'2/i)« m'Td bn'  2n ^. Secular variations. [de'dyj /dP'\ /d^P'\\ rnin .dyji' .'4~a' m! 'Ta' ' \\de' J \de'dyj . /dF\ ' "^ \^dej' \ de fd^\ \dede'J /dP\ ' f_d^\ \de'dy) J \dyj 583. \de' J \de'* J \dy J .nn' ^ e'ib7i'2n) (/dP\ fd^P\ \dede'J . mm'. and in the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit of These are obtained from equations (178). e'{bn'  ' ' ' 2n)X\de') \de"J . [Book II. elements be variable then the substitution of their the to considering Saturn on that of Jupiter.
and 6. Tlie periodic variations in the eccentricities. 0' sin 6' — — 0' cos ff <p = 7 sin cos 0=7 cos n.^^ = ^ . + 7Sn cos (n  e') }. q' — q := cos 11 11. 0'. and nodes. it will readily be found.77^> \fdP\ \\j. j(0.] THEORY OF JUPITER AND SATURN.Chap. 585. . by p' or 444. 6' the longitudes article of the ascend ing nodes estimated on that plane.&m(U0)+ym. sin 6 and on account of the action and reaction of Jupiter and Saturn. mi' . These are the variations with regard to the plane of Jupiter's orbit at a given time. X. Bin 0') = . 00) =  m'V^' ^ j j^ . cos (n .co8(n0')7Sn8in(n0')} (0'S0') = ^'^ mw~a+Tn''/a/ { Sy Bin (II 0') . . r^ — ) = 7 sin II . do not affect Z 2 .ym sin (n0)} mw~a{in'w a' (050) = =  ^''^' {^y . Thus when S7 and ySlI tions are computed. lonthe mean motion gitudes of tlie perihelia. m'\ a S(0'. being the inclinations of the orbits of m and m' on the fixed ecliptic at the epoch. cos 0).dj d^P 584..^) .cos(n'e)\ mwa+m''/a' (50') ^1 »iv a\m''Ja' {S7. inclinations. S(0 sin 0). m »fa + m' 4~a' . the variations in the inclinaand longitude of the nodes when referred to the fixed plane of the ecliptic may be found.') ' 7(5«'2») \ ( \de'. cos 0') m'/~a . that . for 0. And from these four equations. 339 mm' aa' . but the variations in the position of the orbits of Juj)itcr and Saturn with regard to the ecliptic may easily be found. 5(0'.
with regard to Jupiter and Saturn only. considering tlieir all the elements as variable. orbits of these AVhcnce the elements of the termined with great accuracy for the time assiunei as the epoch. powers computed for the epoch from the equations in articles 580.P cos X } (5/1' 2/0* be taken. p. but they are of much importance in the theories of the 587. are insensible in the theories of all the planets. they are only perceptible in the motions of these two planets. an^ '^ . two planets may be de1000 or 1200 years before and after . moon and Jupiter's satellites. the equations in the elements (130) become. The longitude of the epoch is not affected by any variations of thb order that are sensible in the planets. therefore. ^. (50). = 0+1^ + (S0)}< + \^ + &c. The variations in the elements depending on the squares of the disturbing forces. T = Sf 1^' (dt + (m)]t + &c. tj = m + \— + dt I (5w)}< + &c.^ x . (S^). (SrO (511). the substitution of periodic variations will make the whole vanish in consequence of the relations between the partial differences. for if the variation of 6m'. be the secular variations depending on the second the of and disturbing forces.340 THEORY OF JUPITER AND SATURN. and the two following. 566. except those of Jupiter and Saturn . (J0). e=id + Cf9)}t+ &c. [Book II. on account of the nearly commensurable ratio in their bn' mean motions — introducing the minute divisor 2/t . if a^). with any sensible inequalities depending on the squares and product of the masses .
and the longitude of the epoch when corrected by its periodic variation. the result be the inequality Ju =_ 3^''. equation (97) becomes zs). 588.t>)f r'»* it the masses. 341 Periodic Perturbations in Jupiter's Longitude depending on the Squares of the disturbing Forces. ir'. but as Jr. Tlie radii vectores and true longitudes of elliptical orbits m and m' m their have been represented by r. cr}. — 5ct.o} cos {5n7 — <^'»'2«)'' sm {57i7 w^^^ . v. these two coordi nates of m and m! in their troubled orbits.  J?^. © + Sr.10/1/ + 5e' — — 10n< + be' — — 106 lOe vde. Uyi (199) The corresponding inequahty v' for Saturn is found from = 2e' sin {n't +6  ta') 589.°'^' 5m Vl?+4m' ^^J' spf^\+p>fdP\\ y .SCTi — Scj*} sin (ni + e — ct) 2^e. — e + 2eJe.dR .} : when the quantities that do not contain the squares of the disturbing forces are rejected. + 25eg) sin {w< + e CT + Je. »' + __ Su'.andt. + ^^i + 5ca «ind CT +  5cy.Chap. and (185) (176) and (186). ie' are the periodic perturbations of these quantities.S6. when the values of the will periodic variations are substituted. 2eSCTi. Sp = (2c + 2Se. + Swg. are r + 3r. is c + 5ci by the substitution of these v becomes . r' + Jr'.X. consequently produces terms of that order in the mean motion ^ = "Sff. Jr. » = 2e sin (nt + — e The for eccentricity their and longitude of the perihelion. r'.. when corrected periodic inequalities (175).h} cos (n/ + c— w) . Where e* is omitted. u'. the developement of this expression is Xt) = {2J^j + {2eScT. When P__ 12 these quantities are substituted in m'(rr' cos (u'— c))+ 22' m' »^r*2rr' cos (v' (r"+2'*)t becomes a function of the squares and products of . <? become.] THEORY OF JUPITER AND SATURN.
together with some terms depending on the fifth powers of the eccentricities and inclinations which may be determined by the same . Plana. been observed in La Place's determination of these still is. and those in radius vector from (158) and (163). re 590. Poisson.342 THEORY OF JUPITER AND SATURN. real value is found from or a l±^ = 71% a* fore to = n"^ (1 + im) . MM. (172). having the factor (5»'— mequalities in the lias they tlierefore form a part of the great mean motions of Jupiter and Saturn. to whose very learned papers the reader ferred for a full investigation of this difficult subject. 2/t)* . (182). and (199). (164). The numerical values of the perturbations of Jupiter in longitude are computed from equations (159). Hitherto the mass of the planet has been omitted when that of the sun taken as the unit . [Book II. . so that half the greater axes has been determined by the equation a^ its = — whereas . the semigreater axes of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn ought there be augmented by ^ma. and a subject of controversy between three of the greatest matliematicians of the present age. compared with 591. A mistake inequalities. process as in the other approximations his perturbations in latitude liis arc computed from equations (160) and (177). lm'a\ quantities that are only sensible in these two planets. is and Pont^coulant. which has been.
gives. with regard to secular quantities alone. and substituting 1(1 it e«). 592. the declination of a planet m R' tlic semidiameter of the sun. If of the sun's spheroidal form be alone consi dered. his form must be spheroidal force. omitting i/*. Tlierefore. . relative to this equator. his action as if }us was assumed to be the same of gravity . therefore the excess of matter at on account of his centrifugal his equator may have an influence on the motions of the planets.fori. In the theory of spheroids it is found that the attraction of the redundant matter at the equator is expressed by Where p is the ellipticity of the sun. . his mass tlie elliptical being unity. INEQUALITIES OCCASIONED BY THE ELLIPTICITY Or THE SUN. the attraction of sun's mass adds the term part of the r to the disturbing action expressed by the series this disturbing action R in article 449.343 CHAPTER XI. As the sun has liitherto been considered a sphere. mass were united in his centre but from his rotatory motion. y the ij ratio of the centrifugal force to gravity at the solar equator. F=z and i(/iV)~*(lF)> _ = e(^J^V)— .
the declination of the planet on the plane of the sun's the equator be taken as the fixed plane.iV'). (p  ^y). . tan (b.^'. of the sun's ellipticity on the position of the orbits tlie may be or Since v equator. tan 0. sin (n< + • — . cos 9 a* . . «• Thus a the action of the excess of matter at the sun's equator produces direct motion in 593. g. then will '?•= m — And if the eccentricity be omitted. Bui ^ . is if dF — dq . t&h cos Q.. whence dp = " ndt . E\t. J y^ dp St andt. sin d .«. B) for z. (n< + . e de gives by integration. ^ dQ . therefore a ^^ dz dF dq 2. v dq on account of equation. a' . The effect perihelia of the planetary orbits. dF . Tlie substitution of wliich in ara =r .«in(n«+«) or substituting a . tan 0. But whence p dp == tan . sin (7i<+e) — p cos (nt + e) ~«=2.344 EFFECTS OF THE SU^'S ELLIPTI CITY.—a' cos e. (/> — ^y^) . andt . ^ = dF dz dz ^ = dF a sin dz / . ascertained from the last of equations (115).(i>iV). [Book II. dF dq = R" (/>. —= a consequently.
(p — ^f) . 7J< . (. has no influence on the stability of tlie system. : and Se = ii" .Chap.l EFFECTS OF THE SUN'S ELU dd =: therefore — ndt .j^f) .> Thus the nodes of the planetary orbits have a retrograde motion on the plane of the solar equator equal to the direct motion of their perihelia on tlie same plane. . As neither the eccentricities nor the it inclinations are affected by this disturbance. both so small that they are scarcely perceptible even in Mercury. XI.
to the Then if x. the longitudes of G and m . . z. v') + &c. y. tial point. and of QQ its satellites.. z. 2m be the sum of the masses of the satellites. = sP 4 m . be the  common centre of gravity of a planet. r cos (17  r). 7Gm. &c. centre of satellites gravity. will give that of the planet with regard to their common and to the sun. Jmx = 2my I . and consequently the perturbations produced by the on their primary. In the same manner =z y . Let G. plane of the be the coor "'' ^y dinates of a satellite U= m. . X . y. . r' «' «. P + mr P + mr Imz COS (17 — r) + mV — v) + m'r' . its satellites very nearly describes an ellipse round If that orbit be considered to be the orbit of the planet the respective posi tions of the satellites with regard to each other. S the sun. it is evident that G^=xJ.346 CHAPTER XII. x. P f 2m . rs f m' . »". ar = . The common centre of gravity of a planet and the sun. cos ( C/  t/) J &c. Sni or. 90. y the equinocthe coordix. and nates of G. and P that of their primary. being the latitudes of the satellites above the orbit of . itself. Bin (U . sin 4 (17— &c. and r being the radius Gm^ Gp hence.S = r cos (U — v). fig. if := x . and v = 7SG. 594. y. PERTURBATIONS IN THE MOTIONS OF THE PLANETS OCCASIONED KY THE ACTION OF THEIR SATELLITES. so that oe SG = and z perpendicular orbit.
the radius vector of the centre of gravity. be the case also with regard to Saturn and Uranus. .s + By article m'r's' is + 353 the centre of gravity by the forces urged in a direction parallel to the coordinates. . r cos (17  r) f r ' ».P + mr.(P+Mf.Chap. 2m mr mr . __ ¥ T m . . — r P Bin (U — if) — iic.] their ACTION OF TUE SATELLITES. r in latitude to ___ m * ** P" Tlic T „ *" m'rV ^_ f „ masses of Jupiter's are so small. that the perturbations produced by them motions are insensible and there is reason to beheve . (P+2m)x. 0.v) — —. XII. =5 P+ =y P+ . 495.(£±2^. centre of gravity. therefore the perturbations in the radius vector SG are very nearly proportional to ir. vary very nearly as —^ 7 and ~ r . 7 . r' cos (Uv')  &c. v) t?) .2 = 0. . = SG. her action produces tlie inequalities Jr s= — — E . sin (?7 + &c. 0=zz. that is. Tlie perturbations in longitude are nearly proportional to — and those — sm (L7 . . r cos (U—v)  — . 2m . satellites that planet and their elongations seen compared with the mass of from the sun in Jupiter's this to subtend so small an angle. &c. 2m consequently. to — — P . X = . + &c. y = 0. . 347 common But by the property of the centre of gravity. 7 f Tliese forces ^. cos (U — — . But the Earth is sensibly troubled in its motions by the Moon.
in the radius vector. r cos (XJ . sin (C7  v) (200) f latitude of the Earth. correctly. . 4r . ACTION OF THE SATELLITES.348 or. longitude and E and m being the masses of the Earth and Moon. more 5r = — Mr E + VI .v) 5u = E+m E +m JUL . [Book II.
349 CHAPTER XIII. till masses of several bodies. The data requisite for computing the motions of the planets determined by observation for any instant arbitrarily assumed as the epoch or origin of the time. The The The longitudes of the perihelia longitudes of the ascending nodes on the ecliptic longitudes of the planets. . secular inequalities will give the most accurate values of the masses. Satellites afford the means of ascertaining the masses of their primaries . 597. 598. and =V »« + S sum of the masses of the sun and planet. the masses of such planets as have no satellites are found from a comparison of their inequalities determined by analysis. The with values of the same obtained from numerous observations. Their mean sidereal motions for a Julian year of 365. 596. If the T be the time of a sidereal revolution of a planet m. DATA FOR COMPUTING THE CELESTIAL MOTIONS. are Tlie masses of the planets . but they are perfectly known the periodic variations must be emOn this account there is still some uncertainty as to the ployed. inclinations of the orbits on the plane of the . . ecliptic . the It is only necessary to know the ratio of unit .25 days The mean distances of the planets from the sun . The The ratios of the eccentricities to the mean distances . . x the the ratio of the circumference to the diameter. is whose mean distance from the sun /i* a. Masses of the Planets. mass of each planet to that of the sun taken as the masses are consequently expressed by very small fractions. by article 383.
For example. T = From this expression the 2ir .579 . a and substituted in this expression. 8 hence the mean radii of the orbit of the fourth satellite and of the terrestrial orbit are in the ratio of these two numbers. theti and dividing the one by the other the result is. be neglected when compared with that of its primary. T' being the time of a sidereal revolution of the planet at the mean distance a' from the sun. a^ =1 m+ m' the sum of the masses of a planet and of its satellite m'. 5m the mean satellite at radius of the orbit of the fourth the mean distance of the earth from is the sun taken as the unit. that of his satellite being omitted. let fjt = 2v . JEm = seen under the angle 2580". this Suppose the earth is omitted equation relative to the earth.350 DATA FOR COMPUTING [Book II. * m+m' _ S If the values of T. and that the mass of when compared with that of the sun. it then becomes T Again. and let the mass of the sun be taken as 91. or if the ratio of these masses be known. Let fig. T^ r»' T. m be the mass of Jupiter. tlic unit. the ratio of the determined from observation. The time of a sidereal revolu . a^ /7 masses of such planets as have satellites may be obtained. af^ a^ a'. The radius of the circle reduced to seconds is 206264". the preceding equation will give the ratio of the mass of the planet to that of the if and the mass of the satellite sun. then a" m=— r* . be sum of the masses of will the planet and of its satellite to the mass of the sun be obtained . 599.
if = — R* .8 = 2580.40 By the observations of Sir William Herscliel the sidereal revolu tions of the fourth satellite of Uranus are performed in 13. is nearly the same as if its mass were united at its centre of If R be the radius of the terrestrial spheroid drawn to that gravity. and m its mass.Chap. T the duration of the sidereal year. is seen from the sun under an angle of 179" whence the . hence a a! = 206264. 4t« . gy r.09 The sixth satellite of Saturn accomplishes a sidereal revolution in 15. XIII. whence m= tlie §• . r= and.4559 days. a be the mean distance of Sun from the Earth.23.6890 days. JR*. by division. that the attraction of the Earth at its surface in the parallel on bodies where the square of the sine of the latitude is ^. and the 351' sidereal year is tion of the fourth satellite is 16. 3359. and the mean radius of tance of the planet is is its orbit seen from the sun at the mean dis 44". therefore the of the . 365. 2» . This method of the Earth.6890. the mean radius of its orbit.58 T= 365.] THE CELESTIAL MOTIONS. 1066. parallel. a^ S R. this attraction will be e ^ Then. are known by observation. at the mean distance of the planet. on account of the numerous inequalities of the Moon.2564 16. r'r= With these data it is easy to find that the mass of Jupiter is m = 1 .9453 days. a» ratio and a. mass of Saturn is .2564 days. With 1 these data the mass of Uranus found to be is 19504 not sufficiently accurate for finding the mass 600. It has already been observed.
will ultimately give the masses of The action of each disturbing the planets with great accuracy. + &c.9 is with these data the mass of the earth 1 computed to be 337103' the mass of the sun being unity.©».75 a tlie . = sin 8". m'iiV + m"Jrg" + &c. a series of equations.. 601. Su". ten equations would be sufficient to . is V + m'^v' + mJi'iv" + &c. Sun may be found from ex The sine of the solar parallax at the mean distance of the sun from the earth. This value varies as the cube of the solar parallax compared with that adopted. m'h' + m"^v" are obtained. and in the latitude in question. &c. The compression of the three larger planets.1069 = 32. and the ring of Saturn. is sin P= :5. are susceptible of computation from theory and as they are given by the Tables of the Motions of the Planets. given instant in its troubled orbit.352 mass of the Earth pression. and the sidereal year T = 31558152". 602. the true longitude of is V r m'^v' + m"^v" + &c. &c. L. DATA FOR COMPUTING to that of the [Book this II. 7)i". As tlicre are ten planets. with the disturbances determined from theory.2138 2089870. are unknown quantities. so that the longitude of m at any r„ . &c. = L — r. m = When this formula is composed with a great number of observations. R= is 16. and by the resolution of these the masses of the planets may be estimated by the perturbations they produce. probably affect the values of the masses computed from the but the comparison of numerous well elongations of their satellites chosen observations. = L' . = &c. body adds a term of the form m'^v' all to the longitude. where m'. and the terrestrial radius in the same parallel. are g =2. attraction of the Earth. . Sy'.
were the observed longitudes and quantities t).. XIII. Delambre determined the maximum of the inequalities produced by the action of Venus. and the Moon.] THE CELESTIAL MOTIONS. Gauss. The mass of Venus obtained from the secular diminution in the obliquity of the Ecliptic. from that deduced from the elongation of his clusive till cannot however be regarded as conthe perturbations of these small planets are perfectly is known. 603. and the probability of accuracy is greater as agrees with the observations • 2 ia it made by the Chinese and Arabs so A ..CSiap. mathematically exact. &c. but as that far from being the case. and from later observations by Dr. and it is still decreasing at the rate of 50". the unknown a more than series of numerous combining equations quantities they contain. ecliptic made by Bradley about a hundred years ago. to the year 1473 of the these. which will be explained afterwards. depends on the theory of probabilities. on the Earth. there can be little doubt that the secular diminution in the obliquity of the ecliptic very nearly 50". so as to determine these quantities with all possible accuracy. it Christian era . series of tolerably correct observations of the Sun's altitude at the solstices chiefly A to us from the year by the Chinese and Arabs.2. Mars. has obtained a it mass of Jupiter. The powerful energy exercised by Jupiter on the four new planets in his immediate vicinity occasions very great inequalities in the motions of these small bodies. ^v". From this correspondence in the values of the mass of Venus. and by comparing these observations witli the analytical formula. M. many hundreds of observations made on all the The method of planets must be employed to compensate the errors. tlie 353 computed is give their masses. by a comparison of appears that the obliquity was then diminishing. whence that higldy value for the distinguished mathematician. obtained from these different sets of observations.2 From numerous observations on the obliquity of the in a century. have been handed down 1100 before Christ. Su'. inclined to the plane of the ecliptic at an angle of The plane of the terrestrial equator is 23° 28' 47" nearly. or from the observations of each separately. Maskelyne. whether he deduced he obtained nearly the same value of the mass it from the joint observations of Bradley and Maskelyne. differing considerably satellites. of Venus. but this angle varies in consequence of the action of the planets.
or the spreading of the light same hypothesis with regard round the disc of a planet. * (201). and m'. be the masses of any two planets of which the densities. Mercury has a very small influence on the motions of the An ingenious method of finding the mass of that planet has been adopted by La Place. with distances to their volumes. The mass of Mars lias been determined by less precision the same method. * = £!! ^. their little from spheres. D'. f'. jy*. and Juj)iter. 604. m'. because it action occasions less disturbance in the Earth's motions. Because mass is proportional to the product of the density and the volume. p. and that of rest. and vice versa. and other difHcultics in measuring the apparent diameters. its is though with than that of Venus. By comparing the masses of the Earth. the volumes. Mars. if m. although liable to error.Vij/ . DATA FOR COMPUTING Notwithstanding doubts still tBoo^^ "• exist as to the mass of Venus. D^ :p' . . and Saturn. as the hypothesis does not give a true result for the masses of Venus and Saturn. and adopting the Mercury.354 many centuries ago. he obtained the preceding values of the masses of Mars and Mercury. Irradiation. mim' whence ::p . then . . volumes may if be assumed proportional to the cubes of their diameters . which are found nearly to agree with those determined from other data.ip mim! But as the planets differ very . P. The action of the new planets is insensible. makes the values of the masses obtained in this way the more uncertain. v. hence D. the masses be known. be the diameters of m. for evident that the masses of those bodies that cause the greatest disturbance will be best known. 2. are and F. together with the uncertainty of the hypothesis of the law of the densities. 605. La Place found that the densities of these three planets are nearly in the inverse ratio of their mean from the sun. Jupiter. D and D' if The apparent diameters of the planets have been measured so that this equation will therefore give the densities are known . Fortunately the influence of Mercury on the solar system is very small.
when .9326 0.59496 . Whence the densities are.l. mean distance of the earth from the sun. Sun The Earth viewed at the the Sun and Earth at their 961".. at his is 94".5 1 Saturn 3512 Uranus Densities 1 17918 of the Planets. The mass of the Sun being ^^^^"'^ masses of the planets are.. Sun The Earth Jupiter . but the radii must be taken in those parallels of latitude. 6 Tlie radius of Jupiter's spheroid in the latitude in question. the 356 606. their densities are therefore as their masses divided by the cubes of their radii .Chap. and when the masses are spherical.344 and the corresponding radius of Saturn the sun is mean 1 distance from 8"..99239 Saturn 0. The densities of bodies are proportional to the masses di* vided by the volumes. The mean apparent semidiameters of mean distance are. XIII. unity. Thus the densities decrease with the distance from the sun how* ever that of Uranus does not follow this law. but the uncertainty of the value of its apparent diameter piay possibly account for this deviation. their volumes are as the cubes of their radii as tlie sun and planets are . 3. 607. being greater than that of Saturn.] THE CELESTIAL MOTIONS. "202^ 1 Venus 405871 The Earth Mars Jupiter 1 354936 1 2546320 1 1070. 8". nearly spherical. *2 A a . the squares of whose sines are .
.358 DATA FOR COMPUTING Mercury [Book II.
XIII.3870981 0.25784800 0. 612. and may be determined and when they are known. The eccentricity of an orbit is found by ascertaining that is heliocentric longitude of the planet at which it moving with its mean angular velocity. or Values of e\ he. Uranus 0.24164800 0. to the Mean Distances. the eccentricity .00686074 0.5236923 2. and the equation of the centre.05615050 . 0.7672450 2. The values of c. By repeating this process for a series of years.5379564 19. are for any given period.01685318 The Earth Mars [Vesta I 0.0000000 869 Mercury Venus The Earth Mars Vesta 1. 0. and equal to half the eccentricity.6690090 2. «".1823927 Saturn Uranus Ratio of the Eccentricities e.Chap.08913000 0.07843900 Juno Ceres Pallas Jupiter . for 1801.20551494 0.04661080 .. 0.3678700 Juno Ceres Pallas Jupiter 2. Mercury Venus .04816210 Saturn 0.. or mean and true anomaly is a maximum. anomaly are equal to for there the increments of the true and mean difference between the one another.09330700 0.7728860 5. the effects of the secular variations will become sensible. for 1801. c'. may be determined Sec..] THK CELESTIAL MOTIONS.7233316 1.2011524 9.
. &fc. were in 1801 7 Mercury Venus Mars rVesta I Juno [Ceres L Pallas Jupiter Saturn Uranus . .... the sun... as the tangent of the geocentric latitude to the tangent of the inclination. .. if the planet's elongation from the sun and its geocentric latitude be ob. If the planet be 90° distant from just equal to the inclination. 0".. : these points will be in the extremities of the major axis really the if these be two observed longitudes. the values of ex. Inclinations of the Orbits on the Plane of the Ecliptic. whence their places is of the perihelion for any epoch.. they require a small correction to reduce them to the true times and longitudes.. their secular motions will be obtained. the inclination of the orbit may be found for the sine of the elongation is to the radius. were. . in 1801. The angular body is least in aphelion. When the earth is in the line of a planet's nodes. . In the beginning of 1801. the latitude observed tliis is By method Kepler determined the inclination of the orbit of Mars.. . As it is very improbable that the observa tions should differ by 180°. a exactly property belonging to no other diameter in the ellipse.. Longitudes of the Perihelia... The values of 0. vs\ vj"^ &c. served. if its longitude be observed when the increments of the angular velocity are greatest or least. The longitude the distance of the perihelion from the ascending orbit. ... .. 613.... and if the observations be continued for a series of years. On this principle the longitudes of the perihelia may be determined. plus the longitude may be computed node estimated on the of the node. velocity of a . The secular inequalities become sensible after a course of years. 0'. ...360 DATA FOR COMPUTING [Book II.. the interval between them will be lialf the time of a revolution. and greatest in perihelion consequently.. 614..
] THE CELESTIAL MOTIONS. The Earth Mars . were. . its When a planet is in its nodes. Vesta Jimo Ceres i Pallas Jupiter . 6". and secular motions will may therefore be found by be continued they long enough.. 615. Saturn Uranus .Chap. . and place of the nodes if its latitude is zero. XIII. it is in the plane of the ecliptic . In the beginning of 1801 the values of ^. o 301 Mercury Venus . 6*. &c. may be computed. longitude is tlien the same with the longitude of its node. . The a series of observations. Longitudes of the Ascending Nodes. their be obtained whence their positions at any time . .
and greatest in perihelion consequently... the interval between them be exactly half the time of a revolution. . were.. The longitude of the perihelion is the distance of the perihelion from the ascending node estimated on the orbit.. its if the planet's elongation from the sun and geocentric latitude . If the planet be 90° distant from just equal to the inclination.. their secular motions will be obtained. as the tangent of the geocentric latitude to the tangent of the inclination. . &c.. and the observations be con tinued for a series of years. 614. The angular body is least in aphelion. .. . . plus the longitude of the node. 7 Longitudes of the Perihelia.. xa".360 DATA FOR COMPUTING [Book II. the latitude observed this is By Tlie method Kepler determined the inclination of the orbit of Mars. the inclination of the orbit may be found for the sine of the elongation is to the radius... they require a small correction to reduce them to the true times and longitudes. be ob served. if its longitude be observed when the increments of the angular velocity are greatest or least... 613... 0'. When tlie earth is in the line of a planet's nodes. were in 1801 O t II The Mercury Venus Mars rVesta I Juno Ceres I . As it is very improbable that tlie tions should differ by 180°. In the beginning of 1801... whence their places may be computed for any epoch.Pallas Jupiter Saturn Uranus . values of 0... w'. secular inequalities become sensible after a course of years. of the perihelia On this principle the longitudes if may be determined. in 1801. : these points will be in the extremities of the major axis really the if these be will two observed longitudes. . Inclinations of the Orbits on the Plane of the Ecliptic.. the values of w. 0". the sun.... velocity of a . ... a property belonging to no other observa diameter in the ellipse.. &c. .
] THE CELES .Chap. XIII.
/ 64 6 .
Half the greater axis Eccentricity . 248 . Period of revolution 6. .Chap. 12 24 13 . .53683 0. in the next Chapter.. . 3. .• 13 13 The computation.. especially as show the method of finding there are many peculiar to these two planets.. Passage at perihelion 1832.. 4808.] THE CELESTIAL MOTIONS. Longitude of perilielion Longitude of ascending node Inclination . yoars. 109° 56' 45" . November 27th. . XIII. of the perturbations of Jupiter and Saturn will be sufficient to their numerical values. . 7..7517481 . 363 Claussen and GamharVs Comet 0/1825.
05622460 0.00688405 The Earth Mars Jupiter 0. cj".614 Uranus Valuesof^. NUMERICAL VALUES OF THE PERTURBATIONS OF JUPITER. ra'.6211 331.04G69950 Values of CT. 5661 127.20551320 0. 0". Mercury Venus 73°. e'. &c.473 10. &c. time at Paris.3172 Saturn 2.1519 166.7736 Uranus . 1 .4986 0.3511 Saturn 88. 8499 1. 619. 7° Venus Mars Jupiter 3. The epoch assumed for this computation is that of the French Tables.3931 . The data for that epoch are as follow : — mean Values of e.01681395 0.04807670 Saturn 0. Mercury 0'. namely.9117 The Earth Mars Jupiter 98. the 31st of December. Mercury Venus 0. 1749. Uranus &c. at midnight.09308767 0.364 CHAPTER XIV.
Ai.000376 Au = 0.5378709. The series represented by S and S' in article 453 form the tlie basis of the whole computation. and their differences.Chap.000189 0.000364 = dA 12 da = = = 0. &c.012369 0. _ = 0.6438 97.5064 Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus 72.000223. da' 0.012149 da dA1. for Jupiter and Saturn. At. da 0. are obtained from the Tlie formulae in article 455. =0. Values of 0.000034 dAi = 0. A^ =0. 620. &c. but twelve or fourteen of will first be sufficiently correct for all the planets.6314 The longitudes are estimated from the mean equinox of spring.001798 dA "^^ da = 0. = = = r= 0. A.004070 da' £^ da* 0.54531725. = 9. and those that follow. Bq^ 1?i. dA. e\e".] PERTURBATIONS OF JUPITER. &c.003314 ^A} da* 0. __ = 0.002942 ^j1i da* = _ = 0. a whence = 5.20116636.065071 0.000091 = = "^' =r 0.00302 da dA.000617 da _ 0. 365 Mercury Venus 45°. mean disUinces of these two planets are.005929 A.002918 A = 0. = = 0.000738 0.002654 .016305 = 0. da dA..007987 dA ° * da = 0.99987.001458 A.004058 da* 0. according to La a' Place.4384 47. £.228576 0.001056 = 0.2612 =— 4.906 111. A. terms of each The numerical values of the coefficients. A^.003453 £A.008891 = Aj = Au = da 0. a = 0.004983 dA . da d'A. 3452 74. XIV. S' S ^0 = 10.027012 A dAi da 0.
B. da* 0. = 0. da* d*A.001503 £^ = 0.001469 da* °^^ =0.000128 da dB.001175 d'A.000315 0.001808 0. da dB.001774 ^= da = = 0. da" _ 0.001319 d?A. rfa» 0.000183 0. = 0. da* 0. B^ I?7 B.000189.001156 dMo da* = 0.001001 da' 0.000904 = 0. Bo J5» 0.001203 d«« .000&77 da" da" 0.000993 da" d?A^ da" 0.000448 i^ da 0.001044 if^ da» = 0.001064 d*Ai 0. da» 0.000943 da = 0.000559.005026 0. dBp da dB» 0. da'' = 0.366 NUMERICAL VALUES OF THE^ 0.001234 d*A.001868 ° * = 0. oa* 0.001551 0.001011 d'A. I?.000062.001478 da" °^' da* (PAs da'' 0.001069 = 0.001466 da" (PA. = da £a = da* 0.001493 0.000448 0.003674 = 0.002013 da' 0. da^ d?A. ^ = 0.001088 £A.001556 d^A^ da" _ 0.002061 d»^ da" 0.001212.000184 B. da> __ 0.001225 £^ = 0.001808 da" £^ = 0.001138 ^* da* =: 0.001919 TJ!!! [Book II.001107 d*A.
XIV. da'' .Chap. 3G7 d'B.] PERTURBATIONS OF JUPITER.
refer Mercury.002359.0) = d". (202) (4. 27721 0". Jujiiter. 223178 6". By the substitution of the preceding data. give the following reduced to seconds. 5998 i£ dt = 0". Venus.004291 (4.00744. the Earth. where the Mars. 3. and d& dt — is the same variation with regard to the true ecliptic.09665 0. it is the quantities in these expressions are easy to find by their substitution.1)= 0.03247. that (4. equations (128) results. or. * =  14".6) = = 5.2) = = 0.5)= 7. 1. Saturn. = 0. 0.009862 0. and (141). digits 0. as the numerical values of given. 2. (4.51 g?2] 0. 6634. &c. 000226 lO] 4TTl = = = 0. 4502. 622. ^= ^= ^= dt dt 6".001633.368 NUMERIC. _ dt is the annual variation of the in clination on the true do ecliptic ^ : — dt is the annual and sidereal motion of the ascending node of the orbit of Jupiter on the fixed ecliptic of 1750 . and Uranus.VL VALUES OF THE all [Book II.^= dt i!!£  0".3) lO] gTH ^76} to r= 0.004.000021. when multiplied by the the radius sidereal by 206264". dt dt .702 (4.0342. 8. de is the annual variation of the equaduring a period of 365} days: 2 — dt lion of the centre : _ dt is the annual variation of the orbit of Jupiter ^ on the fixed ecliptic of 1750 . 07814 ^. (4. where — dt is motion of the periheUon of Jupiter in longitude at the epoch 1750.
and n the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit of Saturn on that of Jupiter. m'^Ta' ^J — ^ the quantities (202) relating to Jupiter.0053. If the differential of these equations be taken and the numerical values of d^ dt' dd dt* . (4. Q^i _. it will readily be found. 369 By article 484. By article 444. 0* sin 0'— s= Y sin jB* 0' cos 0'0 CO80 =: 7 COS fi . m>ri j^jj . be multiplied by » those corresponding to Saturn will be found. 7 being the mutual inclination of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn.] PERTURBATIONS OF JUPITER.1127 —= dt 0''.4^ . XIV. and by the substitution of the numerical values of 615. m' / if tlien.Chap. and the for Tn''J~a' mulae (128) give for Saturn ^^' dt = = 16".099741 ^= dt sin 9".0) =m aTa a' (0.54021 d^ dt 0". that in 1750 article 613 and f = 1° 15' 30" n = 126° 44' 34".
000184. and from equations (193) and (194).2. 0. (195). = 0".0''.^ da? da^ da J Q. . = .0292. and their differences in article 620.139264. are whence for Jupiter at the epoch. 0.0. (Sy) (Se) = =  0".0000114596. = + 24a^^ + V ^l.199192 Qi = 4. be substituted. NUMERICAL VALUES OF THE [Book IL =  i * {396^.487332.267808. A^. = Qo Q^= Qj =: 0. ^ {380^. + 174a. Q. equations (165) and (166) give P= and as the 0. Q. &c.102763 . and (196). ^ * + 2ba\^ +«'^l' +184a. . Qe') = .370 Q.43538.007631. differences of these equations are —= de i{Qic'8 sin (2cj' + w) + 2Qjee' sin (a' + 2ct) + SQgC* sin 3ct + Qj 7* sin (2n + cy)}.352941. known the quantities in equations (191).=iaa'{ 10^3+0 ^l aa J da ) If the values of ^j.052278. the corresponding variations in the elements of the orbit of Saturn arc (i«') = 3". then will = — 2.. With the preceding data.242722. (192). (5©) =: 0".^ da dd?^ da' J Q.000107267 . 3w + Qj 7* cos (2n + w)} &c. P' = . (Sn) 0". _ = ilQ/* cos de + all (2ro' + w) + 2Qg«:' cos (ct' + 2ct) SQ^e^cos &c.
dt ^=0". 000078. <. co8»(n'< «< + «' 6). if = these expressions will give the elements in 1950. 624. = 9916". t Consequently the elements of the two orbits at any time 0". + +  6". — 2 Fj .^*. 1°. <. —= dt dt 19". <«. e'=11597".<«. + — 2 . The inequalities in the radius vector and longitude. <*.C. ^ 9916". <*. 329487. 35108 88°. But e CT' =  26". 1. < = 11597".l 7 (203) + 19". 000039 13 ll. 642968. 6 M^ da . 53. < c = + — a er tsj' s= 10° 21' 4"+ 6". dt — =0". 000079.!  +  0". differences will between these and be their second differences. <.t . n =125° 44' 33" 26". 355448. 001487.053178 . 0007507307. which will give the elements of the orbits of these two planets for after 1000 or 1200 years before or 1750. H= 125°. 3555448.95281. 35108. dt ^^ ~dt ^ = 0". 4 + 19". 355448. 000079. e'= . 15194 1°. 0". 0002509259. . (204) =88° 9' 6". . 9916". 53 are CT= rs' 10°. = =r 25838 n If < 125°. 000008287 1. —= dt will be found that in 1950 19".648499. 329487. 2. 329487. 10163. < +0". Periodic Inequalities of Jupiter. 0000 13827 5. 642968. which are independent of the eccentricities and inclinations. 11597". f = 25838 . — = 0". 0". 74278 — it + 26". 1028 . 10163. . 371 su that — = dt dt 6 '. divided The by 200. 95281.0". 326172 ^ =. are computed from ^=1— a StJ= a\ .] PERTURBATIONS OF JUPITER. therefore the formulae (198). < 0". 424739 ^=0^. <•. dt dt their values for 1750. 0001732274. are 0". <. < 0". <. 0". 2+ 0". 7 =1° 15' 30". 74278. 53 0". .26". 952808. = 88M5194 c= zz at the epoch.Chap. 402056. and the computation be repeated with them ^= dt 7". with regard to Jupiter and Saturn. sin iin't — nt + c' — «) J •2 B 2 . 642968. XIV. ct= 10°. ^ =0".
9061248 log 0. 874378 = 0.4926697 n'(2nn') log2C/= 9. nn' a^i S3 0.4490293 0.406384 jy _3  17".281209 log n =: 0. 81 e' — 82".0078973. sin {n't n< 1.8056104.0053110S. 7i'=43996".4443572 sum is log 3359. W — ® hence + a«i^ ^ttA^ — n' da = 9. 076086 sin 8(n'< — + 0". t1 3359. nn' 9.3144256 5. 210573 sin h(ji't  n< (  n< n< + + e' —  e) e) «) «'    + 0". A.8056104 = logO. 041273 sin 9(n'< . 170923 sin l{n't + 0".7 a=5. 20116636. 071 564 . . 821. But nf^sz n=109256".2238068 log of radius in seconds the =5. ^ 0.1375352. 0. and the corresponding it will quantities substituted in the pre be found that the inequalities of this order in the longitude and tadius vector of Jupiter arising from the action of ceding formulae.4 ^'* .9416990  !L. = l6g n — n' . So Consequently.n< + e' .c) .9180956 log 82". aA. ^4l da = 0. then by articles 536 and 537 n\2nn') Kn—rv "• da ) n 1 ^ — n' n — n' . V: TS. 926319 sin 4(n'< 1".e) sin 2(n7 . Saturn.5262617 1.nt { ^ — e) {n't e' 3". 81 1711 sin 204" . when » e).372 If t NUMERICAL VALUES OF THK [Book II. + 2C. 0.281209.7i< + sin 3(«7 . _' = da a«.143676 . 4 = 0. fience if i be made successively equal to all the positive numbers = 2= = — + from 1 to 9.n« + 0". 4 =3. = 1. are 82". 42843 sin 6{n't 7i< «' e' t' t'  e) 7i<  «) e)  .
.0009047822 cos {Zn't w< w< + + + + 2e' 2e' —ce to} 2nt 2nt + Se' 3e' + + V . from 1 to —5.0001259429 cos {\nt 3/j/ + 4c' 3c .0000795246 cos (n't + e' . e and e'at the epoch are sufficiently exact for all the terms of this order.nt+ c' sin {i (n't . cos (nt e) + e — ro') + + S» vie vi'e' .to'} .2e . 329487 . .0000492096 cos +  e'  cj') 0.w] .. that 99 16". 53 — + and 11597".! .0000782514 cos = ^ — —  0.0000258952 cos 0. which are given in articles 536 and 537.\nt + 5a' . and stituting successively equal to the whole positive numbers.0004584483 cos {3n7 0.nt + .] PERTURBATIONS OF JUPITER.ct] 0.Ant + 5e' .0000268383 cos {bn't . Gj //.zj] e) +nt + e . except those having the arguments 27t7. and 3n'2nt +36' 0".cj} 0.2^' .4e . .2e — cr'j Znt Ae' .za} c) + 7it + e' ra'}.ro) (n't 4. XIV. 2 2 .0". 642968.000134053 cos {2nt .0000206111 cos (nt + e .0000014781 cos  — 0.ct) 0. . e nt + + e)  by making 1 to 7. e' e' i:t + nt + e' nt + c' nt + nt + + tjZ — c) e) e' c' 625.? &c.xs'\ . 373 — Sr 0.2e — cy] 0.e) e' — e) + .nt + e' sin {i (n't .0000094779 cos b{n't 6(7i't 0. .0002424413 cos {4/17 0.7J<+2e'e.nt + e'  + nt + c .Chap. and subwhole negative numbers. . cos {i (n't .e) . = m'e + m'e i .000003756 cos 7 (n't B(n't 0.0001688085 cos {2n't 0.0000579151 cos {2nt . A. .o'j 0.000676876 cos (n't +  0.0003021367 cos 0. A Ei .0000516048 cos {5/t7 .e) .o).0000620586 0.g).000292213 cos {2n't 0. whose periods are so long. < must be employed instead of e and It e'.0000004799 cos 9(n't . 2e. t.46 . 2 2.n't + 2e — 0.00289662 cos 2(n't 3(//7 ^{n't  nt nt j c' e' — 0.0.7U + e cos {i (n't .ro'}. from the numerical data corresponding to each in the coefficients to the — The values of E.c) .2n'l + 3c . The inequalities depending on the tricities are obtained from Jr =r m'fe cos (nt first powers of the eccen + e — vj) + • m'f'e'.c) . c' . will then be found that the perturbations of Jupiter are / — — + — tr={ + +  0. .
634099 . &c.8in(n'< + . 172892 sin {\nt 0". 629621 1". 925312 047717 407251 15". Tliesc are computed by making 3.6e 56 t. 0".} sin {6n't 5e — «T'} bnt + 6e' sin {6n't sin {7n't . 0045985} sin {2n't — nt + 26^ —c— 6 id} + { 56". 781664 0". 0031398} sm{2n't — nt + 26' + 26'  CT'} {44".)e«. 8in(/i'/+«<+e'+62cT) \ Vle*\ 2 Hn' «' • + E.c<?'. 2. 87665 2n't 26' 0". 0014775} sin {3n't 26 ct} . 626. 004794 } sin {3n't2n« + 3e' ^y + 7".cj) .26 CT'} . infomnilie i successively equal to 1.3nt + ie' — 3e T. 692386 sin + . that part of the perturbations •+.3n't + An't An't 3c — 2e' 3c' CT} CT'} 46 4* 56 — ct} CT'} + ^— 356627 sin {bnt +  3e' 46' — — 0".6nt + 76' .3g sin {in't . — 2n't + — 3n't + . + =\ _ + / 2". If t =1. 325592 sin {In't  6nt n't 208122 569738 sin {2nt —  + 76' 26 tsr} 6e e' e' + +  0". 287482 sin {\nt 0". 913302 + 0'M49277 5". — + t . Inequalities depending on the Squares of the Eccentricities and Inclinations. 942569  t . in longitude.374 NUMERICAL VALUES OF THE 8". sin sin {2nt {3nt n't + + +  CT'} 26 3c' —  CT} CT'} 12". 373337 + t t .»<+6'+6cTcT') da n'jni + n)* . 352399 sin {3nt 1". 083189 sin {bnt  Cj} + Sc 4c' CT'}. [Book IL 608489 sin (n't  9".ns') (n't + e* e' {138".6e — •   0". is j^_ ( 2rf jrir) '"'' _ m[f (iC.2nt  — + {84".  0". 460822 0".+D. 0".'} 4g' 3nt sin {4n7 + — Cj} 4e Avt + be sin {bn't 4e — w'} Ant + 5e sin {bn't — byit \.  . depending on the argument n't itl f c' + 5i c. 1 (163) and (164). 0".
sin But Iv may be expressed e' by Where. e^ sin 2tj'+ 6. 7* . are given in article 459. . Inn' + a«^l da 3 n'*««ln'n 7i« da* J £.4894.= n'« ^' . da sin (w'< + + +e + L) ) c. e" 7« . 7i< €' + 6. . + tsj') . sin (w'< . e* . &nd Ju 6. it will be found by the method in article 569.004 ^=tan45°. A)c". y« cos 211 substituting the values of the elements given in article 619.. e' sin 2ct + + 6ice' .6. are . e" cos 2bj' + 6.(fIV+2. ee' . da* da I J . . e** . will be found that Iv takes the form sin Ju = 6 + w< + + — 2ct) sin (n7 + + + e — tj— ct') + .i!L. &c. iVi. = !il n*(n' — n)* i. 2 iVo iV .4o94 . + . + («'* + (n7 n< 7i< + + e' «' + + + + e c  2cj') 2n). sin {n't + + + + + w< n< 7t< + 6' n< n< + + + + e' e' e' c' + + + + + eL = e  2ct) cr e e e —  — ct') 2cy')  2n).sm (n'<+n«+e'+e .o'^l ln'+» . . (n7 + + + The n" iVj i^T. 7' sin 211 P= 6e* 6.Chap. sin sin (n7 c" ce' . &i. be substituted.2. XIV. sin (cr + w') f 6. sin (7i7 2V. {ii'i e' t 6i . . given numbers.] PERTURBATIONS OF JUPITER. . n" {a'^»+ia«^}. =P —F P' = 5c" . cos 2cT 6iee' cos (cr .aJ. P cos Ifo'^sq! 45 . 375 where 2(f(rSr)_ a«. _ m' . &t . + 7J< + cos (n'< + w< + e) 6). = 43996". that ^'"  =VP+F«=1". . . 6. . sin sin (n7 + where 6. and also n it = 109256". coefficients iVo.2ot) }. . . ee' sin (n'< + n< n< + €' e' + eCTcr') + _^. 7t« wd< 7i"+ 2/j/i'\ 3 (^ C^ + 3Ei + . and if the numerical values of ^o» ^n their differences.
2e . must be computed its  with the formulae (204).07528 + + .i72/i<+2e'26+42° 6789) . having the argument Zn't — bnt + 3e' — 5e. cos (2n'<+26+ll°0153) + 0. sin (3n'<n<+36'e+79°6633) .51° 0677) cos (3n'tbnt+3e'be .000082242 . 0. — ni + Se' . + Perturbations depending on the Third Powers Eccentricities and Products of the and Inclinations.57871 .0".0001010533 . 0. 0. sin  (n7+n<+6'+e+45° 4894) 5".0.18".4764 sin (n'<7j<+ee'+43°2836) 5".93999) + 11 ". (3«'< . all = 1".000107267 .4144 .  bnt + ^^'  Se + 50". 597 (2 n't + 50". the differences of P and P' must be computed.2nt + 4e'— 2e {in't .72425 . cos 5v={ {0. P' = .2659<.<) .0000114596. sin (47i'^2/i<+46'2e57°. Bin .3e 54°.000022625 . it>=/+{169". on account of the great length of ' period. 6802 f t 1".00211145— <. sin {n't + w< + c' + + 627. in order to find the numerical value of the principal term. It will be found by this method of computation that sensible inequalities in longitude the and in the radius vector depending on the squares and products of the eccentricities and inclinations. cos {Zn't 0. 4894).0000652204 cos .21°.43) 2".004277} sin 55°. are included in the following expressions observing that the inequality . sin {2n't + 2e' + 15°.00000005323}.004 .004 .5084)  (6n'<4M<+6eM654°.7884) . 628.2072) . These are contained in equation (172).376 NUMERICAL VALUES OF THE z [Book IL Consequently the inequality depending on 5w = e 1 becomes 45°. P= 0. f 1".1477).64714 . By article 623.2nt + 2«' .288 sin (2. But. + 55°.
52695  0". dP dt 0.473686 2nt t 5e' 0". sin (ra' + w) . the results in 2250. will P = P' = _ P = P' 0. —  {119". =  and. t— be' 0". gives f^ da = ^ da . . whence the elements of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn at these two periods will be known .008418 .Chap.000000000014865 . will be obtained by making successively equal to 500 and 1000.00001925 2t) .00010009. but 377 their values in the t are the values of these quantities in years 2250. 1750. and if the same computation that was employed for the determination of P and P' be be repeated with them.79967  0". XIV. r . <«} sin (bn't —  2nt + . <«} cos (5rt'< + In order to compute the inequality dP 2m'n bn' cos da ibti't —  2/i< + + 5e  2e  2«  a« dP' ^ da . sin {bn't 2nt 56' 2fl equation (165).] PERTURBATIONS OF JUPITER. e » sin 3ta' + ^ da .000000040645.000027365 0. and 2750.000008407 0. e . in equations (204) . ^EL dt = — 0. with these data the principal term of the great inequality put under the form of equation (171) becomes 5y = + {1263".0000000002249 =1 . and 2750.0O0078562 26). ^^ dt — — 0.00010552 0.000000000003642 . by tlie method of article 480 ^ dt = — 0.
0019603 0". } } ..o019603. 200 =  {17". sin (2n + w).O054491 . 22886 . e'7« sin (2n + ^0 + — • ey . it will be If < found that in 1950 2m'n bii' — — ^ „« 2n ^ da da .83680 200 ^ ^ < __ o. in ^ . Ke sin . and the computation repeated with the resulting values of the elements.J3) . + JSl.2e + ct . . . 5/1' — 2/t ^^ a' — da dP = — — gives . sin (5/17  2nt + 5c .449839 . by changing the sines into cosines.878 NUMERICAL VALUES OF THE fBook II. the same expression gives 2m'n 5rt' — 2rt dP' __ 5/^360016.229862 {5". sin {bn't  2nl + 5e'  2c w+ U) + + i^ 2 m'He . the preceding value of 2m' n .»« 17". da be made equal to 200 in the equations (204). "Hie only remaining inequalities of tliis order are. e^ sin 3ci + The &c. sin (5«'<2//<+5c'2e) +  + . ^^^ 17. and hence Jr 6^449839  5360016 o". With which and the numerical values of the elements at the epoch 1750. _ 16^836801 2m'n bn' 2/t „j rfJ^ _ 6". are da obtained from the values of Qo> article 623. m'Ke . e'e« sin (ct + 2ct') + ASl da . Qw quantities ——^ &c. cos(5n72//< + 5e'26). .0054491 t .22886 + 16. (5«7  2nt +5<:'  2e + ci + B).360016  0". da and. da .
16304 .47466 i . be found equal to 5» = (0". according to Pont^ Sr and Sg' = = 2". .3653) of the argument great inequality + 5e  + of Jupiter).0248 13". powers and products of the and computation of these is exactly the same with the examples given. The Iv great inequality of Jupiter also contains the terms = — (8". The inequahty mentioned coulant.Chap.53650". .2nt + 5e' .4e61  (biH . 379 the numerical values of which easily t) . If all the terms depending on the argument bn't — 2nt be' — 2e be collected.] PERTURBATIONS OF JUPITER.56— 0". it will be found that the + great inequality of Jupiter is .2389 .013495 t  0".2nt + ht'2e) sin (4n<5n7+46'  Be  45°. sin {bn't  2nt+be'2e) <) cos (bn't. <) • • sin ibn't^2nt <) cos (bn't + be'^^e) . sin (bn't cos (b'nt — 2nt . XIV. sin (bnt — lOn't sin (twice the lOe' 61°. sin (bn't — + 2nt be' +  be'  cos (bn't  26)  40".00007856 5e' <«} . x 3".00001925 5e' . Tliese are given by equations (182) and (199) rical values are : their nume Jr = — 4".00000149 + 10". .9712 . the fifth (12".4645 .2nt + 5e'~2e) eccentricities .2nt 0". 0". <«} .3437 x 2nt 2e). + +  26) .0847 . is in article 589.00059324 . but very tedious on account of the form of the coefficients of the series R. may .(1".837960". cos (brJt — 2/j< + — 2e) Inequalities depending on the Squares of the Disturbing Force 629. for Saturn.2e) + + 5c' — 2e) for Jupiter 16". 36225).001755 .1211 +0".82030".004885 depending on the inclinations. {1261". Iv sin + {96".
078283. and QiO) = 0. 0". for the variations depending on the squares of the disturbing forces 0".2nt + 3e' _ 26 — H) sin (4«7 — 3/j/ + 46' _ 3e — H) — n) sin (2//< — «'< + 2e .0008113. .0000726.279382 .3172.0001001860 . 27 97 2) {bn't Periodic Inequalities in Latitude.6626 is its secular variation with regard to the variable ecliptic. . = is 1°. with regard to the fixed and ^ =dt 0". + 3 ".nt + 2e' .906. dt 14".l46941 2nt + be' 2e { ib°. and d& = — — 14 ".07821 is its secular variation. the inclination of Jupiter's orbit on the fixed ecliptic of 1750.12°.663927 . Equations (197) give (50) =dt 0. —= dt plane.269l3 . . These are occasioned by Saturn. 631.€ . cos (bn't '^""t + 0. . depending on the Third Powers and Products of the Eccentricities and Inclinations.bn't + 3g — 5e' + 59°.cos .22325. which are the only sensible inequalities in the latitude of Jupiter. "..380 NUMERICAL VALUES OF THE [Book IL Periodic Inequalities in the Radius Vector. and are easily found from equation (168) to be .0003042733 .457.22325. I'M 1". —= dt c' With these it will be found that . 5097 (3n< sin (n't sin (2/i7 e' . _ — f 0. 630.Se . with regard to the variable ecliptic also is = 97°.564458 J« =  + + I 0". — 0" 0". hence ^=  — = 6". the longitude of the ascending node of Jupiter's orbit on the fixed JQ 6". . 19782 . _= — dt 0".4571.6626. These are obtained from equations (160) and (177). ecliptic.9 41 68 sin + — D) . and is ^=— dt 0".H) sin (3h7 . is its secular variation with regard to that ecliptic .2nt + ^e' . the same.
ra') sin (Sn't . ^Vhen the values of p.e) — e) sin 3 (n't . . 0".] PERTURBATIONS OF JUPITER. is the cause being the mean motion of the earth.Chap.nt + 2e' — e . 0". 2 (n't  iit + .. 381 C32. are substituted in equations 633. (yM23506 0". (137) they give gN and as = (4. +Q + N.e) sin 2 (n't . 0".N') ^^^ (4 5) . =N g = .005977 .2nt + 3e' .vt + — e) sin 4 (n't . Tliese are all the inequalities that are sensible in the motions of Jupiter .nt + e' . of the following perturba tions in the longitude of Jupiter.427296 — 0". . sin (n't sin  nt I — O". ^1 = 0.102673 '.4) (2V . 5) (JV' . m''/a' gt ^ frj m'ynp w/ff "! J __ q 1 m'^' The roots of which are.ct') sin (n't — nt «' e' the mean motion of Uranus.4) = + (4.nt + sin (n< + e . 9^.5) = (5.044085 — = S» + — ^ .iVT) . + e' .23524 . and the action of Uranus . . sin C^ .53308 . — + ~ wliere 7i' is 0".0O0086 71' .127963 .Wj2M^m^(4 m'^/^ sin (gt 5) so that equations (138) become p .e) + — e) e' ) e' I in the longitude of Jupiter.120833 . J '^ "" f 0". e^' (5.t . those of Saturn may be computed in the same manner.w') sin (2n't — nt + 2c' — c — ct) sin (2n't . p'y q. Tlie action of the earth occasions the inequalities _.ct) sin (ni + e .051737 . On the Law8j Periodsy and Limits of the Variatiom in Jupiter ike Orbits of and Saturn. XIV. — 0".
' sin C = N'. iV. and iV. C . whence tan C = m^P + m'>fa'. p q + •\ ?u' w~a' fj a' p' =: constant. (in^/a + my/ a') sin ^ . (m^a + mV iV. (205) q' (g:/ Cy.JV) sin (gt + C) .cos . sin ^ g r/ = tan f// .g = (^T'. and iV^. constant . cos . q + mV a' 7' . Whence. cos + O + ^/.. p'p and = (iV^. at the epoch when < = q'q But as and so iV' =: — r=i I — • •'^ > p' — p "^' i\r=article 504. all = tan . mva. sin igt + O + ^. cos C p' = N'.p' (mwa + mWa') sinC/ and as at the epoch p p' are given.382 q NUMERICAL VALUES OF THE [Book II. .p+m'*ra'. Again. sin 0' = = tan tan 0' C.. 7'. The variations in the inclinations are at their maxima and miif C^ nima when st\Q Btituted for ^l — C/ is either zero or 180° hence be sub + ^. Nmwa + N'mW a' = or in consequence of (m\fa + ni'va') N^.iV) cos {gt + O. = iV cos igt + Q + iV. = constant. cr') . = ni'/a. by ms/a . C^ = constant. m' . {W —N) sin "^' ^P' ~ ?^^ ' f. ..p' m so. cos «' the constant quantities g. cos €.sin. §•. equations (205) give . q' z=. are obtained from the preceding ccjuations. iV.
whence dt dt and therefore pp' + qq' = p* + it quantities in equations (205).Chap. Tlie maxima and minima of the longitude of the nodes are given by the equations dd = = 0. they will circulate Tan = JNj* — iV corresponds to the preceding value of cos igt it + Q— C.tanO = 0. dd' Nr. cos (gt If +Q — C) = if N. tan 0' = . N\. the inclinations and when + d + put for gt + f they give for the minima. be greater than .. These points are attained when COS (ff< + f . tsiu (/) N' . by Halley's Tables. XIV. .N.] PERTURBATIONS OF JUPITER.V'  iV. Tlie stationary positions of the nodes therefore do not correspond either to tlie maxima or minima of the inclination. N independently of the signs. 19' lO' = 0' =: 97° 34' 9" 2° 30' 10" lOr 5' 6" ' . ^ or d.^. gives the inclination corresponding to the stationary points of the node. 0=1° 0'= hence at that time. whereas the maxima and minima of the inclinations happen when cos (gt + C  O=± 1. be less than N. In 1700. tan 0' = iV' for the maxima of . .) . the nodes but will have a libratory motion in one direction. N. or to the semi intervals between them. 180° is =N+ N0. and by the substitution of the becomes q*.C) = .cos or (gt+€ Q= ^• 0. tani> 383 N.
04442 N. is by article 486 = 634. In Jupiter's 1° 17' 10". Mr.03287 . and equations (132) give ff'ff< I = »n'v a' >(4. tan = 0.04078 q q' p' =: —— =— 0. A' = e' sin ta'. from equations (133). The period in wliich the inclinations vary from their greatest to their orbit will be 13° 9' 40". tlie The longitude of node 6 has a maximum and minimum in orbits. cos{21°37'Vl + 0. and those in /* The quantities •=. and in Saturn's least values. 43290. 360° S _ = 360° 25". are known at tlie epoch. = g =: t consequently for Jupiter tan = <// .00661 25".01573. 37'.01537 103° 38' 40" iV ==  0.02283 0. + N' =: 0.5756}. 5756. maxima and minima of the its  N' = 0. and the nodes from their greatest to their least longi tudes. 82665. ^ The limits and periods of the variations article 485. with these values. on cither side of its mean station on the plane of the ecliptic supposed immoveable. =: c sin CT.384 NUMERICAL VALUES OF THE [Book II.02905 125° 15' 40" N' C.00303 0. inclinations of Saturn's orbit are 2° 32' 40" and 0° 47'.5) J = — m'v a' g^ { I4k5j (4.<x25". and the minimum and the greatest deviation both from a mean state is 0° 22' 40". in the eccentricities and longitudes of the perihelia are obtained by a similar process. because N^ > N'. Herschel found N^ = C = 0.Q Julian J y 50673 years.01368 . 5756} and for Saturn. 02980. and state greatest deviation from its orbit. p = 0. = 0. / = e cos ct. . Also so that the N. V d cos to'.5)«j. cos {21° X 25". the maximum 2° 2' 30". 9905. mean is docs not exceed 52' 50". 5851 =2 " 1 . 5756 = „. Vl0. The extent of its librations in Jupiter's 31° 56' 20". whence g = 3" .
= 0.01715.01345.] PERTURBATIONS OF JUPITER. they will move continually in one direction.06036 and 0.N/ + + . for that of Saturn for of Julian years after the epoch. The longitudes of the perihelia are found from the value of tan tsj in article 495. • 2 C . In the case of Jupiter and Saturn gN'^ g. e c = V A* + . the perihelia will llbrate like the nodes about a mean position.08409 and 0. 4054 70414 Julian years. N. if not.Chap.'= 0.04321. The numerical be found in the values of the perturbations of the other planets will Mecanique Celeste. iV.'* is greater than (g gi) N'. 4054) for the eccentricity of Jupiter's orbit and e' e' = *J'hJ*~+T\ or = 0. XIV.04649 Vl +0. For Saturn these are 0. The greatest deviation of these from their mean place will happen any number when If this fraction be less than unity. or = 0. which the eccentricities accomplish their changes is 360° _ N' 360° 18". 18" 4054) .02606.03532. gg. 0.95009 cos (83° 42' t — t .68592 cos (83° 42'— M8". i*. = 210° 16' 40" C/ . so that the perihelia The period in go on for ever in one direction. and equation (135) gives = 004877. f = 306° 34' 40" iV' . maximum of one planet corresponding to the minimum of the other. and the for Jupiter 0.06021 VI  . 385 iV= iV^. it is therefore only necessary to observe the circumstances that are peculiar to each planet. The greatest and least values of the eccentricities are expressed by ± N/&ndN±Nj.
635. 5. 636. &c . Jupiter. pairs of small whole numbers. 8. The recurrence of the transits of Mercury depends on his periodic time being nearly Tliis ratio can be expressed equal to four times that of the earth. in the eccentricity 0. his greatest elongation not exceeding 28°.000003867. Mercury sometimes appears as a morning and sometimes as He occasionally star. and Saturn. The secular variations in the elements of Mercury's orbit were in the beginning of the year 1801. the earth have the following ratios to those of Mercury : Periods of the Earth. seen to pass over the disc of the sun like a black spot: these transits are true annular eclipses of the sun. so that if the planet be in conjunction with the sun while in one of his nodes. proving that Mercury is an evening is an opatjue body shining. he will be in conjunction again at the same node. secular variation of the inclination of the orbit on the true ecliptic.8. 9' 43". His periodic inequalities are caused by Venus. on account of his proximity to the sun. after the Earth and he have com by several The periodic revolutions of pleted a certain number of revolutions. secular and sidereal variation in the longitude of the perihelion. 7 13 = = 29 54 periods of Mercury. and Mars only affects the elements of his orbit. The motions of Mercury are less disturbed than those of any other body. those from Saturn are very small. secular and sidereal variation in the longitude of the node. Mercury.386 PERTURBATIONS OF MERCURY.  13' 2". [Book II. 33 = 137 &c. the Earth. and exhibits phases like the moon. 19".only by reflected light.
transits do not happen often . happen Had there would have been a transit at each revolution the orbit of Mercury coincided with the plane of the ecliptic. though her transits are not so frequent as those of Meris alternately an evening and a morning cury. The return of the transits are also irregular from the great eccentricity of the orbit. A transit of Mercury took place at the descending node in 1799. the The returns of the transits of Venus depend on five mean motion of the earth being nearly equal to three Venus : times times that of this however cannot be expressed by . The mean apparent diameter of Mercury is 6".9. and 235 periods of the earth are nearly equal to 382 of Venus hence a transit of Venus may happen at the same . It appears from the ratio of the periodic time of Venus to that of the earth. Fenus. that eight periods of the earth's revolution are nearly equal to thirteen periods of the revo lution of Venus.. Venus is next to Mercury. will 387 at intervals of 7. it . pairs of small whole numbers as in the case of Mercury therefore the transits of Venus do not happen so often. &c. XIV. Transits happened at the ascending node in the yean 1802. 637. quence of the inclination of his orbit.] TRANSITS OF MERCURY. 1815. same latitude when it returns to the same conjunction. has phases. 13. and exhibits similar phenomena. occasionally appears to pass over the sun's disc. and 1822. node after an interval of eight years. and when in her nodes. the next that will happen at that node will be in 1832. ' The Morning Star' is the only planet mentioned in the sacred writings. Like him she star. to the days of Milton. Consequently transits of Mercury 33. years. and has been the theme of the poet's song. which makes the motion of Mercury very unequal the retrograde motion of the nodes also prevents the planet from returning to the . but 2 C 2 if it does not happen. the latitude of Mercury must be less than the apparent semidiameter of the sun.Clup. for when a transit takes place. from Hesiod and Homer. but in conse.
which places on the earth's surface be at known . The sun's parallax E^nE'. if the sun's parallax any one altitude be it mined. from whence the true magnitude of the whole system is determined for unless the actual distance of the sun were known. 2004 Tlie transits of 7th June. However. would render is . because in measuring zenith distances. ascending node. only the ratios . Table of the Transits of Venus. hence the transits of Venus for ages to come will happen in December and June. 5th June. 6th „ same. descending node. can be found. fig. ascending node. has nearly the former longitude in the beginning of December. if another angle EmE'. 8th December. 65. descending node. whose parallax nearly a degree. 4th 1639 1761 „ same. is the angle subtended at the sun by the earth's radius. which is less than nine seconds. as seen sun. 1769 1874 1882 3d „ same. The earth. 638. [Book 11. which immaterial in the case of the moon. and that of her descending node from tlie is about 164°. as employed in known.388 TitANSITS OF VENUS. that is. Those of Mercury will take place in May and November. and the latter in the beginning of June. subtended by a chord EE' lying between two known of the magnitudes could have been ascertained. 1631 6th December. tlie heliocentric longitude of Venus's ascending node is something less than 75°. 66. cannot take place again at the same node for 235 years. but an error of that magnitude in the parallax of the sun. an error of three is or four seconds might hajjpen. Ymt. the method that number is not sufficiently accurate when applied to llic the sun. Venus afford the most accurate metliod of finding the sun's parallax. At present. fig. and consequently his distance from the earth. his horizontal parallax may be deterhas been shown in article 329.
. fig. times. and CSB. ASB is found. the internal contact. the angle E»iE' instead of measuring ' Let AB. and from that his horizontal the whence distance of the sun from the earth may be determultiples of the terrestrial radius. may be computed. VSB. the parallax of the sun parallax . will be on account of the inclination of Venus's orbit to found in B lot's and Woodhouse's Astronomy. represent the equator. and on this depends the superiority of the preceding method of finding the parallax. the angle when spectator at B.—^ perpendicular to it suppose them both be moving in the equator. earth. The investigation of this problem. The computation of the transit is complicated chiefly the ecliptic. that of the sun direct. the motion of Venus retrograde. may be erroneous = 60 V' of a second. S and V the discs of the sun : and Venus to ^. and the computation of the parallax. therefore the . the sun rate of at the 4" in a minute . 92. as Venus's distance from the sun to Venus's distance from the But the ratio of Venus's distance from the sun to her distance therefore the angle from the earth is known. or even in miles since is mined in the length of the radius known.] TRANSITS OF VENUS. the edge of Venus's disc tant from the sun difl'erence dis by VBS. Hence from the rate at difference of the and the which Venus and the approach each other. XIV. astronomers have endeavoured to compute it. 389 the results useless hence. and the situations of the places of observation A and B being always at different distances from the equator. 92. the angle fig. the angle VBS may be found.Chap. if the time of contact be erroneous at each place of observation 4" of time. The between the times of total ingress as is the time of describing seen from B and A VBS by the approach of the sun and Venus to sun each other. because the moAnd sine VBS is to sine tions of both the sun and Venus arc known. or total ingress of Venus on the sun commences. At inferior conjunction. and Venus approach each other hence. The times of internal contact can be observed with much greater accuracy than any angular distance can be measured. VBS. To a person to a is at A.
the centre of earth t' may be computed then comparing the computed value o( t witii its observed value. Jig. which is With an approximate value of the parallax. VA. and therefore greater than v'a'. at —^C^^ju' the N. astronomers avoided the culty by changing their method of calculation. 93. W the transit would appear to be in the line c'a'. isT + t — (Tf) = t + t'. The preceding method requires the difference of longitudes and B to be accurately known. they observed the duration of the and from the difference of duration parallax.47 . VA. would be t>fl. towards the south and VA the (r T~3II ~~^ *^^""^ 1' I o"^ VA. and at Otaheite in the southern hemisphere but as the diffi longitude of the latter was unknown. in Lapland. and from O it would be seen in If T be the true duration of the transit. In place of observtransit. true line of transit \ ^~ /^ ^®®" ^^°°^ ^' *^® centre of the earth. In 1761 a transit of Venus was the times actual pare A observed at the Cape of the longitudes of tions the all Good Hope. an angle only j^ of a second can be measured. would be T — sits from the centre. ing the ingress only. whilst that of describless which is farther t'. which was observed at Wardhus .^^ Otaheite .390 limit of the error in transit TRANSITS OF VENUS: [Book IL ASB is about ^ of a second. . would be The T f < . this is only an approximate value. 639. t and the differences in the durations at if W and O from tiie what they would have been . and therefore than difference of the durations of the tran seen from O <'. W Wardhus towards the north pole O v*^—. being well known by comparing the observa: mean result determined the parallax to it be 8". E the earth. in order to comof the two places of contact. but was useful in obtaining the true value from the transit of 1769. and at many places in Europe. observed at C. they deduced the Let P be Venus. at different places. and thus by the of Venus. ing then the time of describing va nearer to the sun's centre. the error in the assumed parallax will be + . a less quantity than can be determined by any other method. or the time of describing VA. and W entirely the effect of parallax.
by obser\'ing the horns of Venus. 904. XIV. The she is variations in the apparent diameter of . M. Venus are very great .9 . depending on the ratio of her of the earth. Venus tions. the interval of her returns about eight years.9 23. Venus is by far the most brilliant and beautiful of the pla nets. 10 But by observation Difference 16". . And diminished at Otaheite by . he discovered also very high mountains is too near tlie sun to be very irregular in her moIn 1801. In the longitude of the perihelion. considerably inclined to the plane of the ecliptic. Consequently the parallax 8". .575.26". tlie her greatest elongation not exceeding 47° 7'. With the has been calculated that at . to 8". Her phases increase with her distance from the earth. 5. a mean position in which Venus is more brilliant is to that position than in any other.Chap. but the increase of the distance diminishes her the intensity of light decreases proportionally to the : square of the distance there is.6. The transit commenced at half past nine in the morning.9 12. 641.] TRANSITS OF VENUS. 23'' 21'. determined her rotation about an axis. secular variation in the eccentricity of her orbit was 0. In the longitude of the ascending node.000062711. 23'. but her splendour is variable.16". is This does not differ much from what at Otaheite given by the lunar theory 8". 236. Wardhus the duration was lengthened by 11'.72. and therefore she ought to become brighter as her disc enlarges lustre. Shroeter.83 it 391 found. but an error recently detected by Bessel. In the inclination on the true ecliptic. Arago has found its her apparent diameter is then mean value to be 16". 4' 28". . nearest the earth in her transit 61". however. parallax 8". 640. . . is jKjriodic time to that She is then visible to the naked eye during the day. to be performed in on her surface.45 is less than that assumed therefore to make the observed and computed differences of diurations agree. but she also visible in daylight every eighteen months though less distinctly. and ended at halfpast three in the afternoon. since . 10 Sum< + <' . the parallax must be 8". — 31' 10" 4". reduces it M.
resolved in the ra r. 2. sin {U— SOby the moon. direction The action of the moon on the earth. 8 . hence E \ m _. and . 18542".. —. being the mean motions of the earth and moon . [Book II.35333 times greater than that of the sun. whence . 8.8 . is too distant to have a sensible influence on the Besides the disturbances occasioned by the other planets. The Earth.392 PERTURBATIONS OF THE EARTH. of the it is In order to compute the requisite to inequalities occasioned earth. E n and n^ •\' : m= n.35333 . . Uranus' earth. is —— IE is . if 17 be shown in the theory of the moon. there are some inequalities produced by the moon which are to be found in It will article 498. 642. By the theory of central forces. JL r . . and the action of the sun. sin {U  Sl)y in the earth's latitude is and if S= 18542". that — <Jt be her distance from her ascending node. — : S and m being the masses of the sun and moon . according to his dius vector f . the inequality (195)  5L E . know the ratio of the mass of the moon The theory of the tides shows that the action is to that of the moon in raising the waters of the ocean 2. the greatest inequality in her lati tude is 1S542". n* . r* S — P = .
hence . seems alternately to ascend above the plane of the and to . cos h = 643. XrV. small the by the moon in the earth's radius mass of the moon being only ^ part of that of the earth. and moon to be 645. The parallax of the sun by the mean disis known. 575. falls eclii>tic. supposing the parallax of the sun correct. j)lancts are referred to the sun by observers on the earth's sur therefore the sun appears to have a by which he alternately advances before. small. "is very sidering that.Chap. inequality produced by the The moon in the earth's longi. 644. computed with a value of the mass of the moon determined from the theory of the tides. the coefficients are St? ==  6". compared with the coefficient of the same inequality determined by observation. vector sin {U . 'sun Again. will give the error in the mass of the moon. it than the semidiameter. by observation. the ratio of tlie earth's distance from the from the moon is equal to the horizontal para to its t by the mean horizontal parallax of the moon. sin . 3454". and therefore the inequality 8". The irregularities communicated to the earth by the moon motion in longitude. (U . that must be within the mass of the in the earth's place earth.v).SO The is inequality caused .] PERTURBATIONS OF THE EARTH. (U  v). the distance of the common centre of gravity of less the eartli and moon from the centre of the former must be is.0000331 0". 575. may parallax of the moon is then the mean terrestrial radius divided . to be 8". and face . tude is must be less than tlie sun's horizontal parallax. 8274 . as the parallax of both the sun amPtVlOOh the mean horizontal and for the the arc be taken sine. the lunar equation of the tables of the sun it is of much Its importance for correcting the value of the coefficient being mass of the moon. by the lax mean is distance of the moon from the earth and the solar paral equal to the same terrestrial radius divided tance of the earth from the sun. and describes the elliptical orbit in behind the point that In like manner he the heavens. the ratio of the distances is that of the : moon is 3454'M6. Jr 0. 16 With these data. 61377 .
234256 sm (4n"< 164703 sin + (0" this. determined from the observations of the altitude of the sun in the it also has an influence on the time of the solstices equinoxes. It taken with a different sign. [0".A. made at its surface.000006721 t <«. PERTURBATIONS OF TEE EARTH. . «+ 11". mined by comparison with the sun for it is clear that any inequalities in the motion of the earth will be referred to the observations ." = i' — n't + 2e" . deter. is . orbit The eccentricity and place of the perihelion of the terrestrial detennined with sufficient accuracy for 1000 or 1200 after the epoch 1750. these circumstances must be attended to. it [Book II.3e' . cos {obliquity of ecliptic} cos {declination of sun} and his apparent right ascension by . 991803 sin (2n"t and are . ^s" . 646.e' 0) l( iO". + 4e" . added to  0. as well as on the right ascensions and declinations of the fixed stars.187638 t .000079522 <». the whole periodic disturbance in the earth's motion in latitude.0". from and before years may be e= and «y=5 2e  ".e') — . } cos { declination of O } The observed that right ascensions and dechnations of the sun must therefore be diminished by these quantities.949588 + 0".61377 sin (U — SO.&^) n'ft + 26" (2»"< Sn't e'' . affects the obliquity of the ecliptic. Considering the great accuracy of modem observations. by the distiirbance in latitude. determined from observations of the sun at that period. in order to have those if would be observed the sun never left the plane of the ecliptic.394 descend below in latitude. It is easy to see that tliis variation in the sun's latitude will increase his apparent declination __ by h". Secular Inequalities in the Terrestrial Orbit. The perturbations by the action of the planets. are computed from (160). sin {obliquity of ecliptic } cos { sun's R.
Another remarkable astronomical period was.5009545 + 0". with regard to changes itself. This however" is but an approximate value.9496. The 3914 diminution of the eccentricity is 18". producmg a retrograde motion in the intersection of the plane of its 648. Were the dimiit appears so great in terrestrial measures. XIV.Chap. before and ecliptic after that epoch. This change in the earth's equator . on account of which not the masses of the planets and the doubts as therefore to the exact value of precession. H". 79. longitude of the perihelion increases annually at the rate of it accompUshes a sidereal revolution in 109758 years.] INEQUALITIES IN THE EARTH'S ORBIT. These will give the variation of the ecliptic.sothat A remarkable period in astronomy was that in which the greater axis of the terrestrial orbit coincided with the line of the equi noxes. . p 9 = = 0". This occurred 4084 years before the epoch in which chronologists place the creation of man . in reality an exceedingly small fraction in astronomy. each of them one action of the planets on another. much in such a quantity. fluence on the motions of the moon. . at that time the solar perigee coincided with the equinox of spring. then the true equinox coincided with the mean. Tliis action also the position of the plane of the ecliptic. for 1000 or 1200 years. the error is may be 80 years. 395 e and & are the eccentricity and secular longitude of the perihelion at the epoch.0". when the greater axis of the terrestrial orbit was perpendicular to the line of equinoxes this coinit was then that the true and mean solstice were united . alters its position with regard to the but as the formulae in article 498 are periodic. The position of the ecliptic own orbit with the plane of the ecliptic. t}. cidence took place in the year 1248 of the Christian era.0767209 t t 4 0". It is evi dent that these two periods depend on the direct motion of the perihelion and precession of the equinoxes conjointly.000067473 . is changed by the reciprocal and on the earth. The 647.000021555 <«. a q by for change that may be determined from the values of mulae (138). the earth's orbit would become a circle in 36300 years its variation has a great inthough . nution uniform. or rather from p and . which there is no reason to believe. these . about miles. with regard to its fixed position in 1750.
0.22 . so that the pole of the equator describes a circle round the pole of the ecliptic in the space of 25748 diminished by the very small secular ineyears.. His equahis apjiarent torial is to his polar diameter in the ratio of 194 to 189 . Mars is troubled by all the planets except Mercury. as follow: In the eccentricity In the longitude of the perihelion . the action of the sun and moon on the protuberant matter at the earth's equator is the cause of the precession of the equinoxes.29. Mars. tween those of Mars and Jupiter.28 at his greatest distance. The it greatest elongation of Mars is 126. 26 '. his sur appears that he rotates in one day about an axis that is inclined to the plane of the ecliptic at an angle of 59°. on the first day of the present century Pallas was disJuno in 1803. at his 18".000090176 . arising quality The formulae for computing the obliquity of the ecliptic and precession is This motion of the equinoxes depend on the rotation of the earth.396 PERTURBATIONS OF MARS. The secular variations in the ele ments of his orbit were. . Jupiter alone affects the latitude of Mars.5 In the longitude of the ascending node . Spots near augment or diminish according as they are exposed to the sun. in 1602 . . his poles that The 650. Juno.697. of the sun. and would be the same were it a sphere. and Vesta covered by Olbers. However.0846. give the idea of masses of ice. the action of the planets on the ecliptic.. 1 '. Ceres and Pallas are situate be The orbits of Vesta. by Harding.34 annually. .. Ceres was discovered by Piazzi. at Palermo. — 38' By spots 48" on The face eccentricity is diminishing. New Planets. two planes never have and never will coincide. or of that slow angular tion mo by which the intersection of the equator and at the rate ecliptic goes back ward of 50". 649. In the inclination on the true ecliptic . from 0". It occasions also a small motion in the equinoxes of about 0". in 1801. Both of these variations are entirely independent of the form of the earth. diameter subtends an angle of 6". mean distance.0846 annually.°8. and of when is his parallax is nearly twice that The disc of Mars occasionally gibbous. [Book II.
41 restrial but these degrees are longer tlian the ter Jupiter's equator degrees in the ratio of 11 to 1. 397 1807. his equatorial =: he rotates in 9 hours 56 minutes about an axis nearly perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic. but those of the new planets very much exceed Sir these limits.Chap. that they are contained within the zodiac. and so minute that their apparent diameters have not yet been measured. They are invisible to the naked eye. 651. the largest of these 200 miles. and the position of their nodes are nearly the same. William Herschel estimated that they cannot which would make the real diameter asteroids. that of an oblate spheroid whose polar diameter is 3 5".00015935 . 0. consequently each point in moves 26 times faster than a point in the equator of the earth. XrV.] in THE NEW PLANETS. Jupiter. Tliese bodies are nearly at equal distances from the sun. 6 5. Jupiter is the largest planet in the system. orbit were. 4" In the longitude of the ascending node . which extends 8° on each side of the ecliptic. In the inclination on the true ccli^tic 23" . less than is 65 miles. equator describes . supposed to have a real diameter of about However. In the beginning of 1801 the secular variations of his In the eccentricity .414. The eccentricities of the orbits of Juno and Vesta.44 . amount to the fourth of a second. In the longitude of the perihelion 11' . and as the time of it his rotation is to that of the earth as 1 to 0.26' 17" . . on account of the greatness of the eccentricities and inclinations of is their orbits. all The inclination of the old planets so small. by Olbers. their periodic times are therefore nearly the same. These small jjlanets are much disturbed by the proximity and vast magnitude of Jupiter and Saturn. and with his four moons and exhibits is His form one of the most splendid spectacles in the heavens. a point in the equator of Jupiter moves through 2°. The circumference of Jupiter's equator is about eleven times greater than that of the earth. and the series which determine their perturbations converge slowly. terrestrial follows that during the time a point of the 1°. . Juno. 3S".
It is divided into two to 498. Sir William Herschel observed. for its edge. perhaps more. tlie same time with the planet. which is very thin. so that there are really two rings. 1832. and the polar the least these Besides the rings. [Book II* Saturn. observation. Saturn is are in the ratio of 36. the equatorial diameter is the next in size. On the 1st December of the same year. On the 29th September. and on the other side the interval is 11". 652.288. and : than Jupiter of the same or even greater brilliancy the sun and earth. more light than the planet. the plane of the ring will pass through the sun. He has four points of greatest . the ring exhibits a variety of appearances according to the position of the planet with regard to is generally of an elliptical form : at times it is common . the diameters passing through these are the greatest .3>9S SATURN. Professor Struve has discovered that the rings are not concentric with the planet. the 000 parts by a dark concentric band. The interval between the outer edge of the globe and the outer edge of the is ring on one side is 11". .037. is then directed to the eye. and 32. attended by seven satellites which reciprocally reflect the sun's rays on each other and on the the nights of Saturn . ticity 1 . curvature. planet. that with a magnifying power of 570. but invisible to . The form of Saturn is very peculiar. 35. the colour of Saturn was yellowish. The rings and moons illuminate enlighten the rings. Viewed through a telescope Saturn is even more interesting he is surrounded by a ring concentric with himself. and will be seen with a very high magnifying power like a line across the disc of the planet. These revolve about the planet on an axis perpendicular to their plane in about lO*" 29" 17'. consequently there an eccentricity of the globe in the ring its of 0". Stars have been observed between the planet and his ring.215. instruments this the plane of the ring will pass through the centre of the earth. and the moons and Saturn the planet and rings reflect the sun's beams on the satellites when Tlie rings reflect they are deprived of them in their conjunctions. In 1825 the ring of Satura attained greatest eUip the proportion of the major to the minor axis was then as minor being nearly half the major. and can only be seen with superior happens when the plane of the ring either passes through the centre of the sun or of the earth.
. 653. The only sensible perturbations in the motions of this planet arise from the action of and Saturn the secular variations in the elements of its Jupiter . only visible with the best telescopes. ..7 The rotation of Saturn has not been determined. and its solar system apparent diameter 4" : its greatest elongation it is accompanied by six satellites. This planet was discovered by Sir William Herschel. tliese spots appear like clouds driven by the winds. The existence of an especially in Jupiter. 3". like their revolutions the Earth. and Mars. Longitude of ascending node Inclination on true ecliptic . was pure wliite. Longitude of perihelion . its motion. . 0.. probably occasioned Saturn's motions are disturbed secular variations in by the melting of the snows.. in 1801. Spots and belts arc observed on the discs of some of the planets varying irregularly in their position.57" . — . On the Atmosphere of the Planets. it must be is on the very confines of the 103^. Venus.Chap. in 1781.  37' 54" 15' on true ecliptic .000312402 32' 17" . If we judge of period of his sidereal revolution is 30687 days.. while Jupiter and Saturn perform theirs in ^ of a day. by Jupiter and Uranus alone. or the Georgium Sidiu. . . as follow Eccentricity .] whilst that of the rings : URANUS.4' 59'.000025072 . orbit were. The the distance of the planet by the slowness of . according as they are turned to or from the sun. accomplish their and that Mercury.. is 654. Eccentricity Longitude of perihelion Longitude of ascending node Inclination . . the the elements of his orbit were as follows. celestial bodies is from west to east. in the beginning of 1801. atmosphere round Venus is indicated by the progressive diffusion of . which shows that they are surrounded by an atmosphere ..5. rotations in about twentyfour hours. : 0. XIV. It remarkable that the rotation of the .. b" Uranus. 399 Saturn has several belts parallel to his equator changes have been observed in the colour of these and in the brightness of the poles. 655.
sun's rays may have been The radiation of the heat occasioned by the must be rapid and constant. a result confirmed by observation of the other satellites. . A friend of the author's was astonished one day on the plain of Hindostan. it must be 1000 times rarer than the atmosphere at the surface of the earth. An atmosphere so dense must hang on his disc more than 20' before its have the effect of preventing the radiation of the heat from the surface of the planet. which must have been occasioned by his Saturn and his rings are surrounded by a dense atmosphere. or distant objects hid by the curvature of the earth. after a heavy shower of rain in hot weather. [Book II. it would have been discovered by the duration of the occultations of the fixed stars being less than it ought to be. because its refraction would have re ndered the stars visible for a short time after they were actually behind the moon. whence he inferred tliat her atmosphere must be much more dense than that of the earth. to behold tlie chain of the Himala mountains suddenly start into view. A small star hid by Mars was obser\'ed to become fainter before its appulse to the body of the planet. light Schroeter measured the extension of beyond the semicircle when she appeared like a thin crescent. in the same manner as the refraction of the earth's atmosphere enables us to see celestial objects for some minutes after they have sunk below our horizon. atmosphere surrounded that satellite. and after they have risen above it. giving by computation a refraction of two seconds. owing to his vast distance Schroeter observed a small twilight in the moon. and found the zone that was illuminated by twilight to be at least four degrees in breadth. that the duration of the occultations of never lessened by 8" of time. withdrawn from it Possibly the moon's atmosphere by the attraction of the earth. of cold that would otherwise prevail. The Bishop of Cloyne says. and must cause intense cold and sterility in that cheerless sateUite. where the horizontal refraction is nearly 2000". the refraction of which may account for the irregularity atmosphere. such as would be occasioned by an atmosphere capable of reflectHad a dense ing the sun's rays at the height of about a mile. apparent in his form : his seventh satellite has been observed to occultation. the sun's rays over her disc. so that the horistars by the if therefore a zontal refraction at the moon must be less than 2" is : moon lunar atmosphere exists. and consequently of mitigating the intensity from the sun.400 ATMOSPHERES OF THE PLANETS.
A spot when first seen on the eastern till edge. but during that time. Herschel to suppose the sun a dark to be solid nucleus. The sun viewed with a fire. dilTcrcnt: he the solar orb to be a mass of fire. : naked eye sometimes pass over his in the space of nearly fourteen days moving from east to west. and that by a margin of light. and that the always imagined violent effervescences and explosions seen on its surface arc occ«« 2D . time. and to cut the ecliptic at an angle of 7° 20'. spots reappear for on the east side . the spot has done more. appears like a progressively extending in breadth it it reaches the middle. having gone througli a revolution. more brilliant than that of the sun. of the breadth of 30. other half year the paths of the spots arc convex towards the south. the lines described by the spots are convex towards the north. wliich reduces the time of the sun's rotation to 25'* 9" Sir W. The apparent revolution of a accomplished in twentyseven days. together with an arc equal to that described by the sun in his orbit in the same 36'. when begins to contract. 401 The Sun. From these appearances it has been concluded. surrounded by a vast atmosphere. line.000 miles. one was measured by Sir W. that the spots are opaque bodies attached to the surface of tlie sun. presents the appearance of an enormous globe of or ebullition . frequently in a state of violent agitation black spots of irregular form rarely visible to the disc. but they generally change their aspect in a few days. ahnost These phenomena induced filled with luminous clouds. and are even permanent two or three revolu tions.<:. The paths of the spots are observed to be rectilinear in the begin ning of June and December. and go through the same changes. and acquire In the their maximum curvature about the middle of that time. and disappear sometimes several small spots unite into a large one. 656. as a : large one separates into smaller ones which soon vanish. Herschel in the year 1779. inclined at an angle of 7° 20' Sx)t is to the axis of the ecliptic. Between the first and second of these periods. and ultimately disin appears at the western edge : some rare instances. and that the sun rotates about an axis.] THE SUN. A spot is surrounded by a penumbra. telescope. XIV. occasionally opening and discoThe speculations of La Place were vering the dark mass within.hap.
which has seen only in that zone. but had probably been It was observed in great splendour at Paris on the 16th of February. It is seen under the most favourable circumstances after sunset in the beginning of March : its apex ex tends towards Aldebaran. that it is more edges than in the centre. like the craters of our vol canoes. Tlie sun thus describes an orbit about the centre of gravity of the system. because it results . in the form of an inverted cone with the base towards the sun. the planets must disturb the 8un. but the centre of gravity of the system . making an angle of 64° with the horizon. and that the spots are enormous caverns. The for. A little or no atmosphere. the edges exhibit a greater surface under the same angle than the centre does. Bufficient to counteract the gravitation towards it. seen before that time. . The . It is observed before sunrise and after sunset.402 sioned THE by the eruption of elastic SUN. perpetually changing their relative positions it is such however as to furnish a centrifugal force with regard to each planet. fact may be accounted by supposing the existence of a dense atmosphere absorbing the rays which have to penetrate a greater extent of it at the edges than and accordingly. which is a from the action of a system ery of bodies. fonned in its interior. from its being moon. from his spheroidal form. is somehow connected with the rotation of the sun. Light is more intense in tlie centre of the sun's disc than at the edges. to the plane of the ecliptic at an angle of 7° cular to the axis of the sun's rotation. it appears by Bouguer's observaat the centre . and only inclined . 658. fluids [Book II. 1769. in some degree similar to the milky way. was discovered by Cassini in 1682. phenomenon denominated the zodiacal light. the quantity of motion in the sun in one direction must therefore be equal to that of all the planets in a contrary direction. so that it is perpendiits Its length from the sun to vertex varies from 45° to 120°. its axis inclined to the horizon. complicated curve. and therefore might be expected to be more luminous. for the invariable point to which they gravitate is not the of the sun centre of the sun. tions on the brilliant at the 657. and is a luminous appearance. although. thougli not so bright. The It zodiacal light varies in brilliancy in different years. elliptical motion of the planets is occasioned by the action but by the law of reaction.
C08 (© — 3 COB* /. sin 2Z. will be found that B=+ !!i: r' . let / be the x' latitude of the fixed star. x'. to produce a sensible influence be determined. . yet it is found by 0085 of the radius so that the centre of the sun is never distant from as his the centre of gravity of the system by as much own dia meter. not more than . . 2 . cos w. z'. 2. = ¥. on account of our ignorance of the elements of their orbits. Jnjluence of the Fixed Stars in disturbing the Solar System. then =1 r' cos Z. > hs radius vector y. computation. and then the disturbing influence of the star is P ^r __ "" m' __ m'(xx+yy+z2') ^* ^ \^ix'xy+iy'yy+ {z'z)* il=+^>i^ +^ i m' / 2r'» to the <^^ + yy' + r'* ^">  ^^>' f &c. 659. distance. that the distance vector of the earth .009 of nearly equal to the radius of the earth's orbit. then « =: r cos tJ. If all the great planets of the system were in a straight line with the sun. distance from Also let x. XIV.^i!rL{23co8«/ ^ 4r« D 6a. and that point. and on the same side of him.] DISTURBING EFFECTS OF FIXED STARS.2w) — «)}. t). that the diameter of the sun is 403 Newton has shown 0. however. the centre of the sun would be nearly the farthest possible from the common centre of gravity of the whole is . but there is . when developed according the orbit of powers of r*. y' — sin w. and even of the existence of such as have a great perihelion which nevertheless may trouble the planetary motions . y = r sin i^ . It is impossible to estimate the effects of comets in disturbing the solar system. Let m' be the mass of a fixed star. every reason to believe that their masses are too small the effect of the fixed stars may. and if all the powers of /above the cube be omitted.Chap. its coordinates r' its re ferred to the centre of gravity of the sun. y'. be the coordinates of a planet m. 008 (2» . and u cos /. sin it / . its longitude. The z fixed plane being m at the epoch. = r' r«.
r f—\ . therefore assuming r' = 100.ndt. n< { 1 — i cos*/ — I cosV. 0". Mean Motions of the 660.e. Whence tions are it appears. e .000 times the mean distance of the earth from the sun. there will be found 5w .{(lcos*/)e8in(rcT)cos*/. m'<. 00000000 13. cos (2ct — 2m)} = 4. . because the annual parallax of the nearest fixed star is cannot be less than 1". arising from the action of the planets. is = 3afjidl. unless the mass m' of the fixed stars be much greater than what is probable. DISTURBING ErFECTS OF [Book II. whence — = Je a =— Je cos (v — ts) + a sin (c — cr) . 093819 1. that the positions of the orbits are also uninfluenced.sin(w+cj2«)}. sensible influence on the form of the planetary and may be easily proved. but these less than those varia m caused by the planets. which is of Julian years.Sf that depends on R.000.dR  2a. r v_ = a (I + e cos (v — cr)) ejzsx.—— — . and comparing the two values of —. The part of equation (156) d.<. Whence no it it may be concluded that the attraction of the fixed stars has orbits .f being any number This quantity is incomparably less than the corresponding variation in the eccentricity of the earth's orbit. that the star occasions secular variations in the eccentricity and longitude of the perihelion of m. For if incomparably be the earth. when /i=l./" cos^/ nt . the distance of the star from the centre of the sun less than 100. a the coefficient —^ni does not exceed 0". sin (2ct — 2m). the substitution of this in equation (155) gives —= But . Disturbing Effect of the Fixed Stars on the Planets.404 But neglecting *.
cos m} . y * r^ so that \dt dt d 5r . . «. r' and /SO I become r' = r"{\  cd). r^ ne. nO.cos (»«) ^ ^ / V = Bin2/ 2r'» {dp ^i.a^. may r" be assumed to vary 0". that these quantities diminish annually t by tt and fi.ndtjd. n 4 r'» is .Chap. 1 =  r(l  whence the first term of d.cosu}. hence go that r'* . cos [y  m).324. .sin2/ .Sf = ^!^ ndt (2  ScosH)  ^^'"' .324 annually in latitude . the whole variation in the mean motion of m from the action of the fixed stars. fi . 2^^0357 10'* a quantity inappreciable from the earliest observations. We know nothing of the changes in the distance but with regard to the earth.000a. 405 The preceding rf. sin 21 sin u 1^ \dt ^ dt . sm M • — da —L. then being any indefinite time.. With regard to the terms in *. *^ =. /8 =: 0". Let r" and V be the distance and latitude of the star at the epoch 1750.—.sin 21. S .5?= ?^^'  ^ cos' /') ant* . sin 21' . and let it be assumed. rejecting the periodic part. «. <d« . The parts will be examined separately. »=<. XIV. Icosv.n^ becomes ^ m't*. d .] THE FIXED value of il gives STARS. cos (vu) — which is — m' . = 100. dt consequently. the integral of which Sr =  ^ 8 .?!^ .Sf becomes (1 d. they of the fixed stars . sin 2/ 1^ \dt sin «  ^ dt cos «}._:? sin dt t> — t. J^.
are determined in degrees. by applying the corrections to mean longitude. To these are added tables of the periodic inequalities in The longitude. give these quantities for each degree of mean of tude anomaly. If these quantities be substituted. the mean longitude of the body. —of a mean . whicTi equal to half the greater axis of the orbit of the elliptical varialatter are tions. Construction of Astronomical Tables. These intervals are longer or shorter according to the motion of the body. or perihelion. or by tables of proportional parts. or its im portance. whence may be con cluded that the fixed stars are too remote to affect the solar system. and the mean longitude of the aphelion. and the intermediate values are found by simple proportion. and of its periodic inequalities. by adding the daily increments. 0". the . q=. at the instant assumed as the origin of the rally tables. and of the periodic inequalities. In the construction of tables. The mean anomaly is given tlie mean longitudes tables of the equation of the centre. <. minutes. will The same it results be obtained for the most distant planets. The is radius vector consists of thi'ee parts. 000021555. since it is the difference between of the body and of the aphelion. and tenths. seconds. and are epoch of the tables from them subsequent values are deduced at convenient intervals. . But with regard to the earth P= 0". <•. the The motion of a which planet in longitude consists of three parts. The two given in the tables for every degree of mean anomaly. From any these tables the true longitude of the body may be known the at instant. of .  t + 0". 50096 . These initial values are genecalled the computed for the beginning of each year. it will be found that the secular the earth are quite insensible inequalities in the mean motion of . mean or circular motion is of a correction depending on the eccen tricity. 076721.'4(te • CON&ntUCTION OF [Book It. value. and of the secular inequahties in the eccentricity and lon gitude of the aphelion. 0000067474 <» . The latitude is : computed in terms of the mean anomaly at stated intervals besides these. the earliest records also prove them to be so. 661. + 0". the equation of the centre. by the tables. and of the mean longithe aphelion.
Were the observation exact. the Tables. and the longiof orbit the nexion exists also between the inclination perihelion is A tude of the nodes. the numerical values of wliich are called equations : astronomy. Thus the mean motions are given. instant the same to corresponding The simultaneous . and the secular inequalities of these two quantities are given. the difference would be the true error of the tables is . 407 mean at the longitude of the ascending node and the inclination of the orbit beginning of each year. mined with great accuracy by numerous observations. Method of correcting Errors in 662. example. or even many thousands of compensated by their numbers. in an accurate determination of the tliis ele ments. As astronomical tables are computed from analytical formulae.Chap. The and tables are in an error will computed with the observed values of the elements one of the elements will affect every part of the tables. with its place determined by observation.] ASTRONOMICAL TABLES. by comparing a the longitude the of longitude body derived from observation. it is necessary to attend to reciprocal connexion. observations. be perceived in the comparison of the place of the body derived from them. with in the tables. mean results. and for. no error can arise from that source but the elements of the orbit. cannot be determined independently of the others. determined on the principles of universal gravitation. . though deter. an equa tion signifies the quantities that must be added or taken from the to the true results. because each element is found separately . in the true motions are found by applying the inequalities. so that their errors are correction is accomplished. and the] longitude of the reciprocal congiven in terms of the eccentricities. Hence. the expressions in page 261 show. comparison made with 1000. the secu lar inequaUties of the elements. quantities are bo connected with each other. that the eccentricity depends on the longitudes of the perihelia. will lead to whereas these errors. to make them equal The mean motion and equation of the Kepler's problem . and the periodic inequalities. XIV. but as no observation is the perfectly accurate. that a perfectly correct For value of one. centre are computed from the motions of the nodes and perihelia. are com puted from the formulae determined by the problem of three bodies.
by an error of 60" in the longitude of the perigee. let us ascertain In order what effect would be produced on the place of the sun.l whence e =  0". Suppose the tables of the sun to require correction.29C9 e =i E. if we suppose the greatest equation of the centre be augmented by any arbitrary quantity as 17 ". the error of the + 0". part of assumed to arise from each. it is easy to see by the tables that the equation of the centre at that point of the orbit where the mean anomaly is 198° is increased by 5".2969 is e. the mean lonof the the gitude greatest equation of the centre. 18 a of in 5". it will affect every subsequent longitude. the error P will i:^ 60" P= 0".88 . at that point of the orbit where his mean anomaly is 198°. the true longitude of the sun is diminished by 1".3133 p. and as that quantity is subtractive at that part of the orbit. . . if 17". 1 8 Ilepce the sum of the three errors tables e equal to E. if an error has been made in computing epoch sources from whence this error arise. the error e will produce tl>e change 5". to Again. or the difference between the longitude of the tables and that deduced from observation. and the perigee. hence if 60" produce a change of T'. Thus. Now. a minute of change in the perigee will produce the change of one minute in the mean anomaly corresponding to each longitude but the table of the equation of the . the true longitude is diminished by 5". 17". ^ the initial longitude. and let E represent the error of the tables. to determine these three errors.l the true produce change longitude. where his mean anomaly is 198°.3133 P— 0". 1.40S CORRECTION OF ERRORS LBook II. centre shows that the change of 60" in the mean anomaly at that part of the orbit which corresponds to 198° produces an increment of 1". Let P be unknown error in the longitude of the perigee.18.SS produce a change of in the true longitude. There are three may namely. the as we do not know it to which of these quantities to attribute is the discrepancy.l .88 in the equation of the centre. of the tables for. and e that in the epoch. As tlie mean anomaly is estimated from perigee. e that in the greatest equation of the centre.
and the coefficients of e may may always be accomplished by of all the the changing signs equations. of a point in space.must be formed from an equal number of observed longitudes. is applicable to a variety of subjects.XIVJ This it IN ASTRONOMICAL TABLES. two others must be formed on the same which the coefficients of the other two errors must be respectively as great as possible. and 6 as small as be . &c. a mean place as little as possible from the observed positions n. in may be combined If the position if a different manner. Having determined coefficient possible. These valuea are referred to the mean interval between the first and last observations. an additional error may be assumed to arise from this source. sufficient for their determination. this terms will be positive. supposing them not to be separated by any great length of Were it not. The numerous equations of condition of the fonn E =z£ + 0". This method of coiTCCting errors in astronomical tables was employed by Mayer. a great number of For example. in finding the value of P before the other two.Chap. much from each other. if the observations were accurate .3I33 P + 0". n\ n". three equations would be must fulfil. used by Legendre.. must be found. as might happen in the case of the new planets. and some negative. principle of the least squares. and from these three equations values of the three errors will be easily obtained. the numerous equations must be so combined. n\ 7i". M . so as to have the terms conP and then adding them j for some of the other taining positive. in which P has the greatest principle. between the errors. and they must be so combined by addition or subtraction. in this equation. therefore the sum of their coefficients will be less than that of P.2969e. as to reneach element. time. which may be determined in in the same manner as the others. and that the mean motion is perfectly known. as they may chance to be . is and a scries of observations not differing which differs had given it the positions n. as to form others that are as favourable as possible for the determination of but as that is not the case. called the to be determined. equations of condition . der the coefficient of P as great as possible . and their accuracy will be in proportion to the number of observations employed. and 663. 409because is called an equation of condition expresses the condition that the sum of the errors As there are three unknown quantities. computing tables of the moon.
add the products into one sum. method of combination employed by Mayer.41(1 &c. which will be the equaIf a similar equation be formed for each of the other be as first degree as errors . that thift greatest possible chance of correctness is to be obtained from the method of least squares on that account it is to be preferred to the errors. and to construct tables with a degree of precision till then unknown. into astronomical tables about a century later Kepler introduced the laws of elliptical motion. the coefficient of P. and to tion required. it may perhaps be ascribed to inaccuracy in . be found may by elimination. with regard to P. a quantity so small. Three centuries have not elapsed since Copernicus introduced the motions of the planets round the sun. as given in Biot's Astronomy. is to multiply every term of all the equations of conditions by 0".3133. must be so chosen that the sum of the squares of n\ n". analytical science has enabled us to calculate the nu inequalities of the planets. amounting to many minutes . AffTRONOMICAL TABLES. It is demonstrated by the Theory of Probabilities. it has the dis The [principle of least squares is a corollary that follows from a proposition of the Loci Plani. there will many equations of the whence their numerical values . Since these brilliant discoveries. which led : Newton merous to the theory of universal gravitation. that a considerable part of observation. A demonstration of this is one of the unknown the rule for forming the equation of the errors.. deduced from the observations of Tycho Brahe. iL but minimum. : distances from the points n. &c. arising from their mutual attraction. 664. = minimum. . (Mjiy + (Mn'y + iMn"y 4 &c. vol. its is. that the sum of the squares of the distances of any number of points from their centre of gravity is ft minimum. though advantage of requiring more laborious computations. Errors existed formerly. may be a minimum that . which are now reduced to a few seconds. hence it [Book II. taken with its sign.
than the various motions of the moon : from these we ascertain the form of the tides. in conjunction is between the sun and the earth but as her motion more rapid than that of the sun. the vicissitudes of the solar system. to these motions that precision of navigator owes knowledge which guides him with wellgrounded confidence through the deep. Phases of the Moon. . her enlightened disc augis in ments till she opposition. served as all A measure of time to taught them nations. that is The phases of to say. the distance of the sun. B66. 665. she soon separates from him. she is visible for a few days before and after account of the light reflected from the earth. LUNAR THEORY. There is no object within the scope of astronomical obser vation which affords greater variety of interesting investigation to the inhabitant of the earth. earth. when it is full moon. and is first seen in the evening like a faint crescent. the earth being between her and the sun. CHAPTER I. it. In describing the other half of her orbit. when half of her disc is enlightened as her elongation increases. . till she comes into conjunction with the sun again. which increases with her distance till in quadrature. she decreases by the same degrees. until the advancement of science the the advantages of solar time. on the excess of her motion above that of the sun. the moon depend upon her synodic motion. The moon moves round she is the earth from west to east .411 BOOK III. Tliough the moon receives no light from the sun when fcn in conjunction. and consequently the magnitude of the These motions which are so obvious. or : 90° from him.
which is kno\vn by the division between the light and the dark half being a straight line . the sun. the lunar radius E7n. AmL the is complement is AmN. or sun. the moon 90° . that is. to is PL. The sected. angle E. if it be projected on CL. mS. BLA is enlightened at right the part of the disc that is by the sun that is . mES.412 The law of lar distance PHASES OF THE MOON. fig. dria. the variation of the phases of the [Book III. it LA. If E be the earth. m the centre of the spherical. centres of the sun and moon hence. supposed to be and Sm. at the observer. right angles to the ray AB be at mS. 95. It difficulty of ascertaining the exact time at which the moon is bi method of ascertaining the distance of the sun was employed by Aristarchus of Samos at Alexanabout two hundred and eighty years before the Christian era. the distance of the sun from the by the solution of a rightangled triangle. the elongation or angular distance of the moon from the for When moon little in quadrature. the in the rightangled triangle EmS. moon. may be de measured. fig. moon proves her form to be spherical. since they vary as the versed sine of her angu from the sun. when the moon's distance from the earth is known. and is therefore equal to DmN. the line joining the . SE parallel rays Then. the part of the moon turned to the earth will be hence the only part of the enlightened disc seen from the earth is CNL. and therefore we can termine SE. earth. the versed sine of AL. is a little nearer to the sun than at that instant. renders this incorrect. 94. a more than half her disc is enlightened when the exact half is visible. But to or. if from tlie sun. . and CL. 95. is per pendicular to fig. either 90° or 180° from . being angles to niE.
8793. which. entire circumferences.321582. her in a century is it sidereal motion 481266°. The synodic revolution of the moon is her mean motion from conjunction to conjunction. is 307°. Tlie or Circular Motion of the Moon.25 : 27. paring ancient with is in mean motion of the moon may be determined by commodern observations. their difference. From the tropical motion of the moon. about thirteen times greater than that of the sun. 13° 10' 35".Chap. in it is found that the arc described by the moon mean 1336 the is one hundred Julian years. omitting . 48763. can be accurately computed back to the earliest ages of antiquity. The moon when eclipsed and her place is known from the sun's place. By for a century. or a periodic lunar month.7625. motions of the is 306°. The mean motion of the moon in a century being 481267°. the periodic revolution of the moon. 48763 is whence. . wliicli opposition. hence her motion through 360° accomplished in . is the excess of the moon's motion above the sun's in one hundred is Julian years. 668. 034. or. her sidereal revolution 27'' 7^ 43' 11". or the precession of the equinoxes from the secular tropical motion of the moon. her diurnal tropical by 365. These two : moon only differ by the precession of the equinoxes is. by simple pro5. or the time she employs in returning to the same longitude.25. 8793 in the . was 481267°. her sidereal daily motion therefore. 17636. Mean 667. portion. 669. 8793 : 360° :: 365.] CIRCULAR MOTION OF THE MOON. her periodic revolu tion. . or from opposition to opposition. subtracting 5010". year 1800 it is called the moon's tropical motion. may be found by simple proportion for 481267°. 670. Three eclipses of the moon observed at Babylon in the years 720 and 719 before the Christian corded with with era. and that of the sun being 36000°. or the difference of the longitudes of tlie moon in a century. I.8793 and dividing it number of days in the Julian year. omitting the whole circumferences. 445267°. tlie first 413 and was circumstance that gave any notion of the vast dis tance and magnitude of the sun.