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Elementary physical geography and outlin

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REDWAY The waste of the Old Land is the material of the New NEW YORK CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 1900 .' elemejnt^ryv^ Physical/Geography AN OUTLINE OF PHYSIOGRAPHY BY JACQUES W.


and that human history and industries are always closely connected with geographic laws ical sequel. In the Elementary Natural Geography the pupil studies the various peoples of the earth and the countries in which they live . It is designed to be used in the junior grades of the High — . The science of Geography as now understood includes something more than a mere description of topographic forms it comprehends the gradual and progressive development of these forms and their results as regards life. for life and its activities depend also on them. In scope this book contains all the principles recommended by the Committee of Fifteen. as well.PREFACE The and its science of Geography sets forth the relations of life environment to the earth. present volume. it naturally involves the principles of Descriptive Geography. Physiography. It includes also the effects of temperature and moisture. which the author has prepared as a log- designed to show that the distribution of governed very largely by the conditions of geographic environment. That is. it is life is —in many instances the direct resultants of them. and it is the function of both the writer and the teacher of geography to explain these relations. . in the Advanced GeograIn the phy there is presented in addition a discussion of the industries of life and their geographic distribution. and such other features as have suggested themselves to the author. and Economics and the present volume is designed to show their interrelation.

thanks are due to Miss Stella Wilson. Minn. To Miss Wilson's keen judgment. Miss Elizabeth Ebert Redway. non-essential is confined to the notes. the principles of the subject are set forth in the larger type relevant matter that is illustrative but . it School. excellent criticism. J. and of his daughter. and in With judgment in the se- lection of the topics. the design of the author will be fulfilled. In the preparation of the work the author takes pleasure in acknowledging the material assistance of Miss Frances Bronson. . But to more than anyone else. will also find it very advisable to get in close touch with of the United States Geological Survey and the Bureau. the eighth year of the may be begun in Grammar School. Instructor in Physical Geography in the Central High School. Columbus. ment of the subjects is logical.. the last half of The arrange- but the teacher may readily organize a course of study in the subject without reference To make this more easily to the present arrangement. Winona. are designed to stimulate If. they leave the pupil in doubt. R. In general. accomplished. and experience are largely due the usefulness as a text-book which this volume may have. Ohio. The books designated for reference and collateral reading are intentionally few in number. The teacher . and those most commonly cited should be in the school library. occasionally. The pupil must learn by experience that knowledge does not come in cut-and-dried packages it comes only after long and painstaking investigation. The Questions and Exercises observation and independent thought. however. the teacher should not hesitate to omit a topic the discussion of which is too difficult for the PREFACE Normal Schools. at The Bureau Weather Geography recently established be helpful. will also W.

.231 . 20 . VIII. Plains. . Destructive Movements op Earthquakes : . . the Rock . The Work op Under132 : IX. . III. . Winds . IV. XIII. VII. 9 II. and their Outlines . Land and Water. The Work op Ava. Waves. 190 214 The Atmosphere and its Properties : The Moisture op the Atmosphere : Seasonal . Destructive Movements op the Rock Envelope canoes and their Phenomena . Vol80 : VI. . 1 The Earth Among Planets The Structure op the Earth .. The Eesults of Envelope : Slow Movements op the Rock . The Wasting of the Land lanches and Glaciers .... Periodical Distribution op Rainfall and .CONTENTS PAGE Introductory. and their Movements . : . and Mountains : 56 V.. 150 X. CHAPTER I. Plateaus. Envelope 95 .. The Wasting of the Land The Results of Imperfect Drainage and Obstructed Lakes and : Marshes 165 XL Ocean Waters and Currents XII. Tddes.41 . . : . The Wasting of the Land The Work op Rivers 105 The Wasting op the Land ground Waters .

Index . Man . Climate and its Factors . . 268 287 XVII.. Geographic Distribution op Plants and Animals 303 315 XIX. . .. . XX.. The Dispersal op Lipe XVIII.335 . 352 375 381 .. The Moisture op the Atmosphere Cyclonic Storms 248 XV. ... XVI.. . . Electrical and Luminous Phenomena op the Atmosphere . . .viii CONTENTS PAGE : CHAPTER XIV. The Industrial Eegions of the United States Appendix .

116 117 122 . Delta op the Chesapeake Mississippi Btver Mississippi River Bay— A "Drowned" Valley Old Stream-beds of the Tuolumne Biver Biver Systems and Drainage (Colored) Glaciated Region of the United States . . 45 Land and Water Hemispheres Elevation op Land and Depth op Oceans (Colored) Stretch op Norway Coast 46 Barrier Beaches op Carolina Coast Plateaus of the Colorado Biver ... ..LIST OF MAPS AND PLATES PAGE 10 11 The Solar System (Colored) Photograph op Moon .. . 131 159 166 168 Marsh Lakes of Florida Lagoons of Marthas Vineyard .. 34 35 Quaternary Age 36 40 44....... . . .. . 130.... Order of Strata 33 North America North America United States in Archean Times in Cenozoio in Era ... .. . .. . ..52 63 92 Distribution op Volcanoes (Colored) Loops and Cut-offs of the Lower Mississippi . 108 110 Palmyra Bevel....

201 218 221 239 260 274 292 318 . op the United States (Colored) its . . .LIST OP Lake MAPS AND PLATES page ... .. . Distribution op Bain (Colored) . .. 325 339 353 369 . Section Along the Great Lakes Chabt op Co-Tidal Lines Ocean Currents (Coloeed) Prevailing Winds op the Atlantic Chart op Winds (Colored) . . St. .. . .. .. Isotherms. . Distribution op Vegetation (Colored) Races op Physical Man Map (Colored) .. Storm Maps —First and Second Days (Colored) Chart op Magnetic Isogenics ..... 176 199 . Clair its 173 174 Lake Bonneville and Eemnants . .. New York Harbor and Approaches (Colored) ..January and July (Colored) Distribution op Animals (Colored) ..

or else they or. moisture. and the latter must be taken into the structure in a liquid form. Living beings certain conditions of heat. they may perish altogether. They must adapt themselves to other food. perhaps. and geoenvironment and if these are changed ever so the life forms must adjust themselves to the. depends on a very adjustment to its surroundings. as we now find it. and if for several droughts of if five or six months' duration. life as we now know it could not exist any great length of time. or they must migrate. they must adjust themselves to the changed conditions. if all the water were in the form of vapor. will die.PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY INTBODUCTOKY Only a that life delicate require graphic slightly casual thought is needed to make it apparent on the earth. Were the temperature of the earth to change only a few degrees there would be a similar disturbance that would involve almost every living thing. And if it should fall so low that the water were everywhere frozen. must seek a new abiding-place . requires water at very short successive years there are it For . life could not long endure unless -the 1 . because living beings need in their structure a large proportion of water. turf grass intervals. For a similar reason. And 1 there are herds of cattle in the region. Other- wise they too will perish. conditions.

is able warmth. and a larger number live in water only. and if these conditions were to change ever so slightly. Man. rock envelope— that Their distribution is if the latter change. who stands to endure a at the head of of much wider range animate nature. and . and surface.2 life PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY forms were very different in structure from those with which we are acquainted. and densely peopled. Life and its distribution are governed by geographic laws. moisture. A few species spend the greater part of their existence in the air. live at the plane of contact between the atmosphere and the earth's A FERTILE VALLEY. so must the former. Life is by no means evenly distributed over the earth. governed by the conditions of warmth. By far the greater number of species. is. on the land surface of the earth. NEW YORK Capable of producing abundant food -St tiffs. moisture. however. however. the distribution would be disturbed.

so that the fragments of rock could be ground fine and formed into soil. of which he consumes geographic laws . about its environment. All these earth-weathering processes must have been going on before the higher forms of life could exist. about eighty tons during the three or four score years of comes from the earth the land. Scarcely a summer shower falls that does not leave its marks and. because it is the home of man. On account of these varying conditions — is all the result of both important and interesting. in order to understand the story of and its industries. — and the source air each yielding part — and the materials that are life. and he can live indifferently in places of great drought or of excessive moisture. one must learn about the physical geography of its surroundings that is. The arctic re- gions are not so cold. and furrowed. the water. moisture. His food. And before there could be soil. nor the tropical lands so hot that man cannot dwell there and throughout the wide world one can find scarcely an ice-clad summit or a sun-beaten desert in which human beings have not lived. changes are even now going on from day to day. and surface — Land animals could not live until the waters were separated from the land. Like all forms of life. the surface of the land must have been folded. its used for clothing and shelter come also from the same — the earth. . —the study of the earth his existence. Before they could maintain life. He can withstand extremes of heat and cold that are fatal to most other animals. man requires food more than any other animal. . and all over the surface of the land such features. worn. history So.. . INTRODUCTORY surface features than 3 most other living beings. he needs shelter. or the various conditions of heat. vegetation must have spread itself over the land and before vegetation could endure there must have been soil. broken.

throughout the physical history of the earth the most apparent feature is constant change. warping in various ways. covered with sediments that form the richest soil. alternately sinking. ARCTIC LANDS Too cold and not enough soil for the support of life. and in time have become densely peopled areas. and changing. Old seabottoms.4 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY indeed. making the approaches to the land so difficult that vessels can find no sheltered anchorage. . sea-level. the shore outlines have taken Hugged coasts sinking below sea-level have resulted in the fjorded shores. the continents. making the harbors where so much of the manufacture and commerce of the country have Rising coasts have lifted natural harbors above centred. From the time the land was first divided from the waters. or great bodies of land Lave been ever In places.. rising. have been lifted above the sea. such as those of the various forms. North Atlantic States.

have all been potent factors in making the destiny of peoples. The uncultivable mountains of Greece could not well yield the food-stuffs necessary for the population. are constantly at work wear- away the wrinkles and folds. — How is this illustrated in the history of Egypt ? . because almost every form of life is modified by them. Man may rise superior to his environ- ment that is. and certainly the history and the industries of man are very largely gov- erned by them. because of has always attracted people. The Norse people. are nearly always densely peopled. mountains. plains and plateaus. falling as rain or snow. carrying the material back to the sea. It is necessary to know about less these processes. The rugged and barren slope of Norway forbade any great development of agriculture. and at the same time the waters of the atmos- phere. oceans and rivers. also. and to understand how they more or are going on. so — — we find a his- tory of " Greece scattered. his geographic surroundings but he is always more or less modified by it. therefore. forest plain of great lowland region of southeastern Asia? the northern plains of Eurasia? River bottom-lands." rich valley of the Tigris tility. while the deeply fjorded shores invited the pursuits of the sea. forming plateaus. Unless there tation.— INTRODUCTORY 5 Certain forces are causing the surface of the rock envelope to wrinkle and fold. Mountains and valleys. and by far the statement borne out in the case of the Central the greater part of the world's population is found in them. From the remotest times the its ferit and Euphrates. and ing valleys . How the is Plain of North America? Amazon? —the — the swampy. became sea rovers and magnificent sailors. something to unfit them for human habi- lowlands are favorite places of dwelling. and we therefore find is a densely settled region.

the deserts and forest swamps . A locality not suitable for farming a few food-plants may be grown. . 6 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY with regard to the nations dwelling in the Mesopotamia? the bottom-lands of the valley of the Ganges? Mississippi River? the Sacramento-San Joaquin Valley? —the — — Extensive desert regions are always sparsely peopled A RUGGED NORWEGIAN SLOPE .. Is this peopled. the eastern and westUnited States ? The population of rugged highlands and mountain ranges is usually sparse is there a good reason therefor ? ern why? How is this illustrated in halves of the The hot regions of the land are almost always densely excepted.

cold and dimly lighted parts of the earth with that of the which is it greatest ? and cold. and of fertile and unfertile regions form an essential part of the study of geography the study of the progressive changes that have been and are now taking place on the earth's surface con: warm and strongly lighted parts The study of the distribution in of heat . of rain and drought." . or " nature-writing. of highlands and lowlands. Are all parts of the earth equally warmed ? Have all parts the same intensity of light? Compare the density of population of A TROPICAL SCENE Both temperature and moisture arc favorable to a great productivity of food -stuffs.INTKODUCTOKY true of the intensely cold regions ? 7 Life thrives best in regions of warmth and of strong sunlight. stitutes the science of physiography.

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES. . What would be the effect. COLLATERAL READING. the activities.— What of the city or are the leading industries which you live ? Note and describe a geographic feature that favors any one of these industries. and the various economies of man. 331-336. but that they also largely control and modify the history. were the rainfall to be diminished onehalf? How would a material change in the surface features affect the industries ? On p. and explain the geographic reasons for their condition. Shaler. so far as the habitability of the surrounding region is concerned. Quito. 369 is a map of New York Harbor . the capital of Ecuador. — Nature and Man in North America. — Realm of Nature. pp. Mill. what would be the effect on the commerce of the port if the surface of the water were lowered two hundred feet ? Mention two or more reasons why lowland regions are more densely peopled than highlands. and without which the in town industry could not thrive. as well. is in the midst of a fertile region nearly two miles above sea-level what are its advantages over the coast plain .8 PHYSICAL GEOGEAPIIY object of this The book is to show that the fundamental laws of geographic science not only control the structure of life forms 'and their distribution over the earth. region to the westward ? Make a list of half-a-dozen or more extensive regions that are not habitable.

more properly. and the smallest are probably too minute to be measured by ordinary standards. there are several comets a and groups of meteors s that have a permanent place in the solar system. about four hundred. and for this reason common called the solar The — they are called collectively a system. The four hundred or more small planets are called In addition asteroids. The gether. bodies composing it is The number of unknown. the sun. and a large number. or. are three thousand miles.000 miles in diameter. in centre of gravity. Eight of them. of and but them are attended each by one or more satellites or moons. in diameter. largest member of the solar system. more or less. however. but it seems certain that they are very unlike one another in 1 9 .CHAPTEK I THE EAETH AMONG PLANETS Solar System. There is much evidence to show that the planets are composed of the same kinds of substance or material. perhaps. within its mass. all is about eight hundred times as large as they revolve is the others to- and the common centre of gravity around which very near to it or. The largest is about 886. The members of this system vary greatly in size. The cluster of heavenly bodies system is one of a great number of groups The members of this group revolve about a space. all The two eight bodies next in size are called planets. vary from ten miles to less than five hundred in diameter. planetoids. however.

apparently lost the greater part of their heat. physical condition little for while some. bulk for bulk. THE SOLAR SYSTEM The space within the orbit of Jupiter shows the relative sire of the Sun. The sun. are but heavier than water. for instance.10 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY . is probably . is a glowing mass surrounded by white-hot vapors. others still are very hot. result of seems certain also that this difference is largely a temperature for while some of the planets have . and its heat greater than any artificial heat known. others are about as heavy as iron It ore.

now generally believed that the members . curvature that in nearly every instance is a slight flatten- ing at the poles of their axes. and there evidence that this It is is some of the true of all. differing from a sphere by a THE MOON From a photograph. 11 — The similarity of the sun is and the planets to one another their points of difference.' solar system formerly existed as a body of gaseous matter force of gravity drew the particles together.THE EAKT1I AMONG PLANETS The Sun and the Planets. Several are known is to be surrounded each with an atmosphere. and each turns or spins on its axis in the same direction. nearly spherical in shape. because the . far more marked than All whirl around a common Each is centre of gravity in a direction from west to east.

hydrogen. being nearly spherical. not only the matter of which they are composed. the weight of a body would be the same at every part of its surface. The spectroscope. the rapid rotation of each planet threw off portions of its mass forming the satellites. is sometimes used to apply to its irregular The spherical form of the earth is shown in various ways that are well known. find how it ranks — among the other planets in size . parts of the mass around mass were thrown off. Were the earth a true sphere. a rotation the centre of gravity resulted. s The line thus projected does not lie parallel to it. the substances of greatest abundance at the surface of the sun. such as that of a pond. it is a theory supported by evidence. Although the assumed formation of the solar system by this process is a matter of theory. but it deviates slightly from this form . From Table I. and sodium. forming the planets. It shows also that the earth and the sun contain the same hinds of matter. are also among the most abundant substances in the composition of the earth. but it is demonstrated most clearly by surveying a horizontal straight line along a level surface. There is and the curvature . a sphere flattened — at its polar diameter.12 PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY of the toward the centre of gravity. The earth is one of the planets. an instrument for analyzing light. {Appendix). The telescope reveals many such masses of gaseous matter showing planetary formation. one after another. shows. but also that the matter is in rapid motion. It is usually said to be an oblate spheroid that is. Calcium. the latter recedes or curves away from is such as corresponds to the surface of a spherical body. In form the earth resembles the other planets.— in distance from the sun. Finally. In the same manner. hence the term geoid shape. iron. but slightly flattened at the poles. The Form of the Earth. the surface .

The third motion causes the . rotation is called a day and is motion resembles that of the poles of a " sleeping " top. The following dimensions 7.000. — The earth has several common distinct motions. fact the and from the careful experiments based on this amount of flattening at the poles has been deterare its mined.2 miles 197. Large as the earth seems to us.926. or making a complete journey time called a year. days —a period of . Motions.912.6 miles Polar diameter Equatorial diameter Circumference at equator Surface (approximate) 24. The poles of the earth also move or oscillate in a nearly circular path. The first motion combined with the inclination of the axis gives rise to the successive change of the seasons and the varying length of sunshine and darkness.. it would require about one and a quarter million bodies of its size to ference would be what part make a globe as large as the sun.5 miles 7. The second motion causes the succession of day and night it is "day" in all parts of the surface turned toward the sun and " night " on the opposite side. cal path. It revolves about the centre of gravity in an elliptiin very nearly 365J It also rotates. 6 and it is found that a given body weighs a little more in polar than in equatorial latitudes. The time required to make a complete commonly used as a unit for the measurement of short intervals of time.901. however.: THE EARTH AMONG PLANETS 13 a measurable difference. Appendix). The spins on its axis. phenomenon or movement commonly known as the pre- .000 square miles What torial is the difference between the polar and the equa? diameter On a globe one foot in diameter the difof one inch ? Compare the diameter of the earth with that of the sun (Table I.

is It is a subject. how- axis is points always in the same direction and itself. and not to physical geography. therefore said to be parallel to of the axis prolonged of a star named star. tudes. If the earth's axis were perpendicular to the plane of its each place would have the same unvarying season. in mid-latiof heat in- . that belongs to the science of astronomy. In long intervals of time the amount of inclination varies. INCLINATION OF THE EARTH'S AXIS The unshaded hemisphere shows the position of the light circle at each of the four seasons. The axis of is not perpendicular to the earth's path (called — the plane of the ecliptic).14 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY In long intervals of time it is connected with certain changes cession of the equinoxes. ever. Polaris this star is therefore often called the north orbit. the Practically. the intensity creasing from the poles toward the equator. mild and cold in polar regions. It would be hot in equatorial regions. thought that this niotion of climate. but inclines about 23 J degrees. however. the earth Effects of the Inclination of the Axis. The northern end would extend nearly in the direction . as shown in the accompanying figure.

The rotation or spinning of the earth on its axis causes sphere varies. seasons in the same latitude. the relative length varies. being always toward the sun. however. while in the Northern. however. Were the axis of the earth perpendicu- lar to the direction of the light-rays. popularly. In equatorial latitudes the difference is not but beyond the tropics. but with the changes of the . " day " or. The rotation of the earth.THE EARTH AMONG PLAXETS With. the case is 15 different. or summer. the rays of light and heat are very oblique. At this season. while the opposite side is in darkness. the succession of day-light and darkness. Thus. or winter. in higher latitudes. lighting all parts in turn. therefore. the axis inclined. At this season. . the Southern Hemisphere receives its greatest warmth. it is seen. therefore illuminated. while in the corresponding latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere the rays are very oblique. great. presents every part successively toward the sun. An inspection of the accompanying diagram shows that fall during the month of June the suu's rays cally almost verti- on mid-latitude parts of the Northern Hemisphere. the other hemisphere being in darkness. the amount of light and warmth received by each hemi. therefore the Northern Hemisphere receives more light and more heat than the Southern. As a result the season of sunshine. day and night would be of equal duration in all parts of the earth's surface but on account of its inclination. In polar latitudes the sun is shining the greater part of the time for six months alternately in each hemisphere. while the season of darkness. is intensely cold. not only in different latitudes. becomes oppressively hot at times. Six months later the conditions are reversed the belt of vertical and nearly vertical rays is in the Southern Hemisphere. it is the difference between winter and summer." is One-half the surface. and "night.

In the temperate zones the days are longest near the polar circles and shortest near the tropics. the higher species require an environment in which and darkness follow one after the other in periods of short duration. varying from thirteen to twenty-four hours. the proportionate length Only a very few species of animals and plants thrive in regions of long- of the day. months The relative length of daylight and darkness and the changes of the sea- sons have phy. and they are mainly the lower light forms. With few all. and the leaves of growing plants are apt to be yellow in darkened instead of green. and fructify unless exposed to strong fail to mature and many spe- cies will not live at Plants that are forced into blos- som rooms have usually pale or white flowers. RELATIVE LENGTH OF DAY AND NIGHT The shaded part of each parallel shows the length of the night. plants light. Within the frigid correspond practically to summer and winter. much to do with their vitality the subject of physiogra- For all almost life the forms of depend not only on the presence of sunlight. the unshaded part.16 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY In the torrid zone the period of daylight and darkness does not vary much from twelve hours each. both the day and the night vary from a few brief to six moments in length. exceptions. . and at the equator each is twelve hours long through the year. continued darkness. but on the time and manner of distribution as well. zone day and night There.

— Manual Howe. 64-78. If the inclination of axis were 28 degrees. degrees from the dotted line which of these positions represents summer in the Northern Hemisphere ? In the Southern ? Copy the diagram. p. what would be the width of each light-zone ? If 32 degrees ? Ninety degrees less twice the angle of inclination equals the width of the Temperate Zone. — Astronomical Geography. — Elements Jackson. 14. . divide the parallel into twenty-four parts by halving it three times and dividing the last subdivisions each into three parts. Eros. inclined 23-}- In the diagram.THE EAKTH AMONG PLANETS QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES. one of the recently discovered asteroids. Many of move in orbits in the space between Mars and them do not exceed twenty or thirty miles in is less diameter. Problems. 16. and mark the point the sun's rays reach beyond the north pole how many degrees from the pole to this point ? What circle passes through this point ? Mark the point on the circumference where the rays are vertical. pp. Rbdway. 1 The asteroids Jupiter. What circle passes through this point ? — . From each pole to the equator the angular distance is ninety degrees : from the Arctic Circle to the Tropic of Cancer . a-g. and at times is nearer to the earth than is Mars. In the diagram. each of the smallest subdivisions has practically an hour value. COLLATERAL READING AND REFERENCE. this distance is the width of the Temperate Zone. and the largest probably does not exceed five hundred miles. the axis of the earth . Their combined volume than one four-thousandth part of the mass of the earth. 63-81. The two is represent the and the sun. of Astronomy. 83. and from the centre of this circle. of Geography. pp. has an orbit so eccentric that it crosses that of Mars. with a ra- dius fifty-five inches long. Subfind the distance in degrees : .—Realm of Nature. the proportionate length of the longest day and shortest night are shown by the shading determine by measurement the length of the longest day in latitude 40° in latitude 60°. relative size of the earth draw as much of the arc of a circle as the circles size of the blackboard will permit. 16. p.—Make eter 11 a circle one inch in diamon the blackboard. Mill. p. NOTES p.

whirling around the sun and again vanishing. nickel. 3 Meteors. in another diamonds. or as nearly in line as is practicable. them belong to the solar system. In the solid form the molecules are bound by a strong cohesion in the liquid form they are very slightly cohesive in the gaseous form they strongly repel one another. in most instances. The earth. and partly by friction against it and are dissipated as white-hot comets. undoubtedly consists of a vast swarm of meteors. matter exists in three physical forms and gaseous— and nearly every chemical element and many of their compounds may assume each form. nickel in a metallic differing materially .— 18 2 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY But little is it is known about the nature and structure of thought that the chief part of their masses. On these. these have been analyzed. is gaseous matter. In one instance gold. 5 An interesting experiment is suggested by Professor Edward Jackson (Astronomical Geography. Some of the larger ones reach the earth. Most of the substances that in 4 So far as solid. . in sweeping through space. is known. One comet. No element has yet been found in a meteor that does not occur in the earth. were found in a meteorite. encounter many thousands of them daily. liquid. or shooting stars. and probably the other planets. seen in clusters. . but it is probable Several of that the various comets are differently constituted. but many are temporary visitors. as in the case of Tempel's comet. but in a few instances chemical compounds. and certain crystalline forms. Some consist mainly of iron and many of and form others are composed of matter not from lavas. the earth are solids. If the telescope of the level be turned . 3). in the sun exist as white-hot vapors. but — vapor. and phosphorus. one mile apart. of iron. Tempel's. along the shore of a canal or a pond. p. Three stakes are in line. An engineer's level is then placed so that the cross-wires cut the sighting marks of the first and third stakes. are small bodies that seem to exIn a few instances they are ist very generally throughout space. By far the greater number on reaching the earth's atmosphere are heated to whiteness partly by compression of the atmosphere in front of it. coming from unknown regions of space. sighting marks are made at a uniform distance above water-level. have been found in meteors that have never been met with naturally in terrestrial substances.

6 It is by measurements depending on this principle that the exact shape of the earth has been ascertained. The about one hundred pounds. United States Coast and Geodetic Survey has carried on a series of pendulum observations covering a period of many years with the Professor Ferrel had shown that. weighted by a cannon-ball weighing is allowed to oscillate freely. . if the inclination were increased. 12. and the tropics would be each forty degrees from the equator. That is. When the rate of vibration will be the same at all points of the earth's surface equally distant from the centre. all errors are corrected . retically. as the poles. the limits of the frigid zones would be pushed farther toward the equator. if the inclination of the axis were forty degrees instead of twenty-three and one-half.) higher than it would be if the earth were a true spheroid. 7 Any change in the inclination of the earth's axis would have the effect of producing decided changes of climate. the rate of vibration is slightly faster at any place more remote they will be slower. For instance. A pendulum of absolute uniform length.THE EARTH AMONG PLANETS upon the middle stake 19 it will be found that the cross-wires cut the stake at a point eight inches below the sighting mark. EXPERIMENT TO SHOW THE EARTH'S CURVATURE. the polar circles would each be forty degrees from the poles. theoresults noted on p. the level of the sea between the 20th and 27th parallels is about thirteen metres (40 ft. At any part nearer the centre.

sists of a Structurally the earth con- dense and practically solid globe. accordance the heaviest kinds of in ft TMO£PH£R £ IDEAL SFXT10N THROUGH THE EARTH is The tbickness of the various envelopes greatly distorted. covered nearly with a comparatively thin layer of water 20 . matter are nearest the centre.CHAPTER II THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH In the long period of time that has elapsed since the earth was glowing with intense heat. the substances com- posing it seem to have adjusted themselves 1 with the laws of gravitation —that is. the Nthosphere.

the " crust of the earth. That the interior of the lithosphere is very hot. however. popularly. a constant increase of temperature is observed the greater the depth . At the surface. of the heat it once had that comparatively cold the amount of heat radiates is about equal to that which it receives from the sun. bulk for bulk. 4 velope it is of the rock ennot known. The shape of the lithosphere and the condition of the substances composing it. however. the atmosphere. cannot be doubted for in every place where the rock envelope has been penetrated by deep borings. together with the waters." surrounds an intensely heated interior. but at a depth of less than forty miles thought that the temperature is high enough to fuse is The thickness the most refractory substances. The globular form is the only one that would naturally result from the action of gravitation on a plastic or fluid body and the flattening at the poles is most reasonably explained by the supposition of a rotation on its axis while it was still plastic. all go to show that in times past it was intensely heated. the density of the rocks is not much more than half as great . and that much of the rock composing it has been in a molten condition. — the higher the temperature. The broken folds of the outer surface have revealed something of its character to the depth of several miles. The density of the lithosphere. . the whole surrounded by an envelope of gaseous matter. that the substances forming the interior are ring at the surface. therefore. or. 3 lope itself has lost so is The rock it enveit much . — it is certain. it is about five and one-half times as heavy as water. much heavier than those occurouter part of the litho- The Rock Envelope.THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH 21 the hydrosphere or water envelope. — The sphere is a shell of more or less friable material called the It rock envelope. is about that of iron ore 2 that is. Borings have been made to a .

. tant part in the science of physiography. Within a range of a very few degrees of temperature. oxygen. The Atmosphere. therefore. Of these oxygen is the substance required in the breathing of animals. carbon dioxide. ice a liquid.—About four-fifths of the surface of the rock envelope is covered thin layer of water. at the surface. . more than any other. but chief vehicle it is by which nutrition is distributed throughout the various parts of the body of the animal or the plant. Water is an essential eleit ment to the existence of life for not only does form the also the greater part of every plant or animal. exists in a free state. water vapor." Water in one or the other of its forms is the agent by which.. and the form in which the fresh water is carried from the sea to the land. and plants. The Water Envelope. water exists in one or another of three forms a solid. . the surface of the rock envelope has been sculptured therefore it has a very impor- — . Various estimates place it between one hundred and two The . by a comparatively The water not only but in chemical com5 bination it is a constituent of various kinds of rock that occur at or near the surface. and carbon dioxide. thickness of the atmospheric envelope is not known. the hydrosphere. but beyond the slight knowledge obtained from these. nothing positive is known about its interior." is essential in the breathing of plants nitrogen forms a part . — The atmosphere consists of ure of gaseous substances — namely: a mixt- nitrogen. Appendix). is water vapor is of the body structure in both animals just as essential to life as the water envelope. The atmosphere. The waters of the earth form a most important constituent so far as life is concerned. the gas formed when coal or carbon " burns.22 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY depth of a little more than a mile (Table II. water and an invisible vapor. often called " steam.

Movements of the rock envelope in times past have distreams carry seaward. THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH hundred miles. moun- . the depth of the atmosphere in proportion would be about one-half an inch. while were everywhere level. Being chilled. At the plane where the atmosphere rests upon the land and the sea the physiographic processes that modify the earth's surface are flows back to the sea And so the cycle of change ever goes on. Vertical Movements of the Rock Envelope. The movements of the rock envelope have changed the level of its surface so that the waters are divided from the land. mingled with the air. Keeping Nature's Balance. and at the same time each has certain movements of its own. ever in action. and valleys. ranges. and there deposits them. and the latter. The changes in the surface of the rock envelope that are most noticeable are the wearing away of the land and the transportation of the rock waste to lower levels. and these. water falling — as rain it loosens particles of If the land rock. versified its surface with highlands and lowlands.. the run-off of water could wear away but little of it but vertical movements of the surface that are apparent only after long intervals of time are taking place. That is. the vapor again takes flows over the land. the form of rain. crumpled. carrying the mingled particles of rock waste in its flood. 6 Hlustrate by diagram. or of snow. 23 At the latter estimate. have given the run-off waters increased wearing power. The heat of the sun causes a part of the ocean waters to take the form of vapor. The three envelopes are constantly acting and reacting upon each other. and falling on the land wears — away its surface. on a globe one yard in diameter. making new slopes. and folded so as to form the plateaus. The water gathers into channels and. and the surface of the land has been wrinkled.

but they are most clearly observed along sea7 and shores.. and similar movements are going on at the present time. 24 tains PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY and valleys. Thus. Probably no part of the earth is free from them. the coast of New Jersey is sinking .

on account of the less- The effects of these earth movements are very far-reachThe great highland regions of the earth. limestone. and an uplift ened weight. occurs at the latter place. — Thus. are . at the former. IGNEOUS ROCK: A FLOW OF LAVA Rock and Its Formation. that gravitation is a factor. clay. sand. To almost every mineral substance that forms a part of the earth. and even the fine. are probably direct results. with their it is ridges and folds. 9 miles in volume — from one and in- locality to another. the term rock is applied. quartz.THE STEUCTUEE OF THE EAETH ing interior rock waste creases is 25 the chief cause. gran- lava. because of the increased load. wind-blown rock waste. ing. ite. relieves weight at one place it Therefore it is inferred that a sinking. The removal of great amounts of — often many cubic at the other. gravel. too. and not improbable that the uplift of the continents themselves was also due to them. There is evidence.

It is certain. or whence it it has hardened. Now. and so also is a combination or any mixture of them. of a few thousand feet from the surface. Thus. which decomposes mainly into iron. no one knows what the primitive or first rock that formed the crust of the earth may have been. But these sediments must have come from somewhere. One of these minerals is silica. lime. yields clay. nothing positive is known about the substances of which the rock envelope is composed. potash. or metallic in appearance. decomposed. mine its origin. of which quartz and sea sand are the best examples. The lava. Beyond a depth that most of the rock now at the surface consists of sedi- ments carried into place by running water and deposited in the form of layers or strata that afterward hardened into compact rock. Still another constituent usually — . may be glassy. from the rock envelope itself. and there is but one place from which they could be derived namely. In many instances there is no doubt at all how the rock has been formed.26 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY each called rock . when a volcano or a fissure pours out a flood of molten lava there is no the rock got into place. lime. and granitic rocks are very abundant. and soda. but certain kinds of rock have been found underlying the water-formed sediments from which the latter seem to be derived. a mineral which. when . because the whole process of its formation has been carried on in plain sight. however. Another mineral is hornblende. or whether it has been altered or not. and silica. or it may be like cinder or furnace slag but there are always qualities about it that deterquestion about how came. Another is felspar. Ordinary granite is an example of this kind of rock. There are various kinds of granite. but the most common varieties contain minerals of which nearly all the elementary rocks themselves are composed.

found. Fingal's Cave. or silica. look for jet black crystals or masses . lime. translucent mineral with glassy lustre it is quartz. potash. or in localities from which the sedimentary rock has been removed. also decomposes into and a number of other substances. popularly called " isinglass " like felspar clay. 21 is mica. this is hornblende . and this kind of rock is common in most mountainous regions. though not the most abundant. silica. Sedimentary Rocks. breaks into regular blocks. it has different crystalline forms accordingly as it contains . perhaps. Igneous Rocks. lime. why these Igneous rocks are usually found in mountainous regions. this mineral is felspar . and of these the lavas of volcanoes. —There are certain surface rocks that have cooled from a molten condition. usually opaque. Granite rocks prevail in the New England Plateau igneous rocks are abundant in names are . In many instances the molten rock has been ejected from long fissures and has cooled slowly in this form it is usually known as basalt. it is Find the white. green or brown . or cleavage planes . and the Giant's Causeway are or.— Procure one or more specimens of granite. If no mica is . . varying from yellowish-white to pink in color possibly it will break into fragments having flat sides. commonly called vulcanic or igne- consult a good dictionary and learn applied. The Hawaiian Islands are mainly great piles or domes of lava. All the foregoing are ous rocks . 10 and with the aid of a magnifying-glass observe the following directions. are perhaps the best known. — Although the sedimentary rocks that prevail in such a great extent of the land are derived . the Western Highlands.THE STRUCTUKE OP THE EARTH present it . . and it is apt Look also for an opaque mineral to form the chief bulk of the rock. but sometimes translucent. EXERCISE. Look for small clusters of foliated or " leafy " mineral it may be whitish or. if it examples. trap. or soda. this mineral is mica. The Palisades of the Hudson.

probably granite. many sibly instances the clay is spread over large areas. and other sediments that have been brought down stream and distributed by the water. clay banks are derived from granitic and similar rocks. flows over or stands upon the surface and if the water contains lime in solution it will leach through the layer of sand and cement the grains. therefore. In time the beach is lifted up above sea-level and covered deep with vegetable remains mixed with loam. is nearly always a formation of beaches or of water in motion. have not only rounded the grains. 11 It is not so easy to understand as a matter how rocks are found at the bottom of the sea . and in the second place they are uniform in size. In most instances. The making of firm rock out of loose sediments is a somewhat complex process. pasty form by which commonly known more acting together. it and moisture. . Let us follow the formation of sandstone. Water. because one can almost always find clay-banks. being very light and fine. and the latter. and water has sorted the various minerals from one another. heat. The waves. has crumbled. . beating the fragments of quartz and rubbing them against one another. understand how rivers and other running waters are active workers in making rock. into slate. there is nothing about them to indicate their close relation to the latter. True sand. gravel-beds. it In Posit is remains in the . forming sandstone. in one form or another. The rock from which they came. stiff. is carried off by the water. settling by itself. Felspar decomposes into clay.28 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY from the granitic and other vulcanic rocks. and piled them in a nearly flat layer. In the first place the grains of quartz are rounded. but they have also sorted them according to size. while the heavier materials remain. convert It is not difficult to likely pressure.

and in time the thick layer that accumulates finally becomes cemented into rock. the river. The sea. Y. In very many instances these rocks are largely composed of the remains of animals so small that several thousand of them together would not be so large as the head of a pin. moreover they But the animals are shorttheir bodies sink to the and as soon as they die bottom. NEAR OLEAN. it is true. especially in many thousand species lived. The mineral remains of these organisms consist mainly of lime or silica. probably more sedimentary rock has been formed in ocean and lake beds than in any other places. The growth of rock in this way is slow. but time alone .THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH 29 SEDIMENTARY ROCK. The face of the cliff is N. water. regions of warm . one side of a channel of of fact. however. contains of such animals multiply with great rapidity.

Most of the sedimentary rocks were deposited in horizontal layers. that the older and deeper 12 This is usually stratified rocks would be thus changed. foliation.30 is PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY required to cliffs make such of layers of very great thickness. The limestones of the Mississippi Valley also accumulated on sea-bottoms and have about the same thickness. bituminous (soft) coal and anthracite. EXERCISE. and the rock waste has been cemented into firm rock again with but little alteration. Many of the older rocks. presence of moisture. crystalline appearance. much like igneous rock in ap- Rocks that form a part of mountain folds are apt to be metamorphic on account of the pressure that results from the folding and crumpling. by pressure and heat in the sequently changed. especially anthracite. sedimentary." are metamorphic. beds of clay have been transformed chalk and limestone have beinto layers of gritty slate .—Procure specimens of clay and slate. they are often . in the neighborhood in Make a live. The weight of the overlying the case. granitic rock has crumbled. and density (weight of pieces of equal size). therefore. There are many instances in which the character of sedimentary rocks has been subThus. but. rock produces immense pressure. are pearance. list of the rocks occurring which you and classify them as igneous. ure within them greatly alter their appearance. Metamorphic Rocks. or metamorphic. chalk (not crayon) and marble. on account of the vertical — movements of the rock envelope. this The chalk England and France were formed in manner. — marble and bituminous coal has become Certain kinds of granitic rock. indeed. Older gneiss or " stratified granite. One might infer. and they aggregate nearly half a mile in thickness. Order of the Strata. Examine each pair with reference to hardness. and the changes resulting from the moist- come crystalline .

It is by studying the upturned edges of broken and tilted strata that the story of the earth has been read. SEDIMENTARY ROCK: TILTED STRATA at The total thickness of the stratified rocks is estimated upward of twenty miles. Each stratum is a chapter by itself. and to read the history properly it is best to begin with the lowest. or animal remains peculiar to itself. 13 To the lowest strata. Not infrequently very old rocks most recent formations . and none exists. In some of the old sea-beds now raised above the surface the strata are undisturbed. It is not always easy to tell the relative position of strata at some distance from one another. that do not differ granitic rocks and possibly include some of them. the position is usually determined by the kind and character of these. but as each stratum has fossils. . SEDIMENTARY ROCK: SECTION THROUGH THE CANON OF THE COLORADO RIVER The level of the strata has not been disturbed. are overlaid by those of the all the intermedi- ate strata are missing.— THE STKUCTUKE OF THE EAKTH 31 found in oblique positions. Sometimes they occur in gentle folds but in mountainous regions they are much crumpled and broken. the much from the name . There is no locality known. in which all the various strata are found no locality is known in which even any considerable number occur.

« ^ . originally horizontal. p.000 feet Archaean Era. Then follow the rocks UNCONFORMABLE STRATA: canon of the Colorado river of the Mesozoic. the earliest life forms..' Upon the Archaean.32 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY is Archcean u given. were deposited on the surface of the Subsequently the tipper layers were deposited on the broken surface of the tilted layers. or era oi re-.-. and. . tne Venozmc. thick in places. The greater part of Europe and North but the America were above sea-level during this period. the era oi man. 34. laSt OI j nj. or middle-life The tilted strata. They seem to be the foundation of the continents and the floor of the oceans. rest the rocks of the Palaeozoic era —the age of . The decay and wearing away of these has formed the material of which nearly all the sedimentary rock " The waste of the is composed. old land is the material of tJie new. (See illustration. ill. igneous rock." The remaining strata named in accordance with character of the existed life are the forms that when the rocks that compose them were undergoing formation.) Palaeozoic Era. £ Cent llie „ . The crests Hudson above the sea level the Black Hills and one or were just of the Rocky Mountains had also just emerged.1 all. In Archaean times North America conof narrow.—The Palaeozoic era was of very long duration. The sediments composing it are 25. . V-shaped strip of land south of mainly a sisted of the Appalachian Mountains Bay. no forms of life are found in Archaean rocks. two peaks The general form of the American continent was outlined in Archaean times. — . With the possible exception of a few species resembling the sponge. era .

with the mammoth During this period animals with backbones appeared for the time. and subIn North America the greater part of the Mississippi Valley was a shal- low inland sea. and toward the close reptiles existed. The climate was warm and moist. It began with the lowest form of sponges and closed advent of reptiles.THE STBITCTUEE OP THE EARTH land was 33 many times upheaved merged. In the variety and extent of life forms is the Palaeozoic era the most noteworthy of all the geological periods. Pishes and the prevailing mollusks seem to have been forms. first Insects were numerous. The vast accumulations of vegetable matter that are now the coal fields ORDER OF STRATA . that later became an im- mense marsh.

of horny beaks. Most of the life forms that flourished in preceding ages were common. It was an age of gigan- tic reptiles. In the former division the Gulf of Mexico reached as far north as the mouth of the Ohio. the latter of inland seas. Mesozoic Era.34 PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY were found in swamps of this age. although both in North America and nite forms. For the time birds appeared. the principal level. They NORTH AMERICA IN ARCH/EAN TIMES The shaded area shows the part of the continent above sea-level. but one great step in advance maybe noted the appearance of mammals. The animals in of some species were from eighty feet first sixty to length. 15 In North America these swamps covered much of the area that is now the central United States.— During the Mesozoic era both North America and Europe had grown to about their present shape. Their genera included — . however. were very much like reptiles. and a northwestern branch of it extended nearly to the 50th In Europe all mountain ranges 16 and the higher elevations of land most probably had been raised permanently above seaparallel. and in some species they had. — Europe the various ranges and systems had received defiThe former was a continent of vast fresh-water lakes . heavy jaws Cenozoic Era. instead with socket teeth. This era was largely one of uplift and mountain-making.

camel.000 feet. of the Quaternary age were disastrous to In the area covered by glacial ice most of the spe- cies of larger mammals perished. and a — decided lowering of temperature. and horse. This accession of ice is commonly known as the It is marked on a stupendous scale by a of drift similar to that movement which marks the gla- ciers of the present time. Germany. wolf. Many species of plants were destroyed. but many escaped. 18 and the forest trees Quaternary Age. horse. That man existed before the close of the glacial epoch seems certain. greater part of the United States. The abrupt close of the Cenozoic era was probably due to an elevation of a large part of North America and Europe from 1. In the caverns of Belgium. plant-life. wolf. glacial epoch. 35 the elephant. The changes life. 17 rhinoceros.000 to 2. The ice and snow of the north polar regions crept southward until all it enveloped nearly NORTH AMERICA above IN CENOZOIC TIMES of Europe and the The shaded area shows the part of the continent sea-level. deer. The cave bear.THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH There was a considerable advance in both of North America and Europe included most of the species found to-day. and reindeer survived. From the few scraps of unwritten history it . and Italy the bones of man have been found in caves along with the skeletons of animals and various implements of the chase.

sand. marble. Note and describe any instances within your personal knowledge of the action of water on the rock envelope explain the nature of the changes and how they have been brought about." the relative weight : : which you live. and compare the weight of pieces of the same size. development QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES and meal It is is —A mixture of : iron filings. gently shaken in a glass what position will the compo- nents take when they come to rest ? Explain why. ever. He had learned the use intellectual of fire. Make a collection of them for future use. as sediment- ary or igneous. He did not cultivate the soil nor did he have any. Construct a diagram on the blackboard or on paper. domestic animals. . in thickness. Obtain specimens of iron ore. sometimes assumed that the rock envelope is about forty miles. how- and from that moment his was a question of time only. He lived in caves and obtained his food by hunting and fishing. If possible find the specific gravity of each. Determine. of the various kinds of rock in the neighborhood in live Study the various rock formations in the neighborhood in which you and classify them according to their origin— that is. and the atmosphere about two hundred miles. showing the relative thickness of each on scale in the ratio of 4000 40 200. THE UNITED STATES AT THE BEGINNING OF THE QUATERNARY AGE The shaded area shows the part added in recent times. or judge by " hefting.36 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY seems that primitive man was a savage of the lowest type. and dry clay. .

and in most of 1 them 3 it is the chief element present. . pp. there is a slight decrease in the ratio. an outlet . the substances specifically heaviest are nearest. of the United States. pp.THE STKQCTUKE OF THE EAETH A into a lake without 37 stream flows over a bed of limestone rock that is slightly soluble. the earth behaves like a solid but somewhat elastic body. pp. That is. of Geology. pp. 6. what changes in the formation of rock are likely to occur ? Will the rock formed be stratified or unIn what way may it become fossiliferous ? stratified ? From the official State reports find the order and distribution of rock strata in the State in which you live.—Elements Mill. from the centre. 22-29.700 feet deep.—Realm Shaler. — First Book of Geology. NOTES of Nature. but a marked increase in the actual temperature at the greater depths. but in dif- one degree for each sixty In a certain boring in Upper Silesia. 107-124. and there are but few rocks of ferent kinds of rock. . 4 The increase varies not only in different localities. the average being or seventy feet. 249-261. COLLATEEAL READING Powell. All the meteorites that have landed on the earth contain it. 127-132. fusion is also raised and the great weight of the overlying rock may possibly produce a pressure great enough to prevent liqueIt . that the heated interior is in a liquid condition on the contrary. — Physiography Le Conte. must not be inferred from this. and from the information given construct a geological map. and it is likewise one of the most abundant substances of the sun and of some of the fixed stars. but on With increase of pressure. The melting or fusing of a substance depends not on temperature alone. and the lightest are farthest. 5 The crystalline form of many rocks is due to the water they contain in chemical combination. however. 211-230. the temperature of pressure as well. faction. a Iron and its compounds form one of the most abundant constituents of the earth.

contains hornblende instead of mica it is called syenite . 8 At San Pedro. felspar. and quartz. in time. The shells belong to species some of which are not now and most of them have been preserved in their natural The highest beach is nearly three hundred feet above seaThe various beaches are so slightly weathered that they seem scarcely altered. The amount of sediment carried into the Gulf of Mexico is enormous. Several layers of shells mixed with sand are found one above another. so far as can be estimated. It is which water does not form a considerable by no means impossible that the waters of the earth. to reappear in chemical combination. 24. at heights varying from five to fifteen feet or more. it sinks. may be absorbed in this way. (See illustration. The surface of the balloon is depressed by the weight.) " According to this principle the rock envelope of the earth always maintains a state of balance. the upward movement has been unusually rapid. Shropshire. but it does not apparently raise the level to any great extent few parts of the made-land surrounding the gulf are more than ten or fifteen feet above sea-level. mainly in the form of a rapid. It is readily illustrated by putting an ounce weight on an inflated toy balloon. California. A small stream of water pours over a red sandstone cliff. . oxygen will be absorbed. If the felspar contains soda the granite is diorite. state.38 PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY part. Normally. entering into chemical combination with other substances. granite is a mixture of mica. extinct. an element that forms also about one-half the weight of the earth's In time. 7 In most instances the rate of sinking is about equal to the depth of the layer of sediment annually spread over the surface. ' About one-fifth of the atmosphere consists of free oxygen. adjusting itself to the load it carries. if both mica and hornblende are present it is syenitie granite. p. England. The water contains a considerable proportion of lime and magnesia and a If it • 10 . If the rock shows layers it is then called gneiss. level. but if the latter be removed the surface again rises or if the weight be moved from one part of the balloon to another the surf ace at the one part rises while at the other . possibly. disappearing as free water. " An interesting example of rock-formation occurs at Sweyney Cliffs. all the free crust.

It is interesting to note that this animal. In subsequent times two of these gradually disappeared. Lawrence. la The uplift of the Pyrenees Mountains did not occur until nearly the end of Mesozoie times. and Laurentian from "St. The mineral salts of the water are deposited copiously on the moss. the dissolved matter being precipitated when the water cools. the coal fields of the Pacific coast belong to the Tertiary age.THE STRUCTURE OP THE EARTH species of coarse 39 moss grows freely in the saturated earth about the stream-bed." All these names are derived from the localities in which the rocks were first studied. Hot alkaline water will also dissolve granitic rocks. The dyke stands out. however. The horse of modern geological times has but one toe. About three cubic yards are added each year. " Thus. the rocks of the Mississippi basin belong to a very old and remote geological period. . "The word Archaean means "the beginning" Palaeozoic is derived from two Greek words meaning " early life " Mesozoie. now confined to the east- ern continent. has become so completely incrusted that it forms a dyke about twenty feet wide. five toes. steel tube. " There were several species of camel during these times. was a native of the west. from "Huron". Those of the Carboniferous age. 18 The earliest species of horse had. Thus. " a former name for the people of Wales. similarly. together with the other matter entangled. They are overlaid by a thin cover of rock waste that belongs chiefly to the most recent period. having built itself from the edge of the cliff a distance of ten feet or more." The Silurian age was named from " Silures. be intensely heated for several hours. and little by little the latter. other features. the larger part of the rock will be dissolved. Devonian comes from "Devon. instead of one. 16 Coal measures are not confined to the Carboniferous age they occur in all geological ages. Huronian. ' . filled . is "middle life". are so vast in extent that they overshadow all subjected to water under a high temperature. . but the "splint bones ' just above the hoof are the toes of the Quaternary horse. "recent life. and Cenozoic. " Substances ordinarily insoluble in water are quickly changed when If a thick with water and fragments of granite." England.

< .

as the word is commonly used. the lowest part the sea-bottom — is about it is five just and one-half miles.000 square miles. The average elevation is of the land is not far from 2. It clusters around the north pole.000 feet. In which hemisphere is the greater part ? Which of the two temperate 41 . but the average depth of the sea about 2.000 fathoms. so The great OCEANIC AREA body of water that covers much of the rock en- velope areas is the sea. but the remaining part irregular areas that are of its surface is consists of very higher than the level of the water.000. and from this circumpolar region it radiates toward Cape Horn.CHAPTEE III LAND AND WATEB. More than three-fourths covered by the sea. nor is of it any considerable part perfectly level. The land aggregates about 53. The lowest part of the rock envelope below sea-level —that of is. toward the Cape of Good Hope. 1 the above sea-level constitute the land. AND THEIB OUTLINES The surface of the rock envelope is not smooth. and toward Tasmania. and the highest point above about the same distance.

2 the shore. each surrounded by water.42 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY zones includes the greater area ? How many great land masses. Each one. the coast. are there ? The two masses are divided nearly in twain. and the latter < . —The continents are so called on ac- count of certain features of their structure. 3 the smaller ones islands. The three largest land masses are called consents . The Continents. The line along which the land and the sea meet is the shore . is divided into grand divisions. each at the and the smallest is separated by an arm of the sea which seems to have severed it from the largest. the narrow strip of land next largest central part. for convenience.

The greater elevations of North America are from one to one and a half miles above sea-level those of South America. Are the highlands continuous or broken ? Each one is a great plateau rimmed and traversed by lofty mountains.000 feet compare the extent of highlands and lowlands in each continent in North America. The margin of each continent is more or less continuous. The depth of water along its extent varies. About one-fifth of the Australian. lowland regions of each continent and also its submerged shelf facing what ocean are the highlands ? the lowlands ? Where is the continental shelf widest ? on which side of North America has it the greatest width ? The highlands are represented by the area above the level of 2. The differs altitude of the highest regions of the continents much. — . two-fifths of the American. the lowland regions are more nearly level than the highlands. about two miles and the highest parts of Asia are more than three miles above sea-level. The mountains that rim or surmount the highlands are much higher in many instances about twice as high. The submerged margin is very generally considered a part of the continent. The slopes toward the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans are long and gentle how does this fact compare with the slopes of the Pacific and Indian Oceans ? As a rule. : — — . 45 shows both the highland and the shelf. It is usually called the continental 4 The map on p.: LAND AND WATER 43 yond this margin the surface slopes rather abruptly into deep water. . and in places the margin itself reaches above sealevel. they situated? . On which side of the eastern continent are its principal lowlands ? On which side of the American continent are . and three-fifths of the Asian continent are above the 2.000-foot contour. and forms a high surface in comparison with the surrounding sea-bottom.



The surface of the Caspian Sea is eighty -four feet below that of the Mediterranean the Dead Sea. situ. south of the Atlas Mountains. Many of them are partly submerged ranges of mountains that are parallel to A STRETCH OF THE COAST OF NORWAY The coast. or about one-seventeenth of the entire land surface of the earth. There are two small depressions in North America. In a few instances there are depressions in the land below sea-level. Africa would be probably a little higher.4G PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY The mean elevation of the land varies considerably in If their surfaces were levelled off Europe would be not far from one thousand feet high North America and Africa about two thousand feet and Asia nearly three thousand feet. Australia and . hundred feet below sea-level. and South America not quite so high as North America. ated in a gash north of the Sea. the various continents. Find two . The majority of them are situated on the continental plateau. . Red Islands. rocky is bordered by many thousand islets. deeply indented the maritime ranges of the continent. north of the Gulf of California and two or three in Africa. or that ex- with fjords. It is not unlikely that these were former arms of the sea that were severed from the main body. and are at no great distance from the continents to which they belong. — The islands have an aggregate area of about three million square miles. tend from it. is thirteen .

The islands called continental islands . two near the Asian continent. keeping the top always even with the wash of the waves. and that the latter gradually subsided until they were covered by the sea. here and there. but for the greater part the position of each peak is marked by the reef of coral growth that encircles it. broken shallow water. In the Pacific Ocean there is a large area in which islands are so numerous that they form the well-defined grand division Polynesia. as Jan Mayen and St. find the meaning of this word from the dictionary. A peculiar feature about many of these islands is their form. As a rule each consists of an irregular ring of reef matter. There is no doubt about the origin of some of them they consist of the lava that has been ejected from volcanoes. Helena in others they form a chain. and tossed up by the waves. the enclosed . In some instances these islands are solitary. while the coral polyp cannot live fathoms. But while the peak was slowly sinking the coral polyps steadily built their reefs upward. This opinion. as the Hawaiian group. Islands of this character are usually and the reason is obvious. the reefs sometimes extend almost vertically to a depth of several hundred first made prominent by Darwin. In a few instances. . is that. surrounding The reef is called an atoll . are islands far distant from any large body of land. 5 It has been inferred that the coral polyps began their growths on the slopes of the volcanic peaks. . . themselves are popularly known as coral islands. In some instances a volcanic peak is in sight.LAND AND WATER 47 such chains near the American continent. These islands occur in quite regular chains that are roughly parallel in direction they are therefore thought to be the higher summits of submerged mountainranges. borne out by the fact more than twenty fathoms below the surface of the sea.

R U N D ED re E p At what place do the Pacific and Arctic Oceans meet ? the AtlanPacific? the Atlantic and tie Indian ? the Atlantic and Arctic ? ^ Pacific Ocean comprises about one-half the entire line of the Atlantic about one-quarter.000 fathoms. Which one is V fe/ / nearly enclosed? lantic in Compare the Atshape with the others. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY broken in one or more and in many instances the lagoons form good harUsually the bors. The sea covers more than half the northern and about seven-eighths of the southern hemi- — \ <*$' \j\ sphere. the average depth of the oceans varies with why is their size — the larger the ocean the greater The its depth.h r The Sea .«'"* .'->X« \ „""•• ^i \ convenience. London to not such a passage feasible as a trade route ? In general. the oceans. . "i "' : Name them. ally divides the \ a :. The Sea. polar oceans are shallower.1 continents into great divisions called oceans.f. and its vegetation is confined to a few species. / p0 I /' \ "t / % \ s'Wj tf. \ %. / j and the equator conventiontwo largest oceans into northern and southern divisions. is considerably longer explain why. the Atlantic far and Indian not from 2."'% Which locked of the oceans is nearly land? group of S SU coral bvTbar r . For polar circles . is Although the area it is it covers continuous.::.J ': \ few feet high. are taken as the boundaries of the polar i i \ . atoll is places. The Pacific is about 2. Why On India are not the polar oceans important routes of traffic ? a globe trace a northwest passage from . The shore . the latter. The reef is rarely more than a \ \ Ci.. mainly of palms.500 fathoms.48 •water a lagoon. however. separated by the ' ^ 3.. /'.

Arms of the Sea. —compare with in the Atlan- and Indian Oceans. straits. a large it 3. 6 The greatest depth of the sea. forming the bodies or bays. etc. The floor or bed of the sea . less than a tenth of the land reaches six thousand feet above it.LAND AND WATEE but not enough is 49 average can be computed. scarcely surpasses the height of the loftiest mountain peak yet while four-fifths of the sea basin is six thou. There are also several 4. After deep water was reached. are structural. sounds. or of some The part of it. a considerable distance within the general outlines of the continents. or abrupt changes of level are no steep slopes known to exist. —In various places the sea extends to arms called seas. larger arms.000-fathom areas describe their positions. having and been made or shaped by the action of waves or by currents of water.000-fathom and at least two small 5. the bend that gives the west coast of Africa its shape also gives a similar form to . The borders of a continent may be flanked by lofty highlands. however. gulfs. is by no means so irregular as the surface of the land and. The sound- no slopes nor inclines too steep for a railway grade. it is seen. the soundings for the Atlantic cable of 1866 did not vary more than seven or eight hundred feet in two ings for the telegraph cables disclosed made thousand miles. sand feet lower than sea-level.000-fathom area in the north Pacific Australia in size tic — and several smaller areas . and have resulted from upheaval or depression of the continent. and the trend of the coast usually conforms to the trend of the ranges. known about their depth upon which an The greatest ocean depths are There is much in excess of the average depths. Thus. the vicinity of the coral islands and the continental shores excepted. estuaries are Many of the smaller coves shore formations.

Note similar examples along the west coast of Compare the coast lines of the grand divisions with reference to indentations. howa type of enclosed waters. the Adrifornia. even more remarkable because practically Of this type the Mediterranean is an example. Asia. atic Sea. On of CaliGulf the of position the note America. and such arms of the ocean are now often called mediterraneans. and Puget Sound the Gulf of Guinea. coast line Europe or Africa Which has the longer — '? A ROCK-BOUND COAST : THE CYCLOPS. . ever. The Gulf of Mexico is properly included in Nearly all the larger arms of the sea are dethis class. and the Caribbean and North Seas are examples of There is another type. or form an angle with the coast. that is land-locked. North of on a map of Europe. the sea usually ena map ters the valley to some distance between them. COAST OF SICILY Unfit for commerce and a menace to navigation.50 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Where parallel ranges extend seaward. . Almost any partly enclosed portion of an ocean is called a sea.

ing in and combing on the coast picks The drag of the waves rollup sand and rock down by muddy streams and piles it in the form of long spits and beaches at a little distance from the shore. The study of almost any good map of a continent. or of any considerable part of its shore outshows that various parts of the coast differ materially. Name the various coasts that resemble it. for instance. One of them is a rock-bound coast deeply indented with fjords and hemmed in by rocky islets. waste brought . Compare. This coast has been worn and frayed by the action of sheets of ice. but it has also subsided until the valleys are submerged by the lines. 52. A CLIFF-GIRT COAST : SAN JUAN. the plain bordering the sea is shallow half a mile or more from the shore. The illustrations on pp. 46 and 52 are examples of shore forms. — sea. or of the plateau on which Coast Forms.. LAND AND WATER they are situated. 51 pressed parts of the continents. PUERTO RICO dips so gently below seadevel that the water In the illustration on p. the coasts of Maine and Florida of the Chesapeake Bay and southern California. 7 Find other coasts that resemble it.

as at the coast of Newport.). A considerable sea-cliffs.52 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Along many parts of the coast the sea seems to be encroaching on the land. but the latter is a great A STRETCH OF NORTH CAROLINA COAST The barrier beaches nearly inlets enclose the coast . Fringing reefs occur on the south coast of Florida. and the waves beat against the shore. and occur here and there along the Hawaiian coast. examples of coral formation. extent of the California coast is bordered by and they occur here and there along the North Atlantic coast. littoral waters. har- rier reefs. Rhode Island. Coral growths are confined to warm. There are a few tralia is channels across the reef. breaking it away its until there is a high cliff with a narrow beach at foot. and is limited to waters whose temperature does not fall below 25° (67° F. and they are perhaps the most common tidal currents. farther out. Almost the entire east coast of Aus- shut off from open communication by a barrier reef more than twelve hundred miles long. the are kept deep enough for navigation by the obstacle to commerce. Absolutely clear the reef-building polyp . Coral formations are very important factors in shore reefs lines. On shore they are called fringing . the shores of the They are common along Bahama Islands.

commerce and intercommunication will seek the former. where a rugged surface slopes abruptly below sea-level. The same conditions prevail on the coast of. Coast Outlines and a country have not a its Civilization. one having good. From a good map of the British Isles find the names used as synonymes of " cape " and " strait. 45-46. . The great stride in the progress of the Japanese people was begun when they opened their enlightenment as well." Make a Find the centre of each hemisphere on p. the other poor harbors. good harbors are numerous. QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES the progress of the English people ? ports on the Chinese ? —How have good What harbors affected has been the effect of closed Compare the commerce of these coast of the North Atlantic coast of the United To which type does each forms belong ? Where are most of the large seaports of the Atlantic coast of the United States ? Explain the reason for their States with that of the South Atlantic coast. and to this fact the half-savage condition of the native peoples is largely due. Europe. Africa and South America have but very few good harbors. Mention several instances in which peninsulas enclose waters so as to form gulfs or bays. and never within the reach of river sediments.LAND AND WATEK water 53 is requisite. ports to foreign trade. Why island ? should Australia be considered a continent rather than an Does the cutting of the Suez Canal give Africa any insular properties that it did not possess before ? list of the principal mediterranean seas of the world. —The its coast forms of little bearing on prosperity and vites A coast with good harbors incommerce and intercommunication. Along the North Atlantic coast of the United States. 40. and for this reason coral reefs are rarely found along the shores of continents. Study the position of the submerged part of the continents on the map. location. pp. Of two regions.

pp. Chapter IV. Yet these two necks of land are all that connect the divisions of each continent. 5 The coral polyp is a zoophyte form of marine animal growth not unlike a tree with its branches. . Physically it is better to treat Eurasia as a whole— politically and historically the two divisions are best considered separately. twenty-five thousand miles of open navigation are obstructed by less than one hundred and thirty miles of land. Basis of Geography. — Manual of Geology. 3 It is now the custom to restrict the latter term to the largest land masses. — NOTES commonly asserted that the same amount of water exon the earth at the present time as during remote geological periods. Redwat. 145-152. . the continental border. United States Geological Survey. Nearly all the minerals. — New Shaler. That is. Even these barriers are disappearing because of canals either completed or projected." The isthmus of Panama is scarcely thirty miles wide and the isthmus of Suez is only one hundred miles across. The mouths of the polyp 1 It is ists . 187-222. pp. and the submerged border. This is doubtless true. Norwich and New London Sheet (drowned valleys) Sandy Hook and Barnegat Port Washington Sheet Sheets (spits and barrier beaches) (cliffs). 4 This margin is also called the continental plateau.54 PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY COLLATERAL READING Dana. but the only real boundary that separates them is the desert highland that separates western from oriental civilization. contain notable proportions of water in combination. When the earth was younger there was much water in a liquid form that is now chemically combined with various mineral elements. Europe and Asia are also called continents. especially those in a crystalline form. — Sea and Land. but it is sometimes more convenient to apply it to a grand division. 2 This separation of the land masses has been aptly called the "zone of fracture. but it is also true that not all the water is in the same form now as in prior times.

E. North of Puerto Rico a sounding of 4. . The wire carries at its lower end a sinker which detaches itself on touching bottom. S. The living portion of a coral is found at the surface of the water or a few feet below it the dead portion may extend a hundred fathoms or more be. of Sunday Island and 5.155 fathoms a few leagues east of Macarthy Island. 7 Marine currents frequently attempt to carry away the rock waste piled up by the waves. Very few of when the deep-sea soundings made prior to 1870 are now considered trustworthy. The two last were made by Commander Balfour. and similar examples are found along the shores of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. With the method perfected by Admiral Belknap and Captain Sigsbee. low the surface.147 fathoms. S. Penguin. .LAND AND WATER 55 completely cover its upper surface in much the same manner as the flowers of the hollyhock or mullein cluster about the stem. The cable ship Nero reported a sounding of 5. 300 fathoms east of the Hawaiian Islands. N. one hundred miles B. M. is an example. In a single community the growth of the polyp is chiefly upward. the sinker had reached bottom. in an area now known as Tuscarora Deep 5. H. 655 fathoms by the U. New Jersey. and in very deep water it was impossible to tell . Formerly deep sea soundings were made with heavy Manila rope. not far from the Kermadec group. but where the communities are thickly clustered. east of Japan. Tuscarora. at the same time closing a cup that secures a specimen of the bottom. their branches interlock and finally form a compact mass. and between the two it is dragged Sandy Hook. steel piano wire takes the place of the rope. 6 The deepest soundings so far obtained are 4.651 fathoms has been obtained. into a curved form making a hook. S.

considerably higher. wrinkled. an almost imperceptible swell in a level plain may cliff or a ridge and a mountain-range. Most plains are lowlands. a mountain system. As a rule. CHAPTEE IV THE RESULTS OF SLOW MOVEMENTS OF THE ROCK ENVELOPE: PLAINS. AND MOUNTAINS The larger vertical forms of the land are the results of the slow movements if of the rock envelope. gle topographic So it often happens that a sin- form may have the character of several kinds of relief. the various features that constitute topography are distinct one from another but in many instances lowlands gradually increase in altitude and become high. The plain east of the Rocky Mountains 56 is an example . — Any six level or nearly level stretch of land is commonly more than called a plain. develop into a . Plains.. little by little. PLATEAUS. a plateau . There no fixed elevation at which an area ceases to be a lowland. little Any if consideris called able area of land but higher than sea-level a plain. is and broken. features of the landscape. surfaces tude are lowlands. may lose its characteristic form among other lands . while those of less altiversa. folded. but in is a few instances the name applied to surfaces that are thousand feet above sea-level— an elevation considerably greater than that of some mountain-ranges. but in general. or vice more than two thousand feet above sea-level are called highlands.

ami the moderately fertile. Plains are variously named. silvas. the vast plains that almost girdle Ocean are known as steppes. their frozen. llanos and the forest-covered plains Ama- A ROLLING The forestry is PLAIN. zon. it is AND MOUNTAINS 57 higher than the crests of the Appalachian Mountains. Scotland the terms. moor. . VIRGINIA soil only deficient. the grassy plains of the of the Orinoco. swampy coast fringe being known as tundras. In South America the vast plains — of Argentina are called pampas . If shaped by comparatively still water they . and prairies by the French both of which names are very commonly employed. In Eurasia. or have received their surface configuration by it. 1 the Arctic — the action of water. The grassy plains of the New World were named savannas by the Spanish.PLAINS. plains Most have been formed by Origin of Plains. and about as high as the highest peaks. In England and heath. meadoic. PLATEAUS. and are used.

or lacustrine plains . . they Thus. the former being If formed of sediare alluvial they streams running ments deposited by plains if on diluvial moving ice. and when at length the lake disappears. the valley of Red River of the North. off by plains if levelled old sea-bottoms the latter lake basins. . . too. Eurasia. and. Originally old sea or lake bottoms. a broad. wind-swept plain will 2 take its place. Alluvial plains are usually best developed along the lower courses of rivers. coast plains.58 are PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY known as marine . . In some instances the floor was filled and levelled off by the remains of minute animals ing vegetation. one of the finest examples This plain re- sulted from the draining of a lake. in 6thers by dead and decay- In time these old bottoms were raised above water-level if their surfaces were not wrinkled and folded. because the sediments forming them were deposited in still water. the gradual shrinkage of the lake has left a plain more than two hundred miles wide. and so. The bottom-lands of the lower Mississippi and the Danube. the margin of the sea or a lake. On the northern side. their surfaces are level. the Great Central Plain of North America an old sea- bottom. although they exist in narrow reaches along almost the entire length of the stream. the larger part of is constitute the plains of to-day. The plain surrounding the Caspian Sea is an excellent example of a plain in the process of formation. is is most of the great northern plain of Of lacustrine plains. and was so recently formed that its surface has scarcely been notched by the river that now imperfectly drains it. Marine and lacustrine plains constitute by far the greater area of the lowland surface of the earth. The valley or basin of Great Salt Lake possibly is passing through a similar period of growth and development.

the and the broad. KENTUCKY A very fertile prairie with considerable forest growth. the AND MOUNTAINS of 59 mazy deltas of the Nile and the Ganges-Brahmaputra. 3 Name The other illustrations. surface of a coast plain is made level by the action an uplift of the surface is taking place.PLAINS. The coast plain along the South Atlantic and Gulf coast is an of the waves. Much of the material of which it is sediment brought down by the rivers. . but the waves have been the chief agent in building it. fertile plains Po are examples. if and A LEVEL PLAIN." excellent example. PLATEAUS. Throughout its whole extent it is but little higher than tide-water. the plain gets gradually wider and wider as successive portions of the sea-bottom are brought to the surface. 4 is composed and in most places the line where they meet is quite distinct. The line along which the coast plain joins the older land is marked by a rather abrupt slope called the "Fall Line.

Almost every body of land is surrounded by a coast Most plain . The most extensive plain of the world is that which forms the northern slope of Eurasia. indeed its the denudation or wasting of the land. Its continuity is broken by of course. 6 In the New World the great continental plain extends from the Arctic Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico. this point it can go little . is low and comparatively level. however. In most instances slow. and along the eastern side coast a line of cities marks the junction. . the moving sheet of filled rugged parts and the depressions with the material removed. but in many cases rivers. waves.60 PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHY of the rivers are navigable to the Fall Line. and there is an apparent extension from the Caribbean Sea southward through South America. . physiography of rivers and and coast plains are formed on nearly all shores. In Asia it is high and rolling in Europe the greater part of its extent. but or no farther so it is distributed along the shore and levelled off by the waves. Much of the northern part of the United States received the configuralevelled off tion of its surface ice scoured off the by this process . vertical movements of the rock envelope are concerned in the formation and development of coast plains. The great marine plains of the world are mainly on the slopes of the Arctic and the Atlantic Ocean. stantly being carried to sea-level formation and growth necessarily follows Rock waste is con- beyond by running waters. In various places surfaces formerly rugged have been by the action of the sheet of ice that once covered portions of Europe and North America. From east to west it stretches a distance of about nine thousand miles from north to south. lakes —Alluvial and lacustrine plains. are incidents in the . and tidal currents divide the work among themselves. . 5 Distribution of Plains. about three thousand miles.

Economic Value of Plains. PLATEAUS. It presents cer- tain marked contrasts to the plain of the Asian Continent.PLAINS. More than this. chief factor in their destruction. area. The latter is a margin of the continent . carry the greater part — out much of its extent. —Because more of their comto paratively level surface. especially near the sea. north and south. Physiographic Aspect of Plains. it is likewise the From the moment a plain comes into existence. . The " Bad Lands " of South Dakota and Nebraska are remnants of an old lacustrine plain that has been so greatly dissected that the region is well-nigh impassable throughgin to carve channels in its surface. bordered by mountain-ranges." The coast plain of much of the South Atlantic and Gulf coast is young. In remote times the alluvial plains of the Nile and of Mesopotamia were the seats of dense population and vast inIn later times the plains of Europe and of the dustries. erable dissection and the channels are comparatively deep. AND MOUNTAINS 61 occasional ranges and arms of the sea. storm waters and running streams be- These. Railways can be built across them at the minimum of cost. plains are accessible commerce than mountainous regions. and the rivers that traverse them are usually navigable. Therefore they are capable of support- ing a denser population than mountainous regions. — the chief agent in the formation of plains. Although water is . the former is an interior plain. The latter extends east and west the former. extending in perhaps all the surface mate7 rial away. the soil of plains is usually deep and easily cultivated. A plain thus channelled is said to be " dissected. The plains bordering Lakes Erie and Ontario show signs The streams have accomplished a considof greater age. Its slope is so gentle that the streams have not yet carved their channels to any great depth.

. Without the hard cap the surface would have been rounded off. or a table- its general form and structure. Mesas and table-lands are generally the result of erosion. leaving a hill instead of a mesa. the plateau region of western North America. Almost any broad extent of country having an elevation of more than a few hundred feet. or unequal weathering." or " level.000 feet. Most of the great plateaus of the earth are and their surfaces are by ridges and valleys. and Sierra Nevada systems the great Bolivian plateau is margined by the highest summits of the Andes and the loftiest plateau in the world. a table-land. nearly a mile and a half high. They are noticeable objects because of their flat tops and the steep cliffs or escarpments that form their slopes. in time a table-land is formed. plateaus are the result of a gradual uplift of parts of the rock mountain. that the greater part of the world's wealth and power is centred in the plains of the temperate zones. . As a rule. according to envelope. rimmed by generally traversed .62 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY United States have become the great producers of wealth. The name. It may be said. Only a small fraction of the world's population lives above the altitude of 2." has ac- quired a signification almost the opposite. The top of the mesa is commonly a layer of rock resting upon softer substance. is bordered by the lofty ranges of the Rocky Mountains. and an ir- — regular or dissected " surface. Thus. mesas and lofty mountain-ranges. The latter is protected from the action of the elements by the harder material and. table-lands are the outlying or isolated remnants of plateaus. is enclosed by some of the loftiest ranges of the earth. Like most other elevations of the earth's surface. originally meaning " flat. small area is A plateau of usually called a mesa. therefore. is popularly called a plateau. and but few of the great cities are more than six hundred feet above sea-level. Plateaus. that of Tibet.


on the map several examples Among the plateaus of the Asian Continent. A series of lesser highlands borders the Atlantic Ocean. Plateaus.—Most of the high plateaus are in the great highlands that radiate from north circum- polar regions . JOHN DAY VALLEY. while those of the eastern highland have less than half that altitude. OREGON The sheet of lava at the surface has been removed here and there leaving a t series of mesas. especially those of a considerable altitude. The rugged slopes and deep canons almost always make commercial intercourse ly three miles . are generally unproductive.64 PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY Distribution of Plateaus. In North America. . A DISSECTED PLATEAU. the plateaus may take the form of peninsulas of Asia. Economic Aspect of Plateaus. In places where the highlands border the name sea. while those of the eastern region have less than one-third that height. enclosed ? To — . like the " parks " of Colorado. above sea-level by what ranges is it partly the westward are the Pamirs. about three and a half miles above the sea. near. In some instances they are so high that but little rain falls in others the mountain-rims shut off the moisture that is borne with the winds. they face the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Although the plateaus have each a more or less definite outline they cannot always be considered apart from the highlands to which they belong. that of Tibet is remarkable for its size and elevated surface. the plateaus of the western highlands are a little more than a mile high. a series of grassy plateaus. and these also contain plateaus. In South America the plateaus of the Andes are about two miles high.

The broken and dissected rock strata in many instances yield minerals and metallic ores useful in the arts and sciences. there is generally a rainfall sufficient for the production of well adapted to grazing and the land that cannot be cultivated is often meat.PLAINS. . The wool from these regions is . the finest in the world. sparsely peopled Because of their un- productive character the high plateaus. and the rugged character of the surface often furnishes an abundance of water-power. tAfter Powell. are great ridges structure. cattle products and wool . marked by a very rugged surface. or else they are immense blocks of rock. very difficult. they A SECTION ACROSS THE UINTA MOUNTAINS tA single fold with fault. — characteristic In form. as a rule. Mountains are the most and remarkable features of the landscape. Mountains. In the lower plateaus the conditions food-stuffs. except to the rudest methods of communication. the results of coal and iron production and in the Iberian Plateau and Australia the results of grazing facilities. In the New England Plateau of the United States one may see the results of surface conditions in the production of water-power in the Appalachian Plateaus. are almost always associated with these plateaus. AND MOUNTAINS 65 and sometimes impossible. are different. and because of the lack of intercommu- nication the civilization of the native peoples is not usually of the highest type. In they are folds or wrinkles in the strata of the rock envelope. broken and partly upturned. . are . PLATEAUS.

on the contrary. A single fold form ridges that it may be worn away so that the broken strata . The hollow or de- pression between adjacent ranges forms an intermontane . mountain system is characterized generally by great extent. A very extensive system is sometimes called a cordillera. of gentle folds. another to the right or the left taking its place. or a pinnacle. Name three of the greatest systems. Piedmont lands. but the name is also applied to volcanic THE JURA MOUNTAINS tA series cones.66 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Mountains occur usually in systems. are said to be a chain. and to elevations erly are plateaus tain. continues a short distance. It gradually takes form. I0 In most instances the peak is a high crag. and then disappears. Thus. are called foot-hills or. presents the appearance of a series of notches. several of the more important exceeding four or five thousand miles in length. The rolling hills that in many instances form the approach to a system. or the crest may be weathered so unevenly thereby forming a sierra. A range. one of the other. together forming a distinct group. the Eocky and Andean Systems from the great Cordillera of the Western Continent Eanges or folds that seem to be continuations. —as that more propBroad Mountain. rarely exceeds a few hundred miles in length. Pocono Moun- A and Broad Top. Any part of the crest or summit materially higher than the rest forms a peak. each of which con- sists of many ranges. in the Appalachian system. as the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains. better.

there has been a mashing and crumpling of the strata. a park. or a canon. ways by a great The fact. This is conduct of certain rivers that flow across the folds. or if AND MOUNTAINS 67 wide and apparently enclosed. folds are shown by the The streams cut their channels downward quite as fast as the So when the fold has become a by the stream. PLATEAUS. the leaves of a book producing results as irregular and complex as though had been pressed and crumpled sideforce. . there is a single fold in the Jura SECTION OF A DISSECTED RANGE tA single fold is dissected into a number of ridges. in other instances.PLAINS. . as the Alps. the latter would be pushed upward. —In the simplest form. Mountains there are several . a gap. folding process takes place slowly that no means exist whereby it so slowly. but even in such cases there is always evidence that the uplift of the range is very slow. valley . in can be measured ex- — cept after long intervals of time. . as the Uinta Mountains. Had not the up thrust of the fold proceeded more slowly than the downward cutting of the stream. lofty range. Nature of Mountain Ranges. it is severed transversely turned aside in places this seems to have occurred. A valley that extends across the range is called a pass.

000 feet thick. The Nevada and Cascade Ranges are both folded and broken. 11 Thus in the Appalachian Mountains. . is a notable fact that the strata which form them are much thicker along the folds than elsewhere. mountain-ranges Moreover. or similar rock that is many folds. however. The ridges in the Great Basin of the United States are great blocks of sedimentary rocks that have been broken and tilted. Sierra and left with edges partly upturned. BLOCK MOUNTAINS. as in the it is not common. BASIN REGION The upturned edges form the ranges. it are composed of strata of sedimentary rock.000 present in the lower part of feet in thickness. the sediments composing the folds are about 40. separated by intermontane valleys and crossed by gaps and passes. The but ideal system with its parallel folds exists. In most instances one finds a confused tangle of ridges and ranges. it is true. Not all ranges present the aspects of folds. and their abrupt eastern slope is the edge of an immense block tilted toward the Pacific.68 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY Excepting the core of granite. while the same strata in the Mississippi Valley are scarcely more than 4. In not a few instances parallel ranges are connected by spurs.

In general. little by ridges. but the moving ice sheet that at one time covered the northern part of the Appalachian . broken and. And although nearly every part of the rock envelope dation. 12 Much —probably most — of this material has been re- moved by running water. palachian folds in Pennsylvania are scarcely more than two thousand feet high at the present time far . Physiographic Aspect of Mountains. there are few folds. Tian Shan. leaving the upturned edges in the form Most of the ranges of the Appalachian Mountains are ridges formed in this manner. of long ridges. but many ridges. the more exposed will it be to the factors that produce erosion. and Suliman Mountains. As the process of elevation goes on. canons. PLATEAUS.PLAINS. as high as the loftiest summits of the Himalayan Usually the slopes and foot-hills are covered deep with coarse rock waste. as in the case of the Pamir highland. and hogbacks. 69 Nevada and Coast Ranges and not infrequently seem to radiate from a massive uplift. Not only are the flanks sculptured. The amount of material removed from the slopes and The crests of the Apcrests of mountains is enormous. the mountain torrents carve the slopes of the range into a multitude of valleys. at the same time. but the crests are The tops of the folds being considerably also worn away. the most exposed. little are removed. the more prominent a topographic feature. from which radiate the great folds that form the Himalaya. uplifted is undergoing denu- surfaces generally suffer most. Hindu several ranges Kush. Sierra AND MOUNTAINS . but if all the material that has been removed could be again heaped upon them. their summits would be not high from ten miles —about twice folds. — From the mo- ment the process of uplift begins the waters of the atmos- phere begin to level off the folds.

effects of mountain-ranges which show but few weathering are comparatively young. where the wasting was less effective. they are about two thousand feet high. ." and " dent " (tooth). But in the South Atlantic States. they received the full force of glacial ice. in the North Atlantic States and New York. are worn down almost to the sea- In Pennsylvania. are very much worn. the oldest in North America. The ridges of be incidental to highland regions. though young as compared with the Appalachian folds. and are Nevada are much more worn and carved. As a rule. enduring crags of the Alps. " horn. beyond the limits of glacial ice. In arid regions they are apt to be angular. In North America the Eocky and Sierra Nevada ranges are the rims of a high plateau whose surface is traversed by throughout block ranges. the sharp. " aiguille " (needle). the highlands. The tilted blocks of strata that constitute the short ranges of eastern Oregon as yet are scarcely notched by streams.— Mountain-ranges seem to very slightly weathered. The character of the weathering and the landscape scenery as well depend partly on the rock and partly on the conditions of climate. are worn so greatly that their highest crests are only a few hundred feet above sea-level. Distribution of Mountains. and graceful. subdued. and the Eocky Mountains. therefore. The great highlands that border the Pacific and Indian Oceans are rimmed much of their extent by very lofty folds. where level. The notched crests of western ranges of the United States and Mexico have suggested the name " sierra " (saw).ft) PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY highlands was also a powerful agent in sculpturing their crests and slopes. the various ridges are more than four thousand feet in altitude. The Laurentian folds. Thus. in places. In the Appalachian ranges all the forms are rounded.

Name the ranges between which it is situated. the depression crossing Virginia. in the case of Eurasia. Shenandoah Valley. partly breaking the lat- . and Washington is of this character. Valleys. The Alps form the northern. is similar in structure. The great system Europe. however. The great intermontane valley of California.PLAINS. 15 In many instances the water wears away the broken rocks forming the crest of a range more easily than it can remove them elsewhere. — The folding of strata into parallel ranges between them. belongs to the principal highland of Eurasia. More commonly. general the great systems are nearest the Pacific and Indian Oceans. What sea fills the intermontane valley between them? A partly submerged chain . and hence the valley resulted from their removal. The valley of the lower Hudson was possibly formed in a similar manner. however. extending from the Caspian Sea to the Atlantic. name the peninextends along the east coast of Asia In sulas and principal island groups belonging to it. Most valleys. a part of which the St. however. the streams on opposite sides of a range wear their channels clear to the crest. In this way canoe-shaped valleys are formed at the summit of a fold. Although interrupted by cross ranges it practically extends from Puget Sound to the Gulf of California. is an example. The rocks along the line of the valley were more easily worn away than those to the east and the west. AND MOUNTAINS ? 71 How is this statement borne out in the case of South It America ? of southern of Australia ? of Africa does not seem ap- parent. Lawrence River naturally forms valleys now occupies. Oregon. are the results of stream-cutting and the general weathering that comes from the action of water. and the Atlas Ranges of Africa the southern rim. The valley. PLATEAUS.

and include a — very large proportion of uncultivable land. Cascade and Sierra Nevada ranges illustrate this ? How does this affect the habitability of the region west of their summits ? In various localities ranges at a considerable distance from the sea chill the winds passing over them and condense the moisture that otherwise would not be precipitated. Notwithstanding the fact that mountains are sparsely settled. Susquehanna. . both frequently classed among plateaus. Mountains. too. The latter are situated in a high mountain knot which. are examples. are factors in the disless exert a great influence on life. is often called the " Eoof of the World.72 ter PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY down by making deep notches across it. Many of the passes in the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains are examples . they neverthe- and its inwinds may be so dustries. . tribution of rain. and Hudson Eivers. The Parks of Colorado." Economic Aspect of Mountains. Water-gaps are usually passes are usually high at the base level of the range above it. CANOE VALLEYS. APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS In a few instances the cross spurs that join parallel ranges enclose valleys of considerable extent. Ranges that face rain-bearing How do the lofty that they intercept all the moisture. because of its great height. and the Pamirs. its history. 1G and so. therefore. are the water-gaps of the Delaware.

.PLAINS. a metal necessary in the transmission of electrio power. AND MOUNTAINS 73 The broken folds of the strata frequently expose metals and minerals that otherwise would not be accessible. also. Mountains affect life and it its industries mainly because they are barriers to intercommunication. the distribution of life-forms is greatly restricted. PLATEAUS. the copper. The dense forests of the Pacific Coast cannot extend across the Cascade and Sierra Nevada Ranges. the mechanism of exchange. come from mountain-ranges and so. because there is not enough moisture to support them. For the first years of our national history there was no transcon- between the Atlantic and Pacific It was easier to go sixteen thousand miles around Cape Horn than to traverse one thousand miles of mountainous surface. Almost all the gold and silver. Practically all the anthracite coal and much of the best iron ores are associated with the rocks of mountain-ranges. essential to the industries of mankind. therefore. Because of the differences of climate on opposite sides of high ranges. in contact with the rest of the world that their language and customs have been changed but little in that time. During the succeeding years they have been so little tinental intercourse coasts of our country. does most of . ples of early times found The Greek peo- much easier to spread along the shores of the Mediterranean and across the iEgean Sea than fifty to cross the Balkan Mountains. The effects of intercommunication may be seen in the More than two thousand years ago case of the Basques. not many of the plants of the arid side of the mountains can cross the ranges and survive because the conditions of climate and soil are unsuitable. The latter are. On the other hand. they were driven from the lowlands of Spain and France into the almost inaccessible valleys of the Pyrenees Mountains.


PLAINS. must be concentrated. the industries of life are of neces- sity concentrated in the valleys. it is the chief gateway to India and the truth of the old saying. and therefore densely peopled. all the intercourse and communication must be concentrated at the passes. the wonderful development of New York City is due. To Mohawk Gap. AND MOUNTAINS As 75 Intermontane valleys are usually productive. shade or otherwise designate the areas of highland and lowland. and for this reason it furnishes a standard by which freight rates between Atlantic seaports and the Mississippi basin are regulated. that inasmuch as mountains are a barrier between peoples upon their opposite sides. the channel toward which intercourse Railway routes through mountainous regions are always surveyed and built through the Almost every railway to the various commercial passes. . areas. because fresh brought to them with every region on either flood season. . Khyber Pass. QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES. centres of the Atlantic seaboard seeks a way through the passes and water-gaps of the Appalachian Mountains. a rule. using such contours. mountain-range pass is. A is an obstacle to communication. for more than two thousand years has been a part of one of the great overland routes between Europe and India. PLATEAUS. their fertility cansoil is not be easily impaired. a pass that practically forms the principal route of traffic between the Great Lakes and the Hudson River. a narrow defile a few miles east of Kabul. Because of the infertile side. It is evident." is every day more and more emphasized.—Name and classify the vertical forms in the State in which you live. It is more nearly level than any other route across the Appalachian Mountains. Indeed. "whoso would be master of India must first make himself Lord of Kabul. therefore. On an outline map. and the therefore. Passes have even greater importance than valleys.

the following Willis. Kaibab. 169-202. Marysville. Hurn- melstown. of the benefits localities Name some Explain why Fort Ticonderoga and Crown Point were important during the colonial wars. and both are covered with "bunch-grass" coarse species that grows to a Pampas being a very . Exploration of Grand CaOon. Both slope from a high to a low that of the level. Physiography of the United States. — — — sheets ville. township. {Consult any good map of Lake Cha. 64. The Pampas resemble the high plains east of the Rocky Mountains. or other region — of interest. : Tooele. or grand division. county. draw heavy lines representing the positions of the principal mountain-ranges.— — 76 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY may be available. Physiography of the United States. What results might occur were a mountain fold to be formed across the channel of a river ? Make a sketch restoring the plateau or mesa dissected by weathering processes. National Geographic Mag- 261. Make raphy a relief model in sand or paper pulp of any locality. as lief use the Re- Map of of the United States noted below. 305-336. pp. pp. Farmer- Spottsylvania. what general direction does the rock waste of mountains move ? Explain why. Mount Monadnock. —The Piedmont azine. pp. and others. NOTES 1 The difference in the surface features of these plains is due partly to altitude and partly to rainfall. as shown on p. Plateau. Hayes.) On an In outline map of each continent. Sierraville.mpla. 181-193. vii. the topogwhich you know State. Uxited States Geological Survey Maps. Mount Mitchell. why lowlands are more densely peopled than high- COLLATERAL READING AND REFERENCE McGee. Give reasons lands. Powell. and the disadvantages resulting from the presence of the Appalachian Mountains between the industrial centres of the Atlantic Coast and the Mississippi Valley. If possible or lines of equal altitude.

Because their soil is constantly replenished by overflows and freshets they rarely wear out the nutrient elements are supplied about as fast as they are exhausted. a low. but because of their gentler slopes. . To the eastward of the pine barrens is a belt of sand flats and swamps of still : . . for it is in such regions only that simoon winds are found. and like the latter plain. narrow belt of pine forest extends from Chesapeake Bay almost to the Rio Grande.. the rate of erosion is not so great as in mountainous New along the Mississippi and some of its Their complete degradation is a matter of time only. The more recently formed parts are covered with pines and a broken. coastal portion is bordered by tundras. Its slope. The same is true of the valley of Great Salt Lake it will be a desert region as soon as the lake disappears. The bluff lands tributaries are thus dissected. AND MOUNTAINS desert. World. perhaps more accurately. 7 Plains are quite as subject to the same weathering processes as are mountains and plateaus. clay. 2 more recent 6 origin. In strong contrast are the low. however. 77 The Llanos are watered by periodical and are alternately a swamp and a sun-baked . rubber and ornamental Silvas lie in . PLATEAUS. is toward the Arctic Ocean. height of four or rains five feet. " drift " Diluvial plains in places are strewn with large bowlders and covered with a and bowlders. like that of the Eurasian plain. however. The a region of almost constant equatorial rains hence they are adapted to tropical forestry The Pampas and Llanos produce wild cattle and horses the Silvas. but rugged plateau. The higher parts of the Atlantic Coast Plain have been also greatly dissected by streams. unsorted gravel. it loses many of the topographic features of a plain and is. . In many instances the stream valleys and flood plains cover an area equal regions. " composed of sand. 4 The Atlantic Coast Plain varies from a few miles to more than one hundred in width. 3 Alluvial plains are the most productive lands in the world. to the inter-stream uplands. its Generally considered. this plain is a vast basin almost shutting the Arctic Ocean from In the the rest of the sea. woods It will be swept by simoon winds because it will be practically a desert. PLAINS. A similar plain involves the northern part of North America.

however. being softer. It was not thrown up in its present form on the contrary. the streams have formed a network of canons throughout the regions. A complex dissection may be seen in various parts of the Appalachian highlands. " A large part of Rhode Island and Connecticut constitutes the base of an old mountain highland that has been worn down alsteep. In other parts. 10 There are many examples of isolated peaks. Such formations are very common in the lava-covered regions of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains they are also found in the Piedmont lands of western Texas. was worn away. because of a greater rainfall. ' ' . " Both valleys have been modified by water. and large areas show but little signs of dissection. however. 12 At the mouth of every canon there will be found a fan-shaped Valley. " Not only were the deposits that became sedimentary rock thicker before the folding took place. most to sea-level. channels. Mount Holyoke is one of several examples in Massachusetts. denudation has been enormous. but they were made still thicker by side pressure and crumpling. Isolated ridges or ranges are more common. ' ' . Extensive corrasion is shown along the beds of the streams that rise at a distance in snowOnly a small part of the plateau as yet has clad mountains. and only the towers of harder rocks remain. or monadnocks. been removed. is a similar example. and excellent examples may be found in the Great Basin. Mount Monadnock.78 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY recently formed marine plains along the southern coast of New Jersey. such as the "Land of Standing Rocks. Here. it was left when the rest of the range. 8 A high plateau sparsely covered with vegetation is much more readily dissected by streams than a grass-covered surface. the depression . pile of coarser material called talus. The region through which the middle course of the Colorado River flows is an example. and the still younger tule plains of the Sacramento In these the rivers have hardly been able to select their much less to extend them. Here the plateau has been cut to a depth ranging from three thousand to six thousand feet. New Hampshire. " in those mountain-ranges that have been very greatly worn. The region is one of deficient rainfall. A pile of talus is usually found at the bottom of every rocky cliff.

10 Among the famous passes are Argentine. PLATEAUS. Old shorelines and deposits of river gravel occur all along the lower river. — . the highest wagon road pass in the world.. having been submerged. it is more economical to Some of these tunnels are marvels construct a tunnel under it.700 feet all in Colorado. . . Gotthard and Mont Cenis tunnels through the Alps Hoosac tunnel through the range of the same name in Massachusetts San Fernando tunnel.900 feet. Simplon. 13. 13. way is built in sinuous loops aggregating about twenty miles in order to cross a divide scarcely two miles from the head of the The famous loops of the Colorado Midland over Hagervalley. and 79 re-ele- filled 15 It is not unlikely that the process has been more complex. .000 feet above sea-level. PLAINS. mans Pass is also a well-known example of the railway builders' . California. A railway pass across the Andes is nearly 14. and Mosquito Pass. in California and the tunnel of the Transandine Railway are examples each In other cases the railway suris one mile or more in length. The lower part of this valley is now practically an estuary. Marshall Pass. The numerous clay banks seem also to have been deposited by slack water. crossing and recrossing itself through tunnels that often are sharply Near Caliente. 13. one of the highest railway passes in the world Alpine Pass. of engineering skill. partly vated. mounts the range by a series of long and intricate loops. In many instances the pass is not fully surmounted instead of building the railway over the divide. and that periods of elevation have alternated with those of rest.550 feet. and for centuries they have been highways of commerce.100 feet. St. St. and Brenner are famous passes across the Alps. Bernard. AND MOUNTAINS with sediment. the Southern Pacific Railcurved. : skill. 10.

In the one case. two of them. covering very large areas. in the other. are noteworthy because the results are more VESUVIUS.—tAfter ZKasmytb. A TYPICAL CINDER CONE From . there is a movement at 80 . volcanoes and earthquakes.1 model. great quantities of molten matter are ejected from fissures or vents.CHAPTER V DESTEUCTIYE MOVEMENTS OF THE BOOK ENVELOPE: VOLCANOES AND THEIR PHENOMENA Of the level various phenomena that attend changes in the of the rock envelope. or less destructive.

quiescent. or even a severe shock." has been a mariner's beacon for more than two thousand years. A channel or vent in the rock envelope from which great quantities of steam and molten rock are ejected constitutes a volcano} In most instances a great deal of material. sometimes called a "volcano. according to the character of their energy those in which all signs of activity seem to . a cinder cone. Most active volcanoes. if — very large. the caldera. At the top of the latter is a cup-shaped depression called the crater or. 81 or other of the rock envelope.'* Volcanoes showing any display of energy are said to be active. occurs.VOLCANOES AND THEIR PHENOMENA some part tremor. Beyond but little in common. however. Thus the caldera of Mauna Loa nearly always contains lava in its molten condition. . " the Lighthouse of the Mediterranean. very destructive. are intermittent in action. 3 In a few instances the activity seems to be continuous. in the form of clots of half-molten rock. fall about the vent and build up a conical pile. have disappeared are said to be extinct. —In that certain respects all volis." but more properly. 4 . In some instances the plug of hardened lava that filled the channel out. this. present. canic outbursts are similar ejected from a subterranean source. however. Phenomena of Eruption. alternating their eruptions with long periods of rest. and Stromboli. the various types of eruption have In most cases the eruptions are Frequently they are preceded by earththough these warnings are by no means always quakes. or inactive. blown one but quite likely a new channel is formed at the side or the other. so sudden that a Volcanoes. is lava and steam are and the matter ejected forced out of a vent or channel in the rock envelope. Generally they begin with explosions that rend is the top of the cinder cone in fragments.

are quickly formed. From an overhanging crag of At interthis volcano the eruption may be safely studied. building parasitic cones. In . but after awhile the flow be- comes steady and regular. The condensing steam. vals of fifteen or twenty minutes a gigantic bubble begins to form in the caldron of seething lava. or the violent outburst of Vesuvius. A mud and rock waste follows. and a cloud of inky blackness quickly envelopes the cone. Instead of the intermittent bubbles of Stromboli. 6 The ejection of material takes place. produces heavy rains and if sulphur gases are present. 5 A flow of lava follows. At first the lava is ejected with almost explosive violence. the flanks OI old. or parasitic cones. At each vent small monticules. but at the score of new on tile ones _ formed of in the flanks the cinder cone. the water that had accumulated about the cinder cone. Volcanoes such as Stromboli display but comparatively little explosive energy. together with mud and fragments of rock. in many instances the crops are destroyed. the rain may become so corrosive that vegetation is blighted and .1 few moments it rises to the top and bursting. an outrush of steam mingled with are hurled upward . . with which sulphureous vapors are sometimes mingled.82 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY vent once made. not only at the main ideal section of a volcano EMinor eruptions are taking place through fissures vent. and the eruption from them does not differ materially from that at the main vent. hurls a shower of lava clots into the air. 7 The eruptions of the Hawaiian volcanoes are materially different from those of the Strombolian or the Vesuvian type.

plains of the Columbia are the rem- nants of a flood of lava from fissures in the Sierra Nevada mountains. The Palisades of the Hudson form a dyke of similar character. In these eruptions there were apparently none of the phenomena that mark outbursts of Great fissures were formed. emitted. The dotted lines indicate the strata removed by erosion. thrust upward. others the lava merely fissure filled the A LA ccolite tA section and hard- ened. a de- tached group of knolls in Utah. Excepting the very small Products of Eruption. volThe through one of the Henry Mountains. In a few instances a flow of lava. and the Yesuvian type. The cal fissure eruptions that occurred in previous geologi- periods seem to have somewhat resembled those of the Hawaiian volcanoes. or an enormous perhaps for sevit eral weeks. 9 In some there in instances was an enormous flow of lava . are examples. leaving ol dykes canic rock.VOLCANOES AND THEIR PHENOMENA the lava rises in the caldera until part of the rim. has raised the outer strata of the rock envelope in much the same manner that a the surface. and then subsides as quietly as began. No extrusion of lava took place. — — . 8 it 83 overflows the lowest The flow of lava — often quantity — continues for several days. as a rule. none reached Irruptions of this kind form what are comas laccolites. and. monly known The Henry Mountains. practically but two subamount of sulphur gases In stances are ejected from volcanoes steam and lava. these the lava was through forced. blister of the skin is formed.

is so porous Obsidian. Sulphur. . or spongy that . except as the clouds of dust and steam along in a fine. or " volcanic froth. ever. of the material ejected consisted of steam. 10 Smoke " is also absent. it is estimated that ninety-eight per cent. There are no " flames " about volcanic outbursts. Lavas. therefore. does not differ materially from black bottleglass.84 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY the eruption of Vesuvius that occurred in 1872. forced through the lava by intense pressure. may be considerable. the so-called flames are merely the reflection of the white-hot lava from the under surface " of the dense clouds of steam. Sometimes it is vesicular. mineral in and about the craters of formed by the action of certain sulphur . The sponge-like clots of lava that accumulate about volcanoes form scoria. can be thus Volcanic " ashes'' are not ashes at all they consist merely of finely divided lava. or " brimstone." an- other form. but in chemical composition as well. It is thought that this form of lava results from the action of steam which." it floats on water." A misunderstanding of volcanic phenomena has led to the adoption of certain names that often give erroneous ideas of volcanic action. how- matter thrown out consists almost wholly of lava includes every form of molten rock of great quantities of lava. pumice-stone. they are suggestive of furnace " clinkers. therefore." is a common It is volcanoes. pearance. and the Hawaiian lavas make excellent soil in the course of a very few years. the From the Hawaiian volcanoes. or " volcanic glass. powdery state. differ not only in apIn many instances the lava resembles furnace slag. The economic value of lavas. and has about the same composition. The term volcanic origin. carries much of it called. Most lavas are readily decomposed by the action of air and moisture.

E. granite core of a range. extent the process of contraction becomes' a direct cause.VOLCANOES AND THEIR PHENOMENA 85 gases that. also. that the material ejected comes. however. but this is the improbable that prime cause. D. subterranean intrusions. the pressure being at relieved liquefies that point. far beyond the temperature of fusion . of the earth is admitted — That the cause of volcanic acTo what tion is due indirectly to the gradual shrinkage of the crust by most geographers. a lava sheet. . the superheated rock at once of and is forced out of the fissure. Various theories have been advanced to account for the possible causes of eruption. but is formed a very moderate depth below the seat of eruption. decompose each other and deposit the sulphur in the shape of crystals. B. and one upon which It is generally conceded. G. and if a break or fracture takes place. a dyke. C. on mixing. •7TOJ FORMS OF ERUPTION A. a cinder cone. there is is a matter of uncertainty. assumed at " liquid interior " of the earth. but of these only one or two by positive evidence. F. The pressure that when the rock layers fit themselves about a shrinking interior is sufficient to heat the parts upon which the are supported results pressure is exerted. not from an a great diversity of opinion. a iaccolite. The intrusion water upon molten matter undoubtedly causes the exit is plosive features of the eruption. Nature of Volcanoes.

Epomeo became dormant. noticeable feature is the cone or dome that popits ularly is called a volcano or volcanic peak. the physiographic effects of volcanic outbursts are comparatively unimportant. Results of Vulcanism. The same phenomenon is observed in the case of the lation Hawaiian and the Ecuadorean groups. while Vesuvius was so long inactive. A similar condition possibly obtained in past times. 86 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY In a few instances there seems to be more or less rebetween volcanic vents situated at no great distance from one another. and if this becomes dormant for any length of time the seat of activity is transferred to another vent. an area south of Vesuvius. own cone. the shape resulting from the . is honeycombed with old craters through which eruptions took place at successive intervals. Each volcano and in many instances the cones have been built along the folds of mountain-ranges. Activity is usually confined to a single caldera.000 feet high that covers an area as large as the State of Connecticut. In the cases of the Italian and the Ecuadorean groups. Thus. Notwithstanding their stupendous display of energy. The successive eruptions of the calderas Hawaii have formed a mass 14. Most of the volcanic mountains of the Hawaiian Islands are domeshaped rather than conical. In several cases they have been formed successively along the line of the fold at no great distance apart. Epomeo on the island of Ischia was active but after the eruptions of Vesuvius began again. The er of lava usually collects at the vents. extending later- ally outward.. and as — The most builds a rule they are confined to the vicinity of the volcano. the cessation of all activity is usually followed by a period of frequent and destructive earthquakes. and at the same time building the cone highand higher. for the Phlegrean Fields.

000 square miles in area were covered by the lava. Streams were dammed by the lava and r Some ->'- TT ~ W=l \£L A LAVA FLOOD. there occurred a flow of lava from the latter that continued for two years. More than 1. one forty. and a large part of the population perished in the famine that resulted from the eruption. because of the frequency of their eruptions. 87 very liquid condition of the lava and the absence of ashes of the lava flows of the Iceland volcanoes have been extensive.VOLCANOES AND THEIR PHENOMENA and scoria. A score of villages w as swept out of existence. HAWAIIAN ISLAND added to the destruction. The ashes sometimes accomplish more ruin than that which results from the lava flow and the corrosive rain. Two streams flowed in nearly opposite directions from the crater. Thousands of cattle were killed. the other fifty miles in length. Of the thirteen or more cinder cones in the island Hekla and Skaptar Jokul are the best known In 1783. their floods .

It is now inhabited. near the site of Carthage. From one or more of these fissures in the Nevada ranges there occurred a flood of lava that covered more than one hundred thousand square miles. but they gradually disap- A more remarkable case is that of Santorini. 11 an island in the Greek Archipelago. mud and rain.88 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Herculaneum and Pompeii were destroyed by the erupPompeii was covered with loose material. It then gradually settled below sea-level and disappeared. which was formed as a result of eruptions. Several new islands appeared in the group of the Azores. a reef called Graham's Island was formed during an eruption. and the fine material covered the city of Batavia to a depth of Some of the lighter dust was carried by the wiud to a distance of more than 1. and the latter were cemented tion of Vesuvius a. in addition to the ashes.000 miles. miles away was crushed by the falling several inches. peared. Washington and Idaho were engulfed. and remained in existence for several years. and much of the city has been excavated in reHerculaneum received a heavy fall of rain cent years. but from the eruption of Krakatoa. Fissure eruptions are noted mainly for the enormous flows of lava. Islands are both formed and destroyed of by the outbursts marine volcanoes. Off the coast of Tunis. being in part carried by the wind. dwellings forty miles distant were crushed and large areas of forestry were •destroyed. Similar. The two days and culminated with the Forestry seventy-five disappearance of half of the island. in Sunda Strait. Large areas of California. also in explosions lasted for more appalling effects resulted Sunda Strait. In many instances the ashes have been hurled to a great distance.d. During the eruption of Tomboro. and in several places the Columbia Eiver Sierra . during eruptions. into a tolerably hard rock. 79. Oregon.

the sea of lava is nearly four thousand feet deep. and Kilauea. and they are almost always near the sea. Thus. and in these folds are situated a majority — and dormant volcanoes of the earth. It contains about one hundred active and dormant volcanoes. In places. Distribution of Volcanoes. is confined mainly to the island of Hawaii. each being an eruption upon an eruption. Another short chain extends along Java and the remaining Sunda Islands to New Zealand. in regions of volcanic activity. that these are matters of cause and effect. Anof the active — . the Azores. upheaval is taking place. Careful measurements have shown that. and Cape Verd Islands. In many places small cinder cones have been formed on the surface of the lava. and is the chief seat of volcanic activity on the earth. The seat of activity. an elevation of the surface is taking place. there has been a considerable subsidence. Vulcanism seems to be a trustworthy index of processes going on within the earth's crust which affect the level of a region. Loa. along much of the Mexican and South American coast. however. The Pacific Ocean is nearly girdled by chains of mountains that are comparatively young. where volcanic forces are active. It cannot be said with certainty. In what direction does it extend ? This chain is about a thousand miles long.VOLCANOES AND THEIK PHENOMENA 89 was pushed out of its channel. on the contrary. Canary. Volcanoes are commonly found along the lines of the younger mountain folds. A chain of volcanic islands extends from Jan Mayen island through Iceland. where vulcanism seems to have recently ceased. southward as far as Tristan da Cunha. however. and the average depth is not far from one thousand feet. The Hawaiian group is about the only one situated in mid-ocean. In the South Pacific Ocean. on which there are three calderas Kea.

The Mexican group contains four of interest. north of Unalaska. The Aleutian group contains about thirty cones. and Lassen must have been active at no greatly remote time. contains at least two volcanoes that have been active in recent times. cent at short intervals. The North American group contains a great many dormant and extinct cones but at least four Shasta. direction does the line extend? They are active or quies. Find them in what because they are so far inland. has given to the city of Montreal name. are still protruding through the sheet of lava. A small cone near Lassen Peak has been in eruption within fifty or sixty years. arctic Continent. One of the most imposing. In New Mexico there are also many small cones. Almost all the high peaks of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada ranges are cinder cones. its Mount Royal. . Many of the peaks of the West Indies are cinder cones. has been in eruption almost constantly since 1880. but they seem to have been extinct since early . Cinder cones and volcanic " necks " are abundant all through the plateaus of the Western Highlands. many of them in a good state of preservation. but it contains no Graham Land. in the Ant- other extends through the volcanoes at present active. has been in eruption within recent times. Bogoslov. Tacoma (or Rainier). but none has been active in recent times. In Arizona there are several hundred. One of them. The remains of old cones are abundant in the Appalachian and Laurentian Mountains.90 PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY West Indies. and the stumps of trees. One of these. Among American volcanoes the Peruvian and Ecuadorean groups are famous for their great height. San Francisco Peak. quiescent and active. Name three of them. — geological times.

Usually the cone has been almost . 12. NOTES The channel or tube is the essential part of the volcano. — Letters— Book vi. The eruption of Vesuvius but a little to in 1756 took place. p. . such volcanoes are rarely distinguishable. 20. —Natural Advanced Geography. of 4 ele- Mount Tom. 46-97. p. 89-103. 91 the nature of the so- and ashes of volcanic eruptions. except by most careful investigation.—Explain called smoke. flames. Massachusetts. latitude. one side. Consult the map. — Elements of Geology. Redwat and Hinmau. and situation with reference to continents and islands. Note the features in the diagram. " First Book of Geology. and for many years was called Monte Summa. Shaler. COLLATERAL READING AND REFERENCE Plixy. and prepare a brief description of the various ways in which lava is extruded. Terrestrial craters are rarely more than half a mile in diameter lunar craters. 1 The latter is rarely absent. 88. on the contrary. 92. 88-97. is an excellent example an old volcano.. frequently exceed twenty or thirty miles in diameter Tycho and Copernicus. During the eruption of 1872 a large number of vents was formed. As a rule. s obliterated. pp. Le Conte. pp. 2 The craters of the earth are exceedingly small. nothing remaining except such masses of lava as are not easily altered by the action of moisture and atmospheric ments. One of the old crater walls re- mained standing.VOLCANOES AND THEIE PHENOMENA QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES. and the " mountain " or cinder cone is merely an incidental feature. compared with those of the moon. . — Shasta and Lassen sheets. Why are these terms inapplicable ? Prepare a written description of the geographic distribution of volcanoes. proximity to the sea. p. Ustted States Geological Survey. 16-vi. not at the former crater. taking into consideration their position with reference to mountain-ranges.— Aspects of the Earth. pp. are each more than forty miles.


T>. 79 to 1631." 6 The sulphur compounds combine with the steam. THE SHAPE OF VESUVIUS The phenomena are iA. tj6j. not under pressure and endeavoring to escape. It behaves exactly as though it were forced out by gases under extremely high pressure. simply those exhibited by a viscous body in a state of slow boiling. 1868. * There is a tendency to consider the vulcanism of past epochs as crater eruptions only. 1822. and as soon as the ejected mass perceptibly cools. who remained in his observatory on the mountain during the entire period. 63. fact that when the barometer is low. That such eruptions have occurred in .VOLCANOES AND THEIE PHENOMENA and the 93 flanks of the mountain were dotted with monticules. tenuous threads known as " Pele's hair. the level of the lava is higher than at other times. clots of lava are shot into the air. said that the whole side of the cone "seemed to sweat fire at every pore. 6 There is evidence of the presence of gases in the Hawaiian lavas. Professor Palmieri. the escaping steam or other vapor blowing the viscous lava into the fine. the elasticity of the medium tutes the that consti- the ' power being most noticeable ALTERATIONS IN feature. its absorptive power is lessened. but in a condition of absorption or occlusion. and are perfectly It is a significant illustrated in the slow cooking of oatmeal. making sulphurous acids. and not infrequently the acid dissolved in the rain is strong enough to destroy vegetation. Occasionally." The threads thus formed are so gossamer-like that they are carried a long distance by the wind.

Most. . better known as Thera." 94 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY . When a train of railway coaches passes through a long tunnel. In the case of the volcanic "fires the light is reflected from the under side of the cloud of steam. Each globule of water dust is a tiny mirror. It could have ejeota. No crater in the world is large enough to have ejected a lava flood in the manner in which that Calderas like of the Oregon and Washington flood was spread. but no extrusion. Cinder cones and craters are found here and there on the surface of this vast sheet. come from nothing but a fissure. is a few miles north of Crete. The Devil's Slide. a flood of mellow light now and then illuminates the tunnel and the interior of the coaches. The light comes from the fire-box of the locomotive. and the fissure must have been many miles in length. the groove between them being of softer rock. however. leaving the harder volcanic rock in the form of a ridge or dyke. in Weber Canon. The area covered by ashes and scoria quickly became cultivable. not from craters. those of Hawaii would have built up a dome-shaped mass of The lava flood in question was a sheet. Utah. The Palisades of the Hudson are an example. The topography of the island was considerably altered by an eruption that occurred in 1866. if not all. In this instance there are two dykes about twenty feet apart. When the furnace door is opened the light of the glowing coal is reflected from the steam that fills the tunnel. but from fissures. and as a result the tunnel is flooded with light. This fact indicates that vulcanism occurs just as readily with a supramontane as a sub-mountain reservoir. of the great lava floods. Not infrequently the upper edges of the fissure walls have been worn away. According to one myth it grew from a clod of earth hurled from the ship Argo according to another it was the product of submarine fires. In each case the cone and its crater represent a volcano that formed on the lava flood after the surface had hardened. — . and has since added no little wealth to the island. prior epochs cannot be denied old craters and the lava plugs that filled them are found in great numbers in many parts of the earth. came. 10 This may be illustrated by a very familiar example. In many instances there has been nothing more than a mere filling of the fissure an intrusion of lava. Both legends are a testimony to its volcanic origin. " This island. is also an illustration.

terranean explosion. The shock. or even for so long as a minute. the collapse of a cavernous space. therefore. may volve an area of several thousand square miles.CHAPTER VI DESTEUCTIVE MOVEMENTS OP THE BOCK ENVELOPE : EARTHQUAKES Rigid and solid as they seem. causes a vibration or trembling of the surrounding rock. causing a slight shock. Nature of Earthquakes. Any instantaneous disturbance. such as a subthe rock envelope are more or less elastic . —No matter how far below 95 . or THE PROGRESSION OF EARTHQUAKE WAVES the sudden breaking of strata. or even when a very heavy weight falls to the ground the latter trembles for an instant. These tremors or earthin- quakes may be perceptible for several seconds. the substances that form This is noticeable when an underground explosion J occurs. moreover.

than double that of the swiftest projectile fired from a modern gun. become irregular in shape. it must be remembered that they differ greatly in velocity and energy. . and sometimes they produce effects that would seem as though there had been a vorticose. The latter progress only a few yards a minute the former have the velocity more . however. 4 The velocity of the wave depends partly on the elasticity of . as soon as the vibrations reach the surface they behave just as do the circular waves that form when a stone is thrown into still water. 3 Although the surface waves of earthquakes bear a close resemblance to the circular waves formed by dropping a stone in water. indicate do not always spread out so is evenly from the centre of disturbance as the waves resulting the case with Some kinds of when a stone is thrown into water. If the waves of water strike an unyielding surface. and the latter may be called a horizontally progressive wave. and so the concentric waves. travelling to forty or more miles at a rate that varies from thirty the material a minute.96 PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY the surface of the rock envelope the centre of the disturbance may be. At what part of the diagram are the waves most nearly horizontal ? Where do they partake both of the vertical and the progressive character ? 3 The effects that that the tremors or vibrations have been observed. are similarly reflected. ward. they are rejected. 2 In the diagram on at what place will the page 95 the shock originates at up-and-down motion ? These are resulting wave have an waves move outsuccessive As the called vertical waves. rock seem more elastic than others. the reflected wave often crossing the original at oblique angles. little by little the vertical movement gives place to one that is both horizontal and progressive. instead of remaining circular in form. or whirling movement. Rock waves. it is thought.

' The to focus of the shock may vary from a short distance several miles below the surface of the earth. an instrument for the detection of shocks. 6 The shocks are com- lent. coherent rock the velocity quickly energy. In hard. The area involved in the earth-waves may be either circular or . has become saturated with water. Hxlock waste. monly the most vioThe duration of the shock is not the perceptible to senses for more than four or five seconds. which by freezing.EARTHQUAKES 97 through which it travels. 5 lose is much slower. splitting along a naturally formed plane. than a minute. The average distance is not far from six miles. and the waves their vere In the case of seearthquakes a series of shocks fol- low one upon another with first increasing in- tervals of time. falling n/to the crevice. show for that it may last more In a A ROCK COLUMN LIKELY TO BE OVERTURNED BY AN EARTHQUAKE Thtroek hasbrokcn awayfinm the cliff. but careful measure- ments by the seismograph. and partly on the energy with which it is propagated. many instances sllOck Seems tO COn- Sist of a Single vio- lent thump. has expanded and pushed the mass farther and further from the cliff. crystalline rock it travels rapidly and extends a great distance in sand and loosely .

Peru. and the swinging of chandeliers. — but if the strain increases until a fracture or a collapse takes place. commonly followed by a series of gigantic waves. however. rumbling thunder. or the In severe shocks the breaking of delicate substances. 12 carried the United States Steamship Wateree nearly seven miles inland. leaving her stranded in a dry stream bed. and the ground cracked. the noise is like that produced when a heavily loaded wagon goes down a gravelled incline. In the great majority of earthquakes the effects are not severe they rarely extend beyond the stopping of clock pendulums. Sometimes the latter resemble low. and stream If the centre of the shock is in or near the ocean it is is fissured. Following the Lisbon earthquake in 1755. 9 Attending Phenomena. usually one wall slips the other. houses are wrenched and walls of rapidly . In disastrous shocks buildings are shattered and the surface of the earth is seamed with deep fis10 sures and chasms.98 elliptical. In several instances lakes have been channels changed. incor- rectly called " tidal " waves. no vibratory effect is noticeable. and wrecked whatever the earthquake had left.—Earthquakes attended by sounds. 11 The oceanwaves that followed the earthquake at Arica. formed or. If the strata are slowly bent. so that the two edges are no longer in upon the same . It is generally believed that earthquakes are the result of similar. perhaps drained. the shock produces the vibrations that constitute the earthquake. 8 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY The diameter of the area seldom exceeds one are frequently thousand miles. enormous waves rolled in from the sea. Cause of Earthquakes. but very rapid movements of the rock envelope that fold the strata into mountain -ranges and force molten lava from volcanic fissures. more commonly. When fissures are formed.

and wherever such faultings are found. The existence of such faults. or even rjerceptible. in are of almost daily occurrence. part of the earth Distribution and Occurrence of Earthquakes. earthquakes are of more frequent occurrence in younger mountain -ranges .CT OF THE EARTHQUAKE AT CHARI. No is free from earthquakes. if not an earthquake. therefore. some part or other. and recent ob- — servations have shown that. without the aid of instrumental measurements. they indicate. they is are so feeble that scarcely one in fifty noticeable. and that the release of the strain produces the earthquake.EARTHQUAKES level. however. 13 99 The resulting inequality is called a fault. they As a rule. 15 As in the distribution of volcanoes. AN EFFF. is evidence that the outer shell of the earth is constantly under stress ' ' at some point or another. at least a surface disturbance.ESTOWN From a photograph. The crack when first formed was about two feet wide.

100 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY They are still than in the older ones. From the figures produced by the sand note the direction and character of the If possible. so that the vibrations. But when the earth approaches either the sun or the moon. about a foot square. and that thousand earthquakes shows that more frequent when the earth is nearest they are also more prevalent when the moon is nearest the earth. the increased mutual attraction adds its force to the strain the latter is overcome. some part or other of the rock envelope is constantly under an increasing stress. Sprinkle dry sand on the plate and draw a violin bow across the edge.— If you live in the vicinity of a body of water. 1-45. Le Conte. table. 16 less frequent in plains. to a firm clamp holds the plate at its centre. study the waves that form when a good-sized stone is tossed so that it falls vertically into still water. COLLATERAL READING AND REFERENCE Rockwood. or depression. Elements of Geology. to the . the explosion under Flood Rock. — — — NOTES Thus. produced an earth shock that differed in no material principle from those produced ' clearing . Owing and a shock results. not hard to find. Notes on American Earthquakes. for the purpose of and widening Hell Gate Channel. turbances. QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES. pp. Aspects of the Earth. clamp a brass or metal plate. pp. Shalbr. the relative position of the vertical and the horizontally progressive waves ? Repeat the experiment until the results obtained is What are familiar. unless the latter are undergoing a process of uplift They also accompany most volcanic dis- The study shocks are a of several little the sun. 154-171. 17 An explanation for this is tendency to adjust itself.

'During the earthquake at Riobamba. The horizontal oscillation is scarcely more than half an inch. but they produce a rocking motion as well. 3 but those in Such waves have a terrific shattering force . The velocity of the wave varied from 5. The earth shock resulting from this explosion was recorded at a distance of nearly forty miles from Hell Grate. The Charleston earthquakes did not lasted for about ten days. 4 It has been calculated that the amplitude. or up-and-down motion. The bodies of men were thrown several hundred feet across the river. . is not considered authentic. but overthrow it. the capital of the State of Salvador. the shocks of 1868 aggregated nearly three hundred in number. and in nearly every s especially noticeable in mountainous instance the major. the fact that the strata of rock are more along than across their masses. a vertical movement of more than two feet is said to have been observed. cannot adapt itself to its new position at once. 2 The vibrations as they form underground are spherical waves and much like those formed in the air by the discharge of a firearm or the ringing of a bell. or long diameter of the ellipse. The elliptical form is areas. and even when it is not more than half as much. 7 Many of the California earthquakes are of this character. month. and a hundred similar instances might All this accords with the well-known law that a mass of rock envelope. . cease for nearly a also be added. 6 At St. When the waves reach the surface of the rock envelope they spread out in the form of circular waves. which the horizontal and vertical components are combined are even more destructive they not only shatter. in severe shocks.000 to 8. Thomas. however. coincides The reason elastic therefor is with the trend of the range or system. rarely exceeds one-quarter of an inch in height and ordinarily. it is seldom more than one-twentieth of an inch. one of the Lesser Antilles. the : .EARTHQUAKES 101 by natural causes. At all events. in changing its foundations. The statement. shock has considerable shattering power. Vertical vibrations may only shatter a building a "roller " will not only shatter. the energy was sufficient to hurl heavy objects a hundred feet into the air.000 feet per second in the vicinity of the explosion. Ecuador. but does so little by little. The earthquakes that shattered San Salvador.

however. in Tennessee. however. Japan. one thousand miles away." During the severest shock the current of the Mississippi is said to have been temporarily reversed that it was greatly disturbed is shown by changes in its channel occurring at that time. Thus the shock that in 1755 destroyed Lisbon was The seafelt at a distance of about twenty-five hundred miles. 12 Yokohama. before the shock. This area has since been known as the "Sunk Region. Hardly had they reached it when the water began to recede. and when equilibrium was restored. . extending several miles in length. and thirty thousand more lives were swept out of existence before the waves ceased. twenty hours afterward. 10 The earthquake that destroyed the city of San Salvador broke down the rim of a small lake and drained it. a small village in northern Mexico. 13 The destruction of Babispe. been felled by shocks so terrific that thirty thousand people perished. The famous earthquake of New Madrid. sixty feet high. Missouri. five feet in height. Then an enormous wave. At Cadiz the waves were thirty feet high. was in reality nothing more than n severe earthquake that levelled the buildings of the town. alleged to be a volcanic eruption. At Simoda the wave was thirty Pacific The sea-wave resulting from Ocean and was recorded this earthquake crossed the at feet high . changed the level of the land to such an extent that a permanent swamp was formed in land that. is an excellent illustration. leaving the harbor dry. During the series of shocks a fissure was made. and along the Irish coast they were four or . rolled in and completed the destruction. was considerably enlarged at the same time. wave is propagated to a much greater distance. fifteen feet on the California coast it it was was from twelve to eighteen inches in height. The earthquake that in 1854 devastated a part of Japan was followed by a destructive wave. Reelfoot Lake. the area involved has far exceeded this. at Peel's Island. On the American coast the wave was observed as far north as Alaska. This disturbance. followed this earthquake. was high and dry. and to the eastward as far as Australia. at Madeira eighteen. the fissure had be- . 11 Probably the most disastrous waves ever known to written After the town had history.102 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 9 In several instances. most of the survivors took refuge on the massive seawall.

. if it merely records a shock it is a seismograph. One mass. the United States and the West Indies during one year. and 151 in the Pacific Highlands. however. " Of a total of 364 shocks.EARTHQUAKES come a fault 103 — one side or wall being. . from ten to four- teen feet below the other. 147 occurred in the Atlantic Highlands and Coast Plain. measuring 354 x 11 x 3 feet. 24 were in the At3 were in the Great Central lantic slope and the West Indies Plain and 39 in the Pacific Highlands. The horizontal element of the shock is recorded by means of a delicate pendulum carrying a pencil or 16 stylus. in places. the rock in the granite quarries usually exhibits signs of heavy strain. An instrument for measuring any of the elements of an earthquake shock is called a seismometer . 14 At Monson. 6G in the Great Central Plain. inasmuch as many of the earth shocks occurring in the sparsely settled regions of the Pacific Highlands escape notice altogether. before their ends had been detached. including Mexico and Central America. The jar sets the pendulum in vibration. These facts indicate the enormous pressure to which rocks may be subjected incidentally they show that even the hardest rocks are decidedly elastic. . increased an inch and one-half in length after it had been detached. 10 The sudden formation of gases on their rapid motion from one part of the volcanic district to another. These figures have only an approximate value. will account for earth shocks at such times. were split along a horizontal plane and bent upward at the middle. . Professor Niles observed that pieces. Massachusetts. Of 66 shocks recorded in Canada. and the pencil records the direction of the oscillations.

! .|> ii- i|-ii| .|ii.IIH '' "'i 1 ' :" 1 i|l-ili- .

producing the effects called corrosion. Falling on the land as rain it removes fine and loose particles of earth.CHAPTEE EIVEES VII : THE WASTING OF THE LAND THE WOEK OP While ly at ities various forces are at work wrinkling and folding the strata of the rock envelope. The principal agent in producing these effects is water. or rock waste resulting. it saps the foundations of pieces. it lodges in a hollow. Flowing against cliffs and banks or. freezing and breaking off small This process of degradation is called erosion. for not only does the water invariably flow downward. the latter cut their channels deep into the surface. until the latter is then the downward progress again begins. masses of earth and breaks them down by undermining. filled . but the detritus. perhaps dissolving some of it or. perhaps. for a time. perhaps. It also sinks into the pores of the rock. or basin-shaped depression. Perhaps. Gathering into swift torrents. its lowest. 1U5 Of the . other agents are constant- work wearing away those same folds and irregularand wasting or degrading the surface of the land to or base level. Gravitation is an aid in the process of degradation. through underground channels. is likewise moving to lower levels. in one or another of its different forms.

and these. in turn.. . brooks. the remainder gathers into channels and flows back to the sea. streams are Almost every river is made up of branches and tributaries. are feci by smaller branches— all together comprising the river si/stem.106 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY falls 1 from the clouds upon the laud. rilling np the underground channels and reservoirs.or basin. creeks. and usually the latter is surrounded by a rivers. and rivers — the name The largest usually depending on the size of the stream. The area drained by the river system is its watershed".^: =T ^ west side and is ' THE BEGINNING OF A LOOP— CUMBERLAND RIVER. some evaporates and mingles with the air a part sinks into the ground. rivulets. KENTUCKY cutting info Use cast ban called rills. $m The river has built a flood plain on the m-^:^ --=-. Streams of water flowing upon the land are variously water that .

way the rills unite into rivulets and brooks that tumble down the mountain slopes in self-made. The water that is let loose from a spring or from a heaviest winter's snowdrift trickles down the slope in tiny rills. carry all of longer a swift torrent. the cutting of which is 4 When the stream emerges the principal part of its work. The beginnings of most large rivers are high in the mountains. for there are many instances where ranges are crossed by rivers. that a high mountain-range is not necessarily a divide. Compare the divides with the ranges. Other streams join the brook and swell a mountain torrent that rushes its volume into down the steep incline. From any good map find the divide between the Susquehanna and Allegheny Rivers between the Great Kanawha and Ohio Rivers. It must be borne in mind. from the mountain canon it is burdened with rock waste brought from the mountain side and. Physiography of Rivers. the ridge or divide that sepit from adjacent basins.THE WASTING OP THE LAND: RIVEES arates 107 well-defined height of land. pebbled On their gullies. however. it drops the coarser material. because of the lessened slope. paove the heavier obstacles. no longer able to cutting its channel into hard rock side or the other the obstacles in its way. In some instances the crest of a mountain-range forms a divide. it Thencecannot re- because it is. pile. but must flow around them. the divide between Lake Michigan and a tributary of the Illinois River is only ten or fifteen feet higher than the level of the lake. — is and the greatest accumulation of snow is found. at Chicago. Thus. but in very many cases the latter is an almost 3 imperceptible rise only a few feet high. and tossing to the one Almost always it flows in a deep canon or gorge. forming a fan-shaped forth. . where the rainfall .

and — deposition. . the rock envelope it is it is carrying them downward or else it is dropping them. Perhaps dropped here and there. 5 The carried is still it is by the flood of the river. most . or to be piled up near the shore in LOOPS AND CUT-OFFS OF THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI spits and bars. transportation. from the moment the water touches picking up particles of earth . called sediment or silt. the ly of river After gradual- reaching the latter silt is dropped until river the reaches There. or torrential part.108 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY lighter rock waste. In the upper. the rest is tide-water. that in therefore. which in many inis stances the " "made-land formed sediments. evident. streams which are namely degrading the land three processes are usually going on. Increase its and the water will pick up more particles decrease the velocity and it will begin to drop them and flow around them. . That is. about of the all silt de- posited — either to be spread out in the form of a delta. but the greater part a little is of borne to the coast plain. It is The abandoned channels are sometimes called " Bayous they form an intricate net-work of passages. corrasion and undermining. "Whichever velocity it does. depends on the current.

along the lower . therefore. But when there is a succession of years of increased volume of water. the neck of the loop is cut away. sons therefor are not hard to In the study of such rivers as the Mississippi the reafind. or any other obstacle. The an- choring of a snag. the stream clogs side or the other. and must thereafter flow it. to form loops in its lower course. and the water then begins to pick up silt that it had previously dropped. around Islands are common in rivers carry- ing a considerable sediment.' The line of moats. In time.THE WASTING OP THE LAND RIVEES : 109 streams emphasize their right of possession by cutting their channels deeper. the velocity of the current is checked. which flows over a decreasing slope has a tendency. The it latter increases in ISLANDS face. 6 is quickened. and because of the slackening III constantly dropping Moreover. and in general the loops are long-lived. increased the current is quickened. Because the slope of the plain through which it flows de'< La Crosse creases. is apt to be true is and In the lower course the reverse its channel with silt 3 therefore compelled to make a new one on the one . or oxbow lakes. the water cannot pick it up again unless the current current the water its is load of silt. the conBecause the volume of water is ditions are changed. when the latter has been dropped. amount reaches to the surThen vegetation gets root and an until finally island results. and the river sometimes by twenty or thirty shortens its channel river The — miles. slackens the current and causes the deposition of silt.

Growth and Development its of Rivers. legitimate On the contrary. It is evident also that the great amount of silt removed when a loop is destroyed must be carried farther down stream deposited. however. the stream will probably increase the amplitude of its loops. —A river and basin do not constitute a fixed. there is less than the usual rainfall. How of and there would this is affect the river so far as the formation bars con- cerned ? As a matter of fact is the destruction of a loop attended by changes in the channel that are noticeable many than miles both above and . and even make new ones. and old age work is until every part is and its away and remove its basin worn away to base level. the volume of water is increased. to carve any plain or surface such. cut-off had formed be- fore the changes ceased. the water falling upon it begins to form channels " and flow to the sea. and the water begins to pick up and remove sediment that formerly it had been unable to carry. below the loop a and more after year elapsed Davis BEND— NOW PALMYRA LAKE If. — — . unchanging feature of the land. the current is quickened. as the coast plain of New Jersey is exposed to the action of the weather. every river passes through the various stages of infancy. for instance. With the coming of successive years of greater rainfall. The moment . during a period of sev- eral years.110 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Mississippi marks the old loops and abandoned channels along this river. maturity. Such a stream may be called an infant river.

or headwater channels backold age begins may cut wards. many obstacles and if the slope is gentle.ast c from A " of them. finds not a little difficulty in making its channel.NFANT STAGE OF A RIVER many of the latter are sculpt Thc stream "**$£"% f channel "' "" ured into broad valleys. h . . any unusual flood may result in the abandonment of an old and the selection of a new channel. It is emTHE LEGITIMATE barrassed by the inequalities of the surface. thc trnncnnrtprl au all iae flip avaiiaDie nvnilflKIp transported A B has : material within the reach of its carried rcmaimng materiai away - In been various branches. L A B. The mature It the age of its greatest vigor . 109). form in the slight depressions. The 00 the river has cut when away and THE mature and senile stages OF A RIVER rhemaia stream amlits lributari„ have carved deep channels in the plain „. it may lengthen itself at both ends it may build a delta at its its mouth and extend the latter seaward. c . The channel is deepened and cut nearer to base level. is an example of an in. p. it . Red River of the North. W ork . the new profile. lakes and swamps ™"i° J 'i. The tributaries extend their chan- nels backward and not infrequently capture the waters stage is of other streams less vigorous (See illustration. of a river and because B ve '**/»* ™. and power. The gullies of the tributary streams become ravines and . fant river.: THE WASTING OP THE LAND It encounters : RIVEES 111 At first the stream drains its water-shed very imperfectly. by changes in . the old a' b. The channels are apt to be shallow and the divides between the adjacent branches are neither permanent nor well defined. In consequence. As a stream reaches maturity its character is changed. of Thereafter it can be revived only by a gradual elevation some part of its bed.

just so long will the river be actively at work at that point. It can be rejuvenated uplift of its whole course by the uplift or tilting of its watershed in such a manner as to increase the current along the whole extent. If. for a time. rejuvenates it. so a gradual uplift of the stream channel gives the river fresh crease in power and. has also a similar as in the case of the YOUNG RIVERS The stream on the right has uncovered the ledges of hard rock shown in the margin and falls have resulted. Uplift is nearly always followed by extensive stream corrosion. stream. the elevation is long-continued. by quickening the current of the effect. PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY or by moved a considerable increase of its volume. Just as a log against the saw results in cutting the tim- ber. Uinta Mountains across Green Eiver.112 its slope. along . An inthe volume.

less the current is increased. the deposition of sediment is constantly going on. The tributary of the central stream is carving its way into the basin of the river on the rtglit and will eventually absorb the head waters of the latter. — The excess is then spread over the middle and lower parts of the basin. continuing the . they remove so much rock waste that in the middle and lower courses the water with is overburdened and the process of flood plain-making begins. Along that part of the plain occupied by the stream. The deposition of sediment is the result of a slackening MATURE RIVERS The greater part of the basin of each has been removed. however. of the current. tle In its infant stage the river has but all litit cutting power and usually can carry the material removes. forming the " bottom lands " ox flood-plain. The river builds its bed and banks a little higher than the level on either side. unit. When the headwater streams acquire greater vigor.THE WASTING OF THE LAND: RIVERS 113 Flood-Plains. It often happens that a stream removes more material from its upper or torrential part than it can conveniently cany.

It there- fore follows that flood-plains are due to the overburdening of the current of the stream. The greater part of the Chile geography is a simoom-swept desert with scarcely a sign of life excepting that which pertains to the mines and the mountain valleys. the flood-plain is the most important part of river physiography. process until the coming of high water then it breaks through turn. its self-made banks and selects a new channel in lower land.114 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY . the same area of of bottom lands yields two. the river. The real Chile is found in the denselypeopled flood plains of the Andine streams. In its relation to life and its industries. portation. for instance. In these short valleys are concentrated nearly all the activities that go to make a great state. in may occupy every part of its flood-plain. making the region accessible to transsur- The Moreover. Neither do Desert. the four thousand years of his- tory that has given to the world so much that goes to . we find the Egypt of history in the broad stretch of land lying between the Bed Sea and the Libyan On the contrary. Valley. and therefore the In the Mississippi flood plain has a most fertile soil. face is always level. and if an acre of bluff soil yields one bale of cotton. ^m A FLOOD PLAIN The dark shading mm^ represents the sediment deposited by floods. the bottom lands yield thirty . where the bluff lands produce twenty bushels of wheat. By this process of adjustment. the rock waste is mixed with the elements that form the food of plant life.

unless tides. along the sides of which a new and lower flood-plain is built. is It follows. therefore. and the moment the two mix the remaining silt held in suspension is — quickly deposited. Deltas and Estuaries. that. Of these there may be three or even four. The new flood plain with the remnant of the old one form terraces. move TERRACES Each marks a stage of down-cutting. the sediment swept away by currents and a . Instead of depositing sediment. nearly or quite all the flood-plain is removed. IN A Fl. and terraces are Perhaps most United States are in the flood-plain stage of their existence. Salt water has a very remarkable effect in clearing muddy. So it forms a deeper channel. however. After a river has cleared away — all the rock- waste and silt it can reach at the headwaters. civilization. The darker shading shows the old bed of the It is evident. therefore. that flood-plains merely incidents in the history of a of the rivers of the river. Ultimately. the stream its may then turn cutting power against its flood-plain.the Wasting of the land: kivers make up modern of the Nile.AIN river. us belongs to the flood plain the effect of the Mesopo- What has been tamia on the history of the East? Terraces. fresh water. Many of the streams of the north- eastern part are in the terrace stage and are approaching the period of old age.OOD-Pl. the water begins to reit.

The They deltas of the Volga. THE DELTA OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER the edges than in mid-stream. lower part nearly one hundred miles into the Gulf of Mexico. in this case at least.116 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY mouth of the considerable accumulation will form at the river. The accompanying mation. It is also evident that since its the lower Mississippi has occupied the river has built its present channel. that the banks of the delta are self-made. are likewise older. the delta of the Mississippi River. figure. and that they have been formed because the current has been checked more effectually at JETTIES South Pau A DELTA MOUTH . shows one of the most interesting types of delta forIt is evident. and Ganges-Brahmaputra are considerably more intricate than that of the Mississippi. and therefore more compactly .

delta lands surpass al- most is all others in the possibilproductivity. and extending very fact. As its delta is filling rapidly ria). in Julius Caesar's times. among /> the great rice-producing e fields 01 i i the WOrld. as its it is enriched as fast nutritive elements are taken up by vegetation. consists of Much of the land is shifting mud-flats. Tiber. because of the constant additions from the river. tra is perhaps the about twice that of the State of Texas. and. in — so rapidly. and its area with sediment. The Nile delta has long been known Egypt the Sunderbunds of the GangesBrahmaputra are foremost Chesapeake bay-an as the granary of — estuary. Its frontage on the Indian Ocean is about two hundred miles. The delta of the not unlike that of its size in Adige-Po has developed in a manner the Ganges. inspection of any good will disclose the fact that while some rivers reach the each through a delta. that the town of Adria (Hadtime a seaport. An map sea. 11 IT OR submerged river mouth part of a comparatively level plain Ar has subsided below sea level. early historic of Ostia. others equally powerful with . and the whole region subject to destructive inundations. With respect to economic value. is now more than at is twenty miles inland. ities of The soil exceedingly rich.THE WASTING OF THE LAND filled : EIVERS 117 The delta of the Ganges-Brahmapumost extensive known. in the mouth the now about seven miles inland. Probably no other river of the world brings a result down more sediment than the Po.

118 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY The Mississippi In the its respect to current. the estuaries more commonly are like the indentations of the Maine coast. where they are called fjords. mouth downward movement. the river is in mouth a coast plain. . a ing of the coast the river. the action the tide is usually strong enough to keep the channel clear of silt between A FJORD Its MOUTH OF A centre RIVER situation adapts it for tlie of commerce of a newly bars. between the scouring action of the tide is and of the sinking of the valley there not only a broad. however. and the Delaware are with silt . the estuary usually takes the form similar to that of Delaware River. flow into estuaries. They are also numerous along the coast of Norway. contrasting examples. but If the a deep area of water in most estuaries. or sinkhas practically drowned the mouth of of Moreover. former case the river has a tendency to block in the latter. So. Along a rugged coast with an abrupt slope.

when the .THE WASTING OP THE LAND: RIVERS posited in the form of bars.500 feet. Cascades and Rapids. In the Yosemite Valley. In the case of the Mississippi. The reason for this double deposition of sediment may be found in the action of the tides. The streams of the New England Plateau. (" TheStaubbach brook dust ") of the Alps is a similar cascade. having a fall of 900 feet. Bridal Veil fall. The Cascade Range of the United States and the Lauterbrunnen (" nothing but fountains ") of Alpine Europe are names that suggest the character of these regions. It is evident that the estuary favors commerce and navigation while the delta on the whole is a hindrance.600 feet and . . tide is slack at of the estuary flood. 119 In rivers that flow into estuaries. if the slope is abrupt. Bars are formed in comparatively still water. Of these. the sediment is deIn most instances two bars are formed. the other at the head of the estuary. so. Merced Eiver in three plunges falls 2. however. with a sheer pitch of 1. the deposition takes place at the head where the salt and the fresh water meet when the tide is ebb. Spokane Falls. the stream plunges over a vertical embankment in the form of a cascade or fall. In flowing to lower — levels. the navigable channel of the delta has been kept open at an enormous expense. reaches the lower level in the form of fine water dust. In some instances. the water descends in a series of rapids in the form of reaches more or less terraced. and those of the Zambesi River are illustrations. Niagara Falls. and to a greater de- gree the torrents of mountainous regions are illustrations. one at the mouth. the two waters meet at the mouth of the estuary and the deposition of sediment takes place at the lower end. In some instances mountain streams make tremendous leaps. greater by number are on the shores of estuaries. Of the far the great seaports that are centres of commerce.

the lower layer is easily cut awav. In this manner the falls of Niagara River were formed. The upper layer offers considerable resistance to the water . The upper layer. There is an upper layer of hard limestone surmounting a deep layer of softer rock. the river itself has made the falls. ing in Hence the falls are increasing rather than decreasheight. cuts away so much material at the lower level that a cata- ract results. the latter will be more quickly removed moreover. the fall constantly increasing distance to fall. is worn not a . how. Finally the stream SECTION OF A WATERFALL The stratum at the lop of the fall is harder ami more resistant than the strata beiow. however.120 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY In some instances the stream lias had little to do with making the cliffs over which it falls in other cases. as the . softer layer is becomes greater and the water acquires an increased cutting power because it has a worn away. ever. If a stream flows over the edge of a hard layer that rests on a softer material.

The latter then ceases to be the water-parting the divide therefore " migrates " or recedes from its former rent . 109). and at least one . forming the cataract at Oregon City.THE WASTING OF THE LAND: RIVERS little. As the various headwater streams deepen their gullies they frequently extend them to a considerable distance backward and a very vigorous stream may even cut its channel backward across a ridge or height of land. p. . may be developed in early matuAfter the stream They are rarely found in the flood-plain age. 10 cataracts. 121 and the falls are receding up stream at the rate of nearly two and one-half feet a year. A similar lava flood at the same time obstructed its chief There are many of accident. In cutting its channel backward across a ridge or height of land a stream sometimes captures and diverts a part of the feebler stream flowing on the opposite side of the channel (See illustration. region are the results of this sort of river They are abandoned stream of channels — aban- doned because the former occupant each has been capt- ured further up the valley by a more vigorous stream that has crossed the height of land to get it. because all inequalities. Falls and rapids frequently occur in the terrace stage of rivers. a flow of lava across Columbia River dammed the channel and formed the well-known cascades. Migration of Divides. it may uncover and develop former rapids and cascades. position. Many of the " wind gaps " of the Appalachian piracy. the Willamette River. that are the result Thus. The Vistula River has probably obtained several of its headwater streams by the robbery of a neighbor. the flood-plain buries has carved away its its flood-plain. however. As a rule. although they rity. every stream works most actively in the upper or mountain part where its cur- — is swiftest. tributary.

but succeeded in making another channel through the obstruction." built its channel higher than it the divide. . the water being ponded in Lake "Winnipeg and then overflowing into Hudson Bay. man is responsible for the abnormal conduct . 11 Tuolumne finally buried. In 1852. The flood of lava that it formed the plains of the bia buried beneath a long stretch of the river basin. Columand the river made a new channel around California. tin- present Kaifong into the delta of the Yangtze after the break its course lay in a northeasterly direction and the river now flows into the Gulf of Pechili. or the latter may be obstructed by River. Before that time it had flowed southeasterly from TUOLUMNE Tile old strean R1\ER.n% PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY stream in Northwestern Ohio and several in Pennsylvania seem to have suffered in a similar way. may clog its channel. durits ing a season of high floods. near the top of which flowed. Unusual Adjustments. There are several its may compel a stream to change course. accident. I. Indirectly. the lava flood. was was cut in two by the rise of a height of land across its course. Thus.— In selecting a new channel or in adapting itself to the changing conditions of an old one a river causes which It is said to adjust itself. It is not unlikely that Saskatchewan River similarly River. CAL11-0RN1A : channel is under the va cap udneti /onus Table Mountain channels ar at the base of the mesa. the Hoang " China's sorrow. the river broke through banks. by long-continued silting.

This is shown which rivers are largest and most in the case of the Amazon and Both rivers are situated within the belt of almost constant rains. rainfall are regions in — Eivers are the offspring of rainfall and. Because forestry. have suffered much from disastrous floods. and sod all serve to retain water in the soil they therefore prevent rapid drainage. shrubbery. in many instances. and these are mainly the result of deforesting their basins. 123 and the cause thereof is the cultivation In order to make his land productive the farmer must not only clear it of growing timber and destroy the smaller vegetation. Each has a large number of powand each discharges an enormous quandevelop great length and size unless the drains has also a great superficial extent. has exactly the tributaries. provide a system of rapid drainage. The rainfall is rapidly collected by the and as quickly poured into the main stream. high and quickly-forming floods occur. nor are the longest streams in regions of greatest . once declared the country for the reason that so large a river could not exist on a small body is of land. the Kongo. he at southward to be a continent. but he must also. Wooded and grass-covered slopes are slowly drained. as a rule. of the land. on the contrary. Geographical Distribution of Rivers. The removal of vegetation. favor rapid accumulation of drainage waters. A river cannot water-shed that it When Columbus entered the mouth of the Orinoco. The Ohio and the Susquehanna. especially in late years. There rivers rainfall. erful tributaries. denuded slopes opposite effect. tity of water.THE WASTING OF THE LAND: RIVERS of certain rivers. As a result. no apparent law governing the distribution except the position of "slopes and the amount of of The largest rivers are not in the largest conti- nents. regions of great numerous.

plain of the Old World faces the Arctic The chief Ocean. hence the absence of large streams on the southern paratively short. The great plains and slopes of the Western Continent . and Colorado about equal in size the great master streams of the Old World. on the other hand. As a matter of fact the Amazon discharges any other known river. Yukon.124 rainfall. The broadest part South America is crossed by an and therefore is in the region The ocean winds traverse a sweep of of heaviest rains. the favorably situated areas are too small for the . . for the reason that they are situated in a region of very moderate rainfall. as a rule. La Plata. The Mackenzie. Columbia. there necessarily results a stream of vast of belt. None of them equals the Amazon nor the a greater volume of water than Mississippi-Missouri. while. however. almost constant rain proportions. about 2. The Mississippi and the Amazon drain each a water-shed half as large as Europe. The southern part of Asia is under the tropical rainbelt. but the drainage slope is com- Thus it may be and but few large streams have formed. The southern part of Europe does not extend into the region of tropical rains. slope. receive the full benefit of moisture-laden winds rivers. and is drained by large rivers. It is the largest plain in the world. PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY The Atlantic receives the waters of more large streams than any other ocean the Arctic Ocean is the next in order.500 miles before they are arrested by the Andes Mountains and because precipitation covers such an enormous area. The reason therefor is the fact that the largest plains slope toward the one or the other of these . reach a and the higher state of development than those of the Eastern Continent. seen that the large plain of Eurasia is un- favorably situated for large rivers. two oceans.

and Jordan continental streams of North America. moreover. There are several large areas that have no drainage to the sea. — fore called continental rivers. the Kongo and Kongo. compensates for the absence of such rivers as the Amazon.200 miles of its course it receives not a single tributary. Carson. The Kongo smaller only because its basin is smaller. Where is the continental of riv- region of Eurasia ers . and it con- The Murray-Darling is the only river of importance. The Humboldt. and the rivers are theretains no high mountain range. or else form a succession of shallow pools. is is the Nile. This continent is unfortunately It is under the Calms of Capricorn. There the four largest. Continental Rivers. and the two is almost identical. and from the fact that. two of which. are of name many continental rivers in Australia. Africa possesses several large rivers. in the lower 1.THE WASTING OF THE LAND development : RIVERS 125 of great streams. are of considerable interest. Australia possesses but few permanent streams. and these are of small situated. ? It is drained by a multitude In Africa the only large continental rivers are those flowing into Lake Chad. like the the behavior of The Amazon. is an equatorial stream. What do they indicate What would be the probable on these rivers if the Sierra Nevada ranges were no higher than the Appalachian Mountains ? In South with reference to rainfall ? effect . The Nile remarkable for its annual overflows. size. Practically all them are dry in summer and some are filled only when an occasional cloud-burst pours a flood of water into their channels. In the summer season most of the streams disappear altogether. The great number of smaller rivers. are the principal Describe their sit- uation from any convenient map.

the Lake Titicaca. so that these are practically " lines of least resistance " to the activities of a people. shrubbery. Great Central Plain of the United States most of the railways of the country have been built along river valleys. is the principal continental stream. If rainfall An embankment of freshly turned earth receives the full force of a how will its general form most likely be affected ? What effect has sod. posed to rain ? Name some blocked ? results that might occur if the channel of a stream were if How would map.120 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY outlet of America the Desaguadero. in merchandise can be carried by means of river navigation for less than the cost of transporting it in any other way. Economic Importance of Rivers. 1 13 is a map of Chesapeake Bay make a sketch-map and restore the river channels on the supposition that the surface were uplifted until about the lowest point is higher than sea level. account for the action in each case. and. .—Under what what times is conditions and at the stream with which you are best acquainted muddy ? Note and describe any place at which the stream is cutting away its banks.) the Mississippi be affected ? the Ozark highlands were relief elevated considerably higher {See any good topographic model or What effect will the approaching old age of the Mississippi have on the size of the Gulf of Mexico ? On p. and in mountainous regions the cultivated Outside the areas are confined mainly to river valleys. Most of the great migrations of peoples have followed the lines of rivers. Note and describe some place where sediment possible. and forestry on a surface that is ex. are important highways of commerce settlement penetrate and the lines along which civilization the present time Even at to the interior of a country. . — Eivers are the most many ways. although one or two of the larger rivers in Argentina are occasionally cut off from the sea. is being deposited. QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES.

— Aspects of the Earth. swamp. Powell. Mill. COLLATERAL READING. sooner or later. Proceedings Engineers' Club. Rivers of North America. Monograph II. — — NOTES. a list of ten or more important cities situated on estuary —two on or near delta mouths. tion of the water of the land comes from the sea and. Dayis. about three feet of water fall each year on the land. however." — . 3 There are a few instances in which the divide is so ill-defined that the same pool. is often used as a synonym of "diProperly used. zine. Two-ocean Pond. de- scription of the Volga and Make mouths . pond. Mississippi River Commission. but varies from a fracan inch to about fifty feet. Directly and indirectly all turns thereto. Russell. in Yellowstone National Park. Philadelphia. has two outlets one through the Yellowstone to the Mississippi. Shaler.— Map of the Alluvial Valley of the Mississippi River.THE WASTING OF THE LAXD : EIVERS 127 Does the appearance of the Canon of the Colorado River suggest an abundant or a scanty rainfall? How would a great increased in the rainfall affect the scenery so far as the topography of the valley is concerned ? What does the absence of tributaries indicate concerning the rainfall cyclopaedia. — Rivers of New Jersey. re- The rate is not uniform. 143-196. — Physiographic Geography of the Mississippi River. or stream may discharge its waters into streams whose mouths are at a great distance one from the other. 241-251. it is not a divide but a basin. Thus. however. the other through the Columbia. National Geographical Maga- Redwat.—Realm of Nature. Physiography of the United States. 1 On an average. in high-water season. or of the lower Nile ? From the any convenient reference-book obtain a its delta. pp. 2 The term "water-shed " vide. pp.

An obstruction anchoring in mid-channel forced the current against the narrow neck. clear the " courses " are rarely ever well defined. is The distance around the loop was twenty-two an example. over five feet. Between the headwaters of the Parana. in places. That is. formation is consequent upon the elevation of the plain. . and the latter. 7 Davis cut-off at Palmyra bend. The effect of the cut-off was far-reaching. The in water two words are often interchangeably used. In seasons of high water the current may remove material. dred feet in depth. the fall of the river was about four inches per mile through the The river scoured its channel about one huncut. miles across the neck. 5 Silt is the name commonly given to matter held in suspension sediment to material that has been dropped. In short streams that flow in channels of considerable slope there is pracIn rivers whose waters are habitually tically but one course. A river is an antecedent stream when its existence dates before that of some other feature. A slight difference in the velocity makes a very great difference in its carrying power. near Vicksburg. discharging simultaneously into the Orinoco and the Rio Negro. Mississippi. and those of the southern tributaries of the Amazon. The Cassiquiare River bifurcates. the middle course of a stream extends much further down stream in high than in low water periods. and extended both above and below Palmyra Bend a distance of over one hundred miles. while at low-water stage it may form a bar. the other Pacific drainage. 4 The cutting and the carrying power of water depends on the speed of the current. 6 Whichever process goes on at any particular locality depends on the velocity of the current. little by little. 8 Such a stream is sometimes called a consequent river because its . Finally the isthmus was severed and the whole flood of Around the loop the river very quickly poured through the cut. the carrying pow'er varies inversely as the sixth power of the velocity. was cut away by the stream. it was scarcely half a mile. and so swift was the current that more than a week elapsed before steamboats could ascend it.128 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY In other words one has Atlantic. Water flowing at the rate of four miles an hour will carry sixty-four times as much material as water flowing at half that rate of speed that is. . the land is so flat that. the drainage is undecided. Thus Green River existed before the forma- . a tributary of the Amazon. .

to a depth of about 2. " In several other localities the Columbia has cut its channel through similar obstructions. Deschutes River. swept by tides throughout the whole distance. Had the conditions of a hard stratum at the top and a softer one at the bottom been reversed. At the point where the angle in the ledge is formed. Coast Troy. sion since 1875 has been . In at least one case the river reclaimed its former channel by cutting through the entire thickness of lava. Were this part of Atlantic coast again to be raised. It is a question of time only until the Canadian Fall shall have receded to a line between Dufferin and Sister Islands. even had there been one at the beginning of the present epoch. . it is not unlikely that the river would recover its long-buried channel. it has been very slight. This singular condition is due to the fact that the lower part of the river has been submerged. S. The explorations of the U. the recesmore than two hundred feet at the American Fall.500 feet at the t wo " cascades the river is attempting to cut its channel through coulees of lava that flowed across its channel. there would now be no cataract. there would now be a succession of rapids like those which mark the passage of St. since Glacial times. 9 : EIVEKS them is 129 an ante- the Hudson is near of the sea. The softer rock would have been worn away until the perpendicular front had become an incline extending to a point below Whirlpool Rapids and instead of the sublime cataract.' THE WASTING OF THE LAND tion of Uinta Mountains. and with respect to cedent river. When this has taken place the American Fall will have nearly or quite disappeared. . ' 10 . since 1842. Lawrence River. is readjusting itself by cutting a new channel into the same sheet of lava. At the present time the Below this point the real river is mouth of an arm Survey have disclosed the old channel of Hudson River from lower Sew York Bay a distance of nearly eighty miles to the southeast. a tributary of the Columbia.



if the rock of a region is mainly of will — limestone. but also in keeping the passages clear of obstructions. therefore. or be mainly of clay. On the other hand. is . the underground drainage 1 be close to the surface. The work of or underground waters may not be quite so active in degrading the rock envelope as are the surface streams. of surface waters. The work difficult. but the underground waters must trickle slowly through channels that are ill-adapted. com- paratively easy and simple is that of underground drainage vastly more If the prevailing rock of a region slate. but they are nevertheless important factors in the physiographic processes that shape the earth's topography. Surface streams flow quickly away in their channels.CHAPTER : VIII THE WASTING OF THE LAND THE WORK OF UNDERGROUND WATERS Probably almost as muck water sinks into the porous rock and the innumerable crevices of the rock-envelope as gathers in the various external channels. it must flow in the spaces between the particles of rock waste. for such rocks not only prevent the passage of water. spending their energy not only in forcing their way through passages that perhaps are self-made. but they are also insoluble. telluric. In such cases the water must trickle through the top soil much in the same way that water passes through a filter made of sand and gravel that is. and more especially 132 if the strata be broken and . or other impervious rock.

3 . Some soils are so will contain more than one-quarter pervious stratum. If the plain or slope is traversed by a river val- ley a great deal of the water oozes through the soil into the stream. or a lake.— UNDERGROUND WATERS faulted. accumulates until its level is as high as the rim of the imor other soil. The latter sinks through the ground until it meets a layer It therefore of rock or clay through which it cannot pass. — Water Level Springs DIAGRAM SHOWING THE FLOW OF PERCOLATING WATERS porous that a cubic foot of its bulk of water. On the contrary. however. Percolating Waters. In many instances waters of percolation are the chief supplies of streams. namely percolating toaters. a pond. When water sinks into porous ground it fills the spaces between the grains of sand. gravel. that these waters always remain underground. In the study of underground waters they may be considered of three kinds. and under- ground streams. perhaps to fill a similar basin lower down the slope. and they finally emerge from their chan- nels to reach the surface. also dissolves Not only does the water lines clear a passage for itself along the it where the rock broken. Flowing over the lowest part of this rim. they are constantly in motion. it goes on. or possibly it comes to the surface in the form of a swamp. springs and artesian wells. but enough of the limestone to make caverns of vast extent. It must not be assumed. 2 133 underground drainage is is apt to be very extensive.

the water is usually cold and wholesome. The amount thus held in the porous rock waste is generally sufficient to irrigate the crops that of small otherwise would perish from droiight.134 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Wells are always filled by percolating waters. . The City of London. The " sand valleys " of Western Kansas. Nebraska. and the water supplies of many of the towns and villages of the high plains east of the Eocky Mountains are derived in a similar manner. and to obabundant supply it is necessary only to sink a shaf t Unless the to some point below the level of the water. with its six millions of people. is supplied with water that percolates through the adjacent chalk-beds. But inasmuch as the fresh water is the lighter of the two. an enormous quantity of water may be held. The water of shallow wells is apt to be impure. and Dakota furnish an excellent example of percolating waters. 4 The storm waters falling in these valleys are almost all absorbed and held in suspension by the deep deposits of light. If the area of porous soil is large and has a considerable depth. tain an THE WATER SUPPLY OF LOW SANDY ISLANDS Tile higher fresh water rests on the sea water. pulverulent rock waste. During dry seasons the waters of these reservoirs are about the only supply to the people living in that region. and low islands fall is obtained in The storm waters on the island and immediately sink into the sand until they reach salt water. well is so shallow as to catch the surface drainage. The water supply a similar manner. it rests upon the surface of the salt water without mixing with the latter.

but at present. Along the low coast plain of Southern California several — hundred shallow artesian wells have been driven. Artificial springs of this character are called artesian wells. and many The first wells were acres have been made productive. it is by ordinary lifting pumps very rare that such wells are " spouters. UNDERGROUND WATERS 135 In many instances the underground waters are confined between inclined strata of impervious rock. in nearly every instance the water must be pumped to the surface. but by the pressure of the air or other gases within the reservoirs. spouters. is The water. the water is forced up through the shaft to its normal level. be forced above the surface not by gravity. A small stream of water issuing from the ground is called a spring. In such a case. 5 Springs. if the porous layer be tapped by a boring. it wall. Many such wells have been bored in the Sahara. such as the face of a cliff. the water in many instances is thought to THE WATER SUPPLY OF ARTESIAN WELLS The porous stratum is both covered and underlaid with impervious rock. the superficial percolating waters. moreover. " driven " or " The piped " wells so common throughout and tap only the Mississippi Valley and the prairie region are examples of such wells. however. as is commonly supposed. In some cases the water spurts — from a sloping eral." In the case of wells sunk to a depth of two thousand usually brought to the surface feet or more.. They are shallow. but in gengushes out of comparatively level ground near the .

the spring will continue to flow. flowing along the surface of this impervious layer. As a rule every spring makes its own channel. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Usually the discharge does not amount to in a few instances the channel of a good-sized stream. are known all over the civilized world. be- comes a spring. if the water has been able to make a In the meanfree channel it instead of slowly percolating through the ground. So long as the mouth of a spring is lower than the surface of the waters from which it is derived. but it is sufficient to fill The storm waters that fall on porous soil sink until they come to rock through which they cannot pass. mineral springs result. the water trickles downward until it comes in contact with heated rocks. but keeping is sufficient to carry away the lighter and finer material. but in many cases the water makes a channel by dissolving a part of the rock through which it flows. . depends partly on the pressure of air or other gases. time. which at intervals eject copious quantities of hot water and steam. 6 more than a few gallons per minute. 7 Geysers. thereby not only forcing a it clear afterward . finally emerge to the surface at some distance lower down. situated in a region of periodical rains periodical spring If the flow it is If it be apt to be a — flowing during the rainy season only. unlike volcanic out- — bursts. and when it again emerges to the surface the water may be at a boiling temperature. an intermittent spring may be formed. Usually the force of the flowing water passage. occur with almost clock-like regularity. where the rocks are apt to be seamed with fissures. The eruptions. and will be a constant spring. and Carlsbad. and. Those at Saratoga.136 foot of a slope. If the quantity of material dissolved be considerable. In several volcanic regions there are hot springs. In volcanic regions. Vichy. Such springs are very common.

dissolves a con- siderable amount of the mineral it silica but deposits on cooling. The water that gradually collects in the lower part of the tube in time is heated far beyond the temperature at which water ordinarily boils. at the As soon re- as this occurs. and Northern Hot mineral springs occur in rnanj' other New Zealand. the pressnre lower part being the lieved. differs 13"t from other hot springs in having a irregular tube that extends deep into hot volcanic rocks. . YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL — EARK gradually but instantly. Yellowstone National Park. The tube is formed probably by the spring water itself. Finally a is small amount of steam formed. and some of the water is forced out at the top of the spring. water below. when very hot. there are but three regions Eruptive springs of this character are not common. which. and known in which they have been found — Iceland. that has been heated far above the boiling point. flashes into steam not MiMm$M\ A GEYSER. the weight of the water in the the in tube prevents boiling the lower part. For a considerable upper part of time.UNDERGROUND WATERS The geyser long.

and . The deposition Mud Volcanoes. spouts a column of water and steam to a height of one hundred and forty feet. The energy displayed is feeble. The geyser region of Iceland has been known for more than a century.— Mud vents. Grand Geyser. It comprises more than ten thousand geysers and hot springs. but in a few instances continues for more than two hours. this fact. but careful observations show that is their length is increasing. spouts a . and fifty feet column of water two hundred high.138 localities. Wyoming. of silica from the cooling waters takes In many instances the rock thus produced is richly colored with variegated bands. The geyser region of the Yellowstone National Park. It is small in area. There are about one hundred eruptive springs. Steam and sulphurous gases are commonly the products of these alleged volcanoes. the Giantess. It is situated near the group of active volcanoes and covers an area of two or three square miles. mainly in the basin of Firehole River. The " Pink-andWhite Terraces " of New Zealand derive their name from fantastic forms. The intervals between eruptions rarely vary more than a few minutes. contains several groups. one of which. Each is preceded by a gentle overflow of water. Of this number about two score discharge water to a height of one hundred feet or more one. and contains but few spouting springs. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY but they are not eruptive. The New Zealand group is situated near the volcano Tarawera. while the steam is forced nearly a thou- sand feet higher. and commonly lasts from a few seconds to fifteen minutes. The eruptions occur at periods varying from thirty minutes to about as many hours. "Volcanoes" are hot springs that have piled cone-shaped mounds of mud about their The mud hardens into a compact mass. and the energy of eruption diminishing.

a great deal of the water must necessarily sink into the gravel and flow along the old bed-rock bottom. a large part of the water finds its simply by percolation but in underground streams. and drainage maps showing their former courses are used by the Boards of Health in sanitary investigation.—In the sea addition to the multitude of surface streams. a considerable part of their waters flow below the surface. small river channels In many literated for . have been obone purpose or another. sandy rock waste. they occur in almost every large city. becoming obstructed. In several instances these streams." . at the same time. but. and in several instances it has been found necessary to excavate these old water-courses and sewer them. Thus. in some of the larger cities many small drainage courses have been covered up in grading the streets. The same is equally true in the case of rivers that flow through light. such rivers is strong even when 8 The underground flow of fierce summer heat has evaporated their surface waters. Such experiences are not uncommon. In New York and London the channels of many such streams have been plotted. —not way to There are several reasons for this. have forced their way to the surface and flooded the streets with a deluge of water. west of the Rocky Mountains. although the surface flow may be destroyed the underground current is not on the contrary. Underground Streams. Undoubtedly the run-off of most streams is mainly above ground. 139 mud cones are seldom more than twenty or thirty feet The mud consists of fine clay formed from the mineral matter of the spring.UNDERGROUND WATERS the high. it is apt to be strengthened. whenever a stream flows in a gravelly channel. for instance. cases. as those of the Basin Region. too. such. In the first place. Now. Mud volcanoes are common in all volcanic regions.

Its waters contain a species of fish and two or three of insect life that have rudimentary eyes . underground rivers are very common/ One of these rivers winds its way beneath the floor of Mammoth Cave. they flow through In some instances the water of . EDMUNSON COUNTY. ordinary surface streams subterranean A SINKHOLE. KENTUCKY The throat leading to the cavern below hjs been artificially closet. though not " the various Lost " rivers.140 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY still Of greater interest. more important. are These streams receive their name from the fact that for part of their courses they are channels. Kentucky. for the rest. in most instances the stream pitches headlong into a " sinkhole." In the limestone area of southern Indiana. and Tennessee. the river disappears by percolation .

In Southern California. will dissolve many kinds of rock that are not affected by cold when the solution cools. and hot water. the artesian wells in the plain below are seri- the flow of water being greatly reducedwhich seems to show that underground waters have a much greater circulation than is generally imagined. the Hampo miles each through an underground passage. In Derby- and the Manifold flow many In both instances the identity of the stream is proved by throwing a floating body into the water above the beginning of its underground course and capturing it when it reappears.UNDERGROUND WATERS only— and indeed they have no use 141 for perfect organs. if the water has been forced to the surface. especially if under pressure. If the latter ously impaired all of — — . . The water is surface of the ground down to bed-rock. forming sinter or tufa. in almost every limestone cavern. much of this water matter is again freed from solution. shire. Although Physiography of Underground Waters. the substances dissolved will be carried along and there deposited. Sometimes the deposits are spread hap-hazard over the surface of the ground. thereby forced to the surface. This is accomplished by building a dam across the stream at a point where it emerges from The dam extends from the the canon to the open plain. in Luray Cave. underground streams have been captured and forced to the surface. they are nevertheless of great importance especially from an economic point of view. the work of underground waters is by no means so extensive as those flowing above the surface. It is noticeable that where such submerged dams are constructed. and. where water is required for irrigation. In the meantime. in fact. England. however. Similar streams are found in Weir's Cave. for never a ray of light penetrates to their abode. Under almost any conditions water has a considerable solvent power.

a cavern or cave if the material under it be removed. and other valuable metals have been deposited in such fissures and veins. 11 Thus underground waters are a vehicle by which many useful metals are carried from the interior to the surface of the earth. copper. gold. the water cools the soluble matter is deposited on the walls of the fissure until. How into deep fissures in the rocks. ISLAND OF CAPRI. for the greater part are formed underground by the action of water. Caverns. silver.U2 happens PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY to cover loose rock waste or soil. The water merely dissolves the rock and carries 1 — - . although sometimes formed at the surface in the manner already noted. the latter is filled. ITALY mountain regions of the earth. charged with mineral As or metallic salts. Caverns and caves. In other instances the hot waters. thereby forming a mineral vein or lode. All through the various will result BLUE GROTTO. lead. finally.

are re- UM slate. throughout the limeThese are tossed about if and carried along with the water and thus become powerful cutting tools. Between the solvent power of the water and the incessant cutting done by the flint particles. Clay. and where they are the prevailing rock. on quite soluble. essary to give it vast dimensions. made the cavern destroy place the surface at In the first waters are the roof or constantly work wearing away the rock that forms dome of the cavern. the underground channel is worn deeper and wider till a cavern. Tennessmall pieces see. 143 leaving a cavern. Very likely it has hundreds of galleries and branches time alone is nec. the contrary. caverns are rare. and sandstones not readily dissolved and in . perhaps a score of miles long and many feet deep. is formed. and Virginia in localities 1:: of sharp flint are plentifully dis- tributed stone. caves and caverns are common. In the cavern district of Kentucky. will see the fac- But time alone tors that it. By and by breaks are made .UNDEKGKOUND WATERS it off. granite. are Limestones. gions underlaid by such rocks.

both at the roof and the floor of the . stone leaks or filters In places the water charged with limethrough at the top of the dome. So. is a remnant of one of these domes . parts of these caverns are filled up by A PASSAGE IN LURAY CAVERN— STALACTITES AND STALAGMITES the limestone itself. 14 In the second place. fallpart of the water leaves a minute . in Virginia. Natural Bridge. increase in size and in number until the dome is destroyed. . of the cavern.144 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY These it is through the roof and sinkholes are thus formed. A portion of limestone at the roof the rest falls to the floor where a little. The river is then no longer an underground stream a surface river flowing in a limestone canon. the deposited limestone gathers into little more icicle-shaped columns. ing drop by drop. little by of the water evaporates. the rest of the roof has been carried away.

. 96-142. this same mass of limestone may be dissolved away and redeposited elsewhere. 145 The former are called stalactites. Shaler. of Yellowstone National Park. How are the sinkholes in the limestone regions formed ? a By using lime-water such as is obtainable at the druggist's. pp. — Irrigation and Artesian Wells. and thus the cavern is filled. — First Book in Geology. and as the water trickles down their sides they increase in size. Part Le Oonte. Water in motion dissolves limestone and makes caverns . way in which stalactites may be artificially formed. Shaler. pp. i2g. 203-290. forming a single column. still water deposits limestone and fills them up. United States Geological Survey. pp. p. 103-113. At all events. w find the depth of each neighborhood in which you live compare the distance of the surface of the ground to the surface of the water in the wells. —Map United 2. To what depth must a well be sunk before it will fill with water ? Will one be apt to find percolating waters in regions having but a QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES. Describe a cliffs way in which caverns may be formed at the foot of sea that face heavy waves. the process illustrates the general law that governs cavern-formation in these regions. 11th Annual Report. — Aspects of the Earth. in the course of time. decide the conditions which will cause underground streams or percolating waters to form a swamp. 66-87. the latter stalagIn time the two join.? : UNDERGROUND WATERS cavern. pp. States Geological Survey.) the diagram. Powell. Perhaps. mites. suggest COLLATERAL READING. — Elements of Geology.—If possible more wells in the of half a dozen or very little rain ? Explain why water in very shallow wells is apt to be impure How do springs become "mineral " in character Why does rain water contain no mineral matter in solution ? Why are geysers From and hot springs confined usually to volcanic regions? Under what circumstances or conditions can water be heated above (See almost any text-book in the ordinary boiling point ? physics.

These springs. but one of reten.146 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY NOTES. and sooner or later the Assure is likely to be closed up by deposits from the spring water. on the west slope of the Wasatch Mountains. but if the water merely oozes through the soil it is considered only as an example of percolation. but. . Almost the whole increment is due to . 6 The difference between springs and percolating waters is mainly one of degree issuing from a channel it is a spring. 2 The fissures between the ends of faulted strata are very frequently the channels of springs. Spanish Fork. 3 This may be seen in the cases of streams that flow through a region of pervious soil. are the exits of underground rivers. as a matter of fact. by artesian Such es- timates miles. that discharge each an amount of water sufficient to fill a river bed. swamps may be an incident of imperfect underground drainage. Such streams steadily increase in volume. In Florida there are a number of springs. receives only two or three small tributaries from the summit to the base of the mountains." commonly make the aggregate as "millions of square As a matter of fact all the artesian wells in the world do not supply an area equal to that of the State of Delaware with the water necessary to produce the whole of its crops. a mountain torrent twenty feet across. As an example. 5 The amount of desert land made productive by solely wells has been greatly exaggerated senseless guesses. is considerable. It begins as a rivulet. so-called. percolation. Orange and Silver Springs are so large that small river craft easily enter the mouths. in most cases they are valleys filled with rock waste carried thither by winds. scarcely lai-ger than one's arm it reaches the base of the range. 7 From time immemorial geographers have explained the peri. tion also. 1 If the rocks are near the surface and the amount of water result. In the saturation of these accumulations of rock waste capillary attraction is an important factor for this little-understood force is not only an agent of accumulation. swamps may That is. as they are of imperfect surface drainage. although for many miles they receive no tributaries. 4 The sand valleys are apparently hills.

and finally become regular. London. periodical springs are sometimes formed by tidal action. and fair-sized streams at night. there are many instances of rivers that are dry " washes" in the daytime. lasting only a few minutes. One of the most remarkable periodical springs occurs in Palestine near the old convent of Mar J irius. period of flow occurs about every half hour. once a famous intermittent spring of Westphalia. .J — . In regions of very high tides. foundations of a costly church in Philadelphia sank in the quicksand before they were completed. The way. recently caved in from a similar cause. celebrated for the enormous quantity of water ejected. by digging for In the daytime. and Reese The underground part of the river is nearly Rivers. 147 odical spring on the supposed existence of a siphon-shaped chan- Doubtless such channels exist. Water nearly always can be found it. and the reason was the fact that the famous Tyburn flowed in this locality. It probable that the stream flowing from this spring is the Sabbatic River described by Josephus. 8 In desert regions. The fresh water is pushed back by the tide. in Nevada. but not a single one has ever been discovered. Its bears out this supposition is . crossing Oxford Street a little to the eastward of the entrance About four hundred square feet of Broadto Hyde Park. Tennessee. the evaporation is lessened and the percolating waters rise to the surface. A spring near Rogersville. where the heat is intense. Carson. has now a constant flow. until it emerges to the surface through self-made channels. at a slight depth. This spring is quiescent for about two and a half days.UNDERGROUND WATERS nel. mous evaporation causes the water to disappear. The Bullerborn. the enorIn the night. In a few instances the pressure of accumulating gases is known to be a cause of intermittent flow. but in the great majority of cases the cause of periodicity is unknown. Considerable trouble from this cause occurred near the junction of Oxford Street and Edgeware Road. The fact that such springs gradually decrease their periods of quiescence. and is its period of activity lasts for several hours. or during cloudy days. always to be found. and the large sewer under one of the principal streets has caved in several times all because they were undermined by buried streams. New York. which rested for six days and flowed on the seventh. This phenomenon is occasionally noticed in the lower courses of Humboldt.

near the outlet of an underground stream. Some of the vaults and domes are two hundred and fifty feet high. Schoharie County. As a matter of fact a considerable part of the course of the Alpheus is underground. there are three galleries. the engineers of the Anniston and Atlantic Railway is Great discovered an underground stream sixty feet below the bed of Coosa River. the stripes on the right hand corresponding with those on the left. Only a few miles away. the river Peloponnesus. which Hercules turned through the Augean sank underground and emerged to the surface somewhere in Sicily. both in Virginia. lllyria. on the Island of Staffa. Howe's Cave. 13 Mammoth Cave. In Alabama. . Palls. one over 12 in volcanic rocks. There are several other caves in the vicinity nearly if not quite as large. In many instances waves have hollowed out caverns in rock cliffs. Kentucky. is a labyrinth of passages aggregating more than two hundred miles the length of the cave on a straight line is about ten miles. are smaller than Mammoth Cave. Its length is not far from two miles its labyrinthine passages aggregate many miles. Indiana. is the abandoned channel of the Poik. and is surmounted by a dome sixty feet high. Montana. It is more than two hundred feet in length. Texas. a considerable stream. The another. the Alpheus. and there is a spring in Sicily discharging a large volume of water. of stables. west of Scotland. In California. an underground stream comes to the surface and flows with sufficient force to turn a mill-wheel. In the grotto of Lueg. these veins are called "ribbon " rock.US PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 10 At Orangeville. 11 As a rule such veins have a very symmetrical banded appearance. . near San Antonio. Weir's Cave and Luray Cavern. Giant Spring. Probably the underground passage and caverns of the Timavo have been more thoroughly investigated than those of any other stream. A considerable part of the course of the Poik is underground. . sinks out of sight. is the outlet of Little Belt River. which disappears and flows underground for thirty miles of its course. is an example. San Pedro Springs. New York. Austria. Being limestone caverns they do not differ from the latter. It is hardly necessary to add that the two have no connection. is one of the few large caverns of interest in the northern Appalachian region. Lost River. The cavern of Adelsberg. According to Greek legends. There are several instances in which caves have been formed Fingal's Cave.

J5 The distribution and also the concentration of certain economic minerals.UNDERGROUND WATERS 149 river flows to the Adriatic. . the grains of sand being cemented together by the lime carried in the water. detached from the upper arch. of natural bridge. near Clinch River. Virgil's description is 14 delta. a natural arch spans a chasm nearly four hundred feet. in almost every instance a stream of water flows under the arch. et fontem superare Timavi vasto vrade per ora it novem cum murmure montis mare proruptum. One. the lower one being composed of three large fragments that. The arch is a double one. —^Eneid I. Concerning it Virgil wrote .. et pelago premit arva sonanti. Iron salts have been leached from rocks and deposited in other rocks by the same agency. Arizona. and its character has been known for more than two thousand years. fell in such a manner as to wedge themselves between the perpendicular walls. and is a part of the route selected for a railway.. has resulted from the flow of underground waters. Like that in Virginia. The underside of the arch is water-worn. Virginia. in time. in many instances. no longer true of the mouths have become only three in number. Beds of sand through which water containing lime percolates. it is the fragment of the dome of a stream that once flowed underground. a few miles north of Trieste. thereby forming a sort parts of the world. become sandstone. The arch is about four hundred feet wide and the span is about a thousand feet in length. In one of the deep canons of Arizona a huge mass of rock has fallen and become wedged between the walls of the chasm. but since it was formed the creek has cut its channel more than two hundred feet downward. 247. : . is more than half a mile long. A natural bridge spans Pine Creek. deep. in Gila County. for the nine Many similar natural bridges are known to exist in various Near Bogota. and its current carries away the fragments that fall from the roof. . In several instances the arch more properly constitutes a tunnel. Gold has been dissolved from certain rocks and gradually concentrated in veins through their action. Colombia.

and but little falls above twelve thousand feet in fact but little moisture exists at 1 . and glaciers. Among them are evaporation. but in high porting rock waste. it would seem as though the accumulation would increase until the mass of snow exceeded that of the mountains. Excepting very cold regions. avalanches.CHAPTEE IX THE WASTING OP THE LAND: THE WOKE OP AVALANCHES AND GLACIERS A great deal of the moisture mingled with the air falls upon the land in the form of snow. 150 . At high elevations. it is possible that this may be ocmountain regions various agencies operate to prevent such enormous accumulation. even though the fall might be slight. therefore. the heaviest snows fall between the altitudes of six thousand and nine thousand feet. wind. the snow that falls at altitudes below three or four thousand feet melts with the coming of spring and flows away in the various stream channels. Very little accumulates below four thousand feet. such high altitudes. In the Alps and in the higher ranges of the western United States. In high mountain regions more or less snow falls at altitudes in which the temperature is rarely higher than the melting point of the snow. In such localities. but they are also powerful factors in wearing away the land and in trans- In certain polar lands curring. They not only remove the snow and ice. but little of the snow can melt where it falls.

but also because in transporting it they become physiographic agents of very great importance. is down the in- the moving mass called an avalanche. not only because they remove an enormous amount of snow. however. ha too sleep to permit the accumulation and the taller. evaporation is very rapid. Excepting the matter of the material is transported. 2 Winds are also a very potent factor.WORK OF AVALANCHES AND GLACIERS snow. In high mountain regions the wind has a force that is almost unknown in lowlands. — plunges cline. frozen roads become dry and dusty without thawing. suddenly slips and glaciers. the avalanche does not differ materially from an ordi- BASIN. 151 Evaporation is a very active agent in the removal of Ice and snow evaporate just as Joes water. But while it is very rare that a second landslide takes place in the same track. or challanche. that are interesting. and at great heights. gathering within Unformed the take at the bottom of the nary landslide. where the air does not press so heavily as This is seen when at sea-level. MONTANA of SHOW. "When a great body of snow. basin. resting on a steep slope. These are avalanches and Avalanches. The snow . and the gales that rage among snow-covered peaks quickly clear the dry snow-dust from every exposed surface aud drift it into ravines and canons. it is evident that an avalanche may occur every time the snow falls on the slope. cliff. which AVALANCHE The slopes 're mainly snow. 3 There are two factors at work.

as a rule. is a feature of mountain economy not less normal than the mountain torrent. carrying havoc and destruction perhaps into the region of cultivated fields and human habitations. one may consider the avalanche whose flow is occaLike the mountain torrent. such In many marked as the Indeed. The most destructive avalanches occur in the first hours of sunshine. where. The footstep of the chamois or a gust of wind imparts motion to a handful Gathering fresh mateof snow. In the Alps. it soon becomes a force that sweeps everjthing before it. gathering speed.152 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY accumulates on the steep slope until its great weight causes it to slip. moves downward with a terrific roar. and it begins its descent. rial as it advances. into the air. eddies of snow a thousand feet or more wind carries of the track as the torrential part of a stream sional and spasmodic. but expert mountaineers who have acquired experience in discerning weather signs are able to predict the occurrence of the snowslide with great certainty. But in many instances they have taken place in localities previously f ree from them. it carries to lower levels an enormous amount of rock waste stripped from the slopes. 5 The flakes are then so fine and smooth that they have but little coherence. When avalanches follow their customary tracks they are neither especially dangerous nor destructive. far beyond the Rocks crash right and left and the whirl foot of the slope. and increasing in velocity every moment. too. places the avalanche tracks are as definitely river channels. therefore. The avalanche. and these are the cases in which . Not only are avalanche courses distinctly marked. just after a snow-storm. 4 downfalls take place frequently and regularly. unless the snow and rock waste reach beyond their ordinary limits. the slopes are steep. and the great mass. and almost any disturbance may start them.

but the effects more apparent along the edges for the blasts of motion by the swiftly moving snow. so as to prevent the formation of dangerous snowslides. have been artificially guarded. fell every vestige of timber a thousand feet or more on both sides. . . its volume consists of ice and coarse snow mixed with rock waste. surface than at the bottom. Glaciers.WORK OF AVALANCHES AND GLACIERS the destruction are even is greatest. and excepting the velocity. wind set in In recent years. and it is also swifter in midstream than at the edges. its movements are much The flow is faster at the like those of a stream of water. Another form of avalanche occurs in the Alps late in the season. Finally the whole mass slides down These avalanches do not differ in any mathe incline. terial respect from landslides. but farther down it has begun to melt. 7 the ravine. places that the experienced mountaineers have discovered to be possible avalanche tracks. and ending in a mountain torrent. Instead of light. and instead of crystals it consists of little — granules of ice. and finally the surface is a field of ridges and hummocks. Still farther down ance. called neve. 6 The lower part of the snow and ice are undermined by water as the ground on which it rests thaws. A great part of the snow that falls on high and steep slopes is either blown into ravines by the wind In the upper or is tumbled into them by avalanches. which is so slow as to be almost imperceptible. at the beginning of warm weather. powdery snow. 153 Not only is everything de- stroyed along the path of the moving snow. It All this mass of ice and snow constitutes a glacier. the neve has a striped or banded appear- Then the surface takes the form of irregular waveshaped ridges. part of the ravine the snow is light and flaky. 8 half-drowned in streams of muddy water. is in motion.


in many in- stances.s t r e a m makes its way down the ravine. in where the general. on steep incline as may be In many feet. In some instances . parallel is 155 in the centre scored with These are roughly and cross the glacier in lines which. point upstream. they mark what in a would be the rapids varies.WORK OF AVALANCHES AND GLAOIEES Because the glacier moves more rapidly than at the sides of the stream. fining banks and loil^e at the edges. These walls constitute the rock fall lateral moraines of the glacier. narrow and only a few feet deep but in some places becomes a Crevasses chasm fifty or sixty are most numerous slope river is feet from top to bottom. when the temperature is above the freezing point. 9 In some cases the crevasses form is it gently curving parallel lines that are not unlike the ripples in a river. the surface cracks and chasms called crevasses. summer. On a gentle it The velocity of the current "~wr — " slope may a not be a more than three or four inches half day it . these accumulate until they form walls of considerable regularity. In time. NISQUALLY from the conGLACIER. the motion is much swifter than in winter — in some instances twice as great. the moraines on the sides that form a medial moraine. the crevasse . fragments of CREVASSES AND MORAINE. flow into the join unite to If two or more glaciers same ravine. the steepest and. in that part of the glacier . As the i c e . Ordinarily.

the terminal moraine is constantly growing in volume. Moreover. winter. or acquires a distorted shape. in front of the ice-stream. is To the covered best of our knowledge. the rock waste. forming walls as regular as though they had been laid by human hands. when the lower end of the glacier melts to a considerable distance up-stream. They are not confined between the sides of ravines they are ice sheets of vast extent. Glacial movements are not conThe sheet of fined to the ice streams of ravines.156 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY may be seen stretching with great several medial moraines regularity for a long distance. certainly the many off. But there are remarkable fields of ice many miles in extent. while the lateral moraines may decrease in size. In summer. is the patch of snow on a steep hillside that gradually creeps downward — . These vast found mainly in polar regions. But in when the ice -front again advances. too. forming across the path of the glacier the long windrow of rock waste that constitutes the terminal moraine. much of this sort of rock waste gets to the bottom. places is projecting beyond the edges and breaking The Greenland ice sheet is a striking example. Toward the lower end of the glacier. snow that projects over the edge of a roof is a perfect illustration of glacier motion and so. one of its most interestNot infrequently the shape of the ravine is such that the rocks composing the lateral moraine are pushed against the sides. The moraines of a glacier are ing and important features. Probably the greater part fields are of the sheet is gradually settling ice in downward . almost the entire island . however. Glacial Ice Sheets. ment. consisting mainly of large bowlders. the scattered bowlders are pushed forward. that exhibit all the phenomena of glacier move. is strewn along the bed.

In places the flow of the ice is compara- — 4mm N -C*' 'S m float BIRTH OF THE ICEBERG The buoyant force of the water is shearing the fragments. is a striking example of the ice-sheet. The frag- ments broken from the ice front are icebergs. Sometimes they tumble from the top in other instances the edge of the sheet is pushed out so far that the buoyant force of the water breaks a fragment from the sheet. and it floats off. its ragged front. Along the southern coast much of the ice and snow disappears by melting. however. Farther north. on the west coast of Greenland. tively rapid — as much as forty or . the ice reaches the coast sometimes descending into the fjords. Humboldt Glacier.WOBK OF AVALANCHES AXD GLACIEES long periods of time. For a distance of about sixty miles. broken here and there by rock-cliffs. fifty feet a day. forms a sea-wall in places several hundred feet . where the ice-covering is thinnest. 157 with ice and snow that have been accumulating durin * So far as known the only rock that reaches above the surface of the ice is found near the coast. sometimes presenting an unbroken wall from five to fifty miles in extent. and the latter awav.

but the nearer they are to tropical regions.158 high. is continental in size and. The largest stream or ravine glaciers known are in the Himalaya Mountains. the best known are those of the the icebergs. In low latitudes they rarely occur below the altitude of fifteen thousand feet. Several of the glaciers of Mounts Shasta and Tacoma (Rainier) rival the Alpine ice-streams in extent. Ice alone is so soft that it has or no . In general. The chief effects of glacial action are erosion and little trans- portation. almost every arm of the sea contains one or Alps. judging from the thickness of probably several miles thick. Muir Glacier. Physiographic Effects of Glaciers. but none of them is of great size. where the weather is cold. while in polar regions they usually flow into the sea. they occur at no great altitude above sealevel. In the Rocky Mountains there are numerous glaciers. . Apparently the ice-sheet are those of antarctic regions. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY By far the most stupendous examples. present time and. they are so —The results of glacial action are readily observed in the glaciers of the full of character that they are a most excellent key whereby the stupendous effects of the glaciers of prior geological times have been studied. indeed. Study the character of these coasts on a good map. however. the higher the altitude. glaciers begin above the line of perpetual snow and extend usually a short distance below it. has a frontage of two miles on the sea. Alaska. Find examples in the Alps. Occurrence of Glaciers. In high latitudes. and along the Alaskan coast. more of them. Most of the rivers flowing from the high slopes of mountains that reach above the snow-line have their sources in glaciers. it is — Along the northern coast of Norway there are fine examples in the Patagonian Andes.

according to the character of the rock over which moves. and everywhere the erosion is so characteristic as to reveal its origin. but if 159 effect a moving mass of ice of drags or pushes fragments of rock along at the sides and bottom it becomes a cutting it tool great power. It planes.WORK wearing OF AVALANCHES AND GLACIERS on hard rock. and the wide gap between the Adirondack and Catskill ranges both groups being parts of the Appalachian folds was probably made at this time. the grooved and rounded surfaces are one of the most marked features. All through the northern United States and Canada. or scratches. The northern Appalachian Mountains were worn and broken. m occasional localities a little farther south of the have been made or shaped. In the exposed rock of New England and New York. gouges. and many thousand lake basins REGION OF GLACIATION The heavy line IN THE UNITED STATES : shews the limit of terminal moraines erratic bowlders occur line. What has been the — — . the surface has been ice. nearly to the scoured by glacial Rocky Mountains.

with one or more faces planed smooth. •w^— t^^*^ Eteifi A DRUMLIN surface is covered with fertile soil. The same markings are equally plain throughout north- ern Europe. the gravel of drift differs materially from stream gravel . and the rock waste that has been removed. and in size the pieces vary from grains In of sand to bowlders weighing several thousand tons. Glacial rock waste or detritus has been deposited in Much of it has been spread over the survarious forms. character.160 effect of this PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY gap on the commercial development of New That the surface of the ice-sheet did not reach the top of the highest peaks of the Adirondack is still York? quite to and White Mountains alpine species are found inferred from the fact that certain at their summits that do not occur at a lower level. unsorted material. Glacial drift is is common]}' known as drift. for while the latter is composed of uniformly rounded pieces the fragments of the former are rough and angular. . The transportation effect of material is a still more noticeable of glaciation. and the coasts of Norway and the British Isles probably received their present frayed and ragged appearance at the same time that so much of North Amercia was covered with glacial ice.

WORK OP AVALANCHES AND GLACIERS face as an imperfectly mixed 161 mass of clay. A part of Long Island is probably a terminal moraine. and one hundred In nearly every instance these heaps are moraines. and gravel. Not infrequently the material occurs in rounded hillocks or drumlins. sand. The former are very common in the New England Plateau. Near the southern limit of ice - the glacial sheet the SPLIT drift occasion- ROCK AN ERRATIC BOWLDER cliff. form ridges of long — perhaps more many miles in extent. the northern lake region. ally takes the The butternut-tree. These deposits are the well-known till plains of northern Europe and the United States. growing from the is forty years old. . of in Several the islands Boston har- bor are drumlins. Many of the low ridges extending into the valleys of Colorado are moraines. called eskers. and several of the ridges that cross New Jersey are of similar origin. feet or in height. or perhaps in long ridge -shaped bars. and also in England and Scotland.

— Describe any slopes. weighs not far from five hundred tons. sometimes being found as far north as latitude 40° S. in some instances they certainly have been brought from a long distance. New York. 10 near Mount Vernon. The most interesting feature about them is the fact that they are unlike the rock in the locality where they are found.162 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY remarkable form of drift is found in the rounded blocks of stone strewn over the surface of the New England and Middle Atlantic States and a few other localities. Icebergs. Split Rock. . those of the northeastern United States are mainly of granite. The huge blocks broken from the Antarctic ice-sheet drift about over a very large area. The icebergs from the west coast of Greenland float southward during late spring. . and remain there until they melt or are broken up by storms. effects you have noticed with relation to snowslides on the roofs of buildings or steep A mass ? of of twenty-five pounds trees ? snow weighing ten thousand tons moves with a velocity feet per second. of Sometimes several hundred them are drifting about in the vicinity of the New- foundland Banks. In the North Pacific Ocean the icebergs are small and are rarely found beyond the partly enclosed waters of the Alaskan coast and Bering Sea. The formation of icebergs along the seafront of glaciers becomes an important factor in several ways. QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES. and during May and June . These are commonly known as erratic bowlders. A — cross the routes of trans-atlantic steamships. Some of them are of enormous size one. what is its momentum in footWould this force be sufficient to break off or uproot large In a previous paragraph it is stated that the water issuing from the end of a glacier is muddy account for the presence of the mud. With respect to mineral character the bowlders are of many kinds. thus becom- ing a menace to navigation.

An inspection of Table III. 163 way in which rock fragments may get to the bottom of a parallel ? Why are the scratches made by these fragments Why are there The map no glaciers in the Appalachian Mountains ? on p. more than ten snow is lodging in ravines and slopes the Mountains the the * fall of snow sometimes reaches twenty feet on level. The power of wind in drifting loose soil has already been noted. or If possible delineate them on a map. 157 shows the terminal moraine of the great ice-sheet describe its course and location. Name two large lakes situated in the basin of former Lake Agassiz. In the latter ranges the slopes are steeper and the snowfall is considerably greater. 4 In certain parts of the Rocky. COLLATERAL READING AND REFERENCE. On the western slope of the Sierra Nevada not evenly distributed. WORK OF AVALANCHES AND GLACIEES Explain the glacier. shows that at a temperature of —40° F. Elements of Geology. Appendix. Forms of Water. bowlders. On mountain In laying the foundations for the observatory at the summit of Mont Blanc. Mountains avalanches are of frequent occurrence. It is not improbable that such snow-slides are just as common and quite as destructive in the Caucasus and the Himalaya Mountains as they are in the Alps. a small amount Wet of moisture 3 may still exist in the atmosphere. eskers. freezes clothing hung out to dry in very cold weather first and then gradually dries. but they are by no means so common as in the Alps. Describe any evidence of glaciation in the neighborhood in which you noting drumlins. Le Contb.. moraines. pp. 1 It is rare that snow accumulates to a depth of or twelve feet on a level area. Tyndall. Tyndall. Cascade.. and Sierra Nevada . while the drift may be several times as great. 569-583. . most of it finally places not exposed to the sweep of the wind. markings and scratches. — — — NOTES. the snow and ice were so deep that no rock bottom could be found at a depth of sixty feet. But snow is less than one-quarter as heavy as soil of average material hence the work of wind is far more effective. erratic drift. Hours of Exercise in the Alps. live.

The bands of snow contain air and are therefore whitish and opaque. until finally the whole mass is in motion. dry snow. and they are the of all snowslides. It is rarely This form is known destructive. The ice formed of snow that has been subjected to great pressure. are found almost always at the lower end. movement of the ice is twofold down stream and away from the bank. Damp snow does not shear and move readily it is the gathering of light. The bowlder protects its support from the heat of the sun. and they are popularly known as rocking stones. falls to 9 . The bands are alternate layers of ice and dirty snow. while the latter melts the ice around the lower end of the column. if present. little by little. 8 The ice hummocks are conical in shape and. Because of the pressure all the air has been squeezed out. as the avalanche de fond. that is the dis- most dreaded . is evident the crack or break is necesNow the sarily at right angles to the direction of the strain.164 5 PHYSICAL ©EOGKAPHY These are the poudreuses (powdery snow). and for this reason the ice is tolerably clear and blue. while more or less unstable. This peculiar feature at one time gave rise to the opinion that there might be an up-stream motion to a glacier. Examples are found throughout the New England States. tinctive feature of this 8 form of avalanche. the latter forming a very firm tripod. where the same process is again repeated. 10 Many years since this bowlder broke into two parts along a cleavage plane. — . New York City. Sooner or later the ice column breaks and the bowlder ' is a lower level. In the northern part of Westchester County a large erratic block has been deposited on the top of three smaller stones. however. In a number of instances one bowlder has been deposited on the top of a boss of rock in such a position that the equilibrium. Not infrequently one of these hummocks is surmounted by a bowlder of several tons weight. cannot be readily overthrown. The reason for their direction. There is a fine example in Bronx Park. Therefore when the ice breaks the crack points diagonally up the stream. A butternut-tree sprang up in the cleft and in time its trunk has wedged the two fragments apart in the form of a V-shaped opening. Rocking stones are also common in the glaciated regions of northern Europe.

if the general slope be very decided. perhaps there may be no and ponds. or marsh.CHAPTER X THE WASTING OF THE LAND: THE RESULTS OF IMPERFECT AND OBSTRUCTED DRAINAGE. or perhaps wholly blocked by obstacles. if the surface be flat. the water. meeting no obstructions which cause it to collect in basins. one of two things must occur either the water will collect until its surface is high enough to flow over the lowest part of the rim. The area whose . Sometimes a ridge of land prevents its progress in other cases a landslide or. and they are commonly called marsh lakes. for the reason that the water flows off. 1 pond. the water may find its passage temporarily obstructed. or else it will spread over the surface until the amount that evaporates just equals that which flows in. perhaps. 3 165 . — waters flow into the lake constitutes basin usually has several rivers and that are its tributaries or feeders. LAKES AND MARSHES In flowing from higher to lower levels along lines of least resistance. its basin. spreads over the surface and forms a multitude of small ponds. 2 On the contrary. The water therefore spreads out. a stream of lava athwart the channel prevents its progress. forming a lake. In Florida and along the GwM Coast there are excellent examples. A large many small streams Marsh Lakes. — In lakes a region of considerable rain-fall. In places where the flow is obstructed. finding no definite channels.

and if a group of them be con- — region are sidered. by glaciers.166 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY of large size or considerable flat A marsh lake depth could not form in perfectly lands. FLORIDA. it is at once apparent that their axes. A glance at a good map of the northern part of North America shows that the lakes of this Glacial Lakes. . after reaching a certain height. there are many thousand lakes that are the — result of factors with which rain-fall has no direct con- MARSH LAKES. For a similar reason. As a rule they are long and narrow. nection. its most remarkable surface feature. The most important are those whose basins have been shaped largely by the action of moving streams of ice —that is. 4 lakes have been formed by the surplus of rainfall over drainage. are nearly parallel. such lakes could not be very numerous on a surface that had a considerBut while many perhaps most— of the able slope. the water would flow off as fast as it was supplied. for the reason that. or lines of Careful investigations greatest length.

IMPERFECT AND OBSTRUCTED DRAINAGE 167 have shown that not only are such lakes comparatively much deeper than the marsh lakes previously described. Nczi> York. The only lakes themelse- glaciated regions — never where. their rims are walls of bowlders that could scarcely have been more regular. indeed. in the British Isles. In many instances. as is seen in the " finger " lakes of New York. in most instances. Lakes of this type are closely associated with the great accumulation of glacial ice selves are found in that formerly covered a large part of the northern hemisphere. had the courses of rock been laid by human hands/' in chains. a river fol- Aery frequently such lakes occur lowing the course of each chain . tarns. They are therefore called glacial lakes or. In a few instances a cluster of such lakes apparently radiates from a central point. merely incidents in the history of the river. their basins have been wrought in the hardest rocks. but that also. these lakes are GLACIAL LAKES A group in tile Adirondack Mountains. too. .

have pushed enough sand . Very many lakes have come suddenly or another of the causes existence through one named. or the sinking of an k area of land. The lakes themselves are manifestly the abandoned loops of rivers. Perhaps a bayou or small stream may be left as a feeder. sooner or later to disappear possibly overgrown by vegetation. but more likely the moat becomes a stagnant pool. In the illustrations pp. flat coasts. the formation into of a bar across an estuary or core. But the water on this side of the island is so shallow that the waves. this shore was sion LAGOONS. south The of coast Marthas Vineil- yard furnishes an excellent lustration of la- goons type.— There damming are Accidental other 7 lakes whose origin is the result of accident. such as the destruction of a river loop. Another type of accidental lake occurs along low. These are the lagoons of the sea-shore or the lake- — shore. of this In times a of past.168 PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY Lakes. MARTHAS VINKYARD succes- coves and small bays. The origin of such lakes is very apparent. 110 and 173 there is shown a type of lake that is common along the bottom lands of the Mississippi and other rivers that flow through level plains. dragging heavily on the bottom. possibly buried under the sediment brought down by floods. The moat thus formed remains filled with water. the of a stream. and they are formed when the river straightens its channel.

Even the flows to hardest granites and igneous rocks contain a minute proportion of soluble matter. Although salt lakes have no outlets. and doubtless there are regions. remain in the basin. Of there are this apparent contradiction there are two explanations. Salt Lakes. the basin. both the water and the salt flow off together. however. As a matter of many such lakes whose waters are almost sweet and pure as when they fell from the clouds. little by little. In time. and forms also a wide margin of crusted salt along the shore. it is not necessarily in the origin of salt lakes. true that lakes without outlets are fact.IMPEKFECT AND OBSTRUCTED DRAINAGE them 169 before them to throw barriers across the coves. . the water becomes decidedly salt. and shut from the ocean. Those near the shore often have more the nature of sounds than of lagoons. more. whose lakes are now fresh. while the mineral salts. the salt sinks to the bottom. that would become regions of salt lakes were the temperature and dryness to increase materially. which cannot evaporate. and finally. many of them now near the shore will ultimately be at a considerable distance inland. unless there is an inflow of fresh water. extends seaward. 8 Any good map of the United States or of Europe will show a multitude of wave-formed lagoons of this character. Salt lakes have no outlets. as salt. Temperature and atmospheric moisture are also factors High temperature and dryness of the atmosphere both promote evaporation. 10 Nearly all soil contains more or off — less mineral salts that are soluble in water. any soluble matter with which the lake or pond has an outlet. the water is removed by evaporation. 9 But as the coast. 11 If there be no outlet. it it So when the water carries with If it comes in contact. and for that reason they are salt. a brine that will dissolve nothing After this.

In this case. Among chief. it. There are numerous Canada and the United . 12 situated almost alongside In the second place. and in the dry season their waters evaporate. mainly in arid regions. In the Great Basin. all the lakes of briny saltness. perhaps. Lakes are the most transitory features of the earth's surface. soluble matter may have been when the leached from the overflowed its soil at some prior time lake basin. whose waters are comparatively fresh. glaciers are. Physiographic Aspect of Lakes. Its life is almost ephemeral. true . and unless their conditions of existence are changed they will not become salt. of a very brief period. They are not salt. Lakes of this kind are commonly called playa lakes. that are periodic in character. and various forces are constantly at work to destroy Physi- ographic agents that have no effect on other features of the earth are often fatal to the existence of lakes. some of those in southern Russia are of considerable area. and the soil through which the feeders flow contains little or In the much soluble matter. Commercially some of them are important on account of the enormous amount of salt they yield. west of the are several Rocky Mountains. There are certain lakes. There are many such lakes in States. the various agents. small lakes of this character in the western part of the United States. however. they have also been quite as effective in . During the rainy season they may be of considerable size they have no great depth.170 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY first place the lakes may be young. leaving in each basin a thick crust of salt. Rivers and the various relief features of the earth are seldom entirely obliterated but as time is reckoned a lake is the creation — . the in Glaciers have been energetic factors it is making lakes. to change the fresh lake to one of required time only is time will the be long or short. there young lakes. according as brine.

Long before the existence of the lakes whose remnants are now found in the Great Basin. but it may also lower the land at the foot of the lake and destroy the basin of an old one. perhaps. formed. and in a little while the lake has disappeared. change in the level of the lake-bed by elevation or by depression always produces great changes in the lake. is and in a short time a lake Later it forces a passage through the obstruc1 ' tions made. A few old shore marks and. a delta or two are all that remain to tell the story. 171 The glacier blocks the channel of a river with ice or with gravel. a vast A body of water covered much of .IMPERFECT AND OBSTRUCTED DRAINAGE causing their destruction. A BURIED LAKE BASIN The basin lias been filled wltli sediments brought into it by the river. Such a change may throw up a ridge so as to form a basin for a new lake.

until finally it meets the opposite shore. and leaves of the dead plants fill the basin until there is no more room for the lodgement of water. and together with probable changes in climate. New York. gradually filling the basin. until a deep hole is all that remains. little by little. PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY But a change this. Winds are sometimes very effective in the destruction The manner in which they operate is very simple they merely carry enough fine rock waste into the basin to fill it. has disappeared within recent times and most of its former bed is now cultivated land the famous " onion fields " of in — the State. The process is very simple the roots. . One near Goshen. they are confined to localities of comparatively small area. covering an area of about sixty square miles. but in the case of marsh lakes it has a great deal. Such instances are common on coasts that are swept by of lakes. and at the same time an estuary becomes a part of the coast plain. 15 The rock waste is piled upon the windward shore. and the latter advances. . are the The foregoing tribute to the destruction of lakes . stalks. Buried the destruction of lakes. 14 Rapidly growing vegetation is also a potent factor in Vegetation has but little effect on deep lakes. Usually the plant begins its growth at the edge of the lake and spreads toward the centre. but in the end the vegetation conquers. The struggle of the lake may be a long one. in the level of the basin occurred. especially the lagoons along the seashore. constant winds.172 this region. The lagoon is filled. most apparent agencies that conand although in many instances they operate continuously and systematically. : and partly obliterated lakes of this character are common all coast plains and level lands. caused the great internal seas gradually to dis- appear.

LAKE The ST. at the place where a stream enters a lake. that flows out of the lake is equally destruc- It cuts away the rim of the lake until the water is nearly or quite drained. Clair River. Louis. but it is none the less effective. and in the lakes of central New York. . tle it. Not a few of the lakes that have disappeared from the earth have been destroyed in this manner. many of them. bar This is is clearly illustrated by the Volga. lakes. — — * Gilbert. Clair. "Rivers are the mortal enemies of that flows into a lake bears in its silt. IMPERFECT AND OBSTRUCTED DRAINAGE tions are carried 173 But there are other lake-destroying agencies whose operaon in almost every part of the earth their manner may not be quite so apparent. Formerly Great Salt Lake and the latter." * The stream less lit- volume more or the lake basin. sedi- head of mud flats at the head of the lake are the result of mentation. with its mazy the delta by the at St. either a delta or a formed. at the head of Lake St. . CLAIR. lowering the level The stream tive. The lakes and old lake-beds in the Great Basin illustrate this fact. A diminution in the rainfall sooner or later will also destroy a lake.. of the basin. Lake and by Superior. St. which is promptly deposited in by little filling With scarcely an exception. now dry its scattered remnants covered an area almost half the size of Lake Superior.

feet higher than at After- wards. In 16 some instances the y surround the sites of lakes that have ceased ist . In every almost part of the world are found old lake shore-lines high face above the surwhose level they formerly marked.174 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY At that time the level of the lake was nearly one thousand present. of lakes that are LAKE BONNEVILLE AND CiI ITS sire REMNANTS of the Like : in u : kite outti shows the former the smjll lakes of Sevier Ifjver are practically dry. the rainfall de- creased and. to ex- in others. however. the less indraught being than the loss by evaporthe lake its ation. In any case . reaching a period of old age. dwindled to present size.



they serve to demonstrate that lakes are very transit-


of the lakes of the

United States have disapSevier

peared within very recent times.




has practically ceased to exist, and Tulare Lake, California,
in twenty years has shrunk to less than half its former


finger lakes of

New York



a measur-

able part of their area in the past fifty years, and the level

Great Lakes has been materially lowered. In Lake much with navigation that a barrier across the outlet is now contemof the

Erie the diminution has interfered so

plated in order to raise the level of the lake.
in all parts of the earth, but they are

Geographical Distribution of Lakes. Lakes occur by no means uni;

formly distributed

as a matter of


about ninety

per cent, of them are north of the 40th parallel of north

With respect
universally true.



lakes this law holds almost

The only exceptions are the few that are found in the southern Andes and the snow-clad sumMost of them mits of high plateaus and mountains. are situated in Europe and North America. In the latter division alone there are more than one hundred
thousand glacial



are the latter of rare occurin this zone would they

rence in the torrid zone ?


Salt lakes are confined mainly to regions of deficient


are they not


in regions of abun-

Most of them occur in the basin regions of dant North America and Eurasia in the latter region there are
rainfall ?

several thousand.

The Caspian

" Sea,'' the largest lake in

the world,


in this region




eighty-four feet

Playa lakes are numerous in regions below sea-level. having a level surface and a light, periodic rainfall.



of the lakes

may be

grouped in systems which occupy lines of depression on the earth's surface. Two such systems are found in the Western and three in the Eastern Continent. The lakes of the Western Continent are chiefly in North America, and are embraced mainly in two systems. The largest and most important

the belt stretching across

the northern part of North



arc of a great


drawn from the city Buffalo to Point Barrow

passes through or near a chain of lakes that includes

about the largest bodies of in the world. Find this chain on the map
fresh water

describe the

drainage and

character of the lakes.


other system extends from




the United States southward


Mexico and the American States.
these are situated



in a basin region
their drainage


and character. South America is remark-

able for the absence of lakes



any considerable number.
is Titicaca, 18

There are playa lakes along

the eastern base of the Andes, but the only lake of impor-


a large body of water near the


of the Andes.

Its surface is 13,000 feet




it is

the highest large lake in the world.

Do its waters

reach the ocean

In the eastern continent a wide belt of lakes, situated mainly between the 50th and 60th parallels, extends across
Eurasia; what

their character?


respect to


tude their position corresponds pretty closely to that of the glacial lakes of North America. These lakes constitute
the great majority in number, but they are of very


second belt follows the high mountain-ranges that from west to east across the continent. It embraces the playa lakes south of the Atlas Mountains the


glacial lake

of the Alpine

and Himalayan folds
salt lakes in


and the

multitude of

playa and

the basin region.

Many of

the largest and most of the important lakes of the

continent are in this group.


third system in Africa

follows the line of the eastern highlands,






and therefore, and south.


to those of

largest bodies of fresh water in the world.

North America the African lakes are the Name and de-

scribe the four largest.

In one respect the Australian lakes are remarkable
almost every one

either a playa or a salt lake.

Not a

one of any importance has an outlet to the

What does

this indicate with reference to the rainfall of

the continent

Swamps and Marshes. — In some
waters cannot flow

thereby swamps, morasses, pocosons,

places the drainage but remain about even with the forming what are variously termed

and marshes. 19



Inasmuch as almost every condition of imperfect or embarrassed drainage results in marshy ground, it is evident that many different factors may bring about such For instance, the surface of the land may be conditions. so nearly a perfect level that the water cannot run off Such instances until it has completely saturated the soil. are very common they occur in prairies and the flood They are complains of rivers almost without number. monly, though not always properly, called river terrace sioamps. Quite as frequently such morasses form at the mouths of rivers, where they form delta swamps, or estuary swamps. In many instances the accumulation of vegetable matter results in swamps. Under ordinary conditions the leaves and twigs of forest growths quickly decay if they fall on dry ground and, as a rule, the products of decay are gaseous. Under such circumstances, therefore, no great amount of solid matter results from such decay. But if the ground be tolerably wet and rainfalls are frequent, there may be enough moisture to prevent complete decay. The vegetable matter gradually acquires a well-known

condition, in



consists of a fine, black slime

and a


of fibrous material called peat.*

The accumulated

matter prevents drainage and a


Most ivoodland sivamps are formed in this way. Not all woodlands become swamps, however, for the character of the vegetation nearly always has more or less to do in swamp-making. Several species of sphagnum, a
kind of moss, are intimately connected with swamps. One of these water-mosses consists of very long, thread-like stems which, while dead at one end, are living and growing at the other.

The dead

portions do not decay,


they simply accumulate, packing tightly together like an immense mass of sponge.



the ground ever becomes wet enough for the

sphagnum to get possession, the area will become a swamp, even if the accumulations of other vegetable material would not result that way. In time a hollow, a pond, or even a marsh lake will be entirely filled



vegetation beginning at the shore, are extending outwards.

with the stems of sphagnum, thus forming peat bogs and

swamps. 22 If sphagnum once obtains in an area, an absolutely level surface is not necessary for the formation of swamps. The sphagnum will make its way up a slope of four or Instances of five degrees and thus form a climbing bog. this kind are common in the Scandinavian Peninsula and also in Nova Scotia and the New England States.




and sphagnum have nearly

filled the


and a quaking bog




Sphagnous growths not only overwhelm shallow ponds and lakes, by filling their basins from top to bottom, but sometimes they operate against deeper waters. If the moss stems cannot find lodgement at the bottom of the lake they will float at the surface, spreading, little by little, until the surface is covered. The mat of sphagnum grows thicker



and broader, and



by pasty



from partial decomposition. In time the surface becomes firm enough to serve as the bed of a wagon road, or even a railway. But the surface never gets quite firm, and when one jumps upon it, or drives a wagon over it, the shaking is always perceptible. In this manner a marsh lake is changed to a quaking bog, 23 or prairie tremblante. There are other species of vegetation ** that have more or less to do with swamp formation among them canebrakes. Canebrakes have long been associated with swamps, but usually as a result. As a matter of fact, canebrakes are not infrequently a cause of swamps. The roots of the plant, spread out just below the surface of the ground in much the same manner as does the sphagnum above ground, making finally a mat that almost wholly

obstructs drainage.

Coast or


marshes are confined to low coast plains.


are destitute of water mosses, but they contain other

species of vegetation that are quite as effective.
step in the formation of a salt




Usually this

an area of shallow, results as soon as a sand-bar is


thrown across a cove or estuary. Waves prevent the development of marine swamp, but in throwing up a bar they make the condition that is a foundation for the swamp. In a few instances sheltering headlands keep the water still enough for the growth of marine plants. The nest stage is the growth of eel grass, a plant with a long, slender blade. This takes root as soon as the cove begins to fill with sediment it grows rapidly, and the half-decayed remains contribute not a little in filling up the marsh. But eel grass grows only when covered with salt water, and when the decayed vegetation, mixed with wind-blown rock waste, has filled the cove to low-tide level, it perishes. After a time the marsh passes a step

higher in


formation, receiving layer after layer of sedi-

ment that build

its surface to a level where it is awash at high tide only. By this time true salt-marsh grasses, reeds, rushes, and

tules obtain possession.

These species thrive only when

their roots are covered with salt water at short intervals.
until the level of the marsh is built above the level of the highest tides. When this stage is reached turf grasses gradually take the place of salt-marsh grasses, and the marsh becomes meadow land. Another plant active in swamp-making is the mangrovetree. This tree thrives only in salt water. It propagates itself partly by upshoots from the enormous mass of roots that trail under water, and partly by seeds. The growth and spreading of mangrove roots and trunks is so great that coast outlines are extended rapidly and fringing burners are formed as well. In Florida mangroves and corals are yearly adding measurably to the swamp-land surface

They accumulate

of the State.

The tundras

of the Arctic coast plain furnish an inter-

combined action of ice, fresh water, and moss. These shores are almost constantly salt water, covered with ice. Not only are they inundated by tidal The mouths of the waters, but also by stream waters. streams are frozen, and the flood water, finding its chanesting example of the

nels blocked with


spreads broadcast over the surface.


flood seasons the stream waters are filled with

sediment, and this

spread over the plain.



furnishes sufficient nutriment to heavy growths of coarse

moss, and the
in place, but

latter, in turn,

not only holds the sediment


also in

no small degree prevents the melta perpetually half-

ing of the


As a

result, this plain is

frozen morass, and probably the most inhospitable region

on the

face of the earth.



Physiographic Aspects of Marshes. Notwithstanding the fact that the area of marshes and swamp is comparatively small,
it is

probable that


of the land sur-

marsh or a swamp in some In a way marine marshes may be considered as land at an intermediate stage between submergence and elevation. Hence, volcanic areas excepted, the shallow lagoon, the eel grass swamp, the barren mud flat, the salt grass marsh, and the turf-covered plain is each, in turn, an incident in the final elevation of a body of land above sea-level. Along the coast of the South Atlantic States one may along the find the lagoons and the eel grass swamps shores of the Gulf there are, in addition, very broad mudM in the bay of San Francisco and the adjacent flats waters are many square miles of salt-grass and tide marshes and almost everywhere beyond the reach of tidal
face of the earth has been a

period of






waters there are the turf-covered plains. The range of fresh-water swamps may not be quite so
great, but economically they are quite as

important as the Their evolution and physiography, marine marshes. moreover, is rather more complex than the development of marine marshes, but in two respects they are alike namely, vegetation makes them and, in the long run, it destroys them.


Vegetation may, and usually does, operate to create conditions, but the process of destruction does

from that of creation.
is lifted

The accumulation


ceeds until the surface

to a level where the





Cultivation destroys swamps,
tion is simple.


and the process of destrucMost grains and food-stuffs require a comdry soil, and the very act of ploughing creates

drainage channels in which the water flows


and its nutrient qualities are exceedingly great. and . What species of evergreen thrives in swampy lands ? Economic Value of Swamps. and the peat-bogs furnish to not far from fifty millions of people. Thus. The swamps of the present time are the most productive areas to be drawn upon in the future. But swamps themselves exert not a little influence on Many species of tree and shrub that thrive in moist or dry soils perish if the soil be saturated. The Movement preceding chapters it of Rock Waste. possibly all of the forest species disappear. and bogs. although practically uninhabitable for human beings. marshes. and the rice-swamps probably supply food to a greater number of people than all the other grain-fields in the world. In almost every freshwater swamp the most marked features are the stumps and trunks of dead trees a result of the development of vegetation and its distribution. ice. the world's supply of cranberries fuel comes mainly from swamps. — swampy conditions. — In this and the has been shown that the higher parts of the land are almost everywhere crumbling and wasting away under the action of water in one or another of its different forms. In evidence of this the results of the coal-beds may be cited. Swamp. Incidentally. and these almost without exception are the swamps and marshes of prior geological ages. The soil possesses great depth. it is a question of time only before many. snow. a swamp once obtaining in a woodland area. running streams.IMPERFECT AND OBSTRUCTED DRAINAGE 183 ploughing has not been sufficient. The enormous development of commerce and manufactures is due almost wholly to the coal-fields of the world. ditching and underdraining accomplish the same results. — have had a very far-reaching effect in the development of civilization. Swampland crops themselves are of no little im- portance. Rain.

delta plains. part are the waters muddy ? From this determination endeavor to find where the sediment is chiefly deposited. and their legitimate work is to wear away the land and transport the material removed to sea-level. prepare a description of these lakes. and ter called soil. forms lacustrine plains. together with a good map. salt or fresh ? what would the water . estuary plains. swamp hole. if any.. the rock waste is coarse. on the level of Lake Michigan What would If be the effect on the character of the water were the until it basin of the Caspian Sea to fill overflowed ? the basin of the Black Sea were elevated twenty or thirty feet be. vegetation. In what. of also minuntil. On the steeper slopes. —Study any lake or pond near live and classify it as marsh. or whether p. make a map Note whether a coast plain at the foot of If there is cliffs is present. The soil is deposited in river valleys in the form of flood plains. a fringe or belt of coast plain what does it indicate con- cerning the present and the former size of the lake ? Note whether or not the border is marshy and thickly covered with it is strewn with large bowlders. glacial. or salt of it. From the diagram of the Great Lakes. The waste of the old land is the material of the new. Re- view briefly the formation of each. or whether the water-level is or banks. ? What will be the effect of the recently completed ship canal at Chicago. 184 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY even the winds are factors that are unceasingly active. which you QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES. it is takes the characgled with the remains of vegetation. and coast plains. From the foregoing write a description of the body of water. 176. and worn in various ways it is broken way downward Much it is very fine. Name several examples. Some of it is arrested by obstructions along its downward journey and. On its the fragments sometimes weighing many tons. as a rule. Explain how all these physiographic processes affect the habitability of a region. at sea-level. filling the depressions in front of the barriers.

or of the Dead Sea. Russell. An. So regular are the walls of their shores that for many . p. prepare a description of them. occur in the eastern slope of the Scandinavian Peninsula and in Nevada. and climate. with reference to commerce. concerning their depth. however. very indefinite one of 2 Lakes are sometimes formed. 3 Marsh lakes are rarely more than a few feet in depth. Lakes of Nevada. 6 "Walled" lakes are common in Iowa. From the section of the marsh lakes. except the size. Rep't. California. — States. Syria. reference write a description of Death flood plain of a Valley. 1 There is no distinction between a lake and a pond. in places where a steep Examples of such lakes slope joins one that is very moderate. 101-130. 166. S. and commercially they are of but little importance.— U. 171. 580-581.IMPEEFBCT AND OBSTKUCTED DRAINAGE 185 Mention some of the benefits resulting from the Great Lakes of North America. They are seldom navigable. COLLATERAL READING AND REFERENCE. p. Geol. and then drained and cultivated for a like period. There are several instances where such basins are filled with water and used for fish culture for a period of several years. In Europe many such lakes have been drained in order to make cultivable land of their beds. 1800. and Da- kota. and navigability. but more commonly the outflowing water cuts a channel through it deep enough to drain the lake to the bottom. pp. 80-82. Minnesota. altitude. Shaler. level reach of land in the illustration. Survey. industries. Physiography of the United pp. was formerly a explain how it became the source of From any convenient mountain stream. but they are seldom long lived. Which of the two Great Lakes may be regarded as a single body of water ? Why ? The lake . Sometimes they break through the material that blocks their jverflow. 4 Occasionally lakes are formed on mountain-slopes by the agency of landslips. — NOTES. Le Conte Elements of Geology.

Time and time again this process was repeated until the rocks were pushed back to a position where the resistance of the earth back of them was equal to the pushing force of the ice. but none of are saline because of salt springs within their all so-called salt lakes contain common salt. In volcanic countries. Accidental lakes. which is other words the sound is often an intermediate stage between a hay and a lagoon. resulting from the blocking of a river channel by coulees of lava. Not salt lakes having outlets. the ice. the formation of the lagoon is not yet complete. 8 Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds are examples. Crater Lake. the river succeeded in recovering its channel and the lakes were therefore drained. of ice. Utah Lake overflows into Great Salt Lake through . " Near the City of Mexico formerly there were several lakes that overflowed into a fourth. owing to the fact that the current from the river is still able to keep a channel open. in expanding.186 years it PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY was commonly believed they were artificial built by a prehistoric race of people. In at least two places the Columbia River was thus blocked. and were how- work . but the fragments of rock held at the bottom. are examples of such lakes. how- They ever in many various alkaline substances are found. " In scraping out these basins not the ice itself. the walls are the As a matter of fact. ever. In each instance. In severe winters these lakes freeze nearly to the but inasmuch as water increases in bulk when it freezes. thus forming lagoons. but the same process has been carried on along the shores of lakes. Lake Erie. basins. however. the others not drained are fresh. and Lake Ontario. lake. however. In each case. and the high-water marks of the lakes formed are still plainly visible. . in Oregon. The latter is salt. in Italy. form the cutting tool. are common in bottom ' Still another accidental lake is the crater merely an old volcanic crater filled with water. The former is about 2. and Lucrine Lake.300 feet deep and is a wonderfully interesting body of water. and they remain as sounds for the reason given in the preceding note. pushed the bowlders shoreward. There are several instances in which flowing lava has blocked up a river channel and formed a lake. 8 Not only have coves of the sea-shore been shut off by bars. 1U There are a few small importance. Such lagoons are in process of formation at the head of Lake Superior.

In time the winds cover this saline crust with a thick layer of fine soil and when the lake again begins to fill.IMPERFECT AND OBSTRUCTED DRAINAGE . But because of this separation and deposit of salt. The waters of the gulf are very shallow. if this amount of salt were left dissolved in the lake the latter would sooner or later become a saturated brine. formerly covered a large part of the valley of the Red River of the North. one of which was the present channel of the Minnesota River.000 tons of salt are deposited daily. is normally without an outlet. The waters of the Caspian Sea are kept moderately fresh by a similar process. in Africa. one after another have been filled by rock . was probably . The destruction of this body of water was caused probably by glacial action. delta and disappeared within historic times but until within a few years its exact position was not known. Former canals across the Isthmus of Suez. . 14 This lake preceded any of the lakes now in the Basin Region. leaving its mineral salts as a deposit upon the bottom. Pyramid and Winnemucca Lakes in Nevada are illustrations their waters are comparatively fresh. . the waters have not become perceptibly Salter. 12 It seems a contradiction of facts to assert that a salt lake may become fresh by a process of drying up nevertheless this has been the history of many lakes. This occasional overflow is sufficient to keep its waters fresh. During a long-continued period of deficient rainfall. From this inflow about 250. in part. connected with the main body of the lake by a narrow strait. that a four or five knot current is constantly flowing into it from the main body. 187 Jordan River its waters are fresh. the Karabogas. On its eastern border is a gulf. Now. in Egypt. in seasons of unusual rains. it overflows into the Libyan Desert. In this region the movement of wind-blown rock waste is incessant. and was older even than the Uinta Mountains. a body of water considerably larger than the five great lakes. in the time since measurements have been made. and the amount moved in even a few days is enormous. It had several outlets. one factor in its destruction. a lake may dry up. 15 It is not unlikely that Lake Moeris. and so great is the evaporation. 13 Lake Agassiz. The bed of the lake seems to have been lowered. Lake Chad. and this. Occasionally. was destroyed It was situated a few miles southwest of the Nile by winds. however. . its waters are fresh.

but a condition of imperfect decomposition that. 22 Although all lacustrine swamps are old lakes that have been destroyed by vegetation. present level of the level of the lakes of the western part of the Great Basin. 16 The old shore lines of Great Salt Lake are still a marked feature. ' ' ' ' 1B It is difficult to draw the line between marsh lakes and swamps on the one hand. In many instances the lake is situated north or south of the latitude in which sphagnum thrives. level has been somewhat warped and it has now a grade of one or two feet per mile. under certain conditions. excepting the few places where they have been itself obliterated." may be traced along have been surveyed throughout the entire cirOld shore lines have been found above the Lakes Titicaca and Maracaibo. not all of them become peat-bogs. The softer and more soluble parts of the tissue are changed to a black slime popularly known as " mud. almost all vegetable tissue may assume. causes The various bolsas on the coast plain between Los Angeles. A lake or a shallow lagoon passes through all the intervening stages. It is likely that the incorrect popular notion has arisen from the fact that nearly all the peat used for fuel is derived from species named. p. The differ- ence is practically one of degree. 16 Lake Maracaibo is a lagoon or clover-leaf bay. but they are not more extensive than those of the . 20 In many instances the emergence of underground waters to the surface. California. 133). they cuit of the lake." are really a mixture of nearly pure carbon and hydrocarbons the wood fibre remains. one of which. . the "Ridge Road. Many of the lakes of the Great Basin are alkaline.188 waste. PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY and there is every appearance to suggest that the isthmus was formed largely through ieolian agency. 17 In many instances the carbonates of alkaline metals are present in such quantities that the waters of the lake are strongly alkaline. 21 It is well to bear in mind that peat is not a plant. and quite as difficult to distinguish between the latter and meadow lands on the other. by percolation (see illustration. and also above In time its nearly the whole extent of the southern shore. and the ocean are formed in this manner. swamps. Two old shorelines of Lake Ontario have been found in New York. and. rather than a lake of ordinary character. The peat-bogs of Ireland are historic.

These species. M The various species of rush.IMPERFECT AND OBSTRUCTED DRAINAGE Danube. flag. . mainly south of the latitude in which sphagnum thrives. In California one of the lines controlled by the Southern Pacific Company was built across a quaking bog a distance of several miles. however. reed. but not infrequently they float hither and thither. are found Quaking bogs Atlantic States. Along shores swept by fairly high tides the mud-flat belt is — usually wide. In time they spread marginally until the surface is finally covered. however. forming islands. Generally the insular patches are attached to the bottom. 189 They occur in nearly every country in which sphag- num 38 grows. engulfing several cars of a freight train. but in many instances patches of the plant accumulate in the open water. and sweet briar are associated with swamps and contribute not a little to their formation. it is merely the area or If the slope is gentle this belt that is uncovered at low tide. are very common in the swamps of the South Usually the mat of sphagnum spreads from the margin toward the centre. It finally caved in. belt may have considerable width and this is the case along the coast of the South Atlantic States and the shores of the Gulf. The wild grape and several species of wild smilax are also abundant in swamps. The mat of accumulated sphagnum receives more or less earthy matter and becomes a tolerably firm surface. 25 The mud-flat stage is always present.

OCEAN WATERS AND THEIR MOVEMENTS: WAVES. lower. The percentage of mineral matter varies. depend on the sea. In localities where . 190 . . A cubic foot of fresh water weighs about 1. in one way or another.000 ounces on it is .. Every one hundred pounds of sea-water.CHAPTEE XI. contains about three and onehalf pounds of saline matter most of this is common salt. the amount in the latter is constantly increasing. times the size of the largest body of fresh water and. AND CURRENTS phenomena connected with the wasting and with the existence of life. whence comes all the waters of the land. In at least two ways the sea difIt is many thousand fers from other bodies of water. water. sea-water is heavier than fresh water. the proportion of 1 salt is larger. Almost all the of the land. on an average. cent. It is somewhat greater in tropical than in polar regions. the remainder being chiefly lime and magnesia. Thus. Bulk for bulk. inasmuch as the stream waters flowing into it are constantly dissolving mineral matter from the rock waste and carrying it to the ocean. in the Eed Sea while in the Baltic Sea it is more than four per less than one-half as great. Sea-water is briny and bitter doubtless it has always been thus. TIDES. almost all the waters of the land are flowing back into the sea. evaporation is rapid. but. its surface level is its Practically it supplies the land with fresh and because of its lower level. with climate. two or three inland lakes excepted.


the temperature varies but little from The temperature depth. for in various places warm water dragged by the " skin friction " of winds is frequently found in high latitudes. the surface waters of equatorial regions are warmest.000 feet. and because of this. In low latitudes the bottom temperature of deep water is a degree or two above the freezing-point of fresh water in polar latitudes. however. In shallow waters and land-locked basins. eight cubic inches. poles it gradually falls. entrance to the Gulf of Mexico is blocked by a submarine ridge whose crest is 1. depth of 12. and in the broader extents of the sea Toward the their temperature is not far from 26° (79° F.200 feet below the surface.000 cubic inches of water at the freezing-point be heated to the temperature of a hot summer day. the tions in temperature are usually very irregular. its volume will be increased seven or . the variaThus. . The freezing temperature of salt water is lower by two or three degrees than that of fresh water. The differences in temperature . however. The variation of temperature with latitude is by no means uniform. Temperature also affects the density of water if 1. With relation to dejath the variation is remarkably uniform. for upon these varia- tions the general circulation of the waters of the sea in of the sea varies with both latitude and In general. that of the 1.192 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY account of its mineral matter the same volume of seawater weighs at least thirty-five ounces more. water whose temperature is lower than that of But even at a the 1.200-foot level.200-foot level cannot enter the Gulf. and density have far-reaehing results part are due. The ice of the sea is therefore formed in high lati- . and in polar regions it is rarely much above the freezing-point.). a degree or two below it. the difference de- pending mainly on the amount of mineral salts in solution.

3 193 much below The nearly the freezing- Sea-ice takes various forms. where it finally melts. Any considerable extent of undisturbed or unbroken ice forms an ice-sheet or ice-field. and carried into warmer gions latitudes. but it most of melts during the brief polar summer. 3 level and. is called the ice foot. nar- row shelf that in polar regions forms along the shore.\»apn'cQ ICE OF THE SEA : FLOE. in . finely broken ice floating on the surface constitutes sludge. where the temperature is point. AND BERG. A certain amount of ice certainly floats into temperate latitudes. A By small part of the ice far the greater part.* Detached masses floating about constitute floes. AND CURRENTS tudes. . When is strong that the ice-field on-shore winds become so crushed and piled up against the 1 : !.WAVES. it forms pack-ice. is caught by currents and winds. PACK. however. and skirts almost its entire extent. TIDES. never leaves polar repossibly in a few instances it accumulates.

7 The motion of the water of the wave is simply up and down. Waves. The alternate rising and falling of successive ridges of water form waves. but this ice is fresh water ice that is moves down the slopes until it breaks off. Under a . the theory holds true. in the form . to the made by a summer 1 that toss the largest ships.194 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY it is not born of the sea formed on land. the form of icebergs. with a possible rotatory movement. and if the wind ceases for a moment. breeze. ' Every body of water huge billows upon the fric- earth is swept by waves. They vary in size from the of glaciers. and these are caused by the tion of the air against the surface of the water. and. 6 — £ STORM WAVES tiny-ripples i SURF BREAKERS.

making breakers. With a wind thirty feet. and the whole surface of the ocean is covered with foam. and if the gale be veiy strong it breaks into foam. The moment the bottom The top of the wave of the wave. and therefore they do not comb until they are within a few rods of shore. Ordinary waves rarely exceed three or four fathoms in depth. the top of the wave is pushed forward. and finally combs or falls forward. and the largest steamships pitch considerably as they ride over them. and partly on the depth of water along the shore. the somewhat increased. . their breadth is about ten times the height. The water and foam that flow upon the shore constitute the surf. however. the latter begin to comb at a distance of three or four miles from shore. Along certain shores of the Indian Ocean. of twenty or thirty miles an hour. For the formation of the highest and largest waves. advances more rapidly. its breadth is materially greater. the waves of the open sea are from six to ten . feet in height In calm weather. AND CURRENTS 195 strong wind. open sea is required. it touches ground begins to drag. and in general the largest waves are found in the broadest expanse of water. TIDES. where the coast waters are shallow and the waves are deep. When waves roll in upon a shallow coast their motion is also modified. and its progressive velocity may reach forty miles an hour. not being impeded. on the contrary." Before the strongest storm-winds not a little water is blown into spray. The distance from the shore at which waves begin to comb depends partly on the depth of the wave. a deep. on the other hand.WAVES. With the wind at sixty or eighty miles the breadth of the wave is increased to about two thousand feet its height may reach twenty or height of the wave is . forming " white caps" and "scud.

show that ordinary calm-weather •waves have a striking force of six hundred pounds per square foot that of the heaviest storm-waves is about ten times as great. superficial.above deck receives. . no longer THE TIDE WAVE: MOON IN CONJUNCTION break upon the vessel. although rolling high. 10 The oil covering the water presents a •surface that offers comparatively little friction to the wind. . however lull of the wind they do not reach their greatest height until the s then they sometimes roll to a height of forty-five or fifty feet. In navigation it is found that the chief damage from storm-waves is due to the battering that the lighter wood9 work. . calm-weather waves do not extend more than a few feet below the surface the fiercest storm-waves do not reach more than two hundred feet below the surface. belief that the the wind maximum velocity. As a result the waves. is often enabled to withstand storm-waves that otherwise would demolish everything above her decks. therefore. The latter. 196 It is a PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY common is at its . Notwithstanding their tremendous energy. waves are The effects of ordinary. force with The which waves strike is greater than is generally imagined. In recent years the old custom of spreading oil on the surface to the windward has been revived.. waves run highest when This is not the case. an opposing surface Measurements on the coast of Scotland.

Excepting certain estuaries and bays. little is a has visited the phenomenon seashore. high water. This rise and fall of water is ascribed to the attraction of the sun and the moon in its nature. overflowing the shore and fillFor a few moments. the movement of the water is practically a wave several thousand miles broad. stationary. highest level is During the few minutes at the turn of the tide it is slack water. is they have the position." giving the appearance of two wave-crests. ing the river estuaries. however. No matter whether the sun and the moon are on the same side. The solid portion of the earth being rigid. Both the sun and the moon attract the earth. —two of the sun and two . "THE TIDE WAVE : MOON IN OPPOSITION its the tide is flood . the contrary. AND CURRENTS Tides.WAVES. the water is and then for about six hours it falls —ever repeating. or on opposite sides. on . As the level rises and the water flows in upon the shore. drawn into the elongated form. TIDES. If. four tide-waves will be formed of the moon. as it recedes it is ebb . one on each side of the earth. For familiar to everyone who six hours the level of the little rises. their combined attraction will produce the same results. and its lowest low water. . 197 —The by alternate rise and fall of the sea-level twice a day water. so that they pull at right angles. does not perceptibly bend or yield the water envelope. never ceasing its oscillations. however. neither the high nor the low water level varies much throughout the year.

are they distinguishable. The daily motion of the tides. in the islands of the When their South Pacific. when the pull able. the difference is consider- new and full moon. results from the earth's turning on its axis. Thus it seems that the moon by its attractive force lifts the waters of the sea into two great waves. at is exerted in a straight are SOmeat THE TIDE : MOON at IN QUADRATURE ^ne *ne ^^ eS what higher tides.198 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY In most of the Northern Hemisphere. the position of the . very much as though it were slipping under them. Every point on the earth. however. accordingly. where the great land masses interrupt the progress of the tide-waves. . these waves are each dragged around at the same time. each making a passage in about twenty-eight days. the earth at the same time is turning on its axis. the Only in solar tides are merged into those of the moon. In some instances the spring tides are twice as high as the neap tides. But while these waves are making each its revolution. Thus. the broad expanse of the ocean. As a matter of fact. Moreover. every twenty-four hours. the direction of the tide-waves would be from east to west. these are the spring When the attraction is exerted at right angles they are neap tides. If the surface of the earth were covered with a uniform depth of water. flood and lower ebb . therefore. as the moon revolves around the earth. effects are added to or subtracted from the lunar waves. in much the same manner as though they were fastened to it. overtakes and passes the two waves daily.

it must pass around it. and. and inasmuch as the latter cannot sweep over a continent. In the North Atlantic the wave is turned mass of land is CO-TIDAL LINES The lines show tile position of the crest of the tide-wave for each two hours. 199 Every an obstacle in the path of the advancing wave. TIDES. of the tides is also affected by the land In mid-ocean the difference between high water and low water is scarcely three feet. From New York to Savannah spring tides are about five In the Gulf of feet. to the northward. open waters of the Southern Hemisphere do the tides move in their theoretical direction from east to west. Along the coast of the United States it varies from four to ten or twelve feet. or be checked. AND CURRENTS continents prevents any such uniform direction. Mexico the rise and fall is only about one-half as great .. 12 The height masses. WAVES. Only in the broad. and neap tides about four feet. it is diverted to the eastward. entering the Arctic Ocean.

called a bore. sometimes extending to the bottom drifts. The piling up of tide-waters in the form of a wave is commonly It is a marked feature in the Amazon. The spring tide in Bristol Channel is sometimes forty feet. Thus. or "whirling strait. and its motion is practically the same as though it were flowing from a higher to a lower level. it is therefore increased both in depth Basin. Not being able to spread out sideways. at the head of the Bay of and velocity. Throughout the greater part of its is In many instances the shape of the shore the waters of the advancing tide are separated — extent the 'sea is traversed by currents that flow in defi- uniform velocity. one part entering New York Bay. is a similar current. Alaska. great difference is If due chiefly to the shape of the the tide-wave faces a V-shaped estuary the advancing body becomes constricted by the narrowing shores. along the Maine coast it is ten or twelve feet Sitka. Long Island Sound. on the nite directions with a fairly . again uniting in the narrow strait between the mainland and the island. As a result eddies and dangerous whirls are formed. The water of an ocean current has an energy of its own. .200 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY . It is also noticeable in many of the estuaries of the British Isles. at times the water advances as a solid wall twenty or thirty feet high. in which the movement is almost entirely caused by the wind. 13 off the coast of Norway. In Minas Fundy. such that by an island lying near the shore. The two currents meet in the narrow Hell Gate." The Maelstrom. and at The shores. the direction being wholly a result of the wind. however. Ocean Currents. and the rivers of the China coast. the other. Currents are deep. at Long Island the advancing wave is divided. There are other instances. the Ganges. The wind-blown waters are called drifts. an eddy formed by the Lofoten Islands. from twenty to thirty feet.


are superficial.000 miles broad.20* PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY The current may gradually and a drift may become a current. Thus a constant circulation is taking place a surface movement from equatorial to polar and an undercurrent from polar to equatorial latitudes. movement of ocean waters the winds and the rotation of the earth on its axis are the chief factors that make them currents and determine causes of the general . '2. called the Equatorial Current. it is interrupted by the continents. except at the places where girdles the earth. The winds. nearly 1. A flow of water. . it Its flow is scarcely more than a drift. At the same time cooler water flows toward the equator in the form of an undercurrent. 15 — — In equatorial latitudes the prevailing direction of the wind is toward the west. and temperate latitudes are branches of The Atlantic part of this current is divided at the east- ern angle of South America. the direction of their flow. become a drift. 14 The water in equatorial reis gions receiving the vertical rays of the sun heated to a higher temperature than the water in higher latitudes. Gradually losing its finally it returns to the Describe the course of the northern branch what is its name after it emerges from the Caribbean Sea ? The Pacific part of the Equatorial Current is equatorial current. and the unequal heating of the waters in equatorial and polar regions are thought to be the main other hand. and its rate is about ten or fifteen miles per day. and . is the result. Being expanded a flow toward polar regions occurs. Most of the warm currents of high it.000 The southern branch ? flows along the eastern coast of this grand division for nearly miles it energy what is its name becomes a drift. This general movement is modified by the winds and undoubtedly by the rotation of the earth. and this gives the waters a westerly movement. and. .

keeping northward. from Florit is not a shallow current. finds an entrance to the gulfs and bays of western Europe. It is called the Equa Counter Current no satisfactory explanation for it is known. off the Labrador coast. .) warmer than the surrounding waters. Contrary to common opinion. Off the Florida coast its summer temperature is 30° (86° F. At Florida Strait its velocity varies from three and onehalf to five and one-half miles an hour. As a matter of fact.000 miles Continent of each. and much of it forms a circuit returning to the Equatorial Current. . it ceases to have any motion of its own thereafter it is a drift dragged by westerly winds. Its drift is pushed northward and eastward. These branches unite in Florida Strait. AND CTJKKENTS more than 9. . Some of its waters issue from the Bay of Bengal. A considerable volume. it is 203 At the edge of the Eastern again divided. it extends to the bottom of the ocean. A part of its volume flows through Santarem Channel a greater part is gathered into Yucatan Channel a small but measurable part is drawn from the Gulf of Mexico. . and here the stream as a definite current begins.WAVES. ida Strait to Cape Hatteras. but it is also the warmest. The Gulf Stream is by far the most important of the currents of the Atlantic Ocean why ? Its sources are in the Caribbean Sea. 16 To the northward it gradually decreases until.). what is the name of the long. reaching even to the north coast of Norway. The Gulf Stream is not only the swiftest of ocean currents. . The Kuro Siwo is the Gulf Stream of the Pacific. but the . TIDES. northern branch ? of the southern Describe the circuit ? In the midstream of the Equatorial Current is found a narrow belt of water flowing in the direction opposite that of the torial main stream. and even near the Greenland coast it is twenty or thirty degrees (F.

These are the Arctic Currents. no part of the Kuro Siwo enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait. performing an oval-shaped circuit like is that of the Gulf Stream. culation of the colder waters of the ocean takes the form no survey of an undercurrent has yet been made. almost in the track of is an adverse current known on pilot charts as " Little Hell. and persists. and its winter temperature is not far from 17° (63° F. however. One of them flows southwards along the east shore of Greenland. choppy waves. In a few instances only has a setting of water into the strait been observed. Two very definite surface currents of water have been observed. and it is thought to result from the rising of an arctic undercurrent to the surface.).it becomes a drift. even in the face of a strong southerly wind. It has been definitely ascertained that much of the cirit Japan coast." It is marked by heavy.). The prevailing movement in Bering Strait is a feeble flow from the Arctic Ocean.204 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY among the Malaysian greater part of its volume passes Islands. and these have resulted from strong southwesterly winds. but . . in win- Recent surveys show that. Thence it flows along the eastern coast of Asia. the Gulf Stream. finally turning into Baffin Bay the other flows on the west shore and. and its waters are then pushed by the prevailing winds toward the North American coast. contrary to common opinion. and their position is fairly well known. of undercurrents. The Euro Siwo not only a it much feebler current than a cooler stream as well. Off the Japan Islands. Its summer temperature rarely exceeds 22° (72° F. Its waters are cold. meets the Gulf Stream off Newfoundland. Off the coast of Cape Hatteras. In sumthe Gulf Stream. but is mer ter it extends as far north as the Kuril Islands scarcely reaches the . emerging into the Atlantic.

The Newfoundland and Labrador coasts probably get their dense fogs in this way. Within the ovals formed by the branches of the Equatorial Current and their drifts there — . most important One of the chief and marine currents is the equalizing of the temperature of ocean waters. Cold currents have a shilling effect on the air. . It is a drift rather than a definite current. however. Ocean currents thus are indirectly factors in climate. six months of the year The former is bathed by cold waters the latter by the The port of Ham m erfest. Without this interchange the heat of equatorial waters would sooner or later become fatal to many forms of life. and the polar ice-caps would intrude far into temperate latitudes. TIDES. and if the latter has much moisture it is apt to take the form of fog. How does this affect commerce? Evaporation is very great along the courses of warm currents and the moisture borne with the wind adds no little When the moisture is conto the rainfall of the regions. in the same latitude. ated within the Arctic circle. — effects of .WAVES. Its waters are several degrees cooler than those with which they finally commingle. Sargasso Seas. but that they keep the coast free from ice is beyond of Economy Ocean Currents. The more practical effects are seen by comparing the coast of Labrador with that of the British Isles. It is very doubtful if warm currents have any perceptible effect on the temperature of a region at any considerable distance from the coast. situdrift of the Gulf Stream. is an open harbor free from obstructive ice all the year round. The harbors of the former are blocked with ice for five or the latter is open the year round. AND CURRENTS 205 The Antarctic Current is the chief movement of cold water in the southern hemisphere. densed the latent heat set free adds warmth to the region. question.

The rugged outlines of coasts to a considerable extent work waves is — — — are results of wave action. The softer parts are worn and At . leaving a multitude of rocky then islets. The accumulations have been sometimes attributed to the eddying motion of the current and or no evidence. the incessant pounding On and the east coast of England. New Jersey. are wasting away is at the rate of several feet a year. the work of tides and currents is mainly transporting they carry material from one place Although waves act only at the surface. but they build them as well. owing both to waves swift tidal currents. named by Spanish navigators Zargazzo. so destructive of the waves. effects more The shores of Cape May. 17 first the harder rock projects in the form of long arms these are broken. and those of Charleston Harbor require almost constant repair. broken. . but of this there is little Calm water is necessary for the growth of these species forming the accumulations. and of currents. Physiographic Effects of Oceanic Movements. while the harder portions that remain largely contribute to the frayed appearance of the coast. In general the both destructive and constructive they not only tear away coasts. the yearly waste is considerable. and throughout the whole extent of coast one or the other of two things is constantly going on material is either being removed from the shore or else it is being added to it. On the other hand. that their physiographic effects can- not well be separated one from the other. Along the coast in places are still of the South Atlantic States. or grassy seas. So closely related to one another is the work of waves. — tides. work is none the less effective.206 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY These were are extensive accumulations of marine plants. the noticeable. its drift. and they occur most frequently in such localities. their to another.

a cliff-girt coast is one that is bordered by steep or by vertical cliffs. Forms of this character are Cape Cod. and almost the whole extent of the California coast are examples of this type. the rule along the MassaPoint. the waves have undermined and battered down the shores. a belt about one mile from the Kent coast. the sea has encroached on the land. They are all that remain of a former coast as witnesses of the destructive force of the waves.. are many thousand rocky islets rising from the sea like spectral watch-towers. WAVES. In the building of shores not a little depends on the If the position and direction of tides and local currents. if they impinge upon the shore obliquely. England the cliffs at Newport. along the coast of the South Atlantic and Gulf States and that of the Netherlands. In every case the cliffs are shaped by the action of waves. the most noticeable feature of which is the multitude of spits. Monomoy tucket Beach are nothing but sandy hooks Marthas Vine- . Rhode Island . On the other hand. or at right angles. Generally there is a narrow strip of sandy beach between the cliff and the water's edge. As its name indicates. AND CTTREENTS and since the time the west coast of of 207 in width has been shorn Henry VIII. The constructive and building power of waves is finely shown. and especially among the Hebrides Islands. the sand and sediment are caught by the swirl of the current. 18 Along Scotland. On account of a slow subsidence of the coast. and islands that border it. and little by little. chusetts coast. TIDES. latter strike the shore broadside. and Nan. but sometimes this is absent. the bars and spits take the shape so common along the Gulf coast. The chalk cliffs of Dover. and deposited in curved forms variously known as sandy hooks. barrier beaches.

now an island and an obstruction to the navigation of Lower New York Bay. Sandy Hook Peninsula. and so are many of the " banks " or shoals that obstruct straits and sounds. The North Sea contains many examples. and that on which the Bahamas have been formed. QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES. waves. are thought to have been the work of marine currents. at ble of battering first. The icebergs floated by arctic currents bring down a large amount of gravel and bowlders which are finally dropped in lower latitudes. lodging at the foot of would protect it from any further assaults of the But if the tidal currents remove this material. Waves are capare- down a cliff. draught vessels. in time. already been noted. but there are certain effects of tidal currents that. is one of the most striking examples. Find similar examples on the shores of the North and Baltic Seas. The effects of the tide in scouring out estuaries have are not obvious.208 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY yard and Nantucket Islands contain half a score of such examples.—If possible. and this. or a porcelain dish. the waves have an unprotected surface upon which to work. Ocean currents undoubtedly transport an enormous amount of material. and Lower New York Bay is so full of them that only a small part is available for deepcliff. The Gulf Stream sweeps the shells of certain marine organisms from the Caribbean Sea as far north as the Carolina coast. . It is hj no means impossible that constant deposition of matter carried by ocean currents may have resulted in extensive changes of level in various parts of the earth's surface. Both the bank on which the Florida Beefs are built. evaporate a small quantity of stream water of any kind in a beaker. The bars at the mouths of rivers are nearly always the work of tidal currents. but they are not able to move the the material.

In one of the chapters of his narrative. various parts of the Atlantic Ocean. or that they have done.— Sea and Land. Mill. and note the direction of the tide waves in What is their general direction in the South Pacific ? Explain how ocean currents first may affect navigation. The apparent hue is often due to reflection from the sky the real color to the substances in solution. The Gulf Stream.WAVES. — — NOTES. AND CURRENTS and note the this chapter ? result. Refer to the map. The color of sea. . Shallow water deep water a dark blue. 209 inferences can be drawn that Repeat the experiment with rain water. 187-222.— Use of Oil in Storms. the tides of the Bay of Fundy.water is both apparent and real. either favorably or adversely. Explain how waves make beach sand. What are applicable to the second paragraph of is Prove that If possible ice. 201. find the season of the year when the tides are highest. Note the character of the work they do. Pillsbubt. . the Hell Gate. The water of is commonly greenish the Gulf Stream has a peculiar blue color and is instantly distinguished from the lighter colored water on either side. Color names are of frequent occurrence in the nomenclature arms of the sea. along the West Indies from the current chart. off the Florida Coast. Hydbogeaphic Office. United States Coast Survey. or other work of reference. pp. 199. 154-184. 1-74. . pp. TIDES. or the effects of storm-waves. Shalbb. the bore of the Amazon. Realm of Nature. explain their movement. COLLATERAL READING AND REFERENCF. lighter than water. observe the effects of waves on the shore of any conven- ient you If find body of water. S. bulk for bulk. the Maelstrom. of the great indraught of the Gulf of Mexico what feature is meant ? Of several thousand sealed and registered bottles thrown into the Gulf Stream. The 1 of the . : From any available cyclopedia. you are near the ocean. TJ. p. a number were found afterward in the Caribbean Sea. p. prepare an account of one or more of the following the Gulf Stream. Robinson Crusoe speaks .

If it contains air-bubbles. It receives its name from the fact that it is very apt to begin forming about anchors or other metallic substances lying at In certain cases these have been lifted from the the bottom. that. 8 A breeze of two miles an hour throws the surface of still water into ripples two or three inches broad and not far from an inch in 'height. the accumulation is the greatest mass that the breeze of the given velocity can move. often weighing many tons. but the blocks. a greater proportion is out of water. This form of ice is also called ground-ice. It is commonly asserted that most of the icebergs floating down through Davis Strait come from Humboldt Glacier. however. The wind pushes the crest forward so that the front of the wave is considerably steeper than the back. has the power of emitting light. In some instances large areas of anchor-ice have become suddenly detached from the bottom. a few minutes previously free from ice. becomes filled with sludge. . . is due to a microscopic organism. Noctiluca miliaris. on the bottom until its buoyancy overcomes the force with which it adheres to the bottom then the whole mass rises to the surface. finally. and this process goes on until.210 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY phosphorescence of sea-water. s The difference in the form of the Greenland and the south polar icebergs is due to the character of the glaciers from which they are broken. It results from the freezing of fresh water at the bottom The ice accumulates of an estuary into which salt water flows. The crunching from side-pressure is so great that not only is the ice piled up in huge blocks. Large waves as a rule result from the union of smaller ones. Antarctic glaciers are derived from sheets of land ice Greenland bergs. . The slope of the wave is rarely the same on both sides. on the contrary. As a matter of fact scarcely a single one comes from this quarter they nearly all come from Disko Bay. At times the wake of a vessel seems like a track of fire. bottom and floated. Bulk for bulk. are derived mainly from the hummoeky ice of glaciers that flow in ravines. like the common firefly. 4 The formation of the pack is sometimes sudden and frequently violent. 2 . ice is lighter than water. and the estuary. Solid sea-ice floats with about one-eighth of its mass above the surface. s In a few instances the formation known as anchor ice takes place. usually observed in warm regions. are shot up into the air ten or twenty feet.

it is and when the wind blows over the surface feet as safely as those of six. and the result was simply a wonder to me. is a different matter. TIDES. so much so that I could hardly believe my senses. and to prevent their breaking.WAVES. A very small hole was cut in the bottom of each bag which allowed the oil to drop out freely. The oil oozing through the canvass spreads rapidly over the surface of the water. Riding so that the waves strike broadside. however. Otherwise a ship can ride waves of sixty Strictly speaking. half fish oil and half petroleum. Instantly the waves. the problem before the sailing master is to prevent the breaking of waves. to prevent the growth of waves. but the hull will ride the waves safely so long as they do not board her. a matter of adhesion rather than fricof still water the lower surface of the air actually remains in contact with the water. In a stiff gale the dragging force exerted on the surface of the water by the wind amounts to a little more than one ounce on each square yard of surface. The following from the log of the Swedish brigantine Drott is one of a great many similar testimonials gathered during the past few years by the United States Hydrographic Office " I had seen upon the pilot chart that oil had been used with good effect in calming heavy seas. In the use of oil and similar substances two results must be namely. ' 211 tion. I started to try it and had two bags made of the capacity of two gallons each. 9 A stanch vessel with her head to the wind need fear but little from the waves. The latter may smash everything above deck. For this purpose it is found that sperm oil and oil of turpentine are the best. and then one gallon was poured into each. just out of the water. cease to break. These bags were stuffed full of oakum. 8 The effect of the wind is to push their crests forward rapidly. No more seas were shipped and all hands turned to secure the main hatchway propstudied 10 — : . In use. though they may run high. In the great majority of instances. AND CURRENTS. One of these bags was suspended from each cathead. and no vessel can accomplish it without danger of foundering. however. being held in position by any convenient outrigging. practically flattening them. The danger from waves arises not so much from their height but from the possibility of their breaking upon and boarding the vessel. the oil is poured into a coarse canvas sack and the latter is floated to the windward of the vessel.

The former combers were now great rollers only. or line of swiftest flow. has a tendency to lag behind. 18 The velocity varies not only with the season. the sea broke over the starboard side and smashed in one of the boats. The crew were now able to pump out the ship and clear up the decks in perfect safety. A quartering wind or one blowing athwart is apt to push some of the surface water out of the track of the stream. About 11 p. or at the time of neap tides. The position of the axis of the stream. the variations are yearly. See Appendix. When the flood or the ebb of spring tides is strong. The fact that Gulf Stream water — — . . Consequently water flowing from latitude 60° toward the equator. An adverse wind will retard a favorable wind will increase its velocity. the current is strong. 13 During pleasant weather the eddy of the Maelstrom is hardly noticeable during slack water. with a hard northwest wind. That each is an. it is a dangerous locality.m.000 miles an hour. and. monthly. In latitude 60° it is only half as much. Table VI.000 miles in twenty-four hours a speed of about 1. and daily. a point on the equator travels 25. " According to Herschel and Carpenter the winds themselves pile up the waters in equatorial latitudes. every point of which has a greater velocity. The velocity is greatest during summer and least in winter. but also with the age and the passage of the moon that is. and as soon as another was put out and kept supplied with oil no more waves came on board." " This theory of the tides is not accepted by all astronomers. changes also with the season. 15 Owing to the turning of the earth on its axis. Lieutenant ( now General ) Greely observed that the tide came from the north. however. which was impossible to do before on account of the risk of being washed overboard. important factor cannot be denied. thereby bringing about a condition of inequilibrium. not a sea breaking nearer than thirty feet from the vessel.212 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY erly. Lieutenant Maury held that the difference in specific gravity between the saltier waters of equatorial and the fresher waters of polar regions is competent to account for ocean currents. but this was found to be due to the loss of one of the oil bags. 12 At Lady Franklin Bay. at the same time pushing colder water into it.

the waters cover the valleys. and Chile much resemble that of Maine.WAVES. and has been covered with water ever since. a shoal about twenty square miles in extent. " Glaciers and glacial action have also had much to do with The coasts of Irethe shaping of surface features of these coasts land. . this area was washed away by the sea. . the church of Reculver stood at the distance of a mile from the shore. but the sea now laves its foundation stones. In the twelfth century. during a severe storm. is due to submergence with the lowering of the level of the land. however. southeast of Kent. The famous Goodwin Sands. was formerly a part of the mainland. The channels through this shoal shift with every storm. TIDES. . 16 During the reign of Henry VIII. Norway. AND CUERENTS is 213 occasionally pushed against the coast has more than once given rise to the statement that its position is subject to change. Their general outline. Alaska.

: ITS PROPERTIES WINDS The atmosphere. substance as noted on p.} Air next the ground is denser than that above. making the the air air When the pressure is relieved. It rests on the land and the water. therefore. decreases the volume. the atmosphere partakes of all the general motions of the latter. . it is a mixture of several elements. nitrogen and oxygen. and the proportion does not change materially. again expands and is less dense or rarefied.CHAPTER THE ATMOSPHERE AND XII. The air is not a simple. because of the pressure 814 . The remaining constituents. or air. water vapor. note what occurs. for they aid materially in condensing the water vapor. but it has also certain movements of its own. and floating matter vary greatly. Pressure. dust. The chief constituents. Stop the nipple of a bicycle pump and push the piston quickly. is the gaseous substance that forms the outer envelope of the earth. 22. or elementary. denser. and these are very closely connected with life and its environment. and other matter are also essential. have the proportion of about four parts of the former to one of the latter. and probably penetrates both to a Being a part of the earth. carbon dioxide. The air is highly elastic. for it is in this form that the water is borne from the sea and shed upon the land. It is nevertheless a most important constituent. considerable distance. The vapor of water rarely exceeds one part in one hundred of air. The floating particles of smoke.

It is most convenient to estimate the tension of the air of a will just balance by observing the height column of mercury. practically. mercury in the tube is just equal to that of a column of air. being a little greater near the tropics than elsewhere. the tension a form of expressing its pressure 2 on the rock envelope. that The instrument used It for this purpose is called a barometer. If the column in the if it falls. The atmosphere is warmed partly by the direct rays of the sun and partly by the heat radiated from the earth. The weight of the j THE BAROMETER. and the two balance each other. The force with which the air presses . having an equal base. . or it. consists of a glass tube closed at one end. and filled with mercury of the air . the pressure decreasing. tube rises air it signifies that the pressure of is overhead is increasing. At sea-level a cubic foot of air weighs a little more than one suris Troy ounce. upon a given face is called its tension and. At sea-level. more than a ton on each The tension varies slightly in different latitudes. ITS PROPERTIES 215 The density decreases with the distance above the sea. the column of air rests upon the surface with a press- ure of about fifteen pounds on every square inch. the open end is placed in a small cup filled with mercury. or a little square foot of surface. quicksilver. of The pressure on the surface the mercury in the cup keeps the column in the tube in place. at an altitude of two miles the density is only two-thirds that at sea-level.THE ATMOSPHERE AND or weight of that overlaying it.

it expands and. When the air at some locality or other is heated to a temperature higher than that surrounding.. The attraction of the sun and the moon undoubtedly causes atmospheric tides something like the tides of the sea. 210 It is PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY also heated sion. Movements of the Atmosphere. 3 If a volume of air is warmed from freezing temperature to that of intense summer heat its volume is increased nearly one-fifth. bulk for bulk. bulk for bulk. With respect to altitude there is a fall of temperature at the rate of about one degree for every three hundred feet of ascent. In equatorial latitudes the mean temperature of the air over the sea is not far from 32° (90° F. it is pushed upward by the heavier . it becomes Thus. When levels. Like the waters . Sensible movements of the air are called u'huis. becoming lighter. they are caused by changes of temperature. and of the sea. and practically nothing is known about them. At the base of the mountains the heat is intense at an altitude of ten thousand feet the air is mild and pleasant at seventeen thousand feet one lives in a region of perpetual snow. air that descends from higher to becomes heated because it moves into a region where the density and tension are greater.). Heat causes the air to expand and. a volume of rising air expands and is cooled.) in polar regions it ranges much below 0° (32° F. the air is everywhere in motion. however. — The movements are both general and local. because it goes into a region where the tension and density are less. The temperature of the air varies both with latitude and with altitude. lower . a volume of air by compression and cooled by expanis compressed. Their effects. In the same way. greatly heated. warm air is therefore lighter than cold air. The effect is very noticeable in the equatorial Andes. are very slight.

The former receives the almost vertical rays of the sun the latter only oblique rays. Equatorial and polar regions are not equally heated. movements is of the air are everywhere taking place. is warmed and pushed upwards by the inflow of colder air. latitudes it is and enters where great- much GENERAL MOVEMENTS OF THE ATMOSPHERE. The air in low latitudes. prorising ducing a current to the westward. . and upper currents from the equatorial toward po- lar regions. and not be- ing able to acquire this speed at once lags behind. it er. as well as toward are usually the north. which the speed of rotation is not and therefore moves eastward. ITS PROPERTIES 217 In this way winds originate.— THE ATMOSPHERE AND air that flows in. But in the two great movements described the easterly and the westerly components are much more noticeable than the polar and equatorial move- . therefore. The current moves into a region in so great. This process results in two great movements. Such and it evident that they are examples of the force of gravity. namely a surface flow toward the equator. Winds named according to the direction from which they come. But the colder comes from the regions where air the speed of the earth's is rotation comparatively slow.

but they are greatly modified by the continents . These general movements are very strongly marked in the oceans. pushed upward. — ical regions to take the place of the warm air that is January. Trade Winds. The zone Trade Winds . be- tween two zones of extra-tropical or westerly winds. form the well-known Trade Winds. is their What direction in the northern half of the belt ? in the ? southern half Toward the is centre of the belt they are practically strong. as the seasons change. The surface winds that flow into trop. PREVAILING WINDS OF THE ATLANTIC.218 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY For this reason it is ments. In the Atlantic Ocean the shifting of the belt is not far from eight or ten of . Its position is not stationary about fifty degrees in width. customary to recognize three great belts of winds —a belt of equatorial or easterly. steady easterly winds. north and south. in inland mountainous regions they might escape notice except through long-continued observations in the great lowland plains they are more regular. it swings back and forth.

4 in temperate latitudes sinks to the surface and becomes a belt of westerly winds. The northern limit in early autumn its southern limit in early spring. there is a narrow belt which is characterized by an absence of steady winds. or with an occasional thunderstorm of great violence. and in higher latitudes they often give way to winds of northerly origin. Sometimes vessels were becalmed several weeks in crossing it. The resulting winds sweep up the Mississippi . these winds were of great importance hence their name. In the Northern Hemisphere the Prevailing Westerlies are neither so strong nor so steady as the Trade Winds. — 219 belt THE ATMOSPHERE AND degrees reaches . or Doldrums. A vessel entering the Trade Wind belt could rely on steady winds. Formerly. The wind comes only in fits and puffs. This calm belt is scarcely more than two or three hundred miles in breadth. . The air that flows from equaan upper current. On the coast of the Gulf of Mexico the Prevailing Westerlies. in the summer season. This belt is the updraught of heated air and is called the Equatorial Calms. Prevailing Westerlies. and their velocity fifteen miles not far from twelve or an hour. are reinforced by Trade Winds which are deflected by the highlands of Mexico. now generally called the Prevailing Westerlies 5 what is their direction in the Northern Hemisphere? in the Southern Hemisphere ? Like the Trade Winds both belts move northward and southward with the changes of the torial regions as — seasons.. ITS PROPERTIES in the Pacific its it is slightly greater. when most of the ocean commerce depended on sailing vessels. The winds are regular and constant is the year round. Along the line where the northerly and the southerly components of the Trade "Winds meet. with but little interruption from cyclones.

is In the any great body of land in apt to becolder in come much warmer than the sea summer and . and they furnish an excellent illustration of the theoretical movement of the constant "When the trade route between Europe and the East Indies lay around the Cape of Good Hope. Trace this route on a globe. the Boaring Forties were a very important factor. a southerly or direcis. The Calms of Cancer are the well-known " Horse Latitudes. Monsoons. They cover a very broad stretch of sea.220 PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY Valley and thence turn across the Atlantic. They are interrupted by the continents and are scarcely to be noticed within a hundred miles of their shores. a southwesterly exposure the summer winds have a . It was then a common practice for vessels bound for Australia or New Zealand to continue the route eastward and return by way of Cape Horn. is marked by calm belts the Calms of Cancer. are best In the Southern Hemisphere. and the Calms of Capricorn.'' Two causes operate to give these winds their peculiar . which is the origin of the Prevailing Westerlies. character — in some instances singly first place. Like the zones of constant winds the calm belts also shift north and south with the season. The descent of the upper currents to the surface. in others together." 6 The Calms of Capricorn are the wider and more continuous of the two winds. carrying with them a great deal of the moisture that supplies the Eastern United States with rain. —Along many coasts having . the Prevailing Westerlies known as the Roaring Forties. tion nearly opposite those of the winter season that about half the year they blow from the sea the remaining half toward the sea. — calm belts. These winds are called monsoons. as the sailing master could depend on a twenty or thirty knot breeze the year round.


men frequently take advantage of Coast fishersuch winds. but they are neither so regular nor so strong as the Indian monsoons.222 winter. noted on p. on-shore wind during the day. there is warm pushed upward by the inflow of sea air. These wiuds maj' be regarded as monsoons. the southerly part of the belt has reached southward. an updraught In winter the conditions are reversed cold air flows from the land to the sea. along the consts. The tremendous updraught of warm air aids year. flows down the slopes toward the sea. a region may be so situated that it is in the southeast Trade Winds at one part of the year. the Thus. 8 half of the belt of From April to October the southerly Trade Wiuds reaches far inland. pouring During the rest of the on the contrary. updraught of the land causes air over the land. The " break- ing" or change of the monsoon is usually attended by a number of terrific storms. parching the land and withering vegetation. while at night the being more quickly chilled.— The difference between the temperature of day and night is sufficiently great to result in strongly marked local wiuds. during summer . of the Mexican coast are probably due are those of The most remarkable monsoons. Day and Night Breezes. that flow up the Mississippi Valley are replaced by Prevailing Westerlies that are turned ifoirn the valley. 9 Thus there results a sort of a stiff daily monsoon. materially in giving strength to these winds. In other instances. 218. or day and night local wind. Along the Gulf coast of the United States the deflected Trade Winds of the summer season. a deluge of rain upon the land. however. of PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY' As a air result. and in the northeast part the remainder. the Indian coast. The monsoons to this cause. and the northerly half extends considerably beyond the coast. especially warm regions. they go .

blowing from the desert to the Guinea coast. Which is the better indication of the general direction of the wind that noted at the ground. or else they result from the proximity of the latter. lands are of the same nature. Aside from these there are several winds peculiar to desert regions. or the movement of the clouds ? Local and Variable Winds. 10 The Pamperos are similar winds flowing from the cold slopes of the Andes over the arid pampas of Argentina. both blowing from the snow-clad Alpine ranges toward the desert. Almost always they Thus. while the Sirocco. are very " dry " winds. In the vicinity of the African desert are the famous Mistral and the Etesian winds. Chief among them is the Simoon. is a hot wind that in summer blows from the desert. like the Chinook. In southern Europe they are called Foelin winds. the Northers of Texas and Mexico are cold winter winds of several days' duration that blow from the high- The Chinook and Santa Ana winds of the western highlands of the United States are descending. As a result there is often a strong wind blowing up the valley by day. andrreturn at night upon the commonly heated and cooled more rapidly than in the valleys. common in almost every — — occurring at irregular intervals that are confined each to a particular locality. and flowing downviard Similarly. There are many winds at night. a fierce blast of . In most instances these winds are confined to desert regions and arid lands. The Harmattan is a warm winter wind. and therefore warm winds blowing from arid regions upon fertile lands. The Punas of the Peruvian tablelands of the Plateau region. in mountainous countries the air is Mountain valley winds of this character are very rugged country.THE ATMOSPHERE AND with an on-shore breeze. higher slopes ITS PROPERTIES 223 out in the morning with an off-shore.




and rock waste, that neither man nor beast can face. in the Old "World and the American deserts. A milder form of this wind along the lower Nile Classify these winds as valley is called the Khamsin. either hot blasts from the desert, or colds winds blowing
It is

common both



The most




desert winds, however,

These occur in the morning when Under a hot the air is still— neve?- when wind is blowing. sun the air next the earth becomes considerably heated, having a high temperature. Above the ground the air is cooler at the rate of one degree F. for every three hundred Thus there is formed the very unstable condition feet. of a layer of heavy, cold air on a surface stratum that is much lighter. Such a condition cannot last long, and sooner or later some slight disturbance or other starts a slender column of air upward. Immediately the stratum of cold air begins to settle, and, as it descends, it forces the warm air upward through the self-made passage. The ascending column begins to whirl, and soon its motion is rapid enough to carry with it a cloud of dust and fine rock waste. As a rule these whirls begin when the sun is two or three hours high, and continue until the wind begins to blow. The latter, by mixing the warm air with the cold, prevents their formation until a calm again begins. Occasionally such whirls develop into very vigorous " sand
are the sand whirls.

Physiographic Effects of Winds. As an agent in wearing away the surface of the land, the wind acts in different ways. It may alter the chemical composition of the rock with which it comes in contact. It may carry minute
particles that cut


softer material.




material from one place to another.

The chemical action

of air is clue




mainly to the water and carbon dioxide which It is manifested in the gradual crumbling of

many rocks, when the latter are exposed to the air. The rocks most affected are certain iron ores and granite rocks.
air may affect rocks by chemically withdrawing the moisture they contain moist air may affect other kinds by chemically imparting water to them. In either case the

rock sooner or later crumbles.

The impact


especially noticeable in the western highlands.

minute particles carried by the wind is In regions


where sand winds are prevalent the surfaces of the hardest rocks are worn, channelled, and polished from this cause.


of the " needles " or rock spires of this region have been sculptured into fantastic forms by ceolian or windblown rock waste. In certain parts of the Colorado and Mojave Deserts, telegraph-poles have been cut through in a few months by the same agency. 11 The transporting power of the wind is confined chiefly




and regions unprotected by vegetation. The wave-formed islands and barrier-beaches of



the Atlantic and Gulf coast have foundations of sea sedi-

ments, but the above-water part consists of wind-blown material. The sand-dunes of sea and lake shores are ex-

and in regions swept by monsoons the dunes travel seaward during one season and landward the other. A wave of sand about a mile long and seventy feet high at one time inundated a part of Gape Henlopen, moving at a rate of about fifty feet a year. 12 Between the silt brought down by the Colorado River, and the fierce winds of that region, the Gulf of California
cellent illustrations,


has been cut in twain, and most of the severed portion filled with rock waste to a height now considerably above seadevel indeed, all through this region dunes are constantly forming, shifting, and re-forming. In western Nebraska, where the rainfall is not sufficient to grow protective vegetation, dunes are common. Very notable examples of the transporting power of wind occur in China. In the basin of the Hoang Biver

there are reolian deposits covering

many thousand square
These deposits,

miles to a depth of several hundred feet.

called loess

" loose "


—from a

German word meaning


thought to come from the desert region to the westward. In many places the rivers have cut their channels through
the loess, and the latter not only colors the water of the

but imparts a yellow

tint to the sea into




iEolian deposits have filled most of the valleys of the Basin Region of the western highlands. The ranges stand out in bold relief from an ocean of level rock waste. Many of the valleys of the Rocky Mountains have been filled and levelled in the same manner.


or describe

an experi;

show that

air has



show that




that heating a volume of

air causes



using a bicycle

pump, show that compressing





the prevailing direction of the wind in the locality in which
Consult the records of the nearest weather station and com-

you live?

number of days of westerly winds with the number in which the wind is from other directions. The tropical calm belts are regions of descending air-currents is the air apt to be chilled or warmed by this movement ? Read Stedman's poem, " The Simoon," and compare it with the description in any standard cyclopedia. Why are northerly winds apt to be cold ? Explain the manner in which street whirlwinds are formed. Note any instance of the physiographic effects of winds in the loprepare a description of it. cality with which you are best acquainted In what way do the general winds affect the temperature of the
; ;

earth ?

Note any examples in which winds accomplish work that has an economic value.

Coast Survey. Atlantic Coast Pilot Chart, for March and September, or February and August any year. Lb Contb. Elements of Geology, pp. 1-8.
U. 8.



At a height of fifteen thousand feet the air is so rare that breathing is labored and the pulsations of the heart are very

Climbing becomes difficult and any form of exertion is very wearying. Water boils at about 85° (185° F.), a temperature so low that it is difficult to cook vegetables by boiling. 2 Approximately the pressure is one-half a pound for every inch in the height of the column of mercury. At the level of the sea, the height of the barometer varies usually between 29 and
rapid. 30.4 inches.

It is well to

bear in
it is

mind that
' '




air rises, because it is lighter,



strictly correct.

"hot The hot

air does not rise


pushed upwards and floated on the surface

of the heavier air.

which the updraught rises before it turns not known, except ia two or three instances. On the Island of Hawaii, the Trade Winds reach an altitude Above this elevation the winds of about twelve thousand feet. have almost an opposite direction they are the winds that, a few degrees farther north, descend to become the Prevailing

The height


toward the pole



The Prevailing Westerlies are also called return-trades, antiand counter-trades. The name here used is now commonly employed in meteorology. Many years ago, when most of the foreign carriage was effected by sailing vessels, there was a brisk trade in horses between the ports of the New England States and the West


the horses used in the latter country being England. Frequently the vessels were becalmed in this belt, and it became necessary to throw overboard half the number of horses, in order to save the remaining animals. 7 The name is derived from a Malay word, meaning " season."
Indies, nearly obtained from


is marked by During summer its vast deserts are almost like a furnace, and the updraught of heated air is so enormous that it causes atmospheric disturbances two thousand miles away. In winter the dry air is chilled many degrees below


On account

of its inland position, Central Asia

great extremes of temperature.

that of the




sea-air, and,

being correspondingly heavier,

outward toward the ocean. No other body of land posthe qualities requisite to produce monsoons that compare

with those of Asia.



In the daytime air in the cave is usually colder than that outside, while at night it is warmer. As a result, at night there is a strong in-draught of colder air at the lower entrance, and an updraught at the higher opening. In the daytime these movements are reversed. 10 These three names are applied to winds that have certain principles in common. Warm, moist air is pushed up the side of a mountain-range being cooled either by its own expansion, or by contact with the colder mountain top, its moisture is condensed the air then descending on the other (or possibly the same) side warms very rapidly by its own compression. The effect is very marked snow disappears very rapidly— hence the popular name snow-eaters. The descending air is not only warm, but it is so dry that in summer it withers vegetation. The Chinook wind gets its name from a locality in Oregon, whence it seemed to come, but the name is now applied to warm winds that flow from the Rocky Mountains out on the plains to the East. Following a blizzard, it quickly melts the snow that covers the scanty feed of the cattle herds. The Santa Ana is a hot dust-driving wind common in southern California and
; ; '

—especially those that have openings at different

of air is noticeable in


large caves



11 Some years ago the author left an octagonal steel drill in an upright position exposed to the full sweep of a desert wind. Six months afterward, when the drill was removed, the angles had been almost obliterated by the impact of rock waste. 12 It is likely that a fire, which in 1828 burned off the vegetation protecting the ridge, was responsible for starting this dune on its travels. In 1845, General Joseph B. Johnston, then a government engineer, noticed that north winds were very actively at work in picking up sand from the seaward face of the dune and carrying it over the crest to the landward side. Little by little the wave of sand overwhelmed a strip of pine barrens and filled a salt marsh beyond. Then it advanced upon a heavy growth of timber and, in time, covered all but the tallest trees, killing them


though they had been swept by

as effectually as

As the

years passed by the wave steadily advanced, and the wind began to uncover the buried surface in the rear. First the strip of pine barrens re-appeared, and then the salt marsh was cleaned out and promptly reclaimed by the tide. Even the pine barrens

began to show signs of life and a growth of young trees sprang Within the past few years the advancing sand has begun to uncover the forest, and a border of dead trees now flanks the rear slope. Near the eastern end of the dune is Cape Henlopen

A straggling ridge of the wave entered the yard, covered up the oil-house and the garden, and then took possession of the keeper's cottage. The Government acknowledged its inability to cope with the dune by erecting a new cottage on the other side of the tower.



The vapor of water mingled with may be considered a part of it

the atmosphere, in a




if all

the other

constituents were absent, the water vapor would exist as an

atmosphere in



movements would be the same
the winds.

practically as those of

Bat while the proportion of oxygen and nitrogen of the atmosphere do
not perceptibly vary, that of water



subject to rapid changes.

The amount present depends on one thing only temperature. With a

high temperature there

may be


great deal of vapor mingled with the

with a low temperature there

can be but

in humidity are usually apparent to the sense of feeling, and one readily learns the difference between moist and dry air. 2 In many


instances they


be forecast by
If the latter

observing the clouds.

form rapidly, or

small patches of

cloud increase in


the humidity


the contrary,

the cloud area


becoming smaller,

highly probable

that the humidity


the water that saturates of wet cloth. Dew Point. 232 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY The amount of moisture is determined in various ways Most commonly the hygrometer. the cloth evaporates rapidly and chills the bulb. From the difference in the readings of the — — perature is present. Table VII. very of the little evaporates. if more be added it would immediately condense change to rain or snow.. From this table find whether or not there may be vapor in the air when the temperature is below freezing-point of water. There might be less. thermometers is two thermometers the amount of moisture may be calculated. shows the amount of water vapor there may be in the air at various temperatures.. so far as temperature and the percentage of moisture are concerned ? When all the vapor that can exist at a particular tem- and the difference in the reading very slight. From amount present one may midity . on the other hand. if half the quantity required to saturate the air is present. the If the air is moist. Compare the amount at 70° F. an instrument employed to measure the amount of moisture. consists of two thermombulb of one being covered with a single thickness If the air be dry. except is when rain generally the amount present easily conthe siderably less than that required for saturation. is unusual. however. What is the general law shown in this table. and 90° F..? the amount is near the dew-point. the relative is humidity per cent. for instance. Appendix. there may be seven grains in each cubic foot of atmosphere. This condition is falling . but there can be no more that is. the air is moist if . 3 With the thermometer at 66° F. eters. What . the air is said to be saturated or at the dew-point. and find the amount of moisture there may be. Learn the temperature at the time of recitation. If meant when the relative humidity is eighty per cent. compute the is fifty relative hu- thus. so that the reading of the thermometer is several degrees lower.

and the steam given off has a temperature no higher than that of the matter it is boiling water. Latent Heat of Evaporation. however. as much heat is required as would raise nearly half a ton of water one degree F. or changes to a liquid. and finally the layer of air next the ground is chilled beis Dew. The air may contain . for. A stiff breeze may keep the air thoroughly mixed. The latter cools more rapidly. It has not been lost. and for this there are several reasons. dered latent the moisture that gathers on the ground Both the air and the ground lose a part of their heat. at a given temperature it is 233 dry. even though — No how fierce the heat may be. the excess of vapor in the form of minute drops gathers on the grass and on other objects near the ground. Water is changed to vapor by heat. .THE MOISTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE the relative humidity is low. and thereby prevent any part of it from being chilled to the dew-point. it is a chief factor in the atmospheric is The amount of heat thus renvery great. —Dew after sundown. disturbances called storms. as will be shown. When this occurs. The moisture that gathers on the outside of a glass of iced water is an example. When water boils it reaches the temperature at which it begins to change rapidly to steam. it is given out the moment the vapor is con- densed. and it is called the latent heat of steam. the water (unless confined under pressure) gets no hotter. low the dew-point. however it is merely stored-up energy. Dew does not always form at night. It is retained just so long as the water remains in the form of vapor . All this heat is absorbed in the work of changing the water to steam. higher. Air that is moist is may feel very dry at one that no more moisture is present. For every pound of water converted to steam. This property of water is one of the greatest importance.

A temperature of 0° (32° F. In such regions dew forms copiously. where there are no summer rains. especially those near the sea. the fall of dew in early summer is excessive. and they are therefore commonly known as killing frosts. This floating mist of the air is called fog or cloud. or if it freezes while in the air. Except at considerable altitudes frost does not occur in tropical regions. is The cold wave that follows a spring storm a killing frost very apt to lower the if temperature to the freezing-point. the much. and the formation of dew. If the dew gathers on the surface of an object and there freezes. When the temperature falls so low that a part the vapor is condensed. and of northern Africa. 5 The amount is of moisture in the air varies tropical regions. sky. the drops are so minute that they float in the air. Late spring frosts are apt to occur after fruit-trees have budded.) or less is necessary to the formation of frost.234 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY so little vapor that a fall of fifteen or twenty degrees does 8 A cloudy not bring the temperature to the dew-point. prevents the radiation of heat. its commonly occurs. In the California and Sound valleys. the point of saturation that the air Sometimes it is so near becomes hazy. In temperate latitudes the amount is much less than in tropical regions. of Asia. The same phenomenon occurs in mountain valleys of South America. and the air be moist. Fortunately occur- rence usually can be predicted Clouds. the latter does not at first gather into large drops on the contrary. and the minute crystals fall to the surface. frost is formed. — . In temperate latitudes it may occur at any time between late fall and spring. especially if the clouds hang low. according as it is at the surface of the earth or high in the air. In amount proportionately very great. of . and to a great extent the grain crop is dependent upon it.

is the essential. and these are governed mainly by the presence or absence of wind. The fogs and cloud banks so common off the coast of New- foundland are formed in this way. Floating mutter in the air thus becomes an active acent in cloud formation. or by . when a mass of air is pushed upward. and not infrequently a cloud banner streams from the leeward side of a high peak. and thereby quicken the process of condensation. the surface of the earth foe is if at a considerable elevation cloud formed. chilled by going into a cooler position. Not only do the dust-motes form a lodgement for the condensing vapor. is a constant up-draught of warm. where there air. 6 Clouds usually take characteristic forms. air is filled 235 with dust-motes and other and much of the condensing vapor gathers on these. The cooling of the air below the dewpoint. cloud formed. however. and this may occur in several ways. amount of cloud is formed It is probable in this manner. a part of the air is driven up the slope. The intrusion warm winds into cold regions. moist there is a perpetual of cloud-belt. Whenever a warm sea-wind blows against a high mountain-slope. is also a common If at is CIRRO-STRATUS CLOUDS cause of fog and cloud. but they cool more rapidly than the air. not only it is it Thus. is some of its moisture being condensed. and. Almost always high mountain-crests near the ocean are shrouded in clouds. but is also cooled that the greater by its own expansion.THE MOISTURE OP THE ATMOSPHERE Nearly always the floating matter. or of cold winds into warm regions. the intruding wind results . Thus. in equatorial regions.

but cirrus " streamers " are frequently found as an advance indication of an approaching cyclone. They appear zontal base. 236 their height. but they never form under other clouds. condensation begins. The process continues until a dense . When they are flaky or fleecy they are the " mackerel " clouds heralded by sailors as forecasters of fine weather. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Cirrus clouds are light and feathery in appearance and commonly white in color. being chilled both by expansion and great altitude. like great. Often the patches of cirrus cloud are ranged in parallel strips and occasionally they radiate like the spokes of a wheel.. On account of their great height it is obvious that they Cirri may form above consist of minute ice crystals. another cloud. the two being apparently related. These clouds take various forms. Cumulus clouds arc the day clouds of summer weather. CUMULUS CLOUDS Commonly their altitude is between five and ten miles. rounded domes resting on a hori A gently warmed current of air rises until.

THE MOISTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE mass sal 237 of cloud is formed. the matter composing the cloud Practically. If. a mass of cloud loses its flat base. abundant warm temperate climates. and there is not enough vapor present to form clouds of sensible dimensions. however. A casual inspection of any summer cloud shows that it is constantly moving within itself. and. of falling drops. and gathers when the temperature reaches the dew-point. their size shows whether there is considerable vapor or only a little. They indicate nothing more than the presence of moisture. The droplet falls . cumulus clouds have no especial sig- nificance as weather forecasters. Ordinarily. Stratus clouds are so called because they are of nearly flat layers uniform thickness. This form It is is the almost univerin cloud of tropical regions. it Usually it seems to form in clear air. cloud is floating moisture. the lower. are commonly ob- served at morning and even- and stillness of air is essential to their formation. It does not form at night nor in cold weather. it usually portends high winds and local showers. but rare in cold latitudes. as a rule. for the simple reason that the up-draught of warm air is too feeble. but in reality the minute drops are always slowly falling. becoming ragged or festooned at the lower side. clouds ing. but is usually in motion even when the air is still. The upper part consists of light fog or mist. Normally they are the lowest of all clouds. and probably contain the greatest amount These of foreign matter. The Nimbus less is the shape- rain-cloud that hovers near the surface of the earth. Clouds are moved hither and thither by the wind.

and. and. " water dust. excepting local showers. The causes that operate to produce fog and cloud. The amount of rain falling in the torrid zone is sufficient to cover it to a depth probably of more than one hundred inches. cloud consists is — The difference between rain and very largely in the size of drops. and practically they matter. the cooling of water vapor below the — dew-point. Eainfall is not uniform for all places in the same latiOn slopes that face ocean winds it is greatest. The equatorial cloud-ring is and under it precipitation is almost continuous. are chilled. and the latter at once ascends until it is again condensed —the process being constantly repeated.238 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY greater until it reaches a region of warmth . then it is changed Rain. and in polar regions about one-eighth as much. 9 while in regions shut off from the sea by high ranges it is For example. is not derived from In almost every instance general rains are derived from warm ocean winds that. On the western slope of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade also a rain-belt. and this is in the tropics. Rain is rarely associated with fair-weather clouds. . . the Himalayas the precipitation varies from two hundred to six hundred inches on the north side it is less than ten. those of rain are each many thousand times as large. but there also a differ- The drops of cloud ence in their physical condition. The vapor cloud stage. them. however. blowing inland. as a rule." are minute. precipitated as rain true . to vapor. also produce rain namely. or float in the air. The rainfall is greatest where evaporation is most rapid. and fall quickly to the ground. when condensation begins. proceeds very rapidly. In the temperate zone it is a little more than one-third. tude. may is it is but the latter pass through the one of short durait tion. on the southern slope of little or nothing.


and therefore rain may be of daily occurrence. p. will help to explain this The slopes of the continents that face ocean winds. and therefore but little rain falls. "on account of low latitude. How will the difference in latitude explain this ? In what part of the Pacific Coast of South America are the conditions similar? On the the Atlantic coast of Europe the conditions are much same . the temperature of the land is much lower. the western coast of North America faces the Prevailing Westerlies of the Pacific Ocean. In the uplands of the eastern slope . but little rain falls. On the Mexican coast. but there is also much In some localities it comes in the form of occasional showers in others long periods of rain and drought alternate at given interdifference in the time of its distribution. most of the precipita- . In summer these winds are blowing into a region that is warmer. . fact. Explain why the difference exists. on the other hand. the United States it On the Atlantic coast of less than fifteen. in different localities. it is about one hundred inches. An examination of the wind chart. Alaska. the climate is almost always mild. Along the coast of the United States it varies from ten or twelve inches at San Diego to sixty or seventy at Puget Sound. In winter. for the reasons noted. vals " — that is. the rainfall is periodical and seasonal. Thus. rule. while at Sitka.. the northern shores of South America of the Andes it again increases why ? Not only does the amount of rainfall vary . have periodical rains. 221. where. 240 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY it is Ranges ten times as great as on the eastern. precipitation is greatest at 18 As a the coast and de- creases toward the interior. is nowhere less than forty inches it is west of the one hundredth meridian On it is over one hundred inches a few hundred miles inland it is about one-quarter as much. as a rule.

During the winter months of the northern hemisphere the prevailing winds are land winds but with the bursting of the April monsoon the season of heavy rain begins and the parched land is quickly covered with verdure. deluging the land over which it passes with almost continuous rain. re- In the American continent the cloud-belt does not pass far south of the equator in passing over the same it . the easterly slopes receive the heaviest fall of rain. Which Cuba ? to the Central ican states ? to the Caribbean coast of South AmerAmerica ? rains also. — After reaching its northern limit belt. The rains of the Indian coast of Asia are an excellent example. A large part of the land surface of the earth is watered. or else high off These regions as a rule are mountain ranges shut them from the reach of ocean winds. the rainfall follows the passage This belt is of the equatorial cloud-belt back and forth.. it turns southward. but on account of high latitude a considerable rain falls in summer. while at intervening latitudes there of these conditions applies to may be two. cipitation that comes with the irregular but by the premovements of the atmosphere known as storms. where the winds have an easterly origin. THE MOISTURE OP THE ATMOSPHERE 241 tion occurs during the winter months. In tropical regions. In these regions. either far inland. . or limit of the cloud-belt. A moment's study will show that at each tropic. : . Regions swept by monsoons usually have periodical The reason is obvious during one part of the year the winds blow from the land the remaining time from the sea. there will be one rainy and one dry season. Africa reaches much farther south. comparatively narrow scarcely five hundred miles in breadth. not by seasonal and periodical rains. however. During the spring months of the Northern Hemisphere it moves northward with the sun.

but for the greater part cyclonic movement. takes These disturbances occur so frequently. Rainless Regions. The Basin Region of the western highlands. The reason is In moderately warm regions rain clouds com.242 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY That part of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains is an example. low three thousand and five thousand feet. are so many Effects of Altitude. it is not precipitated until the which constitutes the storm. The ocean winds that penetrate these regions are warmed and not cooled. and therefore they are relatively drier. monly do not reach much above this altitude moreover at this height the ground may be cold enough to condense moisture when it is too warm to do so at a lower level. — There are for the existence of rainless regions. and therefore there are no periodical rains. The mountains reach higher than the rain The two African deserts and much of the Mexican coast show the effects of hot inland regions. the greatest precipitation takes place be- two-fold. however. —As a rule. The ranges of the great highlands precipitate practically all the moisture brought from the Pacific. When the condensing vapor freezes before it winds. Moisture gathers from the Gulf and also from the ocean. — . On above the mountain- slopes. vapor may pass into a warmer region where it cannot be condensed. and the Andine desert. tain barriers. This fact is often observed in desert regions. two principal causes There may be a barrier of high mountains that shut off rain-bearing winds. place. that almost every part of the region a plentiful supply of moisture. Similar conditions exist in parts of Eurasia and Africa. and there receives of them. are examples showing the effects of mounor. Snow. more rain : falls at sea- level than at higher altitudes very little falls height of ten or twelve thousand feet. the basin north of the Himalaya Mountains.

and at a little distance from the sea it never melts. it is evident that the distribution is governed both by latitude and altitude. Hail. snoiv results. from the nearest Weather Station. Hail consists of pellets of ice. and a shower of them constitutes a hailstorm. They very frequently in size project from the outer surface. It is evident. the least. If condensation takes place very slowly in still air. is In equatorial regions the line of perpetual snow . the months in which the greatest amount What of rain or snow falls . crops or plants of commercial value would suffer or perish — . weather than in cold. each flake is a tangle of broken crystals. 13 of ice In some instances sharp. formed in the air. that snow cannot form unless the temperature is as low as 0° (32° F.). Inasmuch as snow depends on a low temperature. In polar regions snow covers the ground the greater part of the year.—Find the annual rainfall of the neighborhood in which you live by striking an average of the yearly precipitation for at least ten years. moreover. about sixteen thousand feet above sealevel in temperate latitudes it varies from seven thousand to twelve thousand feet. dog-toothed crystals pellets to Hailstones vary masses an inch in diameter. the frozen droplets aggregate into beautiful crystalline forms. Usually a — hailstorm consists of alternate shells of snow and crystalline ice. What fruit crops are injured by killing frosts in the neighborhood in which you Learn. For reasons unknown certain localities are especially subject to them. QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES. (The statistics may be learned from the nearest Weather Station. 13 but if condensation is rapid.) Make a live ? record of the early and late frosts for the year. Larger stones occur. but they are formed by the cohesion Hailstorms are more frequent in warm of small ones. from tiny accompany thunderstorms.THE MOISTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE 243 can gather into drops.

NOTES.— Monthly Weather issues of Mid- summer and midwinter any year. Why is this most apt to take place toward evening ? The receiver of a rain gauge is a cylindrical cup four inches in diameFor convenience of measurement the water caught is poured into ter. 3 due to the passage of rays of light through rifts in the The passage of the rays is marked by minute dust-moats. saturated. 244 if PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY onethe rainfall in the State in which you live were decreased third ? Note the character and kinds of cloud visible during several days what time were stratus clouds visible ? Explain how smoke may gradually gather cloud matter. S. — Forms of Water. 134-1G2. Review. . at a glass tube one inch in diameter a depth of one inch of rain in the receiver will make how many inches in the tube ? : how a crust forms on the surface of snow.— American Weather— pp. The expressions "air absorbs water in the form of a vapor " and warm air can hold more water vapor than cold air are so popular that ordinarily they pass for scientific truths. and because of this no further evaporation can take place. 142-165. They are certainly convenient. At times it may be noticed that wet clothing exposed all day The reason is that the air is already to the air refuses to dry. — Elementary Meteorology— pp. 4 perature. 77-81. Greely. which reflect and scatter some of the light. Weather Bureau. while perhaps on a following night. Waldo. Explain . 243. but a moment's reflection shows them to 1 ' ' ' ' be inexact.. Sometimes dew forms copiously with but a slight fall of temnone may appear. TJ. COLLATERAL READING AND REFERENCE Tyndall.) their shapes. catch flakes of snow on a piece of black cloth examine them with a magnifying-glass and make drawings of (Observe the conditions noted on p. At a convenient opportunity. s The phenomenon popularly known as "the sun drawing is water " clouds.

though the temperature





inspection of the

table on p. 380, will explain how this may occur. If there were seven grains of water vapor in each cubic foot of air, a fall of

temperature from 68° (F.) to 64° would be attended with dew but if only three grains were present, the thermometer might sink as low as 40° without any sign of dew. A cloth screen within four or five feet of the ground will have


the same


"These cloud banners were noticed in the Alps by Professor Tyndall, and were first described by him. They may be often seen streaming from the summit of Tacoma, Washington, and the alleged smoke from the crater of Mount Hood, Oregon, is nothing but a similar phe-

It is

This indication has had a place in weatherlore for two thousand years.



in Virgil




lanjc per cesium val-

lera ferri,



it is

found among Teutonic peoples, as well

hence the

popular saying
Mackerel sky, twelve hours dry.
8 Not infrequently a column of smoke, from a factory chimney or a steamer's smoke-stack, becomes the nucleus of a stratus

cloud. The smoke ascends until buoyancy and gravity balance each other, and then settles in the form of a thin, flat layer. Each particle becomes a surface of condensation, and the cloud matter continues to gather until it is swept away by the wind, or the conditions are changed. The heaviest annual fall is probably at Cherrapunji, India, where the average is about 500 inches. In August, 1841, the total

fall for


month was

264 inches, and in 1861 the yearly


reached the enormous amount of 905 inches


2.5 inches




On June

14, 1876, 40.0



in twenty-four hours.

In the three days ending February, 1893, an aggregate of 35.8

inches inches


In the United States 21.4 at Brisbane, Australia. at Alexandria, Louisiana, in one day, and at TriadelAll phia, West Virginia, 6.9 inches fell in fifty-five minutes. Commonly, not these instances, however, are very unusual.

more than two inches fall in a day. 10 The greater the distance from the coast the more abnormal
the character of the rainfall. In the Basin Region of the western United States, the rain is restricted to showers of short duration, and these often take the form of cloud-bursts. There is a sudden darkening of the sky, a terrific downpour of water perhaps three or four inches in fifteen minutes and then the sun is again licking up the water from the almost hissing rock waste. The specific cause of cloud-bursts is not known. " In regions visited by periodical rains, not infrequently the air is so loaded with dust, at the end of the dry season, that the first rain is discolored and even muddy. The yellow and golden rain, once a great mystery, is commonly due to the pollen of

Examined under a microscope the character of this pollen such as to leave no doubt as to its origin. Showers of frogs, fishes, and angleworms (!) have been reported, but not an instance has been substantiated. It is not impossible that a waterspout might whirl a school of fishes into the air, and then over the land, but no tornado known has been so selective as to conThe latter simfine itself exclusively to frogs and angleworms. ply emerge from their hiding-places at the onset of the shower. Among other abnormal showers are the rains from cloudless skies.

Instances are


especially in




precipitation in such cases

very slight and the showers rarely cover more than a square mile or two. The sky is cloudless merely because there are not enough drops in the air at any moment noticeably to interrupt the light. 12 With one or two exceptions all the illustrations of snow crystals are copies of drawings made in the arctic regions by Captain Scoresby. A few drawings have been made by Professor Tyndall, and recently excellent photographs have been obtained these show that ice-crystals and snow-flakes are not so regular nor so complicated in structure as those observed by Scoresby. In order to obtain good specimens of crystals, they must be gathered on a perfectly still day when the temperature is several degrees below the freezing-point. It is best to catch them on a

piece of black cloth,


and if they are to be examined under a microscope the glass slide on which the flake rests should be covered with the same material. The crystalline forms observed in sunshine are materially different from those found in cloudy weather. 13 The peculiar structure of hail-pellets has led to the theory that the stone has been whirled alternately into warm and cold layers of air this is only a supposition, and concerning their formation nothing certain is known. As a theory, however, it is Ordinarily, hail-storms are of only a few not unreasonable. minutes' duration, and the amount falling is a small fraction of an inch in depth. In 1888, at Moradabad, India, hail fell to a depth of several inches, and in one district two hundred and thirty-five people were killed. In June, 1879, a storm swept over central New York and Massachusetts, during which stones seven inches in circumference fell. In July, 1880, a hail-storm destroyed the crops in the vicinity of Waupaca, Wisconsin. The shower covered an area of forty square miles. Stones from six to ten inches in circumference fell. In July, 1881, the fall of hail at Cumberland, Maine, was so great that drifts two feet deep were observed twelve hours afterward. In June, 1882, at Dubuque, Iowa, stones weighing twenty-eight ounces were found. In August, 1883, at Gray, Iowa, the drifting hail covered the fence In June, 1886, so much hail fell in Grand Forks County, tops. Dakota, that it did not all melt for thirty hours. In a single storm that passed over a small area in Dakota, a quarter of a million acres of wheat were destroyed.

Both on




the land and at sea there are regions of con-

siderable area that normally are not swept

by regular and

constant winds.



the sea these are the calm belts


the land they are regions from which the winds are shut

by mountain-ranges or disturbed by broad


of land.

On the sea

the shifting of the calm belts with the

season brings various parts successively under the influ-

ence of the regular winds.


land the regular winds
while at the surface

usually exist as upper currents,

the winds are local





the upper


moreover, are so high that they are too cold to contain



Such regions do not
seasonal rains.


land areas, in some instances, receive none at all, except from an occasional cloud-burst but in many cases a considerable rainfall results from the movements of local winds.

That part


the United States east of the

Rocky Mounno moisture

tains is an excellent illustration.

It receives

yet about every part of east of the 2,000-foot contour is so generously supplied

from the constant winds

with rain that
of the world.
it is


one of the most productive regions


a local


occurs, one of

pretty apt to exist.

Either there

which the wind
lation of air


blowing, or else

two conditions is an up-draught toward there is a great accumu-

from which

the air is spreading outward.

These local disturbances constitute the conditions




as storms.

Moreover, in the movement of the air sooner
or later develops into a

The wind


blows toward an updraught or a depression forms a cyclone; that which blows outward from a high bank of air, an anticyclone. These

are usually

both on the land and at



by a changing
hence a cyoften described as an area of low barometer


simply a

"Low" — and


the anticyclone, one of high ba-

a rule both the cyclone and the anticyclone
of the air, just as an
its flood.

are local disturbances,

by the great currents
a river

and therefore they are carried along eddy formed in

carried along in

Cyclonic movements therefore travel eastwardly in low

and westwardly

in latitudes

beyond the


because these are the prevailing directions of the winds.


of this fact,

when a cyclone has once formed, the is likely to move can be predicted track along which The direction of the whirl accuracy. with considerable in the Northern Hemiexperience by been learned



in the sphere it is opposite that of the clock's hands of knowledge reverse/ the Hemisphere, Southern and cyclone, avoid a to mariner the enables these facts


also to steer out of

it when overtaken by one. Tropical cyclones usually origiCyclones.— Tropical They are the of the equator. degrees nate within a few

hurricanes of the "West Indies and the typhoons of the China Sea. The storm area extends over a surface varying from a few hundred to

more than

a thousand miles


The preced-

ing illustration, p. 2-49, shows roughly the track which, ordinarily,







is its direction

in tropical latitudes

in lati?

tudes beyond the tropics

Note the direction



each hemisphere.

It rarely extends beyond the 60th parallel. The real beginning of the tropical cj'clone

the dead
that the

calm that for a few days precedes the disturbance, for





air is in

a state

of rest

necessary conditions can obtain. 3
dition is the
cisely the


essential con-

overheating of the air next the sea

— pre-

same condition that formed the beginning of the desert whirl (p. 224). But while the stratum of air that causes the desert whirl is only a few hundred feet in height and involves a very small area, the atmosphere disturbed by the tropical cyclone is, perhaps,

several thousand feet high extent.


and many thousand miles in
the glassy surface of

The longer the sun beats down on

the water the greater will be the energy of the storm


one element present in the tropical cyclone that is not found in the case of the desert whirl namely, the vapor of water and this is the most important distinction between the two. Finally the equilibrium becomes so unstable that a slight up-draught of air The moment this occurs where the resistance is least. occurs, the rising air already near the dew-point is chilled by its own expansion, and a part of its moisture is precipitated. The fall of rain sets free an enormous amount of latent heat, and a furious up-draught at once takes place.
Moreover, there

It is the latent heat of the moisture set free that gives

to the cyclone its great energy.

This indeed




and so long as the supply
clone continue.

lasts, just

so long will the cy-

The ascending

air at first is very

and tolerably warm. But

after its moisture has

densed the latent heat set free renders it much warmer, thereby increasing the up-draught.

moist been condry and very

The nearer the centre of the cyclone, the stronger is the wind. The "eye" of the storm, or the centre of the
whirl, is the up-draught of the cyclone,

and here

brief in-

tervals of sunshine alternate with torrents of rain.

In the

centre of the storm the barometer stands lowest


two inches lower than

beyond the edge of the storm. seems at first to be one of unusual shape, but when examined in relation to the prevailing winds the mystery disappears. It is not unlikely that the temperature of the upper air has much to do with the northerly tendency of the cyclone. Because cold air is relatively heavier than light air, the colder the upper air
it is

The path

of the cyclone

that surrounds the up-draught, the

more vigorous

will the

latter be.

In the Northern Hemisphere the colder air lies and this will be the directhe direction of the whirl and the path of the

to the northward of the storm,

tion of least resistance.

of the
it is


difficult to


of the cyclone.

lay the course of the vessel out For this purpose " storm-

cards," or diagrams similar to that on p. 263, are convenient.

distance of the storm-centre can be estimated

only to a rough degree, but the bearings can be obtained

with a high degree of probability. storm-centre is on the right hand. 4

Facing the wind the
storms of the

Winter Cyclones.
tropical regions.


of the fiercest

higher latitudes, however, do not originate anywhere within

These are the extra-tropical or winter and the fierce winter storms of the North Atlantic Ocean are examples. It is evident that these storms cannot originate in a dead calm, because there is no longcontinued calm weather where they form and it is equally apparent that they are not formed by the overheating of

the air next the surface of the water.

from the intrusion winds into the region of warm and moist air, to the southward. In any case the condensation of moisture creates an up-draught that quickly develops into a whirl. But if, at the time of intrusion, the cold air takes the upper position, the equilibrium becomes much more unstable, and the storm very likely develops into one of
It is thought that these storms result of cold, north

great fury. 5

Land Storms. —The

occasional local squalls excepted,

the storms of the land are cyclonic in nature, and except in violence they do not differ materially from the

cyclones of the sea.

In nearly every case they follow the same courses that are taken by the latter westerly in tropical and easterly in temperate latitudes.

Lawrence River and the basin of the Great Lakes is a tinent in a northeasterly direction. of rain . crossing the con- These storm -tracks have a distinct tendency to shift north or south with the apparent motion of the sun. finally latitude the Middle Atlantic coast. They in the originate Caribbean Sea. Most of the storms that prevail in the Unitgreat A STORM. The storms usually overlap the shore and the coast plain. the belt being a little farther north in summer than in winter. the storin-tracks have been closely studied.CYCLONIC STORMS 253 Since the establishment of the various weather bureaus. the dotted region The arrows fly with the wind. but they seldom extend west of the Appalachian highlands. The valley of the St. . common track. and that it is found most storms follow certain lines or belts. In the United States two storm-tracks are apparent. and turning reach the of nort hward. quently near the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains. OR AREA OF shaded part is ed States form near the highlands of the LOW BAROMETER the area west —very the area fre- of cloudiness. These storms belong to the class of West Indian cyclones. 8 The lesser number follow the trend of the Atlantic coast.

Thunder-storms and tornaof general storms. but cyclones. — Just as the trough of a wave of the sea is followed by the crest of another wave. but the area of rain does not always cover the whole extent of the storm as a rule. The storm-centre is distinct. or perhaps drives slightly toward the east. occur in front of the storm. so in the aerial . the former being confined to the water." In some instances general storms are accompanied by CLEARING WEATHER CLOUDS — disturbances of a very violent character. and ram or snow. does are local in character. cold waves. laud Although they are sometimes accompanied by local storms rarely exhibit the fury of oceau The area of the storm is usually larger. Cold waves are general. accompany the majority of storms. Clouds. but the barometer may not fall more than half an inch. With the passage of the latter there are occasional hard showers in which the rain falls almost vertically. Those from the "West Indies will begin with northeasterly and clear with southwesterly winds the "nor'easters " and " sou'westers. the wind seldom attains a velocity greater than forty miles an hour. most of the cloud area. Cold Waves.254 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY squalls. Of these the most important are thunder-showers. it is evident that storms of the second class will be preceded by easterly and will CleaT with westerly winds. and tornadoes and waterspouts. These are the centre.'' Because the wind blows toward the storm-centre. and often occur independently Waterspouts and tornadoes are local. "" clearing showers. and the rain as well.

if nor the warm air. Tornadoes. the tornado is formed in an area of low barometer. they are probably the most violent atmospheric disturbances known. the depression will fill chiefly with cold air from this direction. or more forcibly than a brisk wind. Tornadoes are whirling storms of the Though they cover a smaller area than any other land. it is pretty apt to be a mass of warm. is called In such cases the cold wave a Uizzard 9 it is — ceeds thirty or forty miles in length. it is evident that most of the air flowing in to the depression will come from that side on which the barometer is the higher. but occaflows in not sionally it advances with the force of a hurricane. moist air.). In winter. Like other cyclonic disturbances. and the farther north the storm track. If the air is drawn in from the south side. varies ever. while the destructive part of the whirl is not more than a few rods in width. 10 The path of the tornado seldom ex(F. the higher in latitude will the body of warm air intrude. it happens that the barometer is con- siderably higher on one side of a storm-track than on the In such a fill case. how- the storm-track lies well to the south a large air will be drawn far to the south and temperature may fall forty or fifty degrees in a day's the few even in a hours." Ordinarily. and if the latter be an anticyclone of cold air the Not infrequently other. Seen at a distance of one or .CYCLONIC STORMS ocean an area of low barometer result is a cold wave. storm. the cold wave time. if the bank of cold air lies to the northward. lower- volume of very cold ing the temperature to thirty degrees or more below zero and marked by a furious downfall of snow. is 255 followed by one of high barometer. 7 On the contrary. followmuch more than eight or ten degrees from the usual temperature. In summer neither the cool air ing the passage of a storm.

The funnel is the centre of the storm. The rotatory velocity of the wind is thought to be not far from two miles a minute. the tornado appears as a dense. moist air lies on the other side. Another noticeable ure A TORNADO TRACK. while a mass of warm.. dry air lies on one side of the disturbance. A close eral study of sev- hundred tornadoes in a measure has shown the manner in which they originate At the beginning of a storm it sometimes happens that a great volume of cold. Between the est terrific wind and the vacuous centre noth- ing can withstand the force of the tornado. and so rapid is the whirl that it forms almost a vaciium. The position and direction of the rails show the direction of the whirl. the way Buildings in of the funnel- cloud burst into pieces outwardly the moment the latter envelops them lifted heavy locomotives are from the railway track and iron bridges are blown from their . and in many instances pulled clear out of the ground. is " the lane or " wind- road made when a tor- nado passes through a forest. 256 PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHY two miles. black. The stout- tree-trunks are twisted as though they were ropes. Such a con- . and feat- carried long distances. foundations. funnelshaped cloud hanging from rapidly whirling clouds above. twisted into shapeless tangles.

and soon the whirl is in full vigor. . There results an up-draught of warm air. During the progress air are if of the latter large of cold whirled into regions of warm and moist on the top Now. In nearly every instance thus far recorded the tornado track lies south of a general 11 storm. In about ninety-five per cent. the storm. of unstable equilibrium.CYCLONIC STORMS dition. of But if it comes to rest of a thick layer warm air the case is different. the heavier cold air lies next the earth. The conditions are those A TORNADO AND ITS FUNNEL CLOUD. indeed. Almost always they move from the southwest to the northeast. is not infrequently the 25? of immediate cause volumes air. no disturbance follows. of all the tornadoes studied the whirl accords with that of other storms in the Northern Hemisphere. and the latter will sooner or later be upset.

The greatest number occur in Ma}'. but they are most prevalent in the central part of the Mississippi Valley. in mountainous in Tornadoes are more frequent summer than winter.258 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY All parts of the United States are subject to tornadoes. ing all and the than dur- remaining months. lower part of the waterspout . Thenar e more fre- quent in the a f ternoo n than in the morning. . There because there is so little moisture in the atmosphere. rarely occur at night. The or other large body of water. is probably a nearly solid column of water the upper part is a rapidly whirlingmass of spray. •Tune. and EFFECTS OF A TORNADO. Waterspouts are most common in the region of cyclone tracks — especially along This is the track of the Gulf Stream. composes them water that not always the case. is also a belt south of the Ohio River. in which They they are infrequent. — A waterspout is a whirlwind of the sea The whirl is so rapid that the water is carried upward to fill the vacuous centre. Waterspouts. West of the 102d meridian they are extremely rare. rarely occur regions. It is usually asserted that the is fresh. and more occur Jul}" in May.

Scattered over the whole territory in selected locations are upwards of six hundred observers who. Except in the extreme southern the United States is. 259 in many instances it is salt— sea-water. disturbances progress from the west or southwest States to the east or northeast. direcwind. pure and In the lower part the column is not more than ten or fifteen feet in diameter in the upper part it is whirled into a balloon-shaped cloud of spray and mist several hundred feet in width. observe tem- perature. It is sufficiently violent to whirl a considerable volume of sea. threatening floods.CYCLONIC STORMS however simple. Knowing the laws of storms and normal atmospheric movements. dangerous coast-winds. sults in a waterspout in fact. cold waves. originate server . but hardly strong enough to form a waterspout. it may properly be called a fair-weather whirlwind of the sea. it is not a difficult matter to predict weather conditions with considerable — accuracy. The United Weather Bureau 13 was organized for the purpose of protecting agriculture. These reWashington and entered upon a sults are telegraphed to weather map. the weather of is essentially of the westerly type. tion of barometric pressure. navigation. amount of rain or snow. Weather Forecasting. ward. The white squall is similar in origin to the whirl that re. relative humidity. all where disturbances That are occasionally tropical in their movements. twice a day. etc. they progress from the eastto the westward or part. at the same actual time. and commerce by furnishing information of coming storms. and killing frosts. . Lines are drawn through localities of equal barometric ..water into spray. In the temperate zones weather conditions southwestward of the obin tropical regions. .


Louis and Cairo ?— at Chicago and Davenport ? —at — at Cheyenne ? — in the greater part of North and South one or two places at or near which the barometer . normal. With this information both the direction and the velocity of the storm can be quite accurately forecast for the succeeding twenty-four hours. Practically all general storms begin with easterly and clear with westerly winds. the sudden swerving of a storm from tion of a storm once formed. and the unforeseen developThe shifting of a storm one hun- may nullify QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES.—Why does the wind blow toward a low and away from a high barometer ? Why do cyclonic movements of the wind move toward the west in tropical. the dissipa- ment of a local storm. .7 inches 29. Twelve hours afterward.— CYCLONIC STORMS pressure. dred miles on either side of its predicted track the forecasts over a very large area. the latter isotherms. and toward the east in temperate latitudes ? Why does the water flowing out of a sink through a discharge-pipe at the bottom form a whirlpool ? In the storm ? map at the top of p. 29. Name is 29.9 inches . What is the direction of near what city is the centre of the the wind at New Orleans and Baton Rouge ? Duluth? Dakota ? — at St. 260. it will be found that the area of low barometer has advanced eastward with about the velocity of an ordinary express train. 261 also through localities having the same temThe former are isobars. 30 inches. When the direction of and the wind is plotted it will be found that it is everywhere blowing toward the area of low barometer. perature. when a new set of observations is plotted.5 inches. actually verified is very close to the possi- Failure of verification is due to several causes its track. In this manner areas of high. of the predictions may be verified and the number ble limit. and low barometer are readily mapped and located. About ninety per cent.

Chicago. and less severe in higher latitudes. In higher latitudes. and Chicago for the third day. Cleveland. During the few days preceding. what will be the effect on the moisture ? on the temperature of the region over which the storm passes ? In what position. C. The wind is more violent in tropical. New Orleans. and west. and the circle of dangerous winds is scarcely more than half as great. Sooner or later the barometer begins to show signs of unsteadi' . WilmingN. the barometer is perhaps above its normal height and the weather pleasant and clear. the northeast Trade Wind is the strongest. Denver. moist air from the south to colder. however. 178-272. Indianapolis. the Trade Wind is bent toward the east and forced to rotate in the manner described. United States Weather Bureau. with reference to the storm centre. Springfield. northwest. — — NOTES 1 In the tropics the cloud-ring rarely exceeds five hundred miles in diameter. the diameter of the storm increases.262 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY About how far has the storm advanced at the time of observation on the second day ? ton. As it approaches the storm-centre it is opposed by weaker winds from the north. 111. Greely.. — — COLLATERAL READING AND REFERENCE. is most of the rain. American Weather— pp. As a result. or warmer ? Why ? Make a forecast for Cincinnati for each of the two days. Make forecasts for New York. Of all the currents setting toward the storm-centre. Daily Weather Maps. Mobile and Little Rock. Note the direction of the wind at Pittsburgh. 2 The direction of the whirl is thought to result from the conflict of winds as they approach the up-draught. Cincinnati. as indicated by the shading ? Whence comes the air in the western part of the whirl from northerly or from southerly regions ? Will it probably be colder. Milwaukee. The barometer gives first warning of the approach of the cyclone. northerly latitudes . The wind whirls warm.

by any means. for instance. There can no longer be any doubt of the approaching storm. latitude 30° to : . the wind is N NE of the wind. sky alternates between inky blackness. Soon a heavy. rapidly. and soon the storm is on. . with terrific down-pours of rain. Then the at first. through accident. in almost a twinkling. In a few hours or less the barometer begins to fall slowly at the ceptible. in full force.CYCLONIC STOKMS ness. the sky grows purple. Finally the wind. mountainous bank of cloud looms up from the horizon. and fitful puffs of wind come from the north. and not even the smallest stormSoon. sail will stand against its force the wind lulls and the ship is in the eye of the storm. Nothing but the stanchest passes. and veers to the northward. This is the cloud-ring that marks the edge of the storm. even if the masts are not snapped. yellow light. . and the prudent master has already made everything snug and ready for the coming blow. latitude 20° to 23°. low. July and September. 263 same time a long. the ship is carried with the wind. and a whitish are near or on the horizon indicates the bearing of the centre. latitude 27° to 29° August. If. select the diagram that applies to the latitude and plot the position of the ship according to the direction In low latitudes. already very squally. When . the course has not been altered. 4 The accompanying storm cards are adapted to use in any the upper diagram is cyclones of the northern hemisphere available for the route between New York and English ports. A . bursts into a gale. ocean swell becomes perPossibly a streamer or two of cat-tail clouds pointing toward the zenith is seen in the south or southwest. and moments of misty. and the circle of dangerous winds is not far away. and the opposite side of the cyclone strikes the At that moment the wind again bursts upon the ship from the opposite direction. a falling barometer and other signs indicate the approach of a cyclone. A square-rigged ship is apt to have her yards stripped off. or if. and — halo gathers around the sun or the moon the ocean swell increases. the latter will increase to hurricane strength. Perhaps half an hour vessel. track recurves as follows June and October. For West Indian hurricanes note that the storm vessel . and then more . 33°. can ride through such a storm. The small arrows fly with the wind the long arrow represents the storm track through the belt of latitude to which the diagram applies.

6 It is unstable because the cold air is resting on a layer of air that is specifically lighter. be used to prevent the waves from breaking over the vessel. the vessel is certainly in the storm track. In scudding. the wind should be kept always on the starboard tack to run out of the storm.' 264 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY the vessel is then in the position that is shown on the lower diagram. The ship then has the position shown to the left and should be brought about as in (c). It is on the right of the storm track and should run out as in (6). If possible it is best to lie-to (on the starboard tack). previously noted. (6) If it shifts to the right. previously noted. and in . In high latitudes the upper diagram is indicated. the ship is on the left of the storm track and should be brought about until the wind is on the starboard quarter. wind is S E . In this case the navigator keeps off. has the position marked in the middle diagram. In any case oil may is N E. Suppose that the the vessel then sfysw. (c) If it shifts to the left. If the vessel is in the latitude where the cyclone probably recurves (according to the month) the middle diagram is applicable. as are tropical cyclones. Suppose that the STORM CARDS. making as much headway as possible until obliged to lie-to. holding to the course. and observe the wind if (a) it freshens without shifting. ys sw. and is in the dangerous semicircle. lying-to on the port tack if necessary. with the wind on the starboard quarter. wind of the storm track. the ship is to the right of the storm track and should be put on the starboard tack. . Winter cyclones are not confined to definite localities. in the navigable semicircle. and when the latter is pressed up- ward it soon develops into a whirl.

California. carrying freezing weather into Florida. ' Under such conditions a warm wave results. there were more than one thousand deaths from sunstroke probably a greater number than have resulted from the cold waves of a score of years. finally many cases a land-storm may originate at sea and end somewhere at a considerable distance inland. During several warm waves that. extending along the valley of the St. Montana. and sixty -four degrees in less than eighteen hours. however. the temperature fell fifty degrees in four and one-half hours. The air resting upon the given area without being disturbed in the course of two weeks becomes — intolerably hot. there are many — perhaps a majority of north Atlantic storms — that begin far in the interior of the continent. yet the former are far more fatal. Although with respect to temperature. the difference between warm waves and normal weather is not so great as that between cold waves and normal weather. in July. 1881. 1888. Nebraska. 1887. Many West Indian hurricanes sweep into the Gulf of Mexico and thence In very into the Mississippi valley. and not disturbances. Many of the cyclonic storms of the Pacific Coast of the United States travel southward between the Coast Range and Sierra Ne- vada Mountains. whole United States. covered the Mississippi Valley. In many instances storms have originated somewhere in the Pacific. but occasionally a cyclonic disturbance finds enough moisture to enable it to pass into the Mississippi Valley. and southern Texas. the thermometer fell eighThis wave covered almost the teen degrees in three minutes. eral direction is easterly. Lawrence River. of the effects of the translation of cold air . At Helena. was marked by a fall of temperature ranging from fifty to seventy8 A cold wave that occurred in January. is an example from the extreme north. In March. In all the densely populated parts of the country the advent of a warm wave is marked by an enormous increase in the death-rate. In some instances the storm is dissipated in the arid region to the southward. At Crete. and the Atlantic. a cold wave. The typical " warm wave " is the result of settled conditions. crossed the United States. finally disappearing in the interior of Eurasia.CYCLONIC STORMS comparison with the e 265 Their gen- latter their tracks are erratic. On the other hand. Warm spells may result from other cases.

crossed the United On that day eight States. who were bruised and partly stripped of their clothing. The father. had reached a place of absolute safety. 1884. — . surrounded by a grove of trees. The house itself was demolished and the debris hurled into the creekbed near by.266 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY one degrees in twenty-four hours. The mother ran directly into the whirl and was found crushed and mangled against the trunk of a tree. twenty-five hundred were wounded. in 1747. U. but unfortunately in the right to left . in which the aggregate damage reached the sum of $15. "The lustrated story il- in this cut is a grewsome summary of horrors. and twisted from wrong safety. the family fled for their lives. • This term was first noted in the records of an exploring party which. Concurwhile the loss of life was nearly fifteen hundred.. at a place now called York Factory. they turned eastward first a little girl. 1875. a direction of Then. there was a drop in temperature of forty-eight degrees in one hour. hundred people were killed. rent with a storm that in February 9. one after another. S. Greely. . and more than ten thousand buildings were destroyed. with the babe in his arms. W. In Denver. At first they ran northward. January 15. They were direction. who was instantly killed then an older boy and a girl. 10 General A. wintered on the shores of Hudson Bay. but in his fright turned eastward and ran into the whirl. When the tornado cloud swooped down upon the house. there were sixty distinct tornadoes. It was introduced as a technical name into the weather service in 1876. The house was To the east of the house the trees were felled those west of the house were untouched.000. notes twenty-five tornadoes.000. A.

fog. called the "black flag. S. The first organization was effected by General Myer.CYCLONIC STOBMS 267 picked up by the wind. transatlantic steamships. 12 In 1853 the necessity for a weather bureau was urged by Commander M. rain or snow. For land service these flags are commonly used." A fifth flag is sometimes employed to For the benefit of mariners a Monthly indicate local storms. Flags (or sometimes painted cylinders and cones) are displayed on public buildings in nearly every town in the United States and Europe. who trained the rank and file of his department to make weather observations. F. ceding month. A square white flag denotes clear weather a blue flag. floating wrecks (called "derelicts "). but it was not until after his death that systematic land observations were carried out. . U. (sixteen degrees in the northern States) if the mercury sinks as low as 32° (F. Temperature is indicated by a triangular blue flag. Pilot Chart for the North Atlantic is published by the United This shows storm tracks of the preStates Hydrographie Office. lower temperature its absence denotes no change in temperaWhenever the temperature falls twenty degrees or more ture. . Maury. . An inspection of the accompanying illustration shows that the safest path of flight is toward the northwest or the southeast to the southwest or the northeast is one of the greatest danger. tablished similar bureaus.). and instantly killed. . A. Above the square flag it denotes higher temperature below the square flag. and other obstacles. thrown several hundred feet. Chief Signal Officer. Since that time the Weather Bureau has been attached to the Department of Agriculture and placed in charge of its Secretary. and the position of ice. and its approach is indiIt is commonly cated by a white flag containing a black square. and daily observations are made on all . for the current month. So complete are these records that scarcely a storm occurs in the North Atlantic which is not followed and its path predicted with a high degree of probability. Most of the European nations have es. it is technically a cold wave.

the two balls will then show a strong attraction for each other. If another ball. Such an experiment demonstrates the principal laws of ing electricity.CHAPTEE XV ELECTBICAL AND LUMINOUS PHENOMENA OF THE ATMOSPHEBE Electkicity chiefly is by its effects a form of energy that is manifested of its actual nature practically noth. the ball will at first cling to the vulcanite and then immediately be repelled from it. it is a most useful servant when under intelligent control. electrified in a similar manner. It is manifest not only in the earth and the air. or vulcanite. In the slender thread of the incandescent light and the carbons of the arc light it appears both as light and intense heat. and thus harnessed it becomes a generator of great power. The laws pertaining to it are fairly well known. the second pith-ball be electrified by a piece of glass rubbed with silk. Electrical energy seems to be a form of motion. and it may be produced by motion. Bodies similarly electrified repel. is known. it converts the latter into a magnet. but in space as well. however. The fundamental laws of electrical energy are not difficult to understand. like most of the other forces of nature. that has been briskly rubbed by flannel. suspended by a silk fibre. and. be brought near the first. 1 If. Passing through insulated copper-wire that surrounds a core of soft iron. bodies dif- !?68 . however. the two will vigorously repel each other. If a pith-ball. be brought near a piece of hard rubber.

we see its grandest effects when great flashes of lightis ning forge across the sky.ELECTRICAL AND LUMINOUS PHENOMENA fercntly electrified attract one another. 3 The LIGHTNING From an instantaneous photograph by H'. sparks " produced by rubbing sealing wax or vulcanite with flannel are of moderately high potential. The electricity of the air ally of high potential . " To the electricity of the air and the earth many of the most marvellous phenomena are due. In the simplest form we see its effects when tiny sparks result from rubbing the long knap of woollen cloth or the fur of an animal pelt . and dry air. 260 The electricity de- veloped when glass rubbed with silk is called positive . the electric force is so great that it will pass through these it is said to have a high potential. is however. Electricitj. that produced by nibbing vulcanite with flannel. gums and resins. usu- that which forms a flash of light- .passes quite freely through metallic substances. wool. just as steam confined within a boiler is at high pressure. negative. Cannon. dry wood. but with difficulty through such material as silk. F. When.

tion. the chafing of the winds against the earth's surface even the friction of the air against itself . Since these factors are constantly at work. cases the character of the electricity may In such vary in different places positive at one locality and negfew miles distant. bushes. but. neutralize each other. together with fricmay be regarded as the chief agents in its production. it may be ative at another. the electricity of the atmosphere is not commonly the air is moist. Evaporation and condensation are attended by an electric disturbance . Just before the beginning of a gentle shower it often becomes negative. ning is of exceedingly high tension. is positive. the two. it is evident that electricity is electricity of the air being constantly produced. and their . it much moisture may positive to negative and vice versa very rapidly. or at times climate of deserts. with be negative. The hair of the head crackles as a comb is drawn through it. The flowing of water. and inasmuch as an enormous amount of the vapor of water is constantly arising from the earth at one place to be condensed." at anit produces copiously. especially if elevations. only a Friction likewise is a potent factor in its generation. and during a heavy storm it frequently changes from Ordinarily the electricity of the air present. that is. the hair of horses' tails stands out like manes are like fright wigs sparks half an inch long may be drawn from a metallic body insulated from the ground. its presence becomes marked.270 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Next the earth. In the dry summer noticeable. 3 Neither physical nor chemical change in a substance takes place without the development of electric energy. . therefore. and tiny sparks are given off when woollen clothing is rubbed. other these changes in physical form. But the and that of the earth are unlike . Because moist- . At considerable when the air is very dry. however.

not along a line. may become violent Such disturbances are commonly known as thunder storms. and as this is seldom. bluish glow that lasts sometimes for eight or ten seconds. if the air be moist the two kinds one from the earth to the air. it has taken the name. in the form of a chain. Under such circumstances the two clouds are mutually attracted. either within or upon their surface. occurring at . —When air. 6 Another form is known as sheet lightning. This interchange takes place. and destructive.ELECTRICAL AND LUMINOUS PHENOMENA Ml ure is a good conductor. so that ordinarily there is no great accumulation is of electricity. there is often an enormous accumulation of electricity. 5 Usually the interchange takes place between the two clouds. The potential of the electricity is very high and the transference takes place in the form of blinding flashes of lightning. but simultaneously over a large area. The interchange takes place always along the line of least resistance. A sheet-lightning discharge takes place usually between the earth and the clouds. This name applied to flashes of lightning that. The form of lightning varies. if ever. until the equilibrium of electricity readily pass. the other from the air to the earth. but not infrequently it is between the clouds and the earth. of low potential is also The electricity is and therefore not destructive. a straight line. restored. When large masses of cloud hover over the earth it sometimes happens that they are differently electrified. and the transference or exchange. therefore. The dis- charge is blinding flash of light. This transference is quietly but constantly going on. not attended by a crash of thunder nor by a On the contrary there is nothing but a quivering. zig-zag lightning. Thunder Storms. It is only when the air is very dry that the transference takes place with difficulty. clouds are present in the however.

is the phenomenon known as This discharge. tudes. most common in high latithough it is occasionally observed between latitudes 30° and 40° N.272 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY a considerable distance. . In color the aurora varies between pale green and crimSometimes it closely resembles a green curtain edged son. and lined with gold. and although its more than two hundred years. commonly called the " northern lights. light. This magnificent display. ball lightning. doubt. 8 In all probability the St. shimmering the tips of the yards. The Aurora Borealis. are reflected from the under sur7 Still another form is commonly called faces of clouds. Auroras are most frequent during sun-spot periods they are usually coincident with magIt is . It has a tremulous motion. but rare in occurrence. Among them. though best known at sea. and from every pointed part of the ship's rigging. The glow lasts for a few moments and then the phantom light disappears. St. spars. In appearance the aurora is an arch of light stretching across the sky fifteen or twenty degrees above the horizon. kind of discharge but little is occurrence has been alleged for its existence is somewhat in Occasionally the discharge takes unusual forms. Elmo's fire is identical with the bluish glow that is seen when a frictional electrical machine is worked in the dark a phenomenon commonly known from its shape as the " brush " discharge. occurrence there ance. is usually a considerable electrical disturb- though not necessarily a thunder-storm. it Owing if to the feebleness of the light emitted. Of this known. at It consists of a pale. is rarely ever noticed in the daytime. At the time of its is also occasionally observed on land. Elmo's fire." 9 is without doubt — — an electrical phenomenon that possibly is similar in nature to the brush discharge. and the upper streamers sometimes mount to the zenith.

. When a bar of steel is magnetized. The arch of the aurora nearly always surrounds daily occurrence. If a slender bar of ordinary steel be suspended by a hair . iron. but is most intense at or near the ends. If the + end of the bar be presented to the + end of the suspended magnet. . 11 Magnetism. 273 In circumpolar regions they are of of auroras is not with certainty known. It no longer remains in- on the contrary it turns until and south. — A bar of lodestone 12 of steel. . the poles of the magnet they are designated as positive + and negative — according to the direction they take when the magnet is suspended at the centre of gravity. but they are thought to be an exchange between the electricity of the atmosphere and that of the earth. If now another bar magnet be brought near it. Sometimes. the latter will instantly turn away if the two — ends be brought together the same thing will be noticed. 10 The cause the earth's magnetic pole. is bent into a U-shaped form called a horse- shoe magnet. On the contrary if + and — poles be brought together they are strongly atdifferently in any position direction is nearly or quite north . bar be magnetized. eight it magnet is a flat bar of polished or ten inches in length. but the north-pointing end dips toward the earth. or a piece that has the property of attracting and holding to its surface small pieces of similar metals is called a magnet. however. it is found that the magnetic force is not uniformly distributed throughout the 13 These are bar. . It no longer remains balanced. however. from its centre of gravity. and for all practical purposes the steel. the latter shows no little sensitiveness. it is it will lie indifferently in If the any direction in which placed. its it takes new properties. or nickel. Steel retains its magnetism permanently.ELECTRICAL AND LUMINOUS PHENOMENA netic storms also.

for the earth behaves as a magnet" and the essential part of the mariner's compass is tion also a magnet. The magnetic north pole is situated west of Boothia Land. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY From these experiments the laws of magnetism Like magnetic poles repel . The earth's magnetic poles are not situated at the geographical poles. a few miles north of the crossing of the 97th meridian — and the 70th parallel. by the compass depends. unlike poles attract. It is upon these laws that the whole science of navigaare deduced.274 tracted. Either pole of the magnet. will attract alike an unmagnetized piece of iron or steel. however. Magnetic Variation. «fcd .

nothing in the eastern and central . but the rate of variation is not uniform even In at the same place the rate varies from year to year. This is called the vertical force. dips toward the earth. swerves Along each of the lighter lines the needle all has the same deviation at points. or inclination. and when the magnetic north-pole is reached the needle has a verpole being next the earth. chart. The + pole dips more and more. "West of this line the north-pointing end of it it the needle turns toward the east. the northwestern part of the United States the amount of variation is at present from 3' to 7' in the southwestern part it is. the needle has an absolutely horizontal position. there- fore are called isogonics or lines of equal variation. at present. The farther the observer goes north- ward. called line passes through is This the agonic. the conditions are reversed. Besides that element of magnetic force that causes the needle to hie in a nearly north-and-south direction. sometimes north of the equator and sometimes south of it. A line on which the dip is tical position. and these lines. Not only does the position of each isogonic vary from time to time. the — South of the everywhere the same is called an isoclinal. there is another that causes it to dip or incline one end toward the earth. This deviation from the true meridian is called declination. magnetic equator. no variation. . parts it varies from 5' to 3'. In the acthe line of companying these points. .ELECTRICAL AND LUMINOUS PHENOMENA • 275 point due north and south in but few places. a heavy black line. until. or aclinal. the stronger becomes the vertical force. North line passing Along an irregular of this line the negative. around the earth. Trace the course of the line of no variation. and east of to the west. . the needle is again vertical with the + pole next the earth. or north-pointing end. at the magnetic south pole.

the passage of the moon. 16 Magnetic Storms. There are also irregular changes in variation which cannot be accounted for. so adjusted that it exactly counterbalances the dip or vertical force. At Point Barrow and at Lady Franklin Bay. Some are daily. corresponds to the period when sun spots are most numerous. land the compass is of but little practical use except rough surveys. Such changes in variation are rarely great in temperate and in low latitudes they cannot well be detected except by close measurements. For this reason the mariner's compass is in On ." and during the progress of one . however. and the annual motion varies from day to day. they are more marked. On the sea.2?G PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY deviation from the true geographical meridian also The Most of these variations are some monthly. thereby keeping the needle in a horizontal position. yearly they are probably caused by the daily rotation of the earth. The sudden formation or change in the position of a sunspot is nearly always attended by great magnetic disturbances. a change of nearly eleven degrees was recorded. The period when they are most frequent. Magnetic storms seem to be closely associated with the spots that at times are visible on the surface of the sun.— The compass is a slender bar of magnetized steel. In the vicinity of the magnetic pole. Not infrequently the irregular variations of the needle are so violent that they have been called magnetic " storms. moreover. 17 The Mariner's Compass. and some periodical. it furnishes the only means by which a vessel may be kept continually on her course. . so constructed as to balance on a pivot and turn freely upon it as well. Usually it is armed with a sliding weight. — of these disturbances the needle is in a constant tremor. of the earth. during a period of twenty-four hours. however.

may better judge the course over which the vessel is sailing. the box always swings into a horizontal position. dipping force so strong.ELECTRICAL AND LUMINOUS PHENOMENA constructed with the greatest care and precision. the atmosphere nevertheless does not afford passage to all the — light that may be transmitted through it. fastened to a circular card subdivided into thirty-two parts. but On whaling vesthe needle becomes exceeding sluggish. A ray of light in passing obliquely is not only refracted. so that. sels it is customary to attach a line to the compass-box so that the steersman. the variation of the compass changes day by day. which consists of one or is 277 The more slender bars of steel. me- It then decreases to about twenty degrees at Liverpool. In arctic regions. no matter what may be the motion of the vessel. by occasionally shaking it. the regular routes of the transatlantic liners. and the MARINER'S COMPASS An ordinary pattern. These The compass-box is mounted on gimbals. Luminous Phenomena. where the horizontal element of force is so weak. On the variation increases from about eight to degrees at New York more than thirty-five degrees at the crossing of the 40th ridian. 18 needle. sailing by compass is a very difficult matter. In going over almost every travelled ocean route. Transparent as it seems. on which are printed the cardinal directions. or bent out of . Not only does the variation change rapidly over short courses. are called points of the compass.

when the air is heavy with dust. that some kinds of floating matter will scatter the diffrac- blue. On the other hand. of light striking the surface of a highly polished metal or vitreous substance is reflected. however. It is a singular fact. with ac- . and the color purer than on land . after the eruption of Krakatoa for nearly a year the sunsets were exceednarily reach the eye. color of the sky is thought to result from The red rays are scattered and the blue rays ordi- At times. the color effects observed when light passes through a glass prism. with their com- pounds resulting. The distortion that one may observe by looking at an object across the top of a very hot stove. The scattering of the light in this . but possibly it is decom- posed into differently colored rays. The tion. green. This is seen when a few rays are admitted into a darkened room the passage of the rays is marked by the light reflected by the motes and it follows. such as a chandelier pendant. while other kinds scatter the red rays. manner is called diffraction. The air always contains innumerable dust-motes and particles of matter so fine and light that they seem always to float.278 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY it the direction in which started. and violet. or even the bevelled edge of plateglass. the sky acquires a hue that is distinctly red. rebounding in the same manner as does a rubber ball thrown against the floor. more- over. The same thing occurs when the ray strikes the surface of A ray a body of water. This was very noticeable in 1883. that a part of the light emanating from a luminous source is always scattered. are examples of decomposition the beautiful dis- — play of the colors red. at sea. therefore. Ordinarily. . ingly lurid. the blueness of the sky is is very marked. . or even that of two layers of air resting one upon the other. or a smoke -burning chimney is an ex- ample of refraction.

off the lake shore may see the lighthouse and the shipping at If possible. and a mirage results. it the corona. the reflection much resembles that produced by a body of water. the face mouth of the river inverted in the air. and With the reflecting surface above the eye. Coronas and Halos. At very great elevations. When a layer of air rests on another of different temperature and density. colored rings. also. As a rule. The ring or rings about the sim or the moon are very common phenomena. illustrate this by means downward. thought. Mirages. The small rings are coronas . the surface of contact — often reflects so much light that it acts as a mirror. This phenomenon occurs at times along the Mediterranean and Red Seas. If the surface is lower than the eye of the observer. of a large mirror held overhead. In deserts and arid regions. a dry. are refracted so that they are curved ed slightly toward the earth. which is is not of very common occurrence. at Chicago. the character of the mirage differs.ELECTRICAL AND LUMINOUS PHENOMENA 279 cumulating moisture. halos. ordiby the earth's curvature. there usually a series of concentric. the blue gives way to a dead hue that approaches blackness. however. is In the case of These. and a distant object is thereby brought to view. and it is not unknown along the Great Lakes. at times. result from diffraction. another form of mirage occurs when objects. are brought in It sometimes happens that the rays of light reflectfrom an object. it may acquire purplish tints. The " lake " mirages of the Colorado Desert have lured both cattle herds travellers to their death. — the larger ones. the illusion is so perfect that nothing but experience will enable one to distinguish the mirage from a lake. one Thus. Still narily hidden sight. still atmosphere is essential to the formation of the mirage. the light being scattered .

or mock suns. by the moisture The halo around it it the moon when probably caused by refraction. and the air is very moist. The halos of the sun. Some of . and these spots. them are concentric some are tangent one to another and some intersect one another. the light passes throiLgh the falling drops of water in such a way that it is not only refracted but decomposed. The resulting . during a summer shower. are sometimes very bright . For this reason is appears is apt to portend rain or snow. Frequently there are several . when the sun breaks through a rift in the clouds.280 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY of the atmosphere. circles. therefore. which are associated usually with through the ice crystals of cirrus cold weather. — Occasionally. probably are caused by the refraction of the light as the latter passes HALOS OBSERVED BY GENERAL GREELY clouds. they form the sun dogs. At the places of intersection and of tangency more light is radiated. Rainbows.

In magnetizing the needles. —American Weather. better be fastened by means of a From the in chart. estimate the magnetic variation of the place which you live. At any time of their occurrence note carefully whatever you may observe with reference to auroras. — Elements of Meteorology—pp. rub the ends only. p. from silk thread.ELECTRICAL AND LUMINOUS PHENOMENA decomposition the rainbow." COLLATERAL READING AND REFERENCE. Observe whether halos of the moon are followed by clear or by rainy weather. The rainbow is best observed when the sun is near the horizon. The observer sees the bow when his back is turned toward the sun. using one or more stout knitting-needles and strands untwisted For observing inclination the strand of silk had slip knot to the needle . is considerably explain why. Explain the cause of redness that occasionally marks sunrise and sunwhen the air is smoky. Occasionally. QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES. mock suns. is this phenomenon real or apparent ? The use of a paper or other tube an inch or two in diameter will aid in the solution of this question. Verify the statements concerning the laws of magnetism noted on p. observing the directions contained in note i. Grkely.—Verify the statements concerning the mutual attraction and repulsion of electrified bodies. 273. 166-jl80. Davis—Elements . The rainbow is frequently observable when heavy waves break and send spray high into the air. in very dry weather the disc of the sun distorted at the time of setting set . is 281 the arch of colored light that constitutes the inner. Waldo. and The bow is blue and violet on Sometimes there is red on the outer side. and also in the ascending spray of cascades. Explain the phenomenon of the " sun's drawing water. for the other experiments the needle may be thrust through a bit of paper to which the silk is attached. halos. The sun and the moon seem to be much larger when near the horizon than at zenith . and coronas. of Meteorology. a larger second- ary box in which the order of colors is reversed. 274.

a glass lamp chimney and a vulcanite comb may be used. The small globules of vapor that compose the cloud mass carry each the charge of electricity upon the surface.500 times as great as that found in a cell of an ordinary galvanic battery. For the electrifiers. But when a great number of but these globules are condensed to form a drop of water.000 volts.000 to 5. but bits of alder pith are better. The pith- balls may hang from the end of a penholder thrust obliquely into the cork of a stoppered bottle. as the slight film of grease interfere from the hands will with the reaction. In a single cell of galvanic battery the potential. . In regions of dry climate such conditions are more frequent than in areas of . The vapor of water is not only a good conductor of electricity. that the earth currents are sufficient to operate telegraph wires without the aid of the batteries. is so low that the electricity will not jump across a space of one thousandth of an inch the quantity. it is an excellent storage reservoir as well.000 to 1. During a thunder-storm a stroke of lightning may jump a distance of a mile. A good Motional electric machine will cause sparks to leap between points ten or twelve inches apart the potential is very high. In order that they may be successful the air of the room should be very dry. Each must be 2 made absolutely clean.282 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY NOTES. but the potential is so great as to be immeasurable by ordinary standards. but the quantity is small. . if the pressure be great. moreover. The potential of electricity may be also likened to pressure on water flowing through a pipe. it will be projected to a considerable distance. 1 Small pieces of cork will answer for these striking experiments. being from 2. 3 At different localities. In an electric-light wire a current of considerable volume will leap across a space one-tenth of an inch or more its potential is about 1. about one or two volts. If the pressure be low the water will flow quietly through the pipe and fall at no great distance from the end of the nozzle on the contrary. Not only is the quantity enormous. considerable rainfall. the character of the electricity may be so very unlike. the surface of the 4 drop is infinitely smaller than the aggregate surface of the . . is very small.

The air being a poor conductor offers considerable resistance to the passage of the electricity. One of these on a preceding page shows the fallacy of former notions on the . In the past few years photographs of the lightning stroke have been successfully made." or "Will o' the wisp " is a similar electric phenomenon. during a severe hail -storm. The rumbling of the thunder is due partly to echo and reverberation. and is therefore intensely heated along the line of discharge. is not necessarily visible.ELECTRICAL AND LUMINOUS PHENOMENA globules. The flash of light that accompanies the discharge is due to some extent to the foreign matter in the path of the discharge. or rather the electricity. 283 The potential of the drop. ' This reflection is called heat lightning. is enormously increased. 5 The lightning itself. It is not improbable that the " ignis fatuus. 8 While Caesar was engaged in carrying on his military operations in Africa. such as a vulcanite rule. heated to whiteness. According to tradition and fiction. in comparison with that of the globules. It is rarely ever observed except at the horizon when the latter is overcast by clouds. The reflected flashes of light are usually so far away that the accompanying thunder is not heard. the spears of his fifth legion were tipped with fire. 6 In paintings and illustrations it has always been customary to depict the electric discharge in the form of a zigzag line of many sharp angles. As a matter . Discharges of high potential only are accompanied by thunder. The thunder is produced in exactly the same manner as is the noise that accompanies the discharge of a firearm. is brought near a sprayer or a sprinkler the fine spray immediately gives place to large drops. The air at the point of discharge is rarefied almost to the extent of being a vacuum the rush of the air to fill the suddenly made vacuum is accompanied by noise. — subject. The phenomenon was undoubtedly identical with that of St. he relates that. If an electrified body. and partly to the fact that the sound along the line of discharge reaches the ear at different intervals the greater the distance the longer the time required for the sound to reach the ear. Elmo's fire. " " Jacko' lantern. the ignis fatuus is a bright light that moves rapidly from place to place mainly for the purpose of alluring unsuspecting travellers into dangerous places. This is a hazy indistinct light that appears occasionally in swamps.

however. however. on account of the greater brilliance of the sun. 12 Nearly all the elements are more or less sensitive to magnetism iron. is stationary. while the upper strata. Such substances are said to be diamagnetic. on the contrary. it has PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY no great power of locomotion. The pole of greatest intensity is the one commonly known it as the magnetic north pole. 13 If the bar be a long one. sphere. or a direction at right angles to that of an ordinary magnet. take the part of a secondary coil. the lower strata being the insulating medium. For the same reasons a light slender bar is . A steel bar may be magnetized by rubbing its ends with those of another magnet. or by winding several hundred turns of insulated wire about it. Several magnetic poles are known to ex- but only the two north poles of great intensity are usually charted. It is not visible in day-time. — . 10 It must not be thought that the aurora occurs at night-time only it may take place at any time day or night. A piece of soft iron retains its magnetism only while it is in contact with a magnet or near to it a piece of steel. cobalt. which are much better conductors. 11 Professor Balfour Stewart has advanced the opinion that both auroras and earth currents are secondary currents due to small but rapid changes in the earth's magnetism. In 1879 it was ap- . has moved proximately located by Lieutenant Schwatka in the open space Since its discovery by Ross. is not such that its magnetic force can much intensity. " The aurora is not confined to northern regions it occurs in In the southern hemisouthern circumpolar regions as well. there are usually several supplemental poles scattered about the surface. . and practically . or if the quality of the steel is not uniform. and nickel possess the force most strongly. it is called the aurora australis. once magnetized retains the property permanently. The hody of the earth may be compared to the magnetic core of an induction coil. Bismuth and copper seem to be repelled and take an east-and-west position. however. better than a stout one. " The shape of the earth possess ist. about forty miles westward. but the southern aurora is neither so brilliant nor so frequent in occurrence as that of the northern regions.284 of fact. through which a current of electricity is passing.

At that time there were no instruments sufficiently delicate for such precise determination. it amounted about W. the declination at the city was 11° 30' East. to about 22° 30' 22°. after this time. In 1882 the formation in twenty-four hours. it was about 8° 25' W. magnetic In 1580. magnetic observaThe tories have been established in various parts of the world. 96° 40' W. The westerly variation increased until. Lady Franklin Bay. Usually three magnets are employed one to measure variations in horizontal force . so that the spot of light traverses the whole length of the sheet upon it. It decreased until in 1683 it was nothing. In New York City the variation in 1686 was 9° W. was nothing in 1893 it was about 3° 16' W. " This period recurs every eleven years. Cape Horn.ELEOTEIOAL AND LUMINOUS PHENOMENA 285 between Victoria and Franklin Straits. . after which time the variation became west. essential part of of light is such an observatory is a series of magnets each carrying a small mirror. in 1790 it had decreased to 4° 15' W. which are expressed in minutes of arc. The sheets in such a of paper are fastened each to a cylinder revolved by clockwork. Since that time it has dropped to and. Los Angeles. In 1790 the variation at Norfolk. Kew (London). is slowly decreasing. . California. and Paris. of a sun spot was attended by a magnetic storm that was recorded at Point Barrow. Its exact position has not been determined since 1831. long circuits were worked by ground currents. but if the magnet turns even a small fraction of a minute. . and it is doubtful if its location at that date was so precise as might be inferred from the figures. it is thought. long. one for variations in vertical force and one to measure the strength of the horizontal force. In 1884 the position of this pole was again approximately determined to be in lat. At the magnetic observatory then in Los Angeles. in 1893. The position of the magnetic south pole has not been with certainty .. 16 Observations made at Paris on the movement of the north pole cover a period of more than three hundred years. mounted of thrown on a sheet manner that a spot photographic paper. . Telegraph instruments were affected. 70° 30' N. If the magnet were motionless the line would be straight. " In order better to study these variations. and in some instances. in 1814. however. Va. discovered. it gradually increased until. the spot is thrown out of position and the line becomes irregular. thus drawing a line — .

The compass of Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin). along a geographic meridian and then compare the observed with the normal variation. The use of steel in the construction of vessels has added materially to the difficulties of sailing by compass. and by most of the transAs an efficient instrument it has no superior. The object being to relieve the bearing of the weight of the card. wooden mast. so that frequent tests of the compasses There are various devices for obtaining the are necessary. and thus make the needle more It is a most excellent compass and is vastly superior sensitive. On battle-ships either the addition or the removal of the armament. the compass-box is filled with alcohol in which the card and needle almost float. is apt to make readjustment of the compasses . or the substitution of a steel for a to the ordinary compass formerly used. now generally used in the United States Navy. atlantic liners. proper correction for the compass on steel vessels a very effective method is to swing the vessel. . necessary. The hull of a steel or iron vessel has poles of intensity peculiar to itself. consists of a battery of six or more very slender magnets held in a skeleton frame. 18 In the Ritchie compass.286 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY the tremor of the magnets was so great that for several hours one of the instruments failed to make a legible record. and these are apt to change in time. This compass is used in the English Navy. The latter is so light that the friction on the bearing is imperceptible. stem and stern.

therefore. As a rule the rainfall is greatest within the torrid zone. Illustrate by means of the diagram on p. 1 Latitude. the lower will be its average temperature. in general.CHAPTER XVI CLIMATE AND ITS FACTORS The conditions results of heat of a region with reference to its habita- and these. In going from the equator to polar regions. tion of the earth's axis. rain and drought. The greater the distance from the equator. are the and moisture climate. 287 . It is modified bj many conditions. . 294. polar regions they fall so obliquely that they impart but very little heat to the surface which they strike. but beyond the forty-fifth parallel the winter climate grows rapidly cooler for every few degrees this of increase. Within thirty or thirty-five degrees of the equator the change in temperature is not great. The and in sun's rays are never vertical beyond the tropics. therefore. one will pass through about every degree of warmth from perpetual summer to the coldest winter. and the inclinability constitute its climate. Latitude also exerts a considerable influence on rainfall. altitude. of which the principal are latitude. includes all the modifications of environment due to heat and cold. together with its constant parallel- ism to itself. position of highlands. direction and prevalence of winds. Latitude — affects climate chiefly with refer- ence to temperature.

in the Peruvian Andes. other hand. one may find on the slopes of snow-clad highlands all the intermediate degrees of temperature between perpetual summer and eternal winter. instead of chilled. In the . descent. The city and seaport. on the . —The effect On of altitude is much the same as that of latitude. In the region is on the contrary. In Mexico the effects of altitude are finely illustrated. the rain winds deluge the eastern slope. teaus of the Colorado Kiver. leaving the western side practically a desert. an average the temperature is lower by about one degree for every three hundred feet of ascent. Thus. and the air being warmed by its usually deficient. cool. yet less than two hundred miles away. The difference is due almost wholly to its alti- tude —about 7. and the eastern slopes of high ranges are therefore well watered.500 feet high. the rain winds are from the west and the western slopes in consequence receive most of the rain. is intolerably hot and moist. Thus. but little rain falls. 2. that forms the boundary between two plateaus. On the upper mesa in the the products are those of a temperate climate A more striking example .000 feet above the still sea-level. It is scarcely more than a stone's throw from the former to the latter. while the western slope is dry. even in equatorial regions. lower they are distinctly sub-tropical. the rainfall These calms are regions of descending currents of the air. while the eastern side is comparatively dry. the City of Mexico enjoys a climate that is dry.288 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY of tropical calms. In the temperate zones. Position of Mountains. In tropical lati- tudes rain-bearing winds blow from the east. Altitude. and invigorating. Vera Cruz.—The existence of high mountain-ranges often determines the quantity of rain precipitated upon the surface of a given region. is found among the plaHurricane Ledge is an almost vertical escarpment.

but mainly for is is high range. the greater part of the continent a desert. they are regions of perpetual spring. but none falls elsewhere. The proximity of the sea exerts a marked effect on climate. of the The coast region of the northeastern part is an example. however. trates only a very few miles inland.CLIMATE ANP ITS FACTOKS . The result is seen when the extremes of temperature are noted. Kan. the few isolated ranges receive considerable rain on their summits. the air over the ocean has a over the much more uniform temperature than that land. of a Partly because of its latitude. Its climate is disand the influence of the sea pene- United States tinctively continental. For example. 289 southern Andes. In the great African desert. westerly. San Francisco and Leavenworth. as a rule. any large body The Philippines and the Ha. The reason therefor is apparent . The climate of a coast region is always more equable than that of a far inland or continental — area. with no excesses of temperature. both with respect to temperature and moisture. The climate of islands at a distance from of land is always equable. enjoy a maritime climate.). But while the difference between the summer and winter temperature of San Francisco is less than ten degrees (F. that of Leavenworth is almost fifty degrees. Because the winds of the temperate zones are. the conditions are reversed the rain falls on the western side while the eastern slope is arid. 2 Not all coast regions. Distance from the Sea. and about the only rain that falls precipitated on the highlands of the eastern side. The want effect of the absence of mountains is observable in Australia. The Leeward and Windward islands of the . waiian Islands are examples although in the torrid zone. in the eastern coast of such regions land winds are prevalent. have nearly the same mean temperature for the year..

but in localities of deficient rainfall the difference may be greater. Prevailing Winds. . . it few degrees from one year to another. Inland and polar regions are areas of climatic extremes. For every pound of water vaporized. from polar regions modify excessive heat of low winds the latitudes. 221) readily gives all the information necessary to determine roughly the climate of a country. is carried to highr >. When the vapor. Fluctuations in rainfall and cloudiness are considerably greater than those of In regions of generous rainfall the precipitation of very wet years may be nearly twice that of very dry years. temperature. Winds are the chief medium for Cold the transmission both of moisture and warmth. —As constant that is. — a rule.titudes and there precipitated. all this heat is again s«. and the averages of long periods show still less variation. An inspection of the chart of winds (p. and tropical winds blowing into high latitudes soften the rigors of polar climate. The regions invaded by sea winds that have come from low latitudes are the regions of warm and equable climate. mingled with the wind.) in temperature. the climate of a does not change materially except after long intervals of time. Not only do the winds themselves transfer a great amount of heat by convection. enough heat is made latent to raise nearly half a ton of water one degree (F. but the vapor of water furnishes an enormous supply. West Indian group Though situated only a few degrees north of the equator their summer temperature is less oppressive than that of New York City. ee. The mean temperature of any given locality rarely varies more than a very country is Changes in Climate. and the same is true of the equable climate of western North America. The mild temperature Europe is of western due largely to southwesterly winds.290 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY are also examples.

The latter change their positions with the apparent motion In fact they are all of the sun. are unknown. and statistics regarding them are almost wh"Hy wanting. of the map the astronomical and the climatic zones shows that the correspondence of the two is The former are fixed and their boundary lines are parallels of latitude. and that they have been of the most radical character. It is certain that the rainfall of the Basin Region of the United States it is subject to periods of oscillation. tht jarth's axis 4 — bounded by lines of equal average temperature are called isothermal or climatic zones. The Glacial Epoch. already described.Climate and When time its factoks 291 is reckoned by geological epochs. however. Zones or belts whose limits are >ver. and these in turn are evidence of rainfall at are remnants no very remote of a much greater than the region receives at the present time. governed by the same law . behaving in this respect like the zones of winds and calms. is an example of a change in the climate that has taken place in the North Temperate Zone. m A change in the inclination of would be competent to account for changes Changes in inin temperature. and it is highly probable that elevation and depression have resulted in many of the climatic changes of which there is an unwritten record. Definite knowledge of such changes. capable of producing variations in temperature. and the lines bounding them of isothermal lines or isotherms. their definite effects clination have but Changes in the level of a region are also are not known. The few scattered itself sinks and salt lakes of the Great Basin two large lakes that existed there period. A comparison only general. seems certain that great climatic changes have occurred in every part of the earth. 3 certainly occurred. Zones of Climate. The cause or causes of such changes. and therefore in rainfall. is circumstantial. in the main.


By what isotherms is the climatic torrid zone limited north and south ? 5 Compare the position in January and July. The winter limit on land approximates the fortieth parallel. In the North Atlantic warm ocean currents and their drifts cause a deviation of the isotherms explain how and why. The summer limit of the northern zone extends high into the arctic regions. however. of 21° (70° F. There are several isolated regions having a considerably higher temperature. In the southern hemisphere the isotherms range approximately with the parallels. owing to the drift Stream it penetrates the polar latitudes.). Its temperature is probably between 27° and 30° (80° to 86° F). Extremes of Climate. An extensive region in the Sahara has a mean temperature of about 29° (85° F.) and during unusual hot spells it sometimes respect to latitude . Arabia. In which direction do they bend in crossing the great highlands of the earth ? Explain the cause of this. but north of it. however. reaches 49° (120° F.). — temperature that completely girdles the earth is theoretically the thermal equator. and the arid lands of the United States. In the spring and the fall its position corresponds roughly with that of the astronomical zone.CLIMATE AND ITS FACTORS and arise 293 from the same cause —the inclination and self- parallelism of the earth's axis. In the Pacific it reaches to the sixtieth parallel of the Gulf in the Atlantic. the summer temperature is above 38° (100° F.) The isothermal temperate zones are limited by the lines and 0° (32° F. What may be inferred from this concerning the uniformity of temperature with ? In the northern hemisphere the isotherms are very irregular.). but on the ocean it is much higher. In the African desert. and in Hindustan and . The hottest areas are situated not on the equator. The isotherm of highest .

At Werchojansk. In both regions the mean temperature is not higher than— 17° (0° F.e. In Eurasia it is a little to the eastward of the Lena River. with a pencil. The regions of extreme cold are not in the vicinity of it. 6 Siberia. and place it in its proper position (i. 292 cut it out along the . the temperature ranges from — 67° (—90° F. at this time in the northern hemisphere? Are the sun's rays direct or slanting in the southern hemisphere? "What is the season there ? What are the seasons What is the season when the sun's rays are vertical at the equator? On a piece of thin paper trace. and re- mains POSITION OF HEAT-RAYS IN'JUNE self parallel to it- while the earth fall revolves around the sun. In the American continent the area of extreme cold is near the Arctic Archipelago. p.). Changes of Season.294 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY In the American Africa there are others equally warm. for January . continent an oval-shaped region extending southward from the Gulf of California has about the same mean.) to the geographical pole. lines. on a Exercise. but considerably south of 32° (90° F. the isothermal hot zone on the map for January. it follows that the rays of the sun do not given place always at the same angle.. Because the — earth's axis is in- clined to the plane of its orbit.—From the diagram above which the sun's rays are find the time at vertical at the tropic of Cancer.) a range of one eighty degrees hundred and and — probably the greatest on the earth.

bring the temperate zones. in turn. as the earth revolves around the sun. The parts continuous that overlap all show the parts are region where summer is the year. The inclination of the axis. Compare this result with the diagram on this page. What not covered by the heat -belt? the heat-belt When is far north what is the season in the Northern in Hemisphere ? the Southern the the ? From tion belt oscilla- of heatfive show how of zones tempera:' position of heat-rays in December ture result. together with its parallelism.CLIMATE AND ITS FACTORS on the 295 map for July). ANNUAL MOVEMENT OF THE HEAT-BELT to a position is this where the sun's rays are nearly vertical. . It movement that causes the shifting of the zones of climate alternate^ north and south.

all that part of the Mississippi basin east of the 97th meridian. is replaced by scanty bunch and beyond the crest of the eastern ranges of the Eocky Mountains the character of the country in places Farther west. dry. however. and beyond the 100th meridian or 2. In the greater part of the western coast of North America the seasons are distinguished by the distribution ture. equatorial rain-belt. more by variations in temperaPractically there are two seasons a rainy and a Within the greater part of the torrid zone these are of rain than — also about the only distinctions of season. There are many extensive areas that have little or no rainfall. In many instances there is no sharply drawn line between fertile and arid lands. the 2. but in the south almost all vegetation disappears and the region is absolutely a desert. In the northern part of the Basin Eegion. and the latter into deserts. For instance.500-foot contour. West of this contour. If the rainfall is so deficient that irrigation is necessary to produce crops the region is said to be arid . it is generally considered a desert region. each of which is six months in duration. In the frigid are also those zones the distinctions of of summer and winter day and night. or more strictly. the climate becomes much drier. approaches that of a typical desert.000-foot contour produces an abundance of food stuff. crops must depend mainly on irriga- — — tion. . or between arid lands and deserts. fertile The same gradation is observed Both north and south of the precipitation decreases little by little .296 PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY alternation of the four seasons is realized mainly in The the temperate zones. turf grass grass. lands grade imperceptibly into arid belts. in the great African desert. if it is too dry for food crops. Deserts. the cooler climate and the high ridges wring a small amount of water from the clouds.

Notwithstanding all this. pretty sharply drawn. or " sand " shifts hither and thither with the winds. It is in such regions that the fierce simoon and similar sand-storms prevail. On account of the presence of water. much of it being held there in suspension. The Colorado Desert. is an excellent example of the kind. thereby preventing the latter from or there sinking deep into the is sufficiently soil. is marked by peculiarities The winds are hot sand-blasts and whirls scanty rains come usually in the form of cloud-bursts. on the contrary. in southeastern California. if they are approached from the western side. The oases of the North American deserts are of this character. is ' The the and extremes. may be a mountain-crest that high to condense and precipitate more or less moisture. The underlying strata may be impervious to water. sharply dividing a fertile area from a desert. climate of desert regions . the temperature is one of frightful extremes the relative humidity of the atmosphere rarely exceeds thirty percent. The water flowing down the slopes percolates through the fine rock waste at the bottom. Any fertile spot in a desert is called an oasis. of saturation. and the latter is fertile because it is more or less abundantly sup- plied with water. In each case a high mountainrange forms a barrier to the rain winds. distribution of deserts constitutes an interesting There are practically two zones. desert climate is . Various causes contribute to the formation of oases. Only a small part of the extensive desert areas is destitute of vegetation. wonderfully healthful. and the same is true of the North American desert and the Sahara.CLIMATE AND ITS FACTORS 297 In the South American deserts the line. and in such parts the finely pulverized rock waste. The study. situated mainly . the oasis commonly yields a goodly supply of food-stuffs.

8 this belt is nearly 1. the rainfall of the region to the northward ? In other instances the desert conditions arise from other and more complex causes. . the continent. 288). or both. south of the at the eastern base of the Andes . They are unfortunately situated with reference to latitude. In Eurasia and Africa a belt of desert stretches from the western coast almost through the continent. in Australia. not because of any natural sterility of the soil. of these causes. it extends almost across ditions Various causes contribute to make arid and desert conbut in any case a desert is a desert. and they also are lacking in high mountain-ranges. that contain nearly all the desert and arid lands of the earth. Kongo water-shed. Thus. Explain why the Peruvian desert of South America is west of the Andes. between the 20th and 30th parallels there is a downward movement of atmospheric currents . but because of the lack of moisture. The Australian and African deserts result mainly from one or the other.20S PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY parallels.000 miles east In North America west. between the 20th and 50th north and south. and in such instances their moisture is not condensed. In winds blowing inland from the sea may enter localities having a temperature higher than that of the winds themselves. explain why these may produce deficiency some localities the or absence of rainfall (p. Why is the region east of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada Ranges either arid or desert? "What effects have the Himalaya Mountains on . In South America it lies in Africa. and The deserts of the Southern Hemisphere are smaller in area only because of the smaller land area. and the desert of Argentina lies to the east of these ranges. 9 In some localities a high mountain -range that faces the sea-winds condenses all the moisture they contain and the opposite slope with its outlying area is therefore a desert.

Bureau obtain the following : COLLATERAL READING AND REFERENCE. mean for each month. It is sometimes stated that the warmth of western Europe the British Isles. general direction of the winds. How do the African deserts compare in this respect ? Prepare a summary of the climatic conditions of the state or county in which you live. but not because of their effects on climate. such a statement is untenable. —Elementary Meteorology. of the lowlands. Davis. Ocean currents accomplish very potent results. to show whether the rainfall of the Amazon basin is profuse or deficient ? Explain why the basin of the Orinoco has two rainy and two dry : seasons. Grbblt. the warm drift of the Gulf Stream is carried by the Prevailing Westerlies into about every bay and cove of western 1 — — . mean annual rainfall. So far as their temperature in general is concerned. Compare the Asian and American deserts as to origin. giving a reason for each statement What are the conditions of temperature of the northern part ? How do those of the southern part In which part is temperature the basis of the seasons ? In differ ? which is rainfall ? From which direction do the rains of the northern part come ? of the southern part ? What is the effect of the Andes Mountains on the distribution of the rainfall ? Give the location of the desert and arid regions. and that of the western United States to the influence of the Japan Current. Thus. From the United States Weather highest temperature observed.CLIMATE AND ITS FACTOKS 299 QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES. determine the climate of South America from the following suggestions. lowest temperature observed. —Elements of Meteorology. noting especially any facts not ordinarily included in the general outlines of the subject. —American Weather. Note the effects of altitude on the climate What evidence does the map give of the highlands . —Referring to any good map. other relevant facts. Waldo. number of rainy days for any year. NOTES To these may be added the effect of ocean currents. mean for each month. especially is due to the Gulf Stream. however.

shaded by a double roof with an air-space between.). and as a result the harbors Hammerfest are free from ice all the year. No temperature in this region recorded by the Weather Bureau has exceeded 122°. The surface of New York and the New England States was about 1. instead of a chart of annual isotherms. 4 The elevation of a region is thought to result in a lowering of its mean temperature. has an opposite effect. if the longitude of perihelion were to change materially. be studied only from monthly isotherms that is. In a maritime climate this rarely exceeds twenty degrees — — (P. it is believed. 3 A noticeable and highly important difference between a maritime and a continental climate. Siberia. and exposed at a distance from any radiating surface seems to have been recorded at Warglar.300 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY even as far north as Europe. For this reason.000 feet higher during the Glacial Epoch than at present. instead of forty-three. thus causing the ice and snow to collect faster than it would melt. ited region in the world. Or. thereby in time causing far-reaching changes. if the axis of the earth were to incline forty degrees. is the daily range of temperature. and the depression of its surface. the winters of the northern hemisphere might be longer by several days than the summers. cial temperature of 136° has been noted. where In the Colorado Desert an unoffithe mercury marked 127° F. though there are several localities. then the polar and the tropical circles would have a corresponding distance from the poles and from the equator. Algeria. and the temperate zones each would be ten degrees in width. ° Werchojansk or Verkoyansk is about four hundred miles north The two are in probably the coldest inhabof Yakutsk. it has been deemed wiser to prepare two charts. one showing the isotherms for January. the other for July. such as Salton Lake and — — . however. 3 That is. In this case. 6 The mean annual temperature of a region reveals but little These can concerning its actual conditions of temperature. by comparing the monthly range of temperature and climate. The highest temperature taken under standard conditions — that is. it is doubtful if a properly exposed thermometer would have registered so much by ten or fifteen degrees. while in a few inland regions the fluctuations may be twice as great.

vipers. As a matter of fact it consists of about every kind of rock waste broken and pulverized by the impact it receives as it is blown about by the wind.. which causes him to camel. true quartz sand is rare. n bush. Doubtless it contains more or less quartz. is seized with Even those see the most fantastical objects in his delirium. a heap of camels' bones. Sometimes these faint footmarks are covered with wind-blown rock waste. where the temperature ranges higher than at any Weather Bureau stations. The experience of General Grreely. but in general. The only animals . and the travellers are obliged to consult the compass. natural tint. Lady Franklin Bay. The shifting soil of deserts is popularly regarded as sand. In the Colorado and Mojave Deserts the detritus passing for sand is broken felspathic rock in certain localities of the Arabian Desert it is a red.CLIMATE AND Death of the ITS FACTORS 301 Valley. . The intense radiation of the . loamy 1 . At Fort Conger. and the only plants to be seen are the scrub.-i . Chief Signal Officer. 8 "The districts of the Sahara destitute of oases present a formidable aspect. when sitting upon his kind of brain fever. Vegetation is rare. a distant sand-hill. the same officer served in Arizona where the shade temperature was 119° and that of an unprotected thermometer 144°. lizards. shows the range of human endurance.S. or some other indications which the practised eye of the Tuareg alone can un- derstand as the means by which the road is recognized. U. The path which the feet of the camels have marked out in the immense solitude points in a straight line toward the spot which the caravan wishes to reach. the horizon. conin some sandy deserts there is sisting mainly of thorny Mimosas a complete absence of all kinds of vegetation. The author has repeatedly noted temperatures in the Colorado Desert varying from 130° to 145° registered by a thermometer exposed to the direct rays of the sun. even the flea itself will regions. to be found are scorpions. but they are soon killed by the not venture into these dreadful enormous white or red in this blinding light surface of the desert dazzles the eyes every object appears to be clothed with a sombre and preterheat . and ants. he and his party experienced no intolerable discomforts with the temperature as low as — 66°. Occasionally the traveller. During the first few days of the journey a few indefatigable individuals of the fly tribe accompany the caravan. soil.A.

and the expression " poisonous emanations has a prominent place in many newspaper accounts. groups of of vision are beset by distant mirages tents. It is so free from the germs that produce or hasten disease. desert air is unsurpassed so far as salubrity is concerned. where they hoped to recruit their energies. and tuberculosis originating in localities is unknown. or "blood-poisoning." Elisee Bechis. When the wind blows hard. dug with great labor in some hollow or other. the traveller's body is beaten by grains of sand which penetrate even through his clothes and prick like needles. is not to be found. But often this unwholesome swamp. Septicaemia. . point out each day the end of the stage. who ." rarely if ever follows accidental ' ' wounds such or surgical operations. from the sides of which oozes out a brackish moisture. As a matter of fact.— PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 302 retain the entire possession of their faculties and clearness palm-trees. shady mountains and sparkling cascades seem to dance before their eyes in misty vapor. ' In popular literature the climate of deserts is supposed to have baneful properties. and the people of the caravan must content themselves with the tainted water with which they filled thair flasks at the preceding stage. Stagnant pools or wells. that meat will not putrefy and food will not ferment. It is said that in times of great need travellers have been compelled to kill their dromedaries in order to quench their thirst in the nauseous liquid contained in the stomachs of these animals.

or moisture. body or organism. The egg may contain both food and moisture as well within its envelope but the seed contains food only. on the contrary. 303 Commonly the seeds . passes through It first appears in the egg.. the seed may re- tain its vitality for months. namely— that the earth is full of organisms terious force called life. The egg very — . endowed with that mysand that the life-forms are Moreover.' form germ enclosed in an envelope called an or per- haps. or even years. cannot move it spends its life in the spot in which it developed into life. the seed into a plant. The seed-form of the organism is remarkably adapted for transportation and dispersal. CHAPTEE XVII THE DISPEBSAL OE LIFE Thkre are two lessons in nature that probably every human being of mature years has learned. the egg or seed passes through various stages of development in which it gradually approaches its mature form the condition that immediately precedes death. viduals of a species closely resemble one another. several stages or conditions. In general. of the egg almost always possesses the The offspring power of moving from place to place in one or another of its forms of life the offspring of the seed. Under the action of heat. easily loses its vitality or life principle . those Almost every of a living commonly very unlike. a seed. while the indi- grouped in kinds or of different species are species. known as an animal. the egg develops into a lifeform. or both heat and moisture.

endure a temperature but little lower than that of boiling water they will likewise endure the severest cold. both seeds and eggs float on slightest injury.304 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY some species little mechanical force. will not water-tight case. . nor will it survive the As a rule. and almost always they are enclosed in a The egg. are strong enough to resist not a of will Those . on the other hand. endure extremes of temperature.

. and the germ that in the human system produces disease. directly or indirectly. THE DISPERSAL OF LIFE and devour it. but there are three that govern. every form of life. in than one or two individuals in state of maturity. 2 many species. and nearly all possess special organs for the purpose of nutrition. and reproduction of organic forms. — — — — gating millions of individuals. Laws of Structure. the individuals of the last generation will not very greatly differ from their ancestor. food. is The germ of a species always reproduces called heredity. so great is the mortality during the period of development that. 305 Indeed. and it is quickly resolved into the mineral elements the " dust " which gave it external form and structure. not more many thousand reach the stage of the organism follows that of deIn this condition it has but one objective toward which all its energies tend. 3 A seed or an egg develops into an organism that becomes an ancestor of many thousand generations. Acorns always forms like produce oak-trees. those of the parents or ancestors. and the higher species have organs of locomotion. and caricdion.. Many laws are concerned in the growth. animals beget each of its own kind. This accomplished. development. The law by virtue of which the germs of organisms develop and mature. once within the body of an decomposed and then made a part of the structure of the organism is called nutrition. or feeding. Not a few species have special means for the protection of their bodies. the vital principle leaves it. nutrition. nor will they differ from one another. But in obedience to the law of heredity. is The process by which organism. breeds nothing but disease of its own kind. namely the reproduction of its kind. These are heredity. sooner or later it dies that is. each into a form of its own kind. aggre- The mature velopment.

. to meet the conditions necessary to their existence. that is. Nearly threesubstances required in nutrition is few.306 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY In obedience to this law new tissue. no The number of longer useful. and animals. in many instances 97 per cent. and many to obtain food flight. tivation. have gradually species of those that scratch the ground lost the power of extended The great diversity observable in the various mem- . As a rule. is cast off and destroyed. either from plants. The food must contain all these substances or the organism will not mature. etc.. Variation is the law in obedience to which organisms are changed. Thus. hydrogen. plants obtain their food from the mineral directly or indirectly. blood. nitrogen. no longer needing its multitude of stamens. and phosphorus. or change themselves. bones. kingdom. develops them into petals. their food Birds that for long-continued generations have obtained from the water have become either swimmers or waders. is The remaining part is composed mainly of compounds of carbon. the almond development by taking the form of the peach and the nectarine. flesh. under culthe wild rose. quarters of the weight of every organic being consists of water water. Under the condiVARIATION ADAPTHD TO MFNT its ITS ENVIRON- tions imposed by its has varied environment. is constantly >eing made. and older tissue.

it migrates. it. but transplanted to arid left regions and to grow wild. of it will perish if the rainfall decreases to nine inches. and moisture. Variation of species is the result of food. but the ancestors of the species in Miocene times had three. the turf grass gradually disappears. has a another name for change of environment. has resulted in it has produced the all the beautiful varieties of roses . The birds were tilian in character than those of present times. or else survives with changed habits. distributed monthly. it has made the difof ference between the wild fowl and the domestic fowl . temperature. regions. The horse and in Eocene times four toes on the of early geological periods 4 fore feet. If a certain species requires an aggregate of ten inches of rain. if in a given locality. which is only covered with leathery spines. much more repSome of the reptiles. Cultivation. domesticated fruits from wild fruits . Thus. and these determine all its habits. its It will thrive and possibly extend limits if the annual precipitation in- creases to twelve inches. one of three things is pretty certain to it take place : the species dies. is 307 a familiar example of the effects of present times has but one toe. too. and if this development does not procure the necessary amount of water. The fruit of the common gooseberry. or if there is a drought more than thirty consecutive days. the rainfall lessens materially. the berry finally matures. These are the conditions with which every organism has to battle for existence. cultivated in moist smooth surface. have lost their feet and are scarcely a remove from serpents.THE DISPERSAL OP LIFE bers of the dog family of variation. Environment. an enormous development of rootlets takes place. If the environment of a — species changes. the turf grass quickly discovers In order to obtain the necessary moisture.

they have not the power of voluntas motion. and with their disappearance there came such swarms of " cattle-ticks and " grass-lice " that the existence of cattle-raising was threatened. then a menace to the sugar-planter. For example. temperature. such as water. is evident that the distribution and variation of species is trivial are governed mainly by geographic laws. and since a change in any of these factors sooner or later results in variation. The mongoose did not but it lessen the number exterminated one or two species of " ground-bird. but when the former were killed. and if they possess the power of sensation at all. The roots of a plant will in the direction of water.308 the PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY same is species. the mongoose was introduced into Jamaica in order to exterminate the cane-rat. plants inhale carbon They derive air. of cane-rats. faculty of intelligence. —Plants A feeblest degree. Animals and Plants. that will pursue its prey or flee No spe- known from an enemy. Plants exhibit only in the feeblest degree. lime.. Since the territory inhabited species either enlarged or decreased by a by a change in it food. the latter is of the very of life than animals. And the reason is obvious : the plant does not . etc. into plant tissue. the ground and the dioxide and exhale oxygen. species The groundthe insect birds had prevented any great increase of . if at all. and moisture. their nutrition mainly from being able to transform mineral matter. carbon. came an intolerable pest. the and this is observed only in the will way they seek the light cies is their food. and the flower grow open with and close in the presence of darkness. With one or two exceptions. potash. Causes that apparently are the most frequently attended not in- by far-reaching consequences. the latter be- are lower in the scale few species excepted.

and therefore. conversely. . and when plant dies. grow. Marine currents carry many . Nevertheless. All animals possess intelligence. the means possessed by animals and plants namely laws. Commerce is responsible for the dis- persal of most species used for food and many that are baneful to humanity. The means of dispersal are many. it exhibits — . and in the crop of birds. the Animals — even the lowest species —are far plex in organization than plants. and also some means of defence. of animals possess the power .THE DISPEKSAL OF LIFE exist at the . species from the place of their birth to distant parts and other species are carried by floating matter. or grasping. however. destruction of other forms of it The animal lives more comby the life. waters. and reproduce. can be drawn between animals and plants. The distribution of life over the globe is not a matter of chance on the contrary. All the higher species of voluntary motion. prehension. one stage of development in which they possess and fishes swim. and some of the higher forms have the faculty of reason. the plant contains a vital force that causes it to live. by running and in the crops of birds or in the digestive appa- ratus of animals. — to disperse and. 309 expense of other life-forms it merely transforms dead mineral matter into living matter. Seeds of plants are carried by the winds. Dispersal of Life. No exact line of division. Quadhave rupeds use their feet at least birds fly nearly all insects wings still . almost every organism . develop. a character that can result only by the operation of fixed Moreover it must be examined from two sides. the barriers that operate to prevent dispersal. in general. which is to become the food of higher forms. this vital force is spent. must possess the powers of locomotion. 5 In short.

the conditions of climate on the opposite sides of high mountains are so different that the species might not survive. Such extraordinary effects cannot exist without causes. and the more extensive the highland the greater the difference of the species on the opposite sides. Barriers. There are two reasons for this. But there are many regions swept by marine currents in which the species they carry will not thrive. even if transported. The natural or unrestricted migration of species presents an interesting aspect. Chief among the former are the high mountain-ranges. The low temperature of the summit of the range might also be fatal. These barriers may be are even more reduced to two physiographic and environment. and these are the natural barriers to distribution. High mountain-ranges form a tolerably effective barrier to species not provided with means of locomotion.— PHYSICAL GEOGBAPHY under ordinary circumstances would a far wider territory than it now possesses. In the temperate zones. if the species are unprovided with means for migration they cannot cross it in the second place. oceans and deserts. . as a rule. A few birds endowed with unusual powers of flight. have crossed the ocean seeds and eggs have also made the passage and not a few . potent than classes —The barriers to dispersal its agents. namely the direction of atmospheric and marine . A moment's thought will suffice to show the reason for this law. . In the first place. The ocean and other wide expanses of water are effective barriers to land plants and animals. and the soil never fertilizes. the dispersal has been from west to east in the torrid zone it has generally been in the opposite direction. — currents. 310 possesses give it means that. and quite as many traversed by winds that the winds never sow with seeds. .

but it is far more potent as a barrier to &^«^r£^**££f A DESERT BARRIER the existence of a species. . and even then the question of environment would able to cross still remain still to be determined. it an annual rainfall of falls will perish the precipitation to twenty-nine inches. Environment has been considered in the light of a . them fewer to cause of variation. or if it requires a monthly distribution of rain. If a species requires a temperature not lower than 0° (32° F. thirty inches. Few species are remain in them. 311 But all these are accidental migrations. it will not survive any considerable number of droughts of more than thirty days. it will perish in a climate If it requires if having a lower range. Deserts present the same difficulties. there may be changed conditions which still forbid the intrusion of the species.). and the barrier once surmounted.THE DISPERSAL OF LIFE species have been transported in vessels.

seen that every species demands certain conand moisture. the species territory . If these be of wide range the species will inhabit a wide geographical if they be narrow in range. or quality change. that a species. is unable to spread to any extent over in a region whose soil and climate are every way adapta- There are several reasons for this. if they vary materially the species will perish. however. or maintaining ble. even minutely. itself. once introduced and acclimated. temperature. The region may have been already pre-empted by other species that resist encroachment. THERE MAY BE ENEMIES THAT OPPOSE THE NEW-COMER It sometimes occurs.312 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY it Tims is ditions of food. will vary . or degree. As are- . is unable to maintain itself. If the proportion. the limits of its existence will be correspondingly narrow. or there may be enemies constantly at work seeking to exterminate the new-comer.

The willow. turf-grass is easily cultivated. are immune from its attacks how will this fact affect the dispersal of cattle ? . or the winged maple. the common thistle. Most plant. the show how these species may be In the temperate regions of North America in what general direction will those species depending on the winds for distribution be most apt to spread ? Note any instance that has come under your personal observation in which plants have been carried into new territory by winds. In animals they are the Among the lower egg. but the offspring of those that survive. Rbdway. and the adult individual. these stages are the seed. but the the civilized world. the snake. is fatal to most cattle. Note any instance within your knowledge in which either a natural feature or the activity of man has formed a barrier to the dispersion of a plant or an animal species. . NOTES 1 Thus. on the contrary. forms of life the changes are often far more complex. the burdock. COLLATERAL READING AND REFERENCE Shalbr. What advantages have each of the following species for dispersal ? the camel. the embryo.— Study dandelion. the ant. rabbit has become a pest in almost every part of QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES. The sting of the tsetse fly.THE DISPERSAL OF LIEE suit. and spread. an insect of Africa. by running streams. or by waves. —The Arid Region —Nature and Man in North America. among plants. but it has so it many enemies that in a few wild state. the sprouting and the mature. 313 there are some species capable of general dispersion that are confined to narrow limits. while others have spread themselves broadcast over both continents. it is localities only does thrive in a introduced. Thus. man. the cotton plant. flowering stage. of the United States. spreads wherever The ostrich does not extend its territory.

Thus. . Variation is not always a gradual change in a whole species it is quite as often a distinctive change in several individuals. variously known as "hospital " and "blood-poisoning. its fecundity is apt also to increase. an aphis or plant-louse infesting the grape-vine. the spawn of a female cod-fish aggregates sevIf all these were to hatch and mature. and in some species there are still other intermediate forms. a As the enemies to a species increase. Since the discovery of the fact that many diseases. The Russian thistle at one time threatened to overrun the wheat-fields of the Mississippi basin. 6 The Norwegian rat in America. and the strictest means are necessary to keep it under control. the sea eral million eggs. was introduced into France and almost destroyed the vines of that country. the science of surgery and that of sanitation have ' been greatly aided. only the individuals that can best adapt themselves to circumstances are able to survive. and the transmitted change that marks the descendants. and cholera may be readily quarantined and fever stamped out. the Colorado potato-beetle in Europe. larva. " once the bane of every hospital. are due to the growth and development of minute organisms within the human body. The California species of the phylloxera.314 insects pass PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY through the forms of egg. The gypsy moth. its mischievous work in check. pupa. and imago. would hold but a few generations. that has been waging ever since life first appeared on the earth. and the English sparrow in the United States are examples. has attacked the orchards of the New England States. typhoid fever. and such diseases as small-pox. Septicaemia. are now comparatively rare. whose larvae infests ripening fruit. * Because of this struggle. and an expenditure of nearly a million dollars a year is necessary to keep .

tion — The distribution 3 of vegeta- may be considered in several aspects. These are distributed in accordance is. anil new species are discovered yearly. Distribution of Plants. namely abun- FORESTRY OF THE NORTHERN REGION 315 : OLD GROWTHS AND NEW .000 species of plant life 1 and nearly as are known to exist.— CHAPTER XYIII THE GEOGBAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS Not far from many of animal 150. they life each in the locality best adapted to Plant includes species that vary as widely in form and structure as the multitude of animal species. with the laws noted in the previous chapter live — that it.

. sugar-cane. a region may have spread is a question chiefly of time The vegetation of a given the locus.. With to respect to distribution the that five centres exist from map on page 318 shows which species have spread. In tropical regions it is profuse in temperate climate. sequoias. . a large number of the deciduous trees. the redwood. 316 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY . The South American region embraces the territory south The of the Tropic of Cancer. abundant in cold regions. The two regions are separated by the Atlantic Ocean. 3 Name them. With reference to the distribution of kind. dance and kind and these are best studied with reference of vegetation is to their regional position or else according to their altitude. governed mainly by the In a climate that moist there is nearly always an abunand both warm is this fact. both mainland and insular. include the greater part of the two continents north of the Tropic Cancer and that part of Africa north of the Atlas MounThe two regions contain. and rosewood are among of tains. one of environment. decreasing as the latitude and the altitude increase. The Northern Regions. — region is called its flora. and most of the fruits are characteristic of the Eurasian. cinchona. scanty. Eurasian and American. as natives. abundant in tropical lowlands. In the earlier geological ages certain species seem to have prevailed at certain centres. and from these they have spread The area over which the species of in various directions. grains. mahogany. of dance The abundance conditions of temperature and moisture. . the chief species peculiar to the region. Because of plant life is most vegetation. and fruits. tobacco. india-rubber. or which they are characteristic. and though the lifeforms are not identical they are very similar. The grains. two factors have been instrumental environment and time. maize excepted. and the yuccas to the American region.

Of these the sugar-cane and maize. the the continent of Aus- ebony. the various tree- vegetation to the sun. is much used in the manufacture of The vertical distribution of species is determined by altitude Thus at the base of the Himalayas and the . — Most forms of those have an Chief important relation to mankind. or Indian . more or less. species of the temperate zones replace tropical plants and the an altitude of twelve thousand is distinctly feet. as medicine. and the melons. the jarrah street paving-blocks. principal characteristic Among species are the spices. and other grasses. The Australian Region comprises tralia and most is of the islands east and north. euphorbias. tuberous those yielding textiles. vegetation that of polar types. among them plants. In the north and east the Australian and Oriental regions overlap. sandal-wood. The grasses probably extend over a wider area than any other family. the coffee-tree. several heaths. The Eucalyptus and the tree-fern have been introduced into California. the characteristic . The the Oriental Region the Himalaya Mountains. of plant life is Economic Plants. The flora of this area is highly peculiar.DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS 317 The African or Ethiopian region includes all of Africa south of the Atlas Mountains and tropical Arabia. bigonias. are among the native includes the territory south of plants peculiar to this region. bluish-green and the leaves turn their edges or The eucalyptus gum and the jarrah are peculiar to this region. fruits. and most of Malaysia. and this especially true used as food. Andes. oil-palm. or are the grains in the arts. and the geranium. and those used for building timber. the at flora is tropical higher up. The baobab. The prevailing color of the trees. and are marked by species characteristic to both. ferns.


or Indian corn. being converted into pork. but there are one or more species of upland rice. however. is largely increasing among the peoples of the Old World.000 bushels. It is grown in the great plains of the temperate zones. the fuel of the activity and energy of the world. The members of this family are the sole food of many hundred species of animals.DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS 319 All the others corn. India. Maize. belong to the Old World. It is also used in the manufacture of liquor. wheat.000. and the amount required is steadily increasing. Why ? The annual crop is somewhat greater in 1898 it . little notable fact. of the is New Wheat is the bread. In the United States and Canada it used mainly as animal food. is an important food-stuff in temperate and sub-tropical regions. . Its use. and the seeds are consumed by every race and almost every tribe of mankind. Bice is confined chiefly to the marine marshes and swamp lands of tropical and sub-tropical regions. but have followed the march of mankind. that in certain parts of China and by little. It is estimated that the maxi- mum crop possible is not far from twice this amount. both in the form of grain and meat. but it thrives in sub-tropical and sub-polar regions.000. a native of the New World.000 bushels of wheat each year. is supplanting it. was 2.700. How do the topographic features of a plain affect the harvesting and transportation of wheat? How do they affect the evolution of harvesting machinery ? The world requires about 2. It is the chief bread-stuff of the " mixed " and native races World.200. The starch they contain gives them their chief value as a food-stuff. Bice is the staple It is a food of about one-half the people of the world. Pound for pound its nutrient value is not equal to that of wheat. are native to the American continent.stuff of the civilized peoples of the is temperate zones and.

grasses. and is one of the most important crops of Russia and Germany. its relative. It thrives carried to best in temperate latitudes. but has been transplanted to Asia and Africa. The former is now the principal source of sugar. plants. dates. So far as moisture regions. are all derived from this family. is and are In oriental much used as a building material and in the arts.320 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY of the world's crop is About one-fourth United States. The cultivated onion seems to have come from China. about the hardiest of the grains. is concerned. has been every part of the civilized world. is also much favored as a food for horses. the palms have a wide range. probably yield the greatest variety of useful products. The manioc (or manihot) is native to tropical America. but a wild variety occurs in America. ducers. The yam % and . but the cultivated plant is an imported variety. but is employed mainly in the manufacture of malt liquors. are indigenous to tropical America. It is a favorite food for horses. Buckwheat " is not a wheat at all. The beet and the turnip are native to Europe. next the wine. the sweet potato. probably a native of Chile. a species of cane. The canes include one 5 They thrive best of the chief sugar-producing in tropical countries. hence it is much used as a food-stuff. The palms. sago. produced in the Rye takes the place of wheat in many countries. but the nut or fruit contains a large percentage of starch . Tuberous plants are among the important food-proThe potato. countries the bamboo. A species of oat is native to the North American region. extensively cultivated in the sub-tropical belts. Cocoa-nuts. and oil. sugar. Barley. but in respect to temperature they are restricted to warm They occur in both hemispheres.

migrating thence to Europe. pear. plants in one or The beverage-yielding sent from eastern cultivated throughout the whole civilized world. It is found in a wild state in both hemispheres. probably a native of Abyssinia. The melons and their near relatives. The orange. manna possibly excepted. The banana. and plum are native to western Eurasia the cherry. The bean seems to have come . and southeastern Asia to almost every The best quality is grown on the chain of the mainland it is also grown in the . So far as written history is concerned. lemon. from Egypt. islands east of States. and a similar species is native United Coffee is to the warm parts of California. and almond to the eastern part of that continent. the gourds (including the pumpkin and squash). The tomato is also native to America. They are native to the basin of the Mediis terranean Sea. not only as delicacies. 7 321 but as Among the foremost are the fig. but is extensively cultivated. are also from Asia. . It grows wild in the former region. and lime probably came from the southern slope of the Himalaya Mountains. and peas. native article of has become a recognized food in America. fruits are important. lettuce. the date. dried . and the dried fruit a necessary article of to tropical Asia. Most of the succulent and leguminous plants. The cranberry probably originated in the temperate zone of North America. the grape 8 has a greater antiquity than any other fruit. more species are Tea is other country. spinach. have followed the migrations of Europeans. food in that region. The cacao-tree yields cocoa-beans.DISTRIBUTION OP PLANTS AND ANIMALS The foods. but is now cultivated mainly in the New World. Celery is undoubtedly of Eurasian origin it is found in a wild state over a large part of the continent. peach. The cultivated varieties of the apple. The latter. such as the cabbage. and the Corinth grape. apricot.

and gelsemium they are found in both continents. The opium-poppy. Cascara seems to be confined to tropical and sub-tropical America. cassia is a similar . The cinchona. and a score of The various members of the night-shade family 3 all yield powerful medicinal substances.322 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY . ering of which is the mace of commerce cinnamon is the dried inner bark of a species of laurel . the covis native to tropical America. yields quinine derivatives. species growing in China and the New World . Most medicines widely used are derived from plants found in tropical regions. but are now that cultivated chiefly in the United States. Nutmeg is a fruit. native to tropical Asia. and browned. but now cultivated in tropical Asia. The hemp comes from southern Asia. Its infusion is used over that grand divi- The spices come nearly all from Southern Asia and the Malaysian archipelago. or red pepper (chile Colorado). possibly to Egypt. Coca is native to the Andes. Rhubarb and ginseng are native to China. Tobacco is native to America. tea. belladonna. fat or with lard it is the chocolate of commerce. Cotton l0 is the furze attached to the seeds of the . Plants used in the arts have followed man in his migrations. their nativity. is Mate all Para- the leaf of a species of holly native to South America. Of these none except pepper has been transplanted to any great distance from the place of Capsicum. yields cannabis indica. them nux vomica. among . cloves are the dried buds of a tree native to the Molucca Islands and Southern India. are used as an infusion ground with (nia-ta'). a native of South America. It is native to tropical America. or its own guay sion. Medicinal plants are as widely dispersed as is the human race. strychnine. has not migrated far from the place of its birth. or hasheesh.

however. the fibre of the wild pineapple. — . Hence this region was sooner or later covered with trees. The forestry of the world is distributed with a remarka- ble degree of regularity. from the fact that South America has a The palm. flora peculiar to itself. maples. and representatives of the pines continue through both continents. In the Champlain period that followed the Glacial epoch. but lives and increases in a sedentary. banana. or " sisal hemp. but in others. because they are . The pines and other conifers. More valuable than either of these is pita. but are now cultivated in America. The distribution of tropical forestry is not so regular. such as the Eussia and the United States. bamboo. the northern part of the United States was traversed by streams that bore the seeds of various species. elms. flowing from regions that practically are deserts. 323 Flax and hemp are obtained from the bark both came from the Old World probably from Africa but four-fifths of the world's prodJute and ramie uct is now grown in the United States.— DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS cotton plant. quen. and beeches. mahogany. are native to Asia. willows. Wherever the streams deposited gravel they also deposited seeds. there of plains and prairies In adaptability of environment. carry no treeless areas. an and soil is a fertile seeds have because the trees no are many instances there not been carried thither because the rivers and the winds. native to America and so also is heneof flowering plants . prairie soil. chestnuts. the timber-covered regions of the . occupy a belt between the 40th and 55th parallels that crosses both continents. seeds into the regions toward which they flow. oaks.'' the fibre of the agave. As a matter of fact. In the United States forestry thrives best in a gravelly soil. On both sides of the belts of forestry there are extensive In some instances the areas are treeless deserts.

namely the sense of hunger. largely controlled the distribu- tion of life. in addition. and these have been controlled by the most powerful motive that exists in connection with animate life. type of Antarctic life have the powers of reason. .324 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY northern United States are nearly identical with the area covered by stream gravel and till. constitutes its fauna. Distribution of Animals. both with respect form and structure and also in the matter of intelligence. The higher — THE PENGUIN A forms. These faculties have." the mam- — The mals represent the highest types of to life. limits have But the been determined in a somewhat different way. All the forms of animal life possess the attribute of instinct the hereditary power of thought required in such actions as tend to preserve and extend life. In the dispersal of animal species the power of locomotion has given a wonderful development to both instinct and reason. — As in the distribution of plants. animal life of a region Of the various classes. doubtless. there seem to be certain centres from which animal species have migrated.


Many furbearing animals notably the lynx. The southern regions. are largely determined by its various . The North American and Eurasian regions have in com- mon many species of carnivorous.326 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY In the case of plants the territory of a flora is mainly governed by environment in the case of animal life environment is an important matter. page 318. badger. and sable are common to both regions. — — The grizzly bear. For example. musk-ox and black first bear are peculiar to America the only in the Rooky Mountain highlands. caribou. The African region has. a high mountain range on its northern border . the same is true of India. south of the Himalayas . In many instances the species are identical. the regions are surrounded by barriers that practically isolate them. In the map. In the south. Australia is environed by the sea and also by peculiarities of climate. and by marine barriers that are neither very wide nor impassable. are marked by strong contrasts. bison. but the power of voluntary locomotion has been the leading factor. . and in others an order or a class has its representatives in both continents. however. South America is separated from North America by the barriers of sea and climate. and so are species of the deer family and mountain sheep. . The limits of a fauna. From this it may be inferred that the faunas of the two northern regions are not greatly dissimilar. physiographic barriers. therefore. Various species of wolf and bear are widely dispersed through both regions. are separated it is seen that the North Amer- ican and Eurasian regions have a very broad extent. Such an inference is correct. named The is found reindeer. and the cat family is represented by the panther and several species of wildcat. ermine. otter. in addition to these barriers. or flesh-eating animals.

The opossum.. — . ibex. humming-bird and wild turkey are native to the American the chamois. bald eagle. of the The camel 13 Old World is here replaced by the alpaca. 1 - 327 and nearly all domestic animals are naOld World. and a llama. The last named. puma. and guanaco all distantly related to the camel. armadillo. The South American Region is distinguished by a proThe monkeys of this region are a fusion of animal life. and so are the numerous parroquets. is probably native to the South American region The sloth. but have been transplanted to the American continent. however. vicuna. tive to the . buffalo. ant-eater and peccary are peculiar to this region. BORN OF THE SOUTH AMERICAN REGION: SURVIVES IN THE OLD WORLD species distinct from those of the Old World. DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS camel. fallow-deer and aurochs are region peculiar to the Old World.

lion. mongoose. Some of the limestone basins of the Mississippi Valley. On even a more extended scale are the chalk formations Europe. and leopard are comthis region. In but one other region is the pygmy. 14 The Oriental Region is the birthplace of most of the domesticated animals. Many of the species are marsupials that is. The Bearing forces of Organic Life —In the foregoing paragraphs the upon Physiography. Many others. jackal. Among wild animals the tiger. and the encircling reefs are the work of animal life. effects of physiographic upon life have been considered. Australian species are similar to those of a prior geological age. such as the kangaroos. giraffe. the species most common elsewhere. five- the gorilla. host of insect to the The condor is the nearest approach European vulture and the rhea to the ostrich. the various fringing reefs. a dwarfed species of man. of Western . and three-toed elephant are peculiar to The rhinoceros. which are also the results of life. toed elephant and many other characteristic species are found nowhere else. The Australian Region is marked by the most unusual types of life on the face of the earth. The Ethiopian Region is conspicuous for the absence of On the other hand. The bearing of life and its energy upon physiographic forms are just as far-reaching and quite as important. have enormously developed hinder legs. the barrier reefs. and but few types found elsewhere occur in this continent. Almost all its lifeforms are peculiar. all the infusorial earths. found. cobra. — As a rule. Life-forms have been and are now among the important agents in rock formation. the atolls. the female has a pouch or pocket in which the immature young are carried. zebra. hippopotamus. ostrich.328 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY life. mon to this region and that to the westward.

But the secretion of the lime from the sea-water has had still another effect. as a result. and. The water of and the skeletons dead forms. the water is specifically lighter. After the lime and other mineral matter has been absorbed by the organism.DISTRIBUTION OT PLANTS ANT) ANIMALS 329 In the broad areas of the tropical oceans the work of organic of the life is of still greater magnitude. these accumulations have been found. Wherever deep-sea THE KANGAROO A type of the Australian region dredging has been carried on. is these regions ents. . but a none the less certain circulation of water. are swarming with life. together with other mineral constituaccumulating at the bottom. the change in the density of the water has brought about a slow.

A single species. either fluviatile or marine. and natural gas are all the results of organic life. In the United States more than 150. grass or foliage resists the action of rain and winds alike. but coal is not confined to any particular strata. but denuded of vegetation. and the latter deepen into impassable . The most extensive formations of this character are found in the later rocks of the Palaeozoic age.330 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY life Vegetable also is responsible for extensive areas of rock formation. is converted into coal. vegetation has A surface covered with also been an important factor. such as exces- sive saturation. Diamond. the surface is quickly scored by running water gullies grow into ravines. after tial long-continued pressure and par- decomposition. may exterminate every other species of plant within a certain area. Coal-making has been an incident territory are underlain of every geological age. and in the various basins of Eurasia probably a greater area exists. twigs. graphite. but also that it may fill the swamp and afterward reconvert it into a dry region again. mineral pitch. anthracite. It is has been shown in another chapter that not only vegetation capable of converting a moderately dry region swamp. In preventing general surface erosion. the wood-fibre. and stems of plants accu- mulate to considerable depths. bituminous coal. and. This changes also the character of . It may accomplish even more than this. Under certain conditions. the entire flora and fauna are changed. the leaves. sooner or later. petroleum. such as the into a Russian thistle.000 square miles of by coal measures. As istic the native vegetation disappears so do the characteranimals. canons. If these accumulations be covered by overflowing sediment. Covered with vegetation a surface can withstand almost any amount of wind and rain.

especially those injurious to vegetation. continues to inhabit it until is changed to a rich. or else to cover its surface to a considerable depth. 331 and as the topography of a region is due more or is less to its characteristic vegetation. Fresh surfaces of rock once exposed are established. Make a baneful. and the various protophytes. perform an important office also. moist regions exposed rock-cliffs and strata are much rarer than bacilli. the whole mass QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES. shrubs. once bred in a given locality. and stalk. applying to the Department of Agriculture for information you cannot obtain elsewhere. commonly known as disease-germs. capable of supporting a dense vegetation. In company with the mosses and lichens they disintegrate and decompose the hardest rocks and crumble them into soil. — — in arid regions. Follow the same directions with reference to the animal species. and a colony of these worms. . sooner or later this life. D. cob. the of vegetable such as the and micrococci. both of animals and plants.— Make a list of the forest trees. The common earthworm plays an important part It thrives in moist earth. special study of If any plant or " weed " regarded as useless or you cannot obtain the information you require. Washington. send a specimen to the Department of Agriculture. Thus it is seen that the lowly and often invisible forms of life become important factors in the physiography of a region. lichens.— DISTRIBUTION OP PLANTS AND ANIMALS the soil . and other wild plants growing in the neighborhood in which you live. C. The very lowest forms moulds. Enumerate the articles of food and table furniture used at dinner. In warm. These forms. may and sometimes do exterminate whole species. Mention the various uses to which maize or the corn plant is put grain. and follow the route of each one from its native place to the table. changed. quickly covered with mosses. loamy soil. These. bacteria. also. either to completely disintegrate the rock. once require time only.

weeds " and the 1 ' ' ' ' moulds belong to this sub-kingdom. The phanerogams include all the species of grasses. yeast plant. shrubs. 302-320. The dust coming from a bursting puff-ball consists of spores. All the foregoing sub-kingdoms ' ' ' ' are flowerless . it is almost universally employed in the science of geography. in which there is little or no distinction between leaf and stem. bacteria.332 PHYSICAL GBOGEAPHY In what ways does the wheat crop affect the habitability of the United States ? Name some of the chief causes of the destruction of forestry. Nearly all the " sea. the roots and the aerial portion. Their growth. like that of certain lower forms. They include the club-mosses. They reproduce by means of flowers and seeds. consists of two parts. What really has occurred to spread the species is a migration ova dispersal. COLLATERAL READING AND REFERENCE. The pteridophytes rank a little higher. vegetable The bryophytes comprise the mosses and the liverworts. Note an instance in which the cultivation of the cotton plant has affected the history of a people. and the host of bacilli. 2 This term is used here because. The protophytes are the lowest form of vegetable life. flowering plants and forestry. and these have the reproductive properties of seeds or eggs. They consist each of a single In this sub-kingdom are included the cell or of groups of cells. NOTES These are grouped in five sub-kingdoms. Mill. —Realm of Nature. unfortunately. Describe instances in which the distribution of animals or of plants has been effected by the agency of mankind. and true ferns. the rotting or putreorganisms that produce all the forms of faction. pp. such as lichens and fungi. . they reproduce by means of minute spores that are borne in receptacles on some protected part of the plant. and micrococci (commonly known as "microbes") that are productive of disease and The Thallophytes include the plants various structural changes. and other similar substances known as ferments. horse-tail rushes.

d. The " jimson " (probably a corruption of Jamestoion) and other species of the datura stramonium are found in all moist and warm regions of North America. the lowest forms of animal life. : . are substituted for palcearctic. except that the names Eurasian. The peach seems to have originated in Persia. In tropical America certain agaves. The cultivated species of America are mainly imported the Concord is an improved wild species of America. infusoria. for convenience. It is said to have been introduced into Europe by the Saracens. divided into the following orders Protozoans. North American. near relatives to the grasses. s To these should be added the beet. " The potato. 4 Buckwheat. is included in this list. and it is a disputed question whether or not the American species is a descendant of as that proposed that of India. 1000. " on account of the resemblance of the kernel to that of the beech-tree. This scheme has been adopted because it is based strictly upon geographic laws. a wild fruit growing in Canada and the New England States. said to be native to Eurasia.wheat. It probably came from Manchuria. " The classification of animals is somewhat more difficult than that of plants. such as rhizopods. but wild species are certainly indigenous to western North America. tomato. and tobacco are the most important American representatives of this family. Porifera. 10 Barbados and Sea-Island cotton is probably native to America. . was discovered and described by the Norse explorers who visited North America about a. . s The fox grape. "The yam is found also in the East Indies. and in parts of Europe it bears the name Saracen wheat. are also found wild in North America. and South American. The name is a corruption of " beech. The apple and the plum. from which the name is derived. The animal kingdom is divided into eight great branches or groups these are again divided into classes and subis 7 This fruit commonly but incorrectly known The latter is regarded as native to Eurasia. of which the sponges are the chief species. which is now extensively cultivated for the purpose of sugar-manufacture. nearctio. as a currant. are the source of not a little sugar.DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS 3 333 This classification by regions or centres is practically the same by Professor Wallace. and neotropical.

animals that suckle their young birds. There is some evidence of the existence of pygmies in Europe during the neolithic period. Mollusks. In the case of marine life. shell-fish. afterward came to include any camel trained to fleetness of movement. Echinoderms. Dr. or true worms. The fauna of cold currents is materially different from that of warm waters. In I808 it was introduced into the Basin Region of the United States and a few head still survive in the Gila Desert of Arizona. The popular distinction between the camel and the dromedary is a very misleading and an incorrect one. . 1 ' bility to the theory of pygmy existence in America. Deep sea species are wholly different from surface species also. and turtles chians.vr evidence of the existence of a pygmy race. scad fishes all aquatic in . or warm-blooded . The fish living at the bottom of the deeper parts of the sea are mainly sharks. and recent discoveries in Switzerland strongly confirm the evidence. and the small human skulls lend credispecies cannot always be determined. sea-urchins. several new species of which were discovered by the Prince of Monaco at a depth of two miles. when the conditions of environment were often different from those of the present age. snails. The vertebrates comprise various classes of which the principal are mammals. an island east of Yucatan. 13 The camel probably originated in America. — their habits. but became extinct before the Glacial Epoch. including snakes. and slugs. to run) first applied to a species remarkable for fleetness. of which the coral-polyps. represented by the Vermes. . and seaanemones are the best types. limpets. such as the oysters. spiders. clams. The term (derived from a Greek word. pions. The ruins of the diminutive store-houses that are still found on the island. E. mainly aerial in their batrahabits reptiles. be. Arthropods. or animals having the back-bone. represented by frogs and toads. or star-fishes. Aaron has called attention to the fact that the archteological records of Cozumel.334 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Gosleilterates. the limits to the territory of species are bounded mainly by the temperature of the water. " The factors that have governed the dispersal of animal It must be borne in mind that dispersal began in prior geological times. lizards. scorVertebrates. . crabs. M. Of these the first four inhabit the water the remainder include both land and water animals. jelly-fish. including the types of lobsters.

though at the head of animate creation so far as the development of reasoning powers are concerned. and tendon. resembles that of the gorilla. 2 and in the operation of special organs. 1 The skeleton of a man does not differ materially in structure . and the procdo not differ in any essential point in man and other mammals. from that of a monkey. The chief characteristic of mankind is the great development of the reasoning faculties. and is closely related to other vertebrates. the which the blood is circulated esses involved in breathing functions are practically identical. The power of reason is certainly common to some of the lower animals possibly — In man. fruit. In the structure of bone. lungs. a dog. respect to nutrition the resemblance is still The digestive apparatus and the various processes by which food is converted into blood. however. by no other species of life. or a bat it does not differ very greatly from that of a whale. With stronger. is practically the same water. and flesh are the same in man as in other mammals. from a physiological stand-point is distinctly an animal. a bear. The organs by — are the same. 835 . grain. intestines. such as nerves. developed in seems to be possessed abstractly the power of reasoning to all species. or a bird it closely .CHAPTER XIX MAN Man. moreover. a lizard. The food. and heart. and the flesh of other animals. muscle. Moreover. bone. this faculty is enormously comparison with other animals.

hair. one of such great difficulty and families. — The people of this type are lips. have straight and represent the lowest degree of civilization. but not confined to the black races. tall and slender. The Bantus the the their finest specimens black type. leads to confusing difficulties. Cannibalism is almost uni- versally practised among them. The Melanesians and parts of the Philippine Islands. . texture of hair. numbering are of there about ten or twelve millions. and the lips thinner than those of the Negro. The Australasians inhabit They are the continent of Australia and Australasians are also called "Negroids. kinky or woolly hair. and language have been each made the basis of classification. The Melanesians are native to New Guinea and the chain of There are also tribes in various islands to the southeast. and native in region are THE BLACK TYPE A SAVAGE approaching civilization. when closely followed." ages." Color of skin. hj a color of skin that in They some cases are is distinguished distinctly bronze rather than black. Their features are finer.330 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY classification of is The mankind into races however. and thick the best The Negroes are known people of This race is the type. characterized by black skin. but each system. native to Central Africa. warlike They is are sav- and ferocious. but has been acclimated in America. the near islands. that no two eth- nographers are in full agreement. The Black Peoples.

of 337 is mankind best adapted to a warm and the various races are free from the malarial and other banefnl climatic influences that are so fatal to white peoples. Anamese. and Siamese pure Buddhists. giving term " almond-eyed. Anamese. the eyes rise to the In some instances. and fevers — AMERICAN INDIANS yellow or yellowish-brown skins. are a race of nomadic . The yellow or Turanic peoples are probably native to Asia somewhere north of the Himalaya Mountains. The type is characterized by coarse and straight black hair. Burmese. the Chinese. The religion of almost all the people of this type is fetich or obeah worship. are The Tibetans represent the best examThe Burmese. as are set at a peculiar angle. especially the high plateaus. but in fact they are given chiefly to an- ples of the race.MAN The black type climate. high cheek-bones. and Siamese. The Mongols of western and northern Asia." ' The Chinese peoples include the Chinese. In tropical regions the Negro races are by far the most enduring peoples. In religion the Chinese are nominally Buddhists. cestor-worship. The Yellow Peoples. Their civilization is an old one and highly elaborated.

The American " Indians. For the greater part. this has resulted from inter-marriage with the Latin races especially the Portuguese and Spanish. are native to the American At the time of the discovery of America several continent. with which possibly there has been absorbed a still older race." for the greater part charac6 terized by a brown color. where the associations between Indians and Teutonic peoples have always been marked by bitter hatred. but only a remove from the savage state. The Hovas 3 of — Madagascar. Javanese. —the Turks. The Malays. were emerging from a state of barbarism into one of civilization. In religion they are MohammeThe offshoots of this race that have settled in dans. and the islands to the eastward. courageous and intelligent. Most of the native peo- ples of the Philippine Islands are Malays. and within forty years they have developed a civilization com- paring favorably with that of European nations. and Hawaiians. . and Finns—have reached The Japanese are probably a mixed race—Mongol and Malay. inhabit southeastern Asia. In their present state most of them are savage. Laps. Intellectually the Japanese are at the head of the race which they represent. but they seem to have the capaa fact apparent in the bilities of an advanced civilization Japanese. tribes. . native to the islands. 7 They were gradually absorbed by their conquerors. The Maoris of New Zealand are an excellent type of Malay. In North America. such as the Aztecs and Peruvians. the Indian blood is still pure.338 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY horsemen. on the contrary. or brown race. The Tagals have reached a condition of civilization the Visayas and Maccabeles are but little inferior the Moros are savages. Europe a high degree of civilization. In South America and Mexico the Indians have become a mixed race. belong to this race. — . Huns.


Huns. mud and stone huts their occupation. The White Peo- — This various race com- prises two great divisions. it includes almost the entire populathe Turks. averaging less than live feet in height. Intellectual- WHITE TYPE' LATIN ly. moreover. it embraces about one hundred millions of mainly of the Teutonic family. have migrated. each subdivided families. to which its peoples plateau. raw blubber and ples. it the dominat- ing type of mankind. but the relation is distant. The color of the skin varies from light blonde to s w a r thy. They are are intelligent and highly susceptible to civilization. tion. souls. In Asia. most interesting divisions of the yellow type. the Persians and most other dwellers in the Iran In Europe. fish. fishing . closely approximating black among is certain peoples. is short in stature. They This fact unusual. one regions. Lapps. represent lan- guage and relation. are confined to the north the circumpolar They seem to be related to some one or other of Mongol races. . inasmuch as their habitations are . into These divisions. it includes the Hindus. The Aryan division is by far the most widely spread and numerous of the type. Finns and Semitic peoples excepted. and their food. Tu the American continent.340 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY of the The Eskimos. rather than structure.

8 The Assyriof this race. this race 341 Latin. or dispersed by conquest. Because of their steadfastness to their religion. with the In South America they have The Semitic family comprises the Hebrews. now constitute the leading. ans and the Phoenicians were also but they have been absorbed.MAN The Teutonic. Here the peoples intermarried native races. Scattered over a considerable area of Africa — are peoples having no ethnographic connection or relation . and Keltic families of most intellectual. Scat- tered over the earth. thousand in spite of fearful odds WHITE TYPE A REPRESENTATIVE OF THE HIGHEST CIVILIZATION : against them. they are numerically about as strong as ever they were. four any imFor about years. These families occupy most of Europe and the greater part of North America. and Abyssinians. Arabs. Moors. Springing from a family whose native place was not far from Syria. of the various families are confusedly mixed by intermarriage. Pygmies. and their religion and ceremonial rites are as marked to-day as they were four thousand years ago. or The Hebrews Jews are the only surviving this race remnant now holding of of a position portance. neither slavery nor conquest has exterminated them. and most powerful nations in the world. the Jews became a nation of considerable importance. Sclavonic. they have held a commanding position.

The Negroids of the Philippine Islands are sometimes classed among the the pygmies.— The written history of man does . Antiquity of Man. there are two classes of this people one having a light brown skin. All individuals are characterized &M by a heavy growth red-brown hair of rusty. and Batua of central Africa. The human scale. Of the various pygmy tribes the best known are the Akka. are character- The Akka ies. upon the bodies. but. These are the pygmies. have learned the they eat their food raw. Nearly tribes all pygmy use of fire. The aver- men four «J age stature of the Bushis about five feet about of the other tribes and one-half feet. and withered legs. 342 to PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY of the foregoing families. Wambutti. skinny fingers. and the Bushmen of the southern part. ized by mis-shapen bodlong. Although they have a very low place in the considerable intelligence. The pygmies are rarely at war either with the other African tribes or with one another. prognathic jaws and retreating foreheads. the any — other being almost black.. 9 So far as the color of the skin is concerned. as a rule. and they seem capable of a low form of civilization. they display Wambutti are ingenious 111 devising nets and traps for securing game.

there can be no times.j:i not extend backward more than six thousand years before the Christian era. cal history Geologi- goes back to a period of greater antiquity. as a hunter and a dweller If in caves.JAPANESE. and of this period the first half. ly gives but unfortunateno clew where- by the age of man can be computed in years. ' . man preceded the Glacial epoch. Written history did not begin until man had reached a comparatively high state of civilization. about every trace of the species disappeared. upon which doubt has been thrown. the Glacial epoch. doubt 11 of the existence of the species. contains data concerning but one or two families and their descendants. as re- corded in Holy Scripture. this pe- and discovers man in living practically a wild state. and below that of the river gravels of Champlain Above the glacial drift. but geological history antedates riod.MAN :. however. the oldest traces of mankind are found just drift above the unsorted of YELLOW TYPE. With a few exceptions.

The earliest race of people employed hammers or axes of rough stone. He had also acquired the use of tools. and in one instance a rude drawing of an extinct species of elephant. have been abundantly found. this in itself was to give him supremacy over all other animate nature. The — and . s. Primitive man had learned the use of fire. and these were a great increase of power. associ- ated with those of the cave-dwelling animals he hunted. scratched on ivory. there is observable one feature that distinguishes . V .. namely rapid intellectual development. charred pieces of bone.344 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY in Both Europe and America the bones of man. With these have been found also implements of the chase. I . 11 From the time of the earliest geological history of the species. ornaments. jj EMERGING FROM A SAVAGE STATE mankind from brute creation.

iron was substitu- Some of these implements were of an ornamental character. these tools the people of savagery With the increased power afforded by who used them pass out of the state that of civilization. etc. tive 345 next step seems to have been the making of polished stone When. however. But there have always been limits to the growth of a They may be exterminated by a stronger race people. The same evolution had began in the case of the aboriginal Americans. the plan of government became communal and afterward national. in later times. association and government have commonly been of the patriarchal kind. where there has been a common enemy. At a later period. tribal association had grown into communal government and was fast emerging into civilization. From the earliest times people have associated in families. the plan of association has often been communal as well as tribal. Families had grown into clans and tribes. however. tools or weapons. and his power became supreme. When a region has been sparsely settled. At first the metal employed was a crude alloy now known as bronze. years. however. the primi- man applied fire to the shaping of his tools and imple- ments made of metal.. . but in the main they were either ted for the alloy. the oldest one of the family or clan being the leader. they may be dispossessed by a stronger people or be absorbed by them or they may find the region too much earlier history of the . families have grown and clans into tribes. In cases. knives. arrow-heads. Thus while the families described in the Old Testament observed a patriarchal rule. and emerge into Migrations of Mankind. his civilization was assured. MAN axes. and among the Aztecs and Peruvians. for —The history of mankind is the history of successive migrations that have been going on more than four thousand into clans.

arid incapable of supporting so great a population.346 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY In any case. leaving and blood. migrated from the shores of the Baltic to the Adri- behind a Carthage. unless the people is overstocked. migration the only remedy. . Under the teachings of Islam. race. is exterminated or in history as absorbed. trail of tire The Vandals swept over western Europe. a Teutonic Italy and Spain. people. known the Huns. Goths from their lands. and the latter. They devastated Spain. li Thus. in turn. tribes of the Tartar ran a large part of Europe. crossed to Africa. migrated from the plateaus of Asia and over- On their way they drove the THE HABITATIONS OF A BARBAROUS PEOPLE eastern whelmed atic Sea. and established an empire on the site of About one hundred years later they were exterminated by a Roman army. overThe Lombards.

moving still westward. From Europe. It is the struggle for existence the energy put forth to appease the cravings of hunger. In some instances the migration was a systematic movement that practically was the advance of an army in other instances it was a gradof the dispersions of peoples that . and in the smallest natural division of land. effects may be classified as interference with the ordinary course of natural events. The migration of the Aryan race is an illustration of systematic dispersion. History takes no note of similar changes that must have been going on in other parts of the world at the same time. and in the dispersion of life. after nearly completing the circuit of the world. —The influence of These man as a geographic agent is often overlooked and the far-reaching consequences are seldom appreciated. is they have subjugated the American continent. but were afterward driven from Europe. From some part of Eurasia the various families of this race wandered westward until they occupied all Europe. There can be but one explanation of such a wonderful dispersion. with respect to climate. The foregoing are but a few of the movements of popu- lation that occurred in the short space of three centuries. They founded a Moorish empire. with reference to drainage. now the advance guard — Man's Relation to Physiography. In both Europe and the United States . The records of unwritten history furnish many instances must have taken place on a considerably greater scale. The surface of the land has been modified many ways. in respect to the surface of the land. tion of by man in Of these the most important is the destrucforestry. entered Spain and penetrated France. and even knocking at the doors of Asia.MAN 347 the Arabs (or Saracens) devastated the north of Africa. ual extension of limits.

New York. By the diversion of drainage. It is estimated that the surface of Jerusalem has been buried many feet by the accumulating rubbish. In places. form a permanent record of mankind. Thus. and the area of sediment-depositing has been changed from species. roads. a very large part of the surface once forest-clad is now By various artifices. is the surface covered by the rubbish carted from cities and spread here and there. running streams have been made to cover enormous surfaces with fluviatile deposits. railways. and the habits of still . The various highways. By canals and ditches. Boston. the city of Borne has been filled forty feet deep. however. nearly one-third the area of the Netherlands has been reclaimed from the ocean Venice has become a city of the mainland. lakes have been drained and the lake basins given up to cultivation. together with the levelling and filling that accompany the growth of cities and towns. river-basins have been limited in area. and by the same process immense volumes of soil have been removed from one place to be transported to another and more available locality. Through his agency various species have been transported to all habitable parts of the earth many species have become extinct. By systems of levees and jetties. and San Francisco are built upon land that has been made by the industries of man.348 PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY bare. one place to another. More than this even. and considerable areas of Chicago. Perhaps the most important changes that have resulted from the hand of man. and canals. are connected with the dispersal of life. Piers and sea-walls have been built in such places as to extend shores to a considerable distance seaward. . and the same result has obtained in the vicinity of other cities. swamps have been changed to dry land and their flora entirely replaced by other .

NOTES Man is the only animal that habitually walks erect that is. the liver. Action.— MAN others have been greatly changed. Ethnology. of the various races and families now in the United States from what part of the world did each come ? Name the advantages possessed by man over other species in overcoming the restrictions imposed by his environment. — The Earth as Modified by Human Mindblbfp. But the . can he override such barriers as the sea. 456-466. QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES. polar regions. with the spinal column perpendicular to the plane of the feet. Marsh. —Migrations of the Cliff Dwellers Bureau of Denikee. the muscle are so closely alike in structure that a section from one animal 1 — serves perfectly as an illustration of the corresponding tissue of another. Mill. 3 The futility of even the most carefully made classification is apparent when one considers the various interbreeding and amalgamation of races. —Races of Man. 320-327. For instance. pp. In what ways . Shalbe. and regions not habitable by other species ? How. and in what instances. or that of the heart. the Romanic family embraces the five peoples enumerated in the foregoing table. 2 Healthy lung tissue. as complete as you can. COLLATERAL READING AND REFERENCE. It 349 requires only a brief geological period until the interference of man shall prove to be one of the most important of physiographic agents.— Realm of Nature. deserts. has the discovery of gold affected the migration and dispersal of man ? Mention one or more instances in which this dispersal has been caused by an enemy.—Why will not the ordinary laws concerning the distribution of life apply to the dispersal of man ? Make a list. —Nature and Man in North America. pp.

Saxons. This feature is not true of the Pacific-coast Indians. belong who to this family. are usually taken as the best type of the white races. and led to the conquest of the greater part of Europe. French.350 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Romans were a mixture of Latins. the Latin language was finally modified by the different races who had adapted it. which inclines to a copperred. But the Spanish were a mixture of Keltic and Iberian blood. the French were of Keltic and Gallic stock. the Aztecs for instance. together with a general mixture of Gothic blood. all of whom are distinguished by swarthy or black-brown skins. however. 7 Among excited more the pre-historic peoples of the continent none have interest than the mound-builders and the cliff- dwellers. Gallic. Sabellians. but in hardly an instance is there physically a race characteristic among them that is distinctively Roman. the amalgamation is far more extensive . Most of them. were in early stages of civilization. only one element of which is known certainly to be of Aryan descent. they were nothing more nor less than Indians. A similar mixture took place Although popularly known in the case of the English people. and the Portuguese of Now a certain amount of Keltic. some of the native Americans. and Etrurians. The term red men is one that has been not wisely ' ' ' ' chosen. and were therefore in a state not higher than barbarism. a prevailing characteristic of the race is the color of the skin. a people south of the Caucasus Mountains. of people According to popular belief both were a distinct race the Indians exterminated. An infusion of Greek blood developed the fighting powers of the mixed race. and Italian. Jutes. At the time of the discovery of America by Columbus. and Iberian descent. to Spanish. Still others whom . Roman blood was intermixed with all these peoples. When the Western Empire had broken into fragments. • In spite of the free use of red pigments which the Indians were accustomed to use on their faces. as Anglo-Saxons. and Danes. and in respect to intellectual development are not surpassed by any other African peoples. were still in the stone age. Portuguese. The Caucasians. it in- cludes Angles. To this must also be added the infusion of Latin blood that 4 came with the Norman Conquest. As a matter of fact. however. 5 Among the various races of Madagascar the Hovas are fore most.

and Hindustan. earlier inhabitants are Aryans. mentioned by Herodotus. 8 Some of the Abyssinians are certainly Semitic. were discovered by Dr. As a matter of fact. but for the greater part these are comprised in the nomadic Arabs who have gradually extended their limits to a large part of Africa. however. The cliff-dwellers were emerging from barbarism and built their pueblos of selected stone. but a few years later they were confirmed by Pere des Avanchers. 12 The Tartars overran Russia. Turkey. to whom the Zufiis and Moquis are the nearest living approach. Cherokees. being the first one in modern times to do so. Of its origin and antiquity there is no doubt. and Delawares had not reached quite so high a plane. were on a much higher plane and seem to have emerged from barbarism at the time of the conquest of Mexico. the Akka. The Senecas. The Aztecs. and these had begun to forsake the wickiup or tepe for houses constructed upon architectural principles. The tribes who had reached this development were responsible for mound-building. They are among the most intelligent of the Turanic peoples. an Abyssinian missionary. Practically no investigations have been made among the Miocene deposits of Central and Southern Asia. the search for prehistoric and fossil man has been neither extended nor systematic. on cliff-terraces. discovered the Obongo tribe. In 1871. or even in caves. where of all places systematic researches should be made. .MAN 351 were in an intermediate state. " This piece is now in the British Museum. A skull found by Professor Whitney among Pliocene deposits and various other relics found among the auriferous gravels of California. and Iroquois had begun to build the famous long houses the Shawnees. For better protection they commonly built them on high mesas. and were still mound-builders. another tribe. 10 It is by no means certain that man did not precede the Glacial epoch. Paul Du Chaillu. indicate a much greater age than post-glacial existence. 3 pygmy Aristotle and others. In 1865 the famous African traveller. Schweinfurth. but as recently as thirty years ago it was believed that the accounts of them were mythical. His accounts were flatly contradicted in Europe. Mohawks. The . of tribes is The existence Pomponius Mela.

. the groups of States commonly recognized do not differ very greatlv from the industrial groups that result from diverse conditions of climate and to- pography. or in both. . the Columbia 352 Plateau. each region has become a great centre of industries that are peculiar to it. the isotherm forming the northern boundary of the crossing the southern parts of Florida. The boundaries of these regions are both topographic and climatic. and because of their features of surface and climate. Roughly speaking. dustrial regions Ne-io The the eastern part of New York . The following are the principal physiographic and in: England Plateau. 000-foot contour. and the regions themselves differ from one another in either climate or topography. including the Middle Atlantic States. Texas. the Colorado . . including the Atlantic Coast Plain and the middle and southern Appalachian Highlands the Great Centred Plain. including the regions commonly known as the Northern States and the Southern States the Western Highlands. the Rocky Mountains. and the lower part of the basin of the Colorado River. including the region west of the 'J. latter.CHAPTEE XX THE INDUSTRIAL EEGIONS OP THE UNITED STATES The main body of the United States extends from the colder part of the Temperate Zone to the Torrid Zone. This part of the United States is divided naturally into physiographic regions that have fairly well-defined boundaries .


with here and there areas Laurentian highlands. the Sierra tains . Adirondack. — This region embraces the northern Appalachian folds. the Basin. Granitic rocks prevail. Here and there are isolated " monadnocks. The New England that belong to the Plateau. its Plateau. The Appalachian folds in places were almost obliterated. the only level regions . Make a list of these. and their rounded surfaces are generally smooth and polished. and Catskill Mountains are principal remnants. grouping each subdivision under principal division." most of which are bosses of volcanic rock which were able to withstand the erosion and corrosion that resulted from the work of the ice age.354 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Nevada and Cascade Mounand the Pacific Coast Region. and the glacial epoch this region THE RUGGED SURFACE AFFORDS WATER-POWER the Green. White. During the was greatly worn. As a result of the glacial epoch the surface of the New England Plateau is very rugged.

being the river



waters have disappeared.

and the old lake basins whose Many lakes still remain, how-


these, a few coast lagoons excepted, have very

strongly the character of glacial lakes and tarns.
six of the largest.





somewhat abrupt and, as

a result, the rivers flow in " reaches "

slack water alternate with rapids and

has been submerged or " drowned




stretches of


coast region


equally peculiar, and, inasmuch as

in comparatively re-


cent geological times, the sea now intrudes upon the glaciated regions, making the whole shore-line one of fjords,
like those of


Practically all the good harbors

of the Atlantic coast of the

United States are confined to
its ports.

this regiou and, as a result, about four-fifths of the foreign


of the

country goes in and out of



The rugged
valley lands.

may be

classified as

uplands and


The uplands are characterized by thin and The surface is diversified by drumlins, soil.
and much of it is strewn The uplands are not capable of

and granite hog backs

with erratic bowlders.

supporting a dense population, 1 and in the past half century there has been no material progress in agricultural

on the contrary, farming lands have depreciated About all the industrial gains have been associated with manufacture. How does the surface affect this industry ? The farming is confined to the lowland valleys and restricted to garden and dairy products. This region is celebrated for the manufactures that require a high degree of intellectual and mechanical skill, 2 and these have resulted from the conditions that have afforded the abundant water-power. The manufactures form a large

in value.

proportion of the nation's foreign exports.

The sewingin the mills

machines, bicycles, clocks, and firearms



factories of this region are

part of the world

shipped to almost every the cotton cloth is used by about every

race of people.

The Middle Atlantic States.— This region includes the principal part of the Atlantic Coast Plain, together with the middle and southern Appalachians. The lower
part of the Coast Plain consists of a belt of swamp lands bordered by sandy pine-barrens. Beyond these there is a
belt of

Piedmont lands—the

foot-hills of the




rivers flow into estuaries that reach usu-

ally to the foot-hills

—the " Fall Line."

and are generally navigable to this From any good map make a list of


along the Fall Line.

soil of this region is not well adapted either to cotton or wheat, although small quantities of both are grown.



chief crops are early fruit

and garden


and these

find a ready


market in the great cities of the manufacturCotton and tobacco are important crops in the .southern part of the Piedmont lands and on account
ing region.





developed, the manu-

facture of cotton textiles is rapidly

becoming the leading

industry. 3


peculiar feature of the coast


noticeable in the wave-


spits or barrier beaches of this region.





these barrier beaches affect



Explain how the

barrier beach, with the enclosed lagoon, finally becomes a

The soil of these beaches propart of the Coast Plain. duces a cotton fibre of long staple and great strength, and The fibre is used in the web this is their chief product.
of bicycle-tires.


part of this section

The montane

low and not very

in the northern, but


higher in the southern

The ApjDalachian

coal measures in the world, the seat of

most productive and for this reason they are extensive iron and steel manufactures.
folds contain the

In a few instances the iron ore occurs in the vicinity of
the coal measures, but in most instances cheap transportation

by water enables the manufacturer

to ship the ore to


minimum of expense. In a few loshipped by canal meets the iron ore brought in steamers and barges from the Lake Superior iron mines to the shores of Lakes Erie and Michigan, and great steel-making plants have grown up at Chicago. Clevethe coal mines at a

the coal

land, Lorain, Toledo, Ashtabula,

and Buffalo.

apparent that the entire Appalachian region, both folds and plateaus, is an area of manufacture because of certain geographic conditions, and these
it is


the foregoing

are the existence of power.



waterfall is stored-up

power and so also is the coal. The power within the coal not only makes the steam that drives so much machinery, but in the smelting furnace it also separates the iron from the ore and inasmuch as iron and steel form the basis of most manufactures, the existence of coal implies, the de;

velopment of a great centre of manufacture. 4 The Great Central Plain. From Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico the Great Central Plain is characterized by a level or a gently rolling surface, sloping on each side toward the Mississippi River the whole declining gently from a slight rise, called the Heights of the Land, to the Bay on the north and the Gulf on the south. Trace the Heights of the Land on the map, p. 353. Within what

limit of elevation is the greater part of its surface ?


the general elevation west of the Missouri River

Most of the rivers flow in channels that are from one hundred to three hundred feet lower than the general level of the land, and their high banks are the bluffs of this region. For the greater part of their extent the bluffs are not less than one or two miles apart, and there is a very the famous " bottom level flood plain between them


All through the Great Central Plain the soil


naturally very fertile
cially productive.

that of the bottom lands is espeof topog-


level surface

and the general conditions

raphy make appearance is concerned. Climatic conditions, however, make two separate and distinct areas of history and industry; therefore it is divided into Northern States and Southern States. The two groups are roughly separated by a boundary formerly known as "Mason and Dixon's line," and this boundary in former years was sharply deIncidentally it was a boundary between " free fined.
this region one of sameness so far as external




States" and "slave States," but the real boundary was one separated the cotton-growing region from that in

which food-stuffs and manufactured goods were the staple

In the Northern States wheat, corn, oats, and grass have Because of the level surface and the deep, nutritious soil the grain crops can
always been the chief products.



could not be used

rugged country.

be both planted and harvested at the minimum of expense. Under no other conditions of topography could
there have been such a wonderful development of plant-

ing and harvesting machinery.
the world.


a result, this region

has become one of the principal food-producing regions of

produces one-fourth of the world's crop of

wheat, a considerable proportion of the dairy products,

and about three-fourths of the corn, most of the latter being fed to hogs and converted into pork.

The western
ficient to


part of this region

2000-foot contour

—the part beyond the —does not receive an amount of rain suf;

mature grain

but the bunch grass and the



crops are the food of great herds of



Northern States of the Great Central Plain produce the flour and meat not only for the United States,
result, the



of that required

by the

rest of the world.

The Southern

States produce about four-fifths of the

world's supply of cotton.
well as cotton

Grain can be grown in these

States but, acre for acre, the crop does not pay nearly so
line that separates the

and cotton cannot be grown north of the two groups. The industries and social conditions and, therefore, the history of the two sections have differed greatly. How did these conditions encourage slavery in the one group and discourage it in

the other


There has always been a considerable amount of manufacture in both sections, but the manufactured articles have been closely related to the grain and the meat product in the one section, and to cotton-growing in the other. These manufactures, moreover, have been greatly encouraged by the extensive coal measures mainly in the northern section. Most of the cotton is shipped abroad, to be made into textiles elsewhere. The Western Highlands. The Western Highlands embrace all that region between the eastern foot of the Eocky, and the western foot of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Ranges. This region is characterized by ruggedThe lofty ranges that form the rims of the highness. land are less than two miles in altitude in few places only. Fremont and South Passes are the chief channels of intercommunication on the eastern side. On the west the Central Pacific Railway crosses the range at an altitude of nearly 10,000 feet. In the north the canons of Columbia



Paver and its tributaries afford grades not too difficult for railway communication on the south the cations of the Rio Grande, together with San Gorgonio, and Tehachapi


— the latter

at the

southern junction of the Sierra

Nevada and Coast Ranges

— are

the chief routes of com-

The ranges

of the Piocky

Mountains are

lofty folds rest-

ing each on a core of granitic rocks.




The ranges and canons arc a barrier


and Cascade Ranges are huge blocks of tilted rock with a gentle slope on the west and an abrupt escarpment on the east. The parallel ridges of Nevada and Oregon, commonly called the " Basin Ranges," are excellent examples of block mountains, the upturned edge of the block con-

the block ranges excepted. or " Plains of the Columbia. The middle plateaus . in Probably nowhere else and corrosion presented on such a stupendous scale. p. The lower plateaus are desert regions of tropical temperature. Within the rim ranges the rainfall is deficient. The Columbia is a desert." mainly the surface of the great flood of lava that seems to have flowed from several fissures on the Sierra Nevada Mountains. In the northern part it is sufbut the southern part. consult the wind chart. Canons with angular outlines and almost vertical walls .INDUSTRIAL REGIONS OF UNITED STATES stituting 363 the range. is the higher plateaus excepted. The Colorado Plateaus. 221. but the region has been much dissected by the rivers. Here and there are the isolated knolls that form the laccolites of which the tains are examples. and explain why. ficient for a rather scanty pasturage. which have places are made the region famous. 6 The general surface of the plateau. are the chief characteristic of this region. sometimes called the "Alcove Lands. is fairly level. with here and there a few tribes of squalid Indians. The Basin Region none of its receives its name from the fact that drainage reaches the sea. whose canons are from five hundred to more than three thousand feet deep. Plateau. so deep are their channels below the general level more than a mile deep. Every master stream and every tributary is practically an underground stream." consist of a series of table-lands varying from half a mile to a mile and a half in altitude. Henry Moun- The western slopes of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Banges receive a generous rainfall. The canons of the Colorado. have sufficient rain for a very scanty covering of grass the higher mesas have a fair growth of grass and timber. On the slopes of the . on the face of the earth are the features of erosion of the plateaus.

may have been. is nearly two hundred and fifty feet below mean tide. Salton Lake. but by the overflows of the Colorado River. la Hontan. and Sevier and Parowan One of these. Death Valley. are undoubtedly the former head of the Gulf of California . filled become partly The upper portion in places has with wind-blown rock waste. and several other lakes adSeveral of them. When more than bank-full. 8 Two One small areas of the Basin Region are below sea-level. at Kings Springs. Of the various remnants half a dozen have wholly disappeared. Lakes are practically dry. included HumPyramid. also of The " sink " on dry bed of known as Coakuilla Valley. 173). now called Lake boldt. Several of the sinks of this region are fed. Lake and its basin. Lakes.364 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY block ranges the rivers are vigorous streams. including Walker and Owens jacent. and most of them are the shrunken remnants of two great lakes that once covered a large part of this region. and Parowan Lakes are the remnants of former Lake Bonneville (p. was most likely separated from the present Gulf by the sediments brought down by the Colorado River. Great Salt. Sevier. The sediments made a bar or sea-wall across the Gulf and cut lowest part it in twain. is Utah Lake is fresh . not by rivers that normally flow into them. why ? Great Salt Lake at present shrinking on account of the diversion of its feeders for purposes of irrigation. the other. Salton Death Valley. the latter . Utah. on the Sink San Felipe. but their waters finally disappear by evaporation and percolation in the sea of fine rock waste at their bases. have never wholly disappeared and their waters are saturated brines. but its is about three hundred feet below sea-level. of these. evaporation continuing until the water can hold no more saline matter in solution. 7 The lakes are without outlet to the sea. Winnemucca.

a coarse grass resembling the sage-brush. is one of intense heat. To the latter are mainly due the sinks and washes of the region. is charWherever irrigation is . Yuccas. southern part cies of acacia). a kind of spinifex of Australia. the w ater breaks its confining bank and . 9 and Hardy's Rivers.INDUSTRIAL REGIONS OF UNITED STATES overflows into the lower land to the westward. wormwood. In this locality the river practically" flows around the side of a slope and at times. frequently chartered on maps of this region. 365 Former Salton Lake was an overflow" of this character. mezquit (a spe- The climate of the Basin is tropical. r New temporarily flows out into the desert. are not streams flowing into the Colorado. and gamma. cacti. and occasionally deluged by cloudbursts. acteristic of the northern region. when its channel is choked with sediment. MOUNT It is RAINIER the cinder-cone oj an extinct volcano. are the prevailing vegetation of the southern part . but out of it. and the In many places it is a region of dunes swept by simoons.

In general. In the southern part several species of lizard. lead. among them the " horned toad. the descendants of imported animals. —This region includes the western foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Ranges. A large species. sheep in the south. 10 are running wild along the lower part of the river." abound. The principal feature of this re- During the winter months the moist westerly winds are sufficiently chilled to shed an abundance of rain over almost the entire region. and the precious metals is the most important industry. instances a canon half a mile in width forces traffic to make a detour of several hundred miles around. Herds of deer are found near the head of the Gulf of Colorado and a . The rainfall is insufficient for the production of food-stuffs. but the area forms excellent ranges for cattle in the north. The Pacific Coast Region. and the latter must depend upon irrigation wherever they are grown. few camels. Scarcegion is the distribution of rain. the conditions of both climate and topography will not permit the Western Highlands to become a thickly peopled region. and fruit in every part. the Coast Ranges. popularly known as the " Gila monster. ly a drop falls from May to October. and these are such obstacles that commerce is In one or two carried on only at an enormous expense. greater part of The Coast Ranges Pacific lie abruptly against the shores of the Ocean and in only a few places is there even . there- fore. The foot-hill region is its more or less rugged. The rugged surface is intensified by the deep and precipitous stream canons. The mining of copper.366 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY possible the soil of the river flood plains is highly productive." inhabits the Gila River and is peculiar to this river valley. The rainfall. and the great intermontane valley between them. is seasonal.

commodious. cellent pasturage is wheat that eral places it is in- terrupted the great by cross spurs that connect ranges. is known as the Sound Valley. but in sev. however. South of Tehachapi Pass a fertile lowland lies next the Pacific which yields an abundance of semi-tropical fruits and a very tine merino wool. consists of rolling lands that form excellent cattle and the '? . What strait and sound form the outlet ? Farther south Gate opens from the sea PATH OF A SNOW SLIDE into one of the prinwhat is its name This part of cipal harbors of the world the intermontane region is best known as the SacramentoSan Joaquin Valley.INDUSTRIAL REGIONS OP UNITED STATES 307 a narrow coast plain. however. vessels lie alongside a high cliff and receive their cargoes by means of chutes with long outriggers. where it it opens to the sea. are deep. and furnish the possibilities of unlimited water-power not yet utilized. Golden sheep ranges. In the north. . It varies from twenty to about one hundred miles in width. In a few places. The northern and southern parts of the intermontane n the middle portion valley form a mammoth wheat field. The lower ranges of these mountains form exthe river valleys produce the best grown. and most conveniently situated. The few harbors. The great intermontane valley is probably a marine plain.

temperature. From the prairies of the Great Central Plain come the breadstuffs and meat. with its abundant water-power helped also by steam-power furnishes the country with light manufactures and textiles and exports the balance. The people of bridge material. and the adjustment of the pursuits of a people to the conditions of their geographic surroundings. building girders. The New England Plateau. Alaska forms the northern part of the Its climate and rugged surface ren- unfit for all agricultural pursuits. In the geographic distribution of the industries of the United States. and from the fruit Atlantic Coast Plain the and vegetables required for the labor- . one may follow the processes of adjustment. ally attended is with more or less and the friction a very large factor in their history. The chief wealth of the territory is contained in the gold mines of the Klondike and Cape the fisheries of the littoral waters. The people of the harbor region carry on the foreign commerce and largely control the great railway systems that — transport the manufacturer's products and the food-stuffs. the Appalachian region manage the distribution of the coal and supply the country with steel rails. Nome Districts and in The Adjustment ment. of cultivable So far as is known there is not a level tract land large enough to make a fair-sized farm. capable of of supporting an enormous popu- The Territory der is it Pacific Coast region.— 368 PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY conditions of both climate and topography is The make this a region that lation. The coast slope moderately warm. and power-producing machinery. of Industrial Pursuits to Environ- —In the growth and development of a nation two processes usually are going on —the acquisition of territory The latter is usufriction. but the rainy season is about ten months in duration the interior is a region of arctic .


the area which produces the food-stuffs and timber means great population. From the Western Highlands are obtained the gold and silver. of The coal The gold and silver mean and the iron ore are forecasters other nation possesses a tremendous power. still — No greater wealth of resources than the United States. the medium of commercial exchange. 12 The dense forests of Douglas fir. 13 cover an area of about 130. Natural Resources. It is estimated that from five to ten million young pines are destroyed each year for use as Christmas trees. will be exhausted in about coal-fields The . Both of these regions are nearly exhausted of their supply of merchantable timber. The most pines. valuable forest trees of the country are the Of these.000 square Of the amount yielded from these mines. miles. The bison and the fur-seal are practically extinct. all the anthracite coal comes from three small areas in Pennsylvania. Each section supplies not only the rest of the United States. northern border lantic and a belt of yellow pine along the At- and Gulf coasts. it is estimated. a belt of white pine extends along the . the former being in part replaced by cattle that certainly are of greater value. but a large foreign trade as well. but most of it is not adaptable for building pur- poses. these. In general.370 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY ers in the crowded manufacturing centres. The amount of growing timber is probably greater than at any previous time in the history of the country. or " Oregon pine. a vast commerce." and redwood of the Pacific Coast will be productive for a much greater length of time. From the south comes the cotton and from the west the wool that is to clothe eighty millions of people. and much of the copper the medium by which electric-power is transmitted. of these will Some last for years. but others are nearly ex- hausted.

of the Pacific Coast. Iron ore occurs in very many parts of the United States. Natural gas occurs in the same general area. or rock occurs in various places. Coal air. Eastern Ohio. oil. are of The coal measures much more recent and formed during the Tertiary period. much of which has been wasted. The principal wells of the United States are in Western PennThere is also sylvania. and is even an article of caravan trade in Africa. usually ^35 A GATEWAY OF COMMERCE near but not always in the coal-fields. The supply. however. a productive region in Southern California.INDUSTRIAL REGIONS OF UNITED STATES one hundred years. Much of the coal-supply is used as is house but by far the greater part derived from used in the manutime past was facture of iron and in producing steam. Petroleum. The refined oil of commerce is shipped to almost every part of the world. . The gas is used for house fuel and for making steam. is woody fibre that in subjected to heat and pressure away from contact with the Most swamps of origin. is becoming exhausted. tically 371 The supply of bituminous coal is prac- unlimited. of the vegetable matter accumulated in the the Carboniferous Age. and West Virginia. but the gas and the oil do not seem to be associated. fuel.

being mingled with gravel. and the deposits of the Appalachian Mountains are the chief supplies. One of the two quicksilver-producing regions of the world is in California and this state yields about half the output.—Repeat the list of physiographic and industrial regions enumerated in the first page of this chapter. or by the use of other solvents. The iron is obtained from the ore by but available only is where coal smelting the latter with coal or coke. Trace the geographic source of the raw material employed where is each manufactured ? Explain how the topography of the northern prairies has affected the development of farming machinery. which is much heavier. . plates.372 PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY it is when it can be shipped to places cheaply obtained. Silver also occurs in the Western Highlands. It is obtained by " washing " the latter away with water. billets. Copper occurs in process. uct comes from the Rocky Mountains. It is Gold is abundant in the Western Highlands. both on land and at sea. and in parts of California most of the gold is free. but the principal part Lake Superior region. of the prod- QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES. Study the furniture and equipments of the school-room and make a list of the industries there represented. resulting is The "pig-iron" then converted into steel ingots by the Besse- mer and and the ingots are rolled into rails. which it obtained mainly by crushing the quartz rock in " in amalgamating " or dissolving the gold occurs and In Alaska quicksilver. The Gogebic and Keweenaw deposits on Lake Superior. the It is mainly used for the transmission of electric power. and other structural material. In . Why is the New England Plateau ill-adapted to grain-farming ? How does topography become a factor in the economic production of grain ? State the various ways in which coal is used as power. Explain why cotton growing is limited to its present latitude. thereby leaving the gold. to be taken up by the quicksilver. Iron Mountain in Missouri.

Hbwes. 425-449. very closely The United all of Nearly related to clover. pp.any bulletin or publication explaining the kinds and uses of buoys and range lights .. the 6. with reference to the range lights. Describe three railway routes across the Continent two water routes from Chicago to tide water. NOTES There has been a constant movement of people from the upland farms either to the cities or else to the more fertile regions 1 of the west.000 miles of steel rails that span Siberia were made in the rolling mills of Pennsylvania. National Geographic Mag261. 33-100. 269-304. D. 4 many miles distant. McGkb. Davis. Powell. pp.INDUSTRIAL REGIONS OF UNITED STATES what way has cotton-growing ple of the Southern States ? 373 affected the social conditions of the peo- Explain Explain how and why how and why the topography of the Western Highlands is a barrier to commerce. —Statistical Railway Studies. azine. Trace the course of a deep draught steamship entering the main channel of New York Harbor. vii. {See matt P- S 69-) COLLATERAL READING AND REFERENCE — Physiography of the United States. It is fully as nutritious as clover and grows . employed in harbors. pp. How does the grade of a railway affect the cost of transporting freight ? Obtain from the Hydrographic Office. American Railways. more rapidly. — Physiography of the United States. 3 By manufacturing the cotton in the region where it is grown there is saved the transportation of the cotton from the field to * amount per capita paid the mills. C.. the geographic distribution of industries has resulted in the enormous development of railways. In manufacturing and commercial regions there is a greater for education and higher average daily wages than in any other part of the country. 6 Alfalfa is a hardy and rapidly growing species. States now leads in the manufacture of rails. Washington. —The Piedmont Plateau.

nor would there be any outflow from the sink to the Gulf. The railways make the heaviest demand on the oak. A camel could carry twice as much as the best pack mule. The coal measures of China probably surpass those of the United Forest fires States. in recent times dry. of salt. The pack mules and horses were in mortal terror of the camel. is productive. In one place there is disclosed a forest which was overwhelmed by the lava. 8 On the whole there seems to be a slight gain in the volume of the lake. but wood is in a good state of preservation. and carry it twice as far in a day.374 PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY * In several places the Columbia River has cut its channel deep into the flood of lava. however. The completion of the Nicaragua Canal will bring San Francisco nearer to London than its rival wheat mar- — — — ket. 10 The camels were first imported by Jefferson Davis. however. Calcutta. by reason of lower temthe * perature. 12 now is. that the entire volume of the Colorado would fill but a small part of the basin. Their waters contain not much more than three per cent. As pack animals they were successful. evaporation is lessened. 8 At the time of the last filling of the basin the water was extremely salt. . when. Pyramid. and Winnemucca Lakes. by way of Cape Horn. Evaporation is so great. " The excess of wheat is exported mainly to Europe. The trees are felled. "Only a small portion of this area. At times the beds of some of the larger streams. Between the railways and the tanneries the Pennsylvania Appalachians are nearly shorn of oak and hemlock. which is employed as ties. and its temperature was nearly 120" F. The paper-makers also use an enormous amount of timber in the manufacture of paper pulp. are now filling up. at the time when he was Secretary of War. Because of its altitude more than three hundred feet lower than the Colorado River at several times there have been propositions to turn the river into the sink and thus make an inland sea. such as Humboldt and Carson Rivers. probably rank first in the destruction of timber. are dry in the day but contain a considerable amount of water at night. and the rifle of the packer in time put an end to the experiment and practically to the camel. Carson. however.

of the Solar System .APPENDIX The Elements Name.

265 feet. Posen Friedrichsaue. With the exception of the borings on the Monongahela and Wheeling and the deeper of the two wells sunk at St. in Hie New York Sun.241 3. Inowrazlaw. near Leipsic.949 3. of wells have been chiefly in the search for sunk in this country petroleum or natural gas. There is but little uniformity. C. when. W. and completed until 1901. It is in our copper-mining shafts on Lake Superior that we take first rank in this form of excavation.— 376 APPENDIX The second greatest depth is that at Schladebach.532 4.000 feet deep. it is expected. Adams. near Halle St. it be the deepest shaft in the world. near Aschersleben 6. in the rate at which the heat increases it varies from one degree^ (F.843 3. The greater part to 1. for from this level the company can obend of its property.559 4. Work on No.570 6. Mo Stennewitz.644 3. tain all the ore at that .000 of the artesian wells in the country vary from 200 The average depth of the many thousands of artesian sunk for irrigation in the western half of the country is not far from 210 feet. however. Va Sperenberg (gypsum beds near Berlin) Lieth. in Mecklenburg Louis.624 3. near Leipsic Monongahela (thus far sunk) Wheeling.) in fifty to one in every seventy or eighty feet of descent. Here is a list of the deepest bore-holes : Feet. but most of are not over 1. Upper Silesia Schladebach.542 Many thousands them feet. C. wells 5 it Tamarack will not be will Houghton Peninsula began in 1895. In some cases the heat is due in part to chemical changes in the rock. . where the drill was sent down to 6. Paruschowitz. near Altona Eu. all the drilled holes that have reached an exceptionally great depth are in Germany.000 to 2. near Stassfurt Lubtheen.388 4. Louis.920 4. It will not be sunk shaft on to a greater depth.265 5.

000—19.000—18.000— 1.000 Coast (Canada) Andes Apennines Appalachian Atlas 3. Possibly highest in Africa.000 Heights of the Land.000— 9.000— 2.000— 3.000 2.000— 2.000 12. Feet.000 waiian Islands 3 » • Highest In Highest in Highest in Highest in South America. m Varies with each eruption.000 16.500 Iberian 2. Europe.000 4. Dragon (So. Feet.500—10. Carpathian Cascade .000— 1.260 15.000—11.500 Iran 5. 7.000 9 20.000 Karakorum Ozark Pyrenees Balkan Blue (Oregon).500 12.500—9.464 1 Mauna Kea • 8 (volcano).500 1.500— 2.000—10.000 Columbia Dekkan Guiana 2.000 4. 1.500 16. * Possibly highest in the world.000—15.000—19.000 15.500—4.000 16.000 5.000 9.000 2." The Pamirs Tibet 7.000 4.000—14. Adirondacks.) 1.526' 29.3-00 14.APPENDIX III 377 Heights of Plateaus. 4.000 17.790 Logan Marcy.000 .000— 5. Ha14.467 20.000— 7.500— 4.000 6.900 18.800 10.500—7.900' 17.200— 1. .875" 18. Highest Probably highest in North America.000 Rocky (U.368 3 Fujiyama (volcano) Hekla (volcano) Hood Kenia Kilima Njaro Kilauea (volcano) Hawaiian Islands 20. .000 Dapsang Demavend Elbruz Everest (volcano) Etna (volcano) Fremont Peak 1 18.000 2.000— 7.500 s 5. S.000— 5. McKinley.177 5.500 4. and Peaks Plateaus Feet.800— 4.000 Peaks Feet.000 19.500 3.000 6.000 Ranges Feet.200 6.000—17.000— 5.744» 4.500— 3.500 8. Alaska New York 4. * " Caucasus. Himalaya Hindu Rush Jura Africa). British Isles.000—10. Abyssinian Allegheny Australian Bolivian Brazilian Colorado 6.000— 1.000 Caucasus Coast (California) .100 11.500— 3.000— 4.500 " (Canada) Tian Shan Ural 2. Alps Altai 7.000— 8.500— 5.000 9.000— 2.000— 6.000—14.000—18.500 4.000— 4. 500— 6. 4.300 28. Aconcagua Ararat Blanc BenNevis Chimborazo (volcano) Cotopaxi (volcano) 23.000 5 13. Ranges.500— 8.500 7. Feet.500 18.000 1.000 1.000— 2.000 Mexican Mongolian New England The "Plains.500 6.000 10.

000 560. Sq.300 1.000 700.000 Murray-Darling.800 300.000 Po Rhine Rhone Rio Grande St.800 14. .. Shasta .- Sinai T. IV Lengths of Kiyers and Areas of their Basins 1 Miles..400 290.286" Washington Vesuvius (volcano) Whitney Wrangell 1 6 6 4..000 1.000 250.000 2.000 400. So.600 300. 45 (Himalayas) Teneriffe 14.441 Rainier (Tacoma) St.000 200.000 Hoang 400. Highest in Mexico.000 Hudson 300 13.200 1.000 Nile 4.000 2.000 Irawaddi 1.15.000 500.000 6.700 18.800 2.230 200. Miles.000 La Plata 2.600 6. North Carolina.711" Mitchell.250.500 350.000 90. a Not a tributary of the Amazon. Sao Francisco.000 1. Highest in Sierra Nevada Range.4.000 2.100 Niger 3.. Possibly highest in world .800 Volga Yangtze Yenesei Yukon i Zambesi 275.898 6 17.800 750.100 .000 700 Dwina 150. Highest in White Mountains.000 27.147 Pike's Peak Popocatepetl (volcano) .800 1. Amazon 4.500.500. . Seine Thames Tocantins- 500 215 1. Miles.400 600. 17.500 1 3 1 Highest in Appalachian System.000 23.300 3.440 8.200 Kongo 3.000 i Both the length and the area of the basin are approximate except in a few instances the length of almost every river changes from year to year.500 750. VarieB with each eruption.000 Lena 2. British Columbia.600 29.000 350.. Elias 18.000 Mississippi-Missouri.500.000 1 .250.000 Elbe 550 450.300 2 Orizaba (volcano) 14.000 Mackenzie 2.100 3. and partly owing to the gradual extension of its headwater tributaries. It is well to bear in mind that the length of a river is apt to vary from year to year.000 400. 378 APPENDIX Peaks (Continued) Feet. 1. Miles.000 Mekong 2.200 1.100 3 12.200 1.000 Indus 2.000 35. .100 230. partly because of the formation of loops and cut-offs.800 Ganges 450.000 Danube 1. .000 Brahmaputra 2.800 400.000 Colorado 1. Mauna Loa (volcano) 13.000 600.000 1.000 Columbia 1.000 Dnieper 1.800 Lawrence .024 .000 Amur 2.000 5 14. 450 800 550 1.000 1.000 6. not surveyed.000 1.000 200.000 Ob Orange Orinoco 2.000. Hooker.000.


and is lifted or bulged by the surrounding heavier water.e. has less specific gravity. Hence E m<E+ -+• the water at B' lifted or lighter or has less specific gravity than at A' or m\ and hence C and is less than OB'.— 380 APPENDIX Since distance OB is less than OA orOC. is m < m'. Since distance > m. . OB is M VII Table Showing the Number of Grains of Moisture. and hence the water at B is lighter than at A or C i. and m' equal attraction of moon at A' or E m C greater than OA' or OC. by Weight Necessary to Saturate a Cubic Foot of Air at Normal Density. M>M'. and hence the tide at B is.higher than at B'.. bulged by the surrounding heavier water. Temperature. Hence E-M<E-M'. equal attraction of moon at equal attraction of the earth and Let Since distance OB' is B'.

105 Deltas. 163 Axis. 233 regions of. 142 Climate. 17 Atolls. 42 Coral formations. mariner's. 51. 236 nimbus. 98 distribution. 23 Barriers. 200 Breezes. 303 Bores. cause of.INDEX AgeB. 276. 234 cirrus. 243 Animals. 236 cumulus. 249 Artesian wells. 21 movements of. 162. effects of inclination of. 367 adjustment to. 98 Ecliptic. 250 winter. geological. 290 extremes of. geological. 254 Comet. 223 Development. 310 Basalt. 200 economy Cyclones. 19 Balance. 13 Earthquakes. ocean. day and night. 249 of. 32 of. Tempel's. distribution of. 272 Avalanches. 316 Anticyclones. 236 Coal-fields of U. 278 Divides. 255 winds of. precession Eras. curvature of. 53 Cold waves. 135 Atmosphere. 370 Coal measures. 115 Deserts. 368 Equinoxes. 219 Brush discharge. stages of. 272 Dew. climatic effects of. 47 Aurora borealis. 39 Coast forms. 333 Caverns. 52. 233 Diflraction. laws of. changes in. migration of. Nature's. 286 Continents. 297 Blizzards. 252 Degradation. 14 Electricity. 18 Drift. 291 Cloudbursts. 200 Drumlin. 205 tropical. coral. 121 Doldrums. 95 phenomena of. 292 zones of. 296 distribution of. 14.. plane of. 19 dimensions of. 237 stratus. 33 Altitude. 150. 91 Currents. 219 Camel. 246 Clouds. 282 Environment. 39 in America. 99 nature of. 27 Compass. 14 381 . 279 Corrasion. 54 Coronas. 13 form of. 12 motions of. S. 159. 105 Craters. 216 Asteroids. 159 Earth. 268. tidal.

168 walled.. 275 Natural resources of U. 370 Isogonics. 327 Flood-plains. 27 Mirages. 347 of under-ground waters. 177 Percolating waters. 153 Magnetism. 21 Icebergs. effect of. 169 Peat. 69 Movements of rock envelope. salt. volcanic. 169 Physiography. 342 migrations of. 155 Glaciers. 252 Life. 233 Felspar. 138 Man. 182 Matter. 260 Isoclinals. 185 Land storms. distribution of. 105 Erratic bowlders. 335 Marshes. 275 Isotherms. 133 of. 243 Halos. 345 races of. 12 Geysers. on commerce. 79 marsh. 322 Geoid. 303 physiographical aspect Lightning. 283 Lithosphere. 273 laws of. Neve. 141 . 47 Isobars. man's relation to. 18 Mediterraneans. antiquity occurrence of.382 Eros. 23 Mud volcanoes. nature of. dispersal of. 157 physiographic effects of. 35 Glacial ice sheets. physiographic aspect of. distribution of. 67 Mountains. 318 Granite. 50 Meteors. 160 Eskimos. 115 Evaporation. 366 Passes. 279 Highlands. 153 North star. 18 Mica. 161 formation Ice-pack. 285 Forestry. 164 physiographic aspect playa. 176 physiographic aspect of. 154 Mountain-ranges. 142 Loess. 157 Grain. 372 of. 38 Hail. 273 of. 361 Hornblende. 26 Floes. latent heat of. 20 Lode. 156 Ice of the sea. 72 physiographic aspect of. accidental. 279 Monsoons. 193 Islands. 206 Lagoon. 173 Iron. forms of. 193 nature of. 309 Eskers. 70 economic aspect of. 81 INDEX Lakes. 274. 165 Pacific Coast Region. 113 Magnetic pole. 218 Moraines. li OaseB. 167 Lakes. 397 S. 136 Glacial epoch. 274 storms. 161 Eruptions. 276 variation. 167 geographical distribution of. 227 of. 291 Ocean waters. western. 26 Hydrosphere. 340 Estuaries. 17 Erosion. 174 glacial.

134 Sandy hooks. 125 Thunder-storms. 61 Plants. 61 Solar system. Swamps. 145 States. 243 Zone of fracture. 71 formation 25 of. 183 Pygmies. 259 Wheat. distribution of. continental. 319 White squall. 119 Rivers. 145 Stalagmites. distribution of. 193 Snow. 49 Seas. 195 of. extremes mean annual. 127 Waterspouts. 123 growth and development of. 240 Talus. 9 Sphagnum. 91 Volcanoes. 135 mineral. 115 Rapids. results 272 of. 28 Weather forecasting. order of. 139 Unusual adjustments. Underground streams. 194 Sand valleys. 21 of. 318 regions of. 216 physiographic effects of. 224 Sludge. waste. Strata. electric. igneous. eruption of. 255 Typhoons. 54 . Variation. distribution of. 301 St. economic importance 120 geographical distribution of. 300 of. 315 economic. distribution of. 30 sedimentary. 107 Rock envelope. 356 physiographic aspect of. 223 Sinter. 110 Tornadoes. 177 Springs. movement Rocks. 136 Stalactites. 48 arms Silica. Sandstone. 141 Slate. 354 textiles. of.1 INDEX Plains. 242 Terraces. 369. sargasso. 271 Tides. 282 Sun and planets. 78 Temperature. 316 322 Plateau. 28 Water. 176 1 economic value lacustrine. 207 Sea. 27 Sahara. 305 Vesuvius. nature of. 54 envelope. 22 Watershed. 86 Elmo's fire. 294 Rainless regions. 178 of. 89 Vulcanism. Middle Atlantic. 333. 78 economic aspect of. 60-76 383 economic value of. 202 26 Simoon. 280 Rainfall. 27 metamorphic. 30 Plateaus. 64 Potential. 250 physiography of. New England. 57 Winds. 122 183 Valleys. 85 distribution of. 64. 238 seasonal. 341 Rainbows. 258 Waves.