You are on page 1of 402

BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME FROM THE

SAGE

ENDOWMENT FUND
THE GIFT OF
1S91

A.yx.t.o

!'='"'^^.™*Six|.i3..

Cornell University Library

The
tine

original of

tliis

book

is in

Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924058563655

THE PHYSICAL GEOLOGY
AND GEOGEAPHY OF
GREAT BRITAIN.

.

/„A'.:-nA A-r./.rl-^fe.<. nntr 17 1 0-...(j ^-l-:o.n.=.s Index of Colours ^..^u^..../ \<'-"'l'-"' «.r..VtTli/." ..iil (>.'£'.v. I' I Biifiier \ Sandstone V~^ \MillsU.i..CEOL0CICAL MAP OF GREAT BRITAIN .r.M.y«^.

EAMSAY. PRINTED IN COLOURS. LL. LONDON: EDWARD STANFORD. 6 & 7 CHAEING 1874. C. F. WITH A GEOLOGICAL MAP.R. . CROSS.S.D. DISEOTOB-GENERAL OB THE QBOLOQIOAL SUBVEY3 OB THE nMITED KDiaDOM. BY A.THE PHYSICAL GEOLOGY AND GEOGKAPHY OF GKEAT BKITAIN. FOURTH EDITION.

the solid lands. . Like clouds they sbaye tbemselv^ and go. and nothing stands They melt like mist. ai^d they flow From form to form. rolls the deep where grew the tree. earth.. what chai^^ hast thou seen There where the long street roars. bath been The stiUne^ of the central sea. Tenwtsok. There O I The hills are shadows.

THIS BOOK AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED. TO -WHOSE EARLY TEAOHINSS IN PHYSICAL GEOLOHT I AH IS SO iroCH Iin>EBTED.S.E. F.B.TO THE MEMOEY OP SIR HENEY THOMAS DE LA BECHE. . C.

.

;

PEEFACE.
rilHE
first

edition

of a

this

book was
report,

printed as

Lectures
lished

from

shorthand

and pubof the

with
I

my
read

consent.

At the request
the

reporter

and

corrected

proof-sheets

but being

much

occupied at the time with other
imperfections

necessary work,

many

and

mistakes,

and a few positive
second
edition

errors, escaped

my

notice.

In the
revised,

the whole was

thoroughly

corrected,

and in parts almost rewritten.

A

good

deal of fresh matter

was added, including a map,

reduced for England from

my own

geological

map,

and

for

Scotland from

the

map by

Sir

Eoderick

Miurchison and Mr. Geikie.

My object

in delivering the original course, and in

publishing the second edition was to show

how simple
is

the geological

structure

of Great

Britain

in its

viii

Preface.

larger features,

and how

easily that structure

may be
are not

explained to, and understood by, persons
practised geologists.
This, the

who

third

edition,

has also

been partly re-

written;

it

contains

much new

matter, the form of
is

lectures has

been abandoned, and the book
chapters.

now
of

divided into

The preliminary sketch

the different formations, and of the phenomena connected with the metamorphism of rocks, have been

much

enlarged, and

many long and important
added
in

para-

graphs have been

the

chapters

on the

physical structure of England and Scotland, partly on
subjects connected with the Coal question, partly

on

the glacial epoch, partly on the union of Britain with the Continent at various epochs, and the migrations
of animals hither, and
entire

on many other subjects.

An

new chapter has been added on the

origin of

the river courses of Britain, and large additions have

been made to the

earlier brief accounts of soils,

and the

economic products of the various geological formations.
There are
also

many new

illustrative sections, intended

to bring before the eye the

meaning of the various
it is

theories
also

propounded in the work, and

hoped
in

calculated

when

enlarged

for
is

instruction

the class room.

The whole work

indeed one-third

Preface.
larger than

ix

the second edition, and

many

questions

have been re-considered and improved too numerous
to be mentioned in detail.

Any one with

a very moderate exertion of thought
geological

may

realise the

meaning of the physical
effort,

geography of om: country, and, almost without

add a new pleasure to those possessed before
travels to
will

as

he

and

fro.

The

colours on geological

maps

then no

longer

appear mysterious, but become

easy to

comprehend when associated with the geo;

graphy of our island

and

this

book may perhaps

serve as a kind of condensed explanation of geological

maps of Great

Britain, and smooth the

way

for those

who
its

are just entering on the subject and feel alarm at
difficulties.

seeming

Andkew
Kensington: Jvly 1872.

C.

Eamsat.

CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
The Genbrax
KEOUS.

I.

PAGE Classification of Bocks.
.

AQUEOtis and Ig.

.

1

CHAPTER
The dipfebent Ages of
cessive Depositions
.

II.

Steatified Foemations.
.

Theeb Suc.

.

.

.18

CHAPTER
Denudations,

ni.
Curves.
.

Synclinal and

Anticlinal
.

Waste
.

Peoduced by Chemical Action

32

CHAPTER
!Metamobfhis]u:, Shbinzage,

IV.

Ceust

...

and Distuebance of the Eaeth's

.38
.
.

CHAPTER

V.

The Physical Steuctuee of Scotland. The Highlands. The Gbeat Valleys of the Pobth and Clyde. The TiAWMEBMUm MOOEFOOT AND CaeBICK HiLLS

54

xii

Contents.

CHAPTTEE

VI.

PAGE
GeNEBAI, AheANGEMENT op the STEATIFIELDFOEMiTIONS OF ENGLAND.

Tkbib Okigin, Steatigeaphicai, and Geogeaphicai.

Positions,

and TJncontoemities

.

.

.

.72

CHAPTEE

VII.

The Mountains of Wales and the West of England.

The

Vallet of the Seteen, and the Cotswold Oolitic, and

Chalk Escaepments. The Hiixy Caebonifeeotjs Geound OF the Noeth of England, and its boedeeing Plains and Valleys. The Physical Eelations of these to the Mountains of Wales and Cumbeeland
.

93

CHAPTEE

VIII.

The Oeigin of Escaepments, and the Denudation of the Weald. Grey Wethees and the Denudation of the
Eocene Steata
*
.

.

.

.108

CHAPTEE

IX.
. .

The Miocene and Pliocene Teetiaey Posmations

125

CHAPTEE
The Glacial Epoch

.....
X.

136

CHAPTEE
Glaclal Epoch, coNiranED.

XI.
163

Glacial Obigin of ceetain Lakes

CHAPTEE
Nbwee Pliocene
of Man.
Epoch, contintjed.

XII.

Bone-oaves and Teaces

Migeation of Teeeesteial Aotmals into BhiSubsequent Sepabation

TAm

ACEOss the Deift Plains.

OP Beitain feom the Continent.

Denudation of the
. .

Coasts of Beitain

.

.

,

.178

Contents.

xiii

CHAPTEE xin.
PAGE

Bbitish Climates and their Causes.
Abeas.

EArKFAii, in diffeeent
. .

Areas of Eiyeb Drainage

195

CHAPTEE
Oeigin of Eiter-yallets.

XIV.

Their Eelation to Table-lands.
Geological Dates

Escarpments out through by Eitees.
of different ElVEB-YALtEYS.

ThB SeTERN, THE AtON,
Teibtitaries

the Thames, the Erome, and the Souent.
of the

Wash and

the Humbbe.

The Eden and the
.

Western-flowing Eivers.

Scotland

.

203

CHAPTEE XV.
IkxATION OF ElVBE-VALLETS AND GrRATELS TO
Deifts.

TEE GlACIAL

Eivee-teeeaoes.

Bones of Extinct Mammals
Eaised Beaches,

AND Human Eemains found in them.
&c.
. .
.

...
Solution of

235

CHAPTEE
Qualities

XVI.
by

of

Eitee-watees.

Limestone Eooks

.....
Dissolving

254

CHAPTEE
Soils

XVII.
264

Eelation of the different Eaces of

CHAPTEE XVni. Men

the Geology of the Country

....

in Britain to

282

xiv

Contents.

CHAPTER XIX.
PAGE
LrotrsTEiAi, Peodtjcts

op the Geolooicai. Foemations.

Oeigdi

OF IiODES.
PiELDS.

QuANTITrBS OF ATAILABLB CoAI IN THE CoAi-

Oeigin of

THEm Basin-shaped Foems. Conci^eed

COAL-FIEUJS

BENEATH PeEMIAN,

Steata.

Index

....

Summaet

......
NeW

EeD, AND OTHEE
291 325

...

CHAPTEE I. always remain the same. THE aENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF ROCKS. by and by. and what now sea has often been land and that there was a time before existing continents and islands had their places on the B earth. for the strata and volcanic products of which both are formed were themselves sediments derived from the waste of yet older ranges now partly lost to our knowledge. passed through many changes that the time was when the present continents and islands were not. believing it that from the beginning to the present day had always been much as we now find it. Thus it happens that what is is now land has often been sea. it was found that the world had . AQUEOrS AND IGNEOUS. But. and that tiU the with but sHght end of all things shall arrive. modifications. it will. In old days. before our . or of newer accretions of volcanic matter erupted from below. those who thought upon the subject at all were content to accept the world as it is. when Greology began to arrive at the dignity of a science..

how the lakes that diversify the siu'face first came into being. the is whole subject therefore of the greatest interest. Assuming that I am partly addressing those who have not previously studied geological subjects in detail. Therefore I begin with an account . as Earth. why one part of a country consists of rugged mountains. and when all the lakes of place on the the world. of the nature of rocks because it is impossible to understand the causes that produced the various kinds of scenery of our country. present rivers began to flow. of the animals that inhabited Britain or including its human races. we now know them. so as to make the remainder in. why the run in their present channels. and another part of high table-lands or of low plains rivers . the chief dwellers on the Earth. and it is my intention to endeavour to show in a as simple manner —taking our own island an example —^whence the materials that form the present surface of the earth have been derived. came to occupy the areas where they live. without first ex- plaining the nature of the rocks which compose them. In the course of this inquiry I shall have occasion to show still how some inhabit it. telligible to all.2 Origin of Scenery. it is needful that I should first enter on some rudimentary points. had no To us. and to account for the classification of its mountains and plains. The accidents or physical changes that have sub- .

running into ing. By far the larger proportion of the surface rocks of the world have been formed by the agency of water. though in rt my respects very different from ordinary volcanic products. and these sediments have been. and there is a which mostly consists of aqueous rocks that have been altered. those of aqueous or watery origin. but partly by ice. and to those of igneous origin. which are products of subterranean heat. these brooks. common channels and join. and of gravispecial by moving water. chiefly as a fluid. are divided into two great classes sub-class. and still are. in the broadest sense. first forms brooks. by degrees often become rivers B 2 and every one . shall. In this chapter I however. chiefly the result of the action of atmospheric agencies. in a popular sense. aided tation. 3 sequently befallen these rocks will follow this introduction. confine myself to a general description of the two great classes of rocks. draining the surface. for on such circumstances the skeleton of all scenery depends. ? But by what processes were they formed Every one knows that the rain which falls upon the and that land.— Classification of Rocks. Such rocks are made of sediments. Aqueous and Igneous . aided by chemical solutions. All rocks. and which in their characters often approach and even by insensible gradations pass into some of those rocks that have been termed Igneous.

Thus it happens that when rivers empty themselves into lakes. and another. and. and wide bays and . is carried to lower levels. for instance. in our own country notably on a great scale. the Severn. in strata. the Ouse that flows through York. for instance. —what is far more frequently the case—into the the sedi- ments which they hold in suspension are deposited at the bottom. the Mississippi. at large rivers clear knows that they are the cases of and — as. Thus. until. and a layer coarser finer will fall over a part of the sea-bottom. sediment and impurities of various kinds in sus- pension or held in solution. the Ganges. as geologists usually term them. the Nile. the Clyde and the Tay. while the will often and lighter matter be caxried out by ofi". In this manner deltas are formed. and mother. as shown in the . the and heavier particles near the shore. in fact. in the Thames. or muddy rivers of China. having been derived from the waste of the lands through which rivers flow. gene- rally arranged in beds. the current and deposited further layer of sediment Then another may be deposited on the top. suppose a river It carries sediment in suspension. flowing into the sea. Every river. and the mighty carries rivers of northern Asia.4 who has looked rarely pure River Sediments. in the course of time. they gradually form accumulations of more or less thickness. or sea. or. a /ast accumulation of strata may be formed. and this matter. constantly increasing.

A little reflection. and. and that the waves. and still when the rocks sensibly to the are harder very slowly perhaps. 5 filled up. Again. . wear them away. rise higher and higher. if we examine sea^-coasts where clififs rise from the shore. aided by the cliffs shingle beating upon the themselves. be they ever so large. by this process get filled with debris and become plains. and mud. the marshes spread further and further. As they fill.Wasie of Sea arms of the sea have been thus Cliffs. sand. may. The removal of the fallen detritus by the restless waters makes room for above. Some of the old rocks of Britain are formed of sediments deposited by a river as large as the Mississippi or the Granges. with sufficient time. is only a lake-hollow filled with river-bom gravel. be they ever so hard. will show that all lakes. overgrown by a marshy vegetation. till. comparatively quick when made of clay or other soft strata. but observant eye. too. and many a modern flat surface in Britain and in Switzerland. by overflows of the river bearing sediment. often covered by peat and traversed by a brook or a river. as in cases like those of the Ganges and the Nile. we find that the disintegrating effect of the weather produces constant debacles great or small on the faces of the cliffs. and thus it further slips of debris from happens that all sea-cliffs are in a state of constant recession. kingdoms have been formed of mere loose detritus. so that in time.

These being attacked by the waves. reason the why the harder rocky masses are apt to form. This continued action has the effect of grinding angular fragments into rounded pebbles time. This is they get worn more and more backwards. headlands. in the course of shingle are often thus formed. The material derived from this waste in the first when the cliffs are truly rocky. the edges having been worn off by the action of the waves moving them backwards and forwards upon each other. we shall find that it is formed of innumerable grains of quartz. while the softer or more friable strata. much by the sea must have noticed for when a large wave breaks upon the shore. wasting more rapidly. large amounts of loose . and they become . and these grains are generally not angular. as every one who has walked . as. are rolled incessantly backwards and forwards. but more or less rounded . and in the same way they recede with the retreating wave with a rattling sound. also.6 Pebbles and Sand. we examine with a lens the sand of the sea- shore. and. with the pebbles of flint formed by the waste of chalk. Such material when consolidated becomes a i conglom^erate. form the recesses of bays. rolling the frag- ments one over the other. for instance. it carries the shingle forward. instance. generally forms shingle at their bases. If. little particles Thus the rubbing for ages upon each other. their angularities are gradually worn off.

and by their rapid or more gradual subsidence (the coarse generally near shore. soft. Finer grained and more muddy deposits. Such material when consolidated forms sandstone. the power of tidal and other marine currents. or congloTnerate. in like manner. forms clay . intensified during long- continued heavy gales. when consolidated. only much smaller. which thickness. material. the finer often far out at sea) the bottoms of vast sub- marine areas are being covered by mechanical ments. very soon discover that a large proportion of them are arranged in thin layers or thicker bands or beds of shale. which must . sedi- must of necessity often be of great and in which various kinds of strata may we alternate with each other. all contribute to scatter sediments abroad. and this In manner very large amounts of mechanical sediments are forming and have been formed. or less like 7 more rounded pebbles in shape. are generally formed of the minutest grains of sand. Distribution of Sediments. grains. shale Such when slate.Mud. If we examine the rocks that form the land. The daily sifting action of breakers. the forcible ejection of muddy waters sometimes hundreds of nules out to sea from the mouths of great rivers like the Amazon. mixed with aluminous substances originally de- rived from the waste perhaps of felspathic rocks. sandstone.

proving that these beds have been deposited as sediments from water. 1. 1. fig. shall perhaps find that it is made of strata. Take. fig. more cliff or less pure. have been formed in a manner analogous to that which I have just described. which fig. Fig. may be horizontal. 3. we take a particular bed. we may find that it consists of strata of limestone lying one upon the top of another. and we Fig. 1. as in the diagram. for a 'possible by the sea-shore. No.8 Stratified Rocks. and contorted Kg. Bed . as in If. are also often They associated with bands of limestone. 1. or inclined. 3. into every conceivable variety of form. instance. as or even bent 2. as in fig. 2.

were originally . for. but sometimes they are almost undisturbed. except by mere upheaval above the sea cases the beds . in the manner shown in the diagrams. the next and may have a mass of sandstone. the whole being thickness. like the Old Eed Sandstone. 2 may be of shale. In some cases they further altered by heat. and remember that these were sediments. intercalated here and there with limestone. 1. such as the Silurian rocks of Wales neighbourhood. Eocks. No. or even quite indistinct. various arranged in definite beds. many thousands of feet in These have since been hardened into rock. compose the bulk of the strata of the British Islands . highest deposit. The whole of these strata in the aggregate forms one cHff. 3 may consist of pebbly materials. piled originally loose stratified on each other often to enormous thicknesses. also arranged in rude material being coarse. 4. consist essentially of deposits originally marine that were mud. question : Then comes the Under what special con- ditions were given areas of these rocks formed ? Some and its formations. the may be irregular. more regularly than in No. more or less of these kinds. and subsequently consolidated by pressure and chemical have since been still action. we Then in No. also arranged in thin layers. while in other have been violently broken and con- torted. accumulated bed strata of upon bed.Stratified Rocks. 9 No. Others. the bedding layers.

trilobites. are almost wholly composed of entire or broken shells and other marine organic remains. 1. like the greater masses of the Carboniferous Limestone and the Chalk. and great stony banks coloured red by precipitation of peroxide of iron. No. and scales of land plants. sea-urchins. find that they contain fossils of various kinds — sea-urchins. and various other forms of in life in such limestones as No. such as crabs and fishes. (fig. encrinites. while others. 4 we might find that there are remains of sea- shells . Others. and more rarely the bones of terrestrial animals. many cases. and limestone . occasionally —but more rarely —similar . like the Liassic and Oolitic deposits. &c. or conglomeratic mechanical . 3 they might lie frequently between the thin layers of shale in equally No. soils Marine and lake sediments form the on and in which the creatures live that inhabit the bottom of the waters. 1). teeth. sand. we often shells. were formed of alternating strata of clay. which. When we corals. examine such rocks in detail. crustaceans. 2 .. No. and it is common to find large quantities of shells. bodies might occur in the conglomerate. in the bed of sandstone. were formed almost wholly of Carbonate of Lime. For instance. sand.I o Stratified Rocks and Fossils. spread out in alternating beds of mud. corals. and it is easy to imderstand how many to shells and other organic bodies happen thus have been buried in muddy. the bones. sandy.

however. in great part. it so happens that we get a mass of limestone consisting entirely of shells and other remains. have been carried from the land into the sea. or in lakes. the component grains of which. be the limestone ever so thick. which are the skeletons of creatures that Uved in the sea. Now. it has been formed entirely by the lived in water. of shells in these fossilised sediments. and though limestones have. though has somesea-cliffs times been directly derived from the waste of and mixed with other marine sediments. and there arranged as strata.1 Stratified Limestones. it The question. By the life and death . life and death of animals that In many a formation — for instance. there by force of gravitation to arrange themselves as strata. 1 sediments. though the material of shale (once mud). therefore. sand- stone (once loose sand). large or small. and conglomerate (once loose pebbles). When. the conclusion is forced upon us that. yet it comparatively rarely happens that quantities of carried in a it unmixed calcareous sediment have been tangible form by rivers to the sea. been also mechanically arranged. in estuaries. in some of the beds of the Carboniferous Limestone —the . it is easy to understand why they are so often more or less calcareous. arises. how happens that strata of pure or nearly pure carbonate of lime or limestone have been formed. have been borne from the upper land into water.

? If we of we discover that is to say. that gradual accumulations of such beds of limestone have attained two or three thousand feet of vertical thickness. many them consist of hard water —that not pure. indeed. or of shells corals. the most important of which is bicarbonate of lime . 1 Limestones. of various kinds. and rising again in springs. like rain-water. Even when these fragments are indistinguishable. open ocean from mere chemical It sometimes happens. for there no reason to believe that vast formations of limehundreds of square miles. for the rain-water that falls upon the land percolates the rocks. that all rain in descending through the air takes up a . are stone. if the rocks be calcareous. carries with it. reason tells us that such marine limestone deposits must have been built up of the debris of is Ufe. But where does the carbonate of lime come from by which these animals make their skeletons analyse the waters of rivers. tells eye us that they are formed perhaps entirely of rings of Encrinites or stone-lilies. extending over now or ever have been precipitated in the solutions. but containing various salts in a state of chemical solution.2 . The reason of this is. the microscope reveals that it made exceedingly small particles of broken organic remains. or of all these and mixed together is and in many other cases where the limestone is homoof geneous. bicarbonate of lime in solution.

by little and little. to make their shells and bones. lime is Thus it happens that. In this way happens that springs are often charged with lime. and.Igneous Rocks. affords material to and other marine animals. of the air. a considerable proportion. frequently shells produce by their skeletons and immense masses of is strata of nearly pure limestone. which. sometimes as pure limestone. certain 13 of the consti- amount of carbonic acid —one tuents. contains almost none whatever. which consolidated into rock almost as fast as it is formed. of the rocks are formed of igneous masses. accidental or otherwise. till we come . to Pembrokeshire. North example: in outer rocks of the world. Igneous rocks form a much smaller proportion of the Thus. the form of what chemists which is carried by rivers into lakes and estuaries. perhaps a twentieth part. through their nutriment. it forming great tracts of country. in call a soluble bicarbonate. finding its shell-fish way to the sea. to take Biritain as an Wales. abstracted from sea-water to form parts of animals. dying in deep clear water. The whole of the rest of Wales. The same comparatively small proportion is of igneous rocks found in parts of Scotland and . and this carbonic acid has the power of dissolving the carbonate of lime which enters into the composition of a large proportion of stratified rocks.

just as yeast does in bread. their constituents. which. Experience also modern lavas are crystalline —that is to say. Northumberland. if we examine all the midland. experience this structure once tells tells that modern rocks with a melted mass. . and in even proportion they also exist in Derbyshire. When we meet even though not identical crystalline rocks. and eastern parts of England. Devon. I have now to explain how we . then. southern. form a number or as of small vesicles. But. are able to distinguish igneous from aqueous rocks and. in their efforts to escape from the melted lava. see in we some of the slags of iron furnaces. in a general way. have crystallised in distinct minerals.14 Igneous less Cumberland. indeed. according to their chemical affinities. To take examples : If we examine the lavas that flowed from any existing volcano. expanding. formed part of us that some in cooling. is This vesicular structure chiefly due to gases and watery vapour. and Cornwall. with similar. are unstratijied. This peculiar vesi- cular structure is never found in the case of unaltered stratified rocks. we shall find almost no igneous rocks whatever. which. we can do so because many of them and have other external and internal structures different from those of aqueous deposits. we find that they are frequently vesicular. and have afterwards consolidated. are simply artificial lavas. ejected along with the melted matter. Here.

doloritio and of various composition. Accordingly. 4. such as Iceland. of Lower Silurian age. and when we rock-masses of meet with columnar and crystalline Silurian.Rocks. sometimes formed of ribboned layers. possess this structure. similar to the contorted ribbon-like structure common in iron and other slags. we may origin. Ancient lavas. and various others. the lavas are often columnar . 4. Furt|ier. such as those of Snowdon. fairly assume that such rocks are of igneous Modern lavas have and are often a vitreous and slaggy structure. (hornblende and felspar). igneous rocks are apt to alter any strata through which they are ejected or over which they flow. as in fig. or of any other geological age. to consider 15 are therefore entitled origin. ages. we them as having had an igneous In modern volcanic regions. we frequently find veins (2) that seem to have been injected among . and in tertiary regions dotted with extinct volcanoes of Miostill cene or later age. and felspar). where the forms of the craters remain. dioritic (augite Fig. in rocks of all felspathic. associated with old strata. Carboniferous.

of lava ashes are simply fragments. . and some- times an overflow of lava (3) that proceeded from a dyke that may or may not be colmnnar. or baked into a kind of porcellanic substance stones. If shales. Modern volcanic and large. In such cases the stratified rocks are apt to be altered for a few inches or even for several feet at their junction with the igneous rocks. as they are termed (1). also common certain lavas. Occasionally the strata have been actually softened by heat. if sand- something like the sandstone floor of an iron-furnace that has long been exposed to intense heat. similar to The some crystalline structure identical with or modem lavas. and vesicular struc- tures. a skilled geologist finds no difficulty in deciding that such and such rocks are of igneous origin. small ground often to powder in the crater by the rise and fall of the steam-driven semi-liquid rock. This is finally ejected by the expansive force of steam. or have been melted by heat. From these and many other circumstances. and dykes. the amorphous earthy look. and the alteration of the stratified rocks at the lines of contact. they may be hardened . rising vertically or nearly vertically through strata. the penetration of strata by dykes and veins.6 1 Igneous the strata. all prove the point. turned into quartz-rock. ribboned. the slaggy. and a semi-crystalline structure has been developed. the occasional columnar in structure.

having been melted and cooled deep in the earth. In fact. and sometimes the coarse volcanic conglomerates. 1 and with the liberated vapour air. after By the study of modern volcanic ashes. every fragment of which consists of broken lava. it is shot high into the it is. not difficult to distinguish those of ancient date.7 Rocks. even though they have become consolidated into Their occasional tufaeeous charthe imbedded slaggy-looking hard stratified rocks. the origin of ancient volcanic rocks is clear . were never ejected. acter. and further. the broken crystals. all help in the decision. step by step through the various formations. practice. it leads to similar conclusions with respect to the igneous origin of bosses of crystalline rocks. which. tracing back from modern to ancient volcanoes. and never saw the light dation. fragments of rock. till they were eocposed by denu- .

and therefore the . THEIR SUCCESSIVE DEPOSITIONS. if we had remains. 2 was deposited above it as layers of mud overlying the bed of limestone already formed. never found any fossil Now. we should lose half the interest of this investigation. No. There the fig. p. 8. We are anxious to under- stand what the actual history of the different stages which such minor beds represent. and the diagram. and our discovery. We find at the base beds of limestone. 1. Those in the upper part of the beds above those in the lower part. that rocks are of different ages. because it was deposited in the sea (or other water) before bed No. 1. corals lie perhaps composed of and shells. The next point to be considered ? is —Are stratified rocks of different ages They are. would have only a minor value. But that is not enough to know.i8 CHAPTEE II. and 4 so on to 3 and —taking the is strata in order of succession. Turn again to the diagram. bed No. 1 must be the oldest. will assist to make this clear. THE DIITEKENT AGES OF STEATIFIED FORMATIONS.

as an example. were latest of all and in each bed each particular form found there had lived and died in succession before the sediment began to be deposited that forms the bed above. and then comes the bed of sand. 4. and Cretaceous cliffs of Yorkshire. Strata of Different Ages. leave a petty quarry or cliff. No. The Liassic. mals as the case may were buried among the pebbles at a later date than the shells in the shale. succeeded by No. a lesson may easily be learnt on the method of under- standing the order. All these beds. are of 1 younger date than those in the bed . therefore the shells (if any) in the bed of No. where the consist of stratified rocks. from the Tees to Flam- borough Head. No. No. stone. No. in the conglomerate. the organic forms. 2. cliffs what do we find On many a coast. or comparative dates. 6ach contain relics of ancient life bed being younger or older than the others. a conglomerate. from Torquay to Port- land Bill. plants or anibe. 3.. latter 19 shells were dead and buried before the once living lie in which the upper part came into the area. of deposition of geological formations. of different dates. form excellent examples. and the remains of life in the sand. according as we read the But if record from above or from below. I take part of the latter. 2. stone. we and ex? amine strata on a larger scale. 4 shale. 3. of limestone. or the coast of Devonshire and Dorsetshire. Oolitic. therefore. Above lie the limestone beds of shale. No. C 2 .

. These pass under thin beds of white fossiliferous lime- known as the Khoetic d/ip beds. fol- lowed by the Fuller's Earth clay (7). On the west (1) re- presents red marly strata. These in their turn pass or &0 under beds of blue limestone and clay.20 Succession of from Lyme Eegis to the eastern end of the Chesil Baoak. Clay (9). in . or Keuper marls. find a succession of for- I mations arranged somewhat in the manner shown in diagram No. and still going eastward this dips its turn. which are seen to dip under the Marlstone or Middle Lias (4). amd which are known when they are all present as Grreat Oolite. Forest Marble. which for present purposes I have massed together. NejEt comes a series of strata (8). and Combrash-. on which rests the Inferior Oolite sand and limestone (6). beneath the Kimmeridge. overlaid by the Upper Lias (5). called Lower Lias (3). 5. If we eliminate we there those accidents called faults. The horizontal line at the base repre- sents the shore line. known as the New Bed stone (2). These dip under the Oxford which dips under a limestone called the Coral Eag (10). Clay (ll)i which.

Thus. sands. formed. 'and this does not affect the general Some minor formations known inland are also added to question. laid we have rocks formed of New Eed is Sandover- The red sandstone dips to the east. cousisting of Gault (12). Upper Grreensand (13). or having different lithological characters. this.passes under the Cretaceous Series 1 1 of this district. and Chalk (14) which in a bold escarpment overlooks the plain of Kimmeridge Clay. and by New Eed Marl . succeeding and alternating with each other. the red marl dips also to the * The Portland beds being only tjccasionally present.* Here. clays. . we see a marked succession of strata of different kinds. through Warwickshire and South Staffordshire. that is to say. make the series more complete. then. stone. are in this diagram purposely omitted. of marls. If we leave the coast cliffs and turn to the middle of South Staffordshire and England — ^from the borders of Warwickshire to the neighbourhood of London discover that the whole series in successive stages is —we made of strata. and they consist of similar materials. They (if are aU sediments originally deposited in the sea we except the New Eed Marl. Some are only forty or five or six some are more than hun- dred feet in thickness. and limestones. for the forms of old foimd in them prove fifty feet thick. which was life deposited in a Salt lake). arranged more or less in the manner which I have already described.Formations.

and brown . by what may be called geological accidents. forming the various divisions of the Lias these pass under a great succession of formations of limestones. Experience has proved this. pass under the Tertiary clays and sands of the London Basin. except where. named the Cretaceous series which again. in their turn. and sands. we reach the water-bearing Sandstone. such as the Alps. yet the order of succession is never inverted.. in their turn. limestone. for though there are occasional inter- ruptions in the completeness of the series. are overlaid beds of sand. and quarries. nor the Cretaceous rocks under the Oolites. . Tinder marl. we are sui"e to reach the . railWay cuttings. clay. some of the formations being absent in places. and chalk. therefore proves this general succession of formations. great disturbances have locally produced forcible inversions of some of the Oolites. strata of the New Eed Upper If in certain districts we penetrate the Cretaceous strata. if we pierce the red marl. in some parts of the world. clays. If. for example. for example. we pass into the New Eed Marl . east. &c. and so does experience in sinking deep wells and mine shafts. never lie under the Lias. these. Observation of the surface in cliffs. The England. in parts of the midland countries we sink through the Lower Lias. in strata.!S2 Succession of beds of blue clay. known by as the Oolites . All these pass fairly under each other in the order thus enumerated.

in horizontal or slightly inclined srata. Tt is. one edge of each sheet being exposed at the surfae. but the several for- mations that form the land dip or pass under each other in regular succession. therefore. l^y contavn shes and other relics of the creatures that lived and died i the waters or water-laid seddments of each special jHod. and the\ slightly tilted up at one end. in the certainty of reaching the chalk and finding water. in fact. vast beds placed much in the same way as a set of sheets of flat variousy-coloujed pasteboard. not that the mere surface of the land is formed of various rocks.Formations. that is to say. the lowest strtified formation being of oldest and the uppermost of jungest age. observatiomnd reasoning has done the same for more disturbed stita. being. What is the evidence on this . viz. of. arranged in succession. the other. the we know underground continuity of strata Accurate but more difficult one beneat. may slope in one diretion. therefore. often prove practically what theoreticaly. placed on each other. a series of beds of of some f many hundreds and some many thousands of eet in thickness. Vertica sinkings. Most of thes strata are fossiliferous. so that our island and other countries have been foved to be formed rock. Oolites. 23 and under London many deep wells have been sunk through the Eocene beds.

and so on. The Ehoetic beds and contain sea-shells of a mv genera fom those species.24 Succession ? subject afforded by the rocks shall suppose. of diffeint species from those buried in the Marlstone No. we from strata. small bivalve cnstaceans. p. is rarely fossiKfierous. the rel marly No. stage by stage. the we discover that fh^y are iot same in all. Terebratula. which are of species and sometimes of genera tinct more or less dis- from those in the formations immediately/above or below. . 5. Belemniis. 5. but not altogether. 11. up to the KimmeridgfUlay No. * There are 'also a few freshwater deposits. distinct fossils found in the Lower Lias No. the latter somewhat 3. and 2. for in all an the Liaso and Oolitic is tipay. Throughout the whole series from the RJetic beds is (2). and that most of them contain in each forirution marine organic remains. through the remaimg strata of the Oolitic rocks. foot- of Amphibia. that the group- ing of genera (Ammonites. west to east across the Secondary and Tertiary and exaniine the fossils found in successive formations. and such pssils as these beds prints may contain are chiefly land plsits. 20. 1. As we proceed.rhich again differ from the forms in the Upper Lias clar No.* thus turning again series to fig. the olwhich are again partly.pt the discussion of these is not essential to the present argument. 4. formations the general facies. upwards to the Kimmeridge Clay (ll there intimate relation.

what chance to be examining. series of geological After a minute examination. of is the stratigraphical structure of our island. There is. omitting minor details. series. 13. passage beds in England to unite the two deposition territory They were. and not only so. I have selected the above instances as affording a good type of the kind of phenomena that occur again and again throughout the whole formations. a wonderful change takes place. are new. no marine series. and many of the genera. and 14. . if he found enough of them. and the following is the result of this tabulation. so as to show which were formed first and which were formed latest . mation he may When. therefore. in fact.) is 25 the same. and which the British area by . still ascending in the we come to the Cretaceous formations represented by 12. the result that geologists are able to recognise and place all the rocks in serial order.is therefore unrepresented in stratified deposits marked marine of dates between Oolitic and Cretaceous times. Pholadomya. and some species generally pass from each formation into the next above it . Oysters. difference in the species found in the different for- mations to enable anyone with knowledge fossils to tell by for- alone. but sometimes through several however. generally enough of formations. especially There are of chambered shells (Cephalopoda).of Life. None of the Oolitic species pass into these formations. separated in their by a long period of time during which our formed land. &c.

fBiver and estnarine alluvia. &c. Crag. PoTTTiioTi rermian \ j Rot^jiegende. Permian . Between the Inferior Oolite and Great Oolite. Lower ^'^^l^'"'*''**' f lakes probably. . Chillesford beds. Carbonife- rous Marlstone (Middle Lias) . ." Freshwater river beds. Lower. British glaciers. flint implements. Devonian marine. Marine* Lower Middle Eocene Braklesham and Bagshofc beds Lower Eocene Chalk London Clay. . estnarine and lagoon beds. Becent Allnvia and estnarine beds now forming. Purbeck Beds Coral . partly terrestrial and freshwater. Lincolnshire. with marine and freshwater interstratifications. . Upper Lias Clay and Sand and Lias . Partly terrestrial. with land mammalia. 26 Succession and Nature TABLE OF THE BRITISH FOEMATIONS. Bovey Tracey and Mull be^. but perhaps partly fresh or brackish. Lower Lias Clay and Limestone Bhcetic beds. . and marine. Bag . Oolitic Series Gombrash Oohte Forest Marble Bath or Great . . estuarine. and hone caves. Passage beds Upper. Wealden . and Scotland.. Great glacier moraines. Portland Oolite Eimmeridge Clay Upper Middle . . with marine interstratifications. New Bed Sandstone (Bunter). and Yorkshire. in Northamptonshire. Hempstead beds \ Osborne beds Bembridge beds Headon beds . & Devonian Silurian . whales. Inland salt lake. .. &c. Freshwater. . freshwater.. Carboniferous limestone and shales. and some peats. with igneous rocks. . Chiefly marine. . New Bed Marl (Keuper). \MariiiP Lower Silurian and ] ^™^®' Cambrian. . I Laueentian Marine» . . with marine interstratification. bones of Mammoth. &c. Upper saurian . Bed Crag. and bonlder clay. probably salt. Probably marine and freshwat^ beds interstratifled. .-{ ^ 'Post-tertiary. Lake deposits. ' 'upper Eocene Eh Freshwater river beds. Probably salt lake. Woolwich and Beading beds and Thanet sand. with tuman remains and works of art . Latest traces of . Oxford Clay ' . &c. (and §1 Middle Newer Pliocene Older Pliocene . seals. . Stonesfield Slate Inferior Oolite Marine in middle and south of England. Old Bed S3 Sandstone. TTppeb . t Coralline Miocene . Upper Greensand Gault LowerGreensand I Atherfield Clay Weaujen Series . Marine. f * Norwich Crag. and other land mammalia . in jrart. Cretaceous. and in north of England. . raised beaches. Salt Lake. Marine. ^Forest bed of Norfolk. partly freshwater and terrestrial.. and marine. Coal-mesisures and Millstone grit. Magnesian limestone. Lower .

outer Western Isles. G-eol. being chiefly confined to parts of Shropshire. and consist of gneiss in a very advanced stage of Tnetamorphism. lie uncon- formably on the Laurentian rocks of Sutherland. They have yielded in Canada one fossil. Cumberland. Jour. 27 wMch are the oldest known formations in the world. The Laiirentian rocks. the high lands of Scotland north of the border. which succeed them. and the Tre' On the Eed Eoeks of England of older date than the Trias. The area occupied by this series is not large. p. discovered by Sir William Logan. Eozoon Canadense. ' Quart. which come next in and which occupy much of Wales. * See one between the Llandeilo beds. where there are traces of land plants. I consider is them to consist partly of freshwater beds.of Formations. The Cambrian rocks. and above this horizon there are two unconformities in the series. In Wales the Lower Silurian rocks (Lingula flags) are conformable to and pass quite insensibly into the Cambrian rocks. and the greater part of the Highlands. North and South Wales and the north- western part of Scotland. but this not the usual opinion. Silurian rocks.' Bamsay. Soc' 1871. . and in Wales contain a few fossils. we find in places the relics of vast nimibers of forms of life altogether marine. chiefly in the and the north-western parts of Sutherland. except at the very top. 241.* If we examine the succession. lie in Scotland.

where holds land plants and freshwater shells. that the Devonshire are in reality of Lower Carboniferous age. some of whicb have their nearest analogues in the Polypterus of Africa and the Ceratodus of Australia. discuss the subject. great Lycopodiums. Jukes.* madoc and Lingula beds. Upper and Lower Silurian The Devonian rocks are usually considered to be intermediate in date between the Upper Silurian and Carboniferous strata. But this is not the place to The Old Eed Sandstone certainly intermediate in as a whole. that it was The remains of fish. Devonian rocks of asserted with great ability. prove the terrestrial origin of those * The details of all the subdivisions of ths Silurian strata are not given in the column. It contains few other fossils. however. and Coniferous trees of the Coal Measures. and' after much opposition some other geologists begin to accept his theory. and fish of the Carbomferous Limestone and other members of the Carbomferous series prove their marine origin. age between the Silurian I believe and Carboniferous formed in lakes. is. The late Mr. it and the Carboniferous rocks above. help to confirm this view. Calamites.28 Succession and Nature and another between the strata. while the ferns. encrinites. excepting where it passes into the Upper Silurian rocks below. sometimes The shells. however. . series.

all the Oolites are marine formations. still lie 29 on the very soils on which Other strata associated with these contain freshwater shells. seas in warm round scattered groups of and the Purbeck and Wealden beds were at. while the Coralline and Eed Craigs . beds of coal that they grew. and they contain in England shells. a small Gaspiaurlike fauna of marine The Lias and deposited islands. was formed great extent in an open sea a by the deposition/ of microscopic foraminifera.of Formations.. The Perntiian rocks. The Miocene Western Isles of Bovey Tracey and the were partly freshwater and partly ter- restrial deposits. like those in the deep Atlantic.king. I consider. were. at least those of Britain. is The Lower Greensand (Neocomian) formation. now ma. at all events while the Keuper Marls were being deposited in which our beds of rocksalt lie. the Chalk. and the New Red series was also formed in lakes. extremely salt. strata The British Eocene beds were partly marine and partly freshwater. to- the upper part of which. The Ehcetic strata mark the passage from this series into the Lias. deposited in inland salt seas analogous to the Caspian. chiefly deposited the mouth of a great river. together with all the a marine Cretaceous strata. but even the marine deposits were laid down near the mouth of a strata great river.

that series each formation was in time a sea-bottom or a of sea-bottoms. however. geologists searches of —led by the reis William Smith. that to say.* It is not. my business. By a complete analysis of the order of deposition of the rocks and their contents. until at last we come to the epoch in which we now live. 30 Succession are exclusively marine. used as convenient terms. and a large part of them give strong evidence of when all arctic ter- restrial conditions the Boulder-clay and the more distinct moraines of the period were formed. which life for some reason in part or altogether dis- appeared. are in this * The words formation. A . The Norwich Crag was partly The remainder of formed at the mouth of a stream. in which new species inhabited the waters.. . or whole hooks are missing in geological history. in which peculiar kinds of life flourished. series. from the oldest known epochs. the strata were partly marine and estuarine. are enabled to come to the important conclusion that each formation was marked by its own peculiar forms of life its . When epochs in fact unrepresented in given areas by stratified formations. working in concert with a thorough palaeontologist. through the whole of the formations. If I were to write a complete history of the British rocks I would endea-" vour to explain the meaning of these unrepresented gaps in time. epoch. thorough-going physical geologist. which in their turn also died out and so on in progressive stages. might even hope to form a fair notion of the nature of the missing Ufa of the unrepresented epochs. in a took only analysed they often imply that certain links. before a new period commenced. period. chapters.

however. to give a description of the various organic forms that have lived through these ages. because I shall have frequent occasion to speak of the rocks by their names.of Life. and to show their physical relations to each other in a scenic point of view. to explain the general order of the formations. . all the known forma- It is necessary. their ages and the nature of the and the disturbances they have undergone at intervals of time. involving a complete account of tions. these relations being connected with phe- nomena dependent on rocks. 31 book bearing specially on physical geography. That can only be done in a larger course of Geological and Palseontological study.

now being effected by the river Niagara. SYNCLINAL AND ANTIC!LINAL CTJETES. in the geological sense of the word. Eunning water wears away the ground over which passes. if this goes on long enough over areas. large and mud and . such as pebbles. the river has cut a deep channel through the rocks. DENUDATION. and carries it away detrital matter. beneath them. falling . about seven nules in length.CHAPTER III. that the river. we have a notable case in North "America of a consider- able result from denudation. where. I MUST now explain the meaning of certain terms which I shall have occasion to use very frequently. sand. For instance. below the Falls. Denudation. there is no reason why any amount of matter should not in time be removed. WASTE PEODUCED BT CHEMICAL ACTION. The proofs are perfect that the Falls originally began at the great escarpment at the lower end of what is now this gorge . means the stripping away of rocks from the so as to expose other rocks that lay concealed surface.

on a smaller scale. constantly before our eyes. 33 for itself a by degrees wore channel backwards. 2. 6. ^Xv^vv^KSHSK«v?^^ 6. I merely give this instance to show what I mean by denudation produced by running water. lying horizontally differ- 1. strata —some of them formerly one hundred and sixty feet beneath the surface —have been exposed by denudation. calculations. the channel did not exist. but very uncertain this gorge a period at show that to form the least of something like thirty-five thousand years has elapsed. which rarely strike the ordinary observer. . and similar to it is many other cases of the same kind. is This is an important instance for what not a very large district of the modern world. and in doing so.Denudation. from two hundred to a hundred and sixty feet deep. Eefer to ent strata. one above Kg. over this ancient cliff. and suppose that we have and 4. through strata that on either side of the gorge once formed a continuous plateau. Possible. 3. At one time The river has cut it out. fig.

* marked may perfectly correspond in all respects in their structure and fossils. 1 Anticlinal curve. that the curved strata are bent downwards as in anticlinal an 2. and the present surface is the result. The whole were The originally deposited horizontally. This is the result of denudation. con- solidated into rock. curve that they bend upwards as in Kg. than another. Z 1. been thrown into anti- and synclinal curves. and a valley in time formed. and are successively cut into and exposed at the is surface. Chemical action is another agent that promotes waste . Or to take a much larger instance. 1.34 more 2. clinal and afterwards thrown into anti- and synclinal curves. in one place. strata and afterwards bent and contorted. 2. The strata that form the outer part of the crust of the Earth have. A synclinal curve means 1. so that the strata 3. 2 Synclinal curves. and in hundreds of similar cases it is certain that they were once joined as horozontal strata. 7. by the contraction of that crust due to cooling of the mass of the earth. Denudation. many clinal places. The part indicated by dotted lines and more besides has been removed by denudation.

of the coast. also another mode by which watery action denudes and cuts back rocks. or the Chalk. bays. not only wears away part of these rocks by mechanical also dissolves the carbonate of action. or denudation. 35 Thus rain water. and other indentations needle-shaped rocks standing out in the sea from the main mass of a cliff. disintegration of is cliffs. over and D 2 over agavn. Sea Cliffs. falling on limestone rocks such as the Carboniferous Limestone. but when we consider that. This has been already mentioned. strata thou- . This fact often proved by numbers of unworn flints sometimes several feet in thickness scattered on the surface of the table-land of chalk in Wilts and Dorsetshire. by the first long-eontinued wasting power of the which helps to destroy the land and then spreads the ruins in new strata over its bottom. &c. The flints now lying loose on the surface once formed interrupted beds often separated by many feet of chalk. The chalk has been dissolved and carried away in solution chiefly by moving water. always charged with carbonic acid. are all caused or aided sea. Caverns.Chemical Waste. and the insoluble flints remain. It requires a long process of geological education to enable any one thoroughly to realise the conception of the vast amount of old denudations. but in lime and carries is it off solution as a bicarbonate. The constant atmospheric and the beating of the waves on the shore.

but are now about twenty-five miles apart. I forestalling the subject of a subsequent state that a notable may now example on a grand scale may be seen in the coal-fields of South Wales and of the Forest of Dean. sands of square miles feet and thousands of in thickness. of which '^Tales coal-field is even the South a mere fragment. we begin to get is an idea of the greatness of The mind then more likely to realise the vast amount of matter that has been swept away from the surface of any country in times comparatively quite recent before it has assumed its present form.36 Outliers. The coal-field of the Forest of Dean has thus become an Wales field outlier of the great South coal-field . in extent. and in many another county besides. fields These two coal- were once united. this power. which have swept away thousands of feet of strata bent into an anticlinal curve. Such denudations have been common over large areas in Wales and the adjacent counties. av^ this separation has been brought about by the agency of long-continued denudations. Without much chapter. have been formed by the waste of older rocks. equal in extent to the strata formed by their waste. Observation and argum^t alike tell us that we need all have no hesitation in applying this reasoning to hilly regions formed of stratified and intercalated . and the Bristol or Somersetshire coal- forms another outlier of a great area.

we come that the greater portion of the rocky masses of our island have been arranged and re-arranged. and thus 37 to the conclusion. as dependent on the nature of and the gone. igneous rocks. extending over periods that seem to our finite minds almost to stretch into infinity. is alterations and denudations they have under. the main object of this book and if the reader has been able to follow me in what I have already shall written. what I have .Reconstruction. I think he will understand to say in the remaining chapters. under slow processes of the denudation of old. and the reconstruction of newer strata. To explain in some detail the anatomical structure its strata of our island.

or by The other great class of termed igneous. those of Aqueous and those of Igneous origin generally be . we are able to decide with perfect truth that rocks which were melted long . rocks. SHKINKA&E. sea. and I showed how aqueous rocks their stratification may known by and by the relics circumstance that a great many of them contain of marine and freshwater Ufe. are frequently effects crystalline. I HATE already explained that all rocks are divided into two great classes. and from the rocks which they produce upon stratified when they are in contact. METAMOEPHISM. AND DISTITKBANCE OF THE EAKTH's CKUST. being rounded by the action of the waves of the the running waters of rivers.38 CHAPTEE IV. and other kinds of organic remains. in the shape of fossil shells. Then by comparing igneous rocks of old date with those of modern origin. fish-bones. The materials also of which these beds are composed generally show signs of having been in water. the latter are often altered.

bed upon bed. The inclined positions of beds. or limestone. But there is a third division. and chemical changes that took place in consequence of infiltrations among the strata themselves. and strata originally have been bent into every possible curve.) which have undergone a much greater kind of alteration. a sub-class. known as netaTnorphic rocks.) by heat. by intense and long-continued pressure. sandstone. for it has often happened that disturbances of a flat powerful kind took place. For long it was the fashion to attribute most of the disturbances that the outer part of the earth has undergone to the intrusion of igneous rocks. then. sand. before the 39 human race appeared upon the world are yet of truly igneous origin. and even the existence . (that is to say. consisting of shale.Consolidation of Strata. the contortions of stratified formations in mountain chains. When these were accumulated. for originally they were loose sediments of mud. by degrees they became changed into hard masses. stratified and even some rocks commonly recognised as igneous. or carbonate of lime. (which alone is sometimes sufficient to harden strata. But these have not always remained in the condition in which they were originally consolidated. gravel. conglomerate. as the case may be. till thousands of feet were piled one upon the other. All strata as they assume a soUd form become to a certain extent altered .

it is quartz-rock. It will be enough if I select one of the most generally known kinds of metamorphic rock as a type. and still some writers of deserved re- putation gneiss. . limestone. have been highly disturbed. of important faults rally —in fact. hornblende rock. In connection with this subject and other kinds of metamorphic rocks were. homblendic. micaceous. and in the north occupy about one-half of Scotland. which I have to explain. Most of this area includes. and a number of others. from the time of Hutton. and endeavour to explain how it happened that such rocks assumed their peculiar crystalline characters. or chloritic crystalline mica-schist. operating from below. Such rocks. The metamorphic rocks. do so. disturbance of strata gene- —were apt to be referred to direct igneous action Granite and its allies. still. 40 Metamorphosed Rocks. when the metamorphism is extreme. were always included in the ordinary list of igneous rocks. not in detail. and by some are supposed to be the effect of the direct intrusion of granite strata. and lies north-west of. consist of gneiss. which not necessary for my present purpose to name. the Grampian mountains and I must endeavour to explain by what processes metamorphism of rocks has taken place.: . among previously unaltered As a general rule highly metamorphosed rocks occur in regions where the strata have been greatly disturbed.

and mica. and felspar. when it began to the materials arranged themselves as distinct affini- minerals. find a Thus we may its mass of granite. and the old theory (so far true) was that the world at one time was in a state of perfect igneous fusion cool. because in those countries that were lie first geologically described they were supposed to all always at the base of the ordinary strata. The great globe . according to their different chemical ties. Grranite is a crystalline rock. All these metamorphic rocks were by the old geologists called Primary or Primitive strata. which was this It is frequently found that granite and granitic rocks are intimately associated with gneiss. in a great number of convolutions. that in a few yards of gneiss they may sometimes be counted by the hundred. and frequently happens that they are bent. . and consolidated as granite. Typical gneiss consists of irregular it laminae of •mica. and were considered to have been formed in the earliest stages of the world's history. or rather minutely folded. but by and by. with gneiss upon flanks bent in a number of small wavy folds or contortions. Old Theory. From the peculiarity of the minute contortions in the gneissic rocks a theory now known : to be erroneous was deve- loped.Gneiss. quartz. so small. quartz. 41 bub simply in such a manner as to give a general idea of the subject. composed of feld- spar.

for this.. and because the did not settle sea was boiling. which still remained intensely heated. but became twisted and contorted in the manner common in gneiss. the sediment down in the form of regular layers. among other reasons. upon the granite hills that rose above its surface. and water by condensation attempted to settle on the surface. being evaporated into the atmosphere cooling became fairly but when the more decided. it But as yet could not settle quietly like the present sea all for by reason of strong radiating heat the sea playing was supposed to be kept in a boiling state. that we now know scale. as cooling still progressed. was thus composed entirely of granite at the surface . and hy and by. and consolidation had been established. the water could not lie upon it. 42 Gneiss. The detritus thus worn from the granite by the its waves of this primitive sea was spread over bot- tom . gneissic rocks are of Laurentian and Silurian age in Devon and Cornwall we have gneiss both of so-called Devonian and Carboni- ferous ages. gneissic rocks of almost all ages in the geological Thus in Scotland the . then water was able to settle on the surface of the heated granite. Old Theory. Subsequent research has shown that this theory will not hold . All gneiss therefore was conceived to be the original primitive stratified rock of the world. for it was constantly . In the Andes there are gneissic rocks of .

pierced by granite veins. even though the absolute bulk of the globe was diminishing by cooling. seems. as applied to gneiss. or in less degree in Wales and Cum- berland . became crumpled along lines more or less irregular. producing partial upheavals. strata But by what means were masses of sands of feet thick bent many thou- and contorted. and in the Alps of the Oolitic 43 New Eed and Cretaceous series . I have stated that regions occupied by metaThere morphic rocks are apt to be much contorted. and in 1862 I saw in the Alps an imperfect gneiss of Eocene date. for that in the manner we them in the Alps.. gradually producing a shrinkage of the earth's crust. no longer tenable and therefore the old theory has been abandoned. but rather because of the radiation from the earth of heat into space. Shrinkage of the EartKs Crust. and often raised high into the air so as to produce existing scenic results by affording matter for the elements to work upon ? Not by igneous pressure from below raising the would stretch instead of crumpling strata find rocks. these strata being of the age of some of the soft and often almost horizontal basins. in fact. to be an intimate connection between excessive disturbance of strata and metamorphism. the age of the Chalk. Norway and the Highlands. strata of the London and Hampshire perfectly well It is therefore now known to geologists that the is term Pri- mitive. . which here and there giving way.

history told common stratified In fact.' After water took is mountain chains. and I believe in progress. earth. we cannot get at their beginning. but that originally was doubtless a formation of some kind or other. for all strata have been made from the waste and therefore the of rocks that existed before stratified oldest riot. its by such processes land was again and again raised within the influence of atmospheric disintegration. or other allies. rocks.. is of that nature mentioned in Chapter namely. sedimentary Such disturbances of all strata have been going on through are still known geological time. The simplest kind I. 44 Shrinkage and by This. as far as the by the rocks themselves informs us. when an .. whether metamorphosed I or have a derivative origin. and adopted by ' De la Beche in his the origin of place on the Eesearches in Theoretical Geology. is often (where know it) accompanied by the appearance of gneissic rocks. acting on it. must now briefly endeavour to give an idea of the theory of metamorphism. were enabled to distribute the materials of strata. rivers and the sea. metamorphic and often of granite or its The oldest rock in the British Islands is gneiss. it Such shrinkage and crumpling. where most intense and on the greatest I has been scale. according to the theory long ago proposed Elie de Beaumont. and rain.

gneiss. and the shales or slates. Here then rocks have been changed in character for a short distance from the agent that has been employed in effecting that metamorphism. As we approach the granite still more closely. the midst of a tract of mica-schist. or sandy beds and shales. and often lose all traces of their fossils the sandstones harden and pass into quartz-rocks. On a much larger scale. forced through or overflows a for a and remaining time in a melted an alteration of the stratified rock in immediate contact with it takes place. the phenomena we meet In with in a truly metamorphic region are as follows. we find possibly . At a dis- tance from the granite the beds may consist. sandstone.. become converted into quartz-rock. and limestone. and pass by degrees into micaschist. and mica. the limestones become crystalline. or of slate. As we approach the granite. but breaks with a hard and splintery fracture. Metamorphism. which no longer hewable. in which we find rudely alternating laminae of quartz. perhaps. Thus sandstone may. often arranged in gnarled or wavy lines (foliation). of unaltered shale. by that is process. is 45 stratified state. lose their ordinary bedded texture. a boss of granite (or one of its allies) rises. feldspar. igneous rock. like those for instance of Dartmoor and Cornwall or of the north end of the Island of Arran. like ordinary sandstone. or other altered rocks. or perhaps gneiss.

and this is due to the influence of metamorphism. &c. is They are never identical. Furthermore in some cases.46 Metamorphism.. stauroHtes. such as garnets. when a hand specimen is or even a small part of the country examined. often more or less sandy. both in the gneissic rock and in the granite It is not necessary for itself. Now. quartz. Canada. in many cases. is together with various gneissic rocks and granites. as in the Laurentian rocks of Canada. schorl. if we chemically analyse a series of specimens of clays. it remarkable how closely the quantities of their ultimate constituents. feldspar. It is sufficient at present to state the fact that such minerals are developed under these circumstances. my argument that I should describe these minerals. as close indeed as may be in two specimens of the same kind of sandy shale or slate. shales. and slates. great thicknesses of interstratified gneiss are so crystalline that. distinct crystals. The same the case in parts of the Alps. approach to each other. but when the detailed 'are geology of the country has been worked out. they might seem to be truly granitic . and that. in addition to the layers of mica. while yet the resemblance it close. In all of them . are developed near the points of contact. they found to follow all the complex great anticlinal and strata that is synclinal folds of metamorphosed have been intensely contorted.

such as feldspar. by contact with granite. in which heat played a large rock having been softened. say from 60 to 70 per cent. were enabled more or less to re-arrange affinities. garnets. largest proportion. tions . > themselves according to their chemical and distinct materials were deve- loped from elements that were in the original rock. I have stated that to produce this kind of metais morphism. and then other substances. or by any other process. and what I now wish to express developed in that the distinct minerals the gneiss. the some process. soda. heat aided by water of internal necessary. and the substances that composed the shale or slate. chemical action was set up. mica. silica 47 would form by far the . &c. potash. would be found in smaller varying proporis. and water rocks underground —having — present in most been dififused throughout the mass and heated. without which I do not see how complete re-arrangement of matter accompanied by . as lime.Development of Crystals. action due Through part. such iron. but were all the influence of metamorphisTn from materials that previously existed in the strata before their Tneta- morphism began. w&re not new substances developed under introduced into the rock. aided by hydrothermal to the presence of heated alkaline waters. often mingled with sandy material. to allow movements in the rocks by the softening of their materials. &c. alumina would come next.

and passing into an intensely heated melted condition. Hence those disturbances of different which have affected strata of almost all geo- logical ages. and has been variously developed by different authors. by radiation into space at length cooled surface. became in places crumpled again and again. but it vrould be quite beyond my present purpose to discuss the subject in detail. crystallisation could take and though it has always been easy to form theories on the subject. yet so little is known with precision about the interior of the Earth beyond a few thousand feet in depth. dates. From nebulous astronomical considerations it is generally believed that the earth has been condensed from a fluid. so far that consolidation commenced at the and by degrees that surface has gradually been thickening and overlies a melted nucleus within. The * This theory is not universally received. by gradual sinking of the sea-bottom. and the simultaneous piling up of newer strata upon them.* Keasoning on these disturbances we know. As the Earth cooled and consequently gradually shrunk in size. that how to obtain the required heat is a difficulty. the hardened crust. in its efforts to accommodate itself to the diminishing bulk of the cooling mass within.48 Internal Heat place. that strata which were originally deposited horizontally have often descended thousands of feet towards the centre of the Earth. .

fig. or forty thrown twenty. Furthermore. which may be supposed to represent a large tract of country. for instance. or into great sweeping curves strata . and by this means especially which once were at the surface have often been thirty. that for a long period a steady descent over a given area has taken place. whence. I . The land sea. is in places slowly de- scending beneath the selves descending also. I do not wish it to be understood that the entirely filled with melted matter still globe is —that is a question in doubt . and sea-bottoms are them- It has frequently happened.of the Earth. Heat and the tem- perature therefore. as. to which it could be shown some strata have sunk. 8. at so great a depth as 30. may at present be about 500°. layer that is 49 formed to-day beneatli the water forms the . therefore. thousand feet down- wards. and simultaneously with this many thousands of feet of strata have by degrees accumulated bed upon bed. strata that were deposited horizontally have been frequently disturbed and thrown into rapid contortions. but were this book specially devoted to general questions of theoretical geology. actual sea-bottom but neither the land nor the sea • bottom are steady. increases about 1° for every sixty feet. in the bed marked *. in the main. As we descend into the earth the temperature increases. and therefore more within the influence of internal heat.000 feet. the theory of central heat has been derived.

may have been so highly heated that they were actually softened and most rocks being moist (because water that Mis upon the surface often percolates to unknown depths). but not quite essential to . Thus and certain strata. composed of silica silicates of alumina and such as soda and potash. 50 Metamorphism. me to another — connected with. essentially alkalies. of volcanic action it —and for this. we can easily understand how Kg. among other may happen that strata which are contorted have in places been brought within the direct influence of internal heat. think I could prove that the heat in the interior of the globe in places sometimes apparently capriciously eats its way towards the surface by the hydrothermal fusion or alteration of parts of the earth's crust in a manner not immediately connected with the more superficial phe- nomena reasons.. stratified rocks 8. This theory of re-arrangement leads question. Under sorae such circumstances. may have become changed into crystalline gneiss. chemical actions were set going resulting in a re- arrangement of the substances which composed the sedimentary rock.

which in most manuals classed as an igneous rock ? For my part.1 Granite and Gneiss. I believe that in one sense it is an igneous rock. both in Canada and in the Alps. with some other geologists. But in another it is sense it a metamorphic rock. as far as relates to physical geography. is. —that is to say. what is is the origin of granite. there is E 2 . were it hot that they I have been entirely fused and changed into granitetherefore believe that all the granitic rocks I have seen are simply the result of the extreme of meta- morphism brought about by great heat with presence of water. that it has often is heen completely fused. for they pass into each other dations. by insensible gra- On the largest scale. — viz. that enveloping the crystals generally a quantity of frea of felspar and mica. I have frequently seen varieties of gneissie rocks regularly interbedded with less altered strata. One reason why it has been inferred that granite a is not common igneous rock. and even on a large spale the uneducated eye will constantly mistake them for granites. the gneiss being so crystalline that in a hand specimen it is impossible to distinguish it from some granitic rooks. is Another very important circumstance allies that granite and its to be frequently occupy the spaces that ought filled with gneiss or other rocks. partly because possible to sometimes im- draw any definite line between gneiss and granite. 5 my argument.

Therefore it is said was probably held in partial solution in hot water. strongly suggestive of original stratification. seems to me to be sound. not always crystallised in definite forms like the Silica being far less easily fusible all two other minerals. even after crystallisation by segregation of the other minerals had begim. a more perfect crystallisation has taken place. as already of meta- result of the extreme morphism. and the not used vn the formation of often in an amorphous it these minerals wraps them round that form. Even then. and even of planes of oblique stratification or false-bedding. and are thus to be classed as intrusive rocks. the silica tallised first. yet . In other words. though many granites having been completely fused have been injected among gtrata. theory. certain planes often remain. when the metamorphism has been so great that all traces of the semi-crystalline laminated structure has disappeared. however.52 silica. and the result is a granitic mass without any minor lamination in it. than felspar. Granite. This now held by several distinguished physical and chemical geologists. ought on partial cooling to have crys- whereas the felspar and mica have crystalsilica lised first. If the above views be correct. it seems clear that had the substances that form granite been merely fused like common lavas. especially as it agrees exceedingly well with the metamorphic theory as applied to gneiss stated. simply the — granite being.

in the 53 main so far from the intrusion of granite having upheaval. 1866. to their were then deep underground. parts of which.Granite. p. . now exposed by denudation. and already acted on by the internal heat of the earth proportionate depth.* * See Eeport.' Eamsay. Brit. Assoc. produced many mountains by mere both gneiss and granite results would rather seem to be often the formed certain mountain how. I cannot clearly tell with the heat produced by the intense lateral pressure that produced the contortion of such vast masses of strata. but possibly connected of the forces that chains. 47: 'Address to the Geological Section.

and part of Scotland shall is so why great rugged. the geological age of which was first . In another chapter I is have to show that there a strong contrast between the physical features of Scotland and those of the middle and east of England. known named from a vast tract of gneissic rocks on the north shores of the St. MOOEFOOT. and to explain why the features of these two districts and those of the east and west of England are essentially so distinct. The west coast of Sutherland and the outer Hebrides chiefly consist of the oldest formation. called Laurentian. phenomena of Britain and the nature of its In this chapter 1 shall briefly describe the tell most mountainous part of Britain. In Scotland gneissic rocks and granites are extensively developed.54 CHAPTEE V. AND CAEEICK HILLS. NOW come to that part of tiie subject in which it will be my duty to explain the connection between the geological scenery. THE PHTSICAL STEUCTtJEE OF SCOTLAND — THE HIGHLANDS THE —THE GEEAT VALLEYS I OF THE FOETH AND CLYDE LAMMBEMtriE. Lawrence and the Ottawa.

' and Map of Scotland by Sir K. formably on the Laurentian gneiss.* Farther south. which lie quite unconfact. the Upper Silurian rocks which form such ' an important part of the English strata being absent. The Lower Silu- rian rocks come next in the series. above the Old Eed Sandstone. Next. 55 determined by Sir William Logan. and much wasted by denudation. and form about nine-tenths of the Highlands of Scotland north of the Grrampians. They consist chiefly of gneiss and mica- with occasional lines and bosses of granite. and frag- ments of the denuded gneiss help to make up the conglomerates. on the north-east coast. in Sutherland. Murchison. . containing fossils. As the latter lie beneath the Silu- rian beds. Geikie. before the deposition of those Cambrian strata began. See Siliiria. Above tbem.Scotland. lie the Carboniferous rocks. In the Lau- rentian strata were exceedingly disturbed. consisting of Calciferous sand* This Older for the north of Scotland ' was first established by Sir E. Lower Silurian by which their age has been ascertained. and near their base are partly formed of thick masses of quartz-rock. schist. metamor- phosed. Murchison and Mr. interbedded with two bands of crystalline or semi-crystalline limestone. there are certain unaltered red or purple sandstones and conglomerates. they are supposed to be equivalent to the strata called Cambrian in Wales. we have the Old Eed Sandstone.

Fig. Oolitic. and in the north-west of the mainland of Scotland from Cape Wrath to Gairloch. and the Lam- mermuir. however. In the extreme north of Scotland. Moorfoot.) I have already mentioned that in some of the "Western Isles from the Lewes to Bara. and Carrick hills on the south Besides these formations there are others. Carboniferous Rocks. and in the east and south of Scotland and elsewhere. Permian in the south. [See Map. omitting minor details. 9. in some of the Western Islands. . consist of various These members of the and a Lias. that only in the Isles do they seriously affect its larger physical geography. for I wish specially to treat of the facts connected with the greater physical features of Scotland. such as Skye and Mull. These strata lie in the great valley between the Ochill range on the north.56 stone. limestone. in Sutherland and Caithness. and little Miocene strata in the Isles. form such a small part of Scotland. line 4. &c. the limestone forming in Scotland but a very small intercalated part of the series. and therefore I shall chiefly confine myself to the mainland of the north Highlands. which. and Coal-measures. the manner rally lie is in which the strata gene- shown in the following diagram.

and the same conclusions regarding upheaval this second and denudation. which. and again quite unconformahly. is so old that it had been metamor- phosed and was land before the deposition of the Cambrian strata. rising often into mountains. sometimes in the manner shown in the diagraih . the Lower Silurian strata (3) lie. that the latter were disturbed. and slope more gently towards the strata frequently lie at low angles very These unconformahly . upon the old Laurentian gneissic rocks the meaning of this being. which face the west in bold escarpeast. therefore. 1) twisted and contorted in a remarkable manner. oldest gneiss the Upon this Cambrian rocks (2) lie. The bottom beds of the Lower Silurian strata consist of quartz-rock and two beds of limestone (3). the latter so altered that the fossils are sometimes with difficulty distin- . In both a great interval of time is indicated unrepresented by stratified formations. and extremely denuded before the deposition of the Cambrian strata upon them. partly derived from the waste of the Laurentian gneiss. The bottom beds of the latter consist of conglomerates of rounded pebbles.Sutherland. may be drawn from uncon- formity that have already been mentioned respecting the unconformity of the Cambrian on the Laurentian rocks. contorted. 57 the country to a great extent consists of certain low tracts formed of Laurentian gneiss (No. ments. Upon these unaltered Cambrian beds.

not formed merely of small pebbles like those of an ordinary shingle-beach. stretching over all brown heaths and barren mountain ranges. All of them have evidently been derived from the partial destruction of those ancient . suggestive of ice-borne boulder-beds. and dipping towards the At its base the Old Eed Sandstone consists of conglomerate. often so highly contorted and metamorphosed. the Silurian strata dip eastward. and in Caithness we have the Old Eed Sandupon the Silurian sea.58 Sutherland. rocks mostly flaggy in the north-western region. but in the eastern parts of Sutherland and Aberdeenshire. to the Firth of Clyde on the west and Stonehaven on the east. but frequently of huge masses. these metamorphosed Silurian rocks. In Sutherland. guishable. even by those most skilled in the determina- tion of genera and species. Above the upper limestone we have sose a vast series of beds of mica-schist and gneis(4). that they are in some respects similar to the more ancient Laurentian gneiss. mingled with others of smaller size. stone (5) lying quite unconformably gneiss. from Loch Eribol on the north shore the way far south across the Grrampians. here and bosses of granite there associated with and syenite form by far the greater part of that rocky r^ion as the known Highlands of Scotlands. as a whole. Now {g).

and from its partial waste. the bases of its hills being washed by the waters which deposited the Old Eed Sandstone itself. and there also masses of conglomerate lie at 2. aided bycoast-ice. fig. Overlooking this broad band. glaciers and the work of formed con- the boulder-beds that now make the glomerates. Silurian gneissic 59 rocks (4) that underlie Pig. we examine the Map of Scotland find a broad we band of Old Eed Sandstone running from Stonehaven on the east coast to Dumbarton on the west. the Old Eed if Sandstone. the gneissose mountains No. . the base. that the generally formed land before the time of the Old Eed Sandstone. We are thus justified in coming North Highlands to the conclusion. the Grampian mountains (even then separated from the Scandinavian chain) as a special range forming a long line running from north-east to south-west. Again. as in No. (line 5). 10. still reminding the beholder of that ancient line of coast of a vast inland lake against which the waves of the Old Eed Sandstone waters beat.Old Red Sandstone and Grampians. 10. 1 rise high into the air .

cases will afterwards be explained. Some of these moun- . and in- deed that other sub-angular conglomerates of the Old Eed Sandstone stratified in various parts of Britain consist of moraine matter. has been to produce the present scenery. influences of terrestrial waste —rain. and the Cambrian rocks- have thus been exposed and moulded by subsequent waste. it is impossible great. Eed Sandstone. and waves —were at work sculpturing the surface of that old land. now lost. that on the west these Silurian strata have been almost utterly worn away.6o Highlands. and on the very same land they have been at work from that day to this. except that was mountainous. snow. ice. but this certain. that after the original disturbance of the strata the general result of all the wasting influences. of denudation the gneissic mountains What amount of the Highlands underwent before and during the deposition of the Old to determine. acting down to the present day. What was the precise form of the high lands that bordered this Old Eed Sandstone lake it it is now impossible to is know. the origin of which in later All the ordinary rivers. frosts. wind. Thus it is certain that all the Cam- brian and Laurentian rocks of the north-west of Scot- land were once buried deep beneath Lower Silurian gneiss thousands of feet thick. but it must have been very I consider it certain that from these mountains glaciers descended through ancient valleys.

and rise in the Grrampian mountains on the north changed into mica-schist and gneiss. and rarely possessing a gneissic character. but much less altered. This area is occupied by Old Eed Sandstone and fig. altered Carboniferous and Old The unrocks Eed Sandstone . so the great excavator. and all the southern and eastern shores of the Firth of Clyde. These rocks plunge beneath the Old Eed Sandstone comparatively unaltered. but observation and reflection combined lead to this inevitable result. like the Highlands. forming great part of the Lowlands. Moorfoot. 6i now form almost of the grandest and most abrupt peaks the north-west Highlands. rocks of Carboniferous age (Nos. 2 and 3. are also chiefly formed of Silurian rocks. we tract of country. 10). To the south the heathy and pastoral uplands known as the Carrick. marked 1'. It is hard to realise these facts. stratified. Forth tains in Sutherland and Clyde. stretches across Scotland from north-east to south-west. mostly lie but partly igneous. And just as a railway navigator leaves pillars of earth in a railway cuttiiig to mark how much he left has removed. has these mountain landrmarks to record the greatness of his operations. which. standing (like Suilven) alone on a broad raised platform of Laurentian gneiss. Pentland and Lammermuir hills. find that a large If we again examine the Map. including the Firths of Tay and Forth. Time.Tay.

Now how They were the Carboniferous rocks formed ? consist of strata partly of freshwater and partly of marine origio. sandstone. great Lycopodiums {Sigillarias). trees. and when we examine the shales and sandstones it. which often. for not only are the limestones formed of corals.' this in its England being a miner's bed term. the coal-bearing strata <. limestone. and under each bed of coal there Is a peculiar stratum. on account of of coal. now known" to be the root of a called Sigillaria. between the Grrampian and the Lammermuir ranges. associated with we frequently find in them quantities of vegetable remains.hi6fly consisting of alternations of shale. and shells. Ferns. Binney. and trunks and cones of coniferous the under-clay is &c. mingled with volcanic products of the period. a whole in a hollow. but also yield similar fossils. When narrowly examined. and coal. to infer that the soil under-clay was the original on which the plants .62 thus lie as Carboniferous Rocks. we also gene- rally find in it a number of portions of plants called fossil tree Stigmaria. many of the shales Beds of coal are numerous (whence the name Coal-measures). and other geologists. called ' Sometimes it is . but not always. encrinites. Mr. under-clay. stems of reed-like plants {Galamites). position beneath each Coal itself consists of mineralised vegetable matter . is of the nature of fire-clay. and this led Sir William Logan.

' as ' miners term ' it. in thp centre of the basin. which plants decayed and formed another carbonaceous stratum. that the lowest bed of coal was originally at the surface.000 feet of coal-bearing strata. or sometimes and more frequently the mouths of great rivers and in adjoining marshes. which formed beds of In the Scottish Coal-measures there are in Edinburghshire over 3. and to prove that one bed lies several thousands ^of feet below another. it is by means of this disto turbance and denudation that we are enabled estimate the thickness of the whole mass of strata. Since the soil ' under-clay ' contains roots. by filling up. the decay 63 and subsequent mineralisation of coal. grew. where a certain area was being filled with sediment. again became for the growth of terrestrial plants.Coal-measures. and was formed by the growth and decay of ia plants. and other it. that in its . and was the it is clear on which land-plants ^rew. by an easy method. to the surface result of somewhere or other. After time it seems to have descended slowly. strata were deposited upon sometimes in the ait sea. where the strata are thickest. this out-crop being the disturbance of the strata and subsequent denudation. and. By degrees a fit portion of the area. so that the lowest bed of coal may be nearly three thousand feet below the highest bed. Most of the beds rise or ' crop.

not in Scotland alone. are from 6. which by degrees became a vast pile thousands of feet thick. Asia. during the formation of paxt of the Old Red Sandstone and . somewhat in the state of peat. ashes mingled with common sedimentary These. and so by sinkings intermittent and accumulations a great number of strata were produced. terrestrial. probably. In England some of the coal-fields. turn again sunk. and now stand . The beds of vegetable remains were. and interstratifications of old lava streams. Vegetable growth again took place. marine.000 feet thick. but over large tracts of country now known as England and Wales. measures were formed. first when formed. and other strata were deposited upon it. being often harder than the sand- stones and shales with which they are interbedded. and by iromense pressure and gradual chemical changes they in a long lapse of time became mineralised. similar in structure to those of Scotland. In the Scottish area. of the Coal-measures. estuarine and freshwater. and beds of volcanic strata.000 to 10. Aave mare atrongVy resisted denudation.64 Coal-measures. while by and denudation they are now In this way the Coal- much later disturbance in places exposed to view. and the continents of Europe. and North America. after death. many volcanoes were at work and thus we have dykes and bosses of felspathic trap and greenstone.

Having thus given a very of formation of the tions. Moorhills. brief account of the mode the more important Scottish formais we may already begin to perceive what cause of the mountainous character of the Sighla/nds and of the briefly this : softer features of the Lowlands.Highlands and Lowlands. but being comparatively unmetamorphosed. metamorphosed. without ever rising to the dignity of mountains. whence the great variety of their outline is the result of the softer rocks having been most easily worn away. which give great diversity to the scenery. the Lomonds of Fife. had already been raised high into the air. forming the uplands of the Carrick. the Silurian rocks which form almost entirely the northern half of Scotland. though perhaps not originally raised to the same height. or in craggy lines and bosses like Salisbury Crags. the Eenfrewshire and Ayrshire hills on the Clyde. foot. and greatly disturbed. out' in 65 hilly ranges like the Pentland. though as a whole tion. before the deposition of the Old Eed Sandstone. from Galloway to the coast of Berwickshire. Ochill. yet consist of difficult of destruc- vntermingled masses of different degrees of hardness. It is that in very ancient geological times. the same strata. and Lammermuir have been equally dis- turbed. and the Garlton Hills in Haddingtonshire. and Campsie Hills. Such me- tamorphic rocks. . In the south of Scotland.

Then on the flanks of the Highland mountains. and have therefore been more wasted by denudation. and in this hoUow the Old Red Sandstone was from the waste of the Silxirian deposited. the land began to sink on the south. and began as were to creep southwhich. sinking still wards across the Lammermuir further. stone period it consists In time. in various subforma- were deposited in a great freshwater lake formed partly. but embracing But before the deposition of the Old Eed and Carbon- iferous series. whence their lower elevation. partly derived hills on the north and south. as depo- sition progressed. and Moorfoot range . and the upper strata of Old Red Sandstone overlapped it the lower beds. there is reason to believe that a wide and deep valley already existed between the Grampian mountains and the Carrick. The whole were then again disturbed together large European and other areas. . sures and Carboniferous limestone It appears. is now Scotland. Lammermuir. by the Iwoer Coal-measeries. from the waste of the older Silurian strata. the softer Old Eed Sandstone. But by-and-by.66 they are Distribution of Formations. —a dis- turbance not confined to Scotland only. and above that — for of two members which lie UTiconformahly on each other —the Carboniferous rocks were formed. and partly round the eastern magin of what strata of the tions. as the conglomerates testify. the Old Red Sandseries came to an end. less hard. were in turn invaded hills.

above which come the Carboniferous rocks 3. highly disturbed. + . from the Grrampian mountains to the Lammermuir hills. The diagram is. in the Lammermuir hills (1'). in which the following relations of the various formations are shown. been removed from the greater part of that high strata are only area. too small to show of these these breaks. Eed Sandstone (No. however. therefore. not 2). however. across the central valley of Scotland. and now the Carboniferous found in force in the great central valley through which flow the rivers Forth and Clyde. lying in a wide broken and denuded synclinal curve. thus. This will be easily understood by referring to the section. fig. in the course of repeated denudations. 2) lies uncon- formably. The southern continuation strata once spread over the Lammermuir F 2 hills in a kind . 1). The gneissic rocks of the Highlands (No. 6^ all from a consideration of the circumstances strata. these the Old On No. that connected with the physical relations of the the Coal-measures once spread right across the Lam- mermuir range. pass under the Old Eed and rise again. 10. and were united strata that to the Carboniferous now occupy the north of England. with bands of Limestone marked Sandstone (No.Scotland. with part of the Old of the Eed Sandstone. but much metamorphosed. covering great part Sikman strata of the south of Scotland. This unconformable covering has.

are. The reason When clinal strata have been thrown into a it series of anti- and synclinal curves. This is the It is why many coal-fields lie in basins. and almost entirely removed from the hills ? upland region of the Lammermuir is this. that the Carboniferous beds were deposited in basins. because they rarely contain sub- . therefore. were by this means saved for long periods of time from the effects of denudation. not. air. as used to be supposed. is it Now why that the Carboniferous and Old Bed Sandstone rocks have been specially preserved in the great valley. In other words.68 Curved Strata manner shown by the dotted 3'. some widely extended portions of the strata lay so deep that no wasting influence had access to them. and the were denuded away. though.ations. rain. No. in the lines on the diagram below. but that by disturbance part of the strata were thrown into that form. so as to form deep basin-shaped hollows. equally Such basims kinds of for- common to all m. has frequently happened that those parts of the disturbed strata that were thrown downwards. while the upper parts of the neighbouring anticlinal curvatures being ex- posed to rivers. and the geologists so basin—as reason term it —remains. all the wasting influences of the sea. of anticlinal curve. and saved from the effects of denudation. and they have escaped denudation.

that portion that lay deep the synclinal curve was beneath the level of the tion. and therefore exposed to waste and destruction. spheric influences. and then of it be raised more or less above that level well into the air. Part of the area now known as the then covered by Old Lammer- muir hills.and Denudation. In the case now under review it happens that the lie in Old Eed Sandstone and Carboniferous rocks hollow. let us suppose that the whole of the formations this area now forming let parts were underneath the sea. and thus escaped denuda- because no wasting action takes place in such situations. rose above the water. and of rain. The reason of this that during frequent oscillations of land. and was immediately subjected to the wear and teaii on the shore. they have not obtained the same attention that Coal-basins have received. . on in sea. and though the much worn away and fragmentary. and other atmoother while. the hand. Red Sandstone and of breakers Coal-measures. the higher ground was much more often above water than the lower part. frost. has been removed by denuis. To understand this thoroughly. dation. 69 stances of economic value. they have been to a great extent preserved. while the continuation of part of the same formations that lay high in an anticlinal form. relatively to the level of the sea. and originally spread over the Lammermuir hills (3').

and associated with masses of granite. down to the present Being formed for the most part of materials of great but unequal hardness. as we now know them. geological accidents such as these. probably indeed ever since what for want of better words we term the close of Lower Silurian times. rivers. the Old Eed Sandstone. strata are rendered rugged. more or day. the high land has been cut up into innu- merable valleys by the repeated action of rain.. and mostly crystalline. 70 Origin of Scenery. and lines of hard granite. less by disturbances of than by the scooping away of country. of material from greatly elevated tracts elevation By mere and disturbance of as the land might rise high enough. The Highlands axe necessarily mountainous because they are composed of rocks much disturbed. but mountain regions now exist. that they date from before the time of that extremely venerable formation. whence their mountainous character for mountains. metamorphosed. and glaciers. have been extremely denuded such denudations having commenced so long ago. the greater By featm-es of Scottish scenery have been produced. has been going on. it is by a combination of disturbance of strata with extreme denudation. strata. and long above water. and the waste less. and intermingled with bosses These having been often . going on while and after slow disturbance and elevation .

Southern Highlands. was subsequently again exposed by denudation of the overlying strata. 7 was taking place. and old ice. have been called into existence. The present scenery of hill and vaUey even in the is Southern part of Scotland in great part the result of the waste of this old table-land. as they are sometimes These consist mainly of the Lammermuir. ice-sheet covering the whole first as a great of Scotland and much more besides. that peaks. Carboniferous rocks which. . and Carrick the hills. rough ridges. rivers. But they are not a range. coupled with other geological accidents. modified afterwards by minor glaciers during the oscillations of temperature that marked what we now call the Glacial Epoch.1 Scotland. Moorfoot. after being long buried. both of the Silurian and newer rocks. ice-worn surfaces. They are undergoing further modification now. The^ consist in reality chiefly of a table-land. have produced the great valleys of the Forth still and Clyde. now often massed under the name of Lammermuir range. and all the clififs and valleys of the Highlands in their present form. Farther south the different nature. and the scooping out of valleys by rain. older for the most part than the Old Eed Sandstone and . and the tamer but hilly scenery of the called.

. Eng- On the Continent. Very few European geological formations are altogether absent in land. and more thoroughly developed In some is lacustrine or terrestrial deposits in others. GENEEAL AEEANGEMENT OF THE STRATIFIED FOEMATIONS OF THEIR OEIGIN. countries larger than England the whole surface occupied by one or two formations. it England said is the very Paradise of geologists. and its features there- various. in so far that contains fore are many more more formations. and much of Asia and America. some have a larger importance than in England. however. being more truly oceanic deposits in some cases. AND UNCONFOBMITIES. but in England we find aU the formations less shown in the column Those of Silurian (page 26) more or developed. STRATIGEAPHICAL AND GEOGEAPHICAL POSITIONS. for may be to be in itself an epitome of the geology of almost the whole of Europe.72 CHAPTER ENGLAND VI. The geology of England and Wales is much more it comprehensive than that of Scotland.

fig. rocks. and mingled with these . and in South Wales skirt the Bristol Channel. here and there. Wor- South Wales. wall. as does. 74. occupying large areas cestershire. rise from below the Secondary strata to the heart of England. will be easily understood by a reference to descriptions. 11) consist chiefly of slaty and solid gritty strata. and part of Grloucestershire. in Cumber- land and Westmoreland. {Bee Map. felspathie lavas and volcanic ashes. and it this structure is explaining. from The general physical structure the coast of Wales to the Thames. chiefly 73 (in the north of England). Grlamorin ganshire. Above them lie the Old Red Sandstone and Devonian in Herefordshire. marked + . the physical geology of the chief part of England south of the Staffordshire and Derbyshire hills. and interbedded with. and (in the west) in "Wales. The Lower Silurian rocks of Wales (No. which form large of Devonshire. 1. age lie.England and Wales. p. Somerset. and stretch into the interior in Pembrokeshire.) of England. while the north they border North Wales and form a broad backbone of country that reaches from the borders of Scotland down to North Staffordshire and Derbyshire. 1 1 and to the following eminently typical. and in Devonshire and Cornthe Above Old Eed Sandstone come the tracts Carboniferous strata. and Monmouthshire. accom- panied by. Other patches. fig.

J* O o § 2 S S « 2 § 0> ^ . I ^ g CD It a M « CI ^1 ^ a I "« <D a -a •X) •a 9 ° &> 0) !25 3 S •" W T3 a O O Cm •»^ o ^ s N .2 o O PI <£> a ^•5 •a O "d o ft.74 North Wales and England.

with the Lower Silurian strata. and also by the action of the waves of the sea of a is yoimger Silurian period. In Pembroke- shire also. These last. from Merionethshire to the Menai * Straits. give a moun- tainous character to the whole of North Wales. and hilly by help of denudation. there are *j^ numerous bosses and dykes of felstone. of the strata. quartz-porphyry. greenstone (diorite). Upper Llandovery shells lie which mingled with marine unconformably on the denuded edges of the Cambrian and Lower Silurian strata of the Longmynd in Shropshire.Silurian Rocks. place beneath the Slow submergence then took sea. it is into details respecting the minor known as the Lower and Upper Llandovery Cambrian and sufficient to state that the Lower Silurian epoch was ended in the British area by disturbance and contortion land. in a less degree. beds. now form a very country. in Upper Silurian which the Upper Silurian rocks were gradually accumulated un- conformably on and perhaps entirely bmied the Lower . the evidence of which in the conglomerates of the seen beds. Without entering formations. and the like. both by ordinary atmospheric agencies. and their upheaval into This disturbance necessarily gave rise to long-continued denudations of this early English land. igneous rocks are largely intermingled these. like a consolidated sea beach. by their superior hardness.

Lawrence. or in the brackish pools of Australia. fig. lying. 6). we include the formation. till Silurian strata (2. unconform- ably on Silurian rocks. Northumberland. and sandstones bearing In fact. formed. 4 shown in fig. Derbyshire. as it does in North Wales. which overlaid in Wales. the Carboniferous limestone has no pretension to be ranked as a special formation. The upj^ermost Upper Silurian beds of Wales pass Old Red entire insensibly into a newer series known if as the Sandstone (3. Durham. is t This is not shown in fig. and fish whose nearest allies live in the rivers and lakes of America and Africa. p. fig. and the occasional presence of crocodiHans. 1 7. and Lancashire by the Millstone Grrit and the Coal-measures. and much more remotely the Lepidosteus of the St. and conglo- merate. land reptiles. and Scotland. 11. the Carboniferous series consists only of one great formation possessing different lithological Ceratodus of Queensland.* seem to have been deposited in lakes. sible In Wales these strata (with a pos- unconformable break in the middle) again pass is upwards into the Carboniferous Limestone.f In Yorkshire. 102. viewed as a whole. which in all the British areas by the absence of marine shells. in places they attained a thickness of from three to six thousand feet.76 Old Red Sandstone Rocks. sandstone. 11). . but the carboniferous limestone No. for it is broken into a shales up number of bands interstratified with masses of coals. Polypterus of the Nile. of beds of red marl.

. are in Monmouthshire and Grla- morganshire not less than 10. that in general they have not been. 77 characters in dififerent areas. as in strata were clear open seas. and the true Coalmeasures.000 feet thick. Carboniferous Rocks. except in North- umberland and Derbyshire. locally in Derbyshire stones. it is reaches a greater thickness. The Millstone Grit in South Wales 1. or actu- the case of the vegetable matter that forms itself. differ The English Carboniferous rocks from the Scottish beds in this. where no man has ever seen base. the is Clee Hills and Warwickshire. mixed with igneous matter.000 feet thick. is the coals. which may possibly be of Permian age. because it rolls over in an anticlinal curve. Coalbrook Dale. where in the last-named county the Carboniferous Limestone ashes is interbedded with called 'toad- and lava. or near land. entirely formed of and other organic remains. six and attains a thickness of two thousand feet in hundred South Wales and the southwest of England its and in Derbyshire. encrinites. which are generally more or less of the as oc- same nature as those which I have described curring in Scotland. intruded into and perhaps also partly overflowing the .' In South Staffordshire. on the land The Carboniferous Limestone sea shells. these having been ruled by circumstances dependent on whether the formed in deep ally. there a little basalt and greenstone. corals.

where they chiefly consist of a long low flat-topped terrace of Magne- sian limestone (see Map). no igneous rock of any kind occurs. There are other patches of Permian sandstones. breccias. in the same way that I described them is as growing in their day on what Coal-measure area. coal. is The scarped edge of this limestone. and the West of Cumber- . interstratified with two or three thin beds of red marl sometimes containing gypsum. however. . There as usual and elsewhere in England the Coal-measures consist of alternations of sandstone. and ironstone . where the Coal-measures are thickest. Lan- and Yorkshire. now the Scottish Next in the series come the Permian rocks (5. fig. the coal everywhere being the remains of the decayed plants that grew upon the soils of the period. the Vale of Eden. and conglomerates. Monmouthshire. and overlooks the lower undulations of the Coal-measure area. marls. Carboniferous rocks in Permian times ganshire. which sparsely fossiliferous. which. rarely occupy so large a space in England as materially to affect the larger features of the scenery of the country. North cashire.78 Permian Rocks. They form a narrow and marked strip on the east of the Coal-measures from Northumberland to Nottinghamshire. faces west. in the South of Scotland. 1 6). but in Glamor- Staffordshire. shale.

the Silurian rocks of the Abberley and Malvern hills. and marls. Molluscs are generally but not always scarce. in the limestones and marls of Lancashire and Cumberland. but not necessarily truly ocean species. Enville. for strata that were formerly called in England Lower New Eed Sandkone. conglomerates. the Midland and coal-fields. Shropshire. The conglomerates of Cumberland. range. . c©arse and subangular. fordshire. and the Abberley and Malvern are generally rough. Through- out all the districts enumerated above these Permian strata chiefly consist of red sandstones. and on of all the Lancashire. It was used to prevent confusion between these strata and the New Ked Sandstone. and dolomitic limestones are sparingly associated with these strata in Cumberland and Lancashire.Permanent Boulder land. In my opinion these are simply These conglomerates here and there on a small scale form somewhat prominent points in the landscape. and Frankly Beeches in South Taken as a whole the Permian formations played a : * Often called the RothlAegende a German name pretty generally adopted over Europe. t Locally known as Biockram. consisting of a few saltwater. 79 and also here and there present on the borders North Wales. such as Wars Hill on the Malvern and Abberley Staffordshire.! South Stafhills.* The marls occasionally contain gypsum. sometimes called the Bunter beds. old boulder-clays. the stones and boulders being south of Cumberland embedded in a red marly paste. Clay.

and the Permian beds lie in various districts on any formation from the Cambrian rocks up to the Coal-measures. rentian. but at present convenient. very important part in the ancient contvnental physical geography of what is now Britain and other countries. lie Thus the Llandeilo flags and Bala beds unconformably on the Lingula .8o Unconformities. . 1871. C. this and other parts of the world suffered level many oscilHations of accompanied by denudations. in a false impression of a so far that it partly conveys life essentially distinct that of later times. p. Geol.* The Permian heds form the uppermost members of the so-called Palssozoic or old-life period. the Carboniferous Lower and upper Silurian strata lie here and there at random on any of the older Formations down to the Cambrian. and Cambrian rocks the Upper Silurian rocks lie unstrata. ' and denuded » See The Bed Hocks of Britain of Older Date than the Trias. raised into land. —a term somefrom what unphilosophical. Quart. parts of conformably on the Lower Silurian the Old Bed Sandstone often lie unconformably on both rocks. embracing all the formations from those of Permian date down to the lower Lau.' by A. Kamsay. Joum. 241. Each special unconformity indicates that the older or lower lying strata were disturbed. for all geologists know when the word palaeozoic is used what formations are meant. See. During the time they were forming.

and partly on the Permian rocks. Later beds lying unconformably upon them. thus. — ^in other words a considerable. As with the Permian . In the same continental area. the New Eed Sandstone and Marl of our region were then deposited in lakes perhaps occasionally fresh. 2. Fig. At the close of the Permian period a further dis- turbance of strata. 8 1 before or while the overlying beds were being deposited above them. but as regards the marl certainly salt. 12. and no doubt slow change in physical geography. and all the common atmospheric agencies. Old disturbed strata. partly on older subjacent strata.— Permian Salt Lakes. An tinent was remodelled. 'Z 1. at the present day. —marks much old con- the so-called end of this Palffiozoic epoch over of what is now Europe and more besides. accompanied by the wasting action of the sea and of rivers. is now Britain formed Before the end of this Palaeozoic epoch. the Permian beds were deposited in great inland salt lakes analogous to the Caspian Sea and other salt lakes in Central Asia. That area gives the best modern idea of the state of much of the world during Permian times. and what part of it.

and in England are called New Eed Marl.82 New Red Series. Marine . and above them are placed red and green marls. figs. eastwards into Warwickshire. but traces of amphibious reptiles. present. where the Muschelkalk called the Trias. in These Germany go by the name of the Keuper strata. The whole on is the Continent. along the eastern border of the Magnesian limestone (see Map). is These formations fill the vale of Clwyd in North Wales. and land plants are of shells. plains most of them looking west. consists in its lower 6. fish. and in the centre of England range from the mouth of the Mersey round the borders of Wales to the estuary of the Severn. The New Red Sandstone series (No. and thence northwards into Yorkshire. New Eed Sandstone and Marl no relics of Great Britain there are of marine life. often called the Bunter Sandstone.. They are absent in Scotland. Mesozoie or Secondary strata this. was formed of the material of Palaeozoic rocks^ that then stood above the surface of the water. softer strata. &c. over lating and unduIn the ground formed of . bivalve Crustacea.500 feet in thickness. 1 1 and 16) members of beds of red sandstone and conglomerate. interstratified with a few sandstone beds often white and grey. In the its centre of England the unequal hardness of divisions sometimes gives rise to sub- minor escarpments. chiefly red. are plentiful occasional occm-rence. sometimes 1. the oldest of the rocks.

often facing west and north-west. and Pterodactyles occur so plentifully. and some of the species pass into the Lias. so well of Scarborough and Whitby. Plesiosauri. In the Upper Lias the jet occurs. it is The Lias is rich in the marine life. running from Lyme Eegis on the south-west. viz. known in the shops of The unequal hardness the clays and limestones of the Liassic strata causes some of its members to stand out in distinct minor escarpments. 11. but is absent with us. In England there therefore a gradation between the Lias. much of the centre of a 2 .Rlioetic Beds and Lias. The New Red Marl passes insensibly into the Ehoetic beds which are only a few feet thick. consists of three belts of strata. to Yorkshire on the north-east . of these. and limestone. the Ichthyosauri. The Lias series. which forms the middle part of the series in Germany. 11) forms the most prominent broad meadow-land of and overlooks the clay that form Lower Lias England. fig. New Red Marl and the Lower The fossils of the Ehoetic beds are marine. Nos. fig. 7 and 8. the Lower Lias clay strata. and in these strata that those remarkable marine reptiles. The Marlstone (No. through the whole of England. and which again pass insensibly into is the Lower Lias. the Middle Lias or Marlstone and the Upper Lias relics of clay. 8. 83 in the Muschelkalk.

from their approximate conformability one to the other. Coral Eag. Portland beds had been deposited (formthe entire Oolitic series in what is When the ing 1. and in the district * See also the ' known p. Gloucestershire and Leicestershire. Cornbrash. fig. Conformable to and resting upon the Lias are the various members of the Oolitic series (6 to 11. freshwater. for^- and Portland beds. Oxford Clay. is Because of this elevation. extending from Devon and Dorsetshire northwards. 26. was raised above the level and became land. and the underlying down to the base of the New Eed Sandstone. and land de- with thin beds of coal. where they disappear beneath the German Ocean. 13). now the south and centre of England. there evidence in the Isles of Purbeck. fig.' . and the Isle of Wight. These. and much more sea- besides in other regions. 5). occupy a set of belts of variable breadth. as the Column of Formations. being succeeded by the Grreat or Bath Oolitei. Portland. Kimmeridge Clay. constitute what geologists term the Older Mesozoic or Secondary formations. In the south of England all of these formations are marine. to the north of Yorkshire. through Somersetshire. and from Northamptonshire to Yorkshire they partly consist iposits of estuarine. and all of them. . mations.84 Oolitic Series.* That portion termed the Inferior Oolite occupies the base.

i. I do not wish it to immense river was formed simply by the drainage of . h. Wealden Sands and Clays. small marsupial ov pouched mammalia. shells. The position of these beds with fig. Kg. fish. indicating fossils thfeir that they were accumulated in an estuary where freshwater and occasionally brackish-water and marine conditions prevailed. 13. loose sands. represent the delta and lagoon beds of an immense river. they are seen lying between the two. 85 which must have been common in all times of the world's history. sandstones. Cretaceous strata. consisting of clays. marked w. The. of a state of affairs Series. near Swanage. 1. We by have there a series of beds. 2. 112. which in size may have rivalled the Ganges or the Mississippi. I may mention that in the Isle of Purbeck. and terrestrial reptiles. Portland Oolite. and in the sediments of which were buried land-plants. 3. indeed. Purbeck Limestones and Mails.Purbeck and Wealden Weald. and other forms native to be understood that this its waters. Wealden and Purbeck beds. and shelly limestone. will be seen in 22. and mingled with them the remains of and crocodiles. turtles. and to prove that they are intermediate in date to the Oolites and Cretaceous rocks. p. respect to the Cretaceous strata.

or Some of these are so very like existing species that it requires all the skill of the palaeontologist to tell that there is any difierence find bands of between them. explain how we know that the Wealden series were accumulated chiefly under fresh- water conditions. we now call Great Britain. which you may find living in many a canal of the present day. Paludina. though I think it partly lay to the north and west . I do not indeed quite know where the mass of the continent but I do lay through which it ran and which it drained. river. showing little. But now and then we marine remains. such as Unio. . Planorbis. know that England formed a part of it. and such like. I must.other salt-^ater moUusca lived and died . that at times the delta of the river had sunk a and that and it had been invaded by the sea. but chiefly in the nature of the organic remains contained in them. Limnsea. most them being of freshwater origin. but interstratified with them . so that oysters there. or the great continents of North and South America. pond. The flsh give no posi- tive proof. however. and that in size that continent must have heen larger than Europe and probahly as large as Asia. together with the shells. but the crocodilian reptiles yield more conclusive of evidence.86 the small territory Wealden. Physa. not confusedly mixed with the freshr water deposits. The proof lies partly in the nature of the strata.

above which lies Upper Grreensand. area. and became an extensive freshwater It important to mention these circumstances. a set of marine sands and clays were deposited. is Then by gradual changes it was again area. came to an end. by the complete submergence of the Wealden and of the greater part of England besides. but in England they have generally been known as the Lower Cretaceous beds. 11. the upper portion of which contains numerous band^ . consisting of the Atherfield Clay and the Lower Grreensand s. and c. the lowest part (Lower Grreensand). 11. tinction is The dis- not important to my present purpose. 87 lifted up. and strata. and consequently upon This episode at last scenery. d (fig. belonging to called what on the Continent is the Neocomian and the upper part to the Cre- taceous period. because the present nature of some of these half consolidated strata exercises a considerable effect on the amount and nature of the later denudation of the rocks in the south-east of its England. Eesting upon the Upper Green* fig. p. and upon these thick beds of pure white earthy limestone. fig.Cretaceotts Rocks. 22). 22. 112. Then the comes the clay of the Grault. sand comes the Chalk (No. The lower part of these formations in the south of England. upon these freshwater formations that and the Oolitic and other partly formed their margins.) is bedfe now generally classed with the Upper Neocomian of the Continent.

and while was forming in the wide ocean it seems probable that the old islands of the Oolitic seas subsided so completely that it is doubtful whether or not even Wales and the other older mountains of Britain were almost entirely submerged. the Upper Cretaceous strata gra- . having been previously tilted upwards to the west with an eastern dip into (fig. 204). and Chalk. so that. The Chalk.. happened that by slow sinking of the land. is silicified. Cumberland. so that in the course of time. The Liassic and Oolitic formations were seas surrounding sediments spread in warm an archi- pelago of which Dartmoor. During the period that the Oolitic formations formed part of the land through which the river flowed that deposited the Wealden and Purbeck beds. they were undergoing constant waste. since thickest. denudation The submergence of the Wealden area was accompanied by the progressive sinking of the Oolitic and older strata further west. p. But the Chalk was a deep sea deposit formed to a it great extent of microscopic foraminiferse. 214). as the successive members of the Cretaceous it formations were deposited. Wales.88 Oolite. they were reduced what I have elsewhere termed a plain of marine {see p. where from one thousand to twelve hundred feet in thickness. Wealden. and the Highlands of Scotland formed some of the islands. originally were mostly of interstratified flints whicli marine sponges. 34.

p. as The upheaval of the Chalk into land brought this epoch to an end. This brings us to the last divisions of the British strata of which I shall now treat. known as the Thanet Sand and Woolwich and Eeading beds. consist of marine and estuary deposits. of Devonshire itself.Eocene Formations. 12. say from 50 to 150 feet thick. 89 dually overlapped the edges of the outcropping Oolitic and Liassie the strata. they are of . As the uppermost member of the Upper Secondary rocks. These lie below the London Clay and form the outer border of the London basin. The Woolwich In the Woolwich and Eeading beds are found in the Isle of Wight. and which are of comparatively small thickness. and in part constitute the Hampshire basin. fig. 11.. that though the shells belong mostly to the same genera. At the base they . till at length they were intruded on strata New Eed series and even on the Palaeozoic shown on the next page. but with this difference. and are termed Eocene formations (No. and Eeading beds we have in places the same kind of alternations of freshwater and marine shells that I the mentioned as occurring in Wealden and Pur- beck strata . and those conditions that contributed to its formation ceased in our area. it closes the record of Mesozoic times in England. These were deposited on the Chalk. 74).

90 t3 * .

26. I refer the reader to the column.1 Eocene Formations. diiFerent species 9 life is —the old freshwater replaced by new. Upon these were formed various newer fresh water strata. at a time when a small percentage of shells still living were believed to be com- mon to these lower tertiary formations. Upon the London Clay. the whole evidently accumulated at the mouth of a later river. is At present not one Eocene shell present day. p. occasionally inter- bedded with thin marine bands. but at Bracklesham and Barton on the Hampshire coast they contain a rich marine moUuscan faima of a tropical or sub-tropical character. For the names of these minor formations. which is a marine forma- tion. dawn or beginning of recent or of that kind of life that exists in the world at the present day . varying from 200 to 500 feet thick. the Brackles- ham and outliers Bagshot beds were deposited. recognised as living at the . occurring as —isolated patches left by denudation around Bagshot and elsewhere on the London Clay. These consist of marine unconsolidated sands and clays. I may mention that the word Eocene was first used by Sir Charles Lyell to express the life. and overlying the same formation in the Isle of Wight. places In both these they are only sparingly fossiliferous. where they are well seen in Alum Bay.

1 1 . the part that these formations play in producing the scenery of the country. to show by the help of and other diagrams.92 I have Scenery. . now given an idea of the geological and stratigraphical positions of the series of the larger and more solid geological formations that are concerned in producing the physical structure of England (see Map). and I will in the following chapters endeavour fig.

and Cheshire. in Devon and in Wales. THE MOUNTAINS OF WALES AND THE WEST OP ENGLAND THE TALLEY OF THE SEVERN. the country essentially of a is mountainous character . may be described as flat and unas a dulating ground. But . Worcestershire. such as parts of Staffordshire. AND BORDERING PLAINS AND VALLEYS THE PHYSICAL RELATIONS OF THESE TO THE MOUNTAINS OF WALES AND CUMBERLAND. OOLITIC. especially in the north. In Wales. In the far west. also in the north-west in Cumherland. sometimes rather hilly.93 CHAPTEE VII. we have what forms the mountainous and more hilly districts [of England and Wales. and the middle of England. and in the Pennine chain which joins the Scottish hills and stretches from Northhills umberland to the Carboniferous Limestone of Derbyshire north of Ashbourne. AND CHALK ESCARPMENTS —THE HILLT CARBO- NIFEROUS' GROUND ITS OF THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. AND THE COTSWOLD.

This remarkable Oolitic escarpment stretches in a more or less perfect form from the extreme south-west (see of England northward into Yorkshire it is clear Map) . Wales. and he cast his eye to the north-east. 74). whole. for when viewed from any of the moun- tain regions in the neighbourhood. p.94 Malvern Hills. Severn. the whole country helow appears almost like a vast plain. through which the Severn flows. what seem to be interminable low undula. and in all probability only ended where the Oolitic seas washed the high land formed by the . as far as the eye can reach. form they now pos- but once spread continuously over the plain far to the west. overlooking on the west a broad plain of Lias Clay and of New Ked Marl. hill after hill stretching into if Wales (1 to 3. and rising boldly above the plain. To illustrate Let us imagine anyone on the top of the gneissic fig. and let him look to the west : then. this. he will see fig. almost like perfect plains while to the east and south-east there lies a broad low flat (6 to 8). range of the Malvern Hills {g. so formed of the Oolitic formations which constitute a part of Gloucestershire. he will there see tions. which have something of a mountainous character. but that the Oolitic strata could not have been originally deposited in the scarped sess. as the Cotswold Hills. form a table-land. 11). bounded by a flat-topped escarpment (9) facing west. these midland hills are insignificant considered on a large scale. 11. large These.

in which . from which a vast extent and thickness of Lias and Oolite have been removed. Wales. Occasional outliers Indeed I firmly and Oolites entirely surrounded the old land of Wales. between Wales and the Lancashire estuaries of the now partly occupied by the Dee and Mersey.and the Cotswold Hills. 11). the sea was not. The strata that now form the wide Oolitic table-land have a slight dip to the south-east and east. of Lias and Oolite attest this believe that the Lias fact. and great atmospheric denudations having in old times taken place large part of them. from 800 to 1. miles (still going on). that plain being a table-land. the chief agent in the production of this and similar escarpments will be shown fm-ther on.200 he would find himself on a second plain (9. and thus it ment. and the North of England. however. fig. a upon miles in width. once —in Yorkshire and the cliff. more ancient disturbed 95 Palaeozoic strata of Dartmoor. Hills. has been happens that a bold escarpvale of Severn swept away. An inexperienced person standing on the plain of the great valley of the Severn near Cheltenham or Wotton-under-edge would scarcely expect that when he ascended the Cotswold feet high. passing westwards through what is now the Bristol Channel on the south. —an That old line of Coast overlooks the central plains and undulations of England. and the broad lie tract of New Red formations that hills.

western exten- 14. are exaggerated. strata. chiefly- here and there deep valleys have been scooped. and the minor terraces on the plain. formed of the Chalk. p. which in day also spread far to the west. especially such as 7. and the power of brooks and minor still rivers. in farther to extended much the west because here and there near the extreme edge of the * Such valleys are necessarily omitted on so small a diagram. and by-and-by. and pass in succession the outcrops of the different Oolitic limestones of which form formations (some of the minor (11. After consolidation and emergence this Chalk formation result is has this also suffered great waste. Occasional outlying patches of the its earlier Cretaceous formations attest sion (see fig. .9^ Escarpment of the Chalk. covering unconformably till the half-denuded Oolites. it also in its early beginning abutted upon the ancient land formed of the of Wales.* If we go all farther to the east. opening out westward into the plain at the foot of the escarpment. buried it perhaps in places altogether. we come to a second grand escarpment its fig. rain. which from Dorsetshire on the south coast of England into Yorkshire north of Flam- borough Head. 11). These valleys have been cut out entirely by frost. as that Palaeozoic strata land sunk in the sea. scarps). The Eocene their day also which lie above the Chalk. and the second bold stretches escarpment also facing westerly. 90).

Part of the main mass of the Eocene beds. and with the till Chalk. Chalk. they occupy their present area. 2. 15. form no bold rest in patches scenery. They on the table-land or in a large depressed at 12. and other accidents. It is impossible that these outliers could have been originally deposited on this the edge of the chalk and not on other strata that lie west of the present escarpassimied that they ment. fig. The plan of this book my object being merely to explain the its- connection of the greater geological features of the country with physical geography. 1. -w \ ^f r . n . Nearly there- on this part of the subject many distinctive features in the scenery of the Eocene formations- dependent on cynelinal curves in the strata. Out- lying patch of the Eocene beds near the edge of the escarpment. have been denuded backwards . K >y Fig. purposely excludes such details. area in a manner shown 11. and therefore originally extended it may be further westward. 97 escarpment of Chalk we find outlying Eocene fragments.* Such is the general manner in which the southern its part of England has attained * Were I going are into extrerae details present form.Eocene Strata and Denudation. is The proof of this original extension westward shown in the following diagram. and the same remark may be extended to the scenery of many formations more important in a scenic point of view. F^^y^^ir^ """"^ 2'. But the Eocene beds being formed and sands of soft strata — chiefly clays —though they make undulating ground.

yet with rare exceptions most of the strata have been elevated above the water without contortion on a large scale. is the whole of the west of England. Though occasionally traversed by faults. — it is. and of Wales. and Silurian with fications. that of to say. easily seen how the outlines of the country have assumed such varied and rugged outlines less as those which Wales. much bending or What chiefly took place . which early as the close of the commenced period. They are formed of beds of variable hardness Silurian rocks in —much of the feet. through periods of time so immense that the mind refuses to grapple with them. been much disturbed and extensively denuded. Devon and Cornwall. I have said that the Secondary and strata have not tlie Lower Tertiary been anywhere disturbed nearly to as same extent the Palaeozoic formations in England. I repeat. viz. Devonian. igneous interstratiAll these have and the Carboniferous series. those great denudations. inter- bedded with masses of hard igneous rocks. Wales being of a slaty character.gS Mountains of Devon and Wales. therefore. and in a degree parts of Devon and Cornwall. easy to understand how it happens that with disturbed and contorted beds of such various kinds. which attain in It some instances a thickness of thousands of is. Old Eed Sandstone. all its Cambrian. : consists of Palaeozoic strata. now present. as Lower Silurian and have been continued intermittently ever since.

which. dip as a whole slightly but steadily to the east and south-east. posed of New Eed Sandstone and and then two great escarpments. 99 was a slight uptilting of the strata to the west. is. while. as shown in fig. therefore. 11) forms the western edge of the table-land. No. which. which rise in some places : to a height of more than a thousand feet the western one being formed of Oolitic. and the its eastern of Cretaceous strata. what do this part of we find there ? Through the centre of England a great in tract of Palaeozoic country more than 200 miles 2 H . forming a group of mountains in the west. then certain plains and undulating grounds comLias. in spite of a few minor escarpments that rise on the surface of the upper plain. that the physical features of England present masses of Palaeozoic strata. of the disturbance and denu- dation of the Palaeozoic strata. is over- by the Eocene fi'ee series of the London and Hamp- shire basins. 11. 11. 9.Plains and Table-land. If fig. fig. and of the lesser dis- turbance and denudation of the Secondary rocks. in laid turn. the upper- most Oolitic beds that dip below the Cretaceous strata are at a lower level than the Inferior Oolite at the edge of the plateau. then. we now turn to the north. all through the centre of England. This is evident from the circximstance that on the Cotswold Hills the lowest Oolitic formation (Inferior Oolite. The great result. the edges of table-lands.

If we now construct a section from the Menai hills Straits. across Snowdon and over the Derbyshire to the east of England. North of this region the Vale of faults till we come is to the east side of Eden the country much complicated by it in and other disturbances. the whole of the Carboniferous rocks dipping steadily east at low angles. lie Further west near the mouth of the Solway. but east of the is Vale of Eden the structure of the country again exceedingly simple. all the way from the escarpment that overlooks the vale. coal-:field. separated from the Carboniferous formations of North- ranberland and Yorkshire by the Permian beds of the Vale of Eden. that to say. to the German Ocean that borders the Northumberland 37. Ke in the form of a broad anticlinal curve. and . ranging It consists of Carboniferous from the Carboniferous Limestone up to those that pass beneath the base of the Permian strata. rocks. fig. As far as the north borders of the Lancashire and the Carboniferous rocks is Yorkshire coal-fields. stretches from the sonthern part of Derbyshire to the borders of Scotland.lOO North of England. they dip east and west in the manner shown in the opposite diagram. p. and to describe detail would occupy too much space. 230. Silurian and Carboniferous rocks of the the Cambrian area. 17. length. the arrangement of the strata may be typified in the following manner (fig.

Lancashire and Derbyshire. % CD i-t hii M ft O O ft? 00 \J .

^ j/ Then more ^ OQ from under the Strata of Disturbed New Coal- Eed Sandstone. and then over to the east. forming an anticlinal curve. line 17). Cheshire. to the east of the Dee.102 N. strata. the soft rolling undulations of the scenery. Wales. I m \ lie the great undulating plains of the series. consisting of Carboniferous beds with an escarpment facing west. These strata dip neath the roll first to the west. 6. 3. together with the Millstone grit and Carboniferous Lime- u stone forming. the Derbyshire hills. whence. and which are and easily / denuded. the limestone being in the centre. 4'. 4. rise In the west. under- New Eed Sandstone. the 1 older disturbed Silurian to Nos. in part. Then. the measures again rise. in Cheshire. easterly. On the east of these lies an upper portion of the Palaeozoic rocks. New Eed and these form plains because they consist of strata that have never been nearly f much disturbed and stiU soft lie flat. They are less disturbed than the underlying Silurian strata on which they lie unconformably. Derbyshire. &c. Map. and the Millstone Grit on both sides . which form the mountain region of "Wales.

18.Cumberland to Bridlington. first. we have. dipping easterly at low angles. If a section were drawn across England from the Cumberland mountains south easterly to Briding- ton Bay. a low escarpment of Magnesian Limestone then the New Eed Sand- stone and Lias plains 6 and 7. this district. and above the also come the Coal-measures. 5. No. the Cretaceous rocks also rise in a marked escarpment. Upon the Coal-measures in Notting- hamshire. the Co- . In North Yorkshire. and porphyries. will explain the general arrangement of the strata and the effect of this on the physical geography of the district. the latter being overlaid by that of the chalk 11. dipping Grrit 103 Millstone west and east. Together they form the Southern part of the Pennine chain. the west there are the so-called Green Slates 1. and some of them therefore by help of denudation forming the loftiest mountains of Cumberland. Further north the grand general features are as follows. the Oolitic being thinner. forming a low escarpment. dipping west and east. As shown in the diagram tolerably (fig. which are covered to the east by the Oolite 9. Then comes 2. the following diagram. 17). fig. do not form the same bold scarped table-land that they do in Grloucestershire and the more southern parts of England. On ashes. consisting of lavas and volcanic hard but of unequal hardness. except in strata. Derbyshire and Yorkshire.

.ro4 Cumberland and Yorkshire.

" which This are overlooked by an escarpment of Chalk. Lincolnshire. 3. many persons must be struck with the general flatness of the country after passing the Cretaceous escarpments north of Hitchin. the Ouse. forming a hiUy country. While travelling northward from London by the Great Northern Eailway. the Witham. about 70 miles in length and 36 in width. Near Stamford. a vast plain. and once a great estuarine bay.Plains of the East of England. lies the Carboniferous Limestone between two faults in a broken country. overlaid in succession by New Eed beds and Lias. overlaid by 105 Upper Silurian rocks. between •which and the Carboniferous grits. and the Wash. 9. 5.' No. dipping easterly till they slip out of sight beneath the Magnesian Limestone. formed by the denudation of the Kimmeridge and Oxford Clays. the Nen. 5. have combined by silting Nature and art tiurn and by dykes to the flat into a miniature Holland. with . No. the eastern edge of cliff which forms a low overlooking the sea. Then comes a marked feature in the district consisting of the long gently sloping beds of Yoredale rocks and Millstone G-rit. the Welland. niston limestone. Before reaching Peterborough the line enters on the great peaty and alluvial flats of Cambridgeshire. of the It has been and still is the recipient mud of several rivers. passing through the low flat-topped undulations of the Oolitic and Lias. Chalk is overlaid by Boulder-clay. 7 and 8. 6. and the Glen.

through which. the Ure. the Swale and the Derwent). the average slope of the ground over long areas often corre- sponding with the dip of the strata in . The ad- joining diagram represents the general structure of the region on a line from Ingleborough on the west to the Oolitic moors. on the west. the Trent and the Ouse flow to enter the famous estuary of the Hmnber. Passing north by York the same plain forms the bottom of the low broad valley that lies between the westward rising dip-slopes of the Millstone Grit. the Wharfe. the Aire. &c. the Calder. which intersected by valleys gradually dip eastward. after crossing the Trent.io6 Ingleborough to the their miiior escarpments facing west. On the west lie the outlying heights of Ingleborough and Penyghent capped with Millstone Grrit and Yoredale rocks (2). the Nidd. on a second plain. the railway emerges.. swelled by many tributaries (the Idle. and the bold escarpment of the Yorkshire Oolites on the east. length it passes till at out to sea on either side of the estuary of the Tees. the Don.

* under the low escarpment of Magnesian Limestone East of this lies the plain (p) almost as flat as a table. the manner shown in the diagram. below the level of the and high on the east. is * This kind of slope often called a dip-slope. till 107 they slip (3). The New Eed most part. and Lower Lias strata (4) lie beneath. and like these perhaps formed of old river sediments. like and covered to a great extent with an oozy loam the warps of the Wash and the Humber. Such its is the anatomy of the fertile Vale of York and neighbourhood. . the escarpment of the Oolites (5) rises with all its broad-topped moorlands and deep well- wooded valleys.Oolites of Yorkshire. Uke a great rampart. for the sea.

with a low dip. Strata. thus : Fig. The Weald Chalk hills of Kent and Sussex and the surrounding form excellent examples of what I wish to explain. excepting modern sea clififs. 2. .— xo8 CHAPTEE VIII. Detritus slipped from the escarpment down towards the plain ^. In the foregoing pages escarpments. 20. much has been said about The origin of all escarpments. THE ORIGIN OF ESCAEPMENTS. is generally the same. and I therefore return to the south-east of In the Wealden area we generally find a England. and they are this peculiarity that the strata nearly all marked by dip at low angles in a direction opposite to the slope of the scarp. e escarpment. AND THE DENUDATION OF THE WEALD — GKET WETHEKS AND THE DENUDATION OF THE EOCENE STRATA. I.

wasting power of the sea. that great oval escarpments of Lower Greenrise sand and Chalk surrounding the Wealden area. 22. result is. great and small. the height of which is purposely exaggerated . many hundreds by the feet thick. atmospheric agencies convinced that all : so much indeed. of the form of the ground. 109 bounded by Lower Greensand and Cbalk'hills on the north. plain. This vast mass.The Wealden. has been swept away according to an opinion formerly universal among geologists. which is composed of the Weald Clay. that I am The the present details. on the outside rim of which the Chalk rises in bold escarpments. sea. forming a nucleus of hilly ground. from east to west of (fig. in the manner shown in the following dia- gram. while the clayey plain itself surrounds a nucleus of undulating sandy hills in the centre. The whole of this Wealden area forms a great amphitheatre. forming what are known it is as the North and South Downs. Gault. steeply above the neai-est plain. p. On the east bounded by the There can be no doubt underlying formations of that the Chalk and the Upper Greensand. are due to the latter. and Weald Clay originally extended across all the area of the Weald for a breadth of from twenty to forty miles from north to south. Lower Greensand. and west. from beneath which the Hastings central Sands crop out. and nearly eighty. 112). but I believe chiefly by so. south.

and looking south-west the Eomney Marshes. years. of the North across Downs near Folkestone. . H Fig.. no so as Denudation of to bring the features prominently before the eye. &c once shown in the dotted lines. which the winding outlines of the chalk escarpment on the east are sure to suggest. forming the North and South Downs 5 h minor escarpments of Lower Grreensand c e Weald clay. and day. 21. chiefly Chalk. a a Upper Cretaceous strata. and from Petersfield to Eastbourne. I held this view felt but I have long that it is no longer tenable. Epre. as Let US endeavoiu: to realise how such a result may have been brought about. . is exceedingly tempting standing on the edge. forming plains d hiUs formed of Hastings sand . The idea that the Wealden area once formed a vast oblong bay. of which the Chalk hills for. area were lowered into the sea just If the Wealden . for instance. less And in degree the same impression suggests itself wherever one may chance to stand on the edge of the chalk the Downs all way from Folkestone to Alton and For Petersfield. it is impossible not to compare all the great flat to a sea overlooked by the bays and headlands. .ad across the country. were the coast cliffs. The Chalk. with others.

and the other on the north not less than 100 miles long. or rather group of . if we follow theescarpment all round from theneighbourhood of Folkestone to that of Eastbourne. unlike all common levels. The Weald. be a sea where the flats Beyond these there would of Weald Clay w now lie inside of which would rise an island. where heavy waves could play between the opposite North and South Downs. we should have the following general line Let the a b represent the present sea level of the sea after and the lines s s s the depression. These hills generally high above the Eocene strata that skirt them on the north and south. the base of which. we should have an encircling cliffy coast of chalk c . at present. as shown on the diagram. to form what we call the rise North and South Downs. 22). results. which. . in some parts of the country. rise into escarpments higher than the Downs themselves. then so far from the area presenting a wide open sea. one on the south at least 60. and these Eocene beds under the supposed circumstances would be covered by sea. enough to turn the iii cliffs (see Chalk escarpments into Map and fig. ooasts. level. both of which would project east- ward from the Chalk of Hampshire. near the shore. would overlook a sea-covered plain of Grault g of which. would be a islands of outside series of ridgy Lower Grreensand s d. while the scarped cliffs of Chalk.. is at very unequal This land would also be formed of two narrow strips of country.

112 Denudatioit of I 03 a Pies tn H 60 cS eo i^ ao H '^ S -s r^ S CO C5 I ^ ^ O w ^ o iO t>^ S a e .

therefore. But none of these On the contrary. This ill form of ground would certainly be peculiar. so as to (ytily produce on the inner or scarped side the cHffy escarpment that forms the steep edge Further. filled by the sea we might of superficial marine strata of late date. traces exist. except where here and there near the Chalk escarp- ments they are strewn with ' flints. or where fhey are covered hy freshwater sands. this like the line b b. if the area had been possibly expect to find traces of the oval of Chalk. as in some other parts of England. 204 combined result is to I plane off as it were the . and loams of the ancient rivers of the country. 31. that the form of the ground in the Wealden area which has been attributed to marine action has been mainly brought about causes. p. One great effect of the action of the sea on land com- bined with atmospheric waste when prolonged over great periods of time is to produce extensive plavns of marine denudation for. the underlying strata of the Cretaceous and of the Wealden series every- where crop up and form the surface of the ground. gravels. The Weald. and adapted in form to receive the beating of a powerful surf. scattered across the surface between the opposite down cc.. 113 series formed of the Hastings Sand ^ h. islands. by atmospheric and the operation of rain and running waters. fig. the relics of the sUbaerial waste of the Chalk. I believe.

114 Denudation of <3 .

23. where the ground is now low. Then I believe. Against this line the various masses of the Hastings Sand hh. would crop up. and the Chalk and Upper Grreensand c. it is easy to understand how the rivers might in old times have flowed from a low central watershed I 2 . such a plain as pp once existed. Let the upper part of the curve be planed across (in the manner explained at p. an average level. and looks out upon the sea. Weald. If it were. be repre- sented by the line 'p-p (fig. so far from being the case. and reduce it 115 to land. as in figure. that by aid of rain and running water large parts of these strata would be cut away by degrees. not so we 'might expect that the rivers of the all Wealden area should flow out at its eastern end through long east and west hollows previously scooped out by the assumed wasting power of the sea. and towards which Weald Clay the long plains of Gault and directly lead.the asperities of the tidal . 204. and let the newly-planed surface. which is very nearly on a true scale. No. "Weald Clay w. that some streams rise close to the sea coast and flow westward. interior. so as to produce in time the present configuration of the ground. slightly inclined from the 23). If. is But this. Suppose the curvature of the various formations across the "Wealden area to be restored by dotted lines. the Gault g. on the other hand. except with cer- tain rivulets. the Lower Grreensand s.

1862.* is Through most of these gaps no known faults is run of any kind. the Chalk being com* This Hud of argument was applied by Mr. which. voLxviii. tion On any other supposiit is not easy to understand how these channels were any formed. which run athwart the North Downs. the Mole. Thus after the for- mation of the marine plain pp. We get a strong hint of the probability of the truth of this hypothesis of the denudation of the Weald in the present form of the ground. flow south.—Geel. unless they were produced by fractures or by marine denudation. and the Arun.6 1 1 Denudation of norih to the and south at least across the top of the Chalk at elevatioTis as high as. and he supposed that it might possibly apply to the Weali. Then. the Medway. through gaps in the South Downs. the Dart. each cutting out were all own valley. p. the Adur. as by level of the tlie action of running water the general inner country was being unequally reduced its so as to form tributary streams. and the Cuckmare. the greater rivers the while busy cutting and deepening those north and south channels through the chalk Downs now known as the valleys of the Stour. the Ouse. 378. and the whole line of the Chalk singularly destitute of fractures. of neither of which there proof. Jowmal. . Jukes to explain the behaviour of some of the rivers of Ireland. and probably even higher than the present suTnmit-levels of the Downs. the Wey.

. ? how much time in a geological sense can be given It is believed that. The absence of flints over nearly the whole of the Wealden area. forming the undulations of the central hills of Ashdown Forest. excepting near the Downs. vol. and much improved in 1864 in a second edition of this work. is easily explained by this hypothesis. and forms a hollow or plain. sufficient time. which makes a rise second and broader from under which the subdi\dsions of the Hastings Sands. this southern part of upon the England was not depressed beneath the sea during any part of the Glacial » The original sketch of these views was published in 1863. Journal enlarged and ' of the Geological Society. soft clay of the Grault has The been more easily worn away. 443. Clay. and now stands out as a bold escarpment in the Downs. valleys across the and to cut the transverse North and South Downs* no difficulty in this re- Given sult. paratively 117 hard has been partly denuded. see Foster and Topley. more strongly resisting denundation.the Weald. long to before the rivers had begun simultaneously scoop out the valleys of the interior. For greater detail on the same suhjeot. all for the original marine denudation had removed near the margin the Chalk. The lower Greensand. forms a second range of scarped hills overlooking the more easily wasted Weald plain. and other places. p. xxi. I see But the question arises. 22). except (see fig.' 1865. full of hard calcareous bands and ironstone. excepting for a few feet close coast.

been above water for a Very long there are time. implying a lapse of time so long. quainted Those who are acrealise it with this Continental geology wiU the meaning of when they consider that implies a lapse of time perhaps longer than it has taken to form the labyrinthine network of valleys cut into the great table-land of the Ehine and Moselle. all through the Miocene and subsequent epochs.8 1 1 Denudation of It period. therefore. or still. if the on the Chalk escarpment west of Folkestone be parts of the Crag beds. certain On the edge of the North Downs fragmentary outliers described by Mr. These by some persons have been supposed to be outliers of the Lower Eocene strata called the Woolwich and Eeading considers beds. On the other hand. Prestwich Crag. then the bay-like denudation of the Weald has probably taken place since that epoch . and to upheave and greatly to waste by denudation the sub-Alpine of which the Eighi outliers is hills one. that by natural . has. them to belong to part of the If they belong to any part of the Eocene series. more striking to form the whole range of the Jura. Prestwich. that to say. then those denudations of the "Weald that produced sent form its pre- may have been going on is ever since the close of the Eocene period. but Mr. the present outlines of aU the lowlands of Switzerland that lie between those mountains and the Alps.

On the contrary. This may mean little to those who still believe in the sudden extinction of whole races of life. and worn away so as to form by degrees the hills and valleys of the district including the great escarpments of the North and South Downs. the Weald. and the escarpment of the Chalk. and by subsequent ele- vation a table-land having been formed. the elements wanting by means of which we may attempt to calculate its distance. nearly half the marine mollusca. are not due to marine denudation or the beating of sea waves. yet in one instance they have been very considerably disturbed . I have gone so far into details ' on this subject because the ' Denudation of the Weald has given rise to much theorising by distinguished authors. 119 processes alone. the softer rocks below that cropped tip to the surface of this plane were then attacked by running water. and pro- bably nearly aU the terrestrial species of mammalia of the world have disappeared and been slowly replaced by others. but to me it signifies a period analogous to the distance as yet being of a half-resolved nebula. and I wish to show the reasons why I think that the amphitheatrelike form of the area. the outer crust of Chalk that once cased the whole of the strata of the anticlinal curve having been 'planed off.. Though the Secondary and England generally lie flat or older Tertiary strata of dip at low angles.

the Bracklesham and Bagshot Sands. Wight will remember that from east to west. or from White Cliff Bay c. by the older Tertiary the Wool- wich and Reading beds and the London Clay. who are familiar with the Isle of Pig. to Alum Bay. a considerable portion of which is composed of various sub-divisions of the Eocene rocks. that is to say. The whole pass under the Solent. at and west of Swanage. e. as shown in the following section north of Kinuneridge Bay (fig. the strata of which dip towards the north. there is a long range of Chalk hiUs. fig. Now these disturbed strata were originally deposited .1 20 Isle of Wight. The same general strata are seen relations of the Secondary and Eocene on the mainland in the Isle of Purbeck. and are overlaid strata. and the higher freshwater beds of the Eocene series. and rise mainland in Hampshire. Isle of for on a line which runs through the Wight and Those the Isle of Purbeck they stand nearly on "end. 25). 24. shown in the again on the lower dotted lines ^ 24. as 2.

Here then evidence. of the same kind of disturbance and denudation. Eracklesham and Bagshot beds. in our Secondary and Tertiary rocks we get though in less degree. which are composed of Palaeozoic rocks. Purbeck limestone and marls.5f. 7. at a great height. e. Kimmeridge Clay. 4.. 1. once spread over the Cretaceous rocks in a curve. Hg.Isle horizontally. In the central part of England the strata. 24). Chalk without flints. Chalk with flints. &c. 11. once spread over an extensive area of Lower Greensand. but chiefly backwards from west to east. Secondary and Tertiary not having been so much disturbed. portions of which become ex- . 2.to the south. Portland Oolite limestone. of which we have such striking proofs when we consider the structiure of the country in the western and north-western area. freshwater. and the Eocene rocks. 3. have necessarily not been so much denuded in height. 5. Weald sands and clay. chiefly fresh- water beds. 9. Portland Oolite sand. as shown in the dotted lines e e (fig. 25. Woolwich and Eeading beds. 6. Necocomian and Greensand. 8. 121 and after disturbance the Chalk. 10. London Clay. of Purbeck. c (fig. I have still a few words to add respecting the • denudation of the Eocene strata. Some of these beds in the Woolwich and Eeading and in the Bagshot series consist of sands. 24).

the softer clays and part of the sands of the Eocene strata were more easily removed than the harder portions of the sands.122 Denudation of Eocene Strata. when exposed to the air. 1 represents the Chalk. and the result is that over large areas. that sometimes over miles of country you may almost leap from block to lie. as shown in fig. great tracts of chalk are strewn with huge blocks of tabular sandstone lying so close together. ceedingly hard. and 2 . It so happened that when the wasting processes took place that wore away both these formations from west to east. especially I tave already said that these formations. No. - -j'T^'^r "•' • - 1 " 'XZ-T^ '-'—^ - " ' —r-T^ T^- - - - migjl In the above figure. block without touching the chalk on which they Fig. such as Marlborough Downs. 26. together with the Chalk. the overlying Eocene clays and sands and the isolated blocks lying directly on the topmost beds of the Chalk represent the thickly scattered masses of stone left on . 26. once spread much further to the west than they do now. because outlying patches of Eocene rocks occur here and there almost at the very edge of the great Chalk escarpment. The original continuation of both in a westward direction is shown in the dotted Unes in the same diagram.

the standing masses of Avebury and Stonehenge. and Druid stones. No. a remarkable example of which occurs at the old British town of Avebury. 123 the ground after the reimoval by denudation of other and softer parts of the Eocene strata. Besides the name of ' grey wethers.' as they are termed. These have been and are still being wasted back.' they are known by the name and all of Sarsen stones. but the strong 'grey wethers' remain.Avebury and Stonehenge. in fact. They plainly tell. Fre- quently they are found scattered even on the terraces of the Lower Chalk. and as the rocks in which they once. and immense masses of these set on end by a vanished people stand in the ancient enclosure. have been left by denudation not far from the spots where they . blocks angular or half- in the meadows. 2.lay were slowly wasted away and disappeared. near which the lower terrace of Chalk (as in the diagram) is strewn with ' grey wethers. they gradually subsided to their present places. marking the immense waste to which the whole territory has been subjected long after the close of Eocene times. that the Chalk and overlying Eocene beds once spread far across the plains which the Chalk escarpments overlook. as for instance at Swindon. and in the Wealden rounded lie area. for they are comparatively easily destroyed. popularly supposed to be Druidical temples. Sometimes even on the plains of Grault or Kimmeridge Clay well out to the north or west of the escarpment.

Cumberland. Wales. in Devon. because of disturb. and from Derbyshire continuously all through to the south of Scotland. 41-44. bounded by Silurian mountains and old limestone cliffs. where the mountains of Cumberland look down on an undulating ground formed of Permian and partly of New Eed strata (fig. or of the beautiful Vale of Clwyd. viz. and because they have been denuded in such a manner that large parts of them in the Weald * The smaller stones at Stonehenge have been brought from a disTlfey are mostly of igneous origin. pp. p. . ance and great denudations and that it consists of undulating plains and of table-lands in the central and eastern parts because the strata there are generally flatter and softer.* I might add many details respecting other portions of England. in North Wales. that England ous and very hilly in the west and north. 37. But to the general is it would not add much knowledge which I have mountain- endeavoured to express.' sheet 34. Fergnsson to have been votive ofierings. 230). in the North. such as the relation of the Secondary rocks to the older rocks of Devon. the structure of the Malvern range and of the Mendip Hills.. See ' Memoirs of the Geolo^cal Survey of Grreat Britain the Geology of parts of Wiltshire tance. consisting of a bay of soft New Eed Sandstone.1 24 Scenery of have since been erected into such grand old monuments by an ancient race. and of the still larger Vale of Eden. and are believsd by Mr. and Grloncestershire. 1858. .

and of the softer coverings of later date. that more or less shroud the harder Britain. skeleton that chiefly forms the mainland of . I have still something to say ahout the Middle also Tertiary or Miocene rocks. 125 and in the middle and west of England have been partly cut away and thus their edges form long escarpments.England and Wales.

To give an idea of . as a whole may or looked upon The lower Woolwich and Eeading beds and also upper parts of the series in the Isle of "Wight and Hampshire consist of strata deposited in brackish. Nevertheless. the mouths of such say. proves that they also were deposited near rivers. and the abundance of plants and terrestrial remains in the London Clay and other marine divisions of the series. at or near the mouth of a great river. and fresh water. salt. they are remotely related to living genera. and some may even be Miocene the direct ancestors of living species through and Pliocene intermediate forms.126 CHAPTER rx. THE MIOCENE ANB PLIOCENE TEETIAET F0E5IATI0XS. The Eocene be strata of as England taken estuarine beds. the genera of which are so antique. that they have no very close relation with those now living. as the Mississippi and Amazon. Both in their lower and upper divisions. these strata in France and England contain a large terrestrial mammalian fauna. but per- haps on a somewhat smaller scale.

Ehino- Hippopotamus. This book has little to do with palaeontology. are represented in one part of the world or another ceros. though they are tinctive. we as at length or emerge on a time generally recognised Middle Tertiary. Nor are fresh water reptilia wanting. Elephant. after we get through graphical and these doubtful and fragmentary stratizoological gradations. but I there are formations confossils. Griraffes. Oxen. certainly generically. Deer. Camels. even in great part. it is safe 127 to say that when they lived. with great part of the fauna. because now we begin to approach our own time. I mention these facts. the antiquity of this old fauna.Eocene and Miocene Formations. because. Horses. Most of the modern types . less dis- some of the modern representatives of these animals having held their place through longer epochs of time. and. the Alps had scarcely any place as a principal mountain range. Monkeys. as distinguished from marine containing mixed Eocene and Miocene generic forms. Miocene flora and fauna analogy to those that now inhabit the earth. and I lay a little stress on these points. may state that in Germany taining terrestrial. and various carnivora. the larger part of the of which has the closest flora. the specifically : perhaps. and the circumstances bearing on the last physical changes on our part of the world distinct. begin to become more and I shall soon have .

who provided funds for The result of much labour by Mr. dryandra. were within the first fully investigated through the liberality of the Baroness Burdett Coutts. and their are chiefly the same. the Hempstead beds are inseparable from the Eocene beds below. True Miocene strata are very poorly represented in England. and other plants. where they chiefly consist of beds of clay and sand. ten miles long by two miles wide. Professor age. the age of last which was few years time a puzzle. and migrations of life consequent thereon. They are only known on the south of flat Dartmoor in Devonshire. that after an examination of the fossU plants. Pengelly by was. in so fiaj that the plants of these strata (always an imperfect guide) are related to Miocene species. These strata. Wight partly connect the Eocene and Miocene epochs. oaks. fossils. interstratified with bands of for long lignite. prickly vines.1 28 Miocene -with this subject. they proved to be of Miocene slopes The which surrounded the old lake of Bovey Tracey were clothed with splendid pines of the genus Sequoia (WeUingtonia). under a peaty area. The Hempstead beds of the Isle of . something to say connected about some of the later unions of England with the Continent. figs. and . But. Heer of Zurich. those that lived in water. that object. cinnamons. and they play no important part in its physical geography. stratigraphically. nyssa. at Bovey Tracey.

The of clay however. if not. the noticed by as the Duke of Argyll. through the Isles of Mull. Miocene volcanic Muck.Rocks. 1 29 water-lilies expanded their leaves and The present Europe. latter. Eigg. In that region they play a much more important part in connection with the physical geography of our country than they do at Bovey Tracey. in the Faroe Islands. one large continuous territory. and Skye. interbedded with volcanic ashes. Cana. and far beyond Britain. the same volcanic series is found now. and later observations made by Professor are Heer confirm his accui-acy^ The plants partly the same as those of Bovey K . In the adjacent land of Antrim. The late Professor Edward Forbes determined their age. In Scotland these volcanic rocks dolerites consist chiefly of and bassalts. partly then a continent. the theatre of wide-spread volcanic eruptions in central France. occur associated with of coal or lignite. and that part of the British Islands now known as the Inner Hebrides. and ever since well known Miocene leaf-bed of Mull. of a series of large islands of which the Faroes make one of the fragments. a vast broken belt of rocks forms great part of the Inner Hebrides. Germany. at all events. first beds and Some of the clays contain leaves of plants. in Miocene times. was. Eum. fragments perhaps of or. on the lake flowers. and in Iceland.

the lava (obsidian 3. which were again partly filled by lava- torrents of basalt and obsidian. .000 in Mull. allied to the Miocene land. In the case of the fig. Scuir of Eigg. feet from 600 to 900 feet thick. than to the flora flora found farther north. and Bohemia. floras of the Faroe Iceland and Green- It Isles is clear that the beds of lignite in the "Western leaves. lavas These rivers scooped out valleys in the Miocene and tufas. running through an ancient continent formed of Laurentian. Old river beds intersected them. Cambrian.130 Miocene Rocks Tracey. which. Since then the waste has been so great that the destruction of the older hills that bounded the valley has literally exalted the valley and laid the hills low. and Silurian rocks far to the west and northwest. The from Mull is in some points more Isles. 27) flowed over the valley gravel and buried it. They formed part of wide-spreading lands of great antiquity. After an unknown lapse of time. Vege- had time to flourish. however. and more than 3. the vast inclined plateaux of lava that were formed by this volcanic action (above which the peaks and craters rose) are still in Aatrim. indicate long pauses and the shales with here and there ia the activity of tation on a large scale many craters. are more nearly related to the Miocene floras of the Khine. Switzerland. partly formed of many older for- mations.

4. Geikie.' vol. xxvii. in feet Thus happens that a the old volcanic plateaux valleys thousand the deep have been excavated. away. and has longer resisted destruction. craters The mountain have been planed off. Volcanic Eocks. Obsidian filling valley. 2. Old lavas. 3.'^* 4 Eiver hollow scooped out by denudation. By waste such as this. and thus it hap^ pened that the Scuir of Eigg became one of the naost striking peaks in the Western Islands. Present outline of the country pro- duced by later denudations. and you were left to guess thereafter where it the later craters had been. the high sea attest the cliffs of which greatness of the waste they have in time undergone. Society. ' On Tertiary K 2 .of Scotland. Geol. &c.* * See A. and what remains are simply lava-flows and ashes such as we might find if the higher halves of Iceland or Etna were planed Fig. for the obsidian was_harder 131 than the walls of the valley. every trace of the outlines of the old craters has been obliterated. and whole region has by denudation been changed into a line of fragmentary islands.. 4 1. 27.' ' Jour. - .

Probably they lived here in the earliest Pliocene times. together with twenty-four species of land and freshwater ' shells. and are rich in Coralline Crag.* t* genera with which present world. toL p. Ehinoceros Schleirmacheri. Pig. Mastodon arvernensis. and a Felis. Hysena. . the greater contours of Eng- land remained the same. Tapirus priscus. Ehinoceros. Mastodon Elephas meridionalis (?).. Horse and Hipparion. and got intermixed with varieties and new species. * Castor veterior. Tapir. Sus antiquus nicus (?).132 During all this Miocene and time. but chiefly in the latter. Felis Hyaena antiqna. in descending order Norwich Crag. that is to say. the country being merely upheaved so far that it was joined to the Continent. TJrsus arvernensis. late and over the land. (?). and these have close relations. the (?). See Prestwich. Bears. These include Beaver. with the The Crag formations of England consist of three divisions.' 1871. Cervus dicranoceros. Mr. 348. contemporaneous with the deposition of the crag. if all belonging we are quite familiar in the we except the Hipparion and Mastofirst don. tapiroides (?). Megaceros Hiberxjtvii. and perhaps a true Elephant. as the relics of an older Miocene fauna. 'Journal Geol. According to Mr. also contains a marine fauna. the h»rse and the second with the elephant. their bones being now found buried both in the Coralline and Red Crag. Equus plaoidens paroides. Mastodon. Prestwich considers this fauna as probably of Pliocene age. Hipparion. mammalian races in Miocene times migrated into our region. Deer. Eed Crag. Society. The Eed and Coralline Crags and the Norwich Crag marine fossils. Prestwich.

in fact. with marine they play a very unimportant part in the physical structure of England. When I describe later than the Crag. far greater are the numbers and the kinds of changes that it must have undergone in periods that went which the records are often entirely as lost. before. life. before the is all. rally so far buried They are.Crag. But though very important in a stratiwhen viewed in connection point of view. Physically they chiefly indicate a certain amount of submergence and subsequent emergence in late times.now an island . occurring as they do only in a few small shelly patches of insignificant thickness in Norfolk and Suffolk. graphical 133 cent. above-named formations contain from 84 to 93 per of living species. and in other periods. It is an accident that it is . of We are not to consider Great Britain having always been an island during and between the periods that I have already described. gene- under superficial strata that they require to be looked for. Younger than the Crag there are certain other minor . still many shapes. we shall be able to understand a little more definitely the precise latter days has under- kind of changes that our land in gone. and it has been an island or islands many times before. and that If England has undergone these changes in late times. and thus do not at all affect' the scenery. epoch of the Forest bed.

R. Taxus baccata (Yew).priscus (a variety of the last). containing the remains of elephantsj &c. Rhinoceros megarhinus. above is which there a band of coarse gravel. Ahius (Alder). are : The plants noticed in the Forest fir). . Prumis spiriosa trifoliata Merianthes (Buckbean). for This minor formation has been traced some distance between high and low water mark. (Pondweed). one of which Clay. U. Nwphar lutea (Yellow Water-lily). Bed Pinus sylvestris (Scotch Abies excelsa (a (Sloe). consists It of dark sandy clay. the drift Forest Bed. UrsUs ?). Sus savernensis arvernensis. MachairoBos primigenius dus (a tiger?). Cen-vus . together with fronds and rhizomes of ferns. then bands of clay and gravel.' underneath the glacial on the shore at Cromer in Norfolk. merid-kmalis. Hippopotamus major. and Potamogetum. Quercus (Oak).. U. E.134 deposits. with plants. Geratophyllum demersum (Horn-wort). Bison priscus. Equus caballus (the common horse). six species of deer. (Auroch). lies the Chillesford ' One of the most remarkable. Etmscus. portions of Forest Bed. Pine). which are scattered here and there is throughout England. Ifymphcea alba (Water-lily). Spelasus (Cave-bear U.^. Etruscus. fol- In the Forest Bed and the overlying gravel the lowing land mammalia have been found : Meplias an- tiquus. with marine and freshwater shells and frag- ments of wood. arctos (White bear). four species of bears.

466. xxvii. Trogonotheriwm Cuvieri (a great Beaver).Forest Bed. Prestwieh ' ' On the Crag Beds of Suffolk and Norfolk. Arvicola amphibia (Field-mouse). as they scarcely affect the features of the country. Ehinoceros. * Thj above list is taken from Mr. and other mammalia. G. G. 8orex fodiens and S.' . ardeus Mygale Tnoschata (Musk shrew). but like the Cromer beds. capreolus .' vol. C. Elephants.* two species of whales. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. very important in themselves and definite as regards some geological and palseontological questions. I shall here say nothing about the causes that brought about a patch here and a patch there of gravel or loam. Poligniacus. elaphus (Eed deer). p. fish. perhaps with a mild climate. and G. Lions. (Eoedeer). Musk. in which we find relics of the Hippopotamus. G. Sedgwichii. Sheep. remifer (Shrews). Later still there are other small formations. at least of which. 135 megaceros (often miscalled the Irish «lk).. and The whole speaks during part of a past physical geography. our country seems to have been joined to the Continent. Gastor europcBus (common beaver).

as it affects something like accurate ever. of later date than the Cromer date than Forest bed. but which. THE GLACIAL EPOCH. and show what kind of being produced there by the ice of the present day. measured by ordinary standards. and show what takes place there. This formation has left its traces over great part of the northern. with of that period. is far distant in time. how- must lead the reader effect is into Switzerland.136 CHAPTEE X. Before doing so. and also over a large portion of the southern hemisphere . I MUST now describe a remarkable episode in Post- Tertiary times. known as ' tlie Olacial epoch. and then by the knowledge thus gained. almost approaches our own day. and afterwards into Greenland and Victoria Land. which. . and I shall be able to describe the history the scenery of Britain. and explain what took place here in that icy episode. I shall be able to return to our own country. I detail. by com- parison with the more ancient periods.' and certainly of earlier many of the patches just alluded to.

is The mean limit of perpetual snow upon the Alps.000 feet.500 feet above the level of the Above that line. where. ranging from 10. it is enough now state proved by well-considered observations made icy by the best observers of the phenomena of the Alps. the country mostly covered with snow. chiefly in consequence of the immense pressure exerted by the vertical weight and onward pressure of the accumulated is mass. whereas the limit of perpetual snow is 8. Still accumulating. The highest mountain Mont Blanc. and is often protruded in great tongues far below the limits of perpetual snow. Without entering on that this is details. is it 8. thing to be done to explain In any large and good map of Switzerland we see certain white patches here and there on the higher mountain ranges of the Alps.500 feet. and in the higher regions gathers on the mountain slopes and in the large it presses cirques or recesses. rises more than 15.000 feet above the sea. year upon year. and there are many other mountains in this great chain which approach that height. glaciers. 137 what a The glacier first is.000 to 15.Glaciers of the A is Ips. sea. by degrees this ice slides down the valley. speaking generally. for some Swiss glaciers descend as low as from three to four thousand feet or thereabouts above the level of the sea. and by force of gravity downwards into the main valleys. These are covered in the by snow and Alps. the snow year after year converted into if I ice. .

and to the greater or less inclination of the slope. average I will the details of the structure of the ice of glaciers. but I will describe what are the effects produced by a glacier in the country over which it slides. If we have a vast river like the Mississippi flowing down a broad valley. falls yet ever renewed by yearly of snow. A glacier slides more or fills less rapidly. the valley and maintains not enter into all its urged down size. which the snow-drainage of a large tract of country.138 Ever melting on each glacier is KjruLULiers its surface. in its mass. so if we have a mass of ice. and that rate of progress is modified. according to the mass of ice that the valley. and by direct gravity on the slopes and by pressure of it is accumulating snow and ice behind. covered with perpetual snow. and still affecting it in the relics they have left. and various other glacier-phenomena affecting the scenery of the Alps. although the slope of the valley may be gentle. for in these respects it behaves very like a river. in accordance with the fall and width of . increased. and therefore affecting the scenery of our own cotmtry in past times when glaciers existed here. then the glacier flows with a rapidity proportionate to the tuoss of ice. still the river flows with rapidity in consequence of the greatness of the body of water represents ' . and at the end. or diminished. because that will not help us in the special geological investigation now in view.

earth. and. a line of stony debris travels on the sm'face of the glacier from the lower end of the island. 139 the glacier flows at which and when the angle the valley slopes slowness. Such . often of great width. so that when comparatively fast. and gravel. becomes These again exposed during the heat of summer.of the Alps. so that masses of rock being severed by atmospheric slopes disintegration. when two glaciers combine to form one stream of ice. meet at the V-shaped angle of junction and form one grand line running down the centre of the glacier (fig. Now the mountain peaks that rise above the surface of a glacier are in places so steep that the snow refuses to lie upon them. as in the lower 'glacier of the Aar. which. stones. for the fall motion of a glacier that the stones that upon its surface are sufficiently numerous to keep up a continuous line of blocks. upon its surface in long continuous lines is so slow. 28). rock rises in the middle a above the surface of the ice. the valley. constantly fall from the and find a temporary resting place on the surface it of the ice at the margin of the glacier. it flows with comparative All glaciers are traversed by cracks which are termed crevasses. often buried in the winter's snow. as float were. In like manner of if an island-like boss of glacier. . small. is it is steep. even when they may line of happen to be above the limits of the average perpetual snow.

summer heat on the surface of the a less degree.s 140 lines of debris Lr lacier whether at the sides or in the middle of a glacier are termed moraines. and is finally shot into the valley at the end of the ice-stream. and at length all this material that has not fallen into crevasses floats on. charged with the flour of rocks produced in great part by the grinding power of the glacier its moving over rocky floor. The water that runs from the end of a glacier very often emerges from an ice-cavern as a ready-made muddy river. excepting near the surface as far as the cold atmospheric temperature can penetrate. known termmal remains. we frequently find large temporary brooks which generally disappear with the frost at night . and also by the glacier. beneath every glacier water constantly flowing. This it is said is rarely more than eight or is ten feet. and this river carries away the moraine . but in before all the glaciers that I have seen. caused by the melting of the ice below all the year round. is at a temperature of about 32° FaJhr. just about the melting point. frequently forming large as momids. that is to say. and in some cases to rise by springs that in the rocks be- low the In parts of some glaciers where crevasses are not numerous. all the surface water has found way to the bottom of the ice. even in the depth of winter in Arctic regions. ice.. long we reach its their lower end. Therefore. All glacier ice.

happens that from various circumstances both terlateral minal and moraines are so long preserved from destruction. 141 rubbisli that the glacier deposits at its lower ends. Something remains to be said about moraine-stones before I describe the glacial island. 142).— of the Alps.s might rather say as slowly it is formed. not flatly. and less cover the glacier are by the water that flows upon flnds its much of this matter way to the . forming a glacier. however. perhaps I 9. presenting a largely mammillated surface 28. the rocks in the valley over which it slides become smooth and polished lines. the fall stones of the surface-moraines frequently into frac- tures called crevasses. from the ends of it In some cases. and the small debris and finely powdered rocks that more or borne into these crevasses the surface. that they form long enduring features in the scenery. but in flowing (fig. because day after day we may see scarcely. p. all stones of moderate size that have been shed from the ice are in the long valley. by the pressure of the moving mass. down the by the ever-changing streams that flow glaciers. phenomena of our own ice. Furthermore. in some cases almost as fast as it is formed. in When an immense weight of some cases hundreds or even two or three thousand feet in thickness. though when being worked upon by run apt to be carried water. any difference in the details of certain moraines. passes over solid rocks.

=0 § 8 60 !> O .142 Glaciers .

together with moraine heaps. not simply bare but between the ice and the rock over which it flows. powder. polished almost as smooth as a polished agate. therefore. whether certain stones have been acted on by glacier ice. under any circumstances. These indications of the rounding. there are blocks of stone imprisoned. but in turn they also get scratched by the harder asperities of the rocks over which they are forced . scratching. and siliceous and often feldspathic debris (chiefly worn from the floor itself). bottom of the is 143 glacier. The result it is. and indeed. so that we are able by this means to tell. in places. imprisoned between the ice and the rocky floor. and grooving of rocks in lines coincident with the direction of the flow of glaciers. independently of the forms of the heaps. By degrees. which may be likened to emery that let the rock be ever so hard. ice. and this surface is also finely striated and coarsely grooved by the debris that. is. 'often crossing each other irregularly. deep furrows are sometimes thus cut in the rocks. whether is such and such a mass a moraine or not. erratic blocks and scratched stones. But the stones that are imprisoned between the ice floor and the rocky not only groove that floor. smoothing. and thus it happens that many of the stones of moraines are covered with straight scratches. is pressed along in the direction of the flow of the ice. are so charac- .of the Alps. The bottom of a ice.

2. The famous Pierre a Bot. lie between the Alps and the Po. where the of blocks Monthey ' have long been celebrated. and deposited part of terminal moraine on the slopes of the Jura behind Neuchatel. whether in the heart of the mountains.200 feet above the level of the lake. that the Swiss glaciers were once of far larger dimensions than they are now. spread across the area now filled by the Lake of Geneva and all the lowlands of Switzer- land in a vast fan-like form. or on the northern slopes opening into the lowlands of Switzerland or on the wide plains of Italy that story. some sixty ' miles below the source of the river.144 A. mammillated rocks (moutouTiSe). moraine-mounds. all down the valley of the Ehone. we are able to establish the teristic of glaciers. and great erratic blocks. and have gradually retreated to their present limits. the same great glacier that the valley of the Ehone. teUs the same signs The of vanished gigantic glaciers are . Fifty miles filled beyond that. from the end of the Ehone glacier to the Lake of Geneva. that important fact. For example.naent Glaciers. Every Alpine vaUey. a notable case oc- curring on the slopes behind Monthey. forms one of a great belt of moraine blocks at a height of about 800 feet above the level of the lake of Neuchatel. 50 feet long by 20 feet wide. are of frequent occurrence. and 40 feet in height. a hundred and twentyfive miles in width from below Geneva to the neighits bourhood of Aarau.

where the mountains some of them above the cliffs ten. as a whole. In Greenland. and except here and there. But when broad valleys open it out towards the sea. we have next to enquire. Such being the case in Switzerland. then frequently happens that prodigious glaciers push their shore. the whole country covered with a coating of thick glacier-ice. where the coast happens to be high and steep. ending in a places 300 feet in height. in the case of the great Humin boldt glacier. becomes covered by one universal imiversal covering of ice land. twelve. at length the whole country glacier.Greenland and Victoria Land. and fourteen thousand feet sea. is there anything further to learn in regions where glaciers are found on a far greater scale? Those who have read the descriptions of navigators will be aware that in Greenland. cliff of ice One of these vast 1 glaciers has . and. way out far beyond the These are in some cases twelve or twenty miles across at their ends. indeed frequently as fresh as left the rocks if 145 the glacier had scarcely before the existing vegetation began to grow upon their surfaces. where the is are very steep. the glaciers break off at the top of the cliffs and fall in small shivered icebergs into the sea. where we are able to study the action of modern glaciers in detail. known as Victoria Land. the average as ice-liite. is The same also found in that southern rise. descends lower and lower till we go northward. sixty miles across.

Vast quan- of debris during part of the year fall from the it is and are lodged upon the ice-foot. here and there over the bottom of the west Atlantic. the very least three thousand been estimated as feet in thickness. and sometimes escaping from thence and melting in the seas of warmer climates. Having ascertained what are the signs by which a glacier may be known. and are carried South by a current in Baffin's Not unfrequently they float far into i the Atlantic. which beeomes strewn with erratic blocks and other debris borne from far northern regions. float out into the J Greenland Bay. on a still grander scale. beyond the parallel of New York. The same kind are of phenomena. and they have been seen even off the Azores. which sometimes laden with moraine rubbish.1 46 Ice-foot and Icebergs. like that which covers the glaciers of Switzerland. seas. iDeing at Great masses of ice breaking away from their ends form icebergs. In like manner the icebergs melt chiefly in Baffin's Bay. their stony freights get scattered abroad. leaving ice-foot still joined to the land. Along the shores also when the coast. the called an tities cliffs ice partly breaks away. and also the signs left by ice- . common in Antarctic regions near Victoria Land. strewn about. and accumulates on the bottom of Baffin's Bay. all and when the rubbish breaks off and floats away and melts. sea freezes the ice becomes attached to the By and by as summer what is comes on.

in the same- 2 . have by degrees almost universally come to the conclusion that a very large part of the northern hemisphere was. yet. Almost every valley in the Highlands of Scot- land bears them. 147 now show that a large part of the British islands has been subjected to glaoiation. rendering them in places rugged. and not in the valleys alone. jagged. during the 'glacial period. Similar ice-smoothed rocks strike the eye in British valleys. led many years- ago by Agassiz. notwithstanding general outlines are often remarkablyrounded. When also we examine the find that the prevails. Considering all these things. valleys and plains in detail we same mammillated structure frequently These rounded forms are known in Switzer- land as roches moutonnies. and other districts in the British islands. Those who know the mountains of the Highlands of Scotland may remember that. their cliffy. so characteristic of the rocks of Switzer- land. or the action of ice. a use name now in general among those who study the action of glacier ice. many marked by the same kind of grooving- and striation. or nearly covered. ice.Old British bergs. but also in the low countries nearly as far as the middle of England. geologists. and the same is the case in Cumberland. I shall Glaciers. though the weather has had a powerful influence upon them.' covered. with a coating of thick I. Wales. and this. flowing in great and small mammillated curves.

we discover over large areas that is the solid rock smoothed and polished. and therefore * I need scarcely say that the same kind of phenomena are eqnally etriMng in Ireland. or the superficial covering of what is drift. and the northern half of Europe generally. not speak merely by common report in this matter. but when we consider the great Scandinavian chain. and covered with grooves and striations similar to those of which we have I do experience among the glaciers of the Alps. we find that similar phenomena are common when called over the whole of that area. We know of no power on earth. and in the North American continent. and. The relics of this action stiU its remain strongly former power. for I in the Old know it from personal observation.* impressed on the country. formed part of this great area. and the whole Britain •waj that the greater part of Greenland of Victoria Land are covered at present. as far south as latitude 38° or 40°. to attest ' It might be unsafe to form this conclusion merely by an examination of such a small tract of country as the British islands. which produces these indications except moving ice. by the long-continued grinding piower of a great glacier nearly universal over the uorthem half of our country and the high ground of Wales. is removed. . the whole surface became moulded by ice. both World and the New.148 Continental Glacier-ice. the soil. of a natural kind.

and the Pyrenees of Spain. is fortified by many other circumis Thus. being altogether formed of mere accu- mulations of moraine rubbish. as Its width in places Grastaldi. the mountains of Morocco. the Black Forest and the Vosges. sometimes called the Moraine of Ivrea. even this great continental scale. which. encloses a circuit of about and rises above the plain more than 1. to ice-action. the mountains of Sweden and Norway. on the plains outside the mouth of the Val sixty miles. the Sierra Nevada. the Andes. I have stated that in the Alps there evidence that the present glaciers were once on an immensely larger scale than at present. The proof not only lies in the polished and grooved rocks far removed from the actual glaciers of the present day. but also in scale so numerous moraines on a largest size immense that the mere pigmy is now forming in the Alps are of when compared with them.Old Glacier Regions. This conclusion stances. in New Zealand. and in many other northern mountain chains or clusters.600 feet in height. The same kind of pheno- occur in the Altai Mountains. d'Aosta. that have been critically examined. 149 on geologists are justified in attributing them. the Himalayah the Caucasus. Therefore there can be no doubt that at late periods . averages about seven miles. Such a moraine the great one of the Dora Baltea. great or small. mapped by Many others might be mena cited. the Eocky Mountains.

the mountains and much of the low- lands were covered with a universal coating of ice. and a not suffered so because it had degradation: but whether this was so or not. and the average level of the land may then have been much higher than at present. perhaps. CroU the glacial cycles alternated in the northern and southern hemi- spheres) was produced by causes about which there have been many guesses.1 50 Glacial Climates. In another direction a . and which. the glacial episodes were due to occasional It is excessive eccentricity of the earth's orbit. the Highland mountains were buried in which flowing eastward joined a vast ice sheet coming westerly and southerly from Scandinavia. for there were intermittent episodes of comparative warmth. CroU. and Mr. is now the British islands was covered with at that time. of extreme arctic severity. little by elevation of the whole. The cold of these minor cycles in time (for as shown by Mr. but not always. of the world's history a climate prevailed over large tracts of the earth's surface generally. for the present enough argument if we realise the feet. During literally this time all ice. It was during part or in parts of this period that great part of what ice. According to Adhemar. are only now beginning to be understood. probably as thick as that in the north of Grreenland in the present day. still I do not say that they were islands it and perhaps during part of they were united with the Continent.

and was only by slow degrees that geothis Till is became reconciled to the idea that . South of Wales. but about 25° to 30° east of north. So great was this ice-sheet. stretched away south so far that it overflowed Anglesey. scooped out of the Carboniferous series of rocks. so to speak. Old British Glaciers. overcame the force of the smaller glaciers that descended from the moimtains of North Wales for the glacial striations of Anglesey point not to the Snowdonian range. where a low stratum of the glacier passed eastward to the sea. 151 thick sheet of the same Highland ice pressed southward into the valley of the Tay. part of Cumberland too was buried in which crossed the Vale of Eden and over the hills beyond. and all the great dales of Yorkshire. while the remainder pressed up the slopes and across the summits of the Ochil Hills. where it also found a vent for a further outpouring to the east. Much logists of the lower boulder. in England there are few signs of direct glacier action. carrying detritus to the eastern shore of England. and on to the valley of the Forth. Another part passed into the Firth of Clyde* All the southern Highlands from Fast Castle on the east to Wigtonshire on the west coast.. were also covered with glacier ice. joining it with the ice-stream coming from the north. directly to the mountains of Cumberland. and. that. Durham.clay it is known as ' Till ' in Scotland. ice. Northumberland.

moving ice. the first Mr. I think. that though in later times it has been more or by weather. explain the phenomena of men sought to this universal glaciation by every method but the true one. and and Buckland who followed him. formed by those old glaciers that once covered the northern part of our country. Eobert Chambers after Agassiz who asserted that ice. nothing but moraine rubbish on a vast scale. which is now accepted by most of the best geologists of Europe and America. who held these views. In fact. were something like twenty years before their time.152 Britain Moulded by Ice. Scotland had been nearly covered by glacier and now the subject is being worked out in all its details. . During the time that these great * results were being not And equivalent regions in Ireland which in this book it is my object to describe. been onoulded by parts was that is to say. the coimtry in glacier-action many on a so much ground by less scarred continental scale. enough remains of the effects to tell to the observant eye the greatness of the power of of its ice-sheet. Agassiz. result has The general regions been that the whole of the literally of Britain mentioned* have ice. and it Suddenly strip Grreenland would present a picture some- thing like Britain immediately after the close of this Criacial period. was. thus coming back to the old generalised hypothesis of Agassiz.

grooved and striated. a slow submersion of the land took place it and as sank the diminishing glaciers. mixed with stones and great boulders. and land animals that lived habitually in more temperate regions. at intervals advanced north or retreated south with the retreating or advancing ice. The main mass indeed because glaciers rarely stratify their . 153 produced by glacial action. composed of clay. sea-shells. the cold still continuing. The proof of this is to be found in an upper detritus which covers much of the lower parts of Scotland and of England. till this coiintry. became a group of icy islands. and sometimes the clays themselves contain shells. still descending to the level of the sea. Grradually the land sunk more and more. are interstratified Sands and gravels.Submersion of the Land. there are patches of is sand and clay interbedded. many of which are scratched. still covered with snow and glaciers. Here and there. how. deposited their moraine rubbish there. there were occasional important oscillations in temperature. so that the ice sometimes increased and sometimes diminished. These floating south deposited their stony freights as they melted. even in the heart of the moraine-matter of the Till. which descended to the sea. At length. not stratified. ever. in the manner of which we have expe- rience in the glaciers of Switzerland and Norway. with with these boulder beds. previously united to the continent of Europe. and broke off in icebergs.

Here. long since described feet by myself. also became a cluster of islands. . for Wales. feldspathic traps. as they were deposited in the sea.' in 'Peaks. we have another proof of that arctic climate which. round which the drift was deposited. * See Passes.* of the sea having risen at least 2. . came so far south.000 upon the sides of the mountains. Trimmer on Moel Tryfaen. and by myself near Snowdon. in a stratified manner and there occur at in these patches in Scotland. Bepublished in a separate volume 1860. and of other rocks. and some from the farther region of the great Scandinavian chain. that broke from an old system of bouring seas. some of which came from the Highlands of Scotland. Erratic blocks of granite.' 1859. were in the same manner spread over the central North Wales. from 1. and great blocks of stone were scattered abroad. now occur in the far north. some from the Welsh mountains. ' The Old Glaciers of Switzerland and and Longmans. and melted in the neighwere In this stratified material sea-shells long ago found in Caernarvonshire by Mr. sometimes arranged portions intervals. Grlaeiers. but the waves playing upon them.400 feet above the sea. floatea on icebergs.1 54 Ice-borne Drift. like Scotland. glaciers. In Wales we find similar evidence. in old times. some from the Cumberland mountains.100 to 1. gneiss. moraines. the remains of sea-shells of species such as therefore.

Most stratified of these marine boulder-drifts are rudely large scale. enough when carefully looked Between Berwick and the Humber. I have seen them in scores .Sea-shells. which shells the marine nature of what often looks like a mass of heterogeneous rubbish. and like the stones in the Moraine-Till of Scotland the north of England. overlooking the broad estuary of the Thames. they may be found plenfor. and from Scotland to Suffolk. on the banks of the Humber. when viewed on a stated. 155 and the west and east of England.edded it is with sand and rounded gravel. and. This is the case even when prove they are associated with sea-shells. shells occur in A great number of these a broken state. tifully on the coast cliffs. counties. and even in the valley of the Severn about twelve miles north of Cheltenham . Boulders of Shap granite from the Cumbrian regions are scattered about the middle of England. as already often iuterb. but remarkable that in most of the clays that form the larger part of the for- mation. probably aj-e just like those houlder-beds that at the bottom of the Atlantic now being formed float by icebergs that south from the shores of Greenland. and ice-scratched chalk-flints shells and masses of Oolitic shales and loose Liassic occur as far south as a flat plateau above Eomford. and frequently stand on end. the stones and boulders that stud the mass are scattered confusedly.

near Macclesfield. by Mr. glaciers. Congleton. north of the Humber. the most plentiful species. in places almost half the number of stones are of Chalk generally well scratched. Prestwich observed them feet. at a height of fully 1. by and by Oolitic fragments are added. Etheridge. they are sometimes equally plentiful. and elsewhere. and Mr. dblonga. Ice-scratched Stones. and near Blackpool. but also by the agency of As we travel south. Tellvna. and Carboniferous rocks. Venus. as determined edule. then these become mixed with pieces of Magnesian limestone. Leda On the west coast by the Mersey. the fragments to a great extent consist of Silurian. that the idea is suggested that they were marked not only by coast ice. we find that the numbers North of the Magne- of different kinds of stones increase according to the nmnber of formations passed. in Holdemess. and in Holdemess. Old Eed. But it is evident that the low chalk hills of Yorkshire are not of a kind to . and Macclesfield. and often mingled with broken shells. and on the shores of the Menai Straits near Beaumaris. and Saadcava nvgosa. being Gardviim Cyprina lalandica. under such conditions.200 It is remarkable also that a prodigious number of ice-scratched stones occur in this drift. and far inland near Wellington. sian limestone district. Astarte borealia. DentaliMm entalia. I observed the same kind of broken shells in places 600 feet above the sea.156 of places .

Emergence of the Land. the country to a great extent sunk below the water. the ciurrents a. with all their broken shells. left CJroll many of the valleys of that the boulder clays of Holderness. and therefore the scratching and distribution of the chalk-stones in this upper may have been produced by coast ice. 1 57 have given birth to glaciers. apparently floated from the Channel Islands or from France. England and it is is for the most part destitute of boulder-drift. only close on the sea near Selsea and Brighton that erratic boulders of granite. filled great part of the German Ocean. will prove chiefly and the evidence of this I I from what know of North Wales. First. for there we have filled all the ordinary proofs of the valley having been with glacier-ice. After what seems to have been a long period of partial submergence the country gradually rose again. were pushed forward and on the land by the great northern glacier that.* South of the estuaries of the Severn and the Thames. during and after the time of the great ice-sheet. &c. This is the alternative if submersion is not allowed.. .. which scattered the ice-bome material having on great scale flowed approximately from north to south. have been found. then. coming from Norway and North Britain. &c. I shall take the Pass of Llanberis as an example. The same may be said of other low parts of England. both on the drift coast and inland where the drift prevails. and the drift was deposited and more or less filled * It has been supposed by Mr.

and the to decline. they became so large. degrees. they must. and the result was. however. that if they had rolled from the mountains. were left perched rocfies upon the rounded moutonnSes. while.158 Wales. still in some cases as well defined as moraines in lands where glaciers now exist. have taken a final . for they lie in such that they clearly cannot have rolled into them from the mountains above. By days. and. here and there. in many valleys we find the drift still remaining. that floated on the surface of the ice. many of them stand in positions so precarious. the glaciers size. which spread itself into the lowlands beyond. When the land was rising again. Glaciers of Wales. because their resting places are separated from it by a hollow . as they died away. that the glacier ploughed out the less drift and loose rubbish that more or cTimbered the valley. in a manner somewhat puzzling to those places who are not geologists . that such a valley as the Pass of Llanberis was a second time occupied by ice. as we approach nearer our own glaciers the climate slowly ameliorated. gradually increased in although they never reached attained at the the immense mag^tude which they Still. till began becoming less and less. masses of stone. on reaching the points where they lie. they left their terminal and lateral moraines. earlier portion of the icy epoch. Frequently. Other cases of the same kind could easily be given. on the other hand. besides.

recesses. until. . in Arran. and fallen into the valley below. in the Carrick and Lammermuir hills. instances. . and through the HighI could lands of Scotland. climate ameliorating. the rest precipitates still them to a lower level. here and there. bound. 159 But when experienced in the geology of glaciers. or until the wasting of the rock on which they Finally. The same kind of eviis dence of the gradual retreat of glaciers plain in almost every valley in Cumberland. the glaciers shrunk farther and farther into the heart of the mo\mtains. and would needlessly lengthen There is often great difficulty in distinguishing belatter tween these moraines and the great masses of moraine-matter that were formed during that earlier period when the northern ice-sheet covered the greater . in their very uppermost raines. we find the remains of tiny relics of moit marking the last the ice before disappeared from our country. until an earthquake shakes them down. in Wensleydale and many another Yorkshire dale.Decline of the Glaciers. that there they will lie. the errant stones were down upon the surface of the rocks so quietly and so softly. stated. at length. that as the let glaciers declined in size. the eye detects the true cause of these phenomena . but they give numerous special little to would add the effect of this what I have book. we have no hesitation in coming to the conclusion.

the stones having been rubbed against each other by moving-water. called Kaims or Eskers. This partly accounts for the gradual merging of those marine gravelly mounds. The Eskers themselves are often largely ice- charged with water-worn stones originally scratched. original sharp scratchings now re- Again. up the dales of Yorkshire and . been termed by French and Swiss is Neither ' it always easy to distinguish drift between this Till ' and the marine glacial when shells are absent.1 6o 1 lU and Hskers. into boulder clay and true moraine heaps full of ice-scratched stones. up the and on the hill-sides over many high watersheds. •moraines profoTides. and moraine-matter thus got sorted and mingled with other marine deposits. weU These glacial scratchings have since been almost entirely worn away by friction. but actually lay under the ice. The mere ghosts of the main. and which undoubtedly were not ter- minal. for the plains of the latter melt into gentle slopes of glacial debris that pass far valleys. for this difficulty is. when the great ice-sheet was retiring westward from the German Ocean. as they have geologists. that. the larger sheet or sheets of glacier-ice covered the hills and filled the valleys so thickly and completely. One reason that in certain stages of the history of the period. part of Britain. pushing out to sea. they even excluded it from parts of valleys that were at a lower level than the sea itself.

including the coimtry south of Clapham and Settle. by Settle to Skipton. have in the more ancient and larger ones often got filled up by help of rain washing the fine detritus into them and the whole has become so smooth that the original Tnoundiness has. been nearly obliterated. In like manner the same has taken place in the wide valley that crosses England eastward from the bend Of the river Lune. and hills as far south as Pendle Hill and the other the north. near Lancaster. through gradual change of climate. partly formed of Carboniferous limestone . but these. in- cluding most of the country between Clitheroe in Lancashire and Skipton. which sometimes remain in the more recent smaller moraines. it left. these became M . and fairly overflowed the range of Pendle Hill into the region field. Northumberland. as it 1 6 retreated.1. by degrees. and as the glacier retired. was rounded and smoothed into a series of great roches moutonnees. now known as the Lancashire Coal- The result was that the whole of the country between Clitheroe and Skipton. heaps of debris originally forming irregular mounds. that border the Lancashire Coal-field on : And this is what we find came down the —^The great glacier Lune from the and from the sheets that valley of the Cumbrian mountains and Howgill high hills Fells. of which Ingleborough and Pennygent form features. often enclosing still cup-shaped hollows . Old Moraines. spread across the prominent whole country to the south.

covered with mounds of moraine-matter. at equal levels.1 62 Old Moraines. covers so further south. that I have never seen Tnountains that have npt been affected by old glaciers. I believe. to distiaguish from that marvne dmft which. at first sight. . my travels having been confined to Europe north and partly south of the Alps. however. from those of mountain ranges and lowlands where glaciers never were. and to the temperate parts of North America. very different. now not easy. I confess. much of the country All these things give distinctive characters both to our mountains and much of our lowlands.

There is an important subject that affects is the physical geography of our country. Whether there are any in Scot- dammed by may the terminal moraines of common visited. and deposited happened that moraine still their terminal moraines. with this result is —that the drainage formerly represented by ice now represented by running water. valley glaciers I do not know. although I have no doubt that they ezist in patts that I have not Furthermore. it sometimes glacier declined in size its remained tolerably perfect. sometimes on the outer side of these u 2 . and there are several among the mountains of Wales. the terminal moraine. thus making There are such lakes on the Italian side of the Alps below Ivrea. ORIGIN OP —GLACIAL CERTAIN LAKES. When when a glaciers descended into valleys. which surrounding slopes is dammed solid in between the of the mountain and the mound formed by a lake.i63 CHAPTEE GLACIAL EPOCH CONTINUED XI. and that to be the glacial origin of what I believe many lakes. land .

floated about as icebergs bearing boulders.* There is no point in physical geography more difficult to account for than the origin of many lakes. When thought about at all. stratified boulder-drift. and I have no doubt also in the south. long smooth slopes of Such lakes are always on a small others on a larger scale. Julius Haast. and in its first not now much more than thirteen years It gave rise at the time to a considerable amoimt of opposition. that is to say.164 moraines we find Uriginof Lakes. it is easy to see that lakes are the result of the formation of hollows. scale. and the perusal of my paper. By and by the glacier that was produced by the drainage of snow. The theory which I propound conception old. and of many other countries in the northern hemisphere. it was with from Dr. a great proportion of which are true rock-basins tirely . having but there are a far more important bearing upon the physical geography of our country. the waters not being diffi- retained * Soon by mere loose detritus. But the great after the special paper was putlished. forming a lie dammed by a moraine. dis- appeared. and also to some approval. stating that the theory perfectly applied to that he had adopted it after many of the lakes in New Zealand. hollows en- surrounded by solid rocks. and deposited its moraine there. breaking up. . is is my own. satisfaction that I received a letter in 1862. and lake is now represented by water. showing that an old glacier descended to the level of the sea. and. outside of which stratified drift.

If we have an inclined plane with a it long slope. gentle or steep. according to the nature of the rivers and the rocks. for it cannot cut fill them with them out. But the its sea in this case cannot make a hollow it below own average level. is to act as a great the larger irregu- planvng machvne. consider what the effect of marine denu- dation. water will run upon because of the slope . 165 ? culty first is. The consequence is. the effect of this. if there were hollows there. and of South . how were these roch-basins is made In the place. is All that to scoop running water can do upon the surface less out trenches or channels of greater or width. and the time employed in the work. is to waste back the land. what is the effect in any country of running water ? Rivers cannot make large basin-shaped holall lows surrounded by rocks on sides. and. wearing down larities that rise above its level in the manner shown in the description of the first denudation of the Weald at page 114. What might do. form- ing gorges or wider valleys. and of the weathering of cliffs that rise above the waves. where waves are always breaking. On the sea-shore. Again. aided by atmospheric dis- .^ Not made by Sea or Rivers. that the chief power of the sea and the weather working on the land and wasting it back.to Wales at page 204. so as in the end form a plai/n of mari/ne deww- dation. would be to detritus.

so as throw them imto a basvu^-shaped form. but. and examine the strata critically. the lake of Thun. Such syn: clinal depressions are the rarest things in nature is that to say. \mt it make a large rock-bound lake-basvn. on the contrary. the very uppermost bed or beds of which shall be continuous and unbroken underneath the lake. water of the Some such synclinal hollows are found in the upper valleys of the Jura. . but without lakes. Zurich. or Highland lakes. hollows formed of strata bent upwards at the edges all round into the form of a great dAsh. and in which the drainage runs into potholes. it Again : has been contended that the hollows were to formed by the dAstwrbance of the rocks. But when we take such lakes as that of Greneva. or many of the Welsh. and the great lakes on the Italian side of the Alps. these synclinal hoUows can be explained on prin- ciples quite different from those I have to propound. we find that they do not lie in the form of basin-shaped synclinal hollows. Cumberland.1 66 Not made by cannot integration. it vdll cut out a channel. and finds its way to the level of the rivers issue Val de Travers. where ready- made But from caverns in the Secondary rocks. the lakes of Lucerne. or they all may be bent and contorted in a hundred curves along and xmder the length of the lake. Constance. the strike of the strata often runs right across the lake-basins instead of circling roimd them.

life spent in mapping rocks. 167 I never in saw one. It might. be said that these lakes lie in areas of special depression. I no necessfii'y connection between fractures and the formation of valleys. From repeated examination particular. If such synclinal lake-basins exist at all. how- numerous in the Alps. and the lake-valleys in do not . lie in gaping rents. so waters. and that I feel sure the theory of a particular depression for each lake will not hold in these. of disturbance and dislocation. which therefore sunk. Cumber- land. mainly. however. where they occur in North America by the thousand. or in synclinal curves indeed. and I believe that they have been only as- sumed by persons who have not realised the meaning of denudations on a large scale. made by So the sinking of difficult the land underneath each lake. and the Highlands of Scotland. by the hundred. did it indeed seem to the great geologist Hutton to account for the origin of the rock-basin in which the Lake of Geneva lies. I feel indeed assured that the Swiss and other valleys generally. Lakes are. fissures. North Wales. and therefore are apt to consider hills and valleys as the result. though specially looking out for them many regions. that he was forced to propound the hypo- thesis that beds of salt its had been dissolved underneath bottom. after half a believe that there is and. or in any other . and so formed a great its hollow for the reception of ever.Disturbance of Strata.

and I believe that it is equally tmtenable for the Alps. may . * For details see vol. ' Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. so close together. Scotland. which completely enclose lakes. curves of the and if they do not lie in gaping fissures. The physical geology of America. was provided for each lake. If.1 68 Glacial Lakes of America and Europe. and great part of the country not being mountainous. what If the sea cannot form hollows. is the remamitig In agent that I know denuding power of ice. In the northern part of North America it is as if the whole country were sown . entirely goes against such a supposition. for I by no means Trish to be understood that this theory accounts for the probable origin of all lakes. nor yet the only in areas of special depression. nor running water. and if hollows were not formed by synclinal strata. p. and in other regions some which I know nothing. but consisting of undulating flats.' 1862. 185. xviii. we have disposed of is left ? these erroneous hyposuch the theses. broadcast with lakes. then. it is Having come to is plain that it not a simple thing to account for the existence of hollows. it becomes an absurdity to suppose a special area of depression that. nor weather. Many are dammed up by owe their origin to causes of drift. composed of hard rocks.* these conclusions. and Sweden. large and smaU. for example. northern or southern region that has been acted on by glacier-ice on a great scale. and the lowlands between the Alps and the Jura. There are many lakes and inland seas which I do not doubt occupy areas of special depression.

more than fifty. either in the form of water or of glacier-ice. I will take the Lake of Greneva as a special example This before applying the theory to our lake. is 984 feet in depth. I have never observed that this is the case. lower end. were commensurate to^ts g^eat The Lake of Geneva. by about 30 miles in width.Lake the region of the Alps oj Geneva. is now about forty miles long. but rather the reverse. and directly in the course of the great old which was more than a hundred miles the present glacier of the in length from it Ehone to where at its 1 end abutted upon the Jura. or of like nature. and it gradually shallows to its outflow. irdgkt expect an equal nv/mber great and small in other regions where the rocks are equally disturbed.lrhere deepest. 169 it is a remarkable circumstance that all the large lakes lie in the direct channels of the great old glaciers —each lake in it a true rock-basin. yet if ice had nothing to do with their of lakes formation. but where there are no traces of glaciers. once own country. for though clear that the its drainage of the mountains must have found way into these hollows. we. is This is important. and in its broadest part about twelve miles wide. It lies at the mouth of the upper valley of the Ehone glacier. By examining the sides of the moimtains . it from south-west to north-east at effects its The flowed produced on the country over which size. towards its eastern end.

I70 Lake of Geneva. .

200 feet where thickest.Lake of Geneva. at least. first of moraine-matter left by the retreat of the Ehone glacier. and tlie underlying rock was consequently . or nearly 3. and yet of unequal hardsteadily. swelled as it was by the vast tributary masses of the glacier of the Arve and of Chamouni. Consider the effect of this gigantic glacier flowing over the Miocene rocks. 171 on either side of the valley of the Ehone. to a considerable its extent worn away but where at western end near Geneva the ice was thinner by * But probatly more several Swiss geologists. By similar obser- vations on the Jura. . . it still maintained a thickness of something like 2. Where the glacier-ice was thickest. and by others of smaller size that flowed down the valleys south of the lake. 2. through which the glacier flowed. we are able to ascertain what was the thickness of the ice in that valley where the glacier attained its greatest size. That mass. must have exerted a prodigious grinding effect on the rocks below.* is clear. which in this part of Switzer- land are comparatively ness ! soft. this estimate is taken from the observations of bottom of the lake is I believe it could be proved that the ice must have been considerably thicker. working slowly and for a period of untold duration. afterwards covered by sediment poured into the lake by the river.800 feet above the surface of the lake.800 if we add the depth of the water. it that where the ice abutted on that range. viz. there the grinding power was greatest. for the original now partly covered by deposits.

and ice-grooves. and the waste of the underlying rock was proportionately diminished. all round towards the present margin At first it may be difficult to realise this theory and to appreciate the ice. it is becomes evident that the depth of the rock-basin comparatively quite insignificant. and this hollow shelves up of the lake. or many a loch in the Highlands. in Wales. mode of action of the but when we compare the depth with the length of the lake and the height and weight of the ice above. as shown in fig. 984 feet deep in the deepest part. reason of the melting of the glacier. 30. critical was only after a examination of many of the lakes in and around the Alps. though it was in Wales that the while mapping yet it its idea of the theory struck me.1 72 Alpine Lake Basins. result was. moraines. But. in 1854. when the lakes of Llanberis region. I then first clearly saw its . would on a smaller scale first do as well. It may seem as strange that I should take the Lake of Geneva an example. Windermere in the Cumbrian Loch Doon in Ayrshire. there the pressure and grinding power were less. some of which were as thick or thicker than that which descended the valley of the Ehone. that a great hollow least The at was scooped oiit. without allow- ing for the sediment that covers the bottom. that in 1861 I ventured to assert that their basins were scooped out by the great glaciers of the icy period. and reduce all to a true scale.

as the Coming to this side of the Atlantic. If we examine the maps of the northern hemisphere generally. relics of old seas. and partly because they are unknown to topographers. and beyond this to St. The whole of that country has been completely covered by researches of geologists show. but of a large part of the habitable world. and examining the Scandinavian chain on the east. rence. and going north. we find very few important lakes in its southern regions. numerous. like the Caspian. and soon become tolerably St. are less inclined than on the western flank.* As we proceed northwards in America. probably. the whole country so to speak. it is remarkable that. and these chiefly in Central Africa. Lake Superior and the is. beginning at the equator. the lakes begin to increase. . Lawrence. 1 73 bearing as a discovery affecting the physical geography. they North of New York. excepting lagoons and crater- lakes.Lakes of the Northern Hemisphere. but now freshened. not of Switzerland and Britain alone. towards the Law- become so numerous that they appear on a whole country in every the west and north of map to be scattered over the direction. for where no one has yet tried to account them. where the slopes . sown broadcast with lakes large and small and a vast number of the smaller ones are omitted partly for want of room. . ice. in latitudes 38° and 40°. all round * They are.

unless. once lakes. Lancashire. that the glacial origin of some of the celebrated lakes ia Ireland and of others unknown to fame besides is equally clear. Geikie. and in the upper All the lakes in Cumberland that I have lie in examined (and of which I have seen soundings) true rock-basins. . endosing two beantifol and in Northumberland. Wales where glaciers were in every valley there we have the lakes of Llanberis. in Norden- a glaciated country. while in Finland. Ogwen. chiefly dammed in by heaps of detrital matter called Osar.* Go : into Worth. Stranraer. and the Baltic. Llyn-y-Ddinas. AU these regions have been extremely abraded by glacier-ice. in some cases. They also They inclose lakes and peatThey have been mapped and described by Mr. In Scotland. the Gulf of Finland. there are also many truly rockof Scotland.1 74 • nntisft I^akes. Corries. according to Professor skiold. they are. many of which lie in true rock- basias. occur in the grounds of Castle Kennedy near lakes. These are common and Lanark where they form vast elongated irregular monnds of especially near gravel above the trae glacial detritus. Llyn-GTvynant. the whole country is covered with lakes. and I was informed by the and personally partly know. a few of the smaller ones may be dammed up by mere moraines . and aU the lakes and tarns near Capel Curig. The Eskers of Ireland and the Kaims in the great valley of the CByde.in the Southern JEighlands and ia Kircudbrightshire * and Ayrshire. or other superficial detritus late Professor Jukes. Llynllydaw. and Torkshire. of Cwellyn. Caretairs. mosses.

sown with lakes —a num- ber of which I can testify lie in true rock-basins. as it were.Lakes of both Hemispheres. and I this fact is not a am convinced that is mere accidental coincidence. let If any one wants a convincing proof at the outflow of the him go to Loch Doon. like Green- land and Victoria Land now. 1 75 bound lake-basins scooped out of the Silurian rocks of the Carrick Hills. Perthshire. however. .' is This point clear that all the country. or among titie bending gravelly mounds of the 'Kaims. in hollows. slipping under the water in a manner that unmistakeably marks an ice-worn rocky barrier. where lake he may see the rocks perfectly Tnoutonn&e and well grooved. all in Sutherland. for in rocky both north and south of the equator the farther north or the farther south we go. was in the icy period ground by a heavy weight of slowly moving and long enduring glacier-ice.scooping power that originated most of the lake scenery of our regions country. In the Shetlands and the Orkneys. which I firmly believe was the . that in old times moulded the face of so much of both hemispheres. the more do lakes increase in number. Dumbartonshire. I go further. in the Lewes and the Western islands . made by unequal accumulation of glacier drifts. Inverness-shire. but one of the strongest proofs of the former existence of that widespread coating of glacier-ice. by personal observation lie Some. and the Mull of Cantyre. the country is.

Jukes strongly advocated this theory in papfers in the necessity. he allows that glacier-ice excavated all the great lakes. and in other publications. reports. third edition. and memoirs in some of which has as been stated that it must in the long run be accepted the origin of those rock-basins of the northern hemispere generally that are occupied Finally.' 1865. and it fared but little better in it the north of Italy. Falconer.' in a long controversy with the late Dr.' 1871.' its begins to find way into geological manuals. of the lakes in the northern hemisphere. excepting Lake Superior. Professor Geikie. The Scenery of Scotland viewed in connection with its Physical Geology. from Ontario to Lake Superior. ' ' PheHomena of the Grlacial ' Sir William Logan.' Geikie. Following my view. and The Student's Manual of Geology. . . are depressions. or rather wherever there have been either glaciers. Jnlius Haast on the geology of New Zealand . where however it was allowed that Nevertheless. but of denudation and the grooves on the surfaces of the rocks which descend under their waters appear to point to glacial action as one of the causes which have produced these depressions. edited by Professor Geikie. Newberry.' Also Dr. not of geological structure.' 1863. in the 'American Annual of Scientific Disooveiy.1 76 This Progress of the Theory.* the lakes produced Drift of Scotland. Eeport on the Greology of Canada. ' Sir Charles Lyell gives a qualified assent in his Student's Elements of Geology. monoit graphs. brought out in March and pubglacial origin of so many- lished in August 1862. full theory.' by the late Professor Jukes. where he states that the great North American lake-basins . if I were to f * See Ecofessor classify by lakes.' for 1863. Mr. an exception for which I see no See also reports by Dr. widespread continental or isolated mountain ' was on the whole received ' with disfavour or faint praise in England and Switzer- land when first produced. ' ' ' Eeader. it 'deserved the gravest attention.

glacier-ice the solid rocks 2nd. among which in many districts may be included those dammed in by Eskers or Kaims. . ' Lake hollows due drift ' to irregular accumulation of the on broad flattish surfaces. least numerous: out of True rock-basins scooped by . smaller scale. near Stranraer. it would be as follows last —the first named being most. dammed which I think on the whole are scarce. 177 by glacial action. well known on a large and good examples of which. for many that appear to be so are in reality more than half rock-basins. or only dammed up by moraine-matter for a part of their depth. may be Castle Kennedy. Moraine lakes. 3rd.Glacial Origin of Lakes. on a seen in the beautiful grounds of scale in Finland. and the 1st.

and will here briefly recapitulate. that during the Tertiary and later epochs. and this type. England has been repeatedly joined to the main land . I —DENU- HAVE already said. our Miocene (if the mam- malia found in the Crag migrated hither in Miocene times) are of the same type as thefaunas of later phases of the continents of Europe. with modifications.178 CHAPTER Xn. of a very antique type. and other regions. North America. still continued after the Crag was raised out of the sea. NEWER PLIOCENE EPOCH. and England was again joined to the Continent during the time that the vegetation of the 'Forest . CONTINUED TRACES OF MAN BONE-CAVES. Our Eocene terrestrial is fauna. AND MIGRATION OF TERRESTRIAL ANIMALS SUBSEQUENT INTO BRITAIN ACROSS THE DRIFT PLAINS SEPARATION OF BRITAIN FROM THE CONTINENT DATION OF THE COASTS OF BRITAIN. the same as that of the Eocene strata of France . a circumstance proved by the mammalia that must have migrated hither after each successive emergence.

on which stumps of trees. Godwin-Austen. and other mammals abound. and bears. deer. In the former there were found the remains of a well-known species of elephant. and severed from the main N 2 . at Selsey . did not originate in a small detached island like England. there are post-pliocene strata on the sea-shore. 1 79 flourished. The species are mostly different. as I have much already explained. at various minor periods of geological time. pigs. most of them of extinct Such large mam- malia. but formed parts of large families that inhabited the north of Europe. and Asia. oxen. hippopotami. not belonging to icy seas. one of the beds containing species of living marine shells. on any hypothesis. the types mostly are the same. and over-laid by icy Boulder-drift. and they could only have passed into our area by the union of England with the Continent. In the main the Mammalian Miocene fauna of the world was the direct predecessor of the fauna of the present day. While the Boulder-drift was forming. still stand. America. beavers. mice. elephants. These Boulder-drifts were formed during a period of cold. lying oh clay. horse. accompanied by the great glaciers that covered so of the north of Europe and America.. E.' species of rhinoceros. described by Mr. the country slowly sank.Union of England with Bed ' the Coniifient. species. Again in the south of England. Bill. dntiquus. a tiger. the remains of an old wood. and In this ' Forest-bed.

it was exceedingly scanty. which are unknown in the older The elephants which lived before this time must have been driven out of our area by that submergence. it also belongs to the epoch of is the Forest-bed. must have been reunited to the Continent. there was any vegetation. which or not this is somewhat doubtful. and. managed to live on in the extreme south of what is now England. . therefore. We find. Farther north such large animals could not if have lived on mere groups of icy islands. again appears — unless. that on the re-elevation of the country. Whether associated with a the case. species of some of the formations. because the great hairy elephant. on which. with other mammalia. and there is evidence that was then united to the Continent. But it it land became merely groups of small islands. migrated from the Continent of Europe to our area. they must have died out or been banished from our area by that submergence. unless some of them. the bones of which are found in the old alluvia of rivers. partly at least of younger date than the Glacial period. was again elevated. El&phas prvrrdg&ni'ws. it is mimber of other animals that. after the re-elevation of the land.i8o Unions with the Continent. for we posits the find in later de- remains of a number of terrestrial animals. which apparently suffered a smaller change of level. indeed. They required a large amount of vegetation to feed on. it however.

The Caldea of Yorkshire. and carries it away in the form of bicarbonate of lime. 166. are well known. run. and always occur in limestone strata.* through which streams sometimes still Close to Clapham. limestone gorge into the 800 yards in length. and the carbonic acid picked up by the water as it falls through the air.- * The great limestone caves of Kentucky form the most prominent chasm in no more. large part of the river falls into a At Ottawa a is SUurian limestone and seen mountain limestone. they are parted by narrow often vertical. by degrees dissolves part of the limestone. From its top. jointed fissures. p. : Most solid limestone rocks are that is to say. often of great extent. in which they have been formed in consequence of part of the carbonate of lime being dissolved. such a cave runs from the side of a hill. caves have thus been formed. I have already. through which water that falls easily find its on the surface can way. in Yorkshire.' beautiful stalactitic pendants and pillars descend to the floor. The 'perte du Rhone below the Lake of Geneva is a minor example.Bone-Caves. and no doubt further if it were followed. where large brooks flow from limestone caves at the sides of the vaUeys of examples. i8i is But before discussing these it necessary to say something of the bones found in limestone caves. and branching in many directions. Eain-water percolates through the joints. others in the Jura. Eunning iix underground channels. mentioned . in the grounds of Ingleborough. These bone-caves are often of very old date. 'like natural sculpture in cathedral cavern.

It is impossible to fix with accuracy the precise age of such caves. White rats live in the cave. or the time when all . perhaps washed -from. gallery. again and again. The whole is the result of the dissolving of carbonate of lime by carbonic acid in the water.1 82 Bone-Caves. the bones that are for the wearing out found in them were buried there of the caves has been going on for imknown filled periods of time. by underground changes of waterflow. Sometimes the cavern runs in a long low it rises sometimes . and freshwater shrimps. forcibly cleared . into high chambers. open arcades accretions of stalagmite swell out in the angles of the cavern between the floor and the sides. and great flat pendants of stalactite hang like petrified banners from the walls. but I am not it. There is often proof that. scooped into ogee arches and whenever a chamber occurs there through which water from we find a joint in the rocks. at various periods. run along the ledges. aware that any fossil bones have been found in though they are common in other caverns in the same county. large fretted delicate. above. old consolidated gravels that filled them to the roof have been. above percolates. and continues the work of sculpture. and modem caiTy on drippings and a rivulet in the cavern still the work through all its length. perhaps charged with bones. have been seen in the brooklet . and some of them have been with sedi- ments. near Settle.

we very in these caverns. Sometimes the skeletons. mixed with red loam. One evidence and that the bones are frequently gnawed. Hyeenas. or what precise mmor period they periods belong later . must devote these paragraphs specially to caves. viewed on a large ti/mes scale. on the Carboniferous Limestone plateaux of Yorkshire. that inhabited of this is. seem to have found their way in through the mouths of the caverns ' . for. I have often seen the carcases. impossible. gravels. and another that the angles of the caverns themselves are . such as Bears and these caves.imder which we hear the water rushing. still bear the marks of the teeth of camivora. as shown by Dr. . of sheep waiting for a flood to be carried below. or the animals themselves. to define to it is difficult. Sometimes the detached bones of animals. more frequently they were washed in through ' pot-holes and openings in their roofs. sand. and angular fragments of rock.Bone-Caves^ out by natural means. have been dragged in by beasts of prey. therefore. On the verge of the mouths of large bell-shaped pot-holes. inhabit our country and the and as it is hard to separate them. found together with the In such caves the bones of extinct mammals of preG-lacial and Grlacial times are still remains of species that Continent of Europe I . 183 find bones When. or detached bones. or parts of them. Buckland. all from Miocene downwards are minor periods.

in their way in and out of their dens. and along other uneven surfaces. having been polished rubbing against the rock as they passed by comers. and other works of man. and even to our own day. and of animals found their that period.t many of these caves date also that the bones from before the Glacial epoch. men frequented them. north. being above the sea during Glacial times. flint implements. were below the sea during part of the Glacial epoch. it is is sometimes found in the this by no means i^med that the case. and thus it happens that organic remains of older date than the Grlacial epoch may be foimd historical in the same cave with bones belonging to that period. Some of the Devonshire caves in which works of man were found. and to minor epochs that come down to times. Mingled with the bones of extinct and modem species it is often in England and Wales. for the boulder beds reach a higher level . have been foimd .184 Bone-Caves by the animals occasionally smooth. Falconer. and though said that these are of later date than the mammalian remains of extinct species glacial deposits. and since way it into some of them before closed many of them have been more or less tenanted as caverns down to the present day. or bones have been at intervals washed into them . and. I . with Dr. Cefii in Others farther Uke that of North Wales. There is no doubt tha.

Some of those in the south of England seem to have been inhabited. were contemporaneous. and in Brixham Cave in Devonshire. Often. and other extinct mammalia. they have been washed into caverns from above through fissures. while others farther north lay underneath the icy sea. in the lower parts of caverns. that man. for his works and their bones have been found together in Kent's Hole. or otherwise that part of the northern land was so greatly shrouded in the great ice-sheet that it was desolate and unin- habited by beast or man. As already stated. Ehinoceros tichorhinus. Over this there frequently lies . however. associated with the bones of the Mammoth. is certain. This. in the caverns of Grower in Glamorganshire and elsewhere in England. Schmerling in limestone caverns near Li^ge. in a way that left no doubt of their having lived at the same period of time in that region so near our own. foiind fragments of 185 marine shells of the drift in the cave overlying the detritus that held the bones of elephants and other mammalia. the Mammoth. Cave hyaenas and Hons. they lie buried in a red loamy earth mixed with stones. These bones in caverns have frequently been preserved in this manner. The skulls and other bones of men were long ago discovered by Dr. and sometimes they were carried in by beasts of prey through the mouths of dry caves.and Human Remains. No human remains were found in that cavern.

Brown Bear). and other sealed relics are buried. Along with these in the Ursus arctos Brixham Cave are three (the species of bears. sjpelmus (Cave Bear). horns. or of carbonate of lime. ferox the Fox. In this way bones became up in the caves safe from the effects of air and. ofmoisture . Gervus tarandus (Eeindeer). in the Menall of Long Hole. and Hycena spelcea Fdis spelcBa (in reality Felis leo. or have been. the Wolf. four spe- Gervus megaceros (often erroneously named the Grreat Irish Elk). and the result has been the natural burial and preservation of those old races of animals. and the others are chiefly in the Devonian Limestone of Devonshire.. while a few are in Oolitic or other limestone strata. that formerly inhabited our land. dip Hills. and in bones. common lion) . Grlamorganwhich or his works. deposited from water dropping from the roofs of the caverns. Ursus . with stalagmite. in Carboniferous limestone. Among the most celebrated caverns are Brixham Cave and Kent's Hole. and . the cies of deer. Some caves are. . extinct. such as flint and others in the north of England. some of them Thirty-six British caves have been recorded as holding the remains of terrestrial mammalia.1 86 Bone-Caves a thick cake of stalagmite. TJ. and shire Wookey Hole. Grower. Somerset. near Torquay in Devonshire . it or almost filled. contain remains of man im- plements and bone needles. Most of these caves have been excavated by natural processes alone. G. filled. to some extent.

Lemmus. Arvicola. martes. timidus. Journ. Machai- rodus latidens. Pengelley has written many important papers on Bone-Caves and their connection with prehistoric man. and as yet. Lutra vulgaris. vol. Eijuus caballus. Toquay. : spelseus. The same kind of assemblage of animal Vole). agrestis. C. C. Sorex vulgaris. Lagomys spelaeus. Kirkdale. the Field Vole.* On the whole the most * These lists are taken from a paper by Mr. capreolus. A. Canis vulpes. Hippopotamus major. XJ. ferox. putorius. lynx. Grower. His entire list contains 46 or 47 species. a Beaver Castor fiber. leo. Elephas antiquus. C. elaphus (Red-deer) Bos pri- migenius (Auroch) . Boyd Dawkins. who has worked most successfully at this subject. Felis catus. 1869. and in Spritsail Tor. tichorhinus. A. F.and their Contents. Eabbits. capreohos (Eoe-deer). phihius (the Bank Vole. the same species occurred. Sus scrofa. without relics left by man. together with Common Shrews. 187 . S (?). Lutra vulgaris (the Otter). pardus. chairod/ws latidens (a large Tiger ?). C. A. XXV. Society. Grlamorganshire. Mustela erminea. Gervus megaceros. Rhinoceros tichorhvnus. and in many others. Spermophilus erythrogenoidos. the Horse . Hysena spelsea. Mhinoceros lepto- rhinus . lupus. Aloes malchis. A. Rhinolophus ferum-equinum. tarandus. F. M. Geol. agrestis. and the Water Common Mouse. Mephas primigenius (the GreatHairy Elephant or Mammoth) . Mr. XJ. Bos primigenius. as follows Man. Mus musculus. Hares. in the caves of Blea- don. Ursus arctos. Meles taxus (the Badger). Arvicola pratensis. Ermine. Meles taxus. L. Gulo luscus (the Glutton). Lagomya spelams (now living in hare). . Ehinoceros leptorhinus. amphibius. and the forms is found in Long Hole and in Wookey Hole. Castor fiber. 194. Lepus currieulus. pratensis. F. Cervus Browni. Bison priscus. and sometimes called the Eat- In Kent's Cavern. E. p. elaphus. E. and Siberia. C. Mus muscuhis. Maam- Pigs. M. primigenius.

Pigs. was partly submerged. the Mam- moth. The proof is equally clear that Ireland during part of the Drift period. some of them for the second time. to allow of the country being reinhabited by large mammals. Wolves. after the re- elevation of the country. An excellent surmise was offered us on this subject late Professor by the Edward Forbes. by the and over this into Ireland the Cervvs megaceroB. but by a plain formed by the elevation of the Boulder-drift over part at least of the Across area this now occupied by the plain German Ocean. therefore. Oxen. there must have been ground over which these mammals travelled into the Irish area. and Field Mice. many animals migrated into our area. the probabilities are that England was again united to the Continent. formerly called the Irish Elk. Deer. It is the belief of many geologists that at the same period Ireland was united to England and Scotland.1 88 Post-Glacial Migration are prevalent forms Bears. so as to form a group of small islands . not by a mass of solid rock above the sea level. Otters. Panthers. Foxes. by a similar plain across the area now covered Irish Sea. Elephants. Ehinoceros. and other animals migrated into that region. and. After the elevation of the country that succeeded partial depression its imder the sea during the drift part of the Glacial period. like England. who drew atten- . Hyaenas.

of Animals,
tion to some remarkable observations

189

made by the

late

Mr. Thompson of Belfast, with regard
tive

to the compara-

number

of reptiles that are found in Belgium, in

England, and in Ireland.

In Belgium there are in

all

22 species of serpents,
like.

frogs, toads, lizards,
is

and the
only

In England the number of species
;

H,

and in Ireland 5

and the inference that Professor

Forbes drew was, that these reptiles migrated from
east to west across the old land that joined our island

to the Continent, before the denudations took

place

that disunited them.
land, a certain

Before the breaking up of that
as far as England,

number had got

and

a smaller niunber

as far as Ireland,

and the continuity

of the land being broken up, their further progress was
stopped.

These denudations, of course, did not cease with the
breaking up of the land that joined our territory to the
Continent
;

and there are

also proofs of several oscilla-

tions of the relative levels of sea

and land since that
is,

period.
still,

This waste of territory
will always

indeed, going on

and

go on while a fragment of Britain

remains.

Before proceeding further, I would advance

one or two proofs to show how steady the waste of our
country
is.

Along the east coast of England, between Flamborough Head aud Kilnsea, the
drift or boulder-clay,

strata are

composed of

sometimes of more than a hun-

'

I

go
in

Waste of Sea-Coasts.
hnmun
thickness,

dred feet

and forming wellis

marked

sea^cliffs.

This district

called

Holdemess,
coast,

and many towns, long ago built upon the

have

been forced by degrees to migrate landwards, because of
the encroachment of the sea.
Professor Phillips,
(a distance of
'

'The

materials,' says

which
'

fall

from the wasting cKff

36 miles)

are sorted
is

by the

tide,

the
its

whole shore
fall,

is

in motion, every cliff

hastening to

the parishes are contracted, the churches wasted

away.'

The whole

area

on which Eavenspur stood,

once an important town in Yorkshire, where Bolingbroke, afterwards
fairly

Henry

IV., landed in 1399, is

now

out at

sea.

The same may be

said

of

many

another town and farmstead, and the sea is ever

muddy

with the wasting of the unsolid land.
all

In Hke manner,

the soft coast

cliffs,

from the Humber to the mouth
similar

of the Thames, are suffering
places at an average rate of
year.

destruction, in

from two to four yards a
found at Eccles-by-thea comparatively late

One notable example The town

is

sea in Norfolk.

at

period extended beyond the church tower, which is

now

buried in blown sea-sand', and the church itself has

been destroyed.

On
bill of

the south side of the estuary of the Thames,

stands the ruined chiirch of the Eeculvers on a low

Thanet Sand, half surrounded on the land
relics of a

side

by the

Eoman

wall that in old times en-

1

Waste of Sea- Coasts.

1

9

circled the little town, then at a considerable distance

from the

sea.

The church has been abandoned, but

is

preserTed as a landmark by the Admiralty, and groins

have been

rian

out across the beach to prevent the
cliff

further waste of the

by the

sea.

As

it is, all

the

seaward side of the

Eoman

wall has long been de-

stroyed, the waves have invaded

the land, and half

the church-yard

is

gone, while

from the

cliff

the

bones of

men

protrude, and here and there lie upon
little

the beach.

A

nearer

Heme Bay the same marine
flint

denudation sparingly strews the beach with yet older

remains of man, in the shape of

weapons of a

most ancient type, washed from old
crown part of the
cliff.

river gravels that

In the

Isle of

Sheppy, great
cliff

slips are of

frequent

occurrence from the high
overlooks the sea.
in this I saw

of London Clay that

Two
slipped

acres of

wheat and potatoes
in

manner

seaward
still

1863.

When

them the

crops were

standing on the shatcliff.

tered ground below the edge of the

Again, in the

Hampshire basin on the south coast of
are used

England,

if

we walk along the footpaths that

by coastguardsmen, we often
edge of the
cliff

find that the path

on the

comes suddenly to an end, and has
This
is

been re-made inland.
cliffs,

due to the

fact,

that the
soft,

chiefly

composed of clay and sand^ are so

that, as in

Sheppy and Holderness, every year large

192

Landslips.

masses of country slip out seaward and are rapidly

washed away by the waves.

The waste

of this southern part of

England and of

Holdemess has been estimated at the rate of from two
to

three yards every year. area

In the course of time,

therefore, a great

of country
Bill

must have been
is

destroyed.

At Selsey

there

a

farmhouse

standing about 200 yards from the shore, and since
the farmer
first settled

there as

much

land has been

wasted away as that which

now

lies

between his house

and the

sea.

The

site of

the ancient Saxon Cathedral
is

Church that preceded that of Chichester
be far out at
sea.

known

to

But

this waste is not confined to

the softest kinds of strata, for further west in Dorsetshire,

where Oolites and Chalk form the

cliffs,

we

find

the same kind of destruction going on, one remarkable
case of

which

is

the great landslip in the neighbour-

hood of Axmouth, which took place in the year 1839.

The
laid

strata there consist

on the surface of Chalk, underis

by Greensand, which
is easily

underlaid by the Lias Clay.
is

The Chalk

penetrated by water, and so
it.

the

sand that underlies

After heavy rains the water

having sunk through the porous beds, the clay beneath

became exceedingly

slippery,

and thus

it

happened

that the strata dipping seaward at a low angle, a vast

mass of Chalk nearly a nule in length slipped out
seaward, forming a grand ruin, the features of which

Yorkshire
are
still

Cliffs.

193

constantly tshanging,

by the further foundering

of the Chalk and Grreensand.

The waves beating upon

the foundering masses destroy them day by day, and in

time they will entirely disappear, and make room for
further landslips.
coast of Dorsetshire,

If

we walk along
criticise it

that southern

and

with a geological
of similar land-

eye, it is obvious that a great
slips

number

have taken place in times past, of which we have

no special record.
In the north coumtry the same kind of history is plain
all

along the Liassic and Oolitic

cliffs

of Yorkshire, on
in England.

a coast formed of almost the finest

cliffs

Not many

years ago at Eosedale on the north horn of
set of iron works, oflSces

Eimswick Bay an important

and cottages, with a pier and harbour, were by a landslip
at night utterly ruined and borne into the sea.
slight seaward dip of the strata, sands,

The

composed of clays and

ought to have warned the proprietors of the

insecurity of the position of their works,

had they

possessed sufficient geological knowledge.

In parts of our country in the west, the Silurian
rocks.
coast,

Old Eed Sandstone and Coal-measures on the

show equal evidence of waste, though much
its

slower in

progress; as for instance at St. Bride's

Bay, in Pembrokeshire (see Map), where the north and
south headlands are formed in
great part of hard

igneous rocks that stand boldly out

seaward; while

194

Waste of West

Coast.

between these points there are softer Coal- measure
strata,

which once

filled

what

is

now the bay

— and

spread far beyond.
softness they

But because of
less able

their comparative

have been

than the igneous rocks

of the headlands to stand the wear

and tear of the

atmosphere and the sea waves, and thus having been

worn back, a large bay is the

result.

Indeed,

all

along

the west coast, where solid rocks prevail, the hardest

masses usually form the promontories, while the bays

have been scooped in softer material

;

and

this fact,

though the rate of waste may not be detected by the
eye in

many

years, yet proves the nature of

marine

and atmospheric denudation when combined on coast
cliffs.

The very

existence of sea

cliffs

proves marine
cliffs

denudation, for the strata that form these

come
While
cliff-

abruptly to an end in precipitous escarpments.

being deposited, Nature never ends strata in a

Uke form.

They were hardened and

raised into land.

The weather and the waves attacked them, wore them
back, and
to
cliffs

are the result.

I mention these things
scale are

show that such denudations on a great

going on now, and therefore when I speak of former
unions and separations of our island with the main
land by denudation, and oscillation of level, the state-

ment

is

founded on excellent data.

195

CHAPTER
BRITISH

XIII.
CAUSES

CLIMATES

AND

THEIK

EAINFALL

IN

DIFFEEENT AKEAS
I NO"W

AEEAS OF EITER DRAINAGE.

come

to other

phenomena connected with the
our island, and
its

physical

structure of
;

geography
falls

generally

and

first

with regard to the rain that
If

upon

its

surface.

we examine the

best hydro-

graphic maps of the Atlantic, we find on them numerous
lines

and arrows, showing the direction of the flow of

the ocean currents as drawn by Captain Maury.

One

great current begins in the Grulf of Mexico, where the

water in that land-locked area within the tropics
exceedingly heated;
first

is

and flowing out of the

gulf, it

passes E.

and then NE., across the Atlantic and

so reaches the

European area of the North

Sea.

So

marked

is

the heat of this immense current, that in

crossing from

England

to America, the temperature of

the water suddenly

falls

some degrees.

Fifteen years

ago, in crossing the Atlantic, I was in the habit early
in the

morning of taking the temperature of the water
o 2

1

96

Gulf^ Stream
oflScers of

with one of the

the steamboat.

We then

found that at about

five o'clock in

the morning, for

several days, the temperature

of the sea was always
air,

about four degrees above the temperature of the

but quite suddenly, in passing out of the Grulf Stream,
at the

same hour of the morning the

tem.peratiu:e of the

water was fotmd to average about four degrees below
that of the air.

Where

in the

map

the

arrows point southwards,

there are cold streams of water coming from the icy
seas of the north.

One of these

passes along the east

coast of America,

and coming from the North Sea

many an

iceberg detached from the great glaciers of
is

Greenland

floated from BafiSn's

Bay across the Banks
Atlantic,
as
far

of Newfoundland into the Western

south even as the parallel of
half of the north Atlantic

New
is air.

York.

The western

thus kept cool, and the

water

is

often colder than the
Grulf

The

Stream occupies a very great width

in

the Atlantic, and approaches tolerably near to our

own western

coast,

and the

effect
is

of this body of
to divert the iso-

warm

water flowing northward,

thermal lines (lines of equal temperature) far to the
north, over a large part of the Atlantic area.

Thus
about

a certain line

runs

across

North

America,

latitude ^0°, representing an average temperature for

the whole year of 32°.

Across that continent it passes

becomes as were abnormally warm. the sea where the Gulf Stream In the extreme south-west of England. and we at once recognise this fact. is to cause a great amount of moisture in the west of Europe. Our British climate. owing to the influence of the Gulf Stream. and the result is.. Another effect that the Gulf Stream produces. 197 tolerably straight. and may be taken at about 36 . from 22 to 47 inches of rain the average for the county fall every year. warm and moist from flows. and the interior of Asia. in the whole year. ^the amount of rainfall in different darker the shade the greater the quantity of in the west of Europe are The prevalent winds from the SW. it and all the west of Europe. and therefore during a great part of the year the south-west wind comes laden with moisture across the land.. corresponding latitudes in North America. but no sooner does it get well into the Atlantic. the average areas — rain. and if we consult a rain map of the British islands. warms the away air. from the circumstance that trees of goodly size grow much further north on the west coasts of Europe than on the east coasts of North America. to the far north above Norway average exists thus in the west of Europe producing for an than warmer climate. than the Gulf Stream flowing northwards. in Cornwall. that the line bends . the middle of Europe.andits Effects. we see represented by dif- ferent shades.

Chippenham. and in the Pass of Llanberis to 76*67. In Staffordshire.I g8 British Rainfall. In Middlesex from 16*22 at Hampstead. to 23*11 inches on Winchmore Hill. to 52*33 inches on Dartmoor. In Somerset from 19*06 at Tamiton. In Kent and Surrey to 32*79 inches at Chichester. shire Hamp- from 16*51 at Aldershot. while at Caemaxvon close by the sea the rainfall was 38*02 inches. further from the west coast and from . In Dorset from 18*45 at Abbotsbury. from 16*64 and 19*87 at Sidmouth. and in Montgomeryshire and Merionethshire at In Caernarvonshire the it fell is about 54 inches. and may be averaged at about 36 inches. The rainfall in the western part of the south greater than in the east. about to the same. to 28*90 inches at Cranbrook. In Anglesey the average fall is about 34^ inches. in Caermarthenshire and Breconshfre at about 40 inches. from 16*38 at Margate. in Grlamorganshire about 42 inches. but at Beddgelert in 1870 amounted 101*58 inches. and in Cardiganshire at about 37^ inches. to 26*90 inches in Woolmer Forest. of England is therefore much In like manner in Pembrokeshire the annual rainfall varies from about 31 to 40 inches. In Devonshire the rainfall varies inches. to 25*25 inches at Salisbury. In Sussex from 18*18 at Hastings. to In Wiltshire from 18*14 at In 29 inches at Blandford. to 36*76 at "West Harptree.

at Seathwaite in the heart of the moimtains. In Argyleshire the lowest rainfall in 1870 was 42 inches at Inverary. In Fife the . the rain- varied from about 19 to 59 inches.British Rainfall. 19 inches. and at Coniston is it is as high as 64 inches. this southern half of In England the rainfall therefore evidently decreases from west to east. Lancashire is a rainy county. and in Norfolk about 21 inches. at Bolton 40. it is stated to have been still higher. As we pass eastward decreases. At Manchester the rainfall is about 30 inches. at Newcastle to about and at Shields on the coast to 22 or 23. the mountains. In Scotland the same kind of observation holds good with regard to the rainy character of the west. while in the low ground at Doncaster on it falls to the east 24. On where the land fall lower. in Bedfordshire about 16 inches. and in 1871. the average rainfall in Leicestershire about is igg about 23 inches. and perhaps the average rainfall of the whole of that mountain region to about may amount it 45 inches annually. but that Lancashire. but on the highest groimds of Yorkshire and Northumberland there are places where to it rises from 40 50 inches. at Cockermouth on the low ground near the coast to 113 inches. in the Cumbrian region of rainfall varies In Cumberland the annual from about 22. and in the islands. about 21. and the highest 109*20 inches at Lochthe west coast of the same county^ is goilhead.

and the air also expanding at these heights. plants So much is this the case. and conmion fuchsias on the shores of Loch Erribol in Sutherland. in Midlothiaa from 16 to 27. from about 18 to 25 inches. Now the coast is watery vapour in the air that is rises from the heated water of the Gulf Stream carried to the British by the prevalent west and south-west winds. which the winter cold of Middlesex kills. and even in the far north-west of Scotland. and needless to multiply instances. The climate. therefore. and the average temperature of the western area is also raised and rendered agreeable by the influence of the Gulf Stream.20O fall is British Rainfall. the west of Ireland and Great Everyone who has visited Cumberland and are. and by the partly intercepted on its passage eastward rise in mountains which Britain. The same vails in rule of decrease of rainfall therefore preit is Scotland that prevails in England. I have seen bamboo canes growing in the open Anglesey all air in a garden in the year round. that rises compared reason is The the air laden with moisture from the Atlantic with the winds against the western flanks of the mountains into the colder regions of the atmosphere. and in Haddingtonshire from 17 to 23. rain is . that certain garden grow through the winter in Wales and the West of England. of Great Britain varies in the fall of rain. Wales knows how rainy these regions with the centre and east of England.

and upon adjacent The same the case in Scotland. The Witham. on the west produce a like because it is and thus.850 square miles. the estuary. not including the greater part of its drains an area of 1. The Forth. and The Thames the Great Ouse. The Clyde. drains an area of about 2. the Nen. If we examine our country with regard we to special areas of drainage. including its estuary. In England. the Tyne drains 1. Tweed 1. the Welland.500 square miles Spey.160 square miles. partly the first land that the wind laden with moisture reaches.000 square miles.100 square miles. precipitated there is 201 lands. which runs into the square miles.250 square miles. the German Ocean. of about 9. and partly because of the mountains. drain 5. flowing into the old estuary of the Wash.Areas of Drainage. it happens that a greater amount of rain is precipitated in the western than in the eastern parts of our island. for such a country as ours. find that they are exceedingly numerous.580 square miles. In Scotland the rivers that run into Moray . if we include . drains an area of about 6. If we take the Trent and the Ouse as drain- ing one area. nearly 1. where the Highland mountains effect .200 The Tay drains an area formed by the Grampian mountains. the immense extent.550 square miles are drained into the Humber. and. Firth drain an area of about 2.870 square miles. and part of the Old Eed Sandstone of 2. the Tees 774.

and their different geological dates.202 all Areas of Drainage. and if we take all the rivers that run into the Solway Firth.000 square miles. the Dee.210 square miles the Ex. area of 8. 1. the Towey. 862. sea at Christchurch drains 1. This leads to the question of the origin of river valleys.580 square miles.748. . 720. 643 . The Avon that enters the . and the Eden. The Severn drains an the estuary. about 10. 506 . in Caermarthenshire. including the Eden. the area drained amounts to nearly 3. 995 . the Eibble. the Mersey.000.

the whole subject may come and to be investigated. there are vast numbers of rivers and brooks. AND THE WESTEEN-FL6WING It is difficult. THE THAMES. . and a great deal will be accomplished when. and through what various periods their excavation was intermittently or continuously carried on. and for my part. THEIK EELATION TO TABLE- LANDS —ESCAKPMBNTS DATES OF CUT THEOITGH BT BITEKS DIFFERENT — GEOTHE LOGICAL EIYEE-TALLETS SEYEEN. THE FKOME. In Wales. I only begin to see my way into it. of the valleys through which the rivers run other words. THE AVON. for example. with sufficient data. even approxi- mately to settle precisely what are the geological dates . or. small and large. No little one has yet analysed this subject.20' CHAPTEK OBIGIN OF EITER VALLEYS XIV. Nevertheless a may be done even now. in when they first began to be scooped out. AND THE SOLENT TEIBUTAEIES OF THE WASH AND THE HUMBEB EIVEES THE EDEN SCOTLAND. or rather impossible.

of The strata of this area. as shown by myself in a paper given to the British Association at Oxford in 1847. The level of the sea is . has an inclination of from one to one-and-a-half degrees . and no more. 31 (Map. . and. and. represented by the lower line and if we take a straightedge. it on the topmost part it and incline gently sea- ward. are ex- ceedingly contorted. 31. line 14) is a diagram representing no particular of section but simply the nature sections across the real the Lower Silurian strata of Cardiganshire. it touches the top of each hill in suc- cession in the manner shown by the line 6 6. and it is a curious circumstance that in the original line of sections (as indicated in fig. 28) there were no line peaks rising above that —they barely touched it. -vflien River Valleys and we examine the relation of these streams •°^ I to the present surface of the country. much of South Wales. This line §41 is as near as can be straight. and place of the highest hill. It occurred to me when I first observed this circumstance that. we often Fig. on the average.' indeed. find it very remarkable.204 Fig. The dark-coloured part represents the form of the country given in the original sections on a scale of six inches to a mile hori- zontally and vertically.

Plains of Marine Denudation. made by its drainage immediately began to and though some inequalities of scoop out valleys. and the rate of waste by all causes be proportionate to the rate of sinking. Let South Wales be such a country : then when that country was again the streams raised out of the water. that diversify Wales all the way from Towey in Caermarthenshire to the slaty hills near the southern flanks of Cader Idris and the Arans. this will greatly assist in the production of the phenomena we are reflection will now considering . country be sinking very gradually. made by the vnfiuenoe of rai/n and running Hence the number of deep valleys. perhaps older than the beginning of the New Bed Sandstone. On ascending to the upper heights. a plain either horizontal or slightly inclined. aided by sea waves on the cliffs by the shore. 205 at a period of geological history of unknown date. Atmospheric degradation. indeed. yet in the main I believe that the inequalities below the line b b have been water. anywhere . are the only powers I to know that can and make If a denude a country so as shave it across. contour forming mere bays may have been begun by marine denudation during emergence. this inclvMiA line that touches the hill-tops must have represented a great plain of marine denudation. many of them the steep-sided. and a little show that the result would be a great inclined plane like that of the straight line 6 6 in the diagram.

is only the relics of an average general gentle slope. ' the higher land. Nothing is more remarkable in the history of rivers than the circumstance that very frequently they run * Eeports. p. and in other areas.' * drawn from the inland heights towards the Mr. and in the great coalfield west of the Appalachian chain in North America —we find unnumbered valleys .2o6 Plains of Marine Denudation. Teifi. . in form the relics of a great plain or tableland vn which the valleys have been scooped out. inter- secting tablelands of a form that leads us to believe that they have been made by the long-continued action of atmospheric waste and running waters and I believe that the South Wales valleys have been formed in the same way. British Association. 66. 28. Jukes applied and extended the scope of the same kind of reasoning to the south of Ireland. 1847. represented by the straight line (b b) sea. impossible not to be struck with the average uni- formity of elevation of the flat-topped hills that form a principal feature of the country. In various parts of Europe. with great success. Between the rivers Towey and fact. as it now exists. and in the case of the country represented in fig. notably the in those regions that have been longest above water —on the banks of the Moselle and of the Ehine. these hills. it is between the Vale of Towey and Cardigan Bay.

and indeed valleys in general. For long was customary to attribute such breaches in escarpments.* to have barred the course of The Wye in South Wales. 108-119. Eed Sandstone and the same it is the case with the Usk. pp. runs through a bold escarpment of Old hills . .Valleys and Dislocations. producing a wide separation. realise that and actually making hills. which at first 207 sight straight through bold escarpments. turbances and fractures of the strata. we might suppose ought the streams. to dis- Kg. The dotted strata lines above the surface a a represent a certain amount of removed by denudation. 32. The dotted lines show the continuation of an anticlinal curve broken by a fault/. o Present surface of the ground. But when we thousands of feet of strata have often been gi-eat disturbances of removed by denudation since the * This has already been alluded to in the case of the rivers of the Wealden. for example.

208 The Wye and the Usk. .

Wye and the Usk At some period.. the escarpment. by the influence of rain and other atmospheric points causes. present valleys are in no it 209 becomes clear that the way immediately connected be dislocations or faults in with them . 2. All they could do might have been to establish lines of weakness along which subsequent denudation may have excavated valleys. that i& to say. 29). The river then ran over hills ground perhaps even higher than the tops of the of the present escarpment.The Wye and Usk. a. the "Welsh strata took place. in the. all marked 1. and widened by subseauent river action and> as it cut out that valley. 3. now un- certain. as far as regards the present surface. the result This plain sloped gently eastward. and a. h b of earlier denudations there. 4. thousands of feet deep in the earth. now well seen in the escarpment of the Beacons of Brecon. once spread much farther westward. for even if there some of the valleys. p . For observation tells us that escarpments of a certain kind work back in this way. Wales. and the dotted lines show the general state of old outcrops of the strata. the beds of the Old Eed Sandstone. forming a great plain. gradually receded to the 5.direction of the dip of the strata. and the Caermarthen Fans. these faults when formed were. but varied . (fig. the last being the present escarpment. The real explanation of such cases as those of the is this. and by degrees its it cut itself a channel approximately in present course.

the Upper Silurian escarpment of Wenlock Edge'. Of this more when I come to treat of the Oolitic and Cretaceous escarpments. In this way we can explain the Old how the Wye and the Usk break through why the Severn itself breaks through Eed Sandstone and find their way to the estuary why of the Severn. indeed. takes more on the steep slope of the scarp than on the gentle slope that is inclined away from the scarp. while on the opposite gentle slope the loosened detritus. reason of this is. the same kind of phenomena are everywhere prevalent under similar circumstances. Once Established. The softer more easily worn away along the line of strike. in Cumberland —cut through escarpments I shall say of Carboniferous Limestone. removed by floods of rain and thus the escarp- ment constantly recedes in a given direction. But when we have to consider the origin of some of is the larger river valleys. One thing certain. and how. certain other rivers — such as the Dee. and thiis an escarpment begins to be formed. smaller itf amoimt. the weather acting on the joints and effect other fissures in the rocks.'-2-ib 'Rivers and EsedrpmMs. One that iescarpments often partly consist of hard beds lying strata are first on softer strata. there difficult a great deal that is is to account for. travels so slowly that it rather tends to block the way against further waste. and the Derwent. that . in Wales. The loosened detritus downward. and is on the steeper slope easily slips readily .

down a great vaUey between the old Palaeozoic and the escarp- ment formed by the table-land of the Cotswold raiige. that rises so high in the neighbourhood of Cheltenham. to smooth its asperities by rounding "and polishing them. before tlie Grlacial 21 epoch. the greater contours of the country were much the same as they are now. and to scatter quantities of moraine-detritus. which I described in Chapter X. and of Cumberland. The mountains of Scotland. of England were plains then. . All that the ice did was to modify the surface by de- gradation. this part of the Severn ran veiy. we find that for a large part of its course the river runs hills. and the Lias and New Eed Sandstone in the middle. find boulders we and boulder-drift far down towards Tewkesbury. partly in the shape of boulder-clay and of marine boulder beds and sands and gravels. therefore. where glaciers flowed. and the great Pennine chain. over the plains that formi the east of England. and. . somewhat different in outline.. I believe that." If we examine the valley of the Severn from Bristol northwards through Coalbrook Dale. existed then.1 Pre-Glacial CoHicmrs. Wales. and yet the same essentially as now the central plains. and the escarpments of the Chalk and Oolites existed before the Glacial period. befoi6 the Glacial epoch. That vaUey because certainly existed before the Glacial epoch. mJxch In the same course that p 2 it does at present. to deepen valleys.

and reducing it to the state of a broad undulating plain. after leaving the mountains of Wales. following in the main its old course. sea. unlike the Severn. most of which. About the close of the Oolitic epoch the Oolitic for- mations were raised above the . where the river rises. I must begin the subject by a rapid certain physical summary of changes that affected the English Secondary and Eocene strata long before the Severn. flow east- ward to the English Channel and the German Ocean. cut a channel for itself through the boulder-clay that partially blocked up the original valley m which shall it ran. Wke/n that original valley was formed is through which the older Severn ran. took its present southern and south-western course along the eastern side of the Palaeozoic rocks that border that old land. the point that I is inti- now attempt to discover. and the Severn. This subject mately connected with the origin and geological dates of the channels of many of the other large rivers of England. When emei^ed. was perhaps buried in the country again part beneath the waters. At this time the .212 The Severn sea. those atmospheric influences that produced the sediment of the great Purbeck and Wealden delta were slowly wearing away and lowering the land. and remained a long time out of water and. the old system of river-drainage in that area was resumed . during that period. Then the country sank beneath the and Plinlim- mon itself.

and passed westward as far as the hilly ground of Devonshire. Lancashire. which lie between North Wales and the hilly ground of Lancashire. Oolitic strata still 21 o abutted on the mountain country parts of the adjacent counties. considering since suffered how much they have and by denudation. formed of previously disturbed Carboniferous rocks. The submersion of this low-lying area brought the . now forming Wales and They also completely covered the Mendip Hills. running out between Wales is and Devonshire through what now the Bristol Channel. over and beyond the present estuaries of the Dee and the Mersey. so as to give them a low eastern dip. The whole of the middle of England was likewise covered by the same deposits. so that 'the Lias and Oolites passed out to the area now occupied by the Irish Sea. The general arrangement of the strata would then be somewhat as in the following figure 34. joining areas. while in the more southern and eastern areas they were tilted up to the west. the Secondary rocks lay somewhat flatly . most of the present mountainous and hilly lands of the . Cheshire. In brief. south of the Derbyshire hills. and must have been much higher than now. through Shropshire and Cheshire. mainland of Britain were moun- tainous and hilly then. overlying the rocks that now form the and the ad- plains of Shropshire.and its Vall^. At this period.

of the Oolites. ^ •s -^a" s .214 Dip.

of old Europe was essentially The Miocene period a continental one. It is even possible that during that period Wales sunk almost entirely beneath the sea.and deposition of the Cretaceous Overlaps 215 Wealden strata to a close. 35. and the Cretaceous formations were deposited above the Weal- den and Oolitic strata. mountains of Wales. the proof of which is well seen in the unconformity of the Cretaceous rocks on part of the Oolites and Lias of Lincolnshire and Yorkshire. I omit any detailed meiition of the phenomena connected with the deposition of the freshwater and marine Eocene is strata. but much more because of gradual and greatly increased submergence during the time that the Chalk was being deposited. so that a great unconformable overlap of Cretaceous strata took place across the successive outcrops of the Oolitic and older Secondary formations. because at present this subject not essential to my argument. lower than they were during the Oolitic epochs partly by the effect of long-continued waste due to atmo- spheric causes. and other At this time the hilly regions made of Palaeozoic rocks. (See fig. on next page. must have been .) The same kind of overlapping of the Cretaceous on the Oolitic formations took place at the same time in the country north and south of the present estuary of the Humber. Important disturbances of strata .

2 16 Cretaceous Overlap of tJm Oolites. •a e g -« I s Is 3 .

on the Jura. were after consolidation heaved up to form new mountains along the flanks of the ancient range . deepened the and scooped out all the rock-bound lakes. at low angles. Secondary now form great part of France and Eng- land (then united). including the upper tributaries of the Loire and Seine. of so much of the centre of flat. were so far affected by the renewed upheaval of the Alps and Jura that they were to a great extent tilted. that this same westerly and north-westerly tilting of the Chalk of England formed a gentle slope towards the mountains of Wales. now the centre of Europe and the formations partly formed in the great freshwater lakes that lay at the bases of the older Alps. . and all the length of the Jura. That cir- cumstance gave the initial north-westerly direction the flow of so to many of the existmg rivers of France. and led them to excavate the valleys in which they run. after Miocene times. this extremiely important eleva- One marked effect of tion. in what . was elevated Jurassic. . at all events physically. Cretaceous. the Seine itself. brought is 217 it to a close. and many more of smaller size and my surmise is.Miocene Continent. the Oise. and Miocene The broad valley of the low lands of Switzerland began then to be established. that the formations that or nearly flat-lying. the Marne. and far beyond to the north-east. to the north-west. by disturbance of the strata. long after to glaciers that abutted be overspread by the huge valleys. Europe was.

2i8 Origin of' the Severn Valley. = g 3q M H ^ cS A ^^ ^ f? .

it by the tributary streams of Herefordshire. so far to theeast. 36. and joias at Tewkesbury.* is The course of the Avon. 219 shown in fig. cut a valley towards what afterwards became the Bristol Channel. which it a tributary of the I believe. p. (Fig. so. . is one of the oldest the low lands of England. then ^* Many of the valleys of Wales may te much older.) If the general slope of tbe surface of the Chalk of thjs part of England had been easterly instead of westerly at the post-Miocene date alluded to. and the rivers of the period of the middle and south of England at that time flowed westerly. and in the direction of the dip of the strata. hegvmvmg of the escarp- ment of the Chalk If this be 33. fig. as that escarpment retired eastward all by virtue of that law of waste which causes escarpments to retire away from the steep slope. of later the base of Severn. and gradually established and increased the length of its channel in the low grounds now formed of Lower Lias inland and NewEed Marl. 108. now rises at the escarpment of the Oolitic rocks east of Eugby. then the origin of the valley of the Severn 1 is between e and of immediate post-Miocene date. It is.Severn and as A von. This first induced the Severn to take a southern course between the hilly land 0/ Wales and Herefordshire Aided began to and the long slope of Chalk rising to the east. and established the e. chiefly by atmospheric waste. im. date than the latter river. and . whicb has since gradually receded. 20.

This dip lay of course east of the comparatively newly formed escarpment of the Chalk indicated by the dark line in fig. by which the Cretaceous and other strata were tilted eastward. p. new whole country took place. Why ? is it that the Thames. and thus a second slope was given to the Chalk and Eocene strata. When Eocene this slope of the Chalk and the overlying fell strata was established. The river was larger then than now. but by degrees. in its beginning flowed from end to end entirely over Chalk and Eocene strata. Uke that of the Thames and the flow into the Wash and the Humber. except on the hypothesis I have stated. The present Chalk escarpment in its beginning (fig.220 Dates of Chalk and Oolitic Escarpments. the initial course of the Severn would also have been rivers that easterly. run eastward The answer seems disturbance of the to be that after the original feirly established vaUey of the Severn was a by its river. though it would be hard to prove this. and the Thames. for I am inclined . 36 marked is e. 74). that originally led to the scooping out of the pre- sent valley of the Severn. the water that on the long inclined plain east of the escarpment of the Chalk necessarily drained eastward. This leads to the question. not suddenly. in a direction opposite to the dip. and some other Oolites rivers that flow through the and Chalk. thus of older date than the Oolitic escarpment 11.

23. its recession east- ward was more rapid. the two escarpments in the region far distant which the Thames runs are from each . for the original escarpment of the Chalk must have directly overlooked the early valley of the Severn. the Thames was longer. by about as much probably as the distance between the well-known escarpment of the Cotswold Hills and the course of the Severn as it now runs. and this process having gone on from that day to across other.. 218). ran far across land now destroyed. 110-114).The Thames. the South of England was joined to France. this. and the eastern part of the Thames as a river. west of its present sources. perhaps directly to join the north flowing rivers of what tributaries. a second later escarpment began to be formed. 221 to believe that in these early times of its history. while the valley of the Severn gradually deepened . 22. the Straits of Dover had no existence. we now call the Ehine and its At its other end. By-and-by the outcropping edges of the Oolitic strata becoming exposed. pp. not as a mere estuary. But by processes of waste identical with those that formed the escarpment of the"Wealden(figs. and the area of the Thames drainage contracted. which was then much narrower than now (see p. but the escarpment of the Chalk being more easily wasted than that of the Oolite. the Chalk escarpment gradually receded eastward. 21. and as it did this the valley of the Severn widened.

area of im. only at that time the valley was narrower. it From why the foregoing remarks wiU be understood the sources of the Thames. and as that of the Oolite recedes d/ravnage will diminish. But just as in times long gone. when the escarp- ment had receded to a certain point. and by-and-by. east of Gloucester and Cheltenham. its base was lower than the edge of the Oolitic escarpment that then. as now. Oolite are still The. the Thames by degrees was joined by the growing tributary waters that drained part of the surface of the eastward slope of the Oolitic strata.escarpments both of Chalk and slowly changing and receding the. rise so close to the great escarpment of the Inferior Oolite. and thus was brought about what at first sight seems the im- natural breaking of the river through the high escarp- ment of Chalk between WaUingford and Eeading.222 The Thames. however distant it . well known on the Cotswolds. This is a geological fact. Thames was cutting a vaUey for All this time the itself in the Chalk. the sources of the Thames once So rose westward of -the seven springs. so the soiuces of the river now are not more stationary than those that preceded. the Seven Springs and others. While this point was being reached. overlooked the valley of the Severn. and the Thames decrease vohime. the western escarpment of which was still receding. east- ward.

and the Needles left ]by off the Isle of Wight.. Solent formed part its its But in older times the course. must have formed ^ . Wight from the Needles to Culver Old. The Isle of Wight still exists an outlying fragment of that land. the Frome. has taken place the history of what was once an important stream further south.i . Downs that once joined the Isle of Wight to Isle of so-called Puibeck. and the Itchin. striking than that of the Thames. the Stour. the it Avon. Harry and his Wife off the end of Nine Barrow Downs. are small outlying relics. The Frome and ifis So lent 223 may appear to persons unaccustomed to deal with geor logical time. formed of Cretaceous and Eocene strata. swollen by affluents. the denudation of the long range of the. still rises in the runs. extended far south into what is now the as English Channel. and much of diminished discharges its waters into Poole Harbour. Before the formation of the Straits of Dover. were ridge with the directly joined as a continuous Isle of Downs that cross the Cliff. A change in the story of an old river. even more ip. At that time the Nine Barrow Chalk Downs. North of this old land. the soKd land of England. which Cretaceous hills east of Beaminster. where. the Test. still farther- south of Portland the Isle of Wight and Beachy Head. north of Weymouth Bay and Purbeck. and of the land that lay Bill.

the Lias and Oolites overspread all the undulating plains of New Eed Marl and Sandstone of the centre of England. threw ofi' A high-lying anticlinal line these strata. and. with low dips to the east and west . level of the land. XXV. between the country near Buckingham and that east of Grrantham. Soc. after Lias much denudation. has resulted in large river. I believe the early course of the Trent was established at a time when. Jour. Down the eastern slopes the Trent began to run across an inclined * See Mr. rivers flowing into the "Wash. . and Mr. Geol. 528. p. the Glen.* The same kind to the of argument that has been applied Thames is equally applicable to the Ouse. 26.. which rocks were once covered by the Chalk. beyond the estuaries of the Mersey and the Dee. and the Witham.' Chap. to say the least. the same general theory equally applies to all the rivers that run into the Humber. the Welland. With minor differences. the large outlier of between Market Drayton and Whitchurch in is Shropshire one of the western results. 1870. spreading west to what is now the sea. T. which and changes in the the synclinal hollow through which the semi-estnarine waters of the Solent now flow. all of which rise either on or close to the escarpment of the Oolites. Codrington ' On the Superficial Deposits of the Sonth Quart.2 24 1"^ Wash and the Humher. ' Stone Implements. John Evans. the Nen.' vol. by great subsequent denundations. of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight.

An inclined 'plain On the Stratification of the limestone District of Derbyshire.. are not very from each other. of the is Trent is the the The geological history of the Wye of DerbyWye is very instructive. Hopkins of Cambridge stated that was caused by two fractures in the strata. ranging parallel. In such eases. M. running parallel to the winding course of the river. they sometimes form a longitudinal valletf.' Q . the valley north and west of Buxton had no existence. and Wye. 1834.A. For private circulation. but are distant from them by perhaps from 60 to 200 or 300 yards. however. sight. Derwent. In p.' by W. 7 he says. 225 Through long ages of waste Oolites have been and decay the Lias and form these midland washed away districts. It runs right across part of the central watershed of England. formed by the great boss of the Carboniferous Limestone of Derbyshire.Trent. lie and the long escarpments fromed of these strata the broad vaUey of well to the east. at first This course. and the land there actually stood higher than the tops of the limestone * ' hills to the east. overlooking New Eed Marl through which the Trent flows. 'When two longitudinal faults. &c. The true explanation is as follows : At an older priod of the physical history of the country. of which the vaUey of the Wye is a splendid instance. it is curious that the faults do not generally coincide with the steep distant sides of the valley. seems so unnatural that the late it Mr. a tributary of which shire. Hopkins. The most important af&uent Derwent.* There are no fractures there of any in^ortance. plain of Oolitic strata.

the case more The Oolites in that region were extensively . however. When we come Humber puzzling. which flows in a long north and itself. There no breakage of the rocks. where Eowsley now stands. denudation. to the other rivers that enter the is north and west of the Trent. which.226 of The Wye. by the aid of tributary streams and springs. and streams from the north and west began to run into the Wye. because the farther it flowed the more was its volume increased. the soft Carboniferous shales in which the river rose. and as it deepened and formed a gorge. were once a mere slightly is imdulatiag unbroken plain of Umestone. It was and is a mere case of the wearing action of running water cutting a channel for itself from high to lower it levels. joined the Derwent. By the power of running water those valleys were deepened simultaneously and proportionately to the distance from the rise of the river . chiefly south valley scooped by soft in comparatively Yoredale shales. also got worn away by atmospheric action. till.^ stretched eastwards. and nothing violent in the matter. The river began to cut a channel through the limestone rocks . Thus it happens that the Wye seems to the uninitiated unnaturally to break across a boss of hiUs. giving an marme initial direction to the drainage of the country. between the high-terraced hard still moorland scarps of Millstone Grit and the harder grassy slopes of the Carboniferous Limestone.

overlapping these. . it probably intruded on the Carboniferous strata of the Yorkshire hills farther west. The Chalk. Ouse. 227 so that denuded before the deposition of the chalk between Market Weighton and Kirkby-under-dale in Yorkshire the Chalk is seen completely to overlap uncomformably the Oolitic strata. York therefore. and lay directly on the New Eed beds of the Vale of till. the denuded remains of which now rise above the beautiful valleys of Yoredale and Swaledale. but whether or not they extended far enough north to cover the whole of the field I Durham and Northumberland Whether they did Q ^ coal- am unable to say. having gentle eastern and south-eastern dips. which there. as far as it is exposed. That the OooHtic their strata spread northward beyond present scarped edges is quite certain. the Ouse^ and the Swale. These dips gave the rivers their initial tendency to flow south-^ east and east . cutting their own channels. while the escarpments of the Chalk and Ooolite were gradually receding eastward to their present temporary positions. formed a way to what is now the estuary of the Humber.Wharf e. strata. overspread all these strata to the west. both Carboniferous and Secondary. so or not . At this time the Oolites of the northern moorlands of Yorkshire seem also to have spread westward till they also encroached on the Car- boniferous slopes. and to rest directly on the Lower is Lias. the whole. very thin. and thus it was that the Wharfe. and Swale.

that. the Coquet. the sides of which. &c. from the great escarpment of Car- boniferous limestone that overlooks the Vale of Eden on the to the east. cutting and deepening their valleys as they ran. for if they did spread over part of these Carboniferous strata they must have thinned away to a feather edge before the Oolitic escarpment began to be formed. and even in pre-Permian times. for the Carboniferous limestone on both sides of the Vale of Eden. all the Carboniferous strata from thence eastern dip. outlytug patches of the lower Coal-measures. Derwent. Wear. the Wear. does not materially affect the next question to be considered . and the Alne. . indeed. the Derwent.228 Tees. was once continuous. coal-field was then united to that These gentle eastern and south- eastern dips (the latter from the borders of Seotand). so German Ocean have a gentle gentle. and the Whitehaven of Northumberland. hills on Mallerstang and other high overlooking the Vale of Eden. gave the initial tendency of all the rivers of the region to flow east and south-east^ Thus it happens that the Tees. the Blyth. or Gannister beds. Taken as a whole. far beyond. now broken by a fault. Tyne. the Tyne. stiU remain to teU that once the whole of the Coal-measures spread across the country as far as the edge of the Vale. have foimd their way to the German Ocean. caused by upheaval of the strata on the west and jiorth-west.

in the 35. but I believe that it must have been so to some extent. that is last to say. through Permian rocks.The Vale of Eden. and on the Marl rests the Lias. is later and probably it than the Cretaceous and Eocene. the present river Eden began to establish itself. which there First. as it were in great steps. tier above tier. Whether the whole length of the Per- mian strata of the Vale of is Eden was once covered by these rocks it impossible to determine. And so with the other . for nearly forty miles. of this great valley and form. a patch of New Ked Marl lies on the Permian sandstones. I course in their present it am unable to say but I believe that may de- approximately be of the same age as the valleys scribed . about to be said. now turn to the western rivers of England. now often jise high above the rivers in the regions west of the Coal-measures. in a succession of terraces of limestone bands. manner shown in What is the precise geological date of the origin its river . of later date than the Oolites. 229 widened by time and subaerial degradation. At the mouth of the valley. This river flows along the whole length of the beautiful valley of that name. the is far less Eden. rocks in a faulted hollow. and now runs through fig. at and near Carlisle. As these were denuded away by time. and also that the Lias was probably covered by Oolitic strata. till on the tops of the I hills we reach the Millstone grit itself. or even than the Miocene epoch.

3 ^g 3 :S « a •S a e .2 30 The Eden.

TVesi Coast livers of the -west of and Welsh England . in his and explains it as far as present knowledge work. at least ever since the Permian and New Eed fault. the Mersey. fully realises the difficulty of the Bubjeet. their side valleys being bounded •on either by hills to a great extent formed of harder Silurian grits. the Eibble. the ' Scenery and G-eology of Scotland. had their western courses determined by that post-Miocene western tilting of the strata that. and the western flowing Wales. Of the Conwy. originally established the greater part of the channel of the Severn. •of My personal knowledge it the subject is less minute. indeed. The Dyfi partly runs in a valley formed by denudation along an old line of shire. I cannot pretend to give a detailed account of the liver systems of Scotland. beds were deposited. I believe. who it.* Some- thing of the subject I know myself.' . some of Dee and the Clwyd. 231 —the Lune. the subject much more difficult. but for fuller * Professor Geikie. and the Teifi in Cardigan- and the Towey in Caermarthenshire. Rivers. that they may have begun country has far back during an imknown epoch. for the TDeen above water to a great extent. and the Weaver these rivers. nevertheless enters into will allow. all rivers of that can be said is. and however minute is might be. in parts of their courses along lines running in the direction of the strike of soft Llandeilo easily flags. sometimes slaty and worn down by water. including the unless.

they follow the rivers same general law that guided the east-flowing England.. or rather in conjunction with that.232 details The Rivers of Scotland. much of what I have to say is By referring to any good geological map of Scotland it will and the north of England be seen that the country is intersected hy two great valleys running from north-east to south-west. down a sloping plain of marine denudation. and the valleys of the Forth and Clyde. the reader must refer to Professor GeiJds's work. Thus. is The general strike of all the formations of Scotland east. though traversing of much more mountainous ground. viz. like the Thames. from south-west to north- and starting from the water-shed of the north-west it of Scotland between Loch Linnhe and Cape Wrath. tiU they find their way into the sea or into the great valley of Loch Ness. fact. and run from thence more or less in accordance with the general dip of the strata. from which drawn. If we go ferther south another valley traverses England from Tyne- mouth to the Solway Firth. the valley of Loch Ness also running from Moray Firth to Loch Lirmhe. will be seen that almost all the rivers flow to the east and In south-east. in some degree. having cut their valleys in hard greatly dis- turbed and metamorphic Lower Silurian strata. transverse to the strike of the strata. . they may be said to start from a great scarped water-shed facing the Atlantic.

the Tay and the Forth from a high water-shed that crosses Scotland from the neighbourhood of Peterhead great extent associated its it is to Crinan. . That country also covered more or stratified less with Boulder-clay. The Tay does the same South of Strath Spey. These great rivers ran in that area before the com- . rimning in valleys probably excavated in lines of strike occupied by strata. and with later detritus of sand and gravel which were formed in part by the remodelling of the Glacial drifts. known as the Ochils and the hills of Campsie. the Tay has cut its way in old times over and now through a high belt of ground. the their way east and south-east to the German Ocean. 233 South of the Great Valley. the Teith. less hard than the general mass of in the upper part rivers find the country. Teiik. To a formed of hard granitic rocks it is and gneiss. the rivers follow a northeast course. Forth. and on resist this account dation. of its course. in Strath Dearn and Strath Spey. that of the Sidlaw Hills just above the estuary and the Forth. and Allan. approxi- mately parallel to the trend of the Great Valley. The whole of the estuary of the Forth and the greater part of the valley of the Clyde lie in an exceedingly is ancient area of depression. and the Allan have in like manner breached that long range of Trappean Hills. high because of power to denu- Like so many other rivers.Tay.

and indeed for very long perfectly distinct mencement of these before that period. that its history. deposits. . this may also be said of the Tweed. and Tweed. that the Forth and the Clyde ran in their valleys before the deposition of the Boulderclay. we know nothing its valley is for certain of except that of later age than the Old Eed Sandstone and Carboniferous rocks. model of the Thames Valley. coloured may be seen at the Geological Museum. pp. B. and with other rivers resumed to some extent their old courses after the emergence of the country. It and Gietaceons clearly explains the relation of the river to the Oolitic escarpments. Jordan. as regards the history of the rivers of Scotland and we know little besides this. As of the rivers already mentioned. that all the valleys of the south of may be said to have been formed generally contemporaneously with the valleys of the adjoining region of the north of England already described. Jermyn Street. J. But we have no traces of those earlier epochs when we try to trace th^n . 221-223.* * A geologically. Clyde.234 Forth. My own opinion Scotland is. by Mr.

however. a {axit indeed proved by the Glacial excavation of the lakes that lie in rock-bound basins. certain that far the larger part of the river valleys of Britain north of Bristol Channel and the Thames. been partly scooped out the Glacial period. When during partial submergence. or in part. the river channels of the lower lands often got filled with that clay entirely. have been very much modified. It since may.235 CHAPTEE XV. Some valleys in England have. When the land emerged and surface drainage was re- . BELATION OF EIVEE VALLEYS AND GEATELS TO THE GLACIAL DRIFTS —EIVEE TEREACES—BOHES by OF EXTINCT MAMMALS AND HITMAN REMAINS FOUND IN THEM &C. however. the Boulder-clay overspread great part of England. It is —RAISED BEACHES. avd mMny all of them deepened duri/ng sufficiently the Glacial period. be safely said that before the Glacial period the larger features of the river systems of Britain were much the same as now.

the river Wear leaves the course of the old valley altogether. Pre-Glacial and Post-Glacial. and at Durham cutting right across and passing into the sandstones of the Coal-meathrough which it sures. but in others. especially the Map at p. from Durham The river Wear.' says Mr. and cutting through the Magnesian limestone. H. pp. winding in and out of it. they proceeded to excavate deep and winding valleys in the Sandstone rocks below.' * Northumber- It is for this reason that coal miners in Engineers. and turning to the east. half-way between Durham and I^ewcastle. 'runs nearly north and south to Newcastle. having disposed of a thin covering of Boulder-clay. This may be well seen at Durham on the Wear. 69 to 85. ' The Pre-Grlacial valley. instead of following this old valley. most of the rivers followed their old channels. 77. it. meanders about. passing principjilly through sandstones and shales of the Coal-measures.236 stored. has cut its way in a narrow gorge. and the . Howell. partly as -with the Tyne and the Wear. At Chester-le-Street. makes its way to the sea at Sunderland. 69.' toL section. accidents turned the rivers aside and. * See ' Transactions of the North of England Institute of TVririn g xiii. in a letter which I quote. p. H. just before entering the sea. In sopie cases they nearly scooped the Boulder-clay entirely out of them from end to end.

000 feet below. with regard to the Thames. but that they have excavated their courses through it and the underlying Oolitic strata. we find that in places the Ouse and its tributaries in Bedfordshire and other- streams flow through areas covered with this clay. 237 land and Durham. against a oulder-day filling a valley. and thus formed a new system of valleys. 2. if we examine the channels of other rivers jn the south-east of England. which runs in the valley about 1. while mining a bed of coal. These often Again. 38. Again.River Valleys. Kg. I have said that it is remarkable that it rises in the Seven Springs not far from the edge of the Oolitic escarpment of the Cotswold Hills that overlook the Severn. The infant . only apply to parts of their channels. Coal-measnies with beds of coal. mass of Boulder-clay that fills an ancient rocky valley of which the plain above gives no indication. and have cut themselves channels through it in such a way as to lead to the inference that parts of the valleys in which they run did not exist before the Boulder-bed period. sometimes find it crop up deep underground.

nor yet does it lie on the top. I / / I <i- /J I u- t t I r 1. London. Chalk. Fig. while in the same neighits drift has not always been deposited on slopes. Boulder-day. suggest that the lower part of the Thames valley may at perhaps have been chiefly scooped out since the Glacial epoch. 2.238 Thames thus The Thames Valley. that there course was not turned aside by that high escarpment. These deposits. stopping Thames. and the wonder its is. and fine loam or . which the This and this I have already explained. suddenly on the edge of a slope. sands. London clay. and near Bomford. through river flows. a valley cuts right across the escarpment of chalk. 3. Instead of that being the case. escarpment dates from long before the deposition of the Boulder-beds. and by-and-by comes to a second table- land formed of the Chalk. for we find far-transported boulders and Boulder-clay at bourhood the its base. there aje table-lands which overlook the valley of the Thames covered with Boulder-clay. Yet north of the mouth of the estuary of the Thames in Essex we find Crlacial deposits down to the level of the sea and passing east of into it . The is valley of the Thames and above its estuary partly filled with gravels. flows at first across a broad table-land of Oolitic rocks. 39.

and of the loamy alluvial strata that cover the broad plain of York. brick-earths. deposited an older stage of its its by the river in history before its . are Wash. of it. &c. then these alluvial deposits are of later age than that formation.of them containing freshwater and land shells. is. and the bones of the Mammalia. known in places to rest upon The same is the case with the warps old and recent of all the Humber. The Bedford gravels widely spread on the banks of the Ouse are seen to overlie Boulder-clay. But this is doubtful. channel was cut down to present level and if it be true that this part of the Thames valley has been scooped out since the deposition of the Boulder-clay.River Gravels. clearer evidence bearing upon the question of the comparative age of river deposits in many parts of England. and pass northward to the mouth of the Tees. between the great Oolitic escarpment and the western slopes of the Magnesian Limestone and Carboniferous rocks. the loamy alluvia of the The gravels and Wear and the Tyne play the same part. however. 239 some . beautiful examples of the latter being well . or even of some- what older There date.. There are no recog- nised Boulder-beds in England anywhere in or south of the valley of the Thames. and it maybe that part of the ancient alluvial deposits of the river are contem- poraneous with the Grlacial epoch. and Boulder-Clay. and all the alluvial strata of the various minor ages.

the rivers "Wash and the Humber. some of which may be . Through this plain I think that the Ehine must is have wandered in pre-historic times to what northern part of the North Sea. the Tyne. These gravels and other alluvia were therefore often made by rain and the wasting new action of the rivers some- times working on the Boulder-clays. and possibly some of the rivers of Scotland. In these deposits a great many bones of Mammalia are found. the undetermined occurrence of old river detritus above the Boulder-clay is not to be doubted. by a consider- able elevation of the land and sea-bottom.240 Rtver Alluvia and the Old Rhine. 157) that after the deposition of the Grlacial deposits. and rivers all now a the eastern of the of England — the Thames. below levels. seen on the banks of the Tyne below Newcastle. and above that town at the junction of the North Tyne with the larger river. and sometimes partly wearing out valleys entirely. still enclosing lakes and pools. Britain. and indeed in certain many of the river valleys of England. many of which are of extinct species. and when flooded spreading sediments abroad on their banks. valley the In great part of the Severn same kind of phenomena are apparent. I have already stated (p. was re- united to the Continent by a broad plain of Boulderclay. This drift or Boulder-clay from the manner in which it was thrown down had a very irregular surfece. were its tributaries.

Cases such as the following are fre- The hills on either side are. close to or at various is. places of their present The and mouths then lay far inland. quent. and many other rivers. dammed up by the Boul- der-clay of the great plain through which the rivers flowed. distances from any river as it size now according to its and other circumstances. in some cases it seems not unlikely that their existing alluvial gravels. there are frequent terraces. The present mouths of these British rivers had no immediate relation with their ancient mouths. . perhaps.River Terraces. and the terraces lying between the higher B . It is often dif&cult to account for the thick- ness of these gravels on any other hypothesis. for in many cases they are not estuarine. or in old gravels which the river itself had deposited. Sometimes these ter- races have been cut out in solid rock. may have been deposited in lakes. made of solid rock. It is one of the effects of the past and present progressive action of rivers to form terraces upon their banks . of land animals. such as those of Bedford Level. and occasionally trunks of trees and other plants. On the banks of the Thames. containing no organic forms excepting those of land and freshwater shells. more frequently in Boulder-clay. that is to say. 241 seen in what remains of it on the plains of Holdemess. where the rivers entered the sea but purely freshwater inland sedimentary deposits.

covered on the top of the table-land with Boulder-clay. it formed the terraces one after another. and cutting away detritus. the terrace on the highest level being of oldest date. 6. that botmds the latest. high as the uppermost dotted line. the river has excavated its own vaUey by the which t flows. which originally filled the valley from side to side as Kg. and also in many British rivers). where no more anciently exca- vated valley existed ibefore the drainage took the general direction of its present flow. The river at one time flowed over the top of the highest gravel terrace. and winding about f^om side to side of the valley. No. 2. but a river flowing through by degrees bore part of the loose detritus to a lower level. No. in other cases (as in the Moselle. and bounding a 3. marked Nos. No. 5. wide valley partly fiUed with ancient gravel. and that on the lowest level. destruction of the solid rocks through . 4. 1 represents the solid rocks of a country. the Thus in the following figure. the Seine. 40. and the rivers consist of gravel of comparatively old date. Or again.242 slopes River Terraces. and 7. modem alluvium. thus cutting out the terraces in succession.

. Fig. 43. B 2 . that the water wears' to the back the c and d. they almost always have the shape shown in the section lines a and h across two of the greater curves of the river. 42. The result is. cliffs.-figs. part of the curve. c?. figs. and in like manner cliff. 41. again strongly projected against the concave Kg. ' 243 Suppose a river flowing in a sinuous channel in the direction in which the arrows point in the following diagram : Fig. or what tends same end. The water rushing on is projected with great force against the concave c. it is 41 and 42.— River Slopes and Cliffs. 41 and 43. a i If the banks be high. in conjunction with the wearing action of the water.

42 and 43. and so on and on. channel. its history. a gentle slope. at an early period of in fig. Fig. but without any high Then the stream. the beginning of the curve. established.244- River Slopes and Cliffs. "When we think of the meaning of this. and c*. as an example. itself as temporary as its smaller predecessors. thus making room for further sHps. bed by constant encroachment in the same s. cliff c'. readily is slips down to the level of the river. flowed where it is r. where the present cliff stands. Take the history of the curve figs. c and d. it at once explains the whole history of these constantly recurring forms in all winding rivers that flow between rocky banks higher than broad alluvial plains and deltas. through long ages. c (fig. the debris loosened by atmospheric causes on the steep slopes. facing the <?*. 41). figs. to its c'. and carried away by the force of the stream. to c*. same time deepening c>. being driven with force against the concave curve. marked 44. having already been cHfis. began to be established. lilullMSB^^ On a high table-land the river.by degrees cut at the it back. as the river was changing direction. c. This is the reason why in . 44. c. 41 and 42. we shall suppose. A cliff was thus commenced at its and.

and the convex side so generally presents a long gentle slope. In countries free of glacial drift. and the This Seine near Eouen are. and in many a river and. and have always acted. Viewed beds are as a whole. s s. In the occasional terraces which accompany the for- mation of river valleys. They * I in 1860. is the way in which such rivers act.* In many a British river it is clearly seen : on the Wye of South Wales.River Gravels and Works of Man. and loams 40). marking ancient and in such gravels. and in this way the Moselle. the animals found in these river now generally believed to be mostly of post- Grlacial age. . and in outlying patches of hills. model rivers. often more or less covered with alluvial detritus. are also. the Thames. Lancashirej Yorkshire. to a great extent. these effects are often best seen in their perfect simplicity . old river gravels that sometimes even cap minor it often left happens that alluvial and gravelly deposits are levels of the rivers (fig. and in this opinion I partly coincide. so to speak. identical with those understood this subject while studying the Moselle first clearly . together with the handiwork of ancient races of men. minor stream in Derbyshire. the bones of ani" mals of extinct and living species have been often found. sands. 245 river curves the concave side of the curve is so often opposed by a high rocky bank. and elsewhere.

187 it will By reference to page them are also found be seen that many of . Sorex mUgaris. Vrsus Arcios. the Eeddeer. a French savant. Mons. hcemitcBchus). Armcola pratensis. Lagomys spelaas. two species of Elephants {E. two species of Ehinoceros. antiquus). Lion. below which were nearly five feet of brown clay. Pig. and Mouse. VespertUio luscus. Eeindeer. fenmi-eguinvm. In the year 1847. the Otter. of Abbeville. F. Hippopotamus (major). pardH. lynx. Spermophilus a Squirrel.* consist of the They White and Cave Bears. Alces malchis. amphiinus. Bbucher de Perthes.246 River-Gravel Mammalia. Ehinoceros leptorhimis (?). Cervus Browni. mattes. Horse. the Eabbit {R. Ox and Bison. The surface soil. A. agrestis. Felis catus. . Mtcsiela pv.torius. Hyaena {Spelcea). the Musk-sheep. A. Hare Rat {LagoTn/ys spelceus). genoides. in the cave and river deposits the remainder as yet being absent. Machairodns latidens. found in the British bone-caves. the Ermine. Wolf. found in association with the teeth of the Mammoth (Elephas primigenius) in the strata consisted of old river gravels of the Somme. though there seems to be no reason why most of them should not hereafter be found. the work of man. leptorhinus and R. and Castor fiber. published an account. GiUo Meks taxus. prifnigenius and E. F. then a little gravel containing land * The Cave llammalia. are Ehinolopkus nocticla. Spermophilus erythro- —Dawiins. then loam. Fox.' of flint imple- ments. in the first volume of his ' Antiquites celtiques. M. also known in river deposits. Lqncs cuniculus. and C megaceros.

a numher of well-formed flint Geologists were for long asleep on this subject. or the . These hatches are somewhat ' rude in form. since. them paid much attention to him. 247 and along with these shells the teeth of the Mammoth. de who distinctly proved to him. At Prestwich having his attention drawn to the subject. and again the hones and teeth of the Mammoth and hatchets. Perthes. Below that there occurred white sand and freshwater shells. other extinct species . and afterwards to other English geologists. but none of length.Man and the Mammoth. yrould artificial character of these ancient tools or The same kind of observations have been made since . M. like those of later date in our own islands. He visited M. I have been daily in the habit of handling stones. and along with these bones and teeth. Mr. that what he had stated was incontestably the fact. is rude. and I say this with authority. modern ones brought from the South Sea Islands but there can be no doubt whatever that they were formed by the hand of man.' I do not mean any doubt of their having been formed They are not polished and finished. began to examine the question. for more than thirty years. but when I say that there artificially. de Perthes had printed it many years. and no flints man who knows how chalk doubt the weapons. shells. are fractured by nature.

the bones of the Mammoth. some of them extinct. As yet. McKeniiy Hughes found another. the same phenomena have been observed in old gravel pits. These were first noticed by Mr. and river various other mammalia. near Diss. old varieties of oxen. T. however. there which river rise about twenty-five feet above the level of the broad terraces . fresh and imwom. and it has been proved that near the mouth of the estuary of the Thames. associated with river shells. there have been found a considerable number of flint hatchets. No bones have as yet been observed in that district along with the imple- ments. By the Waveney also.248 in our Man and the Mammoth. Leech. between the Eeculvers and Heme cliff Bay. own country. far above the river. the bones of man have never in our country been discovered along with extinct mammals in the gravels. At the same time. on the borders of Norfolk and Suffolk. unless we get a hint on the subject from the . partly water-worn by the waves. — ^lying in and in one of these. In the neighbourhood of Bedford are beds of river gravel of this kind —on the Ouse. occur in many places associated with the works of pre-historic men. T. flint hatchets have fallen from the top of a of Eocene sand capped with river gravel of the ancient Thames. and I myself found one on the beach. But it is very clear that the bones of Elephas priTnigenius and other mammalia. Mr. made for the extraction of road materials .

in the surface strata called the Loess of the same river near Maestricht. near Torquay . in the caves of Gower. in caves on the Meuse. north of Falmouth. On the Continent. his works are. Devon.* As already stated. . Further. well known associated with such in Kent's Hole and mammalia Brixham Cave. men in such like caverns or in river de- but enough has been said to show that there can be no doubt that man was contemporary with extinct Mammalia. The Geological Observer. Glamorganshire. human skeletons are said to have been I have seen these bones. as previously mentioned. and in other British caverns. which cer- tainly have an antique look. in strata containing the remains of Many posits other examples might be given of the remains of old races of . and ' West Somerset. Hyaena.' 1853. T. &c. however. ' Geological Eeport on Cornwall. and that. and there can be little doubt that his origin in our island dates as far back as the time when the country was united to the main land. however. 249 discoveiyof human skulls fifty-three feet beneath the surface at the Carron tin stream-works. Sir H. certain that a human jaw was found Mammoths.Man and Extinct Mammalia. along with bones of Deer. * p. De la Beche. but to their authenticity. Elephant. actually found. 407. Dr. p. Schmerling found bones of men mingled with those of the Cave Bear.' 1839. it is some doubt exists as In the same neighbourhood. 449. &c. and Ehinoceros.

for example. and in the south of England. and other mammalia partly extinct. This terrace usually of the same species consists of gravel and sea shells. sea cliff of solid rock. when the the Irish Elk. and in almost land. and round the of Arran. Eound the Firth there is of Forth. On^ word more on a kindred part of our coast subject. overlooking an oM a raised beach or terrace. lands.the shores of the Firth of Clyde. clear. where the and falls. he travelled hither at a time arts were so rude that he had no means of coming exceipt on foot.250 Raised Beaches and Terraces. along with the great hairy Mammoth. on both shores. that an elevation of the land has occurred in places to the extent of about . Similar or analogous raised beaches occur occasionally on the borders of Wales. cliffs. and then we come to the present sea beach. with those that tide rises lie upon the present beach. and in some places the terrace runs with persistence for a number of miles. Eound great fifty we find terraces from twenty to feet above the level of the sea. The same kind of terrace is found Isle on . all the other estuaries of Scot- and in places round the coast of the West HighOld sea caverns are common in these elevated made at a time when they were daily washed by the waves. In Devon and Cornwall there are the remains of old consolidated beaches clinging to the cliffs from twenty to thirty It is feet above the level of the sea. now often cultivated. therefore. the Ehinoceros.

which is now occupied simply by common story does not stop there. and on the Clyde. the bones of whales. various times. in the alluvial plains that border the Forth. long after all the living species of shell-fish inhabited our shores. have feet been found at a height of from twenty to thirty above the level of high-water mark. but others were built of planks nailed together. canoes were found in a state of preservation so perfect.Marine. in cutting trenches. must have been covered with salt water. and therefore they must either have died upon the spot where their skeletons were found or been floated there after death. Mammalia and Canoes. made Some of them were simply scooped in the trunks of large trees. described them. that all their form and structure could be well out. at other works. and seals. Now it is evident that whales did not crawl twenty or thirty feet above high-water mark to die. that this last elevation took place at a time that is historical. built of planks. Professor Greikie. for in the very But the same beds in which the remains of these marine mammalia have been discovered on the Clyde. in the neighbourhood of Glasgow. 251 forty feet. That part of the coxmtry. by my colleague. dressed —square-sterned boats indeed. therefore. Further. canals. — and the inference has been drawn who has well-. and porpoises. at a very recent period. and even since the Eoman occupation of our island. . alluvial detritus.

and several miles up that stream. that General Eoy. but so perfect were they. and stood on the banks of a stream called the Carron. believed by Professor Greikie to have been tidal . but the sea does not come near to them now . eastern termination is Its recognised by most antiquaries . usually called the Wall of Antoninus^ that stretched across Scotland from the Firth of Clyde to the Firth of Forth. one piece of evidence witli respect to the very recent elevation of these terraces which I think is deserving of attention. less than Again. there is a small stream. at the end of last century. remains of old Eoman docks. When they were built they were of course close to the tide. was able to describe them in and actually to draw plans of them. beyond the influence of the tide of the present day. and it is this : —In the neigh- bourhood of Falkirk. and therefore he naturally inferred that when they were constructed the relative height of the land to the sea must have been at present. on the south shore of the Firth of Forth. there were. These docks are now no longer to be seen . when commencing the triangulation of Scotland Ordnance Survey. near the end of the Eoman Wall. for the detail. the great Wall of Antoninus. erected as a barrier against invasions by the northern barbarians of the territory conquered by the Eomans.252 There is Roman Remains. must have been brought down close to the sea level at both ends.

sea. not having the favoiirable foundation of a steep rising ground. 'ignmigeiims\. as is the Lion (JF. 187. also to the Ksts of * With regard ield for years that the Indian Elephant te recognised as belonging to living species. Its western extremity. twenty or twenty-five feet above the now lies hills. Other cave and river mammals. spdma). where the great Falkirk flats dis- appear along the shore. Mr. 253 as having been placed at Carriden. Bat owing to a probable rise of the land. pp. 1 have is a mere variety of the Mammoth {E. . Had this belt pf land existed then. between high-water mark and the base of the and runs westward from the termination of the wall for several miles as far as Dumbarton. saved any further need for fortification. amphibius. When was built it was pro- bably carried to the point where the chain of the Kilpatrick Hills. descending abruptly into the water. 134. there appears little reason to doubt that the Eomans would not have been slow to take advantage of it. may. and drive them into the opener reaches of the estuary below Dumbarton. in time. now stands a little way back from the it sea- margin of the Clyde.The Wall of Antoninus.* Mammalia. a level space of ground. 248. Busk has lately declared that Sippopotamm jnajor is identical with the Uving H. on the top of a considerable cliff. so as completely to prevent the Caledonians from crossing the narrow parts of the river.

which drain a large proportion of Wales. we find. for the All the Highland waters. with one or two exceptions. namely. drained examine the qualities of the waters of our towards the east than to the west. are soft. soft. and a considerable part of the interior of England. A much larger area of country is. the qualities of their waters. as already stated. If we examine the geological structure of our island with regard to its water-sheds and rivercourses. I HAVE already given a sketch of the chief river areas of Great Britain. the chief exception being the Severn and its tributaries. rivers of Scotland are. the mountains being composed of granitic .254 CHAPTER QUALITIES OF KIVEE-WATBES XVI. we find that this necessarily depends on the soils nature of the rocks and over which they flow. run the Grerman Ocean . however. Thus the waters of the most part. but I did not enter upon one important point connected with them. When we rivers. DISSOLVING BY SOLUTION OF LIMESTONE EOCKS. as a rule. that the larger into streams.

it scarcely affects their The water from the Welsh mountains is part soft. the soda or potash being chiefly derived from the feldspathic ingredients of the various formations. like all our oldest formations. Hills . and therefore the waters are soft. free from car- Only a small proportion of lime. For this reason. also in great the country being formed of Silurian rocks. flows over. is excepting by anglers in little that they are apt to be a tinged with colouring matter derived from peat. is pure. gneiss. mica-schist. and the like. Grlasgow has been supplied with water from Loch Katrine almost soft. at a vast expense. .Qualities of River Waters. here and there slightly calcareous from the presence of fossils mixed with the hardened sandy or slaty sedi- . and the other rocks being. soda. which. as a rule. 255 fbcks. is taken up by the water that falls upon. or potash. and delightful. bonate of Hme. The same the case with the waters that run from the Silurian rocks of the Lammermuir found with times of flood. other waters from is. and the only fault that can be all of these waters. a very small proportion of limestone heing intermingled therewith. The water of the rivers di-ained from the Silurian is also soft. Cumberland mountains and so little of the waters of that country rises in the lower plateaux of Carboniferous limestone that quality. or drains through these rocks. lying amid the gneissic rocks.

the marls are somewhat calcareous. strata formed of Yoredale shales and sandstones and Millstone Grit.256 Waters of Wales. the waters are soft so . we come to the Old Eed Sandstone district. The waters are apt to be still harder in the Carboniferous Limestone rise into tracts that sometimes high escarpments round the borders of the great South Wales coal-field. that forms the larger part of that country. as composed partly of Carboniferous Limestone. the Pennine Chain. the waters that flow from the northern part of the Pennine chain. Again. and in Flintshire and Denbighshire. But when in "Wales. . wherever they rise in. are apt to be somewhat hard. and inter- stratified with impure concretionary limestones. called comstones. com- pared with the impure mixtures we sometimes drink in London. and flow through.* and the adjacent mountains of Cardiganshire. and the waters are harder. it has been more than once proposed to the way for the supply of water for the capital and the same proposition has been made with regard to the waters of PlinUmmon. and Derbyshire. because they drain areas But. that lead it all . as far south as CUtheroe and Skipton. Yorkshire. &c. a rule. ment. and this is one reason why many large reservoirs have been constructed in the Millstone grit regions of Lancashire. So sweet and pleasant are the waters of Bala Lake. for the supply of large towns and cities such * Properly Plymlumon. and on its borders.

257 All Manchester. the Dee. is almost entirely composed of carbonate It thus happens that. The waters of the Mersey. Preston. as far west as Devonshire. and Liverpool. by the of the crushed ore of lead and copper mines. and the Oolitic and the Cretaceous rocks. the waters of the carboniferous Limestone of Derbyshire. still The waters of the Severn are less so.Mersey. and the Clwyd. New Eed Sandstone and Marl. I must try to give some idea of the quantity of some of the salts which are carried in solution to the sea by the agency of running water. as a general rule. All the rivers that flow over the Permian rocks and rule. as a somewhat hard. are hard. and the fish killed in them. such as the Dove and the Wye. as Bradford. and would always be wholesome were it not that many refuse are polluted. but they contain a considerable amount of bicarbonate of lime in solution. are. Wales. while those that flow westward in Wales are soft and pleasant. rivers are of most of the hard water that flow into the sea on the eastern and southern shores of England. where there is . are also somewhat hard. The first case I shall take s is at Bath. are of necessity charged with those substances in solution that make water hard . because the Lias and Oolites are so largely formed of limestones. and Clzvyd. Before proceeding to other subjects. and the Chalk of lime. Dee. and the waters of the Lias.

258

Bath Wells.
The

a striking example of what a mere spring can do.

Bath Old Well
which
a
is

yields 126 gallons of water per minute,

equal to 181,440 gallons per day.

There are

number

of constituents in this water, such as car;

bonate of lime, nearly nine grains to the gallon

sul-

phate of lime, more than eighty grains; sulphate of
soda,

more than seventeen grains ; common

salt,

rather

more than twelve and a half grains ; chloride of magnesium, fourteen and a half grains to the gallon
etc.
;

etc.

altogether, with other

minor constituents, there

are 144 grains of salts in solution in every gallon of
this water,

which

is

equal to 3,732

lbs.

per day, or 608

tons a year.

A

cubic yard of limestone
If,

may be

roughly

estimated to weigh two tons.

therefore, these salts

were precipitated, compressed, and solidified into the

same bulk, and having the same weight,

as limestone,

we should

find the annual discharge of the

Bath weUs

capable of forming a square column of 3 feet in diameter,

and about 912
solid mineral

feet high.

Yet
carried

this large

amount

of
in

matter

is

away every year

invisible solution in water which, to the eye, appears

perfectly limpid

and pure.
is

Again, the Thames

a good type of what

may

be

done in this way by a moderate sized
a country which, to a great extent,
is

river, draining

composed of

cal-

careous rocks.

It rises at the Seven Springs, near the

western edge, and therefore not far from the highest

Thames Water.

259

part of the Oolitic table-land of the Cotswold Hills,

and

flows eastward

through

all

the Oolitic strata com-

posed mostly of thick formations of limestone, calcareous sand, and masses of clay, which often contain
shelly bands

and scattered

fossil shells.

Then, bending

to the south-east, below Oxford, it crosses the

Lower
all cal-

G-reensand, the Gault, the
careous,

Upper Grreensandi
last of

and the Chalk, the

which may be
;

roughly stated as consisting of nearly pm-e limestone

then through the London Clay and other strata belonging to the great Eocene formations of the London
basin, which are nearly all

more

or less calcareous.

The Thames may

therefore be expected to contain sub;

stances of various kinds in solution in large quantities

and to -those derived from the rocks must be added

all

the impurities from the drainage of the villages and

towns that line

its

banks between the Seven Springs

and London.

At Teddington, on a rough average
1

for the year,

,337 cubic feet of water (equal to 8,332 gallons) pass
;

seaward per second

and, upon analysis,

it

was found

that about twenty-two and a half grains of various
matters, chiefly bicarbonate of lime, occur in solution
in each gallon, thus giving 187,477 grains per second

passing seaward.

This

is

equal to nearly 96,417

lbs.

per hour, 2,314,004

lbs.

per day, or 377,058 tons a
s 2

26o

Salts in Solution
is

year;* and this amount

almost entirely dissolved

out of the hulk of the soUd rocks
of the country, and
is

and surface

soils

passing out to sea in an invisible

form only known to the analytical chemist.
If

we

consider that this

is

only one of

many

rivers

that flow over rocks which contain lime and other substances easily soluble,

we then begin

to

comprehend
this

what an enormous quantity of matter by
eye

to the

— perfectly

imperceptible

process
If

is

being
all

con-

stantly carried into the sea.
rivers of the east,

we take

the other

and those of the south of England

(exclusive of those of

Devon and Cornwall), we

find

that they drain

more than 18,000 square

miles, to a

great extent consisting of limestone and other calcareous rocks
;

and

if

we assume the amount
rivers to

of outflow

from the sum of these
that of the

be only three times

Thames (and I

believe it

must be more)

we may have about 1,131,174

tons of bicarbonate of

lime and other substances passing with these rivers
annually to the sea in solution.

The rivers

of the west coast of

England and of the
;

whole of Wales drain about 30,000 square miles

and
than

though the waters, as a rule, are
those of the east of England,
it

much

softer

would perhaps not be

*

Mr.

PrestTvich,

on slightly different and perhaps better data, makes
'

the quantity 290,905 tons annually.
Geological Society,' 1872, p. 43.

Anniversary Address to the

4

in Rivers

.

261
amount
what
is

much
of

over the

mark

to estimate the average
at

salts

in solution

about

one-fifth
rivers,
;

of

assumed to be in the eastern

and we should
for

therefore get about 377,000 tons
in
all,

making

England

about 1,885,000 tons per annum.

In a year

this

would give about a square mile of rock a foot

thick, in 1,000 years about 1,000 square miles,

and in

10,000 years

—a small item in geological time— 10,000
rivers of the world into the

square miles, or 3,040 square miles one yard thick.
If

we could take aU the

calculation,

how

great the

amount must

be.

The

St.

Lawrence alone drains an area of 297,600 square miles,
three and a third times larger than the whole of Great
Britain,
miles, or

and that of the Mississippi

is

982,400 square

more than three times

as large as the area

drained by the St. Lawrence.

The Amazon
is

drains an

area of 1,512,000 square miles, but it

needless to

multiply
It
this
is

cases.

a necessary part of the economy of Nature that
constituents of rooks
all

dissolving of the

should

always be going on over
solutions of lime
sea

the world, for

it is

from

and other and

salts

thus obtained by the
derive
part

that plants

shell-fish

of

their

nourishment, plants for their

tissues,

and MoUusca and As
it is

other creatures for their shells and bones.

now,

so has it been through all proved geological time,

and

doubtless long before; for the oldest known

strata,. the

262
',

Chalk and Residue of Flints.

Lawrentian rocks, were themselves originaUy formed
of ordinary sediments, and consist in part of thick
strata of limestone that
life

must have been formed by the

and death of organic creatures.
is

This waste of material by the dissolmng of rocks

indeed evident to the practised eye over most of the
solid limestone districts of

England, and I shall theresubject.

fore say

a

little

more on the

On

the

flat

tops

of the Chalk Downs, for example, over large areas in
Dorsetshire, Hampshire,
'

and Wiltshire, quantities of
feet in thickness,

angular unworn

flints,

many

com-

pletely cover the surface of the land, revealing to the

thoughtful

mind the

fact that all these accumulations

of barren stones have not been transported from a dis'

tance, but represent the gradual destruction

by rain
with

and carbonic

acid, of a vast thickness of chalk,

layers of flint, that once existed above the present sur'

face.

The following diagram wiU
Fig. 45.

explain this.

a a, the present 2, Chalk with flints, Chalk without flints. of the ground marked by a dark line, bb, an old snrface of gronnd, marked by a light line. Between a a the snrfece is covered by
1,

svirface

aceamulated

flints,
a!

the thickness of which is greatest where the
,

Une

is

thickest between

and x above which snrface a greater proportion of

chalk has been dissolved and disappeared.

An

irregular mixture of clay with flints, often several

Limestone Plateaux.
feet thick, is also frequent

263

on the surface of the Chalk
of the Thames.

Downs north and west of the valley
flints

The

though sometimes broken are in other respects

of the shape in which they were left by the dissolving
of the Chalk, and the clay itself
originally sparingly
is

an insoluble residue,

mingled with that limestone.

There

is

no doubt but that the plateaux of Car-

boniferous Limestone of the

Mendip

Hills, of

Wales,

Derbyshire, and the north of England have suffered

waste by solution, equal to that of the Chalk, only

from the absence of
insoluble residue

flints

in these strata
its

we have no
In

by which to estimate

amount.

Lancashire, north of
land,

Morecambe Bay,
east,

in

Westmoreand north-

and in Yorkshire,

north-east,

west of Settle, the high plateaux of limestone are often
for miles half bare of vegetation.

The

surface of the

rock

is

rough and rugged from the
it

effects of rain-water
;

and the carbonic acid

contains

looking, on a large

scale, like surfaces of salt or

sugar half dissolved.

The

joints of the rock have been widened
action,

by

this chemical

and

it

requires wary walking, with your eyes
leg.

on the ground, to avoid, perhaps, a broken
Oolites

The

must have

suffered in the

same way, especially
;

where not covered by Boulder-clay

for, it

must be

remembered that such

effects are chiefly the result of

the exposure of limestones on the actual surface of the

ground.

264

CHAPTER
SOILS.

XVII.

The

soils

of a country necessarily vary to
entirely,

a great

extent,

though not

with the nature of the
Thus, in the High-

tmderlying geological formations.

lands of Scotland the gneissic and granitic mountains!
are generally heathy and barren, because they are so

high and craggy, and their hard rocky materials

fre-

quently come bare to the surface over great areas.
Strips

of

more

fertile

meadow land

lie

chiefly

on

narrow alluvial plains, which here and there border
the
rivers.

Hence the Highlands mainly form a wild
cattle,

and pastoral country, sacred to grouse, black
sheep, and red deer.

Further south Silurian rocks, though the scenery
different,

is

produce more or

less

the same kind of
lies

soil,

in the broad range of hiUs that
valleys of the Clyde

between the great

and Forth, and the borders of

England, including the Muirfoot and the Lammermuir
Hills,

and the high grounds that stretch southwards

;

Soils
into Carrick
chiefly

of

Scotland.

265

and Gralloway.

There the rocks, being
gritty,

composed of hard, untractable,

and

slaty

material, form but little soil because they are difficult
to decompose.
is

Hence the ground being mostly high
though excellently adapted
slopes

to a great extent untilled,

for pastoral purposes.

Where, however, the

descend, and are covered more or less with old icedrifts

and moraine-matter, the
is

soil is

deep and the
intersect

ground

fertile,

and many beautiful vales
this
classic

the country.

Through

ground run the

Whitader and the Tweed, the Teviot and the Clyde
the White Esk, the Annan, the Nith, and the Dee^

which run through the mountains of Gralloway to the
Solway Firth.

Most of these
character

rivers

have a bare and

unwooded

pastoral

in

the upper parts of

their courses, gradually passing, as they descend

and

widen, into cultivated

fields

and woodlands.

The great
metamorphic

central valley of Scotland, between the
series of the

Highland mountains and the
the high-lying southern

less altered Silurian strata of

counties,

is

occupied by rocks of a more mixed charac-

ter, consisting of

Old Bed Sandstone and Marl, and of

the shales, sandstones, and limestones of the Carboniferous
series,

intermixed with considerable masses of

igneous

rocks.

The

effect of

denudation upon these

formations in old times, particularly of the denudation which took place during the Glacial period, and

from Northumberland to Derbyshire. and cultivation for nearly a century has been taken in hand by skilful farmers.266 Derbyshire Hills. except in the dales. skirted by high heathy ridges lies North of the limestone the moss-covered plateau of Millstone Grit called Kinder Scout. The Derbyshire limestone tract. nearly 2. On the east and west that region of Millstone Grit. sand and lime. Through the inland parts of England. much of it is unfitted for ordinary agricultural operations. —such as mixed vdth pebbles. forming in part regions so high that. we have another long tract of hilly country. fertile tracts In this way one of the most anywhere to be found its in our island has been formed. by also of the rearrangement of the ice-borne debris subsequent marine action. intersected by cultivated is valleys. for the most part high and grassy. further north. intersected by Still grassy valleys.000 feet in height . all the way to the borders of Scotland. consists almost entirely of pasture lands. trict who have brought the agriculture of that dis- up to the very highest pitch which it has attained in any part of Great Britain. and beyond this. there a vast expanse of similar moorland. composed of Carboniferous rocks. has been to cover large tracts of country with a happy mixture of materials clay. east of the fertile Vale of . between the Lancashire and Yorkshire is coal-fields.

except when formed of limestone. The deep valleys are culti- vated. Weardale. hamlets. Wensleydale. Swaledale. occasional alluvial flats of the Calder. The uplands are generally heathy. all alike tell their tale to the eye of the geologist. unique These together present a in the scenery of England. the seats of squires. sloping gently eastward. the Derwent. farms. Of kind of land the Yorkshire dales may be The taken as a type. the soft grassy slopes leading the eye on to the upland terraces of limestone or sandstone. Niddesdale. valleys. are lost in a when we look up the long perspective. and the small possessions of the this original Statesmen. the uppermost terrace of all sometimes standing out against the sky. Teesdale. Wharfdale. series of scenes quite The larger part of this northern territory is there- . the Aire.Yorkshire Dales. and the valleys of the North and South Tyne. . which. Eden. The accidental park-like arrangement of the trees. and the farmer. little Nothing is more beautiful than these dales. the country 267 may also be described as a great high plateau. so known to the ordinary tourist. through which the rivers of Yorkshire and Northumberland have scooped unnumbered valleys. the artist. dotted with villages. and then mountain grassy pastures are apt to prevail. like the relic of a great Cyclopean city of unknown date as in the time-weathered grits of Brimham Eocks.

is also devoted to pasture land.500 feet above the level of the sea. as the case with large portions of Cumberland and the other north-western counties of England. where the country rises to a height of from 1. the Aeron. The Towey of Caermarthenshire. are all bordered by broad and rise fertile mar- gins. the Dovey. The Vale of Clwyd. and on the alluvium of the there is rivers. where disturbance of the Palaeozoic rocks has resulted in the elevation of a great range. in Denbighshire — ^the substratum of which consists of New Eed Sandstone. covered by Silurian hills Glacial debris. the Usk and the Wye. Waks. and also in the Longmynd of Shropshire. the Cothi.— 268 fore. and is therefore for nothing but pasture land but on the low grounds.000 to 3. and wonderfully beautiful. excepting the Vale of Eden and the southern shores of the Sol way. . The same general pastoral character is observable in Wales. amoimting to thousands upon thousands of acres. there are tracts of land. and all the larger rivers of Grlamorganshire. the Mawddach. are unsurpassed for quiet and fertile . often excellent soil. and bounded is by high fertUe. the Ystwyth. or rather of a cluster of mountains —the highest south of the Tweed. because of the moist climate of the hilly region. The Conwy. Much fit of it is covered with heath. above which the wild hiUs of North and South Wales. In that old Principality. and the Teifi.

flows along sometimes through hills. Monmouth- and in the adjacent parts of England in Here- fordshire. and in the wider boss of Charnwood . lands. The soil is thus deepened and more easily fitted for piirposes of tillage. the eastern part of the hill country of South "Wales in Breconshire and shire. This is especially the case the low-lying from the circumstance that the rocks are generally soft. beauty. and of much of the north of England in its western parts. renders these regions for the rearing of cattle much more fitted than for the growth of cereals. bounded by wood-covered the plains themselves all park-like. and often wide. 269 Britain surpasses No inland river in the Towey in its course from Llandovery it to Caermarthen. and everywhere interspersed with pleasant towns. and drift. occupied by the hilly. and ruined castles. and therefore is easily decomposed. broad alluvial plains. Eapid. and this adds to its fertility. kind. where the surface material is covered with the loose chiefly formed of the waste of the partly calcareous strata on which it rests. Taken as a whole.Wales. seats. though and in South Wales naturally of a fertile in occasionally even mountainous. is Old Eed Sandstone. farms. but on the whole the moist character of the climate of Wales and Cumberland. near Birmingham. but with many a park besides. and parts of Worcestershire. In the centre of England^ in the Lickey Hills.

If we now pass to the Secondary rocks that lie in find a different state of things.570 New Red amid the Secondary Series. centre of we In the England formed of soils are for New Eed Sandstone and Marl. when wastes and forests covered half the land. they often pose easily. it is Kke to curious observe that a wild character suddenly prevails in the scenery. Forest is. save where the con- glomerate beds of the surface. where the old PalsBozoic rocks crop out islands strata. New Eed Sandstone come to the These conglomerates consist to a great extent of gravels barely consolidated. were not for the modern till monastery and the cowled monks who the soil. and form deep loams. of various kinds. the plains. and stand out in miniature mountains. especially the Marl are bare of decom- and form the actual surface. Much drift. the fertile the most part naturally more than in the mountain regions of Cumberland or in and Wales. it of is Chamwood now being however. formed of well water- worn rounded pebbles. some of the Palaeozoic areas in the extreme south-west of England. even though the land lies comparatively low. When the soft New Eed Sandstone and drift. that. covered by and so rapidly enclosed. Forest. it would almost cease to be suggestive of the England of mediaeval times. for the rocks are rough and untractable. derived from chiefly of some unknown . but liver-coloured quartz-rock.

271 and of siliceous sand. which. and the ridges east of the Severn near Bridgenorth. we look over the wide strata. soil. or stone. New Eed Marl and Lias When we stand on the summit of the great escarpment. As land however becomes in itself more valu- able. flats and undulations formed by these The marl clay.* In the centre of England there are broad tracts of land composed chiefly of clay. formed by the Oolitic table-land. that such ground has only been" lately taken into cultivation. gravels. . mingled with a small percentage of it and when on the surface moulders down. But a good observer from the straightness of the hedges. Soils. a barren Some of the old waste and forest lands of England. too numerous to mention. some on Eocene strata. by help of deep draining. such as Sherwood Forest and Trentham Park. lie almost entirely upon these intractable on other barren sands of the New Eed Sandthis and have partly remained uncultivated to day. and at a time since it has become profitable to reclaim that forest which at no very distant date was devoted to ground and to wild animals. some on Boulder-clay. the ancient forests are being cut down and the will often infer ground enclosed.Red Marly region. sometimes ferruginous. consists of what was once a light kind of lime . to a great extent. are gradually becoming cultivated regions. it * There are many other forest lands in England. part of Beaudesert. This mixture forms.

Herefordshire. and bands of fossil shells are its scattered throughout the clay stiffness itself. with the blossoms of innumerable fruit Again. especially adapted for grass land. sometimes of series. the reason of this is relation I soils do not know but such the fact. that composed of the New and Old Eed Marl and Sandstone are better adapted for fruit trees than any other in Britain. and Gloucestershire. for . with their numerous orchards. and famous for its apples. the plain called the Carse of Gowrie. in Scotland. is Old Eed Sandstone. naturally forms a fertile arable soil. A great extent of the is land in the centre and west. but often covered with It is worthy of notice that the fruit tree districts of Great Britain lie chiefly upon red rocks. forms a considerable proportion of our meadow land. The Lias laid clay in the centre of England. It is blue when unweathered. where all the fields and hedgerows are in spring white trees. celebrated for cider and perry. Firth of Tay. the Old and sometimes of the New Red The counties of Devonshire. though often down for cereals. What may be . lying between the Sidlaw Hills and stretches over a tract of the.272 Red Soils. From exceeding it is and persistent retention of it moisture. and includes many beds of Umestone.of England strata. formed of these red Glacial drift. lie in great part on these formations.

are of great thickness. that lead by the pleasant hedge-rows to wooded villages and old timbered farmsteads. the Marlstone. and on Edgehill. and there some of which. like the Oxford and Kimmeridge Clays. of beds of limestone. and thus a large proportion of in the centre of intersected England is devoted to pastures often by numerous footpaths of ancient date. formed. 273 it not easy to plough. we find the Oolitic rocks. which forms an escarpment overlooking the Lower Lias clay. with here stratified clays. being formed of a mixture of clay and sand with a considerable pro- portion of lime. for it is called. marked by a strip of peculiarly fertile often dotted with villages and towns with antique churches and towers built of the brown limestone of the formation. fossils that often pervade the other The course of the low flat- topped Marlstone well seen in Gloucestershire. hills.Lias and is Oolitic Soils. "When we pass into the Middle Lias. these limestone Downs. The tops of when they X rise to considerable . Ascending on the geological scale into the next group. for the most inter- part. derived from the Marlstone Lime-rock itself. and all round Banbury. striking along the is country and overlooking the Lower Lias clay. as racter than the we find a very fertile soil. and spread flat over considerable tracts of country. and from the intermixture of strata. usually thus soil. is much lighter in cha- more clayey Lower Lias.

as those on the Lower Greensand. but are now being and grain. were until a recent date left in a state of natural grass. and. If we pass next into the Cretaceous series. in places. and used chiefly as pasture land. intermingled with veins and strings of siliceous oxide of iron. soil still Such a and remains in many places. some. intractable barren. whence the origin of the woollen factories of Grioucestershire. form the broad heathy fertile tracts of the is Yorkshire moors. as they do on the Cotswold BElls. Thus on the borders of the Weald from Leith is Hill to Petersfield. and the Vale of Pickering occupied by the Kimmeridge Clay. being excessively siliceous. In the north of England the equivalents of the Lower Oolites. there are many wide-spread unenclosed heaths almost as wild and refreshing to the smokedried denizens of London as the broad moors of Wales . where there very little lime in the rocks. we meet with many kinds of soil.274 Lower Greensand. which in the middle and south of England forms extensive tracts of country. and on the very highest of them we of find fields of turnips The broad that lie flat belts Oxford and Kimmeridge Clay between the western part of the Oolite and the base of the Chalk escarpment are in great part in the state of grass land. They formed a feeding ground for vast numbers of sheep. brought under the dominion of the plough. height.

Wiltshire north-eastward into Bedfordshire. their height. on the north. which. however. and "for those extensive brick manufactories so well known in the neighbourhood of Sittingbourne. Surrey and Sussex. is In many places it covered by loamy brick earths. damp stiff soil when at the surface but is now cultivated and im- proved by help and deep drainage. but chiefly from the poverty of the have never heen brought into a state of cultivation. of the hop gardens of that area Similar brick earths often occupy the low banks of the Thames in Kent. between the escarpment of the Lower Grreensand and the Chalk. the Weald Clay occupies an area between the escarpment of the Lower and the Hastings Sands of from latter Grreensand six to twenty miles wide. many beautiful and fertile valleys forest timber. there are rich in fields. encircling the west. on which the fin^t lie. unless covered by drift or alluvium. and noble Between the slopes of the Grreensand is and the es- carpment of the Chalk there stiff a long narrow strip of clay-land formed of the Grault. and the Highlands of Scotland. Running. T 2 . 275 These partly from soil. parks. It naturally forms a . in the line of strike of the rocks. generally produces a wet soil along a band of country extending from the outlet of the Vale of Pewsey in . and south. In Kent.Weald Clay. also famous for hop-grounds.

The Chalk strata of the South Downs stretch far into the centre and west of England in Hampshire and Wiltshire. consist of very The Hastings Sands for the most part fine siliceous sand.276 Hastings Sand. when dry may sometimes almost be de- scribed as an impalpable siliceous dust. and Down to a com- paratively late historical period. interstratified clay. applied to this part of England. Much of the country is well wooded. fine They form . and Chalk stretches in a broad band. of who happen to know something Grerman derivatives. northward into Yorkshire. extensive remains of the old forests of St. Hence the name Weald or Wold (a woodland). both clays and sands were left in their native state. where still there are Tilgate. only broken by the Wash it and the Humber. where . partly forming those broad forests and furze-clad heaths that covered almost the whole of the Wealden area. that dry sandy sort of loam it so fine. or rather Old- English term. extending from to the sea Horsham between Hythe and Hastings. though the word does not imless to those now suggest its original meaning. South of the valley of the Thames the this same strata form the North Downs. especially on the west. hills that lie forming the undulating half-way between the North and South Downs. Leonards. on the surface a indeed. a Saxon. Ashdown. with minor beds of and they lie in the centre of the Wealden area.

Many of the slopes of the great chalk escarpments on the North and South Downs. forms the well-known Yorkshire Wolds. Many now quarries.' Chalk. yet is here. On the steep scarped slopes overlooking the "Weald the chalk generally grass. almost bare of woods — ' the bushless downs —and they are still largely used for pasturage. form beautiful features in the landscape. on the Chiltern Hills and elsewhere. these were almost entirely devoted to sheep. from time im- memorial. cultivation gradually encroaching. deserted and overgrown with trees. Within my own recollection. lies only an inch or two beneath the is and the same the case on the western and north-western slopes of the long escarpment. near Flamborough Head. often of great antiquity. lies 277 Most Lon- the Downs of Kent and In their wildest native state where the ground districts high these were probably. and turned into arable land. have been opened in these escarpments. doners are familiar with Sussex. in the West of England. York- where it ends in the lofty sea cliffs on the south side of Filey Bay. . also. which stretches in sinuous lines from Dorsetshire to shire. forming a table-land of which Salisbury Plain may be taken as plains a type. and some of great extent. but are being gradually invaded by the plough. West and north of the London basin the Chalk generally lies in broad undulating plains.

soil known as the Bagshot Sands. remain for long unscarred by the plough- is likely to share. which completely alters the agricultm^al charac- ter of the country. In the east part of Hertfordshire and Suffolk the Chalk is entirely buried under thick accumulations of glacial drift. Berkshire. The clay formations of the Eocene beds occur on all sides of London. there are tracts forming the lower part of the higher Eocene strata. and on the chalk both north and south of London. to the south-west. originally owing to for inland communication afforded by the river. and in places dotted with yew and juniper. in great part. Here and there. which produce a . a residue by the dissolving of the carbonate of lime of the This clay invariably forms a stiff chalk. In many places the surface of the Chalk. Through the influence of the great facilities population centred here. a highly cultivated territory. and elsewhere left over by clay. is cold soil. and forms commons. or furze-clad and woody patches. Occasionally the clay is used for making bricks. and plentiful on parts of the plains of Wilts. as already stated. They are often covered by superficial sand and gravel. is covered by thick accumulations of extensive areas flints. and Herefordshire. however.278 are however Soils so of the Eocene Beds. It has often been left imcultivated. that the short ttirf. ground covered with steep. this is now.

so barren that. as never could have been a cultivated and popu- now.000 square miles. and the east of Essex. but chiefly of These broad flats. most part Suffolk. The wide-spreading Boulder Clay of Holderness north of the Humber. include an area of about 1. The great plain of the Wash consists partly silt. only in scattered patches that they have been brought under cultivation. eye of the geologist it easily But to the appears that the wet and unkindly district soil produced by the clays and gravels of the form a sufScient reason why in old times. commonly said to have been depopulated by the Con- queror and turned into a hunting ground. about 70 miles in length from north to south. Higher still in this Eocene series of Hampshire. and of Norfolk. for the soil. for the soil for the most part 'is poor. dry and healthy. . forest-land and probably chiefly consisted of native even in the Conqueror's day. and 40 in width. it is 279 although not far from the metropolis. of Lincolnshire on the coast. camps have been placed upon them.Boulder Clay. of peat on the west and south. and being sandy. it lous country. forms a stiff tenacious somewhat suffi- lightened by the presence of stones and often ciently fertile when well drained. lie the fresh water beds on which the New Forest stands. and they are used as exercise grounds for our soldiers. They are still for the most > part bare heaths.

however. when the on the head. Such is a very imperfect sketch of the general soils nature of the of Great Britain. It must be horrve in ravnd. silt. where the broad warped meadows won art. drains and trenches. the character of the soil is directly and powerfully influenced by that of the rock-masses lying below. We have seen that through- out large areas. many feet below An old and entirely natural loamy character. good-sized vessels are seen sailing rivers much above the level of the spectator's is The same impression made on the banks Humber. the Fylde. of the tide is up. in many respects resemble those of the Wash. The whole country traversed by well-dyked rivers. This drift . producing wideis spread d/rift soils of varied composition. and walking in the fields behind the dykes. In wandering over the reminded of the is district one is constantly flats of Holland. On the west coast the wide plains of the Fylde in Lancashire. and. canals. north and south of the estuary of the Eibble. that the period have done a abrading agencies of the glacial great deal towards coTnmvnglvng the detritus of the different geological formations. and of their relation to the underlying rocks. follows somewhat of the same the course of the Ouse. lie from the sea by nature and the tide at flood. to a great extent covering the fertile vale of York.28o The Wash. passes out to sea in the plains that border the Tees.

members of the formation in . though often poor. as for in- stance in certain upper parts of the Lothians.and far the Glacial Drift. island. and sometimes of mixed clay and stones. sometimes of the most fertile description. Thus the Boulder forms soils Clay. obscuring all the hard rocks and giving rise to a soil sometimes nearly identical with that pro- duced by the waste of the underlying formation. while in others it forms a thick mantle. as in Holderness. 281 In from being uniformly spread over the some districts it is absent.

It requires but a cursory examination to see that the more mountainous and barren districts. The lowland parts are chiefly occupied by the descendants of other races less now intermixed. Ehinoceros. more or intermingled with one another. I SHALL now say a few words on the influence of the geology upon the inhabitants of different parts of our island. Eeindeer. very distinct from each other. EELATION OF THE DnTEEENT RACES OF MEN IN BRITAIN TO THE GEOLOGY OF THE COUNTRY. and in degree with the earlier Celtic inhabitants. and yet akin.282 CHAPTER XVIII. some of which are now . who themselves on their coming probably mingled with yet earlier tribes. are inhabited by two Celtic populations. It will be remembered that both in England and on bones and the Continent of Europe remains of man (his weapons) have been foiind in caves and river gravels. as a whole. Grxeat Britain is inhabited less by several races. and other mammalia. associated with bones of the Mammoth.

of whom the Basques of Spain are the least obliterated representatives. 283 That these early people were savage hunters. and then spoke their language. accord- ing to Professor Huxley. and who. may now be represented in Europe by the Laplanders (Mongolian). and cut the Mammoth on his own tusk.* However this may be it is certain that about 2. living in caves. but to what type of mankind they belonged. there can be but doubt . no man knows. 382. who in time had been absorbed among the Celtic population. or whether they are represented by any unmixed modern type.000 years ago both sides of the English Channel were in- habited by people speaking a Celtic tongue (Cassar).. black-haired and black-eyed M&laoiochroi. are among us in the black-haired portion of our Celtic population. Pre-Celtic extinct. 1871. when they could find such little ready-made acconunodation.' vol. 404. gradually driven north by the encroachment of later and more powerful nations. who carved daggers out figure of the of Eeindeer horns. and in the swarthy sons of Italy and Spain. these people are the The modern descendants of Welsh (Cymry) and Cornish men but I consider that at that period a distinct tribe of * ' Journal of the Ethnological Society. Or they may have been dark-complexioned. . and traces of still whom. ii. pp. in the south-east of England. Races. were mingled with fair-haired and blue-eyed Belgae. Possibly the cave men of Dordogne in France.

the Isle of Man. I believe that a people. and I think may be proved that the ancestors of the original Scottish Highlanders (who. Medway. however. yet sprimg from the same original stock. are now largely intermixed with Scandinavian blood) once spread. the is or the water of the rivers .284 Welsh what Celts. and the Dovey and the Dove . and thus the GaeUe TJisge (water) has not in all cases been replaced by the ancient Welsh word Gwy. the rivers called Ouse. are more ancient in our islands it than the Cymry . and not a Welsh Thus. It is a characteristic of rivers often to retain the race. coasts of Wales. Analyses of Modern Welsh and Graelic prove that these Celtic branches. for the names of many of the Wales have a Graelic rivers in England and even in origin. constantly find in' This old Welsh word we a corrupt form. Usk. and part of the southern. the Teifi. and at least all the western. but that they even occupied the Lowlands of Great Britain generally. as Nevertheless. the Gael. now so distinct. as in the Wye. derive their names from the Gaelic. inhabited the greater part of is now termed Scotland. Esk (TTisge). the Don. not only much further south than the borders of the Highlands. the Tawe. all complete or in combination. long after that names given them by an early race has been expelled. and Ireland. the Grael. and others. the Towey.

Aberdour. they could have retained a position on proof of this as regards Wales all more is.d. fertile lands. there still re- of a lake. Forestieri.Llyn Cyri (pronounced Curry). a cauldron. as in Stour. is a word unintelligible to the Welsh (as Arran to the Gael). or Corrie. then they were driven westward into Wales. by the superior power of another and later Celtic population that found its way to our shores. 285 expressed in another form by the later d/wfr or d/wr. occupying the more fertile districts of England and the south of Scotland. The Gael would not willingly have if confined themselves to the barren mountains. a word applied to those great cliffy semi-circular hollows or ci/rques in the mountains in which tarns so often lie. Welsh. In both languages river {Avon) is the same. but easily explained by the Gaelic word Coinre. and northward into the mountains of Scotland. The that as late as a. the Gwyddel* (Gael) of the * Gwyddel literally means dwellers in the Forest. Wald- men. and occupying the lowlands of Caithness. and even creeping round the eastern coast north of the Tay.and Gaelic. 597. that part of the country west of a line roughly to Swansea was inhabited drawn from Conway by an Erse-speaking people. and pushed onwards. . Again in Wales mains the name on Cader Idris. &c. itself. If the earlier inhabitants were Gaelic.

are chiefly inhabited by the Gael. before they were finally expelled. . near Birmingham vol.. but have been given by the later con- quering race. still pronounced by the French Cumberland {Gymrw). derived from old Saints. 286 Welsh Welsh. 43. and even the south-east of -England. and of the west of Wales generally. it happens that the Highlands of Scotland. p. Somersetshire. i. and at Bath. by the Avon. and the coast. were given by the Grwyddel. finally last relics of whom. Thus. expelled from the sought refage with their kindred people in of the Ireland. Dover. all prove it. The names of many churches of Anglesea. The names of scores of places now unintelligible to the vulgar.' Skene. the country was inhabited in the •folk that later Celtic times by the same now people Cornwall and Wales. and can be translated by anyone who it is has even a superficial knowledge of Welsh. we have * See ' ' Dolly (dolau) meadows ' . The Four Ancient Books of Wales. I believe. and certain that from the Lowlands of Scotland all through the midland and southern parts of Britain.* who were slowly retiring before the advancing Cymry.. names of It is remarkable that a number of the places in the centre and south of Scotland are not Graelic. Thus there are the Coombs (Gwrri) of Devon. beyon^ the Grreat Valley. so named from the river Denver correctly {dwfr water).

and in the hills of Derbyshire Bull gap. translated.* Mr. Pennycuik (Pen- y-gwig.' the Welsh hwlch. Welsh (the peaked hill.. Again. not only for the actual existence of Arthur. said to have been a native of the ancient kingdom of Strath Clwyd. Aberdour of the water). but he even traces his march through the country and shows ' where his battles were fought.d. The wide is area over which this language was spoken indeed proved by the ancient the old heroic Welsh literature. in Linlithgowshire. it records a battle. for poem of the Grododin was composed by Aneurin. in Scotland we have the mouth islands of the Clyde called the for a Cumbraes {Cymry) Arran. Lanark {Llanerch. or clearing). the author with great force and probability shows good reason. 586 and 603. ending with the crowning victory at Badon or Bouden Hill.and the ' Gaelic. place in a forest. Blantyre {Blaen a promontory or projecting land). Skene. the head of the thicket). i. p. which stretched through the west country from DumIn barton over Cumberland as far south as Chester. fought on the shore of the Firth of Forth sometime between a.' vol. and many other cor- rupted Welsh names. just as in another instance dolau is repeated in the English word meadows. . f In the learned work by Mr. 287 Lickey hills ' (llechau) ' . an open tir. Skene's opinion. near Macclesfield the ' rocky ridge called the Cerridge ' {cerrig) . 36.t * See Preeman's History of the Norman Conquest.

as far as blood is concerned. and Scandinavia . they went Coming as mili- away as soon as their time of service was up. They may have tives. By-and-by. intermarried to some extent with the na- but they occupied our country very India. much in the manner that we now occupy tary colonists. but the Eomans. over- spread the whole of the southern part of Great Britain. this may be. it is certain that the British when the Eomans invaded our country. but chiefly after. they still There. while still ex- Pevon and among the moun- tains of distinct Wales the same Celtic element yet forms a and peculiar people.288 However Celts. they mixed with their conquerors. slain or dispossessed of their territories and slowly driven westwards. where the tant in relics of this old Celtic people are in Cornwall. and finally abandoned the coimtry altogether. invasions took place by the Teutonic people from the shores of the Baltic near the mouth of the Elbe {Angles). in the long run. they permanently occupied the greater part of the land. retreated into the distant and mountainous parts of the country. held out against the in- and nmntained their independence in a region barren in the high ground. the retirement of the Eomans. Partly before. and. seem to have played an unimportant part in our country. but traversed by many a . Then the native tribes. till after the Norman vader. Angles. conquest.

broad and pleasant valley. are to be found among those most ancient of our geological formations. that the oldest tribes now in- habiting our country. by old palaeozoic disturbance. as the relics of the old Britons are apt to do. both in Scotland and in the south. 289 Living. so past.' who made good their places by the sword after the departure of the Eomans. while the lower and more fertile the the plains and table-lands. On the east of Scotland. the slowly much in memories of the dying language. which. and Scotland south of Grampians. thus standing out in marked contrast with the Gaelic clans. and even the antique cadences of their regretful music. the people are of Scandinavian origin speak Scotch.Distribution of Races. form the mountain hills. along the coasts of the Firth. There here a curious relation of the human population to the geological character of the country. who possess the wilder and higher grounds in the interior and western is districts. The Scandi- navian element is strongly developed. lands. along the mari- u . also. are chiefly inhabited by the descendants of ' the heathen of the northern sea. in Caithness and in the Moray Orkney and Shetand land Islands. speak of a people whose distinctive characters are waning and merging into a newer phase of intellectual It appears then life. the Silurian rocks.

.. stretch away in long and fertile lowlands while the Celts are pretty closely restricted to the higher and bleaker regions where the barren gneissie and schistose rocks prevail. being chiefly composed of Old Eed Sandstone. Distribution of Races. 290 time tracts. which.

peculiar effect To eilter upon the of geology on the industry of the various races or the populations of different districts. In Wales. that of Penrhyn in Nant Ffrancon.!' importance collectively. let us turn to the older rocks. occur in the Pass of Llanberis. as I of have already stated. lie The largest slate quarries in the world in the Cambrian rocks of Carnarvonshire. and more than a quarter of a ijaile from side to side. AND OTHER STRATA SUMMARY. would lead me fai^ beyond the proposed scope of fore. this work. INDrSTRIAL PEODUCTS OF THE aEOLOSICAL ^OKMATIONS OKiaiN OF LODES— QUANTITIES OF AVAILABLE COAL OKIGIN IN THE COAL-FIELDS OF THEIR BASIN-SHAPED FORMS —CONCEALED into detail COAL-FIELDS BENEATH PERMIAN. NEW RED. and there are quarries in the same strata at Nantry-Uef.291 CHAPTER XIX.! . is half a mile in length. there- only give a mere outline rather than attempt to exhaust the subject. Other quarries of almost eqiia. One single quarry. I shall. these consist to a great extent slaty material. First.

tut none of these are of the same vast quarries also lie in the Important Lower Silurian rocks (Llandeilo There are shale. In these districts there is a large population. is rapidly destroying the beauty of one of the most romantic lakes in Wales. but always in Cambrian or Silurian Bocks. also large slate quarries in the Wenlock Llangollen.350. which are exported to all parts of the world. Vast mounds of rubbish. twice The pefiring of a day. near Ffestiniog. which is chiefly supported by the quarrying and manufacture slate quarry. shot down the slopes into Llyn Peris. cover the on either side.000 men are there employed in the making of slates. The high quarries at Llanberis of employ nearly an equal number men . and others of minor note scattered about "Wales. the waste hills of the quarry. sound like the parks of artillery. . riodical blastings. near beds) near Ffestiniog in Merionethshire. The Penrhyn near Bangor. and end. size. some are worked in caverns instead of open day. and the rubbish there.* me by * This fact was supplied to the kindness of Mrs.292 Slate Quarries. of slates. while in Merionethshire. presents a wonderful spectacle of industry. Feicival of Bod&wen. More than 3. threatens in the long run to fill it from end to There are many other smaller quarries in the neighbourhood. of The number district in men and boys employed in the Ffestiniog There January 1872 was about 3.

generally oc- curring in hilly regions. but they are paratively unimportant all com- compared with the immense It is probably not quarries of North Wales. an over- estimate to say that about 15. tin. involving. or the miners of coal and first I will allude to the case in which the mineral wealth is derived from what are termed lodes. and lead. the workers in these rarely congregated mines are the slate in great crowds like quarriers of iron. and more or less filled with quartz. zinc. fissures in the rocks. So great is the profit sometimes derived from slate quarries. calc-spar. Cumlierland. perhaps. less cleaved. speculators where the rocks are more or go to work. and at Easdale in Scotland. or imperfectly cleaved. who sometimes ruin themselves in turn.000 in the slate quarries men are employed of Britain. that every here and there in North Wales. when money runs short. which yield our chief supplies of copper. sometimes running for miles. In various in the ores districts of Grreat Britain the rocks abound of certain metals. which. and ores of metals. or cut up by small joints. find a stuff.000 people. they sell the property to other speculators. 293 are also slate quarries in South Wales. North Wales. or quantity of rotten of slate full of iron pyrites. . and after a time.Lodes. the direct support of about 50. and opening part of a hill-side.

These excavations were first made open to the day in . Yorkshire. In older times extensive gold mines were worked in Caermarthenshire at the Grogofau {ogofau. Cumberland. The chief districts in England where copper and . between Dolgelli. between Llandovery and Lampeter. especially in Cardiganshire and Montgomeryshire. worthy of remark that these lodes are almost to wholly confined our oldest or Palaeozoic rocks. found in lodes near the base of the Lingula which in that area are talcose. and the hiUs of the south of Scotland. by them in Devon formations and the Lower Silurian in Wales. also has No tin mines occur Gold been long known in Merionethshire. Tin. are intersected The Devonian rocks and Cornwall. Barmouth.294 It is Copper. but generally only in texts for getting sufficient amount to form pre- up companies which loss. near Pmnpsant. some of which are rich in that district. ores and many lodes highly productive in of lead. in profitable quantity. Highalso In the Carboniferous Limestone they are found in North Wales. and Ffestiniog. tin are found are in Devon and Cornwall and in the lower Silurian rocks of Wales. as at Clogau. in silver. occasionally lure is imwary speculators to their This Welsh gold flags. and Derbyshire. sometimes. and here and there throughout the lands. and pierced by eruptive bosses of igneous rocks and greenstone dykes. there are ores of copper. caves).

The gold was also found in washings of the superficial gravel. such as layers and nests of quartz. carbonate of lime. Derbyshire. as in South Wales. 295 numerous irregular shallow caverns. galleries The and the washings are Eoman. lead ore occurs in the underlying Silurian strata. has long been worked. on the banks of the river Cothy. sulphuret of lead. Later lofty well-made galleries were driven. which cut the lodes deeper underneath. Lancashire. where the goldbearing quartz-veins and strings were followed into the hill. and the Yorkshire dales. that the ruder caverns partly date from more ancient British times. of nearly a mile in length. The heaps of rubbish are now green knolls. The huge the excavations must have made ugly scars on hills in the days when they were worked. Johnes. and also in the Lead HiUs in the south of Scotland. sulphuret of copper. In the Carboniferous limestone districts of North Wales. where lead associated with silver. but it has been surmised by the proprietor. oxide of tin. and gnarled oaks and ivy mantle the old quarryings. and even a I must is. or . carbonate of copper. and sometimes by actual extensive quarries. but time has healed them. there are nimierous lead mines . and.Lead and Gold. as I have already said. more or with various kinds of mineral matter. to give now endeavour is an idea of what a lode less filled A lode simply a crack. little gold. Mr.

who.296 Origin of Lodes. This is proved by the accurate results of chemists. but my opinion is that the ores of metals in lodes have generally been deposited from solutions. have detected silver. somehow or other connected with the internal heat of the earth ores were supposed to have . up silica especially when warm. for the presence of ores in these clear. and to this day the subject is not perfectly Formerly. also has A great deal been said on the effect of electric currents passing through the rocks. and aiding in depositing along the sides of fissures the minerals which were being carried up by sublimation. in some states. and we also know that metals may. both warm and cold. the favourite hypothesis was. ber that We must rememexplore were not when the lodes or cracks were originally formed. covered . can take it. ore. with other kinds of Vaiioiis theories have been formed to account cracks. it is said. or were in solution in waters that found their way into the fissures. that they were formed by sublimation from below. and the been deposited in the cracks through which the heated vapours passed. but in a great many cases they lay deep underneath. in solution and deposit as in the case of the Geysers in Iceland . those parts of them that so near the surface as we see we now them . gold. We know that water. and copper in solution in sea water. I dare not utter any positive statement on the question. be held in solution in water.

Ores of iron are common in lodes and in hollows or pockets. in the dark as to We are. channels of subterranean filtration. formed by tin. both in the limestones of the Devonian and Carboniferous periods. I do not doubt that the ores which we meet with in these cracks or lodes were for strings of copper. In North Lancashire at and lie near Ulverstone rich deposits of haematite among the joints and other fissures of the limestone and often . and came within the influence of internal heat. then. still many of the conditions under which the process was carried on. also.Origin of Lodes. that these subterranean waters may often have been warm. If this be so. however. lead. just as the lime and silica may have been derived from the percolation of water through the rocks that form the country on each side of the lode. It is not unlikely. part. They were probably. by thousands of feet 297 of rock that have since been removed by denudation. in all cases. both in their upper portions that have been removed by denudation. and in the parts originally deeper that now remain. seeing that they sometimes lay deep in the interior of the earth. for infiltration and example. whatever origin. occur in the mass just in the same find way that we mixed with them strings of carbonate of lime or quartz. may be its For my own . so the metalliferous deposits seem to have been derived from metalliferous matter minutely disseminated through the neighbouring formations.

great coal-fields of this formation occur all the beds of coal worth working in Britain. In the Coal-measures. because they have been the means of developing other kinds that which immediately arises of industry besides from the discovery of In the the minerals which the Coal-measures contain. coal-field there are more than 100 beds of about 70 of which are worked somewhere or other. In South Stafi'ord- shire. Dickinson Bristol to be 265 millions of tons.'298 Iron Ores and Coal. The quantity of available coal in that coal-field has been estimated by Mr. Clark at about thirtysix and a half thousand millions of tons. In the and Somersetshire where there are about 87 beds of workable coal according to Mr. fill large ramifying caverns deep underground. coal-fields. In the South "Wales coal. partly worked. The unexpended portions of these. . added to the available coals of the . we have our greatest sources of mineral wealth.219 millions of tons. In the Forest of Dean at least 23 beds of coal occur still and the quantity untouched and available has been stated by Mr. in the south part of the field. and a greater number in the north all . Vivian and Mr. one of them 40 feet thick. A vast trade has sprung up in the district in consequence of these discoveries within the last twenty years. however. there are seven well-known beds. and in Coalbrook Dale there are 18 beds. Prestwich. the quantity of coal still available is said to be nearly 4.

amounts to still nearly 2. and according to Mr. and others besides not yet worked. . In Leicestershire there are about 30 beds of coal over one foot thick. Foster and in Cumberland the same authority states . and Elliot that stated lie by Mr. of tons are and in Warwickshire.826 millions of tons still at available depths. one large about 19 beds are coal-field.100 millions of tons be extracted.000 millions of tons available as estimated by Mr. known. there 4.000 millions of tons available. are Woodhouse more than still 18.000 millions of tons according to Mr. and coal-field.Coal. Derbyshire. worked somewhere or according to other in the and Mr.9 Wyre and Glee Hill coal-fields. where five chief beds are worked. Hartley. In North Staf- fordshire there are about 28 workable beds of wellit known is coal. coal-field at least beds is are worked. Dickinson are available. Dickinson more than In the 9 may still Northumberland and Durham 2. about four hundred and fifty-eight and a half-millions. Forest of 29. In Nottinghamshire. In North Wales there are probably about 41 beds of coal over one foot in thickness.636 millions of tons according to still Mr. many of them of great and about 5. In Lancashire and Cheshire more than 40 beds of coal over one foot of thickness are value. and Mr. and the amount still available about 10. Yorkshire. Woodhouse states that nearly SST millions available .

to be 350.000 feet in depth this may be available. which used so largely in the manufacture of crucibles and fire-bricks. If we look at the geological map of England. we see that large patches are coloured black. Besides coal and iron. is The chief of these is fire-clay.3oo Population employed in Coal-pits. In the foregoing estimates. The population employed in and the quantity of calculated coal-pits was said by the inspectors of coal-mines in 1870 persons. These are the Coal-measure districts of these coal-fields. taken from tbe Coal Commission Eeport (1871). Some the coal-fields of South Wales and the Forest of Dean. as for of Great Britain.000 mil- lions of tons. still that about 405 millions of tons remain unworked and available. The total amounts to more than 90. though may possibly be an over-estimate as to worked.894 coal raised in the same year is by Mr. lie obviously in basin-shaped forms. instance. in conse- the depth at which coals may be quence of increase of temperature as we sink to lower depths. the Coal-measures yield quantities of clays. Himt to have been about 110 millions of tons. which are of considerable value. and it has been assumed that all coals imder 4. and in furnaces. aU coals over one foot in thickness are included. and the coal-beds and other .

on& half or more of these hasins being hidden feet of from more view. and part of the original great coal-field shown by the dotted lines 3. New Eed Sandstone times. but seems merely to form a portion of the ordinary surface of the of country. 302. and great part of the synclinal curves have been preserved because they were bent . shrouding parts of the strata in synclinal curves. on the The east remaining parts of this original coal-field and west are now partly covered by Permian and New Eed Sandstone that lie rocks 4. as 46. strata crop to the surface all round the basin. as in Derbyshire. The high rising strata of the upper part of the anticlinal curve were de- stroyed by denudation.Coal Basins. The reason of this is that the Carboniferous strata were disturbed and thrown into anticlinal and synclinal folds. Nevertheless. and hurled Ue under hundreds of recent strata that unconforTnably upon them.1. coal-fields 1. the basin-shaped form the Coal- measures is often continued under the overlying Permian and New Eed formations. Strata marked 2 separate them. in old times covered 2. p. 301 But in other parts of England the coal formation does not occur in obvious basins. and has been removed by denudation. The now show at the surface. before the be- ginning of Permian and in fig. These we may an suppose to anticlinal consist of Carboniferous limestone in curve.

302 Coal Basins. ^s so e •S > .

also coal-field . All into three coal-basins by disturbance and the I existing coal-fields of England. and the sea in older times. 305 down so low. and the Northumberland. and partly covered by newer rocks'. fields. Leicestershire. Thus the South Wales and Forest of Dean were never covered by these formations.Original Continuity of Coal Fields. and effects is have therefore been protected from the wasting of rain. strata have been disjoined by curvature of the bined with denudation. and Nottingham and Derbyshire again joined that of coal- which Durham and They com- Northumberland. reason This the why so many And of our this coal-fields lie is in basi/n- shaped fovms. coal-fields and both and Mendip now turned denudation. . are now independent basins. rivers. of form quite independent Permian and Secondary strata lying on the coal- beds. once formed and these also have been separated by disturbances which threw their strata into long anticlinal and synclinal curves. are basin-shaped. and I think may add one of Scotland north of this. and these were united to the Warwickshire. The Staffordshire. partly buried under Permian and New Eed Sandstone. and form with the Bristol Coal-field parts of one original coal-field. and Lancashire coal-fields were one. and Yorkshire coal-fields. North Wales. which again was united to the coalfields of Cumberland and probably of Scotland.

where the rocks are thrown sides. the New Eed Sandstone and other rocks spread entirely over the surface. and lastly the Cretaceous strata. in Permian and New Eed thousand feet deep. then comes This the Oolites. portions of them down against the sides of the present coal-field.304 strata. enormous mass of superincumbent once lying above the South Staffordshire Coal-measures. Warwick. which brought the lower.000 feet thick it lies above the Lias. Faults and Denudations. whereby nearest the surface were many of the formations removed. strata. some places several Thus it sometimes happens. before these faults took place. A vast denudation ensued. Leicester. where thickest. North Stafford. The New Eed Sandstone and Marl. are still Stafford. And so. South Cheshire. coal-fields and the North Wales probably one coal-field. of the other visible coal-fields. that only by a series of geological accidents have the Coal-measures been brought to the surface and exposed to view. We an may take the South Staffordshire coal-field as example. 900 to 1. Lancashire. by a combination of the curvature of strata and faults.500 feet thick all . was after- wards dislocated by or faults. are more than 2. Permian and New Eed. New Eed Sandstone and Permian down against the coal-field on both Originally. only great parts of them are buried and therefore concealed deep under strata. . and the whole .

at all events under 4. It is by such processes that some of our large coal-fields and productive surface. many railways converge. and this the part of Scotland wh6re the population is thickest. some day spread over adjoining and render them as wealthy. 305 country was worn down to one comparatively general level. and to this Mr. Bordering "Wales and the mountains of Lancashire and Derbyshire. Between the mouth of the Firth of Clyde and the of Forth the whole country is is mouth of the Firth one great coal-field. and repulsive to the outward eye as the coal-fields themselves now are. on the east X . may.Influence on Population. have been exposed at the manufacturing Hence we now all find a great population centred in areas (like those of South Staffordshire. been known to contain iwhich might never had it have coal-fields. for the Severn Valley The busy population and to which so now covers the coal-fields. smoky. agricultural areas. In my report as a member of the Coal Commission (1871) I have shown that under Permian and Eed strata north of the Bristol coal-field there New may probably be about 55.000 feet in depth.000 millions of tons of coals available. Prestwich has added 400 millions of tons on the south that side of the estuary. Warwickshire. and Ashby-de-la-Zouch). therefore. not been for the geological accidents of those faults and denudations which I have explained.

and to payoff . Llanelly. area has till A great part of this railways'.' showed that if the increase of our population goes on as it has been doing in years past. as much as possible of the national debt and by-and-by. Further north the great Newcastle coal-field. in his Mr.3q6 Duration of Coal. does not. teems in like manner with inhabitants. John Stuart Mill. the population. where. and if the productive industry of the country keep pace with the population. lately not heen opened up by and the coal has been heretofore by no means worked to the same extent as in the coal-fields of the middle and northern parts of England. The South Wales all. which is the largest of however. which have been extensively inined for a longer period. Some years ago. . taking place in Parliament urged upon the nation to act as worthy trustees for their descendants. Dowlais. is proportionately redundant. the whole of the coal now available in the country would be exhausted in 110 years. except in places such as Swansea. alarmi. again. Merthyr Tydvil.and other centres show everywhere the same concentration of population. are three great and these districts lies also contain dense populations. in a work On the Coal Question. and west. after the publication of Mr. coal-field. is AU the central part of England. coal-fields. which dotted over with coal-fields. . to save money while there is yet time. Hull's ' Coal-fields of ' Great Britain.' Professor Jevons.

and the home consumption of coal 274. which case our coal will only about 360' constant- A third view is that adding 'a quantity equal to the annual increase (of consumption)of the last 14 of tons. but allowing the assumption to- be correct.000.273 years. According to a given law of increase in the year 2^31 the population may be 131. five in fact.000. this :^The population of Great Britain in 1871 was 26. that the population and manufactures of the country have nearly attained a oscillate last for maximum amount. in our It is hard to reahse this crowded population little country. according to Mr.000. or will merely without advancing. Himfc- of the 'Mining Eecord' Office still adheres.000.943.000. ' ^07: at the instance of Mr.000. this alarming state of> The result as regards the duration of coal : was stated- in the three following hypotheses —The first is. in a hundred years from 1871 the population of Britain would be very nearly 59.700. Price Williams. a Coal Commission was' appointed to examine into affairs.000.000.. Vivian.200.000 last tons a year.. yeai's. near 132.Duration of Coal. in years. is second. at the end of a hundred years consimiption would be 415. In this case our coal may The ahout 1.000 the- . which we may take at 3. or rather more than times the present number. an opinion to which Mr..000 tons per annum> and the now estimated quantity of z 2 coal available for .

I would represent a consamption of 276 years. but I suspect first the the view is likely to be nearer the truth than last. However this may be. and even in the rainiest weather the sheep that ought to be white-wooled are dark and dingy.'* offer no positive opinion on this subject. it is certain that some day or other our coal must be practically exhausted. as it happens. but so many things may happen ere that time. the centre of England is thick with all it.3o8 Tise Coal Smoke. the trustees of the future. . need to concern ourselves very much about the matter. floating from every coal-field and from fecturing towns. 16 and . selfishness. the dependent manupastures of Derbyshire coal-fields are The heaths and and Yorkshire between the two great blackened by smoke. and therefore in a moral is exicepting in point of view. will not be hindered by anxiety about people live who are to hundreds of years hence. or at all events the laws are enforced All against the manufacture of unnecessary smoke. Every coal-field in England air. Per- sonal prudence. and great part of Engstill land will continue smoky till as long as coal lasts in quantity. and this state of affairs * ' too apt to 17. or the love of money. is this does not a centre of pollution to the affect But the manufacturing population of these districts a sanatory. Eeport of the Coal Commissioners.' pp. that it is doubtful if even we.

Britain may still be prosperous. of it is not so What is . North Stafford- and all the other iron-making districts. covered by grass and they will one day become beautiful features in . like the Schwarz- wald.Britain when Coal is Exhausted. time crumble into trees. and who knows besides what motive powers may by that time be economised other than those that from the direct application of artificial result heat ? Holland and the lowlands of Switzerland without coal are two of the happiest and most prosperous countries in Europe. may be more woody than at present and yield supplies of fuel. the plains and table-lands inore richly cultivated. even though all its coal be exhausted. Of late years a great deal of valuable iron ore has been obtained from the top of the Lower Lias and from . and happy. for man cannot permanently disfigure Even when this thing takes place will there be any necessity lute poverty ? for the country being reduced to abso- Our mountain lands. though of necessity. the landscape nature. In the far future. and. 309 state be considered unavoidable in the present economics and unscientific practice. will in soil. powerful. but on a larger scale. that disfigure South and shire. will be the state of Britain when air at all events will all the coal gone ? The be purified and the hideous heaps of slag so suggestive of wealth and prosperity. and it appears as if Italy would follow in their steps.

At night the whole North country is aglow with iron furnaces. fomace is said been at Ashbumham and even here and there we .Kent and Sussex. nor yet in the Marlstone and far less in the Lower Lias. were worked and when the Weald was covered to a great extent with forest. be supposed that ironstone everywhere plentiful in that formation. century. more The result has been the rapid growth of the enterprising district and port of lliddlesborough on the Tees. where scarce an ounce of them exists. and this tends rapidly to exhaust our coal. however. The . still the Marlstone of Yorkshire. in the Weald of the south of England a considerable amount of iron ore used to be mined and smelted with wood measures or charcoal. and the time will beautiful Oolitic valleys come when the Yorkshire of may become a black country as smoky as the Lancashire and Staffordshire coal-fields. The Northampton Sands of the Oolites also yield large quantities of siliceous ironstone. I have seen pro- spectuses of mining companies in the middle of Engit land in which was stated that all the ironstone bands of Middlesborough are present in ground. In older times.3IO Iron-stones. late in the last iron furnaces in the last Weald of to have . before the Coalextensively. there were still Indeed. It is must not. Then the chief part of our iron manufactures was carried on in the south-east of England.

as Coal and ironstone of the from the. coal-beds. fact that they form the means of working many different branches of industry. Yet were it not for our the agency steam would it is be almost wholly denied to us. have given . there are manufactm-es in all oh vast o\xx kinds of metal. and the rails round St. There iron furnaces glare carried and blow day and night. and thence. which. arises. we send to the farthest parts of the earth those endless commodities. I have already remarked that a large part of the wealth which we owe to our Carboniferous minerals. while they have supplied the wants of other countri«s. Paul's and other churches of the time of Sir Christopher also forged Wren were from the Wealden iron. and there textile fabrics are chiefly made. has given us. or manufacturing the vicinity of districts have sprung up either in coal-fields. It is that worked the forges of Kent and said that the cannon that were used in the fight with the Spanish Armada came from this district. very To the vast power which steami much of of our extraordinary pros- perity as a nation is due. and the old dams which supplied the water that drove the water-wheels Sussex.Iron-stones. And hence that our. In these busy scenes a large part of the population of our island finds em- ployment. '%iX may now see heaps of slags overgrown with grass. not so much from the commercial value of the coal-fields. great in.

This is granite. which are used in making stoneware and porcelain. and the clay is trans- ported chiefly to the district of the Potteries in North Staffordshire. in the granitic districts of Devon and Cornwall. formed Thig by the disintegration of the felspar of granite. and the other ingredients of beds of clay. from which It is the finer porcelain clays are made. and the that the granite decomposes to a considerable depth. more or less mixed with quartz.312 rise in large . in the south-west of England. There are some other geological formations which afford materials for manufactures other than coal ores of metals. In Devon affords the and Cornwall the decomposition of granite substance all known by the name of Kaolin. where. The same process is sometimes secured . felspar consists of silicates of alumina. and Thus. Clays and measure to the wealth and commerce of our own. a great proportion of the finer kinds of clays occur. The soda and potash are comparatively easily dissolved. it forms natural dug out. more might be easily dug out with a Owing to this decomposition. In some cases I have seen granite undisturbed for a by the hand of man. acid in the rain-water that result is falls upon the surface . which is washed down by rain into the lower levels. a portion of the felspar passes into kaolin. chiefly through the influence of carbonic. and soda or potash. which or depth of twenty feet shovel.

Chalk
by
is

Flints,

313

art,

when the decomposed

granite being dug out,

washed by

artificial processes,
is

and the more alumi-

nous matter
it
is

separated from the quartz with which

was originally associated.
turned into

Then, in the Potteries,

it

all sorts of vessels

fine porcelain, stonesize,

ware, and common-ware in every variety of

and

form, and texture.

In the Eocene tertiary beds in the neighbourhood of
Poole, there are large lenticular beds of pipe-clay, interstratified with the

Bagshot Sand.

Great quantities

of this clay are exported into the Pottery districts to be

made

into the coarser kind of earthenware, and they

are also

mixed with the

finer materials

from Devon and

Cornwall, to

make

intermediate qualities of stone-ware

and china.

But

in addition to clay, the chalk

is

brought into

requisition to furnish its

quota of material for this
that are found

manufacture.

The

flints

embedded in

the chalk, chiefly in layers, are also transported to the
Potteries,

and ground up with the aluminous portions
it is

of the clay, since

sometimes necessary to use a
of

certain proportion
porcelain.
/

of silica in the mamrfacture

Many
Eed

other formations, such as the Old and

New
strata

Marls, are also of use

when

clay is required for the

manufacture of bricks.

The

Oolitic

and Liassic

are to a great extent composed of clay, such as Lias

; ;

314

Clay and Glass-sand.
and Kimmeridge Clay
Lies

Clay, Fullers' Earth clay, Oxford

there

is also

the Weald Clay, and the Gault
strata.

in the
is

middle of the Cretaceous
also often used in

The Boulder-clay
silts

manu&ctures, and the
another river.
all

of the

Wash and
material
is

of

mauy

An

abundance of

found in

of these formations for the

manufacture of bricks, earthenware pipes, and so on

and

it is interesting to

observe

how
is

in this respect

the architecture of the country

apt to vary accord-

ing to the nature of the strata of given areas.

In

Scotland and the north of England, where hewable
stone abounds, almost
stone,

aU the houses
in

are built of sand-

grey and sombre;

many

of

the

Oolitic

districts

they are of limestone, and generally lighter and
;

more graceful

while on the Lias and in the
stiLL

Woodland

area of the Weald we have

the relics of an elder

England in those beautiful brick and timbered houses
that speak of habits and manners gone by.

In the upper Lias clay in Yorkshire, beds of lignite

and

jet are found near

Whitby, which

locally forms

an important branch of manufacture.

The

glass-sand used in this country

is chiefly

derived

&om

the Eocene beds of the Isle of Wight, and from

the sand-dimes on the borders of the Bristol Chaimel.

In the

Isle of

Wight, the sandy

strata lie above the

London

Clay,

and are the equivalent of part of the

Bagshot Sands.

They

are remaikably pure in quaKtyj

Cement and Building Stones.
being formed of fine white siliceous sand.

315

These sands

^re largely dug and exported to he used in glass-houses
in various parts of the country, as in
elsewhere.

Birmingham and

A

large proportion

of the

cement stones of our
These lime-

country comes from the Lias Limestone.

stones are not pure carbonate of lime, but are formed

of an intermixture of carbonate of lime and aluminous

matter.
this

It is found

by experience that the lime from
is

kind of limestone

peculiarly adapted for setting

under water. Hence the Lias limestone has always been
largely employed in the building of piers and other
structures that require to be constructed under water*

Cement
Eocene

stones are also found to
strata,

some extent in the

and are obtained from nodules dredged

from the sea-bottom at Harwich, and the south of England.

These are transported hither and thither, to be

used as occasion

may

require.

The

chief building stones of our country, of a hewable

"kind, are the limestones of the Oolitic rocks, the

Mag-

nesian Limestone, the Carboniferous Limestone, the Carboniferous sandstones, and the sandstones of the Old

and

New Eed
The

series.

The Caradoc Sandstone

also in

Shropshire near Church Stretton yields a good building
stone.

chief Oolitic building stones are from the

Isle of Portland

and the Bath

Oolite.

St. Paul's

and

many

other churches in

London were

built of Portland

3i6
stone,

Building Stones.
and the immense quantities of rejected stones

in the old quarries, show

how

careful Sir Christopher

Wren was

in the selection of material.

The Bath stone

also affords a beautiful

yeUow

limestone, which comes
size,

out of the quarries in blocks of great

and

is easily-

sawn and hewn into shape.

Nearly the whole of Bath
it

has been built of this stone, and

has been largely

used in Westminster Abbey and other buildings in

London.

Excellent building stones are also got from

the Inferior Oolite limestone, especially in the neigh-

bourhood of Cheltenham, from the Cotswold

Hills.

In England the Magnesian Limestone
quarried for building purposes.
qualities,
effects of

is

extensively

It is of very various

sometimes exceedingly durable, resisting the

time and weather, and in other cases decom-

posing with considerable rapidity.

The Houses of
districts

Parliament were chiefly built of this stone. In

where

it occurs, in

Nottinghamshire and Yorkshire,

there are churches, and castles such as Conisbro', built of
it,

wherein the edges of the stones are as sharp as if

fresh

from the mason's hands.

You

can see the very

chisel-marks of the

men who

built the castle, in days

soon after the time of William the Conqueror.

The Carboniferous Limestone
durable stone.

alSb is

an exceedingly
built of
it.

The Menai bridges were

In Caernarvon Castle the preservation of this limestone
is

well shown.

The

castle is built of layers of lime^

Building Stones.

317

stone and sandstone, the sandstone having heen chiefly

derived from the millstone grit, and the limestone from
quarries in Anglesey, and on the shores of the
Straits.

Menai

The limestone has
is

best stood the weatherrarely so

Sandstone, though durable,
limestones,

good as certain

which, being somewhat crystalline, and

sometimes formed to a great extent of Encrinites, also
essentially crystalline in structure,
effect of time.

have withstood the

The Carboniferous Sandstones
in

in Lancashire, and

the

neighbomrhood

of

Leeds

and Edinburgh,

afford a large quantity of admirable building material,

which has been used almost exclusively in the building
of these towns.
easily cut

Some
chisel,

of

it is

exceedingly white,

it is

by the
size.

and may be obtained in blocks

of

immense

But

in some of the beds there is so

much

diffused iron, not visible at first sight, that in
it oxidises,

the course of time this, as

forms dark stains

which discolour the exterior of the buildings.

The

New Eed
stones,

Sandstone also yields

its

share of building

but

much

of it

is

very soft and easily worn by

the weather, a notable example of which was seen in the Cathedral of Chester before
its restoration.
,

The

white Keuper sandstone of Grinshill, north of Shrewsbury,
is

the

Peckforton Hills, and Delamere
stone.

Forest^
is

an excellent

The Old Eed Sandstone
stone
in
its

also used as a building

own

area, andj

3 1 8.
as

Rock Salt and Gypsum.

already stated, the Caradoc Sandstone of Shrop-::

shire near

Church Stretton yields a beautiful white,

material.

The

rock-salt of Worcestershire and. Cheshire is
It lies in the

a

valuable commodity.

New Eed

Marl,

low in the
solar

series,

and originally was the
of an inland
salt

result of the

evaporation

lake, like, for

example, the waters of the great salt lake near Utah,
in the

Eocky Mountains,

or

of

the

salt

lakes

of

central Asia.

The waters

that ran into it contained
;

quantities of salt in solution
outlet,

and

as the lake

had no

and only got

rid of its water

by evaporation,
till

concentration of the chloride of sodium ensued,

at

length supersaturation being induced, precipitation of
rock-salt took place.

The same formation

yields the

greater part of the

gypsum quarried in England, thougL

some also occurs in the
Limestone
series.*

Eed marl

of the Magnesian,

In Devonshire and Cornwall, on Shap Fell in Westmoreland, and in Scotland chiefly near Aberdeen, the
granite quarries afford

much
it

occupation to a

number

of people.

Now
But

that

has become the fashion to

polish ^anites, these rocks are

becoming of

stUl

more
as

importance.

as they are not so easily

hewn

sandstone, they do not
* For a
f

come

into use as

ordinary

full account of the physical formation of these deposits, see
xxvii.,

Journal Geol. Soc, 1871, vol.

pp. 189 and 241.

—^Eamsay.

Summary^

319

building stones, except in such districts as Aberdeen^

where no other good kind of rock
Basalt, Greenstones,

is

to

be had,

and Felspathic porphyries from

North Wales, Scotland,
districts in

Chamwood

Forest, and other

England, are also largely employed for
the Sei-pentines
of

building and road-making, and

Cornwall and Anglesey yield a beautiful material for

ornamental purposes.

1 have now attempted
geology.

to give an idea of the general

physical geography of our country, as dependent on its

I

first

described the classification of rocks.
;

I divided them into two classes, and one sub-clas
consisting of aqueous rocks formed

by the action of
heat,

water, igneous rocks

by the action of

and of

metamorphic rocks most of which were
fied,

originally strati-t
othei;

but have siace been acted on by heat and

influences.

I then showed the distribution of these

rocks over our country.
disturbances
disturbed,

They have been

affected

by

and

denudations

so

that where most

hardened, and
districts;

denuded, there
the
of
greater

we have

mountainous

for

prominence

and ruggedness

of

surface

these

regions arises

partly from the hardness of the igneous, metamorphic

and common

stratified rocks, partly

from the denuda-

tions which they have

undergone.
so

The Secondary

and Tertiary rocks not being

much

disturbed,

;

32Q

Summary.
so

and being younger, have never been and therefore form plains and
Moreover, we saw that over
dition to the vast

much denuded,

table-lands.
all these siu-faees,

in ad-

amount of

erosion

which must have

been effected in Palaeozoic, Secondary and older Tertiary
times, renewed denudations, accompanied by great cold,

occurred at a very late epoch.

The

result

of this

abrasion has been to cover the surface
loose
superficial

more

or less with

detritus,

upon which part of the

fertility of portions of

the country and the peculiarity

of some of

its soils

depend.

I then passed on to notice what I considered to be a very remarkable result of this last great denudation

brought about under the influence of
chief part (I

ice,

by which the

by no means say

all)

^but

by which the

chief part of the lakes of our country have been formed

and not of our country alone, but of a large part of
the northern, and I have no doubt also of the southern hemisphere.
sider, if true

It is a remarkable thing, indeed, to con-

—and I firmly believe

it to

be true

—that
lie,

most of those great hoUows in which our lakes
have been scooped out by the slow and

long-con-

tinued passage of great sheets of glacier ice, quite

comparable to those vast masses that cover the extreme
northern and southern regions of the world at this day.

The water drainage

of the country

is

likewise seen to

be dependent on geological structure.

Our large

rivers

Hence have arisen those densely- peopled towns and villages in and around the Coal- measure regions where so many important manufactures are carried on. 3. quality of water in these rivers depends. the smaller ones to the west. and so remain to this day — still speaking original languages. but gradually mingling now. as they did before. Then. on the nature of the rocks over we have flow. too — in Devon and Cornwall.Summary. which they and of the springs by which they are supplied. with the great masses of mixed races that came in with later waves of conquest from other parts of Europe. and in Wales where some of the great Coal- T . In later times they have applied themselves with wonderful energy to turn to use the vast stores of mineral wealth which lie in the central districts. the ance belong to very different periods. races settling These later the down in the more fertile parts of country. chiefly drain to the east. when we coine to consider the nature of the population inhabiting our island. These axes of disturbAgain. partly because certain axes of disturbance happened to lie nearer our western than our eastern coasts. we find greatly influenced by this old geology.21 and excepting the Severn and the Clyde. as seen. tribes were in old times it also to be The earKer driven into the mountain regions in the north and west. first destroyed and then again began to develop its agricultural resources. Yet in the west.

where the operations are often directed and the manual labour connected with well done by the original Celtic the mineral products inhabitants. our island became again . The country was then most that the Chalk downs and the probably covered by great forests. and also that these prehistoric men inhabited our country along with the great hairy Mammoth. and slaty regions — ^there are busy centres of population. unless it may have been high mountain-tops were bare. also. by great plains of Boulder- drift. and as frequently disunited. metalliferous. the Hippopotamus.322 Summary. is It is interesting to go back a little and enquire what may have been first set the condition of oui country its surface. the Ehinoceros. —and now perhaps they travelled westwards into what is Britain from the Continent of Europe. and by denudations. and many modem animals. and lakes. But in far later times. swamps. the Lion. Such is the deliberate opinion of some of our best geologists. Britain was doubt- united to the Continent. along with these extinct mammalia. lie measure. when man that these foot upon We know islands of ours have been frequently united to the Continent. the Cave Bear. of which less to a great extent. When the earliest himoan population we have any traces came. denudations and alterations of level having again taken place. partly by elevations and depressions of the land.

Scandinavian. its lies admirable harbours. Angles. Thus it happens that. in my opinion. 325 all its And now. we have the command of a large portion of the commerce of the world. its great extent of coast.* enabled. progressively so ta develop our own ideas of religion. V 2 . and Norman. we may still improve. in a great measure. disunited from the mainland. more or less intermingled in blood. in which our country has never seen the foot of an invader. and our boundaries are clear. that we now stand one of the freest and most prosperous countries on the face of the If globe. are so happily- placed that. with numerous firths and inlets.Summary. are happy. and send out fleets of merchandise from every port. and we. we act as is we ought to do. a people of mixed race. our country influence of that within the direct softens the whole Gulf Stream which climate of the west of Europe. and not too biassed much by the influence of peoples of foreign blood. with but little we have been disturbance. of political freedom^ and of political morality. Celt. And we this. free from the immediate contact of countries possibly hostile. in Pemhrokeshire and Ireland do- not deserve the The miserable French descents name of invasions. * There plenty of room. during the long course of years. above all things in that by an old denudation we have been dissevered from the Continent of Europe.

.

rainfall. 115. 147. glaciation ABBOTSBUEY. Duke of. Glacial period. 102. 34. 137 of. 151 Anticlinal curve. 126 America. 268 African lakes.. 120 314. 225 Alne. 173 Agassiz. 116 Aeron river. — climate 200 — 317 — 198 — Serpentine 319 quarries. 148. Areas drained by English rivers. limit of. 129 Argyleshire. 250 — Amazon. glaciation of. Miocene plants. Arthur and his 287 Aran. Chalk Downs. Miocene volcanic rocks 129. perpetual Alteration of of. . 224 rocks. table-lands and valleys west of. of. 267 Aneurin and the Gododin. 43. 198 Allan. of.INDEX. &c. — 149 — 136-145 — gneiss 46 — inversion of formations — numerous lakes 167 glaciers of. 206 Aqueous rocks. ABB AEU Andes. glaciers of. 3 Architecture. 318 AdiAmar. 100. relics of old seas. 169 sea terraces. of. Altai Mountains. rainfaU. rainfall. 149 of. 110 149 different strata by metamorphism. North. 1S2 Aire. 233 AUuvial flats of the Wash. Skene on. 119 Antrim. in. 199 Arran. invasions by. 288 Anglesey. glaciation Alton. Glacial theory. glaciation 179 of. 260 Argyll. 118 former magnitude of glaciers of. 22 — snow. 101. 42 79 Aberdeen granite. and Campsie HiUs breached by rivers. north of England. . 287 Angles. 130 of. Appalachian Chain. Hills. 150 Adur river.198 Abberley of. 114. 228 Alps and Lowlands of Switzerland. Permian rocks — gneiss of. 45 Alum Bay. 106. 116 battles. rainfall. 68 Aldershot. 106 of. effect of material on. Ochil of Lower Secondary Shropshire. origin of initial flow Weald.

129 . 247 Boulder-day. 276 Ashes. 249 Bos primigenius. 62 Bison. 187 Blocks of Monthey. Blaen tir. Bay. 814 Bala Lake. 134. 171 Arvicola amphibia. — pratensis and others. 189 locks oi. Selsey BiU. 315. Pass of Llanberis. 134. 187 Avebuiy. 187 of. 192 Ayrshire hills. Sloes perches. Glacial shells. Miocene beds. 135. 134. 196 Baroness Burdett-Coutts. Forest bed. 197 Bedfordshire. 29.. Beachy-Head. 241 how formed. 156 — lakes in rock Azores. 278-281 Bovey Tracey. 144 BADGEE. escarpment of. climate. of. icebergs. 187 at> — bone 186. 130 Bone caves and 181-188 their inhabitants. 287 Bleadon HiU Cave. origin and source wickshire. south of. numerous lakes 228 Bohemia.>132 caves. salts Bath stone. Miocene plants.. 246. gravels Belgse in England. 155. in. of. 174 Banks of Newfoundland. 246 — Black Forest. economic uses.326 AEY Arve. 316 Bays. old land. 198 — 29 — hydrographic map. lakes in. Miocene flora Bolton. 256 Baltic lands. 28 314. 187 Boucher de Perthes. last iron fomaee 310 Beaumaris. 196 Bagshot sands. 258 &c. Miocene. glacier of. 240. bone caves. 128 Basalt. rainfall. Baffin's 187 &c. glaciatioij of. 132 Beavers. 117. 155 Bedford Level. rainfaU. 155 Berwickshire. soil. of. — 179 bone caves. middle of. 149 Blackpool. 87 Atlantic. 179 soils of. 219 and Solent. Mr. 319 man. 146. water of. 6 beds. Anroch. Glacial shells. 187. Man and the Mammoth. 199 of. Forest bed. 65 War- 65 Binney. 279. origin of initial flow 146. TJnderday. E. rainfall. Ashdown 16. 134. Belgium. 208. BOY Bears. Bath Old Well. 158 Blyth. 271 Ashhoume. 198 Blantyre. 146 basins. 156 Beaver. volcanic.. Asia.17 Forest. 134. rainfall. 224 Axmouth. 93 Ashburnham. W. Forest bed. 188 — Forest bed. of. landslip at. 123 Silurian Avon. 199 Atherfield day. ancient and modern. Bacques. &e. 283 241 Beddgelert. Miocene. 223 Beacons of Brecon. erratie blocks in. 174 Blandford. 153. reptiles Berwick. 179 Beaudesert. &c. 135 Index. 195 foraminifera. 105. 210 1 28.

294 of. 198 — Old Eed Sandstone. Forest bed and river gravels. Caernarvon Castle. 67. 148. 10. ice. of. Laiirentian. 57 Sutherland. 129 Canoes in Clyde alluvium. 249 Brockram. geographical positions of. coal is 185. 198 of. 267 Caldes. Caermarthenshire. 73. 27. 213 origin of. 120 Bradford water. rocks. sifting action of. overlap of. 327 CAB 91. once united to those of England. 316 Bull gap. soils. Miocene. icy islands. Yorkshire. 106 Camel. glaciation of. 186. 152. 291 alluvial flats of. of Scotland. BEA Sracklesham and Bagshot beds. in 208-210 for. 157. sources of the Wye. 225 Bwlch. 58 Calamites. rainfall. 57 slates. 317 80 . Caernarvonshire. 257 Breakers. 66. rainfall. 7 Breconsliiie. escarpment — old gold mines. Cambridgeshire. 76. 315. and bone caves. 183 Building stones. lakes of. 316 chemical waste escarpment. 69 ' — Van. 232 Caradoc Sandstone. 140 Buckbean. 240 — not always an 133 — when exhausted. 55. 181 Caithness. 134 Buckland. Cambrian and Lower Silurian rocks disturbance and denudation of. 314. 294 of. 287 Brixham Cave. 100-103 unconformity on older strata. Caernarvonshire. stone used 316 154 England and Wales. 127 Campsie Hills. building stone. 175 Cape Wrath. bvikh. 65. 153. 271 Brighton. 256 and Old Eed Sandstone. 82 Buxton. 95. 263 Vale of Eden. anticlinal curve of. 102 North of England. 79 Brooks on glaciers. 251 Cantyre. Bridgenorth. 76. 289 — 269 Brick 275 — works. Glacial deposits near. 67 CADEE 205 IDKIS and the Arans. of. 275 earths. 228 lodes. on Lammermuirs. river. 318 Carboniferous limestone. 65 Cana. Britain. Sittingboume. Glacial sea-shells — sandstones. 56.. by Oolitic — 298 early men 283 — 147-177 — moulded by 152 — group of 180 — joined Continent. 157 Bristol Channel. rainfall.Index. Dr. 198 soils of. Glacial. 287 Bnnter sandstone. 55. once filled strata. 61-63 — of. 62 Calder. 389 coal-field. inhabitants. to island. 219 and Somersetshire — — 75 rocks. 106. waters waters 256 Scotland. 317. building. 77 building stone.

&c. strata. 61. 198 81 Ceratodus of Queensland. stones quarried in. and table-land. 263 escarpment of. 177 Castor Enropseus. 246 fiber. 56. — 187 Care 249 — 249 — mammalia. 248 glaciers of.. CLA Chalk downs. — composition. 287 Cervusmegaceros and others. 109. 204. plain of marine de- -^ rainfall. bone caves. Caspian Sea. 120 — N. Carse of G-owrie. 46. 282 Cement stones. Eoman of. Yorkshire. 76. 10.328 CAB Carboniferous series. Eobert. glaciation Cefn Cave. 88 of. dis- Carrick Hills. shape of 206 nudation. 269. Isle 123. 300 ' — denudation 123 — formed in deep seas. 205 hills near. bone cave.. — physical character 213 of. Cheshire. 198 Church Stretton. 35 comparative. W. 175 Carriden and Carstairs. — Old and New Eed Marks. Eed 272 Chambers. 128 Cirques of the Alps. 318 Cinnamon. 319 hysena. Lias and New Eed beds near. origin quarries. North of England and Scotland. erratic boulders from. 76 Index. 34. 161 Clays of Coal-measures. of. lakes in rock basins. 117. bones. 96. 171 Channel Islands. 28. 315 Central Asia. 262. Oolites. 65. 263 of. 110. 219-221. Cardiganshire. 135 bear. 312 . 184 Celts of. 198 Carlisle. 100. 76 Cerridge. 188 ChiUesford clay. 313 — Devon and Cornwall. 110 ' Soches moutonnees. granites. 157 kaims 174 Chamwood 270 Forest. human tin. Caves. 181-188 — waste stone. Caesar. &c. found in. building stone near. 103. 113. 121. 237 tilting of. rainfall. 93 Chichester. 220 159 Wall. 250 149 Cheltenham. 134 Chippenham. 116. 252 soils of. 174. of slates. 135 other species. 283 and the mountains. 122. 186. salt lakes of. 181 Chalk. chemical waste of. rainfall. gneiss. 105. Forest bed. 152 Chamouni.. cerny. 217-219 — 277 — 276-278 — subaerial waste 113 — and Eocene second hills. 137 Clapham. 95. 29. 227. 81. 229 skulls below stream Camon. glacier of. part once covered by Celtic tongue. 66 turbance of. 173 Castle Kennedy. 105 — Cardigan Bay. 87. kaims at. 77. &c. soils of. Miocene. of Severn. 90. — of Wight. 47 of Carboniferous Lime- Caucasus. 155 Chemical action on limestones. soils of. Caverns and sea cliff's.

197 of. 61. Bristol. — Serpentine — and Devon. 300. origin of initial flow of. population employed in. 309 when — Commission. 300. 316 igneous rocks Cliffs. 231 water of. 329 CEB Coniferous trees of Coal-measures. 211 valleys of.Index. rainfall. of. 44 due to radiation and glaciation of valley of. Clitheroe. 303 coal Conwy. 295 Cothi. Magnesian Limestone. Dean Forest. 11 — soils of. 319 Celtic population. shrinkage. -waste of. 78 how formed and preserved. 6264. 294 Clwyd. Wales and Central England. 87. 69 — gold mines. soils 266 43 Contours. 132 132. 318 305 general character of. 234 Coal below Permian and New Eed — exhausted. building stones.. cvrni. 257 Congleton. pre-glacial. 58. 299 273. — basin-shaped form. and origin of some. connection of drainage. 151 of. river. 77 Holderness. — mammalia found — unimportant soils of. 84 Cornbrash. 36 228 Coral-rag. river. Cotswold HiUs. -" with gneiss. 274 62 Conisbro' Castle. S. 300 Coal smoke. soils of. 316 table-land. Wales. 268 products of. 67. 198 Cretaceous series. 231. 95. denudation of. once united. 308 Coalbrook Dale coal-field. 156 Conglomerate. Cockermouth. 211 29. 286 Copper and Tin. 298-308 Coalpits. Contortion of formations. — 274 — Crag formations. England and Wales. 298 — igneous rooks Coast ice. rainfall. 43 not due to igneous forces. Devon and CornwaU. i^ainfall. 304 — of now separated. area — — and Firth strata. Miocene. 305. 30. 201 — 70 of. Oxford and Kimmeridge. 232. Coal-fields. 199 of. gneiss of. 301- granite. 29. 294 Coquet. 274 99 . 161 Constance. Cranbrook. 129 — Clyde. Coal-measures. 118. 288 Cornwall. 94. 66. 84 Cornish men. 268 Coomb. river. Glacial shells. 303 — N. strata. 105 rainfall. 307 Britain. 132 133 43 scenically. of. 133 in. Forth. Lake 166 Clogau gold mine. 199 quality of water. 313 Clee Hill coal-fields. 77 35 — Coniston limestone. 283 one. 257 Continent. 306 nortl}. 304 — and population. CLA Clays. — marine fauna. 156 of. — Secondary formations.

soils. 226 — and Carb. hiUy 266-268 ground.. origin of flow 228 — origin 106.. 318 estuaries of. and Tertiary of. Scotland. — Secondary 121 Staffordshire. 198 Dawkins. Mr. 168 Derbyshire DAI/ES. 167. in rock basins. 127. meaning of. its De De la Beche. 187. 199. 34. Sir Henry. glacier from. 210 Devon and Cornwall 95. 166. 246 Carnon. — 95 — rainfall. 287 Cumbrian Mountains. 288- o^ &c. 103. &c. 295 — and Northumberland. Forest bed and bone caves. 102 — 102. 246 De Beaumont. 102 granite. 283 Depression. Hills. 225. Norfolk. 5 124 lakes. 174 — quality of waters — 200 rainfall. 257 raised beaches. 189-191 — and 207 — Lias and 95 — and 70 — separation England from Con189 — South 304 of. 94. 124 — lead mines. of. — water supply.mountains 124 Celtic population. 134 Crystals developed in gneiss. and Carb. Welsh. 317 Deltas. ment. 157 Cromer. 93. 210 — and Mersey. strata. areas and lakes. 132 tin. 97. 250 . limestone escarp- ment. 116 Cumberland. Elie. scenery. 213 water of. once covered by — ^.. 150 on Glacial drift. initial of. Glacial cydes. anticlinal and synolinal. coal-field. 139 Croll. 167 Denudation. — and human low stream 249 — Miocene. 256 Derwent. 98. &c. 69 east fiiults valleys. 68. 151 hills of. 128 once washed by OoUtie Sea. 174 of. Yorkshire. 186. of. of. agricultural character 267 of. limestone escarpof. — Permian rocks dammed by moraines. building stone. 44 — Carboniferous formations 100. 78. 267 — Northumberland. 115 Cymry. of tinent. 179. Dee. 36. Mr. 188. 299 glaciation of. 116 229 Dartmoor and Bovey Tracey. Cymru. &c. on human skulls. cave mammalia. be- 47 Cuckmare. Deer. — amount 189-194 — coast of England. of. 79 255 Cumbraes. on shrinkage of earth's crust. Boyd. 299 93. skulls. Carnon. 134. lakes.330 CBE Crevasses. 44 — — — — — la Mfere Forest. 161 Curves. 32-37. 35. 286 coal-field. Cymry. 147. — Oolites. Index. limestone terraces Dart. Oolites.

286 Dolomite of Permian rocks. 188 EUiott. of. glacier detritus from Cumberland. 199 Dora Baltea. &c.. Miocene. Dumbarton. 123 223 Enville. 257 Dover. 116. Miocene. denudation 189-191 Eccles-by-the-Sea. Elephant. Eastbourne. on 299 N. 223 — Forest bed. 149 Dordogne. glaciation of. strata. districts of. 117. Glacial Epoch. building stones. 151 Dwfr. 79 Don. 224 — — Eeptiles — and Wales. 283 Dorsetshire. rainfall. dwfr. 202 135 English Channel. Mr. lakes of. escarpment of chalk. 253 Dumbartonshire. 99 Diss. 129-131 Dolerite and basalt. 298 Lancashire and Cheshire coal-fields. 198 Eed soils of. bone caves. 257 of. East of England. cooling and shrinkage 48 rivers. 93 bone caves. 272 Dickenson. river. 129 Dolly. 151 Middle of. 190 Edinburgh. 221 physical structure 109. 29. and denudation. 119 of. 184-186 rainfall. and Nine Barrow. 127 Permian boulder-clays. 231 — fauna.Index. of. 110. 127. river. 188 gravels. — North and South. Mr. once covered by Oolitic strata. dwr. 111. 2i8 Disturbance of strata and igneous rocks. 187. 111 Eastern and southern lity qua- of waters of. 127. 79 of.. 178 — sins. 187. 43 331 EOC — — — EAETH'S crust. coal-field. 268 Downs. 189 mountain and hUIy 93 of. 134. 213. Cumberland and Lancashire. flint implements. joined. Selsey 179 — primigenius. Bill. Druid stones. areas 201. moraine of. Wales coal-fields. on Forest of Dean. Durham. 317 Eden. meaning 91 of. 179 — River 246 — Miocene and Crag.. 180. 110. section of. and 188. &c. 299 Dip of the Secondary strata. — — — 212 England. DET Devonian rocks. 229 Eigg. and names of 285 Dyfi. 286 Dovey. dolau. 299 N. cave-men of. 118 London and Hampshire ba99 . antiqxiity 126. old land there. land Staffordshire Emergence of after during 157. 106 Doncaster. 132 Elephas antiquus. quality of water. joined to France. Dryandra. east of. Eocene.. 193 rainfall. 175 rivers. 89. river. 198 waste of seaclifFs. 28 DeTonshire. 72. 192 Dove. 39. 96 landslips. Isle of Wight. 93- Drainage.

sea 109. Britain. — — — 97 near the Weald.. 262 used in potteries. Dr. 189.. leo. 99. 134 — — Fife. 73 . 129. 179 186 denudation of. 155 Escarpment chalk. 103. 117. 94. 184 man and extinct mammalia.. 221. 287 series. Miocene. Frofessor E. 135 post-Glacial. 96. 110. terrestrial. general absence of. 178. 103. Lomonds rainfall. economic 278-279 Eozoon Canadense. numerous lakes of. soils of. 123. climate. coal-field. 133 on Carron. Ferns. relations to Fauna estuarine. Coal-measures.. Ffestiniog slate quarries. 120. 225. 132 123 Isle of Wight. 277 Flint and clay. gneiss of. England and Wales. 96. 111 — North Europe. 278 implements in bone caves. — — — — Essex. 134. 177 of. Mr. 199. of. 197 of. 227. 177 Firths — 83 — Lower Greensand. 29 Forbes. of. Glacial shells. volcanic rocks and plants. &c. 108. 140 Foliation of gneiss. 252 Faroe Islands. tone cares. 210 210 pre-Glacial. 117 residue of. 126 cement stones. 174. 211 rivers running through. 134 Ermine. Hills. BoU of part 279 Etna. 188 Erratic blocks. 227 Escarpments. 88 in Weald. 292 Field-mouse. 130 East Castle. 219-221.. — and of. 154. FOE 43 121. 113. 207. 174 lakes. 131 Etheridge. 332 EOC Eocene strata. modem Europe. 148 MuU. 128 — spelsea. 99. 313 Flour of rocks. origin — — Eskers. Formations. 62 — Forest bed. 160. Lower Silurian rocks. 129 of animals migration &om FALCONER. FeHs. 237 Lias. 45 terraces. 107. &e. Felspathic uses. 128 Finland. Eoman docks Forest bed. Miocene. 27 Eqniis caballus. 125. 126 of 96. 151 — of Dean in fauna and flora coal-field. 179 298 299 coal-basin. 65 200 Figs. 300 Wjre of. on Miocene plants. Foraminifera of Chalk. 156 250 Flamborough Head. soils on chalk. post-Tertiary. Ealkirk. 117 Oolites. 111. 246. Index. 109. 97. 188 near. F. 222. — New Eed 82 — Cotswold series. of Forth and Clyde. 118 plants. Forest bed. 319 porphyries. — Folkstone. geographical positions Tertiary and Eaunas. 110.. 105. 184 Continent. glaciation of. 250 of chalk. 315 outliers of. 176.

63 Gastaldi. GAEL. 153. 176 Hills. 109. 178 — Holderness. Eocene fauna — Miocene volcanos 129 — union England mth. Glacial drift of Scotland. 180 and Wales. 156 over chalk.. FOB Eorth. Mr. Permian conglomerate of. — rivers of Scotland. river. 186. 151 333 OLA — area of drainage. lakes sure. Fractures. 265 71 of. Mr. 61. 188. 180 sea shells of. mar. 140. and Cumberland coal299 Germany. Weald. — 284 G-vpyddel.. of. 150 soil of. of. soils of. 284 Gairloch. 153. Silurian rocks 65 —^ — northern hemisphere. glaciers. and Switzerland. bone caves. Galloway. 67. 148 Scotland. Professor. 149 Gault. 147-177 of. of. deposits from. Kingdom of Strath Clwyd.. — and Firth — of Foster. 231 — Tertiary volcanic rocks. effect 163-177 on soUs. 246 Glacial cycles. 143 fauna. —f — 180 submersion. 136 England and 153 . 287 Frome. — — clay. Geikie. 280 emergence during. 1 18-26 on Northumherland. 115. Scotland. 147 drift. 127 Geysers. 10 different ages. 296 Giraffe. valleys 232. 153 lakes. 251 on'kaims. 79 Freeman. 156 sands and gravels of. 201 — the Ochil and Campsie 233 — and Clyde. 157. 314 Fylde. Miocene volcanos of. 159 Ganges. 159 — Dora Baltea. 131 ancient canoes. 162 . 129 German Ocean and JTorthern Gla157 Miocene. moraine of Glaciers. 314 275 between the Lune and Skip. 168 117 Fox. 265 migration of. 117. &o.Index. 161. 282-290 of. CroU. 221 Frankley Beeches. 143. on Eoman docks. Durham. 174 233. — old notions cier. Cumberland. 123 Wales. and Adh4- and lines of fis- France. 165. 56 — origin of — Period. 252 Geology and British races of men. Agassiz. and Cymry. fields. 71 oscillations of temperature. Btriation. 85 Garleton Hills. 278 — Epoch. terrestrial Glaciation of Britain. Fossils in rocks.-glaciation of valley of. 234 alluvial plains of. 223 EuUer's Eaith clay. 159 ton.. abrasion by. Laurentian. soil of. of 188. 87. 285. 251 soils of. 211 decline of. 286 Gaelic and Welsh. 111. — and Topley. 159 Yorkshire.

59. Cotswold Hills. 89. 128 Herefordshire. 298. Lower. Heat. 317 317 — motion — — 171 Glaciers. 129 of. chemical comof. 87. rainfall. 287 Godwin Austen on Selsey rocks of. 191 198 Gneiss. how formed. bone caves. 105 Great Oolite. Forest of Wyre. 294 Gold. 297 Glamorganshire. 65. 103. &c. section of. 121 implements. 200 Gwy and names of rivers. 317 Gulf of Mexico. rainfall. 145. 117 87. 58.. 224 — red Gloucesteishire. slates. 198 Hares. 115 soils of. 164. GLA Glacier ice-cavems. soils of.01d Khone. clifis. Professor. 41-67 Bill. indications of. 54. 185. 187 Hartley. 6 gneiss. 59. Highlands. glaciers and icebergs 136. glaciation of. 299 Hastings sand. 78. 48 Hebrides. 61 — building — position Granite. Inner. internal. 314 198 Hampshire 126 basin. 148. exclusion of sea from. rainfall. 105. — — Hampstead. 179 Gogofau gold mines. 94 272 — wast« of sea rainfall. 284 ^ — 60 — gladation 150 — south of Scotland. 142 HA A ST. of earth. Gypsum. glaciation of. — Miocene — TTpper. 109. Mr. flint Greensand. 195 Stream. rainfaU. Hempstead Beds. on S. 140 — temperature of. Great Northern Eailway. Julius. river. HIM New Eed Marl. 54 Heer. red soUs of. &C. 99. 199. North "Wales. Colbrook Dale. 241 Laurentian rocks. 176 valleys. 65 denudation of. 29. 123 GrinshiU. 319 Grey wethers. glacier-formed lakes. 117 rainfaU. 109. metamorphic Gododin. caverns of. 191 escarpment slates of. 40. Glass sand. Dr. Green 104 272 130 Heme Bay. 294 Gower. 120. economic uses. 113. 196 flora of. 128. 84 Greenland. and Clee Hill coal-fields. 115 and porphyries. of. Himalayah. 51. 160 Haddingtonshire. 58 stone. 109.. 151. 159 — 167 — 201 — 264 times. 152.. on Miocene plants. Bedford Level. heated water of. 129 46-47 Gravels. building stone. 149 . 109. 195-197. 198 318 Headlands. 143 137-139 thickness of. 276 hUls of. 248 waste of sea cliffs. 60. Glen. Greenstones. 166. its lakes. 155. 140 — Permian. 67 cause of distinctive features. poem of.Index. 111. 199 Haematite in Devonian and Carboniferous limestones. 55. 53. in Palaeozoic — 147. 55. soils of. Glacier . of. 115. 122. StafiFord. 186 Grampian Mountains.

Forest bed. 132. 156. 199 Inverness-sliire. 134. 236 Hughes. 127 — — sheet. — Miocene. McK. 153 Isle of Man. 241 Glacial drift of. 316 Ingleborough. 283 Hyaena. Gael. 310 Island glaciers of Britain. on Wye of Derbyshire. 155. Mr. rainfall.. 196. South — — Wales. post-Glaoial. 153 223 Isothermal lines. Internal heat of earth. flint implements. 248 Humber and soils of. H. 166 Italy. 84 Limestone. 14-17 Staffordshire. 84. Forest bed. 71 Iceland. — Derbyshire. 91. 279 Hopkins. 135. 156. on valley of the Wear. 316 Howgill Fells. 248 Hull. &c. 291-319 Inferior Oolite.. of. — 148 — Glacial submergence — 189 — united to England. 309. 132 Ice caverns. 197 Ice-borne drift. Gael. theory of Lake of Geneva. river. 284 Portland. T. 105 Ichthyosaurus. plains. 13-17 Idle. Cretaceous escarpment. 98 Industrial how distinguished. Weald. — Greenland. 181 — and 161 Penyghent. 306 limestone. 106. Warwickshire. 129-131 Hitchen. Forest beds and river beds. glaciers from. travelled from north Italian lakes. 188 Humboldt glacier. 107. 132 Homwort. drift-dammed lakes. Camon. 307 Hutton. 140 Glacial — major. 161 Howell. H. ICEBERGS. glaciers from. Professor. 175 Human 226 skulls. 145 Hunt. 190. 13 127. 134 Houses of Parliament. 77 proportion of.. duration of coal. of Scotland. 134. 126. 246 106 Igneous rocks. glaciation of. 89. 167 Huxley. 246 — — foot. Ireland. Magnesian products of geological formations. 224 188 Irish Elk. 310 Northampton sands. 310 — ore Lias. 157 144 .. coal-fields of Grreat Britain. 188 reptiles of. 310 Weald. HIP Hipparion. 84 Purbeck. 225 Horse. Olee Hills. 223 Wight. &c.Index. 134 — Miocene. 106. 140 335 ITA Hippopotamus. 48 Inverary. 3. on early British man. 128. — 280 — warps 239 — and Holdemess. Professor.. 179. 83 Holdemess. 146 Britain. old glaciers of. Mr. 157. 188. building. 246 Iron furnaces. to south. 120.. 120. 186. lakes of. bone eaves. 284 of.189-191 soils of.

83. 249 Kentudiy. of. 255 soils of. 206 Laurentian rocks. how — Lakes. 144. 174 Kirkdale Cave. 120 Clay. 69 Landslips. 283 &c. 174. 314 Jevons.water supply. regions. erratic blocks on. quality of waters of. Weald and escarpments. moraines. 169-172 Ontario and Lake Superior. ULanerch. 116 — excavation of hollows by 168— 177 — how not formed. 166 Kent. Professor. 301 Jukes. 192. 167. drift. Lanark. lakes in rock basins. 174. TTills. 84 Kirkcudbrightshire. coal-fieldSr anti- clinal curve. 176 and valleys. 287 Lanarkshire.. excavated. 266 Kirby Underdale and Cretaxieous overlap. Laplanders.. 166 map and section of. 174 Lancashire and Cheshire coal-fields. 193 LAGOMyS spelseus. lakes of Ireland. 56. 170 scooped by glacier ice. LAU Lake of Geneva. physical character of. caves of. 253 — — — grey wethers on. J. 241 Ireland. 163. of. synclinal hollows. 65-67. and 217 glacier of Bhone. 164 basins. 171 post-Miocene elevation of. 187 — once washed by 95 — lead mines. Keuper sandstone. of. origin difficulty for. bone caves.336 IVE Ivrea. rivers &c. 175. 100. oscillations of. 168 K ATMR — and lakes. 163 Index. 116 Jura. 161 Land. Oolites. B. 165 — most prevalent in Glacial 173-175 — not in areas of depression. 227 Kimmeridge Bay. 164-168 — in rock-bound 164. 185-187. 176 filled — moraine JET. 160. building 317 Kilnsea. 61. duration of British coal. 167 Lammermuir 71 glaciers. 144 -. 198 Kent's Hole. Switzerland. 27 . 101 Lancaster. 177 Kaolin. kaims of. 189 264 Kilpatrick TTilla and Eoman docks. Scotland. lakes near. 312 — vast number of hollows. 295 — part once covered by 213 — Permian rocks 79 ~. 163-217 — of accounting 164 — dammed by kaims and boulder debris. 34. 256 — and Yorkshire TTills. lines of fissure. 123 Kinder Scout to Scotch border. 299 Oolitie seas. 168 ice. 1 18. 149 TTpper Lias. — synclinal hoUows of. 159 181 stone. 108 and Surrey rainfell. how with 5 — of many.

glaciers. 129. modern and ancient. 309. bicarbonate of. 187 Longmynd. their characters. soils of. the lakes of. &c. 274 246 Liverpool water. lakes of. 83 stones. 217 Lomonds of Pife. 12». 249 Logan. 62 LyeU. unconformable on Lingula flags. 105 — boulder-clay and 279 Silurian. 01. 105 126 — basin and Clay. 12. Gaelic. 292 Llyn Cyri. 172. 65 causes of Lion. 175 — 229 — cement 315 — 313 — clay 272 — iron 310 — denudation 95 — — nature of and 88 — of Shropshire. 285 Loch Doon. 80 Llandovery rocks. Oolites. Limestone caves. water. ore. 103. alluvial flats of. bone caves. 75 Lowland mixed races. rainfall. 224 — plains 104 — quality of 257 Carlisle. human skeletons and Mam- in. 11-13 — — — Lower Sutherland. 55 outlier of. erosion by ice. Loch Katrine. &e. moths in. on Laurentian rocks. Lake of. Lucerne.. 13 Stigmaria. clays. 199 Lochgoilhead. 14-17 Miocene plateaux of. 270 Lignite of Mull. features of. 166 Lune ice-scooped.Index. bone caves. 176 Licky 287 soil of. 176 Loire. Hills. of.7 Llandeilo and Bala beds. 91 lakes. soil of. Sir Charles. 56. it is. Long Hole. 182 grassy pastures. 199 Lepidosteus of the St. slate quarries. 269. rainfall. 27. llechau. 187 Lycopodiums. Sir William. 99. 10. Lower Greensand. on Eocene rocks. 291 Llandeilo beds. 186. 294 of.. 232 — Ness. Canada. water 255 of. 161. 294 — nature 293 — Wales. 99. 231 — Pass — 172 of. 294 — Devon and Cornwall. 65 London. 248 Leeds. — Linnhe. 46 Lavas. building stones. 167-159 Lutra vulgaris. 299 — Eribol. flint implements of Thames. Lawrence. 175 — 200 of. 76 Lewes. 317 Leicestershire coal-field. ice-scooped rock basin. islands Loess. 27 176 . 55 Lincolnshire. Lias. 267 how formed. soil of. 188. 293-297 — what 295-297 Lodes. T. 282 Lowlands of Scotland. Cumberland. 129 Leech. river. 186. 89. 130 33. origin of Valley of. 29. 257 Llanberis. ' seas of. 75 Llangollen slate quarries.. 181. Valley 232 Lode mines. in solution. — Leaf-bed of Mull. LTE Laurentiau Eocks. 130 Lime. 58 climate of.

199 water. numton- crystals. 283 early inhabitants of Britain. of. Mammoth and man. &c. 103 Mame. 215-217 continent.. 75 by Oolites. 121 John Stuart. 294 Mersey and Dee. rainfall. 100 — . 117. 47 Mense. 198 Midland of.. 124. 215-217 Meles taxus. coal-fields. 213 Hdachairodns. of. 268 Medway. rainfall. 283 and Yoredale rocks of Ingleborough Penyghent. bone caves and man. 106 general eastern dip of Yorkshire. origin of VaUey of. 43-53 granite. ocean currents. Forest bed and bone cares. Gulf of. theory — 186-188 Miocene migration bones. and large rock basin s. 186 once covered Merionethshire. 3 1 Mendip Hills. 106 &e. rainfall. 249 Mexico. 77. 195 144 185. 310 Middlesex. 256 Miocene beds. 187 Men. building stones of.7 338 MAC Index. 257 Mice. 107 — 78. post-Glacial. gold. older. Sutherland. 315. 187. shells. soil of. 84 Permian rocks of. with 245-250 {roclies Mammilated rocks nees). 130. once covered bnllding stone. 132 Maury. and outliers of Gannister beds on. Permian rocks Marine moraine rubbish. river — connection 45-53 — development of of. 153 denudation. 195 Mawddach. 246 — Middlesborongh. 118 close of. 200 165 Migration of mammalia to England. Forest bed. 224 156 of. 103. 134. denudation of the Weald. 273 102. 188 Mill. 217 Yorkshire. bone caves. 39 Metamorphism. 83 — 306 Millstone grit. 79 Mammalia. Marlborough Downs. courses of.. bone eaves. 188. MIO shells. 95.. Metamorphic rocks. duration of coal. 231 estuaries of. MACCLESFIELD. — 79 Midlothian. 198 Margate. 257 Mesozoic formations. Man 246 and extinct mammalia. Mica 58 schist and gneiss. 76. Marlstone. 124 — Glacial — water by Oolites. Gulf Stream. grey wethers on. 132 in Mammalian &c. — I Menai — bridges. gravels. lists of. 228 Malvern Hills. waters of. 75. 249 Manchester. ston used for 316 Straits. 187 Magnesian Limestone. 116 Melanochroi. rainfall. 105. 213. 94. 316 MaUerstang. Glacial 156 Menai bridges. 179. 129. 29 Epoch. 106 Mastodon. in bone caves. 105. &c.

99. — 132. 271 — and Lias. 245 Mountains of Britain. 199 the Lune and New Forest. MIO Miocene flora 339 NOE shrew. 82 of. and Lias. 83 Musk Norman z 2 Conquest. — 213 and lakes of. and distri- Moray 201 Firth.Index. soils of. on lakes. 127. &c. ^ slate quarries. excavation of 206. 174 Norfolk. 211 West of England and Wales. denudation by. Skipton. plains 103. building stones. pre-Glaeial. 127 Monmouthshire. 224 29. 143. glaciation 149 Moselle table-land. valleys of. 141. 178 strata of the Alps. 160 — destruction origin of. 162 271 Sandstones. Forest bed. "IVTANT-Y-LLEF. 279 New Red Marl near Carlisle. 223 Nordenskiold. 105. joined chalk of Isle of Wight. 140. 164 155 Moraines. 176 stones. Neuchatel. Morocco mountains. Forest bed. 164 Niagara. 116 Molluscs of Permian rocks.318 141 into. 82. 155 Newcastle. 129 Celts. rainfall. 135. 56. 128. 129 flora of. glaciation of. 106 Niddesdale. — of Cantyre. 257 soils of. Miocene.. Mygale moschata. river. level sea. 269 Moel Tryfaen. 315. 56. 144 Moorfoot Hills. 124 pre-Oolitic. 199 Muschelkalk. Isle of Wight. 246 lavas of. lakes Mus musculus. river drainage bution of. 32. 7 Mull. 79 Monkeys. between till. 98. Musk &c. soils of. 187 sheep. island of. 65. Newbury. of. rainfall. — — — lakes 81 270. 267 Nile. 137 Neocomian beds. 29. soils of. description terminal. of. 139. 282 Muck. 83. and Old Harry and Nen. 288 . quality of water. 33 Nidd. 223 river. 66 Moraine-dammed lakes. 126 sea shells. series. 144 Monthey. 229 — 142 — profondes. 163. below of 107 — York. disturbance of. of. 76 Mud. 154 Mole. 217 Mississippi. 242. 130 130 of. Professor. 146 — Zealand. 134 and fauna. 175 Nine Barrow Downs. river. &c. 61. 87 Mont Blanc. 149 salt of. Miocene beds. Yorkshire. 291 Needles. on glacier erosion of lake — — basins. 161. his Wife. 102. blocks of.. — 104 gneiss 43 99.

303 old lake.. Upper Silurian rocks..99 Permian rocks of. 197 — limestones. 299 lines. 167. Sandstone. 215 Cretaceous times. series. iron ore. &c. 319 Northern hemisphere. OSA Oise. in — formations. 65 237 Orkney and Shetland Isles. of. geographical — of England. 43. 60. turbance and denudation 212- Norway. isothermal Norwich Crag. 98. 68. 274 escarpment. 71 Northumberland and Durham field. 227 quality of water. 128 13i 151 — table-land and of. 76 imeonformable on Silurian rocks. Miocene. 227. structure Wales. 299 coal. 206 Northampton Sands. 66 — — — passage into Carboniferous strata. building 316 — eastern stones. 289 Oolitic area. 233 — Islands. 222. 79 stones quarried in. preserved in Scotland. 56. 118 positions of. physical 99-107. lakes ants of. Ocean — Forest bed. 299 a basin. 69 — limestone. glaciation of. 174 . 273. 315. 257 soils of. 217 144 —— — Red how Old Alpine glaciers. submergence of. inhabit- — and Campsie HiUs. 58. 111. 148 waters of. 69 276 Devonians. soils. 66. 199 North Wales coal-fields. 59. 197 numerous lakes of. 95. glaciation of.75 lead mines. areas inhabited by. their size. 106. 67. &c. 168 table-lands and valleys of. 30 Nottinghamshire coal-field. 75. 84 213.340 NOR Index. 151 to 76 Derbyshire. currents. 70 and Carboniferous rocks. 295 mountainous character of. 315. building. 29. glaciation 56. • Crag outliers on. 65-67. igneous rocks of. origin of Valley of. 116. 10. in England and Caithness. 73 boulder beds. climate. 87 pre-Cretaceous disof. 59. and Yorkshire dip of. OAKS. high 266-268 grounds. 28. 289 of. Professor JSToldenskiold on. 221. 310 North Downs. 257 Oldest British existing races of men. 109. 299 and South. 214. 225. 318 denudation overlap of. 61. 101 — chemical waste of. 175 Osar. 263 Staffordshire coal-field. 80 rainfall. 9. of Carb. 55. 13. 110. 76 of. 94. North America. 195 Ochil Hills. 256. 103. breached by Forth and Teith.

144 mountains formed of. 188. glacier from. 268 Plains between London and. 246 Oxford clay. 179.. 237 — boulder-days. 105. 247 — Sussex. 212 . the Pebbles on shore. Hills. 216. igneous rocks and rainfall. after. 105 Petersfield. 314 Vale of Eden. 90. 187. 83 Penyghent. 134 and bone caves. 181 Otters. 274 Pig. 227 36 — of Chalk. 6 stone. disturbance of 81 — rocks of England and Wales. 132 Chalk downs. Poole. 100.. 246 Pipe-clay. bone caves. boulder joining England — Silurian strata. 215. 124 Ferte du EhOne. river and chasm. 95 Overlap of Oolitic by Cretaceous strata. 88. Crag. 313 267. — ^. soils of. 175 — and Kimmeridge 273-274 Peterborough. 110 Holdernesa- Phillips. 106. clays.- 246 Ouse. 116. 99. 105. 88-90. strata. 98 Panthers. Lias and Oolite. 65 165. rainfall. — New Eed Marl. 106 Plinlimmon. 100 quality of water. building — of marine 115. 107 Plesiosaurus. 61. 94. OTT Ottawa.226 drift. 78. Professor J. 188. 56 unconformity in older strata. 287 Penrhyn slate quarries. &c. 79 strata. 188 Pass of IJanberis. 78. 124 Lias clay and Yorkshire. 227 80 • Ox. 96 Outliers. Porest bed. lakes of. 79 — Period. 113- 317 Pembrokeshire. 75 and the Continent. Bedfordshire. Fen-y-gwig. 341 PLI Penj-ghent. 84. Peckforton how formed. 161 PengeUy. 94. 188 centre of England. — of. 226. 198 Pendle Hill. 211 — of Weald 117 clay. 239. 81 salt seas or lakes. 257 formed in 29. 127 Oxen. 106 flint implements in gravel of. 161 Permian breccias and conglomerates. and bone caves. 103 Pennycuik. Mr. 181 Perthshire.Index:. 116 — Yorkshire. — heaths. 134. 292 Pentland Hills.. meaning Pierre-a-Bot. 187. and the Humber. 190 PALEOZOIC PEEIOD. submergence of. 93.Scotland. 291. Tees. 188. &c.. 79. valley partly pre-Glacial. Miocene.. 102 — pre-Glacial. bone caves. &c. 198 Pasture land of north of England. 179.. 128 Pennine Chain. 106 denudation. and Miocene plants. 80 — Forest bed Pine.

old glacier ^hime. coal. 189 Crag flint . 264262 Quartz rock and limestone. 29. 246 134. 65 Eeptiles. 57 Queensland. Price 'Williams. 83 Purheck beds. — Etruscus. 134.weed. 181 of. 84. 130 of. 116. 78 — and 272 cliif. 236. 118 Eivers. 292.S42 PLI Plinlimmon.71 EainfaU of England and Wales. 183 — the Jura. duration of 307 strata. 237 Potholes and bone caves. EABBITS. 190 Preston water. 187 — Eavenspur. soils fruit trees. 127 Primary 41. Permian. Forest bed. 223 bone eaves. Index.. 127.. 248 deer. river 7. earliest. Mr. Perte du. erroneous theory of. 197-199 its connection with Gulf Stream and west winds. Miocene flora — old tributaries 132 of. Bhoetic beds. &c. 300 and slate quarries. 187. 76 Pond. Prickly vines. EIV 256 pliocene fauna. Miocene and Crag. Miocene. Beeulvers. 306. 228-290 Bain and rivers of the Weald. glaclation 149 valley. 29. 235-240 contours. Celtic tichorhinus. Mr. 250 Bat-hare. 134 — Bhone Kighi. Sutherland. 247 Forest bed fauna. 231 moth. 76 names of. 3U coalpits. 131 — action denudation by. 246 Kaces of Men. 84 Isle of. 3-5. 185. 117 their sediments. bone caves. &c. 135 Pliocene fauna. 240 valleys 206 Khinoceros. Population and coal-fields. 315. 166 Pre-Glacial 211 — systems. relation to geology of Britain. Miocene.. 246 leptorhinus. 134 Boole Harbour. 188 Isle of. 83 Pyrenees. Post-Glacial valleys. 156 Bhine. 283 Benfrewshire hills. 316 — — — — employed in . 130. — table-land and 246 of. daggers.. 293 Portland beds. outliers. 284-286 Biver beds. 118 implements and Mam- Eibble. 221. 305 Beindeer horns. beneafJi Secondary strata. Bristol and Somerset coal-field. 144 QUALITIES of river waters.42 Pterodactyle. migration of. 212 — — — megarhinus. 132 Glacial shells. 1S2 Polypterus of the Nile. 84 of. 305. 187. 32-34 . •— — coal 298 — waste of sea 190 Bed 135. 187 — marl. Lower Silurian. of Western Isles. 200 Baised beaches. — Forest beds and river gravel. 257 Prestwich. flint implements. 115. 223 stone. 187. waters of.

— . Bride's Bay. not made by rivers. of of. 64. &c. 149 247 deposited in old lakes. Boman 262 docks. modern and ancient. 229-231 -7- 343 SAR of. in. estimate 259-263 Glacial Epoch. 166 disturbance of not made by — glassworks. some. 173 and Ottawa.. solution 261 — retention of early names hy. areas Edon. north and south of. numerous lakes. Salisbury crags. Boulder-clay near.1 Indexi BIT Eiver drainage. 11 — Carboniferous. Sand and 153 for gravel. 220- Eivers of England.. 252 Eomans 238 Eosedale. north-western flow of — in general. 288 Eomford. near Falkirk. 181. 284 — running through escarpments. 276 rails of. &c. many. St. — Leonard's — iron Paul's. 318 . 201. Eunswick Bay. 187 of. 123 stones. rocks. in solution carried to sea. of.. rocks. 311 salts in. 286 of. 241. Carron.churches of Wales. 236 of. agricultural 265 character — in solution 258. cliffs. 235-241 — excavation — waters. 217 ST. lakes in. 207. Epoch. 245-260 of strata. ton. waste of sea 193 Lawrence. and 229 post-Glacial. Mountains. how formed. 241 terraces. origin of. 234 — of south Scotland. — 223 Frome and — gravels and bones. 198 Yorkshire. 129 Eoman docks. 164. 136. Solent. modified during G-lacial — Wall of Antoninus. 202 — formed 7-U Eoe Eocks. 166 salt. 166. 241-242 valleys. Island of. 105 salts in in. 242 mouths. 79 in Britain. 316 Saints and. 243-245 264-262 212. 161 Ecck basins. 318 Salts Roches moutormks. glaciation deer. 233. • flint implements.76 Forest. 193 western. 65 : — — Plain. of. 8-1 Bedford. qualities of. General. 193 EoUiliegende. 158 between Clitherpe and Skip. 166 largo. landslip. Eoeky. eastern flow of its origin. 144 Pass of Llanberis. 277 rainfall. 183 — of the Wash. classification 3. Laurentian rocks. and 282 Eum. 314 Sandstones. 3-17 by agency of water. building 317 Sarsen stones. 229-231 France. 261 — scooping power 165 — sediments of forming old 5 — underground. 106 Salt lakes. landslip. stone used in. &e. — — — -. Eoy.

Stafford-- shire coal-field. . Scenery. in Sutherland. denudation. 304 Section across Isle of Wight.344 SCA ScandinaTJa. Forest bed. Dr. 161 Seven Springs. fans. Li^e. 154 — — Holderness 156 shells. 175 Snowdon -the to the England &om London basin. terraces. 20 New Eed of Great Valley. Thames. plain of marine denudation. 249 on limestone caverns. ScuirofEigg. 185 Scotch fir. 134 Scotland. 128 Serpentines. Sequoia. 67 lodes. 100. origin Palffiozoic. 67 section Sandstone to London basin. 237 Settle. 214 Wales. Glacial deposits. 114 of. prove marine denudation. 150 — nnmerons 173 SeandinaTian 59 — 289 lakes of. once above S. rainfall. origin of valley o:^ 217. 250 Seathwaite. lakes in rock basins. Isles of Wight and Purbeck. Scratched stones. 22 — pre-Cretaceous disturbance — 264-266 — of formations — submersion 153 soils of. 255 Menai Straits over Derbyshire' 200 of. near. • hills. 112. 199. of rocks of. SEV of. 59. 130 sectionand denudation. 35 245 Selsey Bill. 294 — beacons Brecon — Lowlands 61 — metamorphic marthen how 40 — north watershed and flow of — Cumberland 232 103-105 — — from Ingleborough 65 — 106 54-71. and val- strike in. table-land. 70 Schmerling. 56 — South — leys. 3-7 Seine. liver. 157. 179 179. to the York-- rivers. origin of scenery in. drainage S. 74 and Caer- 110. 199 Boches mouUmnees. chain. 120. 174. 120 — — Wales • Purbeck. — — — — — physical structure of. formed. 153 207 Sediments. glaciation ice-sheet Index. shire Oolites. central England — formations dip little disturbed. of. 232 204 of. 98.. Sea cliffs. Lower Secondary formations. 121 and — Weald. 194 currents. 233 from Grampians across the Lammermuirs. how formed. 208 of. 102 Bill. 21. races. bone eaves and man. 121 — of of. 254. 149 Secondary andEocene strata. — from. towardsBridlington. valleys. 99 99 84 — older. 1 . 5. 195-197 &c. 121 less disturbed than 2 in Scotland. 319 — dsiit. 242. degradation of. 148. 6 — Moel Tryfaen. 192 — — sand. 143. and faults. rainfall. of the 201 rivers of. 222. 231-234 — Torquay Portland — description from to of. 131 how formed. east of Scotland. Miocene. qualities of rivers of. strata. of.

Silurian rocks. &c. 210 155. inhabitants — an old river rocks. 233 Sidmouth. 120 Sherwood Forest. 265. 187 how formed. breached by Tay. 100 sea shells.. 271 Shetland and Orkneys. — on 93 rainfall.. 198 27 Stalagmite in caves. physical character of. &c. alluvia. 57. 149 Southern and eastern Spermophilus. 9. 76 Sittingbourne. once covered by Oolites. 55. 293 291-293 134 succession Sloe. 75. quality of waters.. on Battle of Cattraeth. Silurian and Carboniferous lakes 175 100 Shields. 134. 292. 109.. Forest bed. 264-281 Period on. Shale. 135. 298 Sidlaw Hills. plain of marine denudation and valleys. 6 rainfall. rainfall. 201 in Spritsail tor cave. 289 of. whence they get their shells. granite. 199 Shingle on shore. in Wealden. effect of Glacial 266 Solent. jilr. Shropshire. glaciation Sigillaria. Wales. coal-basin. land. 188 Upper. 161 — water Shap 211-220 of.Index. 204-206 rivers. 79 > of. &c. 198 South Downs. of. Old Eed SandsJ. 239 and Wenlock Edge escarpment. 76. 213 coal-field. 89 Sheppey.. 155 Shell fish. William. 62 . 275 Skene. 257 Silts and 314 of. 287 pre-Glacial. 261 Smith. 157 94. 154 species. 95 erratic Sevem.. Lower. Fell. 27.SET SII Silurian 34S passage into — — boulders. freshwater genera of. 105 Stigmaria. &c. 198 Sierra Nevada. 56. 223. and diffs. 86 Woolwich Beading beds. Solway. valley. Isle 191 of. • to of. brick works. — Staffordshire 298 — how exposed view. of Shells. 30* igneous rocks 77 — Wales 300 coal-field. 70 Lower. 30 Snowdon. — Valley. waste of sea — — Soils. Permian rocks — part of. 73 unconformities in. 73 Highlands. unprofitable. 111 Somerset Shrews. rainfall. 224 — of. 187 Staffordshire. 80 Spey. 129 257 318 Slate quarries and population. 80 unconformable Stamford. 65. Forest bed and bone caves. Skipton.one. geographical position England and Wales. 11 298 — granite boulders. 246 Eng- 62 bricks. Skye. when Slates. area of drainage. and origin of.

flora of. 267 south 167 — eastern dip of Carboniferous — decrease in 221-223 227 — denudation. 190. rocks. 118 — south of Scotland. 268 near. kaims near. Mr.346 STO Stonehaven. denudation. rooks. 14. drift of. river. 34. area of drainage. Suffolk. — and Norway. 58. 58 Stonehenge. lakes 175 Teith. 198 of. 145 Submersion during part of Glacial Epoch. river. 18-26 succession of. — implements. 124 StouT. 108 rainfall. 319-323 Sus savernensis. of. marine. 279 Teesdale. 221. 239 river terraces. 224 Straits of Doyer. 198 Strath Cl-wyd. 239 Teifi. 56 Terraces.. 94- valleys. THO TABLE of formations. 180. sands. estuary Suilven. rocks. Tay. 61 of. 233 — — Krth — valley past. 228. of. 161 Teddington. rainfall. of. the Ochil and Campsie HiUe. by boring. 238. of. origin of initial &c. absence of Glacial Swaledale. Thompson. 174. -:— Solent. 191 Swanage. of. Table-land. 235 river. 201 course of. 245 lakes 168 Boulder-day. river. grey wethers near. and brick earths of. 89 curves. of Belfast. river. — 106 flow of.. physical geography and — origin 220-223. 167 glaciers of. Tapir. — Spey. 61 Summary. Stranraer. of.. &c. 123 Switzerland. 26 223 — and Strata. 134 Sussex. old. soil of part of. 231 Sutherland.. 189 reptiles. 8-12 — of different ages. 23 Taunton. glaciation 149 S. drift near. Purbeek. 238. of theWeald. . of. 250 — Silurian 61 224 Swale. section. 241 — 136-145 — old 144 — Miocene 130 Synclinal 68 — hollows and 166. &e. — Wales. lakes. 132 22. proved — and Cotswold 124 — Ehine and MoseUe... valleys. size of. 248 beds &c. 116 Index. relation to Swindon. table-land and ^ 206. Test. flint salts in. 239 Thanet Sand. 118 glaciers of. 287 233 233 Striation produced by glaciers. 71 — and 206 Oolites 96. 267 Tees. 106 211 Tewkesbury. 177 how arranged. &c. kingdom — Dearn. Forest bed. 57.119 Hills. — Laurentian 54 233 — and Caithness. Glacial — origin of eastern flow 227 Thames. and ice-sheet. 123. and Wealden. 153. Thames water flowing 259 of. 120 — in solution 258-260 Sweden. gravels. valley.

once united. 268 origin of valley of. 232 of Miocene Age. Forest bed and bone caves. 151-164. •^ geological dates of. 106. Forest bed. THU Thim. 134 298 Volcanic ashes. 231 Tusk of Mammoth. glaciers of. 307 Ursus spelseus. Mr. Wales arvernensis and others. 228 Tremadoe and Lingula beds. and names of rivers. 80 of. 100. 179. 107 239 Valley between origin of initial flow of. and area of drainage. moraine YAL — of. on both sides of. Clark. on coal-field. 66. 283 Tweed. 186 * and Mr. — character Pewsey. 104. river. 228 UISGE. Lammermuir Hills. Grampjans 67 160 of and Eigg. on Weald. 245 and 240 to Ireland. 136. 82. 271 Trias. 166 Vale of Eden. 275 of. 77 149 Topley and Foster. uncon- Upper and Lower formity.224. and Coal Com- mission. 229. unconformable on Lower. 318 Tilgate Forest. Trogonotherium Cuvieri. . Cumberland. 276 Till. 206.. Tynemouth to Solway.- rocks. 234 Clwyd. Forth and Clyde. 151 of. — Usk. 145. post-Glacial. 284 Ulverstone haematite.P. 186 Towey. eastern dip of. loadstones.Index. 80 Ure. 201. rocks of. 16. 129 . and origin 106.225 Trentham Park. 228 escarpment of Carboniferous Limestone. 268 — — Tyne. sea. 228 glaciation of. 231. Caermarthensliire. Valleys. 95 glaciers 94. 117 Torquay. 205 Victoria Land. 268 de Travers. 265 South Wales. 78. M. excavation of. Western Isles. 82 — of. 148 Vivian. 205. salt lake. 28 Trent. 297 Underelay of coal. towards German Ocean.. soils of. Forest bed. 207-210 134. carving on. Garb. 203 Loch Ness. 62 Union of England to the Continent. 160 d'Aosta. S. Lake of. 146. 17. York. 187 Utah. caverns and rivers. 134. 135 Permian rocks 124. 267 alluvia. 106 Clyde. 188. 347 VOL 166 figer. 242. — excluding — gravel below Souir 130 — of the Severn. 124 . 81 Silurian. plains near. — meaning — Silurian 105 Unconformity in Palseozoie times. 28 — — 130 — 236 — of Firth and post-Glacial.

beds of. alluvia. 119 — not submerged in Glacial Epoch. 284 — quality of waters 255. moist climates 269 — Celts 288 — copper and lead mines. 108. 269 — and Cumberland. 129 Westminster Abbey. flats and rivers of. coal-field.14-17 — Miocene Waveney. — Waste of sea cliffs. 129 Voles. plain of marine denudaof. 156 Wellingtonia. 115. 257 — 198. river. 64 Volcanos. 314 plain 117 soil of. 113 WALES. 275 denudation of. Wensleydale. of. of. 253 Warp of Wash and Humber. rainfall. of. Weaver. 294 — 147. 262. 110-113. 93. river across. 29 of France. and Carboniferous ages. 124 — once washed by 95 — submergence during deposition of chalk. WeUand. Weardale. flint implements. 13. 236 of. of Old Index^ WET Bed SandWater lilies. 117 — rain and rivers 115 — drainage of a continent. 86 ore. 299 — — plants of. Wellington. Oolitic seas. Wealden beds. 125 form ofj due to rain and rivers. glaciation of. stone used in 316 Wey. initial of. 204 submergence of. 154.'the 224 soils of. 111. 129. its lakes. 231 of. Laurentian rocks 27. 86 — sections 110. 105. ancient and modern. 252. bone caves. 77 Western Isles. 284 Welsh names in England and Scotland. 134 &c. 286. 130 Wash. Glacial Epoch. of. during depCK 88 Welsh and Gaelic languages.348 TOL Volcanic rocks. 224 rainfall. 107 Warwickshire. 248 stone.. 200 — raised beaches. 85. 267 Wall of Antoninus. 250 — 291-293 — South. freshwater. 199 rivers of England. Miocene. a cluster of islands. partial — iron 310 — meaning 276 — not an old sea bay. 157-159 — igneous rocks 73-75 — 166. 187 Vosges. Cymri. 239 — origin of 228 flow — valley partly post-Glacial. Forest bed. — rainfall. 109. of. 114 — submergence 87 Wear. 267 of. river. 154 of. 105. 56 of. Germany. 128 slates of. glaciation of. Glacial shells. of. 229-231 198 279 West Harptree. 189-194 by dissolving of rocks. 112. 287 sition of Chalk. 263 Water lilies. 29. 167 — mountains 102.56 Miocene beds. 283 — tion and valleys of. of. igneous rocks — — of. 116 . Miocene. Hebrides. 215 — part and Gael. 149 Weald clay. Welsh. — agricultural characters 268.

314 WhiteeliffBay. &o. of. lake of. 274 — moraines 161 — escarpment 106.. anti- Wood. 225. 120 207-210. glaciation Wiltshire.. 269 Wotton-under-Edge. 106 — Monmouthshire. soils of.'Index. 280 Yorkshire and Derbyshire coal-field Windermere. rainfall. 227 — 199 — water-supply. and St. Sir Christopher. rainfall. York. rainfall. 172 Witham river. of. 93 soils of. 267 Whitby jet. Worcestershire. Oolitic of. and Derbyshire coalfields.. plain of. 187 Woolmer Forest. Paul's. 227 Wigtonshire. 1 06. alluvia and soils. on Leicester. once united of. 95 — character 267 — lead mines. 186. Derbyshire. bone caves. 166 226 . 245 scenery of. 295 — 159 — moors. Ystwyth. Mr. ley. Derbyshire. 151.. 277 dales. 224 Wolf. 228 134 Yoredale rocks and millstone grit. 179 Woodhouse. coal-field. 186. agricultural of. forest bed. Yorkshire. 349 ZUR quality of water. &c. 268 Wren.. Selsey Bill. 257 — origin of eastern flow Wharfdale. 2S9. 89. &e. yXJEICH. 316 origin of its val- Wye. 120. Forest bed. 251 "Wharfe. 198 Woolwich and Reading 118. 227 268 Whitehaven YEW. ice-soooped. 160. 105. origin of valley of. 198 151 Winchmore Hill.. clinal curve. 198 York. 246 — and Lancashire a basin. in alluvial Firth and Clyde. plains. 101 glaciation of. Nottingham. &o. 135 — Wye. 303 coal-fields. 126 beds. physical character — of. 100. WHA Whales. to that of Northumberland. seals. 299 Wookey Hole. 188. rainfall. 258 — Wolds.

and when Mounted in Case. the Railroads completed. and Additions. I'. . 12 miles to an inch size. . 6d.A. F. momited. morocco case. By of the Geological Surveys of Great Britain and Ireland. size. GEOLOGICAL Scale. in case. size.R.. GEOLOGICAL MAP of ENGLAND Andrew C. spring roller. MAP LONDON ENVIRONS. 5*. ."W.. Barking on the east. exhibiting the superOcial deposits. folded in cover. and printed in colours Jordan. in case. P. . • of GEOLOGICAL MAP : ENGLAND and WALES : Accord- ing to the most Recent Researches. Fifth Edition. . as.. Price. GEOLOGICAL MAP of IRELAND. This Map is constructed on the basis of the Ordnance Survey. Tarnished. Roads.: GEOLOGICAL MAPS. and Professor of Geology at the Royal School of Mines. 51. . 11. 25 miles to an inch 3/. bs. Geological Survey of Ireland. and the sanctioned Lines. 24 inchra by 26. Scale. Maps S. folds into a convenient pocket size. and shows the Main Roads in and around the Metropolis. varnished. ^'o. mounted on linen. lis. Price. . &c. &c. . Fossils. moanted. late Director of H. 42. 32s. Ramsat.B. .R. size. &:c. 1?. mounted. sheet.S. and Coloured Geologically. on roller.S. 1 inch to and its of a mile . &c. K. 25s. On two sheets. By the late Sir Roderick I.. 68 inches by 80. of the Mining by J. It includes "Watford on the north. Esq. &c. forms a good and convenient Travelling Map. on roller. price ZU 3«. By Sir "W. Scale. LOGAN. Director of the GeoSurvey of Canada. 31 inches by 38. mounted to fold in morocco case. In case. Scale.S. This Hap shows all the Railways. 1?. Stations. Scale. It also shows the Railways. 12^.. and when Moanted in Case. B.. B. 10s. Agent hy AppoiniTnent for Geological Survey . with Corrections . Roads. Canals. Bart.. Greexough. size.M. Murchisos. Director and WALES. By G. &c. 6 and 7 tlie CSARINa CROSS. By Joseph Beete Jukes. and Sonthall on the West. GEOLOGICAL logical and the adjacent of REGIONS.S. varnished. M. S miles to 1 inch .. . Ts. Esq. Epsom on the south. LL. 25 miles to an inch . varnished. with all the Railways. 9s. in. 102 inches by 45. With tables of Indian Coal Fields. in sheet. 5^. B. . Scale. or on roller. Compiled from various authorities Record Office. 11... GEOLOGICAL MAP of INDIA. 4*. 14 inches by IS . MAP CANADA eight sheets.. On nine sheets. 6d. Minerals. including Parts of the other BRITISH PROVINCES and of the UNITED STATES. mounted on roller. price.D. Antiquities.R.C. Third Edition. mating an excellent TraTelling iilap. 10*.R.. 305. varnished. or on roller. in case. 28 miles to an inch size. On or in two parts to fold. 7s. P. LONDON EDWARD STANFORD. General Sketch of the Physical and GJeological Features of British India.. 36 inches by 42.

S. or mounted on roller and varnished.E. O .G. . 65.Z.B. T. the proportions of the drawings to the natural size. illustrated by 20 examples. and H. as* well as dissections of the Flowers and Fruits. F. arranged in the order of their occurrence. ThesB Diagrams. Consists of about 500 illustrations of the Orders and Sub-orders. F.. each group being commenced in' the lower strata and carried upwards to its close or to modern times.S. LoTVET. Henfbey. Pteropoda. illustrated byllexamples. divided into 20 Families. Salter.. each arranged so that it may be mounted In one sheet. IV The Vegetable Kingdom. 7. and shows their range in Geological time.. mi. W. Fossil Crustacea. A. F. compiled by the eminent scientific men wliose names are appended.G. and illustrated by 180 examples . This Diagram is similarly arranged to No. four Orders. LONDON EDWARD STANFORD.S. [p. and engraved in the hest style of Art. Conchifera. Lo-WRY. divided into 31 Families. and accompanied by a column showing the succession and thickness of the strata and the mineral character of each formation. the formation in which they exist.S. P. 1. folded in Book-form. Woodward. .S. Represented in six classes : Cephalopoda.S.G. consisting of two Orders divided into^ 6 Families and illustrated by 20 examples Gasteropoda.: DIA GRA MS OF NA TURA L HISTORY. each Order being illustrated by numerous examples of reoresentative species showing the habits of the Plants.L. or be divided into four sections and folded in the form of a book. supplemented by 3 Sub-Orders. and whether still found living. I Characteristic British Fossils. Exhibits nearly 600 of the more prominent forms of Organic remains 'found n British Strata. By J. and illustrates upwards of 800 specimens of the Tertiary formation.W. By A. By J. II Characteristic British Tertiary Fossils.G-. and the Natural" Histoiy succession is observed as nearly as possible. indicating the local series to which they belong. By J. W. illustrated by 18 examples illustrated by 158 examples. Woodwaed. Arranged according to the Natural System. 4s.. . andTunicata. Price of each.S. Some recent types are inta:oduced. are drawn with tte strictest regard to Nature. By Dr. 6 and 7 CHAEINa CROSS. "W. thus rendering them available either for Class Exercises or Individual Study. V The Orders and Families of Mollusca. Brachiopoda. thus indicatingthrough what period any Genus existed. The Series consists of Eleven Subjects.

S species. Bnminantia Bovid^— Oxen &c. Leeches. such as the Mexican Luithom Ply and others . 9 species .. 24 species .. 3 species .. By P. IX Beptilia and Amphibia.... 21 species . Seamice.. 8 ^)ecies. GossE.namely Accipitres species.. including Centipedes. and Edentata—Armadillos &c. Strepsiptera ^Hylecthrus Rubis . ColumbEe Doves &c. 15 species. H. in 2 Families (naked toothed fishes and file fishes). LONDON: 6 and 7 CHAEIXG CROSS.W. 32 species.. — — — — species. Phocid8e—SealB&c. arranged in Tamilies. . 17 species. The Plectt^nathi. 32 species. UrsidaB Bears &c. : —Eagles &C. 8 species. Hymenoptera Bees &c. their Orders and Illustrations are given of the Acanthopterygii. Thysanoptera Thripidse &c. Macropidse—Kangaroos &c.. 17 species. — X Birds... in 5 Families.. Bodentia Rats &c. and Flycatchers. — — . 29 species . the various Families and Sections being carefully distinguished. 3 species.— Crustacea. and the Cartilaglnii.. Cervinie— Deer.. ContaiDs nearly 250 drawings of the different Orders : Coleoptcra—the Beetle Tribe . . 2 species Sanria ^Lizards &c.. — . 5 species.— DIAGRAMS OF NATURAL HISTORY (Contintted). Baied. Crocodilia.. vn Insects. and Amphibia Frogs &c. Heteroptera— Bugs &c. Annelida. The immerons tribes represented under these Orders are illustrated by upwards of 1 80 examples. S. By Geoege Gray. Bell and Baibd. S species IVInstelidje Weasels &c. Homoptera including the njost anomalous form"* of insects. OallinEB Contains drawings of 236 of the leading illustrative specimens. 6 species Talpidae Moles &c. Cheiroptera Bats &c. Camaria Felids Lions &c. ^1 species . Spiders.. 9 species . 5 species . namely : Chelonia—Turtles &c. By As)KJ£. 52 Scansores Parrots &c.. Crabs. species. 3 species .—Araehmda. By Dr. . White and Dr. The Malacopterygii. Pachydermata—Elephants &c. . . Trichoptera^Caddisfly &c. Neuroptera Mayfly &c. — — — — . Contains 105 ^nres of the principal typical forms. Fowls &c. Lepldoptera Moth tiibes Homoptera—Butterflies with knobs at the ends of their antenns . Passeres— Swallows &c. By Adam White. Amphisbenia. Euplexoptera Earwigs &c. — — — — — — vm Fishes.... 16 species. consisting of 17 Families. Exhibits 145 of the chirf illustrations selected from the several Orders. . Viverridae Civets &c. or Fishes having some of their flnrays spinous and others flexible.. Snrpnlas.. . 26 species. Diptera— Gnats &c. 15 — — — XI Mammalia. Opbidia— Snakes &c.. Canidee Dogs &c. EDWAKD STANPOKD. represented in 12 Families.. By Drs. Sandhoppers.. Shows over 130 of the most conspicuous types. Grallie Plovers &c. Quadramana Apes &c. 7 species . . 9 species .. . or Fishes with soft fins.— and Entozoa. 20 species . and Aphaniptcra rieas &c. •Cetace£e—"Whales &c. 5 species. &c. 7 species . Baied. and Anseres— Ducks &c. Equidse—Horses fitc. VI Myriapoda. .. Strathiones—Ostriches &c. Orthoptera Crickets &c.

M. With Coloured Physical Map.. — SOUTH. AMERICA. BOOK. B. and as a Handbook to the Wall Map prepared under the direction of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. ADDERLET (Sir C. late Director of the German. ANDLAU'S (Baron) GRAMMAR and KEY to the GERMAN LANGUAGE Being an easy and complete System for acquiring : this useful tongue. BX APPOINTMENT. 6(i.-THE COAL FIELDS OF GLOUCESTERSHIRE AND SOMERSETSHIRE. 9«. CHABINQ CROSS.GM. and the National Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor. and Self Instiuction.. and Classical College. cloth.. B5 Sc 8.. cloth.). 1863. Deand Poetry. By the Right Hon. Addeklet. INDIA OFFICE PUBMOATIONS. and the IVational Society for Promoting tlie Education of the Poor. With Tables and Sections. By John Anstie. PHYSICAL and POLITICAL. HORTH. Demy 12mo. FOR THE SALE OF THH OBDNAIfCE AND GEOLO&IOAL SURVEY PUBLICATIONS. cloth. 38. Demy 8vo. GERMAN READING 12moj cloth. Is. 6d..W. Civil and Mining Engineer. PHYSICAL and POLITICAL.G. ATLASES. CH-A-HIlSraLONDON. 6A Second Course. Pirst 3s. Intended to serve as a Text Book for the Use of Elementary Classes. E. Crown 8vo. doth. AND THEIR EBSOUROES. ifec. Tales. Maps. Associate of the. Institute of Civil Engineers. with the necessary explanations in the Use of Schools. LIST OF BOOKS PCBLISHED BY EDWARD STANFORD. Fellow of the Geological Sucietf of London..NOTES on the GEOGRAPHY of NORTH AMERICA.-COLOiriAL POLICY and HISTORY— EEVIEW of "The COLONIAL POLICY of LORD J. cloth. Imperial 8vo. GERMAN READING BOOK: scriptions. French. & 8. revised and greatly enlarged. Demy AlirSTIE. See Catalogue of Atlases. Crown 8vo. B . citoss. &c. Clapham Rfeej London.. 55 EDWARD STANFORD. Intended to servo as for the Use. RUSSELL'S ADMINISTRATION. B? EARL OBEY. -NOTES on the GEOGRAPHY of SOUTH AMERICA.November. 6s. cloth.. for Course. S. ETC. With Coloured Physical Map. THE ADMIBALTI CHART?. English. Is.. with Piogressive Exerciaesi &c. 4s. 1874." and of SUBSEQUENT COLONIAL HISTORY. Private.A.of Elementary Classes. Containing Sentences. Demy 12mo. B. By the Babon Von Andlau. B. Sir C. a TEkT Book to the and as a Handbook Wall Map prepared under the dii'eotion of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. Fourth Edition.P. AGENT.

BIRCH. 6d. Cor. . General and Special Colleges. . 1873 Containing a Calendar of all Executive and Examining Bodies.E. and remarkable capacity for Colonization. Author of Designs ' DweUings of the Labouring Classes. Public. to Is. DECIMALISATION of the of the UNITED KINGDOM. ENVIRONS. with the names of the Officers. embracing an entirely new System of Conjugation.-The WARS of : SUCCESSION of PORTUGAL and SPAIN. BOULOGNE. F. CHASINa CBOSS.). half-bound roan. Beiaamt. Training Colleges. With Maps and Elustrations. C.E. SDWABB STANFOSB. and Middle-class Schools. &c. and Costa Eica their Natural Features. and a List of the Principal Verbs. Honduras. 55 & 8.. 6d. Post 8to. 15s.Dt formerly Governor of Hong Kong.S. Slilitary. Eoyal 8to. BOWRING. Witk Three ViewB.G.-TABLES FOR THE USE OF ENGINEERS AND AECHITBOTS in Taking out QUANTITIES of MASONRY.-GUIDE With Maps and BOULOGNE Demy and its 2e. with Examples of a Ledger. LL. doth. BOLLAERT. New Edition.-THOUGHTS on DOUBLE ENTRY and BALANCE SHEETS. Architect. 30«. doth. Proprietary.-CENTRAL AMERICA: States of Guatemala. 4s.-EXAMPLES for of LABOURERS' COTTAGES.-The DECIMAL SYSTEM. Post 8vo. cloth. Socs.' to wMch was awarded the Medal and Premium of the Society of Arts. from 1826 to 1840 Containing an Account of the Siege of Oporto.. especially vrith in NUMBERS. by which the forms of any French Verb may be ascertained at a glance.-The TEACHERS' LIST.. cloth.: : 2 BOOKS. 9*. Demy 8to. Products. C. Salvador. . Univ. &o.G. New York. illustrated. Mem. demy 8vo. By C. Imperial 8vo. cloth. enlarged and A Summary of the entirely rewritten. and Her Britannic Majesty's Plenipotentiary and Superintendent of Trade in China. Nicaragua.R. BEVAN (Phillips. J. Ethno. Illustrations. Describing each of the BAILEY (J. and a list of School Boards. Reminiscences. lEONWOEK. with PLANS for IMPKOVING the DWELLINGS of the POOR in LAEGE TOWNS. of Political History to the Present Time. Ancient and Modem. Population. 5s. cloth. the principal Private Schools : Education of Women. together with a complete Alphabetical Directory of Qualified and Certificated Teachers. and ACCOUNTS.). 2 vols. price Is. withE^sume By William Bollaebt. &c.' cloth. LL. Chile . Demy 8vo. Universities. &c. London. 12mo.B. Political. Illustrated with 120 Engravings of Coins. &c. BELLAMY.D. 3s. By the late EEFERENCE to the CUEEENCY and ACCOUNTANCY Sir John Boweing. Secretary to the Committee of Council on Education. Sandford.. Post 8vo. Denominational Colleges and Schools. copious Notes. 6d.S. Dedicated by permission to Sir Francis K. BOOK-KEEPING. the Balancing of Accounts. Twenty-sixth Thousand. COINS. F. Together with numerous Practical Dlustrations of their Idiomatic Construction. 1832-3. — BEAUVOISIN'S (Mariot de) FRENCH VERBS at a GLANCE French Verbs. By John Bibch.

numerous Geological of With Geological Map Eoyal 8vo. (published at 42s. Direct Commissions. Consisting of the Questions that have been given at the Military and Civil Service Examinations. MERCHANT'S HANDBOOK.ESAI. and Answers. Solutions. b2 . 21s. C. price 27s.E ASH BETAII. CIVIL SERVICE TESTS in ARITHMETIC: Being Specimens of the more difficult Questions in the Civil Service Reports. Candidates for Woolwich Commissaiiat.PICTORIAL ILLUSTRATIONS of NEW ZEALAND. and the weights and measures of all the great commercial countries in the world. Series comprises: 1. cloth. WEIGHTS. sold %* fine This beautiful Series of Coloured Lithographs is printed on Super- Thick Paper. Regiments of the 2. MONEY. by 19. This work affords full and reliable information from official sources of the currencies and moneys of account. DALE. from an EUROPEAN POINT VIEW. By S. WITH ANSWERS. Royal Engineers and Military Train. Gd. Dragoon Guards and Light Dragoons. — — — — Line. Second Edition. Cloth. ajid Sections. the set . BRAZILIAN COLONIZATION. 2s. . cloth. DIERS The The. Gd. and graciously lent for publication. Demy 8vo. Demy 12mo. WITH ANSWERS. Gd. cloth. Demy 12mo. ARITHMETICAL EXAMPLES CIVIL SERVICE STUDENTS: Being B^Y set to to Same. A. Thomas. YORKSHIEB.— BOOKS. Is. 21s.G. from the Drawings made by Command for Her Majesty the Queen.). Demy in 12mo. 5s. BRITISH ARMY. LL. Gd. 4. Royal Artillery.). cloth. and can be had framed in any style to order. late Principal Engineer and Surveyor to the New . 3s.— 5. Zealand Company. Bkees. 3 BRADLEY (Lonsdale. with fuU Solutions. . and Staff College. Demy 12mo. Fourth Edition.D. cloth. BOOK AITD MAP SELLEB.S. . The Guards.3. : 4s.-An ENQUIRY into the DEPOSITION of LEAD ORE in the MINERAL VEINS cloth. SKETCHES OF BRITISH SOL- a Series of Coloured Prints.-The of Reference for the use of those engaged in Domestic and Foreign Commerce. ARMY TESTS ARITHMETIC Being the Questions Sandhurst. and MEASURES of the CHIEF COMMERCIAL NATIONS IN THE WORLD. Is. or. price Ss. Demy 12mo. By Jaoake Assu. or paper for MILITARY and a complete Treatise on Arithmetic. by Geoeqe H. 2s. r. 5s.. each. with Rules. 6. BROWNE A Book (W. cloth. Gd. size of each 25 inches separately. BREES. with the British Equivalents. of SWALEof Swaledule. WHOI. Life Guards and Eoyal Horse Guards. By Mayers.). On Six Sheets. cloth. Demy l^mo. To which are appended the Questions in ihe Eleventh Report. cover.

6«J. Chambers. beautifully Tinted. CHERPILLOTJD'S (Prof. late of the City oi London School. BEOWNE 12mo. bonnd. Dblille. thus continuing the Series up to the Present Time. crown 8vo. revised. By G. 21. each.A. A. LL. .). PAETEE FEANCAISE 1' dn de VEESIOBTS on.' &c. Gnide k la Tradnction' de Anglais en Fran9ais. with SoIxition».. in the 8th (W. and Beigns to to HISTORY: Being the HisSendee Bepoits. in best Oak Flame. C. A. CIVIL SERVICE GEOGRATHY: Being the Geographical Questions in the Civil Service Seports. CHRONOLOGICAL PICTURES from the ANCIEIfT of TOEIA. 6(2. .S. F. with Glass.-AEITHMETICAI atTESTIONS CIVIL SEEVICE KEPOKT. President of the Society of Painters in Water Colours. Single Plates. 3/. 6d. Fifth Edition. 55 & 8. New Edition. F. By Prof. and Facsimiles of the Autographs of tiie Sover^gns and the most distinguished Charaeteis are attached. and Drawn on Stone. bound. Collected and Arranged by W. Gd. J. the Set of Plates in Sheets. Series of 40 Plates.D. 6d. 3/. . Each Plate illustrates a period or a reign. Anaiiged under the which they belong. A descriptive Handbook to EDWAKD STANFORD. by Sir John Gii. J. Crown 8vo. A BEITONS to the ENGLISH HISTORY. Demy 12mo. C. J. . of the Inner Temple. Demy 12mo. and EASTBOURITE and SEA- the NEIGHBOTJBHOOD. with Glass. for 2d. 2g. Map. CHAMBERS. ANCIENT BEITONS ENGLISH HISTORY TOEIA. New or. CHAKINO CBOSS. With an additional Plate to mustrate the Beign of Queen Victoria.D. .. : AppioTed by the Civil Service Commissioners. in cheaper Framp. 38. Is. KEY UnrRB to the ABOVE .—HAlfDEOOE FOBD. LI. Bairister-at-Iiaw . by Prof. Deulle. Guide to French Translation and Constmction. 1«. cloth 28. cloth. wiii. 1«. 38. containing 360 Illnstrations. SPECIMENS of HANDWRiriHG Demy 8vo. 21 128. half-bound morocco. Edition.R. Is. Eeign of QUEEN VIC- CHRONOLOGICAL OUTLINES /from the of to the Eeign of QXJBEN VIC^ the series of Chronological Pictures of English History Dy Sir Joror Gilbekt. Demy 12mo. Imperial folio. Bbowiie. BOOKS. cloth. id. Demy CIVIL SERVICE GUIDE torical Questions in the Civil several Periods 28.B£Bt.> BOOK of VERSIONS. Designed. President of the Society of Painters in Water Colours.. Anthor of ' Descriptive Astronomy. Demy 12mo.

Sco. Figures of the eharacteristio Fossils. Sheet. ' at De Horsey. adapted to 12mo. Third Edition. -RULE OF THE ROAD AT SEA: SEA. per post. Author of an Essay on the Agricultute of the Channel Islanda' Tliird Edition. (fee. ByAuansTus of Trinity College. Eqyal 12mo. Tenth Edition. A DE HORSEY. with Practical Directions By and Tables of Securities. By Eobbrt the Members of the London Stock Exchange.ESAI<E AXm SETATL BOOZ Am) WAP SELIiEB. Is. Eeveane." id.' ' Being of PKACTICAL DIRECTIONS for complying vrith the BOAED TEADE REGULATIONS for PREVENTING COLLISIONS F. . Climate. DE MORGAN. . and Expenditure General Notices and Warnings Coolie £}migration Summaries of Laws on Professional Qualifications Naturalization of Aliens Carriage of Passengers Disposal of Crown Lands Privileges in acquisition of Land to Naval and Military Officers Climate Index. Grold Mining. their History. 2s. Bernard Cbacboft. Our Iron Navy. 6(2. Population. Officers. in FRENCH CONVERSATION. Gippbn. and otlier Illustrations. Guernsey. E.N. 9(2. •Geological Sections. 8vo. Second Edition.-ELEMENTS of ARITHMETIC. Land and Emigration — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — CRACROFT'S INVESTMENT TRACTS. By F. 4to. Author of On Man&c. ' DAMON (Robert). blotli. With Maps. Demand for Agents. cloth.. &o. Fcap. . jesty's Colonial 1873. Price Gd. ISLAND of POETLAND . cloth. 5s. Dedicated to Fourth Edition. ^yo. Demy the topics generally interesting to Schoolboys. DALLY. 2s. late Professor of MaJJiematies in University College. with numerous Notes on the Botany and Zoology of the Coast and Neighbourhood. Is. F. &o. THE A AND 5s. drawn by Bone. COLONIZATION CIRCULAR. Is. Sd. •3s. Containing Offiolal Information respecting Emigration Commissioners. Fcap. 2s. EASY LESSONS Li. 2». Cambridge Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society. SOLICITORS' MEMORANDUM Mounted. R. Sd. 5«. consisting of Nine Lithographic Plates of Fossils. Esq. By Commodore A. Nineteenth Thousand. GUERNSEY. Dallt. Supplement to tlie above. [PfMUhed AnaaaUy. Laws. Assistance to Emigrate Wages. . WHOI. 8vo. or separately. Cost of Passages. De Morgan. cloth. BOOKS. INVESTORS' BOOK. SYNOPSIS of the Ordinary TRUSTEES' GUIDE: Powers of Trustees in regard to Investments. Labour in the Colonies Cost of Provisions and Clothing Prices. Coast Views. Fcap. Jersey. and of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. London.. "CONSOLS CHART. Agriculture.' Fcap. .. &c. cloth. Issued by Hbu Ma- Oouuibbionebs.-AMERICAN RAIL- WAYS AS INVESTMENTS. ning the Navy. -GUIDE and the to the GEOLOGY of WEYMOUTH Containing a Map of the District.-GUIDE on to JERSEY and with Notes Geology. Sg.

With Maps and Photographic Views. 3s.-HOW ABOUT FIJI? Or Annexation v.. and an Account of the Siege and Fall of Strasburg. G. Demy 12mo. and Venice. Second Edition. EVILL (Wm. limp cloth. 6A to the Above. By H. . F. KEY 3«. cloth.. and HI. Boi^. cloth. FosiTEB. Demy Svo. French Master. 2s. cloth. cloth.—SIKHIM Jungle Warfare. M. 2». 3s. . and Western China. With and to Glances at Strasbnrg. FITZ-GEORGE. GA ROME FIJI ISLANDS. Aknom). and the Modem Usages of War. one of Her Majesty's In^)ectois of Schools. cloth. C. ^ITCH (J. 3». -MANUAL of GEOGRAPHICAL PRONUNCIATION and ETYMOLOGY. 3s. 12>.-PLAN of the BATTLE of SEDAN. 8to. paper. Parts II. Boyal Welsh Fusiliers. M.-METHODS J. With Hints on Motmtain and Exhibiting also the facilities for opening Commercial Eelations through the State of Sikhim with Central Asia.G. Gawleb. G. ig. and Examiner in tlie University of London. By Colonel J. By A. doth. By Edition. Pitch. and a short Sketch of the Natural Aspects of the Groap^ By " E. Post 8vo.6 BOOKS. Newcasile-on-Tyne. ELLIS'S LATIN EXERCISES.' ' : GAWLER (Colonel). 12mo.. &c. Florence. Sutheblasd Edwaeds. Notes on the Method and Conduct of the Invasion the Belaticns between Invaders and Invaded . Demy Svo. .A.B. With an Acconnt of the Various Proposals for Cession. 5s. cloth. paper cover. Gd. 12mo.S. ETIENNE'S LITTLE BOY'S FIRST FRENCH BOOK: On the plan of Arnold's' Henry's Mrst Latin Demy 12njo. Non-Annexation.. M. Second Edition.-A FRENCH METHOD. ECCLESIASTICAL COMHISSIONEES' EEPORT-APPEITDIX to the Twenty-Sixth Bepoit of the Ecclesiastical Cbmmiasieners for England. By Captain Frra-GBOBGE. with Map and Appendix. 10s. 2a.—A WINTER JOURNEY BACK. K. Ph. Ehkuch.A. Treatise on Geography. Eoyal Grammar School. Corrected by T. Second Price 6d. Author of 'A General late Editor of and other Educational Works. of TEACHING ARITH- METIC. A.). Class Examinations. With Map and lUustrations. 6d. Milan. Ninth Edition. Demy . Naples." Demy Svo.M.). paper eoTer. Thibet. Crown Svo.A. Third Edition. Fcap.D. F.. EDWARDS. Pompeii. 6d. late Deputy Adjutant-General in India. accom- panied by -a Short Memoir. By H. 6d.-THE GERMAN'S IN FRANCE. FOSTER. THEORETICAL and PEACTICAL adapted to the Kequirements of the University Middle. Chambers's Educational Course ' Assistant-Commissioner to the Eoyal Education Inquiry.. EHRLICH:. Wm. &c.

Bart. F.-riRST STEPS for in ENGLISH GRAMMAR: the purpose of enabling Teachers to put into the hands of th«ir Pupils a book containing only such parts as should be committed to memory.. and FISHING HOLDSWORTH. Crown 8vo. and Specimens of Handwriting extracted from the Reports of the Civil Service Commissioners. With Two Plans. Crown 8vo. A Paper read at the Royal Institute of British Architects. Demy 4to.L. F. C. cloth. An Account of the Practical Fisheries carried on around the British Islands. and other gear in use and Notices of the Principal Fishing Stations in the United Kingdom. 2s. Poap.G. cloth. Civil Enqinbemnq and SnEVETiNG. Compiled GRAHTHAM. and of Candidates for the Civil Service. 6d. By Edmund W. &o..S.). in EIGHT LANGUAGES. cloth. comprising the leading terms in the following constructive branches: Civil and Boclesiastical Abohiteotuee. Bart. and for ARMY EXAMIWith Examination Papers. 6d.L.. By 0.G.R. By Vice-Admiral Sir John Dalbymple Hat. BOOKS.. &c.-WATER SUPPLY FOR COUNTRY MANSIONS.S. and containing RECENT REGULATIONS for OPEN COMPETITIONS HOME and INDIAN CIVIL SERVICES.P. HALL (Henry.B. Second Edition. late Assistant Examiner in Chemistry at the TJnivKsity of London. late Teacher of Chemistry and Experimental Physics in University College School. H. (Townshend M. AND What wb Know of it.). Hatjghton Gill. A Sketch.-ASHANTI and the GOLD COAST. Boyal 18mo.G. Forming a Companion to the SERIES of TECHNICAL VOCABULARIES. NATIONS. 6g. 3s.. 21s. Nets. to the Royal Sea Fisheries Commission. late Secretary Medium 8vo. 2s.. Inst. 2s.E. D. cloth. the FOREST SERVICE. Second Edition. With Coloured Map. 2s. price 3d. W..-MANUAL of : SOUTH AFRICAN GEOGRAPHY Map of South Africa to 16° South Latitude. F.Z. 8vo. HAY (Sir John.S. IEEIjAND. the ENGINEERING COLLEGE. HANDBOOK the the most for the to GOVERNMENT SITUATIONS: Showing MODE rf APPOINTMENT and RATES of PAY.-The MINERALOGIST'S DIRECor.DEEP -SEA FISHING Workmg of the vanous BOATS.. Intended for the use of the Upper Classes in Grovernment Schools. MlLITART AbOHITEOTOBE AND FOBTIEICATION.. F. One Hundred Illustrations.S.). 7 GILL—CHEMISTRY for SCHOOLS : an Introduction to the Practical Study of Ohomistry. (J.S. 6d. cloth.. 4s. Second Edition. F. . 6s. WHOLESALE AND RETAIL BOOK AND MAP SELLER. With Illustrations and Descriptions of the Fishing Boats. Holdswobth. by EioHAED B. C.O. paper covers. M.. Post 8vo. Crown 8vo. Fourth Edition. F.). Gbantham.R.. cloth. M.S.. Ss. A GUIDE to the PRINCIPAL MINJEEAL LOCALITIES in the UNITED KINGDOM of GREAT BRITAIN and TORY.

D.). CHABHTG C£0SS. Third Editicm. Author of Ten Years' Wanderings amongst theEthiopiaiis. Professor of Geology in the Soyal College of Scienoe. Also. With Maps. M. with Extracts liom a Diary of Salado Exploration.E.). Member of the ConTocation of Hie UniTeraity Demy 8vo. P. 9d. Pcap. With Klap. trations. 5s. of Toronto. &c..L.M. and SOUTH AMEBIC AN EECOL' PARANA: With mCIDENTS LECTIONS.. HUTCHINSON (T. emhodying the Bep<Bls of the Boyal StructTirei . H.B. HrRLBDKT. and Coaches. cloth. or. Director of the Greologioal Survey of Ireland. — £DWABB STANFOKS.. cloth.SERIES OE CATECHISMS FOR ^Anti- SCBOOLS. of the J. and Statistical TaiHea. 2g. each. 21& BUENOS AYRES IRVING and ARGENTINE GLEANINGS . FIRST Edition. Algefata. and Besonrces with Notices of the Coal Fields of other parts of the World.E...F. WiHi Maps and ninstrations. With Map. — ISLE OF MAN. Chapt^ on Ijocal Names Mineralogy CitU History Ecclesiastical History Gctdogy Botany Zoology Agriculture Commerce And Sea Tront-fiahing. By Thomas J. LL. HITRLBTmT..IIutchdison. cloth. F.ls. JENKINSON'S PRACTICAL GUIDE — to tie ISLE OF Containing Introduction Population Table of Distances Heights of Mounteins Charges for Porters and Conveyances How to Spend a Plying Visit to the Isle of Man Voyage Tound the Island Hotel Tarifis Douglas. 8vo. I>BbIin. Castletown. By HJowakd Hraa. 1^8.-LATIN TYRO'S GUIDE STEPS towards the .Ji .— The PAKAGUATANTFAK.6d. Part IL —Antiquities of Greece — — Astronomy — Botany — British Constitution Biography — Chemistry — English Grammar — French Grammar — Generid Geography — General Knowledge — History of England — History of Prance — History of Greece — History Scotland — Italian of Ireland — History of Bome — History Grammar — Jewish Antiquities — Music — Mythology — Katural Philosophy — Practical Chemistry — Sacred History — Dniversal — quities of Classical Bome tff History.. 8to. With Map and JUustrations.S. B. HTTLL—COAI FIELDS Coal ComraissioQ. MA.S. Part I. of GEEAT BRITAIIT . New l^mo.. JACKSON (George).-BEITAIN and HER COLONIES. Eamsay Sections round the Island Index. 55 & 8.. 18mo. from 1861 to 1868. 16s. &e. Demy 8vo. 6d. Demy 8vo. LL. Is. — — — — — — — — A Wdk — — — — — — — — MAN.. ACQUIBEMEIJT of lATIN. Algebra. revised and enlarged. cloth.S. cloth. Fcap. P.S.BjG. Illus- (C. Past n. By J. doth. 10«. — — — — SMALLER PRACTICAL GUIDE to the Containing Distances Heights of Mountains Charges for Porters and Conveyances How to Spend a Flying Visit Voyage round the Island. &c. their History.E. cloth. &c. Consul for Callao (late for Eosario). Peel. Demy Svo.— g — £UUJi. .D.O. 12ino.' &c. &o.

Field of Great Britain with a Disquisition on the Origin. and Passes and Guides Local Names—Meteorology. 8to. Coll. AUSTRALIA. &c. and Botany. containing a Geological of the Mineral Springs of Central Italy . the Future Cotton LANG. Fifth Edition. Crown 8vo. 9 JENKINSOH'S PRACTICAL GUIDE LAKE DISTEIOT. 6d.-The ENGLISH LANGUAGE Its GRAMMAR and HISTOEY. the Eev. the Lakes Contents —^Introduction— How to Spend a Flying Visit —a Fourteen Days' Pedestrian Tour— Charges Conveyances. BtlTTERMEBE.—VIRGIL'S Translated into English Verse . Fcap. D. M. cloth. Boating. and its Social Effects set forth. Vicar of Cutcombe. Ponies. and SETS of EXEECISES and EXAMINATION PAPERS By for the ASSISTANCE of TEACHERS and STUDENTS. Author of ' Dried Contents: Bruges. 8vo.—A FEW DAYS in BELGIUM and HOLLAND Idle Book for an Idle Hour. Leyden. With Nine Maps and : to the ENGLISH to Three Panoramic Views. J. and Chemical Account With Supplement. Heights of Passes. 12s. 6d.M.ffiNEID by the Eev. B 3 . and Ullswatee SEOTioifS. 8vo.A. Butteemeee.' 'Effie's Tales. Peap. to the Containing Charges for Conveyances. 6d.. Delft. *^* The Sections separately: Kjsswiok Winiiermbke and Lasqdale Gbasheeb and Ullswatee. &o. Geology. late Senior Lecturer at the National Society's Training College. &o. LaNGDAIE. with Map.—QUEENSLAND. Ascents. With two Diagrams. Second Edition. 3s. 5s. Boating. with inGuides. and Mountains. Third Edition. and Commercial Notices of the Mines . Conservator of the Eoyal Italian Industrial Museum at Turin. Rotterdam. WHOIiBSAIiE AND BETAIL BOOK AND SEAP SELLEB. GeaBMERE. Fcap. Eoyal 8vo. and Customs of the Aborigines. the Hague. containing full Information and Instruction respecting Walks. Drives.. Bruxelles.' cloth. . A. — : LEWIS. Tarns. Lang. Lakes. doth. P. &c. Principal of Culham Training College. King. 68.. Is.—A SERIOUS FALL in the VALUE of GOLD ASCEETAINED. formation and instructions respecting Walks. : KING. and Tarns. Drives. CoNiSTON. and Wastwatbb — — With Maps. Excursions. Post 8vo. Flowers. M. 4s. late Scholar of Ball. Battersea. 8vo. — Heights of Mountains. By J. cloth. Jeevis.). Demy 8vo. 4s. Lakes. B. Ghent. Manners. Haarlem. Wastwatbb. With Two Coloured Maps. Stanley.. together with a TEBATISE on ENGLISH COMPOSITION. each.— : BOOKS. Amsterdam. KeSWIOK. for — WiNDBEMBKE. LEES An (Lady). Ponies. one of the Eepresentatives of the City of Sydney in the Parliament of New South Wales. By W. — The MINERAL RESOURCES of CENTRAL ITALY Geological.D. JEVONS (W.' &c. Antwerp. price Is. D.A. Oxon. cloth. EIGHTEEN-PENNY GUIDE ENGLISH LAKE DISTKICT: JERVIS. Historical. and Marble Quarries. By Lady Lees. Excursions. Crown. with Analyses of the Waters. Hbnb^ Lewis. Ascents. Second Edition. CONIBTON.

Crown 4to. 1868.).10 BOOJIS.. and GEOLOGICAL ACCOUNT of : VOLCANO. Demy 8vo.. LUCAS. cloth.—HORIZONTAL WELLS. 12s. cloth. CHASING CKOSS. a Table of Dates of Eruptions. doth. and dedicated by permission to the President. Intended for the use of Junior Classes. Fcap. price 2d.S. EDWABD STANFOKD. and Council of the Statistical Society of London. E. This Work is suitable for preparing classes for the University Local Examinations. . and a List of Vesuvian Minerals. LOBLEY the A DE(J. late Senior Lecturer at the National Society's Training College. LEY (W. Principal Omnibus for the Resident and the Visitor. Demy 8vo. Oulham Training College. Alban Meaden. cloth back. &c. M. Demy 8vo. 1869. the Science Examinations. With Maps. By M. Gd. with a NOTICE of the RECENT ERUPTION. ING WESTERN EUROPE. — A FIRST ALGEBRA Classes. Vice-Presidents. With Cab Pares. F. Map (printed in Colours). Sanctioned by the Eegistrar-General. and as an Introduction to the Author's larger English Grammar. for Use in Junior By the Rev. in stiff paper covers. By J. 8vo. for LEWIS—ENGLISH GRAMMAR SEKEES of Principal of BEGINNERS.G. Somerset House). and an Appendix. EASY LESSONS. Cambridge Senior Mathematical Master of the Bradford Grammar School.A..— MOUNT VESUVIUS SCRIPTIVE. F. Clement). LUCAS.E.S. By (J. about 25 Miles Round.— The MULTUM in PARVO LONDON and its ENVIRONS. With Three Coloured MEADEN.-PRINCIPLES ENTRY. H. of Isobarics in Nortii-Western Europe and of tlie Tracks of the Great Depressions in August. With View. 4s. MANLY.—The in LAWS . Batteraea.G. of the WINDS PREVAIL- Part L With Synoptic Charts Charts of Mean Tracks of Baric Minima.OVERLAND Maps.S. . 6<i. 5«. 10s. A New AppUcatiori of Geological Principles to effect the Solution of the Problem of Supplying London with Water. Koyal 8vo. and January and March. MARSH. LONDON GUIDE and to ENVIRONS. Medium 18mo. in cloth boards. . late Scholar of Emmanuel College. Ig. Third Edition. and Barograins. Is. from 6i SOUTHAMPTON to QUEENS- LAND. in a Series of of BOOK-KEEPING by DOUBLE Easy and Progressive Exercises. cloth. Map of the Environs of London. Crown 8vo. revised and enlarged. Routes. 18mo. in a the Kev. cloth. containing Letters by Plint the Younger. M.A. By Henbt Manly. compiled from the OfScial Keturns and Edited by James Lewis (of the Begistrar-General's Department. 55 & 8. and Section. Principal Writing Master and Teacher of Book-keeping in the City of London School. of the Geological Siu'vey of England. or. B. HISTORICAL. is. &c. Logan. 5s.)-DIGEST OF THE ENGLISH CENSUS OF 1871..A.G. 3s. cloth. F. Henbt Lewis. Second Edition. Gd. Maksh.

Eoyal 4to. Is.. 2s. Director of the Meteorological Office. F. ATLANTIC. to the TEACKS of STEAMEES from the Translated from No. from the Equator to Latitude 40° N. direction of the Meteokological Committee. With Scott. 1870. Diagrams. and Extracts from Logs. for each Month of the Year. and on the probable Causes of the Difference. Committee. With 12 Meteorological Charts. By Authority of the ON THE WINDS. ScbTT.-CONTRIBUTIONS to our KNOWLEDGE of the METEOEOLOGY of the ANTAECTIO EEGIONS. Compiled from Board of Trade Eegisters.-A DISCUSSION of the METEOROLOGY of the PAET of the ATLANTIC lying NOETH of 30° N. Is. With a General Current Chait. COAST or FISHERY BAROMETER MANUAL. Illustrative Diagrams. TEADE. . A. M.. &C. 11 ANTARCTIC REGIONS.A. By Captain Henbt Toynbeb. 6dl. Boyal 8vo. Compiled By Eobeet H. boards. on the Meteorology of the North Atlantic between the parallels of 40° and 50° N. of the direction of the Meteokological Committee.. Published by Authority of the MeteoroLOGIOAI. M. as illustrated by Eight Diagrams of Observations taken on board the Mail Steamers running to and from America. CAPE HORN. Meteorological Office. F. 2s.—BOARD by of TRADE.. with Eemarks and Conclusions. 3 of the Mittheilungen aus der Norddeutsche SeeMeteorological Committee. Marine Superintendent. of the YOEK. and the Charts published by the Eoyal Meteorological Institute of the Netherlands.E.-CONTRIEUTIONS to our KNOWLEDGE of the METEOEOLOGY of CAPE HOEN and the WEST COAST of SOUTH AMEEICA. Folio. Published by the Authority of the METEOBOliOOiCAL for the Committee. BAROMETER MANUAL.A. (North).-CHARTS EATUEE in each Month of the Year. Gd. Eoyal 4to. 2s.. Eoyal 8vo.. 6d. Eoyal 4to. WHOIiESAIiE AND BETAIL BOOK AND MAP SELIiEB.-CURRENTS and SURFACE TEMPERATURE of the NOETH ATLANTIC OCEAN. 6d. Report to of the the Committee of the METEOKOLOGiaAL Office.S. Director of the Meteorological Office. 6d. By Means of Synoptic Charts. NORTH CHANNEL the NEW (South). By Eobebt H. Eoyal 4to. With Books of Charts. With Eemarks on the Difference in the Winds and Weather experienced according as the ship's course is Westerly or Easterly. METEOROLOGY NORTH ATLANTIC..—BOARD OompUed under 8vo.E. warte. By Authority of the Mbteokologioal Committee. ATLANTIC OCEAN. 2s.METEOROLOGHCAL OFFICE PUBLICATIONS. By Authority of the Mbteobologioal Committee. 5s.S. along &e. of the SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN SHOWING SURFACE TEMPE- Oemce. Eleven Days ending 8th of February. Issued under the Authority of the Committee of the Meteokologicai. Eoyal 8vo.

and Valencia. 8vo. By Captain Hjinbt Totnbee. Royal 8vo. price 5s. Is. lEIPZIG CONFERENCE. while another shows the Direction and Velocity of the Wiad. 1870. The ROUTES for STEAMERS from ADEN to the STRAITS of SUNDA AND BACK. The Parts for 1869. are now ready. and August. Eoyal 8vo. Containing the Besults of the Daily Observations made at the seven Observatories established by the Meteorological Committee at Kew. 1872. -REPORT of the PROCEEDINGS of THE METE0E0L06ICAL CONPERENCE at LEIPZIG. Ig.R. 1871. VIENNA CONGRESS. Translated from a Paper issued by the Boyal Meteorological Institute of the Netherlands.S. ISOBARIC CURVES -On the USE of ISOBARIC CURVES. their Marine Superintendent. Is. QUARTERLY WEATHER REPORT Falmouth. With some practical suggestions for Seamen. P. Published by the Authority of the Meteorological Eoyal 8vo. with PBESsnBEand Tempebatuee Tabies. AiEEtDEEir. and a few Bemarks on Buys Ballot's Law. Authority of the Meteoeologicai. and H.— REPORT ON WEATHER TELEGRAPHY and STORM WARNINGS. lUnstrated by Fourteen Diagrams of Gales in January. -An INQUIRY CONNECTION between STRONG WINDS andBAEOMETBICAL DIFFEBENCBS. Committee. of METEOROLOGICAL CONGRESS Protocols and Appendices. Published by the Eoyal 8vo.-REPORT the of the at PROCEEDINGS VIENNA. one Plate comprising Pressure and Temperature. Published by the Authority of the Protocols and Appendices. and a LINE of GREATEST BAEOMBTEIC CHANGE in attempting to FOBETEL WINDS.A. of 1873. 6d. by a Committee appointed at the Leipzig Conference. Published by the Authority of the Meteoeological Committee. each Part. 1868. Stonthubst. Eoyal 8vo. and are arranged to show at one view the instrumental curves at each of the stations for five days. paper . 1867. Royal 8vo. ' STATION INSTRUCTIONS GBAPHY. Scales of Measurement. &c. WEATHER TELEGRAPHY AND STORM WARNINGS. Director of the Office. for METEOROLOGICAL TELEinto the STRONG WINDS. and Parts I. of the METEOROLO- GICAL OPFICB. Being a Beport presented to the Committee of the Meteoeologioal Office. 6d. Plates exhibit the continuous registration of the Observations.. 6d. Published by Authority of the Meteoeological ComHttttee. on both the British and French systems.12 METEOBOLOGICAI^ OFFICE PUBLICATIONS. By Bobeet H. Armagh.sides. Eoyal 4to. Is. presented to the Meteorological Congress at Vienna. Scott. cover. Being a Report to the Committee of the MBTEOEOLOGioiL Office. being given at the . Meteorological Committee. Committee. Glasgow.

' Crown 8vo. in FAR CATHAY.Edward). P. Crown 8vo. Is. Land Regulations Instructions for the Statistics. New Plymouth. cloth.. By Consul. . Otago. Is. 8s. and Wages Voyage. Harmonized and MINERAL STATISTICS GREAT BRITAIN of the UNITED KINGDOM of and IRELAND for the YEAR 1872. and the Republics of Uruguay aud Paraguay. the SETTLER and the SAVAGE in WESTERN AUSTRALIA. Keeper of the Mining Records. Pcap. By Augustus Mongredien. &c. cloth. Medhurst. cloth.BOOKS. Adapted to the Requirements of the Worcester Diocesan Board of Education. Royal 8vo. NAUTICAL MAGAZINE. Millee. Is. By M. By Eobekt Hunt.-An AUSTRALIAN PARSONAGE. Contents Position of Foreigners Customs of the Chinese — Shop Signs Advertising Mandarin Yamens Opium Smoking Infanticide Eating and Drinking Social Institutions Modes of Sepulture Character of the Chinese Specimen of Chinese Music. MONGREDIEN. &c.). Canterbury. By Fkedk. 6s. illustrated by Fifty-five Engravings. 8vo.NOTES on the MORNING and EVENING PKAYEE and the LITANY. Southland. . 68.S. cloth. and E. Nelson. Fifth Edition.' With Map and Two Plans. EXHIBITED in the GOSPEL NARRATIVE FOUR EVANGELISTS. with a Chapter on the Christian Year. with Original Words and English Literal Translation. .R. Outfit. G. The Mineral Statistics for previous years may also be obtained. with Tables of Marlborough. Published Monthly. and giving a full description of the Provinces of Auckland. 2s.. Hawkes Bay. 13 MEDHURST. Second Edition. H. . 8vo. Shanghai. T. of the Chronologically Arranged. Second Edition. 2s. Prices. MILLETT (Mrs. . . Fcap.-CHRIST an EXAMPLE for the YOUNG. With Coloured Map. 12s.-The FOREIGNER W.M. With as Frontispiece. and Arrival in the Colony also Observations on New Zealand Pursuits and Investments. with an Appendix. Author of Trees and Shrubs for English Plantations. Twelfth Edition.ENGLAND'S FOREIGN ' POLICY: An Inquiry as to whether we should continue a Policy of Intervention or adopt a Policy of Isolation. and a Map. Published by Order of the Lords Commissionbbs of Hee Majesty's Treasury. Cloth. . &o.B. MULHALL. NEW ZEALAND HANDBOOK: Containing a New and Accurate Coloured Map. — — — : — — — — — — — — MILLER. having Picture Definitions and Exercises. Comprising Buenos Ayres and the Provinces of the Argentine Republic. Proprietors and Editors of the Buenos Standard. Wellington. cloth. or.HANDBOOK REPUBLICS Ayres ' : TO THE RIVER PLATE Crown 8vo. WHOLESALE AUD EETAIL BOOK AND MAP SELLER. H. MIMPRISS (Robt. 6d. New Series. . Large post 8vo. Master of the Malvern Link National School. printed on different Tinted Papers to distinguish the various Periods of our Lord's Ministry. Mulhail.

. . 1842 to 1850. 7s. ^t..E. . . and the Amplitude of the Celestial Arcs. price 16s. In Little Domesdat Book. sewed. 1086. „ Oxfordshire Butlandshire (bound with Leicestershire) Dorsetshire . .—Norfolk... 1 vol. In Gbeat Domesday Bode. 14 ORDNANCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS. „ . 8 10 8 21 . s.. s. CHASING CBOSS. Yollakd. R.B.. . d. 55 & 8. GEODETICAL TABLES. . The following parts are already published. together with a Catalogue of the Stars which have been observed. Domesday Book complete^ bound in 2 volumes. Facsimile of Domesday Book. 4to.D. . 23s.. #rkana Snrkg ^ttWkati0ns. Buckingham „ . price 8 8 8 10 8 8 8 10 8 8 Leicestershire and Butland price „ .. .—Suffolk. Huntingdon Kent 10 8 10 8 Shropshire Somersetshire Staffordshire . 22s. Essex. WiUiam The Great Survey England by the Conqueror. .S. 3s. K. thin 4to. Price of an entire Set (as above^. Jahes.. .. ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS made Sector. with Airey's Zenith 20s.. of DOMESDAY BOOK. Gloucestershire Hampshire Herefordshire Hertfordshire .. under the direction of Major-General Sir H. „ „ „ „ „ . 8 8 Warwickshire Wiltshire . . ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS made with Eamsden's Zenith Sector. by Her Bfejesty's Command. in imperial 4to. 6d.. W. ... price 2«. Worcestershire Yorkshire .B. . EBWABD STAITFOKD.. d. Bedfordshire Berkshire .. Completed by Captain or. cloth. . deduced from the Observations at the different Stations.. ' „ „ Middlesex Nottinghamshire Northamptonshire . Surrey 10 „ Lancashire (see Cheshire and Lancashire) . . <&c... Lincolnshire Cambridge Cheshire and Lancashire „ Cornwall Derbyshire Devonshire ... P. . reproduced by the Fhotozincographlc Process. . A.. 171. price 202. .

E.A. . E.S. &c. By Captain W.S. taken at the Stations 2s. the SIX SHEETS of of the WOKLD. New Westminster. Vol. with the Translation.S. India. and Illustrative Diagrams . Director of the Ordnance Survey. taken at the Eoyal Engineers' Of&ce.. Russia. 20«. 7 14 Total £12 12 separately. 4to.E.-On Is. price 58. E.. Pub- DITTO taken at the Stations of the Eoyal Engineeis in the Years 1853 to 1859. Facsimile of Carta.S. 4to.. Tollakd. of the Eoyal Engineers.E. the CONSTRUCTION and USE of MAEGINAL LINES for MAPS of any part Gs. II. LOUGH FOYLE BASE.— OKDNANCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS. WHOIiESAIiE AlTD BETAIL BOOK AND MAP SEIiLEB. and 2 18 2 abouttheCity . . under the superintendence of Major-General James. 1 vol. and plates. MAGNA CARTA. With Notes by Captain Wilson... 1853-4.—King Magna John. or in Divisions. F. P. Price 15s. royal 8vo. 6d. E. 1 vol. 15 of JERUSALEM. France. by Captain A. Gd. . Vol. The Survey is sold complete for Twelve Guineas.E. under the direction of Major-General Sir Hbnkt Jambs.E. . Photozincographed at the Ordnance Survey Office. 4to. price 10s.E. F. Claske. 4to. Gd. . cloth. F. ... Diagrams. Prussia. 1 vol.d. — ORDNANCE SURVEY vey Sir Office. E. . Containing Captain Wilson's Notes on Jerusalem. The Plans Mounted. List.' of the MEASUREMENTS of the LOUGH FOYLE BASE. 287 pp. in 1 vol. Price Is. for. Detailed LENGTH.. post free for and Photographs are sold two Penny Stamps. Southampton. in 1860-1.-COMPARISONS of the STANDARDS of LENGTH of England. 1 vol. Mem. under the superintendence of Captain Pabsons. JERUSALEM.. ... as Hbnbt follows : £ in a Portfolio . .. Published by Order of the Secretary of State for War.E. METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. Price MARGINAL LINES. &c. Containing the Photographs taken in and . Price Is. *«* The Six Sheets of Marginal Lines are published. price DITTO DITTO taken at Dublin.. made at the Ordnance Survey Office. Southampton.E. Cor. .-An ACCOUNT E. of the Eoyal feeographical Society of Berlin. Produced at the Ordnance Sur- Southampton. with Prices. Australia. 8. Director. I. price 2s.E. Belgium. . The Plans. . E. 4to.E. d. . British Columbia. TABLES lished sepsirately.. 1215.. a.E. price METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 6d.

E. PHOTOZmOOGEAPHIO FACSIMILBS of some A Series of of the most intfirestingof our National MSS. 15s. F.* The Volumes of Levelling will be found of great value to all Engineers. Basevi Sandees. 5s. price 16«.. . and Mean Specific Gravity of the Earth as derived therefrom.. price is. in a neat portfolio. including illustrated Title Page and Plan of the Abbey. This series. Master of the EoUs.E. NATIONAL MANUSCRIPTS of ENGLAND. With Plates. of the Positions of Feaghmain and Haverfordwest. Gd. Esq.. THE LEVELLING TAKEN EST ENGLAND AND WALES. Price complete. APPENDIX TO DITTO. as they contain the Lines of Levels taken throughout the Kingdom..S.. Dimensions. royal 4to. IV. . together with a few from other repositories. copied by order of Her Majesty's GoTemment. and III. txc. with the Figure.—Determination n. Deputy Keeper of Her Majesty's Eeoords and includes some of the most remarkable Original Documents deposited in Her Majesty's Eecord Office. Price *. and give the exact height of every Bench Mark or Bolt. m. Southampton. each. Longitude Stations on the great European Arc of Parallel. Manuscripts of Scotland. With Plates. and the Letters of Eoyal and Eminent or Bemarkable Persons. with Translations and Introductory Notes by W. of Netley Abbey.E. Sir John Eomillt. and Scientific Persons. illustrated with numerous cloth. The Facsimiles are arranged chronologically.S. Plates. The series is published in Four Parts. Director of the Ordnance Survey . THE LEVELLING TAKEN IN IRELAND. CHABING CROSS.. by Major-General Sir HiaraT James.— 16 OKDNANCE SURVEY PXTBLICATIOJMS. —Photozincographic Facsimiles of National Price 21s. Assistant Keeper of Her Majesty's Records. Sixteen Photographic Views. including the most perfect Original Copy of Magna Carta now extant. bound in complete. by Thomas Ddffus Hardy. EDWARD STANPOKD. FJl. i. and the Translations are interleaved so as to appear opposite to each page of the Facsimile of the Original Manuscripts. With 5s. or other object observed above the inean level of the sea. 31. Part I. E. Esq. or in separate volumes as under : L THE PEINCIPLE TEIANGTTLATION of the UNITED KINGDOM. 15s. 55 & 8. Major-Gteneral Sir Henbt James. &c. 10s. Photozincographed at the Ordnance Survey Office. ORDNANCE TRIGONOMETRICAL SURVEY of the UNITED KINGDOM. Plates. SCOTLAND. Gfeologists. The Account of this Survey is now as above. NETLEY ABBEY-PHOTOZINCOGRAPHED VIEWS OF. 4to. Parts n. THE LEVELLING TAKEN IN SCOTLAND. consisting of Eoyal Charters and Grants... (Director). E. 25s. each. and may be had In Pour Volumes. out of print. has been selected under the direction of the Eight Hon.

those in Vols. Any of the Photographs (numbering 153) may be purchased separately at the following prices. I. each unmounted. 10s. E. consists of Ten Mount Sinai. Thirty-six in nnmber. each.' Also an Appendix on some Sculptured Stones recently found in Ireland. price if required.—This Part of the Peninsula of Sinai.B. with In 1 Volume. Price 8s. Vol. SIlTAI. and sold complete for 22?. I.E. Box-Stereoscope. unmounted. unmounted.-ORDNAlfCE SURVEY publislied in &o. By Major-General Sir Henby Jambs. Vols.. Photograph of Stonehenge Restored. each. price. with Tables of the quantities Bequisite for the construction of Map^ on that Projection .— On the Eectangulax Tangential Projection of the Sphere and Spheroid.. twenty pages of Part Illustrations. showing Druidical Night. Vol. : The Parts can also be had separately as follows Part —The II.. are also published. Is.. W. IL. mounted on Part III. 51. 21. 6d. price MAPS. 6d.. With portfolio. ONE HUNDRED TOGRAPHS and ELEVEN ADDITIONAL PHO. F. 51. 5s. Is. DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 9c2. A Detailed List of the Photographs and List of I^ermy Stamps.—The Photographs taken to Ordnance Survey of Sinai are published in 3 illus- half-bound in morocco. cloth. il. Plans and Photographs with Descriptions and . CROMLECHS. 1 vol. those in Vol. Single PHOTOGRAPHS. imperial folio. and SCULPTURED STONES. 6d. Price Is. 3c2. P. &e. or separately. Vol. mounted. Is. .R. By Major-General Sir Henet James. accompanied by Plates. and also for a Map of the World on the scale of ten miles to an inch. in a for Two Price Two Guineas. and II. Maps and Sections and Mount SerbAl. Oiigin. Maps can be ihad trate the cloth to fold... and may be purchased separately price Is. Progress.. price 131. mounted.. 9i^.S. half-bound. 5s... 51. STONEHENGE. price 14s. viz. Sacrifice by WHOLESALE AND KETAIL BOOK AND MAP SEIiLEB.. STEREOSCOPIC VIEWS. TURUSACHAN. III. with Diagrams and Outline Map. and Results of the Survey. unmounted. 17 of SINAI.S. III. .E. 4to. or Is. R. mounted. Notes relating to the Druids.— OBDNANCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS. I. mounted. This Survey is Three Parts. Maps sent by post SPHERE and SPHEROID. Is.

Tombs. Ig. and similar Walls in other Ancient 24 Photographs. Priests. Is. &c. Centuries XH. 10s. and can now be supplied at the following prices :— Jerusalem. Is. Eecrait Excavations in Bome. Fresco Paintings of the first Nine Centuries. 25 „ . 11. Hon.E. Walls and Gates of Bome. Bemains of the City. One Hundred Best Photographs.18 PHOTOGRAPHS. 21. 50 „ to Subscribers. 10s.. 1866. 51. 55 & 8. 14s. to Subscribers. 30 Photographs. Fresco Paintings. Forapeii. 21. . M. 55«. Non-Subscribers. 20 Photographs. 5/. Vacx. under the orders of Captain Wilson. 10s. 2Z.A. 20 Photographs.. Villages. Phillips. lOs. Mosaic Pictures. Aqueducts. — EDWABD STAJSTFORD. according to Subjects. Synagogues. Churches.B. 20 Photographs. 25«. Cities of Italy. unmounted. Selections of the best Photographs have been made. to Subscribers. for Comparison. and U. Systematic Catalogues. Mosaic Pictures of the first Nine Centuries. Pomm Bomanum. 458. Historical Construction of Walls. 20 Photographs. E. 21.. Is. Single Photographs. 5s. 8. EXPLORATION of PALESTINE PHOTOGRAPHIC VIEWS FUND PHOTOGRAPHS.S. 10s. 30 Photographs. In Boyal 4to volumes.OLOGT of EOME and ITALY. Single Photographs. Complete Set of Photographs (upwards of 3000). This beautiful series of Original Photographs now comprises 356 most interesting Views of the Cities. 9d. 30 Photographs. 30 Photographs. Inhabitants. of the Holy Land and size 13 inches Each Photograph is Mounted on a white board. or Cemeteries of Bome . . 10s. 1/. Non-Subscribers. Walls of the Kings on the Hills of Bome. selected by W.E. 21.. By John Henby Pabkee. from the Times of the Kings of Bome to the Middle Ages.. showing Historical Types of each Period. and IVesco Paintings. 20 Photographs. taken expressly for the Palestine Exploration Eund in 1865. 100 Photographs. 30 Photographs. by 11. 21. Temples. Descriptive Catalogue of the 100 Selected Photographs. The Colosseum. Sarcophagi of the first Four Centuries. 11. Is..-HISTORICAL PHOTOGRAPHS iUustrative of the AECH. Sculpture. 1?. to Subscribers. 30 Photographs. 40 Photographs. Construction. 11. Pilgrims.. 358. 21. .E. 100 Photographs. and Lieutenant Wabeen. IZ. of the Time of the Empire and of the Popes. 120Z. Parts I. 1867. E. Non-Subscribers. 20 Photographs. Non-Subscribers. cloth. or per post for penny stamp. A PARKER. 11. IZ. Taken withJJie light of Magnesium. W. 20 Photographs. Centuries XII. Oxon. Lakes. Esq. C. Catacombs. 10s. General Catalogue of Selected Photographs. By Sergeant H. 4J. CHAMNQ CROSS. Statues. lOs.S. 51.-XVU. IJ.-XVI. from their Sources to their Mouths. Cosmati Work. . 58. F. PALESTINE. B. 20 Photographs. &o. Bas-Eeliefs. Euins. 3d. The Palatine Hill. Church and Altar Decorations. List of the Selected Views gratis on application. 10s. It 10s. 6d.A. Seas. each. 20 Photographs.

late Assistant-Surgeon to Her Majesty's Forces in Turkey and the Crimea. has been partly rewritten. cloth. and of the Models of the Ordnance Surveys of Jerusalem and Sinai. The .A.. History.. cloth. POOR RELIEF IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF EUROPE: being a Selection of Essays.S. Plcetz. sections. M. the Sportsman. 6s. M. Five Coloured Index Maps. the Tourist.C. 9d. and contams much new matter... Plans. By Harvey J. Fourth Edition.. MAP GEEAT " This edition.L. Demy 8vo. 7s.. . Edition. Demy 12mo. S. With a Preface by Thomas Hughes. 3s. 2s.E. stiff cover. Dooteur en Philosophie. Demy 8vo. to His Boyal Highness Prince Arthur. of the KINGDOM Captain H. and one of the Masters of the College.D. &c. Par C.. Cambridge.P. &c. of Execution. LL. Kevue et Augmentee. K.. M. and other Publications of the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain and Ireland. has been added on the origin of the river courses of Britain . et XIX» Siecles.D.-PHYSICAL GEOLOGY and GEOGRAPHY of GEEAT BEITAIN.K. translated from the German Work. clotli. By A. WHOIiESAIiE AND KETAIIi BOOK AND SL&P SELLEK. and large additions have been made to the earlier brief account of soils. 19 PALMER. and of the phenomena connected with the metamorphism of rocks. Pope. C. Fellow of Sidney Sussex College. and illustrated with Numebods SecBEITAIN. Crown 8vo.S. is...B." Extract from Preface. . has been much enlarged and many long and important paragraphs have been added in the chapters on An entire new chapter the physical structure of En|. Philpot.' Von A. printed tions and a GEOLOGICAL of in Colours. Dedicated. : :. ancient Premier Professeur au College Francis de Berlin.. Mode cloth. Palmer. Eevised by B. XVHP. DireetorGeneral' of the Geological Surveys of the United Kingdom. M. CANADIAN DOMINION PLATTS' New NYMES (Eev. and a Colodred Map. 6d. RAMSAY. C.. of RUDIMENTARY CHEMISTRY.-GTJIDE BOOK to the Containing full information for the Emigrant.-A CLASS BOOK By 18mo. Eastwick.. ed. Geo. considerably enlarged.E. POPE. (Canada). and the Distinctions between the Synonymes with Examples.E. and the small Capitalist. Post 8vo. . Esq. : .-The OaDNANCE SUEVEY Its Objects.-MANUEL DE LA LITTERATURE PRANCAISE des XVIIB. by permission. Emminghaus. M.) DICTIONARY of ENGLISH SYNOComprehending the Derivations and Meanings of the Words. 6d. B. ' Das Armenwesen und die Armengesetzgebung in Europaisohen Staaten herausgegeben. F.— BOOKS. F. E.S. 78. .P. Super-royal 16mo. 6d.land and Scotland. preliminary sketch of the different formations. Eamsat. the Eev. Seconde Edition. and the economic products There are also many new illustrative of the various geological formations. published under the Superintendence of Major-General Sir Henby James. PL(ETZ. J. and Present Condition. By With ^ Catalogue of the Maps.E. Hurstpierpoint. PHILPOT.

). . Demy 8vo. GREEK Second Edition. with a Map. 6d. 12mo. s. B. Containing Exercises and Beading Lessons on the Inflexions of Substantives and Adjectives. Author of ' Pau and the Pyrenees.A. for Teaching the Elements of the Language on a System of Analysis and Synthesis.' &c. d. — HALBRAKE REGISTER of ATTENDANCE and STUDIES. Chelsea.' folio. Admission Begister for 1000 Names Class Register for Large Schools (50 Names) Class Register for Small Schools (34 Names) General Begister or Summary. Secretary of University College. KEY ROBSON to Ditto. -BIARRITZ and the By Count Henky Rissem. B. cloth. AVith copious Vocabularies. 68. 2s. of the Alpine Club.. and of the Active Verb in the Indicative Mood.. 4. . Designed for Private and MiddleClass Schools. By John Kobson. 12mo. for Three Years 3 7 6 . 3. Lond. Member of the Geographical and Geological Societies of France. London. cloth. cloth. &c. is. Eighth Edition. Intended as an Auxiliary Companion to every Treatise on Practical and Commercial Aritimetic. - The stiff LONDON boards. 6d.A. cloth Designed to meet the Fcap.-EXERCISES in 2s. Being the First Part of the Constructive Greek Exercises. SCHOOL-BOYS' LETTERS Third Edition. Lond. Crown 8to. 12mo. 8d. 2s. &c. 7«. By John EoBSON.A. Canon Ckomwell. BASQUE COUNTRIES. with Latin Eeading Lessons and copious Vocabnlaries. SCHOOL REGISTER. 'Second Edition.). Bequirements of School Boards. REYNOLDS AEITHMETIC : with a copious variety of Bills of Parcels. formerly Classical Master in University College School. 6d. EXERCISES. Principal of St. back. 1. M. B. RUSSELL. THE DURHAM SCHOOL REGISTERS.' CONSTRUCTIVE GREEK FIRST BOOK. The plan of this Book is as nearly as possible the same as that of the Author's ' Latin Exercises. 3 EDWABD STAIfFOKD. (Geo. coloured wrapper. A. for Teacliing the Elements of the Language on a System of Analysis and Synthesis. Mark's College.. 3s. cloth. (J. with Greek Beading Lessons and copions Vocabularies. with Remarks on the Essentials of Good Writing. and Society Ramond. 6d. 6d...-CONSTRUCTIVE LATIN EXERCISES. formerly Classical Master in University College School. CHABIKG CBOSS.. 2s. SCHOOL PUNISHMENT REGISTER.. London.. 12mo. SCHOOL EEGISTEE of PUNISHMENTS. 55 & 8. 12mo. Secretary of Uuiversity College. COPYING 64 Large post 8vd. 2. By the Eev. and DICTATION for being a Series of Lithogmphed Letters on Subjects interesting to School-Boys. cloth.: 20 BOOKS.

EK. STATISTICAL SOCIETY-JOURNAL of the STATISTICAL SOCIETY of LONDON. 15s. Demy SKEEN.. Member Asiatic Society. PEOGEESS. can be had.' the Class and Home Lesson Book of English History. Member of the Ceylon Branch of the Eoyal a Asfetic Society.' the Scholar's Wordbook and Spelling Guide." By William Bice.* For Complete List of School Eegisters and Account Books.' &c. SIMMS.-The prising Hints upon : FAMILY GUIDE 8vo. of H. Fcap. &c. Fcap. Servants. Adapted to the Reqniremonts of the Committee of Council on Education. Devon. with General Index up to 1872. Natal. By H. see Stanford's Select List of Education Works. Crown 8vo. B.A. Adapted to the requirements of tlie "Special Minute of the Committee of Council on Education. and Designed as a Beading Book a Map of Greece in the Homeric Age. 4s. With Appendix. with other Poems. of the Ceylon Branch of the Eoyal Fcap.G. gilt. stiff boards. A SCOTT to BRUSSELS ComHiring Houses. cloth. 6cl. E. : its CULTURE and E.G. Furniture.BOOKS. with Preface and Notes. 8vo. Edwaed Simms.S. By William Skeen. 4to. LONDON CLASS-REGISTER and SUMMARY OF ATTENDANCE and PAYMENTS. 10s. — 2s. *. In Two tion for Market). F.-ADAM'S PEAK: LEGENDARY. price 5s. 7s. TEADITIONAL. Oxon. and HISTOBIO NOTICES of the SAMANALA and SBI-PADA. With Map. 21 SCHOOL of REGISTER. Complete Sets. Education.' the Orthogmphioal Copy Books. or per post for penny stamp. Vicar of Escot. By J. from the Year 1838 to December.LONDON ' SCHOOL REGISTER ADMISSION. folio. . 6d. and Manager of the Natal Coffee Works. F. cloth. price 23?. Is. Staiubank & Co. Culture of Coffee. and the General Information necessary for a Family purposing to reside in that city. Parts (Part Part II. folio. Crown (J. 4to.. cloth.' ' ' ' &c. Author of the London Class Eegister. 1873. Author of the ' Class and Home-Lesson Book of English History. Umgeni. is. 6d.-The FIRST SIX BOOKS of the ILIAD of HOMER. By William Bice.-COFFEE IN NATAL PBBPABATION. Euled and Printed for 52 Weeks. New and Improved Edition. for Colleges and Schools.S.. leather back. R..E. Sooet. of Brussels. cloth. and WITHDRAWAL. Coedmore Estate.E. Translated into Fourteen-Syllable Verse. Stainbank. . gratia on application. Pubhshed Quarterly.. By the Eev. PreparaI. By William Skeen. cloth. Fcap.. aud COFFEE CULTIVATION in Poem on the KNUCKLES BANGE. Diagrams. 7s. M.. Cost of Living. MOUNTAIN LIFE CEYLON . STAINBANK.). WHOIiESALS Airs BETAIIi BOOK Alft) MAP SEU.

Illuatrations. Demy 8vo.). TYRRELL (Lient. 2s. 55 & 8. . It also contains interesting particulars of the Eainfall in all parts of the world. including a Description of the Volunteer Movement.. P. Stocquelek. cloth.—TEN CHAPTERS on SOCIAL KEFOKM. 2s. and their Expenditure. REGISTER of RAINFALL for ONE YEAR. F. 6d. HISTOET.. Ciown VICTORIA. and the Progress of the Volunteer Organization." Crown Svo. MONTHLY METEOROLOGICAL MAGAZINE.' 1873. New INDIA. 1«. of the BRITISH from the Kestoration in 1660 to the Present Time. as observed at about 1700 Stations in Great Britain and Ireland.' SULLIVAN Edwabd (Sir Edward. Editor of 'British intended to serve a double purpose ^to-be a manual for the use of observers. folio. 5s. 3d.—Set of 12 for One Tear. P.).. arid Present State of the The History. 6d. WHERE.22 BOOKS.-BRITISH RAINFALL. half-bound. cloth. and WHY it is MEASUEED being a Popular Account of Eainfall Investigations. in stiif cover. ' By Sir Sullivan. By a Colonist of Tweniy Years' Standing. H. The BRITISH " EL DORADO. 18mo. Stmons. 6d. ' The Military Encyclopsedia. {PiMished Annually.-WATERWAYS FUTUEE With Map. . 5s. Author of ' History of Taxation in England. 21s.S.S.. — The NATIONAL TAXES. Parts.S. Bart. Forms for Five Years. Bart. (Mrs.M. price 5s.-CoD. TION of BAIN over the The DISTRIBU- during the YEAB 1873. By J.' &o. Is.' Crown 4to. RAILWAYS. cloth. Tayleb. each. and late Merdber of a Colonial Legislature. with 7s.S. Gd. 'Em-. PROTECTIOIT Demy 8vo. With By G. cloth. Pro- Eevenues of England derived from Taxation. BEITISH ISLES P. TOOGOOD or. Edition. cloth. Super-ioyal 16mo. SYMONS. Compiled by G." Showing the advantages of that Colony as a field for Emigration. 5s. &c. This work — The Vols. doth.I. CHAKOTG CROSS. Fcap. The TOXING PEESONS.—Forms Instructions. id. By Wm. price 5s.M. Published in Monthly REGISTRATION FORMS. 2s. Author of Ten Chapters on Social Beform. With MAPS and ILLUSTEATIONS. J. J.. cloth.-A FAMILIAR HISTORY AEMY. Author of an 'Illus- STOCaUELER. with Instructions.B.S. to NATIVE INDUSTRY. Member of the Scottish Meteorological Society.. Demy Svo. for -SIMPLE SKETCHES of from or CHURCH Is. EDWARD STAITPOBD. WHEN. and to provide the public at large with an epitome of the results hitherto obtained. Post 8vo. is Eainfall. Demy 8vo. ' trated Life of the Duke of Wellington.B. 8vo. cloth. toVIIL (1873). With Two Coloured Views and a Map.' BAROMETER DIAGRAMS. for One Tear. gress. each. TAYLER. and their application to the wants of civilized life. RAIN: HOW. Stmoks.

6d. F. 4s. J. M.-A POLITICAL HANOVEEL\N and and MILITARY HISTORY of By Captain the ITALIAN WAE. Illustrated by an Examination of the Geological Structure of the Mining Districts of Alston Moor. cloth. P. to INTENDING SHEEP FARMERS By Fkederiok A. With Maps and of A POLITICAL AUSTEO-ITALIAN of 1866.-The GEOLOGY and ANTIQUITIES of of the ISLE Dr. MoK. cloth. With an Account of a Visit to the Kaieteur Falls. WYATT. Super-royal 8vo. and T. With an Appendix on the Land of WHITAKER. Author of 'A Political and Military History of the Hanoverian and Italian War. 6d.: . WELD. cloth. 8vo. J.. boards. 2nd'West India Eegiment.S. Hdshes. W. BRITISH GUIANA. By Captain W. New Zealand. By Muedo Youns. and correspond with friends at home or abroad on pleasure or business.) MINERAL DEPOSITS. Wilkins. . BOOKS. &c. It embraces a double set of vowels. 25s. 6d. read what they write.E. Wtatt (Unattached). 23 WALLACE'S (W. 8d.. 2s. with Liquid Consonants grafted on the other letters with a Combination -of Words in most familiar use into ready sentences. Eoyal 8vo. With Map and numerous Coloured Plates.-The GEOLOGY Part I. . Crown 8to. coloured geologically by numerous finely-engraved geological sections and by a fine lithograph in colours of the tesselated pavements of the Eoman Villa lately discovered at Carisbrook e.S. formerly of the Eadetzky Hussars.Eegulations. WIGHT. W. cloth. ' THE ESSEQUIBO and POTAEO EIVEES.G. 10s. &c. It is illustrated by an useful to the Toui'ist elaborately-executed Relievo Map of the Island.A. the LONDON BASIN. WAE and MILITARY REVIEW the YOUNG. Large demy 8vo." &o. Eoyal 8vo. B. . With Map and Frontispiece. 6s. By W. Whitakeb. 13s. WEBBER.SELF TAUGHT - Being a System by which people can teach themselves. Gd.A.— The Laws which Eegulate the Deposition of Lead Ore in Mineral Lodes. Demy 8vo. The Chalk and the Eocene Beds of the Southern and Western Tracts. B. Plans. write the longest word without lifting the pen.-Colonel Webbek. Bristow. Weld. *^* This work forms Volume IV.-THE KAIETEUR FALLS. of the Survey of Great Britain. Wtatt (Unattached).READABLE SHORT-HAND . P. 7s. -HINTS NEW ZEALAND. By — — . cloth. With Photographic Portrait of the Archduke Albrecht. By Lietit. Shortened.' ' Memoirs of the Geological WILKINS. Demy 12mo. The whole forming a System of Eeadaele ShobtHasd. WHOLESALE AND KETAIL BOOK AND MAP SELLEB. with an Account of the Garibaldian Expedition to the Tyrol. Fcap. Parts by H. To which is added the Topography of the Island so condensed as to give all that is by John Beion. in Member of the House of Representatives. and Descriptive Notes on the Geology of Ouiana.

Toys. Consteuctive.' &c. Paet III. namely: 1. Associate of the Royal School of Mines . F. Cordage. Hosiery. Lace.. and their several OfBcers. Gilgit. Irrigation. Construction uf Dwellings. Acts of ParliaI. CHASING CSOSS.S. Medium 8vo. Beservoirs. &o. both for them and the Engineering Profession.' ' The Art of Constructing Common Boads. cloth. Siege and War Material. Furniture and Woodwork. Conditions affecting Pabt rV. Candles. Past II. By Fbedebio Dbew. &c. Brewing and Distilling.G. Straming. Edited. Discharge of Sewers. 2. Tables of Quantities of Sewage. jewellery. Musical InstruiDents. — SANITAEY EAW. Loan Commissioneis Extracts from Standi^ Orders &c. or practical book of reference. Biscuits. Electroplate. Printing and Bookbinding. Intermittent Filtration. Loans from Exchequer. Explosives and Gunpowder. Governor of Illustrations. Ship Building. and to serve as a complete vade^mecwn. Sewage. Tanks. Agricultural Machinery. Coal. &c. Dyesii^ and Bleaching. House and Branch Sewers. Carpets. tended to contain all information inlequir^ by Sewer Authorities. . Weirs. and PRACTICE. Paper. ^Ventilation. Acts of Parliament telating to Sanitary Matters.. Tramways. C. KiSHMIR. Author of ' The Budiments of CSvU Engineering. late aud Geologist to the Maharaja. Soap. Water Supply and Rainfall. Pins and Needles.B. Telegraphs.-A11 ACCOUNT of the TERRITORIES of the MAHARAJA of JXJMMOO and KASHMIR. of procedure for obtaining Provisional Orders. Saddlery. 3. Preserved Provisions. &c. By Heney Law. — Measures and Begulations. Diseases Sanitary Principles in the engendered by want of Sanitary Care. Copper Smelting. . Glass.— — — 24 JTXbJiifJUbXiM vr. Watches and Clocks. Oil. cloth. Silk. Gas and Lighting. Estimates and Price Lists of Materials and Plant. Cutlery.E. Filtering. Adds. With Maps and Medium 8vo. with a complete ClasHfied Ahstract. Composition of Chemical Nature and Processes for Purification. Phillips Bevan. EUGIHEERmG. by G. Linen and Flax.. Pottery. Bailways. giving proportions and mode of oonstruotiijg Sewers. Nails. Tobacco. — Sanitabt. &c. This important work will include Mining. Iron and Steel. and Pumping Sewage. Medium 8vo. The Application and Utilization of Abstract of Experiments. F. Quarries and Building Stones. Butter and Cheese. Salt. Precipitation. Cotton. Explanation of the principles of the Processes already — — — — adopted. Sugar Befining.. ^Forms of Specifications for the several works require^ with Drawings of same. &c &c. Tides as Eiffecting Level of Out&JIs. Part omitting Mode ^Lbgai. Guns. Cost of these various Processes. . WatOT-Closets. Bread. Health. Earth-Closets.6.6. Gutta-percha. &c. — ment. India-mbber. cloth. Sx. Flushing and Ventilating Sewers. Pipes. Disinfectants. Alkalies. Tin Plate and Zinc Working. Welte.S. F. Sewage. EDWABD STAHTFOKD. &c.. portions repealed. 55 & 8. ^Disposal ob TJtiijzatioh op Sewage. Brass Founding. Leather and Hides.S. &C.. Open Channels. . — Sanitary Human — — — Downward — — — — BEITISH MAiniFACTTJBIWG INDTTSTEIES. &c. Woollen..