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G. F.G. C.S.S..S. DIRECTOR OP THE GEOLOGICAL AND NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY OP CANADA G. ALFEED E.: DESCRIPTIVE SKETCH OP THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY DOMINION OF CANADA. Can.. F. D.E.. ASSOCIATE OF THE ROYAL SCHOOL OF MINES. M. F.S.D. DAWSON.. . MONTEBAL DAWSON BEOTHEES 1884. LL.S.. F. . SBLWYN..E.

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..000 square miles for the eastern and 1. M.500. as regards the western division.000 square miles for the western section. Dawson. which has been prepared to accompany a new geological map of the Dominion on a scale of forty miles to one inch.000. G. lying respectively east and west of the Red Eiver valley. is by the wi'iter and that of the Western Section. by Dr. M. Part I. Part II. from the Eeport on the Geology and Resources of the 49th parallel. June. Also. from its commencement in 1842 to the present date. Dawson (Boundary Commission Report 1875). C. SELWYN". In the following descriptive sketch of the physical geography and geology of Canada. The areas may be approximately stated as 2. R. . The description of the Eastern Section. the country is divided into an eastern and western section. G. The material is for the most part derived from the explorations and published reports of the G-eological Survey. 1884. by Dr. ALFRED Ottawa.PREFACE.

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cancel "with. line 9." read " strict." read " immense." read 44. 31. for " formation " top. lines 5 and 6 from top. for " " ' 34. line 7." 34.' read " read " banks. from the Yalley of the Eed Eiver In considering the physical features of the eastern division of Canada. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. line from top. for " tracks 38. line 19. 33." and succee(i^ig ivords to from end sentence. )t^ from from from top. for " features " read " portions. line 16." 35.PART I." 37. line from bottom. for " universal. line 14." '' probably. for " its range " read " the range. -mmrt 9." 23. including the no w geographic- 4*^ KHFUTA. bottom.700. (EASTERN SECTION. for " or. 19. line 14. from top. line 19.300. from top." " " " 28. from top. ." 44. for " ccfliftefeion." read " continuation. line 18. " top insert 5. " rmd " formations." " for " fragment " and " pebble " read " fraiiiiicnts at " pebbles." read " and. Page " 18. 25./r-ow top.. " " " 40. line 3.) CHAPTEE I. line 8. for " mountains. for " therefore probably. in longitude 97° west to the Atlantic sea board of ISTova Scotia and Labrador. from bottom. from top." " constricted. line 21." 12. '' mountainous." from bottom.

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The South-Eastern Area. The Northern Area. 2. however.) CHAPTEE I. (the latter being. Lawrence. and which Canada name of the Notre Eans-e. we be find it and geologically connected. also the somewhat larger island of Anticosti. 3. The South ern-and-Western Area. nected with the geological structure and are consequently indicated and outlined approximately by the geological color on the accompanying map. island of comprises areas which present three very distinct aspects. but physically Newfoundland. while Newfoundland constitutes north-eastern limit.). These areas may They are closely conenumerated and described as follows. The South-Eastern area is bounded on the north-west by the river Lawrence from the Strait of Belle Isle to Quebec and thence by an almost direct line to the foot of Lake Champlain on the Vermont Within it boundary. St. It Appa- constitutes the noi'th-eastern prolongation of that branch of the lachian Mountains of which the G-reen Mountains of Vermont and the in White Mountains takes the of New Samphire Dame form a part. (EASTEEN SECTION. In considering the physical features of the eastern division of Canada. 1. both geographical and geological. in its physical character an isolated portion of area number its 2. 1. j)arallel to The main orographical feature has a coui-se and only a short distance away from the St. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. are included the provinces of New Brunswick. including the now geographically separated.PART I. from the Yalley of the Eed Eiver in longitude 9*1° west to the Atlantic sea board of Nova Scotia and Labrador. Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. The South-Eastern Area. .

6 [SELWYN. the Chaudiere. the highest land. Lawrence the rivers are comparaThe Etchemin. Newfoundland. they gather to the south. in their course to the great Eiver. I have elsewhere described the Gaspe-Peninsula as forming a block of table lands about 1500 feet in height in which the river courses are Eising from this. cut gorges through the range so deep that their channels where crossing it are not more than 500 to 600 feet above the St. the Shickshock deep and narrow excavations. 1. from lands . and rises into peaks as already But though stated attaining heights of between 3000 and 4000 feet. 2. Eay north-eastward through The granitoid and trappean ridges of central New 4. Anne des Monts to the Matane. attaining an elevation of 1200 feet. Lawrence. To the south-east this area may be described as occupied by a succes- sion of subordinate and approximately parallel ridges. Brunswick exaxis tending south-west from the Bay of Chaleurs . It occupies a breadth of from two to six miles at a distance of about twelve miles from the St. Mountains form a conspicuous range extending about sixty-five miles from the east side of the Ste. general north-east and south-west course. much of their waters through valleys running with the strike of the ridges. the St. The Cobequid Eange from Cape Chiegnecto to Cape St. taking their sources in lower country to the south. Connected with these streams are a number of considerable lakes. this range does not form any part of the water parting of the peninsula for the Ste. and together cover an area of about cutting the Shickshock Mountains. and gradually diminish in altitude across the provinces of are : New The Brunswick and granitic The most prominent Scotia. Anne des Monts. Lawrence. Lawrence. and continued from Cape 3. and like the streams On the northern slope to the tively short and rapid. The main from Sutton Mountain (4000 feet high) on the "Vermont boundary to Cape Eosier in Gaspe where in the Shickshocks and neighbouring mountains we again find numerous peaks ranging from 2500 to 4000 feet in altitude. however. Megantic and Spider form the headwaters of the Chaudiere. thence extending through the highlands of Cape Breton to Cape North. G-eorge. nowhere. The valleys of these streams do not attain a greater elevation than from 500 to 1000 feet above the St. Francis. the Yamaska and the Eichelieu are the only ones of any importance. St. thus crossing the range twice .100 feet above the sea. the Matane and the Chatte. These have a ISTova Scotia. — 1. highlands of Nova extending in a broad sweep from Cape Sable to Cape Canso. The waters of one branch of the Matane have their source on the lower land north of the range and flow south through a profound gap to join the main stream.

which have filled in and obliterated many of the irregularities of the sm-face of the ancient disturbed and corrugated rock formations. by future investigation. or trough-like depressions in the valleys. the isolated trap hills at and in the vicinity of Montreal island. St. in Lake Superior. ISTeither the depth nor the natui-e of the basins of the other lakes named have as yet been fully ascertained. Little Magog and Massawippi areas of 12. Adjoining the area to which the foregoing remarks apply. the strike being parallel with the length of the lake in its northern half. is sites of volcanic vents of the Siluro-Devonian absolutely devoid of mountains. The Southern-and-Western Area. They are fully described in chap. this area hills. stated to be . Memphremagog. are tributary to the Francis. with occasional step-like ridges or rocky escarpments. in flats These Post-Tertiary marine formations appear in all parts of the area and terraced banks up to elevations of 500 feet above the sea. 634. is that which has Excepting been referred to as the Southern-and-Western Area. is strewn with pebbles derived from the palasozoic conglomerates of the region. twenty square miles St. Geology of 2. there are many fine stretches of agricultural and j)astoral lands. They all appear. level or slightly undulating It presents expanse of generally fertile country. Aylmer.* Canada. and stand at elevations respectively of 890. . and a large boulder of Laurentian gneiss was observed near the Summit. Francis. with phremagog Lake over strata angles. 9. but whether they are rockbasins or drift-dam'd portions of the old valleys remains to be decided The extreme depth of Memupwards of 600 feet the outlet is of Siluro-Devonian shales and limestones. 37. One of these escarpments occurs at the outlet of Lake Ontario. marking the outcropping edges of some of the gently inclined palaeozoic formations cal condition which but in a totally different physioccupy the south-eastern area. and bounded on the east by its north-western limit. of the Cape at a height of not less than 1800 feet above the sea level. dipping at high is 8 and 6 square miles. xxii. which probably mark the period. to occupy long and narrow. where the Birds-eye —likewise — ^^ * Thunder Cape.] 7 . 1863. or even of prominent a broad. Notwithstanding the general hilly and sometimes mountainous and thickly wooded character of Eastern Canada. 500 and about 600 feet. unlike the lakes of the Laurentides. most of which are due to the modification the surface has undei-gone during the formation of the glacial and later deposits of Post-Tertiaiy Age. 795.SELWYN. while similar deposits of fresh-water origin occui* at elevations of more than 2000 feet.

Be- yond the archsean certainty. either of the interior. several nized on the southei*n side of the archsean highlands. Law'rence. edges of the Medina. and extends thence to the Arctic Ocean. already referred to as the great Saint Lawrence and Champlain fault. The jihysical condition of the rocks in all these areas testifies to the fact that the forces which operated so intensely in the South-Bastern Atlantic coast Area throughout palseozoic and earlier ages. there is abundant evidence in both areas. between 96° and 98° west longitude. or of the arctic.8 / [SELWYN. in nearly members of the palseozoic series as recog- are more or less conjectural. sities have. Clinton. and that their operation was practically limited in by the line which follows the trough of the St. Of these. Onondaga and Corniferous formations in a horizontal distance of about twenty-four miles. and Buffalo. Lake Champlain and the Hudson Eiver. which characterize the South-Eastern and the Southern-and-Western Areas. The main hydrographic is feature of the South ern-and-"Western Area the chain of great lakes. continental axis. between Niagara. but little is yet known with and even the limits of them. did not appreciably influence any part. extending from the vicinity of •Quebec to the Manitoulin Islands. Further to the north-west another similar area commences in the valley of the Eed Eiver. on the 49th parallel. On these grounds palaeozoic basin.000 square miles. other similar areas occur around the shores of Hudson's Bay. which together present a water surface in the interior of the Continent of probably not less than 150. doubtless been considerably enhanced by local contemporaneous volcanic agencies of the operation of which at intervals throughout the palaeozoic age. as given on the geological map. over which the Islands. The Southern-and. limestone formation rests on the Laiirentian axis of the Thousand Next is the well-known Niagara escarpment. on Lake Erie. on Lake Ontario. They all constitute parts of one or other of the three great Eiver systems of the St. These diver- however.Western Area may be generally defined as bounded on the north gneisses of the Northern Area. It occupies an interrupted belt of country of varying width. and which marks a somewhat sudden rise of 330 feet in the general eleThis rise includes the combined outcropping vation of the country. Niagara. Lawrence from those flowing to Hudson's Bay. They apparently include. however. and their northern and .the Nelson and the Mackenzie. palseozoic time alone can we explain the physical and mineralogical diversities con- current with palseontological correspondences. Lawrence. horizontal attitude. \/ waters of the Niagara Eiver are precipitated in a vertical fall of 167 feet. Limited patches belonging to this by the Laurentian area occur also around the north shore of Lake Superior and in the Nepigon basin. which divide the waters of the St.

200 feet. 1863. forming the wild. This is the Ottawa Valley Palgeozoic basin of the Southern-and. 600 feet. with the exception of Lake Erie. which rise in some parts into elevations Lower SiluThe Canadian part of the boundary runs in a Matchedash Bay. said to be in parts 1. and is distant from the St. Lawrence which it again reaches at the Thousand Islands. Lawrence is the southern boundary of this ancient series of deposits from Labrador to Cape Tormentine.. with a narrow strip of Silurian rocks between it and the margin of the river for the chief part of the distance. Mount Marcy. The distance is about 600 miles. Sir W.000 feet above the sea. In the third chapter of the G-eology of Canada. Beyond this for a hundred miles it follows the Ottawa in a bearing more nearly west. 3.Western Area. with the addition of two narrow strips running a few miles up the Murray Bay Eiver and the Gouffre.. Lawrence about thirty miles in the rear of Montreal. Logan describes the southern limit of the Laui'entian System with which that It is not It Area. that of The bottom of Lake Huron is Lake Superior. Near Arnprior. as follows "With the exception of a narrow border of Silurian* strata on the Strait of Belle-isle. . and the cataract of Niagara will then either be reduced entirely obliterated. rugged and rocky region of the Adirondack Mountains. while the comparatively shallow waters of Lake Erie foreshadow the time when this lake will become a broad river valley." In the next 200 miles the boundary turns about west-south-west. in Essex county. on Lake Huron. from the Thou- of 5. of the area now referred to may be said to coincide.: SELWYN. Tui-ning southwards at the upper end of Lacdes Chat8. J a pretty straight line to sand Islands whence the Laurentian expands into an area of 1000 square miles in the State of New York. it runs in a very irregular line between that lake and the St. while their basins have been exca- vated chiefly in strata of palaeozoic age. easy to state precisely the extent of this great Northern embraces probably two-thirds of the whole area of the Dominion or more than two million square miles. is said * t t Now called Cambrian and Cambro-Silurian. or The Northern Area.t an expansion of the Ottawa Eiver. north shore of the . another at the mouth of the Mingan Eiver and a third near the Seven Islands. and that of Lake Ontario about 360 feet beneath the level of the Atlantic. to one half its present height. presenting in the interval several points projecting into the rian plain to the eastward. the St.] y eastern shores are. bounded by the archsean rocks of the Northern Area.

" described page 52. and around the whole of the eastern and northern shores of Lake Superior to the vicinity of Port Arthur on Thunder Bay. and thence in a nearly direct north-west course to the mouth of the Mackenzie in the the newer formations. and the southern boundary of the latter must therefore be described as prolonged westward from Killarney along the shore north of the Manitoulin Islands. . tributary to one or other of the four great the Mississippi. and it is these latter which have so plainly individualised the three areas of the Eastern section of Canada. still. and perhaps some others in the Labrador Peninsula there are few points in all this vast area which attain two thousand feet in height. of which the main physical features have now been sketched. Lawrence." For the purpose of this description. keeping the east shore of Lake Winnipeg to its outlet. is the com- mencement of the iv. Here the crystalline rocks pass beneath The margin of these then forms the entire western boundary. up the St. Lakes and rivers. Huronian Series. Mary Eiver. which terminates at Shebahahnahning. While in surface of the country has been greatly modified and unified superficial agencies of the glacial every part of this Eastern section of the Dominion the by the and later periods.000 feet above the sea. he can reach various points on Hudson's Bay.400 feet in height. the characters impressed on the ancient foundations of archsean and palseozoic rocks. Sir William continues : " From Matchedash Bay the east and north shores of Lake Huron complete the southern boundary. the I'iver systems of the Continent Nelson and the St. however. the Huronian system included in the ISTorthern Area. can traverse the continent to the Arctic Ocean at the mouth of the Mackenzie. Except some of the higher peaks of the Laurentides in proximity to the shores of the Gulf. by deep seated and long continued dynamic action are still apparent. the site of a thriving fishing Industry and a port of call for the Lake Superior steamers. the Mackenzie. or. Arctic Ocean.10 to be 5. A traveller starting in a canoe from the Grulf of St. chapter is of the G-eology of Canada. however. This follows the east side of the Eed Eiver valley. It is pre-eminently a region of waterways. and thence in a at south-westerly direction to about fifty miles east of Otter Tail Lake the source of the Eed Eiver. by the Eed Eiver and the Mississippi he can paddle on the waters of the Gulf — — of Mexico. [SELWYN. now known " as Killarney. Lawrence form routes through every part of the region. while the average elevation is probably less than 1. deeply covered with mrny miles conceals the junction of the subjacent forma- tions. drift which for Much of this boundary is. 1863." At this point.

belong to the Archffian nucleus. Mistassini. The South. Temiscamang and James' Bay. but extending from the Vermont boundary to Cape Eosier in Gaspe. not having been subjected to the action of those forces already referred to as having given rise to the general physical aspect of the region. In the geological map of Canada. 1. are comparatively undisturbed. They may be convenient!}^ designated. : . 1866. Except some doubtfully Triassic areas in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island there are apart from Post-Tertiary deposits no formations newer than the coal measures. the principal features of the South Eastern Palaeozoic Basin are 1st. all the larger divisions (systems) from Laurentian to Devonian are represented in the SouthEastern Basin. Palaeozoic Basin. including many of the formations and groups into which these have been elsewhere locally divided. diagonal and horizontal lines. a level or gently undulating surface replaces the hills. Nipissing.Eastern Paleozoic Basin. While in the South-Eastern Basin we have Carboniferous and Triassic formations which. though when possible to do so the supposed lower. 2. On the geologically colored map of the Dominion. John. and where these occur. are geographically coterminous with the physico-geographic though within the limits of each there are included portions of Thus the northern peninsula of Nova Scotia (Cape Breton Island) and some other axial ridges in the eastern Palaeozoic basin the others. The Central-and-Western The Archaean Nucleus. 3. in any part of the Eastern Section of the Dominion. and probably others not yet observed. are geologically outliers of the Central-and-Western Basin.] 11 CHAPTEE n. I shall now i^roceed to give a brief outline of the geological features of each section. GEOLOGY. ridges and mountains formed of the disturbed lower paleozoic and more ancient strata. middle or upper portions of the system have been shewn respectively by vertical. occupying an area nowhere exceeding thirty miles in width.SELWYN. The island of Anticosti. the scale forty miles to one inch is not large enough for these subdivisions to be indicated. The South-Eastern Paleozoic Basin. in explanation of which this sketch has been prepared. — — — — 1. the basins of Lakes St. The so-called Quebec group. They areas. Below the Carboniferous.

3rd. This. The central Carboniferous area of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. and these are represented on the map (1866) by three distinct colors. In the present state of our knowledge. from the vicinity of Bathurst. light lilac and yellow. by the Chaudiere they must be made to embi-ace the larger part of the Quebec group from the Chaudiere to the Gaspe Peninsula on the one hand.1^ 2nd. divided into three formations. The gold bearing Atlantic coast series of Nova Scotia. And the Vermont boundary on the other. and also considerable areas between the Chaudiere valley and Valley. and. nor if made. where. of lower Cambrian age. In 1863. the Eestigouche and the Matapedia. the Quebec group was. that there are neither palseontological nor stratigraphical grounds for separating the rocks of the south shore of the St. called Levis. however. The whole of this red and black shale. would it be possible except theoretically to depict them on a map. on the Bay of Chaleurs to the Atlantic coast of Maine. forming the hilly countiy St. which are due to agencies operating in periods up to the com- mencement of the Carboniferous. quartzites and sandstones are well exposed. conglomerates. but if so. John. was re-mapped in 1869 as Potsdam. along the south shore perfectly identical limestones. was manifestly erroneous. The broad Siliiro-Devonian basin. to the south-west. however. dark lilac. occupy a position inferior to that of the conglomerates of Point Levis and their inte (-stratified graptolite slates. Lawrence between the Chaudiere and Trois Pistoles from those of the island of Orleans. there appear no good grounds for any such distinctions. and probably does. about the sources of the 5th. [SELWYN. slates. with its associated belts of granitic and gneissic rocks. I have elsewhere pointed out. cut by the shores of Northumberland Strait from Shipj)egan Island on the north-west to New Glasgow on the south-east. and. and extending from Cape Gaspe south-westerly into Maine and New Hampshire. and culminating at or about the close of the Devonian. in ascending order. In the report of 1869 a considerable portion of the Quebec group area east of the Chaudiere Eiver and mapped as Lauzon and Sillery in 1866. Lauzon and Sillery. then these areas likewise supposed to belong to the inferior beds cannot be limited. and described as lying uncorformably beneath the lower or Levis divison of the group. quartzite and limestone conglomerate series may. enable us to . sub-divisions The light lilac tint being also used to denote other large same grouji. and newer granites which constitutes the south-eastern margin of the Silm-o-Devonian basin. The belt of Cambro-Silurian and older strata with associated trappean rocks. Our knowledge does. but in which the had not been recognized. 4th.

The magnetite is. likewise that of the Eastern Palffiozoic basin under consideration. magnetite.] 13 affirm. described in the Geology of Canada. with a considerable degree of certainty. chromic iron and ores of antimony. and in mineral and lithological characters. sei-pentine south-east. diabases are geological Many of these volcanic agglomerates and now serj)entines of which large slabs can be seen in the museum. the northern flanks of which are occupied by the Cambrian and Cambro-Silurian formations of the Quebec Group. Lawrence valley hitherto known and depicted on the map of 1866 as the Quebec G-roup. as well as specimens of all the other rocks named. No fossils of any kind have yet been found in the rocks of these belts. This lower portion of the Quebec group is defined on the 2)resent map and colored as Pre-Cambrian. Trenton. and the southern by those of the Siluro-Devonian system above referred to. gabbro. The soap-stone. and in it are the most extensively worked copper mines of Canada. pot-stone or mica-rock. they are everywhere characterized by the presence of sulphuretted copper ores also. on the Quebec city where series. and they are presumed to belong to the Huronian System. to a point some miles north of the latitude of becomes covered by the unconformable junction of the Levis formation with the Siluro-Devonian rocks of the Gaspe it Vermont boundary. Utica. also belong to the Pre-Cambrian belts. as well as others of the still older Cambrian formations and that these lie uncomformably on or against an axis of Pre-Cambrian sub-crystalline rocks.SELWYN. as being in contact with the former a short distance to the south-west of the mountains. but also on account of their close correspondence with it in physical aspect. serpentine and volcanic agglomerates. quartzites. and Chazy. hematites. The north-western boundary of the Quebec Group of the map of is is 1866. there are included areas of Hudson Eiver. the lowest beds of the axis being micaceous and granitoid gneisses. that within the limits of the highly disturbed folded and faulted lower Palaeozoic belt of the St. Similar Pre-Cambrian rocks form also several subordinate ridges to the and as in the main axis. To the north-east it again appears in some of the prominent peaks and ridges of the Shickshock Mountains. It extends from Sutton Mountain. between Lake Massawippi and Little Magog. hydro-mica slates. or the great . olivinite. Lawrence valley. and formed by the great break of the St. crystalline dolomites. One of these belts crosses the St. Francis Eiver between Sherbrooke and Lennoxville. . It constitutes the high ridges known as the Stoke Mountains. for the most part economically unavailable on account of the high pei'centage of titanic acid. not only because of the geological position which they apparently occupy. and asbestos. diabase.

offering more resistance than the newer strata. probably perfectly analogous to that along the eastern base of the tains. Lawrence and Champlain fault. There is no need to suppose an enormous vertical displacement.* " The solid crystalline gneiss. as has been stated. The shallow water strata of the higher terrace. it is now equally certain that there are. Sterry Hunt does not admit the existence of the great break of the St. and thus act as one of the causes giving a direction to the great Appalachian chain of mountains. Sir William Logan thus refers to it. . but it would probably also guide or modify in some degree the whole series of parallel corrugations.— 14 St. 297. or interior continental palaeozoic basin. as regards the perfect con- formity of the formations from the Potsdam to the Hudson Eiver. there resulted a break coinciding with the inclined plane at the junction of these with the gneiss. " a series can riot be doubted by any one who * Geology of Canada. Though the explanation given by Sir W. In Canada this is especially apparent in those parts which lie to the south-east of the St. Eocky Moun- has carefully examined the And not only so but structure from Cape Eosier to Lake Champlain. [SELWYN. Champlain and Hudson Eiver valleys. and even if existing. and be ultimately made to overlap the portion of those resting on the edge of the higher terrace . Lawrence valley. be incorrect. The resistance offered by the buttress of gneiss would not only limit the main disturbance. would remain undisturbed. . after probably thrusting over to an inverted dip the broken edge of the upper formations. p. together with some subsequent and subordinate folding and faulting. and ascribes the observed relations and physical differences in the two areas to original vinconformity. would not suffice to explain the phenomena which he sought to account for. 1863. there can be no doubt that the disturbances which have affected the whole region to the south-east of it have been far more intense and have been continued into much later periods than any of those which have affected the Southern-and-Western area. p. Lawrence. T. relieved from pressure. 294-297 —may. The lower Palffiozoic strata pushed up the slope would then raise and fracture the formations above. that of any great unconformity can no where be clearly seen. The nature of this break or physical boundary has been variously described. in the case before us. but that a great break does exist along the line indicated. Chapter ix. and then the limit of the more corrugated area would coincide with the slope between the deep and shallow waters of the Potsdam period. Logan Geology of Canada 1863. it must be observed that while the evidence of the constant overlapping of these formations is everwhere abundant." "Whatever may be the nature of the origin of this break. Dr.

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and at the mouth of the chief valleys which terminate in deep bays upon the St. where the summit of the hill shews an overturn dip and the strata in the whole section aj)pear to be arranged in the form of a very flat 02 . p. 1844. There is really no conclusive evidence to place. Along the whole line of this great break from Lake Champlain to Gaspd. E. and it any individual bed for fifty yards. . or to a close and repeated folding of the strata in overturned synclinal and anticlinal forms. both of elevation and depression. on the Island of Orleans. where the strata of the CambroSilurian and Silurian are wholly undisturbed and conformable. One of these instances is seen on the east side of the Eiver Pierre. but the strata are most : violently twisted and broken is difficult the greatest confusion prevails. " The coast from the Abour about 30 miles exhibits numerous instances of conto the Magdalen torted strata. Logan thus writes in his report dated 1st May." * . there are three distinct and well exposed faults." placements. 23. the newer formations apparently underlie the older. but it is not always clear wdiether this is due to a series of more or less parallel and branching faults. The diagram opposite. In their eastern prolon- gation they curve in conformity with the outline of the north shore and pass south of Anticosti Island. Of these rocks Sir W. which must have preceded. Lawrence. Lawrence. while ISTos.] 15 of such dislocations traversing eastern ISTorth America from Alabama These have doubtless caused considerable vertical disto Canada. but the present physical condition of the rocks of the south-eastern area is not due to these dislocations. and dip at a low angle towards the fault. Fig. accompanied and caused them. Between Montmorenci falls and the south side of West Point. apparently dipping beneath the older Levis formation or upper Cambrian of the Quebec group.' but to the great lateral pressure." and again. 2 is the main fracture. the distance is three miles. 1 is pass beneath the waters of the St. To the north-east of the Island of Orleans these faults apparently movement has taken 'No. show on which side of these faults the probably a down throw to the south-east. as on the Island of Orleans.SELWYN. shews the sujDposed structure. Probably both causes have contributed to produce the result referred to. while on the opposite shore of the G-aspe Peninsula we find the same formations folded and faulted.000 feet. numerous cracks result from the disturbances. 2 and 3 are up throws on the same side. Geological Survey of Canada. to follow — — * Report of Progress. there are displayed several transverse sections in the sides of the mountains. 1. while Nos. 1 and 3 are branches from it. which come close upon the shore and slope up to 800 and 1. as at the Island of Orleans. 1845 " The cliff exposing them is bold and lofty. and. No.

a fact which had not. or the upper membei-s of the Quebec group. Many other smaller trough-like areas of Siluro-De- vonian strata occur in southern New Brunswick and along the northwestern limits of N^ova Scotia. It must be observed that though for the purpose of the present sketch the Siluiian and Devonian strata have been grouped together. while in some cases as Nictaux they are limited and altered by the granitic and dioritic masses of Devonian age. These rocks are described in detail under the heading "The Gaspe Series" in the xvi chapter of the Geology of Canada 1863. and an abundant and characteristic assemblage of fossil fishes. felsites and serpentines. to which the reader is repeated disturbance. of Utica and Hudson Eiver age. diorites. dicated in the geological map published in 1866.16 [« Much more is given in the same report shewing the highly disturbed condition of these rocks which are. a similar mistake having. and they are further distinguished by a very character- . there exists between them almost everywhere a very distinct break and unconformity. referred for fui'ther information. which also form the central highlands of Nova Scotia from Cape Sable to Cape Canso. has prevented prior to 1863. and the section from the coast to the summit of the mountains was considered to be. These are for the most part in contact either with Lower Cambrian at or with Pre-Cambrian rocks. of the group. and thus the Pre-Cambrian chloritic and micaceous schists. c" on the older schists of the axis are those of the Siluro-Devonian basin. as indicated by the constant south easterly dips. from the head of the Bay of Fundy to the Strait of Canso. than Eecent explorations in the Gasp^ Peninsula and northern New Brunswick have however shewn that the upper or Devonian members are somewhat more widely distributed than in. been made throughout tb'^ en 're range. Besting unconformably either on the rocks of the Levis formation. new to Canada. already referred to. which form the axis of the mountains. grey sandstones and limestones often dipping at high angles and shewing. are depicted on the geological map of 1866. then been ascertained. Where unaltered they consist of dark-blue clay shales. especially to the south-east. as I have elsewhere pointed out. other evidence of They are interrupted by large areas of grey and white granite and in proximity to these the limestones are crystalline and the argillites changed to micaceous and staurolitic schists. The wooded. an ascending one. however. like those of the north shore of Anticosti. as Sillery and Lauzon. mountainous and genby erally inaccesible character of a large jiart of the area occupied these Siluro-Devonian rocks. and plants has been discovered around the shores of the Bay of Chaleurs in these investigation of the relations of the several that much members further or closer made Devonian rocks.

These are sepai*ated by rocks of presumed Acadian Geology. though somewhat altered. BilDawson. Ells from the recently pubgeological map which embraces the north-western part of the area. lished parts. Houeyman. The great bulk of them. &c. Indications of copper ore were noted on the Nipisiguit and North-West Mira- michi Rivers. t Geological Survey of Canada 1879-80-81-82. 150 miles in length and 30 to 50 miles wide. Graptolites of Utica types are abundant in some teropods. with imperfect remains of fossils. also greenish-grey sandstone. because from the nature of the country they cannot be traced continuously. The main Siluro-Devonian Area belt is limited to the south-east by the No. Reports D. The separation of these from the Pre-Cambrian graptolitic has been made both on lithological and stratigraphical grounds. of Cambro-Silurian and older strata.* Whether the Gasp^ limestones are to be considered to belong to the base of the Devonian or the top of the Silurian seems to be palseonStratigraphically they are conformable and tologically uncertain. north-easterly direction. but not in sufficient quantity to be of value. brachiopods. Greo- Transactions of the etc. running roughly parallel to each other in a . Inter. Nova Scotia Institute.. Black and ferruginous shales and slates. . The Pre-Cambrian system in this area consists largely of very felspathic schists and gneisses they are all highly metamorphic. 1868. * Geology of Canada. therefore both are now regarded as Devonian and so colored on the present map. also fragments of crinoids. Hartt. present great lithological differences. This area. give a general idea of its structure detail the maps and reports and character. Whiteaves and others. occupies the centre of the province of New Brunswicte^i a'vi is for the most part Hence it has been imposdensely wooded and difficult of access. are intimately associated with hard and often schistose metamorphic beds. already referred to. Jourl. lack the highly metamorphic character so mai-ked in those of the Pre-Cambrian system. Canadian Naturalist.f SELWYN ] 17 istic and abundant fossil fauna and flora as described * by Logan. though the boundaries are necessarily to some extent conjectural. and apparently form two axes. Galena and manganese were observed in small quantities at several points. for further The rocks of Cambro-Silurian age. 3. logical Society. sible accurately to define the limits of the several groups of strata. m No very characteristic fossils have been found in it and none sufficiently perfect for specific determination. however. as in the south-western portion of the province. Bailey. with reddish and manganese stained beds. Progress Reports of the Geological Survey of Canada. etc. gas- The following notes by Mr. Ridges of good farming land occur between the principal rivers. and must be consulted. 1863. lings.

in North Wales. in which there is only one workable seam of coal. reaches. The strata are everywhere near! horizontal. their total thickness nowhere much exceeds 600 fee included. And the marked simila ity of these rocks to the lower part of the auriferous Cambrian rocks Merionethshire. Up to that da' except the doubtful fossil ( named Eospongia from Waverley. It is also subject to severe frosts. The are generally red and coarse-grained. as measure by Sir W. often with crystals of felspar froi an inch and a-half to two inches in length. and have been extensively used in the construction c the immense bridges on the Intercolonial railway. Full details of the Pictou-an( New Glasgow basin are given by Sir W. portant coal basins of Sjiring Hill. The New Brunswick area forms a prominer feature in the geological map. 1844- . thin and scanty. Survey of Canada. from 1872 to 1882. Robb and Fletcher in the annual Reports of tl Geological Survey. was then pointed out. in Nova Scotia. This near the summit and has an average thickness of only 20 inches. only 30 miles distant. while intheothe basins there are numerous coal seams of thicknesses varying from few inches up to that of the main Albion Mines seam which reache the enormous thickness of 36 feet.500 feet with 81 coal seams. and while they occupj" an area of not less than square miles. We now of come to the consideration of the great Carboniferous basi far more in Glasgow an Pictou. Hartle in the Eeport of Progress." The greater part of was cursorily examined by the writer in ISYl. The soil where not completely burnt off is generall. and are probably of the same age. Geological Survey of Canada. the exposed thickness of th measures at the Joggins. 4 occupie by the " Altantic Coast series of Nova Scotia. the Joggins. E. New : ters of the measm*es on their horizontal extension are there describee The Sydney and other Cape Breton Carboniferous basins are describe in detail by Messrs. and often strewed with large boulders. beinj for the most part unsuited very rough and hilly. E. The granites of this area resemble very closely the granites of th southern part of the province. nothin * Report of Progress. I the other basins mentioned the superficial areas of which are so sma as to be scarcely noticeable on the map. 1866-61 And the very rapid changes both in the thickness and in the charai New Brunswick. Geol. A few remarks may now be made respecting the area No. Logan.lo [SELWYI Cambro-Silurian age. They make an excellet building stone. especially about the head waters of the Nipis guit and Miramichi Eivers. rocks is The country occupied by the pre-Cambria: for agricultural purposes. bot early and late.* 14. Logan and Mr. and the associated and economically.

I detected markings which the late Mr. instead of.] 19 resembling an organic form had been found in this series. 'New Brunswick. as well as that of the other closely associated Cambro-Silurian formations. in the vicinity of Yarmouth. both as regards thickness. Hudson Eiver have been so fully described in chapit is IX and X G-eology of Canada. But. and that they are subject to rapid changes on their horizontal extension. elsewhere characteristic of the same low horizon. from those of the Atlantic coast series as developed in the vicinity of Halifax and -elsewhere. The Ckntral-and-Western Paleozoic Basin. however. 1863.and palaeontological contents. as similar markings slates are quite common in the lower there Cambrian is (Menevian) of St. every reason to suppose that the position assigned to this group in Nova Scotia is correct. Chazy. and though the upper members frequently overlap the lower. to the islands of Lake Huron. and resemble very closely some of the Pre-Cambrian rocks of Cape Breton and of the Eastern Townships but the details of the geology of south-western Nova Scotia. Billings determined to be Eophyton Linneanum. and there are considerable local differences in the grouping of the fauna. in many respects. there are a set of strata which differ considerably.•SELWYN. graphically and palseontologically they are intimately connected. lithological characters . About the centre of the southwestern coast. The general in Chapter I. 2. arising probably not from any actual interruption in sedimentation. Its distribution in Canada. John. but from the fact that the subdivisions themselves are really more or less local and limited. Utica and ters YIII. Lawrence. and in the meantime the whole of the slaty series so well . however. Black sistent in this respect Eiver. exposed on the coast between Cape St. In the dark slates at the Ovens in Lunenburg county. Mary and Cape Tusket has been assigned to the Lower Cambrian. that unnecessary Strati- now to enter further into details respecting these formations. yet there does not appear to be any decided . but there are often considerable gaps in the series. to the Silurian (Upper Silurian) system. geological features of this basin have been referred to They areas it includes are exclusively occupied tion older than the Carboniferous and one or by formamore of therecognized American subdivisions of the Lower Palaeozoic age are found in each of them. or parts of the series are locally absent. Since then no advance has been made in precisely determining the position of this series. from the Mingan Islands and Murray Bay on the Lower St. as in the maj) of 1866. have yet to be investigated. No formation is perhaps more per- than the Trenton.

1866. the importance of which has only become apjDa- — rent during the last six years. 5. Lawrence below Quebec. The Cambro-Silurian formations are. break or unconformity and the stratigraphy entirely bears out the views of the late Mr. Nipissing. extending from Quebec to the Thousand Islands. but all is occupied by a single immense. Mary. 4. &c. and again on the Etchemin Eiver as well as at various points on the south shore of 'the St. The region between Lakes Erie. § The most conspicuous geographical 1. The Island of divisions of the Southern and Western Basin are Anticosti. Abittibbe and Temiscamang. 300 miles \/ to Lake St. 2. in some cases. Danville. Billings who says: * "From the top of the Hudson Eiver down to the base of the Chazy there is no break. The Ottawa and St. except in the. the terms Cambrian and Cam bro -Silurian are used to indicate this break. been entirely submerged during the Palaeozoic ages. 79. in Canada and New York.. with the Pre-Cambrian schists. the one above the break at the base of the Chazy. as already stated. while. And it may yet be demonstrated. they occur as small outliers intimately associated. by those beds which are referred to by Logan as the lower or underlying black slates. John. by the discovery of more such outliers in the vast unexplored northern regions of Canada. These are highly interesting relics which show that the present limits of the Palaeozoic formations do not even approximately indicate those of the Ocean in which they were deposited. Ontario and Huron. 240 and 241 Geology of Canada. extending from Kingston south-westerly. Subordinate to these are the outliers of Palffiozoic rocks. and thence along the eastern and northern shores of Lake Huron to Sault St. as at Tingwick. and faulting has not yet been possible to determine the respective limits of the two systems. it : — •Catalogue of the Silurian Fossils of the Island of Anticosti. however. by folding and faulting.. The Lower Silurian of America can be divided into two principal groups. also distinct tints on the map. p. called Lauzon and Sillery. south-eastern disturbed area. represented. Francis and Nicolet Rivers. Their distribution shows that they are quite unconformable on the older red and green slates and sandstones. also at Farnham and Bedford. pp. Lawrence Basin. " occurs a great break. The basins of Lake Winnipeg and Hudsons Bay. . to the folding owing to which. that the whole of the Archaean Continental JSTucleus has. which have been found in various parts of the great Northern area such as those of Lakes St. for the most part. They are well developed on the St. 3. where.20 [SELWYN. The Cambrian basin of Lake Superior. the other below. this area has been subjected. more than once. highly characteristic and compact "At the base of the Chazy. 1863." In the present sketch. Clair. Melbourne Eidge. there fauna.

viz. then follows the Keweenian series. Except in division tions 4. " Catalogues of the Silurian Fossils of the Island of Anticosti. the Cambrian basin of Lake Superior.Survey of Pennsylvania. and there are therefore no new facts to add to those 1. named by him Animikie. Map of 1866. there are many large inter- beds of columnar diabase. by the late E. 1863. no further investigahave been made. either by the writer or by any member of the Geological corps. the whole." After a somewhat careful though still incomplete examination of these rocks and if this Suj)erior rocks there is in the. 1863. . : While in the Geology of Canada..cie post-Cambrian and perhaps Mesozoic." Eecently these upper copperbearing rocks of Logan have been divided by Dr. already published respecting the divisions In the Geological 2 and 3. SELWYN. Up to the summit of the Nipigon series. from the base of the Animikie to the sum- mit of the Keweenian. The dykes sometimes present a very perfect columnar structure at right angles to their dip. coarse conglomerates and a great thickness of amygdaloidal lava (melaphyre) and other volcanic ejectamenta. being cut by trap dykes. Foster and others. part Archasan system—^Huronian and Laurentian 2nd Geol. dolorite. no reasonable doubt of the age of the whole being investigators Lower Cambrian. which extends around and partly stratified fills the basin of Lake Nipigon. the rocks of division 4 are assigned to the horizon of the Chazy and the Quebec Group. Nipigon and Keweenian* with certain sug gestions as to their relative position which are wholly untenable.. —on the 1.S.] Ax One to four of the above enumerated divisions of the southern and western area have been closely studied and are fully described in the publications of the G-eological Survey." 1866. &c. among which may be especially mentioned. This great volcanic series of Lake Superior bears a precisely similar relation. after fully describing these rocks. Billings. Report E. more particularly in the Geology of Canada. Sir "W. by some of the earlier Between Thunder Bay and the east end of Nipigon the three series follow each other without apparent unconformity and dip at a generally low angle towards the lake. masses of diabaseporphyry. the cop]oer-b earing portion of the Lake might reasonably be considered to belong to the Calciferous and the Potsdam formations. to the *Azoic Rocks. as supposed —Whitney.G. Mary would thus appear to bring it into the position of the Chazy rather than the Potsdam formation — were established. F. Logan concludes with the following remarks " The aifinities of the red sandstone of Sault St. to the effect thrt the Keweenian series is Pre-Cambrian and the Nipigon and Am i. V. and in subsequent Eeports to 1869. consisting of red and white sandstones. Hunt into three series. opinion of the writer. Chap.

the succession of the Lake Superior Lower Cambrian sei'ies corresponds even more closely with the eastern series than it might be expected to do. resting in almost undistm-bed attitude — — great interior continental basin. companying map. And there can be little doubt that the great dark argillite silver-bearing series of Lake Superior underlies the greater part of Black Bay. there to here.iiii [SELWYN. apart from tions of St. Ignace. will eventually be proved to occupy the same Lower Cambrian horizon. so far as known. and conformably overlaid by red and white the statement that east of Black dolomitic sandstones and rather coarse pebble conglomerates. and Their supposed distribution northward is shown on the ac^ also that they constitute the western limit of the . as already stated. and the peninsula between it and Kipigon Bay. however. giving rise Bay the Animikie series of dark argillites is wanting.000 feet below the waters of the lake. as well as St. producing conditions highly unfavorable for the existence of animal basins. without the volcanic associations which I have elsewhere predicted. The absence of palseontological evidence of age may perhaps be in a great measui'e accounted for by the great and repeated manifestation of volcanic activity over the whole region during the accumulation of the sediments. is unconformity.and not impossible that they are also geographically connected beneath th& overlying Cretaceous rocks of Dakota with those of the extreme western extension of the Cambro-Silurian and Devonian systems of southern Minnesota. as in the St. in areas more than 600 miles apart. in some of which it is exposed in fine sections. one hand and to the overlying Trenton group on the other. argillites. there is no marked Lawrence and Ottawa constant overlapping of the upper membei's. a life. associated as at Thunder Cape with massive columnar diabase. John. to that which the upper and lower Potsdam and the still older Menevian formaAnd. On the east shores of Hudson's Bay there appears to be an almost amygdaon the Pre-Cambrian gneisses. sandstones and loidal lavas. together with the comparatively undisturbed condition.. The Eed Eiver and Lake Winnipeg Palaeozoic area is described on a subsequent page. characteristic of all the Western Palaeozoic areas. the rocks of this area are it is closely connected with the Central-and-Western Palaeozoic Basin. Simpson and other islands to the eastward. While. A similar series occurs also in the Eocky Mountains though. as is clearly proved by the fact that these argillites have been sunk through in the Silver Islet mine to a depth of nearly 1. and referred to as forming the eastern margin of the similar series of traps. do in the eastern provinces. This. Physically. dolomites. the almost total absence of contemjioraneous igneous rocks in the one area and their great preponderance in the other. is not the case. &c.

] 23 Of their former north-eastern extension we have at present no evidence. It will to the Straits of Belle Isle. lying north of the St. Logan. and to the view that the larger part of the great Archaean Nucleus was more than once entirely submerged dai'ing Palaeozoic as yet little time. Atlantic. or that the Huronian is not newer than the Laurentian. 3. while both present a very constant northeasterly Notwithstanding these facts. Recent investigation has added nothing of importance to what is there given respecting these rocks. The Archaean Nucleus. already described. they are very fully described by Sir W. But it has greatly enlarged the area over which they were then known to extend. and that we have yet much to learn respecting them. render it almost impossible to suppose that the superposition. extends through about eighty-two degrees of longitude from Demarcation Point. west of the mouth of the Mackenzie River.000.000 square miles. G-eology of Canada. underlaid by the ancient crystalline rocks which constitute the continental nucleus. is the true one. broadly viewed. their exceedingly different mineralogical characters and general appearance. have been examined in detail must be comparatively small. as indicated by these dips. has not yet afforded any more satisfactory evidence of the Huronian rocks to the Laurentian.SELWYN. it seems not improbable that the present geographical separation of the Winnipeg. the Eastern Palaeozoic Basin. E. explored region. already stated. lend support to this supposition. In all cases the supposed junction of the strata of the two systems either shews them vertically side by side or the Huronian strata apparently dipping under though it relations of the the Lam-entian. 1863. as The enormous area. Lawrence and Ottawa Eiver and south of Hudson's Bay. In Chapter II. on the Arctic Ocean. then we must admit that both systems are strike. If so. probably. presented in a constant succession of enormously thick overturned folds. but as a similar Palaeozoic group occux-s around the shores of Hudson's Bay. Lake Superior and Hudson's Bay Palaeozoic areas is the result of denudation in PostPalffiozoic ages. over 2. with perhaps many dislocations and slips on the lines of the antiAnd as such a character would correspond with that of clinal axes. on the constituting be readily understood that the area over which the rocks this great Archaean crystalline series. it is probably the . known as the Laurentian andHuronian Systems. The very considerable outliers already knOAvn in the great Archaean Nucleus.

285 miles west of Ottawa. and the present attitude of the strata. may The present sketch does not even if the facts were available. with thin bands of dark argillite. grey. and white orthoclasegneiss in great variety. as they also do the coarse grit and sandstone which underlie the L^vis formation of the Quebec group. like eozoon. 2. 4. which they very closely resemble. Such rocks occur in constant alternations for 260 miles. the bands often curiously twisted and contorted. and frequently garnetiferous and micaceThere are also some large bands of grey and white crystalline ous. At the Vermilion Eiver bridge. Large bands of crystalline limestone. on the above** supposition. veins of red and white oligoclase. felspathic and dioritic. almost black.— 24 "^ r [SELWYN. there are good exposures of a series of dark grey. These are regularly bedded and not more altered than the Lower Cambrian rocks of the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia. They are . red. succeeded by dark grey quartzose conglomeratic beds also massive crystalline . or the so-called Sillery sandstone. limestone. but the following be given as the general result of recent observations : along the line of the Pacific Eailway from Ottawa westward Laurentian. fine-grained syenites tui-ned folding. explanation that must be adopted. where it leaves the valley of the Ottawa Eiver. The Laurentian rocks. as already referred to. After passing the Wahnahpitae Eiver bridge the Huronian rocks commence with a series of flinty felsites or felsitic quartzites. They may be regarded as the typical rocks constituting the great Laurentian system. which occupj^ the whole of the country from Pembroke to the east bank of the Wahnahpitae Eiver. No better or more continuous section of these Archaean rocks Laurentian and Huronian could be seen anywhere than that recently exposed by the cuttings on the — Canada Pacific Eailway from Pembroke northwest to the Spanish Eiver north of Lake Huron. admit of much succession detail. 3. but none of these are exposed along the line of the railway west of Mattawa. It may be that they represent the uppermost part of the Huronian system. grey and dark banded gneisses felspathic and hornblendic. felspathic quartz grit or sandstone. are for the most part highly characteristic red. Black hornblende and mica gneiss often garnetiferous and cut by Pyi-oxenic gneiss. though here we again find an almost constant easterly dip. 1. and a great variety of highly altered volcanic agglomerates. Eed. banded. or from Ottawa to the Wahnahpitae Eiver bridge. must be the result of an overdiorites. distinctly banded. These exposures are most interesting.

Wherever these Norian rocks have been observed. as such. red and white. Felsites or felsitic quartzites. dark. Further west. quartzite.— -SELWYN. or they occur as intrusive masses when they present no gneissic or bedded structure. no existence in Canada. weathering. five miles of flat After an interval of about drift-covered country. sometimes chloritic or hornblendic in charand varying in texture from a fine Inminated ash to a coarse agglomerate following these are massive beds of diorite or diabase beds. but there are probably many more not yet recognized. along the north shore of is The Lake Superior. with somewhat similar is succes- sion recurs of felsite. The dip. still continues' easterly. 3. they are either intimately and conformably associated with the ordinary orthoclase or pja-oxenic gneisses. its theoretical birth-place. and dip generally easterly at all angles from almost horizontal to vertical. Diorite and diabase with a series of coarse and fine fragmentary acter. sometimes felspathic. . after which the tyj^ical Lauren tian gneiss again makes its appearance.] 25 very distinctly stratified. They are followed in descending section according to dip bj^ dark to grey or if — — black siliceous beds. holding angular fragment and pebble of white granite or gneiss. 2. diorite. alternating with red. rocks. Some of these are indicated on the present map. sometimes almost black quartzites. but on examination these shew no gnessic structure. conglomerate. and at a distance scarcely distinguishable from the Lam-entian. They clearly cut the surrounding gneiss. Thick andthin bedded. Norian or Upper Laurentian formation. not repeated by folding these must be of great thickness. fine-grained syenite. the Laurentian and connected with these are large areas of granite and syenite which seem to be of later origin than the adjacent schistose and fragmentary Huronian gneiss interrupted by belts of similar Hui-onian strata. Such masse so-called As regards the . I have no hesitation in asserting that it has. 1. and again on the is Lake of the Woods. and beyond these again a syenite. Crossing the Wahnahpitae Eiver bridge a very marked change occurs. well exposed a entire breaath of the belt in a west north-westerly direction about eighty miles. and are probably due to volcanic or other igneous agency in the Laurentian Age. One of these Bannerman station. agglomerate and short distance south-east of some bands of argillite. and the general succession is as follows : HURONIAN. the Vermilion Eiver sand- stones commence. however.

. while the bedded labradoritic gneisses and other associated strata may flows. where they have been fully described by Mr. see Reports Geological Survey of Canada. —wdich with equal probability represent the eruptive rocks lavaemanated from them. and in such constant alternations.^b [SELWYN may not unreasonably be supposed to mark the sites of the Laurentian volcanoes. a fact which has been singularly overlooked or ignored by most wi'iters on American geology. and 1882-83.* * 1879-80 For details respecting these Pre-Cambrian rocks. etc. it has been found impossible to define even these clearly. and were locally interbedded — with the ordinary sediments of the period. Eocks of typical Laurentian character are there so intimately associated with others of equally typical Huronian characters. In many parts. Fletcher. At present we have in Canada no evidence which would warrant us in making more than two great divisions in the Arcluijan crystalline rocks. especially in the eastern provinces. and are therefore all classed as Archa?an or Pre-Cambrian. as rocks of similar origin and composition certainly were in the Huronian and in all later geological ages. that in mapping them they could not be separated.

the western Cordillera belt continued to be the theatre of uplift and folding on a gigantic scale. but. where it appears to have a breadth of between 300 and to the shores of the Pacific. but continues as a great jahysical feature even to the shore of the Arctic Ocean. . — The northern part of the North American continent is geologically. — no mesozoic or In the second. it is included in longitude between the 96th and the 114th meridians. It narrows pretty rapidly northwards. Correlated with the difterence of age in the formations represented. quoted at length from summaries previously published by me. the Archaean plateau is the dominant feature. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. (Boundary Commission Eeport) and Geology of British Columbia. The facts for the following sketch of the physical geography and geology of the western portion of the Dominion of Canada. by the encroachment on it of its eastern border. however. In compiling these notes.— PART II. is the fact that at a date when the flexure and disturbance of the eastern region had practically ceased. with the — single exception of limited tracts of Triassic rocks. vol. Note.) CHAPTBE I. mag. of which the most important are in Geology and Eesoiu-ces 49th parallel. the Archaean rocks play a part. which constitutes the j)olitical boundary between the last named country and the Dominion of Canada. stretching westward very subordinate and Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks are abundantly represented and alone characterize the whole area of the great plains. In the first. (WESTERN SECTION. I have. Geol. which is marked by a chain of great lakes stretching from the Lake of the Woods to the Arctic Ocean. are largely derived from the Eeports of the Geological Survey. "Where the great region of plain and prairie which occupies the whole central pai-t of Mexico and of the United States passes the forty-ninth parallel of latitude. viii. and it was set and firm. the succeeding forma- — tions arranging themselves about its edges or overlapping it to a greater or less extent in the form of bays or inlets. extending from the Atlantic coasts to the south-eastern edge of the Laurentian axis. tertiary strata arc represented in it. and to a great extent also physically divisible into two great portions.

with a general east and west course. along the lines which are in a general way parallel and hold a north-west and south-east course across the . Lawrence and Great Lakes from Labrador to Lake of the Woods. Between the fifty-first and fifty-second parallels the Eocky Mountain range apj)ears to culminate. and. it loses with the increasing moisture of the climate. 400 miles. with limited exceptions. and to the north gradually decreases in elevation till on the borders of the Arctic Ocean it is represented by comparatively low hills only. they hills completely traverse its range. thickly covered with coniferous forest. breaks through the Laurentian plateau at the north end of Lake Winnipeg. A short distance farther become bordered by an important zone of footcomposed of crumpled Mesozoic rocks. by the south- western slope of that old crystalline nucleus of the continent which extends north of the St. small and great. it divides the waters flowing into Hudson's Bay from those draining directly into the Arctic Ocean. however. not so much so as to attract special attention. and empties into Hudson's Bay at York Factory. its essentially prairie character. and often present to the east almost perpendicular walls of rock. Bej^ond the North Saskatchewan Eiver. turning suddenly at an angle of 60'^ to its former general direction. passes through the same gap. and these continue with varying breadth at least as far north as the Peace Eiver region. The eastern the barrier is rather a rocky plateau than a mountain region. runs with a north-north-west course to the Arctic Sea. The north-eastern boundary of north of latitude forty-nine. and then. formed. the Eocky Mountains on the west rise abruptly from the elevated plain at their base. and the streams flowing eastward across the plains rise further back till in the cases of the Peace and Liard Elvers the waters from the central plateau of British Columbia north. Between the fifty-fourth and forty -ninth degrees of latitude. It presents no well defined height of land. Near the 49th parallel. is this interior continental plateau. Northward from the Lake of the Woods. and the watershed-line follows a very sinuous course among the countless lakes. the Eed Eiver and innumerable smaller streams. The Churchill or English Eiver. a not inconsiderable stream. with one important exception. however. The Nelson Eiver. which cover its surface. becomes.^o [dawson. as above stated. however. and though the it is inclina- tion is more abrupt in approaching the mountains. carrying the accumulated waters of the Saskatchewan. The whole interior region of the Continent slopes gradually eastward from the elevated plains lying near the base of the Eocky Mountains to the foot of the Laurentian highlands. With this decrease in height the mountains become a less complete barrier.

while east of Red River it is bounded by the high-lying drift terraces surrounding the Lake of the Woods and forming a part of the drift plateau of northern Minnesota. The lies first or lowest prairie-level is that of which the southern part along Red River. is slight compared with that due to the uniform eastward slope of the plains.38 feet to the mile. in a due east line to the lowest part of the valley of the Red Eiver a distance of 750 miles the plains have an average parallel Lake Winnipeg. the lowest part being that includis ing the Winnipeg group of lakes which have an elevation of about YOG feet. From the same initial point.900 square miles. its The edges of this plain are also. notwithstanding apparent horizontality. and is continued northward by the Riding.DAWSON. — — slope of 4. The average height above the continental region sea of this lowest level of the interior feet. and attains its greatest elevation 960 feet^at its termination about 200 miles south of the inter- about 800 — national boundary. They may be considered as of primary importance among the features of the country and were first clearly described by Dr. and which northward embraces Lake Winnipeg and associated lakes and the flat land smTOunding them. and the most eastern of them overlooks the lowest prairie level or that of the Eed plains. Hector. The three prairie steppes thus outlined diflter much in age and character. The actual increase of elevation accounted for in the two escarp- ments.000 square miles. however.48 feet per mile. of which the great system of lakes in A great part of its northern part occupies about 13. To the west it is limited by the more or less abrupt edge of the second prairie level. Porcupine and Basquia Hills. Prom this it slopes up southward. A great part of its eastern border is conterminous with that of Lake Winnipeg. and a line drawn from the intersection of the 49th and the mountains to a point on the first prairie-level north of will be found to cross the escarpments nearly at right angles. considerably more elevated than its axis where this is occupied by the Red River. These escarpments form the eastern boundaries of the two higher prairie plateaus. is scarcely perceptible where the broad valley of the Assineboine breaks through it. Its width on the 49th parallel is fifty-two miles only. The escarpment where it crosses the 49th parallel is known as Pembina Mountain. The direction of greatest inclination is toward the north-east. Eiver valley. and formed by the rocky front of the Laurentian. Its area north of the same line may be estimated at 55. .] J9 very remarkable stop-like rises occur. and to have an average slope of 5. forming an escarpment. Duck. and have been impressed on the soft formations of the plains by the action of sub-aerial denudation of former great lakes and probably also of the sea. though very irregular in some places. which.

and in the southern part of Dakota the three primary levels of the country.^ wooded more or less densely. that its outflow was southward to the Mississippi. the boundaries of this region appear to be more indefinite. and frequently depressed from one hundred to three hundred feet below the general surface. The southern part. having already nearly reached a base level of erosion. which has been Agassiz. 105. To the south.900 square miles. in wide trough-like valleys excavated in the soft material of the plains. and with the advantage of a greater height above base level. though it cannot there be Its total area between these two parallels is about so strictly defined. Upham. are probably scarcely separable.000 square miles. The surface of this steppe is also more diversified than the last. and on the 54th about two hundred miles. Its its the plains is bounded to the west by the Missouri northern continuation constitutes the edge of the third width on the 49th parallel is two hundred and fifty miles. Warren Upham Lake it which occupied towai-d the close of the glacial period. The third or highest steppe of the plains may be said to have a gen- . jDarticularly that portion adjacent to the lakes. being broken into gentle levels and undulations. The second steppe of Coteau. and are continuous westward with those of the third steppe. extending southward from Lake Winnipeg. The Eed and Assiniboine Elvers have not yet cut very deeply into these superficial deposits.600 feet. and includes the whole eastern portion of the great plains.000 square miles. The present rivers have acted on this region for a much longer time than on the last. The average altitude of this region may be stated at 1. and now flow with uniform though often swift currents. with an approximate area of 71. and the character of its soil and adaptability for agriculture differ considerably in its different portions. includes the prairie of the Eed Eiver valley with an area north of the -iOth parallel of about 6. These occuj)y its southern and western jJOrtion. so well marked north of the line. and the surface of the plain is level and little furrowed by denudation. and named by Mr. but in part also to original inequalities in the deposition of the drift material which constitutes the supei-ficial formation. The superficial deposits of this area are chiefly those of a former great lake. the wi-iter and the first named gentleman. properly so called. which they leave only at times of flood. and it has been shewn by General Warren.30 this prairie-level is {. In Minnesota the shore-lines and beaches of this lake have been carefully traced out by Mr. The fine silty material now flooring the Eed Eiver plain and constituting its soil of unsurpassed fertility was laid down in its deeper waters. In these valleys the comparatively insignificant streams wander from side to side in tortuous channels. and steppe. partly due to the present denuding agencies.

form table-lands such as those of the Cypress Hills and Wood Mountain. compressed folds. or about 115. the great ravines and " coulees " which have been cut and are still extending themselves among the soft sandstones and clays of the Cretaceous and Laramie formations. but are spread less uniformly than on the lower levels.DAWSON. which the surface participates in to a lesser degree. Its area between the parallels above defined. In the foot-hills of the Eocky Mountains the previously nearly horizontal beds of the plains are thrown into wave-like flexures and . agricultm-al value of this great district are too varied to allow of geneThough it must be regarded rather as a grazing than a . being the broken hilly country known as the Coteau de Missouri. with transported boulders and gravel. and including the high land and foot hills along the base of the mountains. greater part. is about 134. both in later Tertiary time and subsequent to the glacial period. and it attains an elevation of over 4000 feet at the foot of the Eocky Mountains. It is then continued to the north by a range of high lands.000 square miles. and thence runs east of the Old Wive's Lakes to the South Saskatchewan. The universal denudation which has taken place is evidenced by the size and depth of the valleys of rivers and streams. and the isolated plateaus and buttes which now stand far out on the plains of lower level. seamed with newer systems of gorges. are found over almost the entire area of the highest steppe. and beyond that river probably to the Thickwood Hills. though its eastern edge is generally little over 2000 feet. of which the Eagle Hills constitute a part. is almost entirely devoid of the wooded region being confined to a small area of its northern and north-western extension near the North Saskatchewan Eive]* and its Its breadth on the 49th parallel is four hundred and sixtytributaries.000 square miles. and the surface is often based almost immediately on the Cretaceous and Laramie beds. It is much more diversified than either has been elevated to a greater height above the sea level.] Oi normal altitude of about 3000 feet. ralization. Those portions of its surface which still remain but little modified. This portion of the great plains of those before described. assuming the form of crest-like parallel ridges which frequently posThe nature of the soil and prospective sess considerable uniformity. and its eastern boundary is there well-marked. to the elbow of the North Saskatchewan. There is ample proof that previous to the glacial period the surface was much more rugged and worn than it now appears the glacial deposits have since filled many of the deeper hollows and given rounded and flowing outlines to the whole. Deposits belonging to the glacial period. both of preglacial and post-glacial age. or Great Coteau. five miles. and of this by far the eral forest. which crosses the International boundary near the 104th meridian. and acted on to a much greater extent by the ei-oding forces.

(probably as the result of Post Tertiary elevation. North of the North Saskatchewan no extensive treeless plains occur in the central region of the continent. they are limited in area and isolated by The width of the Mesozoic and Tertiary plain grabelts of woodland. and the forest country of the east forms a wide unbroken connection with that of the northern part of British Columbia. considerable connected tracts may yet be brought under cultivation. Of the area as at first defined. the which the western portion of now. drain a considerable area to the south.800 square miles. and insignificant as geological boundaries. The upper branches of the Missouri. causing some portions of the eastern edge of this prairie-level which overlook Manitoba Lake. and the valleys of the numerous small streams flowing by the Laurentian is axis. In the basin of the Peace. dually diminishes to the north. it presents frequently an excellent rainfall is sufficient parallel. but its features are yet little known. farming region. and doubtless indicating a former great lake or extension of the sea in the time immediately succeeding the glacial period. The Red River and its tributary the Assiniboine drain 70. but in the floor Winnipeg group of lakes.500 square miles. The second steppe has some elevations on its surface as high as the edge of the third plateau. or about 139. though comparatively low and diffuse. while to the south of the first named parallel the tributaries of the Mackenzie into the selves. Though thus so remarkably simple and definite in its grand features the interior region of the continent shows many irregularities in detail. the great Saskatchewan River and its tributaries drain by far the largest part. including the area of the lakes themsquare miles.000 square miles. and though prairies of very attractive cliaracter are found near the Peace Eiver.800 . The transverse water-sheds which bound the drainage area of the Saskatchewan and Red Rivers to the south and north.) higher than its eastern rim. and when the and the altitude not too great. however. the lower areas are covered superficially by fine silty deposits resembling those of the Eed River valley. portion of the Dominion eastern Taken is maybe of which the western edge as a whole. being less than 400 miles near the 56th and it is possibly completely interrupted north of the 62nd parallel The by the inosculation of the paleozoic rocks of the east and west. drain 52. more to resemble outliers than integral parts of it. three steppes of the southern plains cannot be defined in this northern region. formed by the Rocky Mountains."^ [dawson. and especially those of its tributary the Milk River. extending from the 54th to the 49th parallels. the central regarded as a great shallow trough. embracing about 22. soil. are important geogi*aphically. and that part surrounding the Assiniboine River and its tributaries is abnormally depressed.

the Cordillera belt of the west coast has an average breadth of about 400 miles. beneath the newer probably be indicated by the remarkable parallel flexui-es of the great rivers of the northern plains. the Peace few summits exceed 6. Prom the western edge of the great plains to the Pacific. so far as known. Wherever the line of junction has been closely examined. however. it may be considered throughout as a region of flexure and turmoil.000 miles only. A rocks. which are in the main nearly parallel and run in north-west and south-east bearings. the Gold. an average breadth of about sixty miles.000 feet. About the head waters of the North Saskatchewan the range appears to culminate. though this has not been accm-ately determined. may be estimated at 192. Athabasca. that a wide bay of comparatively undisturbed Cretaceous rocks may penetrate it in the region of the upper Liard Eiver.DAWSON. and other similar its general course. true glaciers appear only about the head waters of the Bow. the Eocky Mountain range has. Near the 49th parallel several summits occur with elevations exceeding 10. To the north of the 56th parallel it is very imperfectly known topographically and almost completely unexplored geologically. great faults with eastward downthrow separate the Mesozoic rocks of the dislocations occur in the heart of the range parallel to eastern foot-hills from the palaeozoic of the mountains.500 feet. the Cordillera belt may here be considered as constricted and narrow. reported by Dr. In its southern part. no crystalline schists have been found in this- . the Eocky. Between the 49th and 56th degrees of latitude the Cordillera belt is composed of four great ranges. Though much of this vast area is not absolutely treeless like its south-western part. G-eologically. as one of mountains. between the 49th and 56th parallels. The total area of prairie country between the same limits. and Mount Murchison is credited with an altitude of Near 13. With the exception of a single small area above Jasper House. which the eschelon range bordering the lower part of this stream and the Mackenzie may bound to the east. As compared with its development in the Western States. the aggregate treeclad area is quite insignificant as compared with that of the open plains. North Saskatchewan and Athabasca. though more or less extensive snow-fields occur in many places. but northward few attain this elevation till the vicinity of the Bow Eiver and Kicking Horse is reached.] 33 drain an area of about 10. the Coast and the Vancouver Mountains.000 square miles. It appears probable. may southern prolongation of such a range. the Liard. including that of all three steppes.000. which decreases near the Peace Eiver to forty miles or less. and orographically. Hector. and Saskatchewan. Peace.

the Selkirk. including gneisses and traversed by intrusive granitic masses. these passes are traversed only by rough mountain trails. . The western edge of the Eocky Mountain range is defined by a very remarkable straight and wide valley. enter lai-gely into the composition of these mountains. Parsnip and — — Findley. 6. but. Between this and the Coast Eanges. From lows : the boundary line northward.000 feet.300. with an average .210 feet Atha^ basca Pass. but north of the Cariboo district. owing to the greater rainfall species of trees are represented. 5. as a mountains are thickly wooded wherever sufficient soil exists on the western slopes. which consists in great part of Devonian and Carboniferous limestones.850 feet Peace Eiver "Valfeet Eiver Pass. gically the oldest of the ranges of this part of the Cordillera. .o4 [dawson.100 feet. It is summits exceed 8.800 feet. Crow Nest Pass.500 feet Kanaskis Pass. summit. resembling in their character isolated features of the eastern foot-hills. 6. Columbia. the principal passes are as fol- Kootanie Pass. 2. but their outlines are generally more rounded and flowing than those of the Eocky Mountains. and owing to its dense and tangled forests it is extremely difficult to penetrate and has been less explored than the others. Its width may be stated as about eighty miles. and there is ground for the belief that this is geolo- The Grold Eanges. the next mountain region. elevation unknown Yellow Head Pass. With the exception of the route selected for the Cana- dian Pacific Eailway. which name may be applied as a general one to is composed of a number of more or less clearly defined subsidiary ranges. elevation. .750 feet Western summit. about the head waters of the Peace. and. 3. 5. practicable for pack animals. Columbia and Cariboo Mountains. stretches a region which may be called the Interior Plateau of British Columbia. 5. Purcell. .700 feet Bow Eiver and Kicking Horse Pass. eastern or main summit. these Some of the valleys penetrating the range on the east are lightly timbered or in part prairie-like in character. 7. North Kootanie Pass. 5. Crystalline schists. are included in the southern part of the range.733 feet Smoky Pine Eiver Pass. the forests are there often very dense and additional for the support of trees. 2. it dies away completely. Fraser. which can be traced uninterruptedly from the 49th parallel to the head waters of the Peace a distance of 700 miles and may eventually be found to extend much further. This valley is occupied by the upper portions of several of the largest rivers. though probably again resuming in the Omenica district still further probable that of its many to the north-west. . Howse Pass. —South . ley. A few Cretaceous basins.000 feet. the Kootanie. range. rule. . .

000 feet. and on the Alaskan coast are known in several instances to descend to the sea level. but is now dissected by deep and trough-like river valleys into most of which water standing at an elevation of 3. It has over a great part of its area been covered by widespread flows of basalt and other volcanic rocks in the later Tertiary period. The average altitute of their higher peaks is between 6. Its height.000 feet above the present sea level would flow. The southern part of some good agi-icultural the plateau includes land. of which that of the Okanagan in longitude 119° 30' is the lowest.500 feet. increases to the south. it becomes generally forested. condition constitutes Vancouver and the Queen Charlotte islands. on the whole. constitutes the beat grazing ofl'ers region of British Columbia and besides though the rainfall is so deficient as to render irrigation gener- ally necessary. pretty level and uniform that but usually it is In some places the plateau is only when broadly viewed It is practically closed to the north its character is apparent. and the low country about the head waters of the Peace. These mountains are. The name. and to the north in the peninsular portion and Islands of Alaska. may be applied to the fourth great mountain axis. while some exceed 9. with an average width of one hundred miles. To the north. frequently The Coast Ranges. densely forested and extremely rugged. is continued to the south in the Olympic Mountains. Glaciers are of frequent occurrence and large size in their northern part.000 feet. the flora of their seaward slopes being that characteristic of the west coast and co-ordinated with its excessive humidity.CAWSON. formed in a similar way. about latitude 55° 30' by the ends of several intercalated mountain ranges of which some of the summits attain 8. are named the Cascade Mountains. but this term is a misleading one.484 feet. while on their northern and eastern flanks it resembles that of the inland ranges. dividing its surface into a number of . .000. in a partially submerged. Yancouver Eange. as a rule. while there is a considerable mountainous area in the centre of the island which surpasses 2. These mountains are largely composed of gneissic and granitic rocks and crystalline schists. Nearly coinciding with the 49th parallel is a second transverse mountains zone. much open country.8and mean elevation of about 3. as they are both geologically and orographically distinct from the well-known Cascade range of Washington Tei-ritory and Oregon. while northward it falls gradually towards the group of large lakes. which. The highest mountain of Vancouver Island reaches an elevation of 7. which may be considered as limiting it to the -south. though traversed by several river valleys.000 and 7.000 feet in Several summits in the Queen Charlotte Islands 4iverage altitude. islands. with increasing moistui-e.] 35 width of one hundred iniles.

The most remarkable feature of the coast are its fjords and passages which. The long river-like lakes of the interior of the Province reproduce the features of these :Qords in a smaller scale. The great height of the rugged mountain walls which border them also gives them a grandeur quite their own. and hold a homologous position to the inland ranges. while still to a considerable extent formed of crystalline rocks like those of the Coast Eange. Norway and Greenland. (unless it be the last named country).000 feet. includes notable areas of newer beds. probably surpass those of any part of the world. in dimensions and complexity. . This range. of which the most important are those of the Cretaceous coal measures.Ob [dAW80N» exceed 4. while quite analogous to those of Scotland.

though no indications of petro- leum have yet been observed south of Methy Portage. from their fossils. which.31 CHAPTEE II. The limits of the present sketch will not permit any detailed description of the Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks which characterize the entire breadth of the interior continental region from the belt of •Cambro-Silurian and Devonian limestones last noticed. equivalent to the TJtica shales. to the Hamilton and Genesee Kennicott. but appear there to pass up into the Hudson Eiver formation. is The eastern margin of the great interior continental basin com- posed of Silurian and Devonian rocks. near Winnipeg. From Methy Portage northward. it entire width of the Palaeozoic belt. which. ai-e for the most part pale grey or buff-coloured magnesian limestones. Whiteaves the horizon of the rocks at that place as that of the Galena limestones of the west. have enabled Fossils obtained at East Mi*. and these are found to characterize the Devonian rocks southward to Eed Eiver. on the Eed Eiver. tion on Prof Hind has recognized the Chazy formaLake Winnipeg. Eichardson's observations and from collections made by IVIr. and probable that the intervening form- ations will be found to be extensively developed in the Lake Winnito fix peg region as it is more fully examined. exuding from them. saturates the overlying superficial materials and gives rise to "tar springs" along the tracks of the rivers. form a belt of varying width which appears to extend from Minnesota to the shores of the Arctic Sea. it remains now merely to present in such synoptical form as may serve to explain the accompanying map. while in Manitoba and Winnepegosis Lakes it is Devonian rocks occur. These rocks. however. Salt springs also occur. The Cambro-Silurian and Devonian rocks of the Eed Eiver and Winnipeg Lake region. The main geological features of the central and western portion of the Dominion having already been alluded to in connection with its physical structure. Similar beds are found in Stony Mountain. GEOLOGY. formations. resting almost horizontally on the upturned edges of the Laurentian and Huronian. to the eastern edge of the Cordillera belt. would appear that Devonian rocks constitute almost the They appear on the Clearwater and Athabasca Elvers as bituminous limestones and shales. which are referred by Meek. correspond in their . In this region these rocks yield large quantities of petroleum. Selkirk. a sys- tematic outline of its component formations. according to Sir J.

and they are pretty exten- occur. &c. locality in the eastern portion of the region where it is supposed ta Shales.— Yellowish. occur at the base of the section in the vicinity of the Upper Milk Eiver. and have again been recognized on Swan Eiver. Fox Hill Beds. and 20O with some 1. and arenaceous clays.— Calcareous marls. reddish and whitish sandstones and clay. Marine shells. foot-hill where they have been called the come to the surface in the disturbed the base of the Eocky Mountains. the Cretaceous owing to the mantle of North of the 49th — present known— are — glacial deposits. and may be characterized in a few words. though it is probable that the Belly Eiver and Dunvegan series^ subsequently referred to. No. largely calcareous and marly. Marine Shells 500 Group. Meek and is Hayden on the Missouri in the corresponding portion of the Western States. the beds being. Meek and Hayden. probably of this age. Further west no beds have been distinctly recognised as referable to the Niobrara. limestone. west of Manitoba Lake. Fort Pierre 3. The following is Messrs. Fort Benton Group. No. west of the Eed Eiver Yalley. with the interven-^ ing Cretaceo-Tertiary Laramie series. . Marine some fresh-water spermous leaves shells and angio- 400 Dakota group. They are also probably shown on the Assiniboine. the Systems represented so far as at the Cretaceous and Tertiary. They also . 700 Niobrara Group. In the eastern portion of the region. Marine shells. are nearly on this horizon.— D&r'k-gr&y and bluish plastic clays. to the uniformity of the great plains which they underlie. 4. and homogeneous general character. No. No. fish remains. with occasional lignites. but this is the only or Of the lowest cognised in our region. sively developed on the Peace Eiver. —Grey. . —Dark-grey laminated clays. Meek and Hayden's general section^ the series being arranged in descending order No. occur in the escarpment of Pembio a Mountain. John group. studied by Messrs. gypsum and fish remains. on the Boyne Eiver. : FBETT. country at Beds of the age of the Niobrara or third division of the Cretaceous of Messrs. no rocks have yet been clearly reThe Benton group is stated by Prof Hind to occur on the Saskatchewan near Port h la Corne. Fort St. foraminifera. Laramie and Miocene. but appears to resemble very closely the strata of the same age. and repeatingto some extent the character of the chalk of the old world. 2. Marine shells 800 Dakota Group. 5. Their character in these places closely coriesponds with that found in the typical section above referred to. ferruginous and yellowish sandstones . generally poorly exposed.— "" [dawson^ widespread. parallel.

howdevelopment of the formation on the as the Fort Missouri which has long been known Union series. and in some places arenaceous layers also appear and are genei-ally found to become more important in approaching the mountains.DAWSON. and form in many places a series of passage beds between the Cretaceous and the overlying Laramie formation. fuel is and its importance in connection with the The most eastern locality of these beds supply of the country. Overlying the Cretaceous proper in perfect conformity is a great series of estuarine and fresh-water beds which may collectively be referred to the Laramie formation. On the accompanying map this formation is indicated by a separate colour. in some beds. ever. on the 49 th parallel. Further west the typical Laramie covers a vast area and becomes a distinctly estuarine formation at the base. where it has been siib-divided into three groups which are enumerated in tabular form on a subsequent page. largely particularly in the vicinity of the mountains. its characteristic dark shales or shaly-clays underlying a great part of the prairie country. because of its lithological difference from the underlying Cretaceous. The ably uniform and beds are occasionally found in however. On the Souris Eiver they are largely developed. are closely related to the Pierre. Laramie The rocks are chiefly pebble-beds. moUuscan and vegetable fossils which they contain. where area of Miocene Tertiary rocks was discovered in 1883 in it overlies Cretaceous and possibly. This formation has a thickness of several thousand feet in the country about the Bow and Belly Elvers. "When most characteristically developed they consist of sandstone and yellowish sandy shales. The western Laramie. group given rise to so much discussion as that of the Cretaceous or Eocene age of these beds. It is one which depends almost entirely on the apparently conflicting evidence of the vertebrate.] d9 The Pierre or next overlying group is in point of extent the most important of the sub-divisions of the Cretaceous in the North-West. Turtle Mountain. and on the Souris hold ironstone and many seams of lignite of fair quality. The shales frequently contain ironstone nodules. or conglome- . of pale colours. the ibssiliferous. the Cypress Hills. is composed of sandstones which are frequently quite hard. The rocks are generally soft sandy clays and sandstones. and constitute the superficial formation of the whole country. on the whole remarkit which are highly The highest beds of the Cretaceous system proper. Fox Hill. its influence as a cause of plateaus and other features.connection between this and that of the Souris beds yet remains to be clearly established. and one which cannot here be entered into. and 4he. No question in western geology has lithological character of this is. A small places. an extension of that special The Laramie of this region is. where they form an extensive Outlier.

Belly River group. Wapiti River group. is a second series of dai*k shales which may probably represent the Benton group of the Missouri sections. Below these. so far as they are at present known: Missouri Section. The subjoined table shows more clearly the relations of the Creta- ceous and Laramie beds. District ov Bow and Peace River District- Meek and Hayden. Laramie and Fort Union. Belly Rivers. Benton group. the Pierre underlaid by an extensive fresh-and-brackish-water series. the lower generally darker and yellowish or brownish. Fox Hill (inconstant). and appears to correspond precisely to that occupying a similar stratigraphical position on the Peace Eiver. . This has been called the Belly Eiver series.2i Porcupine Hill beds. These indicate the exist- ence of a prolonged interval in the western Cretaceous area. Niobrara group. and have yielded a few vertebrate remains which seem Eocky Mountains. consisting of sandy argillitee and sandstones. John group. Benton group? Fort St. region of the Bow or Belly Rivers. Pierre group. Dunvegan group. beds. both in the region of the Bow and Belly and on the Peace Elvers. It has already been stated that the Cretaceous rocks of the extreme In the west differ from those of the typical section first is quoted. Pierre group. Mary River beds. during which the sea was more or less excluded from the region. sufficient to fix the age of the formation. composed of coarse rolled shingle which has had its origin in the These are associated with soft sandstones and sandy clays. Dakota group. the upper portion is characteristically pale in tint. and there designated the Dunvegan series. or affected . and its place occupied for long periods by lagoons or fresh-water lakes. Smoky River group. The Cretaceous and Laramie beds of the whole eastern portion of the interior Continental region are almost absolutely horizontal. 1 Willow Creek St.— 40 rates [dawson. ^ Fox Hill beds.

Hector. have actually been converted into an anthrasion of the which contains 86 per cent. by such slight inclinations The beds of both series Eocky Mountains. participated in the western uplift of this part of the Centinent. it will be most convenient to outline that of each of its great component regions. which rest upon these in a comparatively cite disturbed or altered state. in the Bow Pass. Further west the Cretaceous also becomes a coal-bearing formation. is that of the fuel supply. and in one of these the anthracite of Cascade Eiver. and in the vicinity of the Bow and Belly important lignites or coals have now been found in the Belly Eiver series (Medicine Hat. etc. and in one instance. and are found at ever tions. and eventually. In the eastern region. but very In generally elevated in block-like and nearly horizontal masses.) : base of the Pierre (Coal Banks.) : top of the Pierre (Bow Eiver) and in the lower subdivi- Laramie (Blackfoot Crossing. Eichardson. of fixed carbon. Near the base of the range they are also found to show more pronounced undulations.). The most important question depending on the study of the Cretaceous and Laramie rocks of the North-West. . to confined the ranges is of British America our geological knowledge little the observations of its its extreme northern part by Sir J. district etc. and in a narrow belt along the foot of the mountains are increasing levels on approaching the sharply folded and contorted. of southern jjortion by Dr. but on approaching the mountains these are found to contain a decreasing percentage of water. Tertiary of the entire belt. in the foot-hills and areas included within the first limestone range frequently become true coking bituminous coals. In treating of the rock structure of the Cordillera belt. In the Eocky Mountains we have the broken western margin of the undisturbed paleozoic strata which underlie the great plains. however. a traverse on the Peace Eiver by Dr. etc. as above stated. lignites of fair quality and workable thickness occur in the Laramie rocks of the Souris district. The fuels found in the area of the plains may be characterized generally as lignites. Selwyn and the observations of the winter in the last named locality and in the region between the Bow Eiver Pass and the 49th parallel.OAWSON.] 41 that no dip is observable in individual sechave. In the Peace Eiver seams which may prove to be of a workable character have been found only in the Dunvegan series. but have so far not been found in the underlying Cretaceous. may then be considered. The Cretaceous and in so far as the older formations are concerned. occurs. Isolated areas of these newer rocks have also been found in the Eocky Mountains themselves. These are here sometimes sharply flexed and lying at high angles. The precise horizon of many of the lignites and coals of the western part of the plains and foot-hills has not yet been fixed.

Limestone. Fawn-colored. but including some thin greyish beds.42 [dawson. by a predominent red colour. but weathering bright brown of various shades 700 feet or more. Beds characterized feet. the last series A. feet. and chiefly red sandstone. flaggy beds of magnesian sand- stone and limestone. often somewhat magnesian and weathering brownish. This may therefore be briefly referred to and some reference then made to such points of difference as occur between it and those in the north-western continuaThe total thickness of the beds here seen. It includes at coarse magnesian grit like that found in and highly magneand weathering least one band of 200 feet. Amygdaloidal trap. and the colour and texture of approximate beds often rapidly alternating. and magnesian sandstone.500 Q^) section being as follows in descending order : feet. and separ200 ated from it only by the trap overflow E.000 feet or more. The most complete section so far examined is that in the vicinity of the South Kootanie Pass and Waterton Lake. F. In this series occurs a band of bright-red rocks of inconstant thickness. Apparently a continuation upward of the limestone D. Fawn-coloured. or of that tion of the range.. part of them which was measured or estimated. dark purplish and grey. white. also occasional 2. Some red sandstones occur throughout. cherty sian. flaggy beds. zones of coarse magnesian grit B. 300 feet. quartzites tints. Compact bluish and grey limestone. p. The whole generally thin-bedded though sometimes rather massive . the — H. 67. but are especially abundant toward the top. is about 4. but chiefly reddish and greenish-grey. Sandstones. dark coloured and hard 50 to 100 feet. chiefly composed of 100 magnesian sandstones and limestones G.. 49th parallel. . Impure dolomites and fine dolomitic quartzites. This forms some of the boldest crags and peaks of the mountains. The individual beds seldom of great thickness. Geology and Resources.000 feet C. hard. pale-grey. much altered. D... and rests unconformably on series C and slaty rocks of various 1.

] 43 section the subdivisions G and H. and cross the Misinchinca with series of rocks. associated with sacchaOn the west side these were believed to underlie a roidal quartzites. would appear to be inconstant. long trough east of the Parsnip river. with Monotis. From elsewhere found they are Carboniferous. and from analogy with beds described in the Western States since this section was first published. The trap E is evidentlj' a contemporaneous flow. but they are dark shales and sandstones quite different in character. and hold marine fossils of the age of the Alpine Trias of the "Western inland sea. ripple-marks and prints of salt crystals precisely resembling those of the Trias and indicating similar conditions of deposit. being .600 feet. The Triassic shales. as on the Crow Nest Lake. north in the range than the North Kootanie Pass. though subdivision F it. considerable width. and the subdivisions worked out in the neighbourhood of Waterton Lake. D. known to be Devonian or DevonoThey must vary much in thickness.. In some places. its lithological character is found to be very varied. The unconformably underlying divisions C. In the Peace Eiver district. The States. west of the Flathead Eiver. the red beds included with these are characterized by sun-cracks. or but These beds have not been found further lightly covered by water. may represent and apjDear fossils massive limestones. occasionally becomes micaceous schists and which series of argillites These are known to occupy a slates. may now fossils be provisionally classed as Cambrian.DAWSON. B. Of the foregoing sent the Trias or Jura-Trias occurrence of mud-cracks. and A. on the evidence of a few found in the Columbia valley. ' ' The Permian is not certainly known. doubtless reprewhich with similar lithological characters is very extensively developed in the Eocky Mountain region further The conditions indicated are those of an inland lake. Contemporaneous flows of diorite or diabase are also found at some horizons. and has not been found further north than the Triassic beds. on the 55th and 56th parallel. and the south. and in tracing this which must in the aggregate be of great thickness^ from point to point in the range. and also includes quartzites. are the most characteristic beds of this range to be persistentl}^ so throughout its whole extent. the axial mountains of the range are composed of massive limestones of Devonian and probably also of Carboniferous age. they have a volume of 9. &c. though of vastly greater antiquity. and the impressions of crystals salt show that considerable surfaces were at times dry. forty miles to the north-west. ripple-marks. and it would appear probable that this is about the ancient limit of the Triassic About the Peace Eiver.. Triassic beds have been found. though it is quite possible that Silurian beds may also be included.

has been estimated at about 32. and may be said as a whole to consist of massive limestone and compact or varied in lithological character. It is in beds of considerable thickness. while is therefore probably in large part composed of rocks of this period.300 feet. is reason to suppose that a portion at least are The district coloured as A]-cha3an on the accompanying map. from the 49th to the 53rd parallel. or axis. including gneiss. as shown on the map. west of McLeod Lake. and together with the quartzites. They diorites or diabases. felspathic rocks product of olivine rocks. They have now been traced. and and is of interest as being of a period so recent as the Carboniferous. by the occurrence of areas of much determined. which may represent those folded with the Gold Range series. From the knowledge now gained of the Cambrian in the southern part of the mountains it is not imjDrobable that they may As eventually be relegated to this systems. next to the west. greatest force on the south-western side of the ai'ea they occupy. shaly quartzites. in character much more heterogeneous The Carboniferous rocks of the interior plateau region are very They belong for the most part to the upper and lower Cache Creek groups of the original classification. The last named material occurs in association with the contemporaneous volcanic materials. These are complicated.44 [dawson. but there Ti'iassic. developed on the eastern slopes of the range at this place. and doubtless represents the alteration also include. An isolated area of gneissic rocks doubtless belonging to a contraction of the main axis. The thickness of the crystalline rocks displayed on Shuswap Lake. also occur. however. occurs at Carp Lake. Schistose or shaly argillite rocks. than can be indicated with our present information. it was supposed that the beds above alluded to might represent them in a more altered state. and some serpentines. is largely composed of highly and intrusions of a granitic char- acter are abundant. the geological structure of the Gold Eanges. and a portion of these probably belongs to the overlying Triassic or Jurassic division. where they have been altered rocks resembling those of the interior plateau region. its Cambrian rocks like those Eocky Mountains while its characterize eastern portion near the 49th western portion crystalline rocks. before observed. Among these is a series of dark slates or schists which are the auriferous rocks in the Cariboo district and elsewhere. The limestones are not unfrequently converted to coarse-grained marbles. maintaining their character pretty uniformly throughout. a great proportion of and agglomerates. The age of these has not been observed. . known. is little second mountain of the parallel. appear in wide-sjjread.

in the present state of our knowledge. which has 1871. but are apparently not prominent in the section. to belong to a horizon between the base of the Devonian and summit of the Permian additional fossils have since been procured. These consist of limestones. and consist chiefly of felspathic rocks and diorites. a few miles above The older rocks of the Coast and Vancouver Island ranges may. A by fossils collected . now been While it is found in several localities scattered over a wide area. in by Dr. or even Cambrian rocks may yet be identified in the interior is as yet no proof that any of a date earlier than the Carboniferous occur.che seen on the South Thompson. Richardson described a section across the centre of Vancouver Island. there In the southern j)ortion at least of the Interior Plateau region. Fossils are found abundantly in some of the limestones. but as yet undefined These are largely of volcanic origin and have been designated the Nicola series.DAWSON. not here necessary to detail. there exist besides the Palaeozoic rocks above described. C3. Silurian or plateau. the latter less decomposed. and the association of the other beds with the fossiliferous limestones is such as to show that a great part of them must be approximately of this age. Survey of Canada. pp. amygdaloidal and slaty volcanic rocks of contemporaneous " diorites" in the report cited. colour. as being the best known. of which the most characteristic is the peculiarly Carboniferous foraminifer FusuUna. The distinctly unconformable junction of this series with the is Creek rocks Kamloops. those of described. but These are classed generally as admit of separation into several difArgillites ferent species of igneous rocks. also occur. the followportion at least of these rocks was. therefore quite possible that distinctively Devonian. ihterbedded with compact origin. 52-56. generally crystalline. first J. but varying in texture and Vancouver Island being In 1872 the late Mr. forming the so-called upper and lower Cache Creek groups.] ^5 In regard to the evidence of the age of the great mass of these rocks. 1872-73. and hold towards the base beds of grey sub-crystalline limestone intermingled in some places with plish more or volcanic material and containing occasional layers of water-round detritus. They have generally a characteristically green colour. These rocks are in some cases quite evidently amygdaloidal or fragmental. shown. and in addition to the probably in part Triassic argillites extensive. Selwyn. . ing points may be stated. be treated of together. and though invariably * Report of Progress. Geol. but are occasionally puroften areas of Triassic rocks of another character.* comprising a great thickness of beds which have been closely folded together and overturned.

46
in a poor state of preservation, the late Mr. Billings
tinguish, besides crinoidal remains, a
Zaphrentis, a

[dawson.

was

able to dis-

Diphiphyllum, a

Productus, and a Spirifer, and pronounced the beds to be probably Car-

boniferous in age.

unconformably underlying the many additional localities on Vancouver Island, and, while no palseontological facts have been obtained to prove that they are older than those of the section above

Rocks belonging

to the older series,

Cretaceous, have

now

been examined in

described,

much

circumstantial evidence has been collected to

show

that rocks
section,

even much more highly

crystalline than those of the above

and which, judged by standards locally adopted in Eastern America, would be supposed to be of great antiquity, represent approximately, at least the

same horizon.

At the

south-eastern extremity of the island, in the vicinity of Vic-

toria, a series of

rocks occurs which was placed by Mr. Selwyn, in his

provisional classification of the rocks of British Columbia, under the

of the Vancouver Island and Cascade Crystalline Series."* Dr. Selwyn, in speaking of these, remarks on their lithological similarity to
title

the Huronian rocks, or those of the altered Quebec group of Eastern Canada. A somewhat detailed examination of this series has since

been made, and shows
felspathic materials,

it

to be built

which

in places

up in great part of dioritic and become well characterized mica-

schists, or even gneisses, while still elsewhere distinctly maintaining the character of volcanic ash-beds and agglomerates. With these are interbeded limestones, and occasionally ordinary blackish argillites.

No more

certain palreontological evidence of the age of these beds than

that afforded

by some large crinoidal columns which occur in the lime-

stones has yet been obtained. These, however, suffice to show that they cannot be referred to a pre-Silurian date, and it is highly probable

that they are actually a

more

altered portion of the series represented

from which their greatest point of difference is found in the smaller proportionate importance of limestones. They occur in the continuation of the same axis of elevation at no very great distance, and the greater disturbance which they have suffered
in the first described section,

would serve

to account for the higher degree of alteration in materials

so susceptible of crystallization as those of volcanic origin. Elsewhere, in the vicinity of Vancouver Island, rocks holding fossils,

and formed in part of volcanic mateand on Texada Island beds probably of the same age are found, consisting of interstratified limestone or marble, magnetic iron ore, epidotic rock, diorite and serpentine.

which seem
occur

to be Carboniferous,

rials,

;

* Report of Progress, Geol. Survey of

Canada,

1871-2, p. 52.

DAWSON.]-

47

Queen Charlotte

axis, to the find the rocks there underlying the Cretaceous Coal series to present, in the main, features not dissimilar to

Passing northwestward, along the same mountainous
Islands,

we

those of Vancouver Island. Massive limestones, generally fine-grained grey, and often cherty, are folded together with felspathic and dioritic
rocks, sometimes so much altered as to have lost the evidence as to whether they were originally fragmental or molten. In other places they are still well-marked rough agglomerates, or amygdaloids.

No

characteristic fossils have been obtained li-om these rocks but

at the

summit of

this part of the series,
its

limestone which apparently forms

and adhering closely to a upper member, occurs a great

thickness of regularly-bedded blackish calcareous argillite, generally quite hard and much fractured, but holding numerous well-preserved
fossils,

the so-called "Alpine Trias

including Monotis subcircularis and other characteristic forms of " of California and the 40th parallel region,

which represents the HoUstadt and St. Cassian beds of Europe. The resemblance of the lower unfossiiiferous rocks first desci'ibed to the probably Carboniferous beds of Vancouver, leads to the belief that these may also be of the same age, while any slight unconformity between
these and the Triassic
disturbance.

may

be masked by subsequent folding and

In the extreme northwestern part of Vancouver Island Triassic rocks Queen Charlotte Islands occupy extensive but yet undefined areas, while the slaty auriferous rocks of Leach Eiver, near Viclike those of the
toria,

may

also represent the Triassic argillites in a

more altered

state.*

As already mentioned, Dr. Selwyn,
described, and those

in his provisional classification,

Vancouver Island, above which form the greater part of the Cascade or Coast Eanges. The progress in the investigation of the country seems to favor the correctness of this view, and to show a blending and interunites under one title the older rocks of

locking of such characters of difierence as the typical or originally examined localities of the two series present. Tracing the rocks east-

ward from the shores of Vancouver Island, we find them becoming more disturbed and altered, the limestones always in the condition of
marbles, and seldom or never showing organic traces, the other rocks represented chiefly by grey or green diorites, gneisses generally hornblendic

— and various

species of felspathic rocks, such as

may

well be

supposed to have resulted from the more complete crystallization of the volcanic members of the series. Eecurring in a number of places, and folded with these rocks, is a zone of micaceous schists or argillites. The rocks classed as the Anderson Eiver and Boston Bar seriesf in
*
t

Reports of Progress, Geol. Survey of Canada, 1878-79,

p. 46

B

;

1876-77, p. 95.

Reports of Progress, Geol. Survey of Canada, 1871-72,

p. 62.


48
[dawson»

the provisional classification represent one fold of these schists, which may be supposed to be more or less exactly equivalent to the Triassic
flaggy argillites of the
first

mountain

axis.

The Coast range
it,

constitutes an uplift on a

much

greater scale than
to the southwest

that of Vancouver and the

Queen Charlotte Islands

of

a circumstance which appears to have resulted in a more complete crystallization of its sftrata, and has also led to the inti-oduction of

These may in many places represent portions of the strata which have undergone incipient or complete fusion, in place. There is every evidence that in the Appalachian-like folding of this region the same rocks are many times
great masses of hornblendic granite.
repeated.

East of the lower part of the Fraser Eiver, the folds have been completely overturned to the eastward.

These rocks of the Coast Eange have with other features of the country a great extension in a north-east and south-east bearings
stretching, with an average width of 100 miles at least,
parallel to Alaska, a distance of 500 or 600 miles.

from the 49th
relations

The exact

of the rocks of the Coast

Eange

to those of the Interior Plateau yet

remain

to be determined, but there is reason to believe that the latter are represented, in a highly metamorphosed state, quite extensively in this range. Older rocks may also probably occur locally, but no-

extensive areas of gneissic rocks lithologically resembling those of the Gold Eanges have been found.

Lying everywhere quite unconformably upon the older beds so far described are the Cretaceous rocks, which constitute on the coast the true Coal-bearing horizon of British Columbia. These rocks probably at one time spread much more widely along the coast than they now
have since been folded and disturbed during the continuation of the process of mountain elevation, and have been much reduced by denudation. Their most important area, including the coal-mining
do, but

regions of
length.

Nanaimo and Comox, may be described as forming a narrow trough along the north-east border of Vancouver Island, 136 miles in
The rocks are sandstones, conglomerates and shales. They hold abundance of fossil plants and marine shells in some places, and in appearance and degree of induration much resemble the true Carboniferous rocks of some parts of Eastern America. In the Nanaimo area the formation has been divided by Mr. J. Eichardson as follows,.
in descending order
:

Sandstones, conglomerates and shales Shales

3290 660
1316

feet.

" "

Productive Coal-measures

5266

"

constituting a total thickness of 4911 feet. from beds holding ahgulax* . In addition to the main area of Cretaceous rocks above described. " 13. The with fuel obtained from these measures is a true hituminous coal. a matter of great economic importance to the Pacific coast. It is admirably suited for most ordinary purposes. the order being. some of which Skidegate they hold true anthracite coal. besides being a cir- cumstance of considerable geological interest. Upper shales and sandstones B. chiefly to San Francisco. At ent parts of Vancouver Island. of water. 2000 " " " Lower shales with Lower sandstones coal and clay ironstone 5000 3500 1000 D.000 tons. 1500 feet. of ash its superior quality.000 feet. Avhere. which varies in texture. The agglomerates represent an important 4 intercalation of volcanic material. there are numerous smallei' ]iatches. which. near Cumshewa and Skidegate Inlets. and is lai-gely exported. and holds valuable coal-seams near base. " " " Lower conglomerate Lower shales Productive Coal-measures 900 1000 739 " " " 4911 feet. where these rocks are most typically develojied. Cretaceous rocks cover a considerable area on the east coast. the rocks in their general appearance and degree of induration compare closely with those of Vancouver Island. In the Comox area seven well-marked subdivisions occur. and 3-early increasing.000 feet. At Skidegate. an average of and lA^ per cent. would become. it competes successfully with coals from the west coast of the United States. Harrington — 629 per cent. With the exception of the agglomerates. The total thickness is thus estimated at about 13. Coarse conglomerates C. descending : A. if a really workable bed could be proved. in differ- may yet prove important. In the Queen Charlotte Islands. is The output of 1883 amounted to 213. as before. owing to — according to the analysis of Dr. notwithstanding a heavy duty. Agglomerates E. Upper conglomerate Upper shales Middle conglomerate Middle shales 320 776 1100 76 feet. they admit of subdivision as follows. holding more or less coal.49 The last named consists of sandstones its and shales.

which is conclusively shown to represent the Chico grouj) of the Californian geologists. it is posThe flora of the Vancouver Cretasible thas it may be equally young. are generally felspathic. 1871-72. Hector's report in PalRerorts of liser's Exploration in North America. opened nearly vertical. 94. the Tejon gi'oup. Large collections made by Mr.. p. like those of Vancouver Island. p. 1872-73. however.. xvii. vol. . see Dr. and gymnospermous angiospermous ceous consists largely of modern genera. 72 B. Whiteaves. . is considered to be equivalent to the Lower and Upper Chalk of Europe. and appears at the junction These beds to blend completely with the next overlying subdivision.—also pp. It disturbed region that the anthracite coal has been found. Richardson's complete report on the Nanaimo and Comox Basins. 428. and fresh-water condi- It was where tions are not known to have recurred at other horizons. but become more disturbed as they approach the mountainous axis of the Islands. and Quart. 32 82: 1876-77. 75. have been described by Mr. Platanus. it has. Soc. by beds charged with marine fossils. p. such as Quereus. 160 the last reference being Mr. a detailed report on Queen Charlotte Islands by the writer. p. Popuhis and Sequoia : several of the genera and a few of the species being common to it and to the Dakota group of the Middle Cretaceous of the interioi. the most complete information has been obtained for the Nanaimo and Comox basins. in ascend- ing order. and in the absence of from the upper portion of the Vancouver Island formation.J These fossils are all from the lower portion of the formation. p. 1878-79.region of the continent. with the locally developed Martinez group. Eichardson. still appears worthy of further and closer examination. p. but is succeeded. now been shown* that this appearance is due to the folding of a single seam which immediately overlies the agglomerate beds of subdivision D. lie At the eastern margin of the formation the rocks at low angles. 1878-79. and often more or less distinctly porphyritic. 1874-75. In regard to the geological horizon of the different Cretaceous areas above described. J. 63b. F. I believe. which. p. For further informaiinn on the Cretaceous rocks of the coast. fossils supposed to represent the Maestricht. Journ. and after about 800 tons of anthi-acite had been obtained the mine was abandoned the locality.f 50 masses a yard in diameter. Geological Suvrvey of Canada. The highest subdivision of the is Californian Cretaceous. The coal is associated with caris in this bonaceous shales holding a species of U^iio. part ii. in connection with the work of the Geological Survey. Geol. Though it was originally supposed that the anthracite occurred in several beds. 1873-74. • t Report of Progress. showing eventually in some cases overturned dips. vol- i. . 119 and 144. Geological Survey of Canada. p. Progress. to fine ash rocks. : X Mesozoic Fossils. and from the condition of included woody fragments in the eastern portion of the area it is probable that any coal seams discovered there would be bituminous.

near the 51st parallel. without comprising the entire thickness of the foimation. Eichardson's collections made during a ishmds in 18*72.* There are few cases of specific identity between the forms in the ous. The age of these rocks was not known at this time. and brings the rocks into close relations with the Aucella beds of the mainland of British Columbia. Whiteaves. i. J. These consist chiefly of well-characterized specimens of viMceZ^a Piochii. p.f zites. F. Vol. and in Mr. Whiteaves' opinion probably indicate an " Upper Neocomian " age. have also jnetded a few fossils. On the Iltasyouce Eiver. the nites most characteristic forms being Aucella Piochii and Belem- The i-ocks are generallj^ hard sandstones or quartwith occasional argillites. developed most characteristically along the northeastern border of the coast range. on the west coast of Vancouver Island. as the Jackass locality in since been discovered in the locality above mentioned. is a massive series of rocks first referred to by Dr. parts i and ii. but fossils have in him 1871. A measured section on the Skagit Biver includes over 4. At the last-named place these beds are found to rest on a series of felspathic rocks. also indicate a greater age than those of Vancouver. on the Fraser River. iVom the Queen Charlotte Islands have also been described and figured visit to the fi-oni Mr. and in several others. from the name of the which they are best displayed on the main waggon-road. Soc Canada.51 The botanical evidence.000 feet. and often moi-e or less distinctlj' por]jh3"ritic. previously described.000 feet of rocks. Selwyn. evidently volcanic in origin. See on this and other older Cretaceous rocks. Additional collections made by the writer in 1878 have since considerably increased the fauna. Trans. The coal-bearng beds at Quatsino Sound. Vancouver Cretaceand those of the Queen Charlotte Islands. section iv. 81. embracing numerous coniferous trees and a species of Cycad. Roy. and in similar relation to the * t Mesozoic Fossils.400 feet. the formation is represented b}" nearly 5. the latter representing a lower stage in the Cretaceous formation. 1882. while yet imperfect. and very thick beds of coarse conglomerate. does not fall short of 7. which in British Columbia can now be readily distinguished by their fossils. which occurs but sparingly in the Queen Charlotte Islands. while on Tatlayoco Lake it probably impressus. The rocks of the Queen Charlotte Islands and Quatsino may therefore be taken together as representating the upper and lower portions of the so-called Shasta group of California. in the provisional classification adopted by Mountain group. . Behind Boston Bar. On the mainland. in contradiction to that afforded A number of fossils is therefore by no means by the animals and the stratigraphy. The plants found in these rocks.

across the International boundary formed by the 49th parallel. and there is no inducement to explore The Tei-tiary rocks do not form any wide or continuous is belt on the coast of British Columbia. but this part of the country is at present it. have been found in connection * Report of Progress. About the estuary of the Fi-aser the Tertiary beds are much covered hy drift and alluvial deposits. must be very Lower Nechacco and. in the form of sandstones.000 feet. Mr. very difficult of access. Sections of the Tertiary rocks at Bellingham Bay are given in Dr. to represent the porphyritic formation of the vicinity of Tatlayoco Lake. and fossils found in it have been described as Jurassic. at the southern extremity of Vancouver's Island. Its thickness and has been roughly estimated at one locality at 10. Lignite beds were extensively worked here some years ago. Besides these volcanic rocks. but the mine has been abandoned owing to the superior quality of the fuels now obtained from Nanaimo and Seattle. however. as the explorations of have shown. Thej^ careous sandstones of the 18*79 . be found to contain valuable coal-seams. has also been found. on lithological grounds. but spreads more widely eastward. 84 B. and shales. and are consequently not well known. From analogy since developed with the Queen Charlotte Island fauna. 1878-9. Still further north the Cretaceous formation is not confined to the vicinity of the Coast Eange. and often porphyritic. occupying a great extent of country on the 55th parallel about the upper part of the Skeena and Babine Lake. and even true coals. there tively soft sandstones however. * Tertiary rocks also probably occupy a considerable area about the mouth of the Fraser Eiver. an extensive formation characterized by rocks of volcanic origin. The and have a general north-west and south-east strike. here include felspathic rocks of volcanic origin similar to those of the Iltasyouco. conglomerates. Hector's official report. Whiteaves now believes that the Iltasj^ouco beds are also Cretaceous. p. to Bellingham Bay and beyond. which are sometimes carbonaceous. Lignites. Survey of Canada. . and probably form the lower portion the group. They are found near Sooke. Thin seams of lignite occur at Burrai'd Inlet. extending southward from Burrard Inlet. which are most abundant on the eastern flanks of the is. being in all probability represented by the argillites and felspathic and calgreat. It has been supposed. a great thickness of comj)ara- and argillites. as the case farther south. Geol. from the general palneontological identity of the rocks of the interior with the older of those of the coast. Coast Eange. with beds of impure coal. It is not impossible.52 Coast Range. that the Skeena region may eventually strata are arranged in a series of folds more or less abrupt.

basalts. * Much farther north. including trachytic rocks. p.. See also American Journal of Science and Arts. These were afterwards reported on by Newberry. 190. Geol. The prominent locks are of volcanic origin. They have not. Tertiary rocks are veiy however. xxviii. beds with numerous marine occur. and hai-d clays with lignites. Annals Lyceum of Natural History of N. and these are supposed to indicate a Miocene age for the deposits. and vol. and in one locality obsidian. p. Fossil plants from Burrard Inlet and Bellingham Bay have been described by Newberry and Lesquereux. The lower beds are sand. of the region described as the interior plateau. April 1868. scanty. exploring expedition. 1869. are ordinary sedimentary deposits. repre- sent shells found in the later Tertiary deposits of California. consisting of sandstones Or shales. 1876-77. Survey of Canada. and the assemblage not such as to indicate any marked difference of (ilimate from that obtaining. History. and by comparison with other parts of the west they should be called ]\Iiocene. * t Report of Progress. and appear to have been formed in an extensive lake. but so far in beds too thin to be of value. . Y. p.. vol.. 4. 2nd series. more recent it Tertiary. appears probable coast. which may at one time have submerged nearly the entire area To the east of the Coast or Cascade extensively developed. vii. and though from this. f now The Tertiary rocks of the coast are not anywhere much disturbed or altered. which produce a flat or gently undulating country. but seen in a few places onlj'. At a single locality on fossils the north end of G-raham Island..53 with them. ix. No. plants In the geology of the U. yielded any marine fossils. Report on the Yellowstone and Niusain expedition. Below these. or series of lakes. These. the preservation of such an area of Graham Island being due to the protective capping of volThe beds belong evidently the palseontological evidence to the is canic rocks. in so far as they admit of specific determination. The Tertiary lake or lakes may not improbably have been produced by the interruption of the drainage of the region by a renewed elevation of the coast mountains proceeding in advance of the power of the rivers of the period to lower their beds the movement culminating in a profound disturbance leading to a very extensive volcanic action. dolerites. and it is probable that they much more widely. vol. The relative level of sea and land must have been nearly as at present originally spread as that when they were formed. vol. the whole north- eastern portion of Graham Island has now been shown to be underlaid by Tertiary rocks. and some of which are is still living on the north-west coast. Boston Journal of Natural xxvii. 166 p. 359. Dana describes some Tertiary from Birch Bay.. Numerous examples of fragmental volcanic rocks are also found. 85. S. in the Queen Charlotte Islands. that Eange. markedly different from that found on most parts of the coast. Prof.

ance is and appeardue to unlike conditions of deposition and greater subsequent it is no direct presumed that palseontologicsl evidence of this has been their different composition disturbance. broken only here and there by valleys of denudation and acidic rocks are seldom met with except in the immediate vicinity of the ancient volcanic vents. the lower sedimentary rocks appear to be somewhat extensively developed without the oversoil places to rest on true " underclays. and the disturbed basalts of the north are. insects. These sedimentary beds rest generall}'^ on a very irregular surface. except where darkened by carbonaceous matter. and in some even true bituminous coal occurs. The southern part of the interior plateau is more irregular and mounThe Tertiary rocks here cover less extensive areas. Nicola — — are found dipping at an average angle of about thirty degi tufas. as obtained. while in others —as . They have been subjected to a preliminary examination by . and sometimes over wide districts as on the tainous. dolerites. In the northern jjortion of the interior the upper volcanic part of the Tertiary covers great areas. The plants have been collected at a number of localities. or at least not extensively or sharply folded. It with trachytes. for the most part. and show much clay and sand interlaminated with the coaly matter. replaced by agglomerates and thic rocks. and other felspaof may indeed be questioned whether the character these rocks does not indicate that they are of earlier date than those to the north." representing the vegetation producing — them has grown. and I have even heard a tradition of the Indians of the Nasse Eiver which relates that. at some time ver}^ remote in their histor}". clays. but. and is usually in beds nearly horizontal. ees. the last being the only indication of the vertebrate fauna of the period. coal. an eruption covering a wide tract of country with lava was witnessed. The little volcanic materials are occasionally of great thickness. generally pale-greyish or yellowish in colour. and are much more disturbed. and consequently vary much in thickness and character in diHerent parts of the extensive region over which they occur. They frequently hold lignite. lying volcanic materials. and a few fresh-water molluscs and fish scales. and shales. and on the Parsnip Eiver. The organic remains so far obtained from these Tertiary rocks of the interior consist of plants. The lignites appear in some on which the at Quesnel they seem to be composed of drift-wood. though I believe that farther to the north-west the rocks are of j^et more recent origin than any of these here described.54 stones. On the Lower Nechacco. porphyrites. No volcanic rocks or lava flows of Post-glacial age have been still met with. and allied rocks of modern aspects occur in sheets. Basalts.

which causes Mr. see the following Reports of Progretis.* * For additional information on the Tertiary rocks of the interior. p. and represent a temperate flora like that elsewhere attributed to the Miocene. 70 and 225 . 1875-6. they do not afford a very definite criterion of age. in which he describes forty species. S. . being derived from places which must have differed much in their physical surroundings at the time of the deposition of the beds. with the fact that duplicates have seldom been found even in the same locality.55 Principal Dawson. Insect remains have been obtained in four localities. H. who has contributed three papers on them to the Geological Reports. Scudder to observe that the deposits from which they came may either differ considerably in age. Scudder. all of which are considered new. they have since been almost altogether i-emoved from other districts. and several lists of species published. None of the insects have been found to occur in more than a single locality. 56 . While they are certainly Tertiary. and the modern river valleys often cut completely through them to the older rocks. 1876-7. pp. while. 75 and 112. evidence the existence of different surroundings. They have been examined by Mr. owing to denudation. Though the interior plateau may at one time have been pretty uniformly covered with Tertiary rocks. and an exceedingly rich insect fauna. 1871-2. The outlines of the Tertiary areas are therefore now irregular and complicated. B. pp. it is evident that some regions have never been overspread by them. or.

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