You are on page 1of 392




M.D., D.Sc, M.A., Ph.D., F.L.S., F.G.S.,

Regius Professor of Natural History in the University o


ZOOLOGY, for the Use of With a General Introduction on tho Principles of Zo Edition, revised and greatly enlarged. Crown 8vo, pp. Engravings on Wood, 14s.

" It is the best raannal of zoology yet published, not merely in England, but Europe."— PaW Mall Gazette. "The best treatise on zoology in moderate compass that we possess."— La^icc

7s. 6d.

for the

Use of Schoo

Fourth Edition, enlarged. Crown 8vo, with 188 Engravings on Woe
" This capital introduction to natural history is illustrated and well ^ot up every way. We should be glad to see it generally used in schools."—3Iedical Pr



Use of Junior

for tl

Fifth Edition, revised and enlarged, wi

156 Engravings. 3s. " Very suitable for junior classes in schools. There is no reason why any o should not become acquainted with the principles of the science, and the facts which they are based, as set forth in this volume." Lancet. " Nothing can be better adapted to its object than this cheap and well-wriit

London Quarterly



for Beginner!

being Descriptions of a Progressive Series of Zoological Types. Tlii Edition, revised. With Engravings. Is. 6d. "There has been no book since Patterson's well-known 'Zoology for Schoo' that has so completely provided for the class to which it is addressed-as the capi Popular Science Review. little volume by Dr Nicholson."

8vo, with
dents. tology.



numerous Engravings.


for the

Use of St

a General Introduction on the Principles of Palace Second Edition revised and greatly enlarged, 2 vols. 8y

With 722 Engravings.

This book will be found to be one of the best of guides to the principles and the study of organic remains."— ^t/ie7UKitm.

Outline of


tho Principles and Leading Facts of Palieontologi 8vo, with 270 Engravings. 10s. 6d. Science. ** of the hi.storical phase of Palaeontology it will be text-book As a to students, whether specially pursuing geology or biology."— Qtuii of Science. " Scarcely any recommendation of ours can add to the interest students in natural history will receive the present"—Athen





LL.D., Etc.,


Professor of Geology in the Dnrham University College of Physical Science, Newcastle.


Engravinsrs on Wood, and Glossarial Index. Twelfth Edition. Eevised and Enlarged by Charles Lapworth, LL.D., F.G.S., &c., Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the Mason Science College,


2s. t)d.

It has not been our good fortune to examine a text-book on science of which could express an opinion so entirely favourable as we are enabled to do of Mr

je's little



numerous Engravings, and Glossary of Edition, revised and enlarged. 7s. 6d.






Series of Questions adapted to the Introductory Books of Geology. Tenth Edition. 9d.

and Advanced Text-

Popular Sketches in Geology and Palseontology.
containing several


Series of

Third Edition,

new Chapters.





Amateur and

"NOPSES OF SUBJECTS TAUGHT IN THE GEOlogical Class, College of Physical Science, 2s. 6d. sity of Durham.

Newcastle-on-Tyne, Univer-





With Sketch - Maps and Illustrations. Twelfth Edition, Enlarged, and Edited by Charles Lapworth, LL.D., F.G.S. &c., Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the Mason Science ColBirmingham.
28. 6d.

Third Edition.
Sketch-Maps, Engrai-ing?, and Glossary of Terms. Edited by Professor Lapworth, F.G.S., &c. 5s.

Progressive Series of Questions adapted to the Introductory and Advanced Text- Books of Physical Geography. Sixth Edition. 9d.



Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive

2007 with funding from





Under this Title, and in compliance with frequent requests from Teachers and Students, two sets of Examination have been prepared for these TextBooks (Introductory and Advanced), with references, in each case, to the paragraphs of the text on which the question is founded. Adapted to two grades of proficiency, and arranged, each as far as it goes, so as to present a systematic epitome of Physical Geography, these series of questions enable the teacher to frame his examinations with greater sequence and

connection than his time will ordinarily permit, while to the student they afford a ready means of testing his own progress and proficiency.

Price Ninepence free by Post.

W. BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London.






Autbor of Introductory Text-Book of Physical Geography,' Introductory and Advanced Text-Books of Geology,' Handbook of Geological Terms and Geology,' Past and Present Life of the Globe,' etc. etc.





F.G.S., etc.



.— " Of all the natural objects of the world. and most interested. enjoyments. must learn by studying nature what most will conduce to the success of his design. "—Humboldt's Cosmos. man. in dis. the surface of the eai-th is that with which we are best acquainted. posing of things at the pleasure of his will. not merely in its bearlife." Hutton's Theory of the Earth. but in its general influence on the intellectual advancement of mankind. It is here that man has the disposal of nature so much at his will but here. we find its noblest and most important result to be a knowledge of the chain of connection by which all natural forces are linked together and made mutually dependent upon each other and it is the perception of these relations that exalts our views and ennobles our . or to the happy economy of his existence. ings on the material wants of " In considering the study of physical phenomena.

their mutual actions and reactions. on which the operating the other hand. as it —and Geography. the Author has endeavoured to produce . the distribution of mineral. each on its own and a large amount of knowledge may be acquired respecting the geographical conditions of the world lands. Though thus closely two sciences may be studied. — Convinced of this. were. — its and atmosphere. vegetable. Geology forming. related. In connection with his Text-Books of Geology. other The one becomes. waters. — readily ascend to the higher problems of his science than through the teachings of Geology. the basis . the complement of the and the student of Geology can have no better preliminary training than a systematic course of Physical Geography while the student of Geography cannot more . in fact. . becoming the causes of Geology are most obviously and intelligibly at work. without knowing more of Geology than merely being able to appreciate and apply its more obvious deductions. the Author has long meditated the production of two similar works on the closely-allied science of Physical Geography. the groundwork of Geography field in The two subjects are most intimately connected. and animal productions and the bearings of these on the intellectual and social progress of man.PREFACE.

that the student may be them to his own observations and readings readings that become every year more extensive. and while the Introductory may of junior students. tific essay. and the advancing state of the natural sciences. and a . been strictly and not unfrequently contradictory In both instances a systematic treatment has adhered to . The explanation of has been a main enabled to apply object throughout. avoiding the argumentative character of a sciento be irksomely .6 PREFACE. education. . — To assist the student in the comprehension of his subject. June 1864. aims at something more than a bulky compilation of disjointed descriptions. but the accompaniment of maps has been rendered unnecessary by the of illustrations inserted in the text number recent publication of several excellent Atlases of Physical Phenomena. rather than a detail of facts. from the increasing facilities for travel in remote and imperfectly known regions. principles. of an extensive Glossary Terms has been appended. Edinburgh. in accordance with the requirements of modem facts. statements. but an outline of phenomena and principles to be read and reasoned so the Advanced. as well as of those who merely seek a general acquaintance with the natural phenomena of our planet. will satisfy the wants of senior students. of Physical an Introductory and an Advanced Text-Book Geography. hoped. As the Introductory is not a mere narration of dry committed to memory. and those who the Advanced. meet the requirements cannot it is command time for an extended course.

the chief results of recent research and speculation in the science have been incorporated in the body of the work. therefore. have been extended. but also to the needs of those teachers who intend to Author's * use this work in class.' and the two works have been brought into general harmony throughout. and Recent Geographical Discovery. and the copious glossary corrected CHARLES LAPWORTH. much of the new matter ' has been added in the words of the Introductory Text-Book. The Chapters on Geology. ' in conjunction with the Introductory Text-Book upon the same subject. While. The information derived from Physics. December 1882. has been brought down last edition of the to date. Birmingham. . In the present B/evision I have had respect not only to the requirements of the student desirous of making himself acquainted with the newest discoveries and opinions in Physical Geography. Each paragraph (with the exception of those of the last two chapters) is devoted to the same subject as in former editions. Biology. Mason Science College. Mountain Systems. Oceans and Seas. Climatology and Animal Life.THIRD EDITION. Meteorology. Some new maps have been and enlarged. as few alterations as possible have been made in its original text and arrangement. inserted.

— Its Individual .CONTENTS. I. 63 63 . Figure. Circles. Theoretical and Practical Bearings. . 51 51 Their Relative Positions and Areas. 56 60 . &c.. . . . . V. — IV. . Relative Position.. . 19 19 Density. . III. . Atmosphere.. . Zones. 64 67 71 Causes and Consequences of Configuration. . Connection between Geology and Physical Geography. The Earth tion.. Their Subdivisions. 35 35 38 48 The Rocky Crust its Constitution and Formation.. . Introductory Outline. . 25 29 Technical Subdivisions —Points. Contour or Horizontal Outline. Aim and Scope of the Science. . Motions. The Earth — Its General or Planetary Relations.. .. . Structure and Composi. .. Vertical Relief or Elevation. PAGE 11 11 .. 14 16 11. . . Their Mutual Actions and Reactions. The Land— Its Configuration... Distribution of Land and Water. Hints to the Student. . . .. Relative Age and Arrangement of Rock-Formations.. . .... . . Natural and Technical.. Temperature. Dimensions.

VI. Its Oceans and Seas. Lakes and Lacustrine Areas..CONTENTS. Plains of the Old World. The Atmosphere Climatology.. The Water . African Systems. —the Trades. ... Asiatic Systems. . &c. — their Characteristics. The Land— Its Lowlands. American Systems. European Systems.. • Table-lands or Plateaux. Colour. and iBajpa^ty--^ Tides^heir Origin and Influen ce. Velocity. (Jurreni:8—their Causes — — and Functions. . Depth. . Mountains and Mountain-Systems.Curren ts. Temperature. . Streams — their Characteristics. Oceanic River-Systems — their Characteristics. Their Area and Configuration. Density. \^ X. — wJft'^inds -Permanent Winds ••^^riodical Winds ^^Variable Winds. Nature and Constitution of the Atmosphere.. - . . . Australasian and Polynesian Systems. \^^. . Continental River-Systems — Inland Basins.Storms. Luminosity. Pressure. i.Jitr5tsture of the Atmosphere. Plains of the New "World. Depressions. The Water • Its Oceans an d Ocean. Plains and Deserts. &c. Rivers — their Characteristics. . The Water—Springs. Heat of the Atmosphere. —the Monsoons. . Origin and Characteristics of Lowlands. . XI. The Land— Its Highlands. — their Characteristics. Lakes. ^. Kivers. . Springs Streams. Waves their Height. Vn. w Valleys and Minor VIII. . — Composition. . . &c.. .

. The Atmosphere— Climatology. 306 312 317 321 326 331 336 337 858 .. Index. Man by External Conditions... . &c. . — Horizontal and Batliymetiical... .236 243 246 249 233 233 . Clouds.. Local Distribution. Oceanic Distribution Agricultural Zones. . . . . Applications. .. Life Its Distribution and Function. Causes affecting Climate. Conditions of Civilisation and Progress. Vertical or Ba thy metrical Distribution.. .. . .. Plant Distribution — Regions. .. . . Characteristics and Distribution of Races. &c. .. . Objects and Principles.Life its Distribution and Governing Conditions. 271 — — Latitudinal Distribution.. . . .. . Marine Distribution Homoiozoic Zones. Glossary of Terms. Continental Aspects Europe. Conclusion. ... .. ... Glaciers. . . South America..... Animal Life its Distribution and Governing Conditions. .. &c... Commercial Zones. . *^ \^^\l. Acclimatisation of Plants and Animals. Altitudinal Distribution...... . by External Conditions. Lines of Equal Heat. . &c. .... as aflfected . ..... . Interdependence of Plants and Animals. Fogs. .. .. . . . Life Distribution and Function. General Review. . ...Snow. .. .. . .... . Icebergs.. 285 285 287 295 300 300 XVI. Oceania. 256 256 259 260 262 265 266 268 269 269 271 XIV. Plant.. Rain and Rainfall. — . Ethnology— Races and Varieties of Man. North America... .. . . 273 277 279 280 281 XV... ... Mists.. Asia..10 CONTENTS. and Deductions... 272 Localisation and Representation of Species. — Its Life as affected — Latitudinal Distribution. Africa. Dews. . XIII..

the atmosphere above them and. as they exist at the present day and endeavours to explain the causes by . — all that can be learnt of and animals by which they are respectively peopled. Descriptive or General . and general divisions of Political the earth as a planet. industry. and other features distinctive of such subdivisions . their varied conditions and climate. manners. religion. with their populations. It confines itself essentially to the description of the external features and conditions of the earth-surface. . and states. 2. commerce. and the purposes for which they are apparently maintained. Aim and Scope 1. INTRODUCTORY OUTLINE. which these conditions are produced. The science of Geography embraces the superficial aspects of our globe its lands and waters. the distribution of the plants . finally. forming part of the solar system . which devotes itself to the size. kingdoms. which relates to the arbitrary subdivisions of the earth-surface into empires. motions. of the Science. and to read the history of the several mutations that structure has undergone in the ages that are past. Geography. laws. It leaves the allied science of Geology to determine the nature of the rocky structure which underlies the earth-surface. their extent and configuration. form. A science embracing so wide and varied a subject will most naturally present itself under several heads or departments and thus we have what is termed Mathematical Geography.PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

The Land. graphy. and to arrive at an intelligible expression of the laws by which the whole is controlled and — — directed. and temperature. In the eloquent language of the author of Earth and Man (M. and atmosphere in the production of physical phenomena. and other obvious features without inquiring into the causes that produce these appearances and lastly. life. scnl. and the extent and depth and movements of the latter act and react upon one another. and seeks to explain the causes that produce them arranging the whole into a system of world-machinery whose modes of action can be understood. its seas and bays. Physical Geography. which govern the distribution of plants and animals on the land. its shoals and depths. water. the animal and human inhabitants of the former. and those conditions of depth. its scenery and life-arrangements . Physical Geography thus rises above the mere description of external appearances. its mountains and valleys. it should compare. Guyot) " Geography ought to be something difi'erent from a mere description. which regulate in a similar manner the distribution of plants and animals in the ocean. Geography^ which restricts itself to a mere account of the external and waters their extent and configuration. are the special objects 'of Physical Geography and its highest aim is the discovery and expression of those laws which regulate the action and reaction of land. to sift the casual from the essential. its continents and islands. proceeds further to inquire into the causes that prtxluce these results. by merely taking cognisance of the arrangement of the various parts which constitute it. but to inquire into those conditions of position. its aspects and life-dispersion. and the like. Physical Geography is thus the highest department of the aim being not only to describe the external aspects of the terraqueous globe. its soil and climate. The configuration of every land and sea the extent and altitude. while it embraces all the natural conditions of the lands and waters depicted by Descriptive Geoaspects of the lands — — . the soil. its — . the climate. science. It is the highest aim of Geography to analyse these correlations. It must endeavour to seize those incessant mutual actions of the difi'erent portions of physical nature upon 3. the Ocean. It is not enough for it coldly to anatomise the globe. — ' ' — . it should interpret. which. It should not only describe.12 INTRODUCTORY OUTLINE. composition. the rivers. heat. altitude. it should rise to the how and the wherefore of the phenomena which it describes. and whose results it is possible to determine. and by which they are in the course of nature continually reproduced within certain limits of change and modification. moisture. its composition and temperature. their scenery.

while in another they are fitful and irregular ? Why should one expanse of ocean be still and tideless. its latitude and longitude when will its sun rise and set in Green^vich time what are the limits of its seasons when will its tides ebb and flow . and semi . . of intellectual activity and mental culture. which forms the groundwork of all Geographical diversity to Meteorology for much that belongs to climate and its allied phenomena while from Chemistry and Physiology he derives important aid in dealing with the nature. what is the force of gravity size. of inorganic upon organised beings. for example. Kising to this conception of his science. the student of Geographymeets a problem in every phenomenon that presents itself. and dispersion of plants and animals. is an island in the ocean what is its position on the earth's surface that is. 13 each other. . upon man in particular. growth. and upon the successive developments of human societies. while the lower ridges are clothed in verdure and blossom ? Why is one region of a continent arid and rainless.civilised hordes? These and a thousand similar questions press themselves upon the attention of every geographical observer and while the facts may be detailed with clearness and accuracy by Descriptive Geography. present such differences in climate ? Why are the higher mountain-peaks perpetually enveloped in snow. and other primary conditions of our planet to Geology for what relates to the structure and constitution of the rocky crust. 5. for instance. and viewing the beautiful and diversified field before him. Why. as fair and even more fertile. . In the prosecution of his subject the student of Physical while another. dwarf and die out if transferred to another equally fertile in soil and genial in climate ? Why should the men at the mountain-foot be tillers of fields and dressers of vineyards. . : — Geography appeals to Astronomy for what relates to the figure.AIM AND SCOPE OF THE SCIENCE. . and is traversed by currents ? Why should the plants and animals that flourish in one region." 4. we must turn to Physical Geography for a rational solution of the phenomena presented the order in which they occur. — . lying within the same parallels of latitude.ground of indolent. while another is deluged with periodical torrents ] Wliy do the winds in certain latitudes blow steadily and for weeks in one direction. . dependent. . do two countries. and finds a solution in every incident that occurs. motions. and the causes to which they appear to be more immediately dependent. remains the mere squatting . while those a thousand feet higher are herdsmen and shepherds I Or why should one country be the scene of busy industry and successful commerce. while another swells and falls ^dth tides. Here.

and its explanation can only be arrived at by the aid of Geology. that he be able to perceive the connection and interbearings of these sciences. must therefore own her obligations to many allied departments Though drawing. however. the plants that flourish . must be obvious to the most the relative extent of the land and water that constitute the terraqueous surface of our globe the varying altitudes of the one and the depths of the other. This is the structure of the island. the lower slopes rejoice in sunshine and not unfrequently. and shales.14 at its INTRODUCTORY OUTLINE. . Further. while it describes and harmonises the whole. while towards the south and east it Its north-western secfalls away in gentle slopes and terraces. . The value of such a science casual observer. surface? Strictly Astronomy and Mathematics speaking. it by no means follows that the student of Physical Geography should be deeply read in Astronomy. and be capable of appreciating the importance of their deductions in so far as they relate to his own special study. Physical Geography. . This is its Climatology and Meteorology furnishes the geographer with the means of harmonising these . this island is rocky and precipitous . The rainfall on its western coast and the north-east is several inches more than that on the east winds are cold and parching. when the heights are covered with snow. tion presents. a series of basaltic crags and rocky hiU-tops. limestones. Theoretical ami Practical Bearings of Geography. towards the north and west. Geology. Again. among its hills there is a small circular lake or tarn while along the junction of the sandstones and basalt numerous springs rise and find their way to the low lands beneath. in the main. these questions belong to but the geographer. Still further. while its hill-tops are often enveloped in mists. while the south-west are warm and laden with moisture. though exposed to the same sunshine and moisture. To determine . the low grounds are fresh and open. All that is necessary is. Chemistry and Physiology account for these results. contrasting phenomena. from other sciences. or Meteorology. while the south-eastern consists of clays and loams that Up lie on upturned strata of sandstones. the climates of the one and the winds and currents that traverse the 6. in this manner of natural science. on its basaltic crags are never found on the clayey slopes below while even on the slopes and terraces different plants affect different soils. appeals to them for the solution of his problems. availing himself of the aid of these sciences.

the seasons. home we tenant. and the necessaries and comforts with which it is furnished. there is no science whose bearings are so immediate as that which reveals the geographical distribution of life. and placed in proximity to different mineral. the facilities with which .they can be obtained. to learn the variety of in fine. — . form.THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL BEARINGS. the amount of information obtained. 15 other. constitute. who deal with the strictly scientific aspects of natural history. and to cast himself on the favouring stream of the other. of sunken rocks and reefs. who seek to naturalise the plants and animals of different regions. . vegetable. what is more important than a knowledge of the climate. To the navigator dependent on the winds and currents of the ocean. directions. — This globe is the sole scene of man's earthly labours his cradle. now so indispensable to civilised existence. that relates to the its products to know all. it is a natural necessity that different nations should trade and barter with each other. vegetable. and the products of his adopted home ? or what more valuable than the teachings of Physical Geography to the merchant-traveller in search of new objects of enterprise and new sources of wealth ? To the botanist and zoologist. is no doubt highly valuable but it is a higher effort of philosophy to determine the causes and courses of the wind and water currents to teach the sailor how to shun the storms of the one. To the physiologist and psychologist who would study the influence of climate and other external conditions on health as well as on mental character and to the political economist and statesman who have to deal with the peculiarities of different . The observation and reasoning required in geographical research. the conditions under which these occur. but a task of prime industrial necessity. and animal products. the theatre of his life-actions. To ascertain the pecuface. enjoying different climates. as well as the obstacles or facilities that lie in the way of obtaining them is the sum and substance of Geography. — — liarities of this varied surface. his grave Scattered over its sur! — separated by sea and mountain. and animal products. its theoretical value . on the other hand. and limits ? The determination of shoals and sandbanks. and the causes which determine the order of that distribution. as well as to the gardener and farmer. To the pioneer and settler in new lands. with the infinitely-diversified mineral. 7. its economic or practical importance. on the one hand. what is more necessary than a knowledge of their times. vegetable. and the curiosity gratified by faithful descriptions of distant and diverse regions. and animal productions of both is not only a source of high intellectual enjoyment and culture. acquaintance with their mineral.

uncertain. while the facts will be fixed — — Physical Geography. the farmer. of warm winds and cold winds. requires reasoning at every step. As the botanist. courses of rivers. so the student of Physical Geography will find the Every illustrations of his science in every locality he may visit. and the student will find his reasonings greatly assisted not only by the systematic use of his atlas. and the manufacturer. Combining. by reference to the maps more more clearly and permanently on the memory. the statesman. and geologist find the objects of their studies in every walk through the fields around them. every cloud that sweeps across the firmament. The student who earnestly desires to master this outline. and every shower that falls fickle. but by the habit of appealing to the phenomena presented by his own immediate district. should confirm the statements of the text step by step. Impressed with this conviction. its and he who underspecial arrangements of plants and animals . of periods of drought and periods of rainfall. our science has paramount claims alike on the attention of the philosopher. heights of mountains. There are few localities. however limited. its theoretical with its practical bearings. of plants that love the marsh and others tliat thrive only in the thirsty upland. zoologist. Physical Geography becomes a science of direct and important interest. that do not present their alternations of hill and dale. district has its own features of high-land and low-land. and local as they may appear is as much the result of law and law-directed forces as the rising and falling of the tides or : — — the revolutions of the planets. 8. and tlie like is for the most part little better than a task of memory. of his atlas. nations and the products of their countries. There is nothing fortuitous in the economy of our planet every breeze that blows. its streams and lakes and rivers. stands best the governing causes of tliese local peculiarities will be best able to deal with the general problems of Physical Geo- graphy. the mind will be better prepared for the comprehension of the phenomena of wider and more varied regions. of lake and river. Hints to the Student. on the other hand. the merchant. By noting such distinctions. The study of General Geography the positions of towns. its peculiar winds and rains and frosts. and the causes concerned in their production. The object of the present treatise is to offer an outline of the science of Physical Geography in its higher bearings. the sailor. this process his difficulties w411 be By easily overcome.16 INTRODUCTORY OUTLINE. . therefore.

' The roaring mountain-brook is the type of the thundering cata' ' ' ract . To the mind imbued with this belief. Humboldt hints at this when he says in his Kosmos. the most fitful and uncertain phenomena assume the character of regularity and order. to deserve his attention. The digging of every well may contribute to our knowledge of the earth's crust made in the construction of railways may the excavations be a ceaseless source of . and. broken the geological formations of a single little island suggest the coast-lines of a continent. The eye may be easily trained to see all the greater in the less. The study of our own district is the true key to the understanding of the forms and phenomena of foreign lands. the climate and other conditions that influence the growth and distribution of the plants and animals by which they are respectively peopled. The very first step in a knowledge of geography is to know thoroughly the district where we single monocotyledon. following a Humboldt in his wanderings over the globe. It treats of the earth's surface as composed of land and water." says Carl Ritter in his Comparative Geography. and the determination of the law of their recurrence becomes a hopeful and exhilarating pursuit. will be able. and no fact as too insignificant. their altitude and depth. 8 . and he alone. with true appreciation. may A live:' NOTE.' Every little nook and shaded corner is but a reflection of the whole of Nature. of a be studied in miniature the palmtree. RECAPITULATORT AND EXPLANATORY. the student will consider no occurrence as too trivial. small range of hills may be taken as the tj^e of the loftiest Cordillera. to accompany travellers through all foreign lands. of a rush. and over the hills and mountains. will be capable of He. and discover the causes by which they are maintained or modified. In the structure of a blade of grass. of his own country.RECAPITULATION. . "Wherever our home is. rising above these. prince of the tropics in the mosses and lichens on our walls the stunted growths of mountain-tops may be investigated. instruction. Whoever has wandered through the valleys and woods.' " there lie all the materials which we need for the study of the entire globe. and seeing how closely every incident in nature is 17 connected with another. determines their extent and configuration. In the preceding paragraphs we have endeavoured to show that the object of Physical Geography is to describe the external conditions of the globe.

" As a science of observation and deduction in connection with the external conditions of the beautiful planet we inhabit. . The more fully man knows the economy of the globe. it possesses high intellectual attractions and as bearing on its mineral. dimensions. motions. and by the exercise of thought and the combination of observations. Physical Geography proceeds to apply these adjuncts to its own proper field of inquiry. The more extensive and intimate our knowledge of terraqueous phenomena. the more certain and reliable the deductions of Physical Geography. — — — . Deriving from Astronomy what relates to the figure. and capabilities of dispersion it becomes to civilised nations a study of prime industrial importance. ." in the words of the illustrious Humboldt. distribution. the more fully he can avail himself of its favours. and the more closely can he direct his operations in conformity with its .18 INTRODUCTORY OUTLINE. and from the whole deduces a rational and connected account of the cosmical phenomena by which we are surrounded. vegetable. " is to recognise unity in the vast diversity of phenomena. to discern the constancy of phenomena in the midst of apparent changes. " Its ultimate aim. requirements. endeavours to account for the mental and social peculiarities of different nations as seemingly dependent on external phenomena. and animal products their abundance. and other primary features of our planet from Geology its description of the structure and composition of the rocky crust from Meteorology the explanation of proximate causes of the diversity of climates and from Chemistry and Physiology their account of the more intimate nature of vegetable and animal life.

no doubt. and the earth's own proper motion. and the — . heat and cold. summer and winter. Figure. Manifested on or near the accessible surface. the tides and currents of the ocean. in fact. which belong to it as a member of the Solar System. THE EARTH ITS GENERAL OR PLANETARY RELATIONS. Motions. on its axial rotation depends the recurrence modification. 10. more especially to Astronomy and Physics. spring the flow and ebb of the tides. By the general relations of the earth are meant those primary conditions of form. constitute the legitimate themes of our science. other great currents of the ocean. the winds and motions of the atmosphere. 9. and the secondary results arising therefrom. growth and decay. . and. size. of light and darkness from its revolution round the sun arises the succession of the seasons. motion. with all their varied effects on vegetable and animal life from the varying effects produced by the sun's heat upon the terraqueous surface and atmosphere result the multifarious phenomena of what we call weather and climate while from the attraction of the sun and moon. of his own special science. Here is a globe revolving and rotating in obedience to the laws of gravitation and attraction and as motion is . The consideration of these conditions belongs. but as much may be here summarised as will enable the student to lay the foundation. but to explain and determine. inseparably associated with change change of place or change of condition the nature of these changes. As we have already pointed out. density.11. From these conditions arise all those multifarious actions and reactions that take place on its surface the alternations of night and day. these phenomena — — . Dimensions. all that confers on it geographical diversity and Thus. and the like. the province of Physical Geography is not merely to observe and describe. as it were.

or one lunar month. As there is no independent existence in nature. — — — — — parent orb (at a distance of 238. to every observer . the earth rotates or turns on its own axis in 24 hours or.430. As the secondary planets — . in as far. some vastly larger. Besides this annual revolution round the sun. 8 hours or. and others more — remote. In other words. The mean distance of the earth from its central orb is 91. These bodies some of which are nearer the sun than our earth. 56 minutes. and others smaller ^are all nearly and move from west to east.20 GENERAL RELATIONS OF THE EARTH. as she revolves around the great central luminary of the system. the earth rotates three hundred and sixty-five times during the course of a single revolution. 365 days. it would be impossible to arrive at a satisfactory determination. It is for this reason that Geog. 9 minutes. in round numbers. as these appear to bear raphy appeals on its superficial 11. and which completes her revolution round her spherical in form. All these motions and times of motion are determined and influenced by the mutual attraction and gravitation of the sun and planets . that often so complicated by action and reaction on each without a knowledge of the general relations of the earth. in 23 hours. at least. so it is necessary to have some idea of the whole and as our planet is but one of a brotherhood. and thus the more frequent and obvious motion of daily rotation has been taken as the unit of measurement for the larger and less apparent. which is 2160 miles in diameter. it is necessary to the comprehension of its individual constitution to have some notion of the relations that subsist between the fraternity. to Astronomy for a knowledge of the planetary conditions of the earth. and 4 seconds and this period of rotation constitutes a day. in courses or orbits more or less circular. in analogous fraternities. phenomena. Its time of revolution round the sun is about 365|^ days or. which revolves around her. in round numbers. In these movements of annual revolution and daily rotiition. This secondary planet or satellite is the Moon. 6 hours. constituting what is termed the Solar System. and it is by the same great forces that all tlie heavenly bodies that lie beyond our system are held in harmonious order. in 28 days. at different distances and with different velocities.000 miles) in 27 days. or. Astronomers have determined that the earth we inliabit is one of a number of planets that revolve. is attended by a minor or secondary body. and. the earth. in all likelihood. and 10 seconds and this period of revolution we designate a year.000 miles. become apparent but the producing causes are other. more exactly. round the sun as a common centre. like several other of the primary planets. ninety-two millions. more precisely.

and revolves upon its own axis in a .332.. .126.000 250. again. their diameters. and this order of things through systems and centres that baffle the grasp of our finite conceptions. Uranus. The names of the planets. Earth. The sun being the great source of light. ^^y^^^'i g^y^g^ D.969 224.058 7.000 139. this solar system consists of the great centre or sun. our atmosphere.256 686.+. and night. or small planet-like bodies (generally known . . MOTIONS.979 2. Mars.926 4. Neptune.^^ Rotation in No. between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.900 miles in diameter.000 91. As the secondary planets revolve round their primaries. . period calculated at 25 days. as the Asteroids).686. . Uranus. Venus. eight large or primary planets Mercury. j . M.311.510 7. Jupiter. . 1 . heat. ' .219 30. round the sun. . it necessarily follows that. and which become visible only by coming in contact with.720 ! 10 23 10 1 H. Diameters in Distance from T>« ^1.753. — . Saturn. and this order of things through systems and centres that baffle the grasp of our finite conceptions.000 87.584 10. . round the sun. and by being ignited in.820 60.000 1. . 5 21 37 . 9 55 10 29 9 30 4 8 4 1 12... . .846 70. and consequently are seen only at widely distant periods and several groups of meteors. .700 365.276 35. DIMENSIONS.759..134. and other ethereal influences. hiDavs mDajs. it has been suggested. so the solar system itself may revolve round some vaster centre.363 Asteroids.000.000. 1 3. Saturn.247 37. hours. Satel- y^g_ Mercury. times of re- volution and rotation. the place of a large primary twenty secondaries or satellites. l" 2 .137. and the followinfi table : number of satellites. during the earth's rotation on her axis.000 4.869.000 66.392.430. The sun itself is about 852. 1 Sun in Miles. Earth. 17 minutes.000 475. revolving round their primaries an unknown number of comets. again. 21 revolve round their primaries.692. and these. and these.998. Venus.000 2.FIGURE. so the solar system itself may revolve round some vaster centre. . and Neptune above two hundred ascertained planetoids. Jupiter. are exhibited in Names and Order of Planets. only one half of her surface can be exposed at a time to these influences. As at present known. and all the phenomena and hence the alternations of day that accompany these altema- . of English les. wliich move round the sun in extremely elliptical orbits.000 872. distances from the sun. and occupying.745. 84.136 33. whose orbits are not well defined. . . Mars..

the northern regions gradually receive more and more heat. But day and night are of unequal fact. certain localities. and is in turn revolved around by the moon. with the earth represented at four different points in her annual orbit. months.22 tions. Ha\dng glanced at the main systemal motions of the earth that regulate our days. Thus S is the Sun. The body which thus rotates on its o^vn axis while it revolves round the sun. the north pole is in darkness and when When the point preat D. according to the seasons. The accompanying diagram will assist in explaining the consequences of this obliquity of axis. is not. is only 7899. At any intermediate position. on the 21st of June. and seasons. or middle line. TAe Seasons. GENERAL RELATIONS OF THE EARTH. strictly speaking. or the ideal line round which it rotates. /. it is midsummer to all the southern parts of the earth. we shall now advert to her own proper dimensions. but a spheroid^ or body of a sphere-like form. and consequently day and night are of equal duration. till. 13. and varying length at and these seasonal successions are caused by the that in performing her annual revolution round the sun her axis is not perpendicular. and midwinter to all the north but as the exposed part advances towards the point A : . A diameter taken along its axis. . day and night are respectively lengthened and shortened when at C. years.170 miles. the south pole is in the same state. but inclined at an angle of 66 degrees 27^ minutes to the plane of her orbit. At and B the light and heat of the sun strike perpendicularly upon the earth's surface at the equator. . sented to the sun is at e (which is on the 22d December). as determined by the astronomer and mathematician. a sphere or globe. it becomes their midsummer.

that of centrifugal force. Such a figure can be readily produced by rapidly spinning a ball of yielding material. the lower grounds stage by stage make their appearance. Gravitation and centrifugal force are thus the two great counteracting powers by which . its oblate or spheroidal form is is usually ascribed. it would have been all at once illuminated by the rays of the sun but being convex or round. To this centrifugal force arising from rotation. and on gradually nearing it. next of her lower or main sails. and increases in proportion to the rapidity of rotation and to the square of the distance from that axis. MOTIONS. which exerts itself at right angles to the axis of rotation. the earth its present spheroidal form and any dimensions. and night in succession one half of the globe being thus always in light while the other is in darkness. 2. as it turns from west to east. would be accompanied by a proportional deviation from its existing shape. — tance. among which may be mentioned the following 1. a figure flattened in the direction of its axis. first sees the mountain-tops. we first lose sight of her hull. As a vessel sails away from the land. — . where the distance from the axis is greatest and hence also the gradual declension of centrifugal force as we proceed towards the poles. when the tendency which all revolving bodies have to fly off from the centre (centrifugal force) causes the mass to bulge out at the rotating circumference and to flatten in proportion at both ends or foles of the — axis. like soft clay or putty. thus clearly shomng that she is passing over a convex or bulging surface.. The earth's mass kept together by the force of gravitation . 4. its form would have been perfectly spherical but the moment it began to turn on its own axis. The reverse of this also holds true . variation in its : . density. sunset. and pos- sibly to some original yielding condition of the earth's mass. In travelling any considerable disis sustained in . Had the earth's surface been flat. and producing what mathematicians term an ohlate spheroid that is. and lastly of her topsails and pennants. The one diameter thus exceeds the other by about 26^ miles. The ordinary observer has many proofs of the general spherical form of the earth. new stars gradually is come into view in the direction to which the traveller advancing. and had it remained at rest. 3.648 miles. the particles of its mass began to obey another law viz. round its own axis. and bulging out all around somewhat in the shape of an orange. each place. has its sunrise. for the mariner.FIGURE. 23 while one taken in the opposite direction is 7925. Hence the greater bulging out of the earth's mass at the equator. while others . as he approaches the land. or velocity of rotation. noon. thereby causing a deviation from the true globular form. DIMENSIONS. either north or south.

by constantly sailing in one direction.692 12. Earth's as 1.108 300. the dip or depression of the horizon is about 8 inches per mile.65 . Saturn. while one-fourth of the earth's surface consists of dry land. Many navigators. the other members of which are globular. in round numbers.000 0. . and its mean ever. Venus.16 0. Mars. Density. . whether due east or due west.00 0.387 2.024 18.168 2. 14. Feet.199 105.03 1.685 74. Neptune.165 6.855 1. and on this account engineers in cutting canals have to make an allowance for a dip of this extent in order to keep the water at a uniform level.000 miles. second. thus making what is termed the circumnavigation of the globe. 8.860 89.24 0. Mass. and of these about 51 millions consist of land. in like manner.432 0. as one to three. Some of the more important elements of the remaining members of the solar system are given in the following Table — : Volume.24 GENERAL RELATIONS OF THE EARTH. 5. 0. Mercury.675 0. that she also is of the same form. .229 45. in one Earth's as 1. computed to exceed 260 thousand millions of cubic miles an amount which. . is altogether beyond the grasp of human conception. . Calculating from the dimensions given in the preceding paragraph.70 0.912.020 0. The shadow which the earth casts on the moon during an eclipse is always circular. or.17 0. or nearly so. . Earth's as 1. and 146 millions are occupied by water.756 0.611 1. howround numbers. the other three-fourths are covered by the waters of the The solid contents of the mass have.650 16. Earth.141 0. In consequence of the round form of the earth.095 6. And lastly. .773 0. to speak in radius.953 15. 7. . The superficial area of a globe of these dimensions amounts to 197 millions of square miles .885 1.168 1233. Earth's as 1. the circumference as 25.409 miles.205 696.12 1.716 0.982 1. . in other words. of the diameter being 8000 the or distance from the surface to the centre.012 1. Uranus. Gravity at Bodies faU Surface.364 11.000 0. though expressible in figures.065 0.058 0. Moon. . . . . the earth belonging to a system or brotherhood. . .13 0. as 4000 and circumference or girth 24. disappear in the direction from which he is receding. The proportion of land to that of water may therefore be said to be. 6. the fair presumption is. It is usual.607 0.624 12. the mean diameter of the earth ^vill be 7.805 16. been ocean. Jupiter.000 0. have returned to the port from which they set out.858 miles.

15. and. by the heat of the sun . at the depth of 362 miles. and that the density of marble at the centre of the earth would be 119 times greater than what it is at the surface. that it varies according to the latitude. greenstones. that it is influenced from day to day. is 5^ times that of water. 16. and pendulum experiments. As one of the orbs of the solar system. superficial. so as to maintain the mean density which astronomy and physics have determined. of the globe. Closely connected with the density of the globe is its temperature. which experience extremes of heat in summer. would become as heavy as water . that it is also modified by the absorbent or radiating nature of the soil. Thus it has been calculated that air. The average or mean density of the most prevalent rocks (granites. as determined by torsion-balance. dry or moist. according as this is dark or light coloured. for these. the earth has a variable. Atmosphere. or atmospheric temperature . and gradually decreasing towards the poles . to be noticed hereafter (Chap. sandstones).DENSITY. such as heat. The temperature of the accessible crust. The density — . lastly. would be as dense as quicksilver . and extremes of cold during winter . there is also a higher and more remarkable interior or central temperature. would be so compressed at the depth of a few miles as to give a greater mean density to the whole mass than it actually possesses. is about 2| times that of water at a temperature of 60° Fahrenheit while the density of the whole mass of the globe. ATMOSPHERE. that it is notably affected by elevation above the mean level of tlie sea the higher being the colder regions. being greatest at the equator. its surface. and. or the amount of heat that pervades it. that it is greatly modified by the extent and distribution of sea and land the sea and sea-coasts being more equable than inland continents. Either. TEMPERATURE. plumb-line. that water. at the depth of 34 miles from the surface. it may be stated in the meantime. which constitutes the great theme of climatology. porous or compact . . on the other hand. 26 Density. It has been argued from this that the interior of the earth cannot be composed of the same materials that constitute its outer portions . under the law of gravitation. the interior of the earth is composed of materials differing altogether in nature from those known at its surface. or the compression of gravitation must be counteracted by some highly expansive force. limestones. Temperature. 17. and from season to season. as compared with the materials at has been determined with considerable precision.). Eespecting the superficial temperature. then. judging from volcanic action. XII.

Like volcanoes. their occurrence appears inexplicable. Volcanoes are orifices in the crust of the globe. and Germany. which have been carefully instituted by Leslie. so to speak. Cannel-coal is 13 times as resistant as quartz to the passage of heat. at small depths. is affected either by the direct heat of the sun. July and January 3 feet deep. hot ashes. During summer. hot springs. mines. and vast masses of melted rocks. by heat generated chemically among its own materials. in October and April 24 feet deep. 18. during winter this heat is given off to the surrounding atmosphere and though tlie heat of one summer and the cold of one winter may differ from the heat and cold of others. or by heat derived by conduction from the interior. in . Hot springs throw up They occur more or less in all large quantities of heated water. It has been ascertained that the lightest and most porous rocks are the best conductors of heat.26 GENERAL RELATIONS OF THE EARTH. . Forbes. on an average of seasons. and at less than 100 feet (say 90 feet). borings. In Java. Quetelet. the soil remains frozen to a depth of 700 feet all the year round. Belgium. By many experiments in Scotland. occur . still. the earth is warmed to a certain depth by the heat of the sun . in Siberia. under the equator. at the depth of 80 or 90 feet. France. and there is probably no single region vhere they have not at one time existed. except upon the supposition of the prevalence of intense heat in the interior of the globe. the line of invariable temperature occurs at a depth of 2 or 3 feet. is colder than at the surface that during winter the crust at these depths is warmer than at the surface but that. and the like. in temperate regions. the variations of summer and winter become wholly insensible. Respecting the heat of the interior. both near to and remote from volcanoes. But these results are subject to Important local variations. At Yakutsk. the results are pretty equable. the variations of summer and winter become wholly insensible. that in summer the crust of the earth. while those most dense offer the least resistance to its transmission. . . it is found that the middle of summer and winter. through which are vomited up from below steam. They are abundantly distributed over the earth surface of the present. for instance. . in August and February 12 feet deep. and others. we see it abundantly manifested in volcanoes. owing to the different thermal conductivities of the rocks below the surface. It may therefore be stated in general terms. in December and June at the surface. regions.

the earth may be practically solid to its centre its heated materials being retained in the solid state as a rule by the enormous pressure. and that the pressure due to gravitation must be excessive at great depths within our globe. Ai"tesian wells. ATMOSPHERE. a rise of 1 degree of Fahrenheit usually takes place for every 60 feet of further descent and calculating at this rate of increase. and is surrounded on all sides by a comparatively thin film of solid. as the liquid interior of an egg is surrounded by its thin stony shell. has been found by experiments in coal-pits. and we have by direct experiment been enabled to arrive at some imaflForded Thus it its descending rate of increase. 27 Striking proofs of the universal prevalence of this internal heat is us by the rapid downward increment of heat found in borings. but .) would be reached. 0. at the depth of 150 miles or thereby. — recollect that pressure has the effect of raising the melting-point of those substances of which the generality of rocks are composed.DENSITY. and this gradually. we see that it is not improbable that. and metalliferous mines. When we planet. Fisher and others it is believed that a thin zone of liquid-matter occurs between the solid interior and the equally solid superficial crust. after passing the depth zone of invariable temperature. becoming liquefied and forcing their way pressure is locally relieved. greenstone. but unsteadily. At the same rate of increase. undoubtedly is in the production of volcanic . This theory was long a favourite one among geologists. and similar artificial excavations. Reckoning this " zone or stratum of invariable temperature " at from 60 to 90 feet below the surface. according to the nature of the soils and rocks passed through. wells. arrive at such a temperature that even the most refractory rock-substances would be melted. with the doubtful exception of occasional vesicular spaces. for every fathom of subsequent descent. and porphyry. employed as a convenient term for the rocky exterior of our But the hypothesis of a liquid interior has been opposed by several eminent physicists notably by Professor Hopkins of Cambridge and Sir William Thomson of Glasgow. and the term " crust " is still portant facts relative to . or that at which the surface-heat becomes inappreciable. sufficient to keep in fusion such rocks as basalt. it and active as to the centre where the Intense as the interior heat may be. a temperature (2400° Fahr. we would. mines. who contend that the globe is solid to its centre. the temperature begins to rise. TEMPERATURE. that. notwithstanding the extraordinary internal heat. By the Rev. or even admitting that the thermometer only rises 1 degree for every 90 feet of descent. at a depth of 25 miles or thereby. These facts have led some to argue that the highly-heated interior of the globe is in a state of perfect fusion.

surrounding the earth. motions. affected by it (according to Fourier.7304 lb. caused by heat and the like. integral and temperature. The weight of the atmosphere is generally estimated as equal to the weight of a column of mercury 30 inches in height. compressible medium. as is well known. 19. Besides these original conditions of form. it has been estimated that. at the height of 45 miles above the sea.28 GENERAL RELATIONS OF THE EARTH. . avoirdupois on the square inch. animals absorb oxygen and emit carbonic acid while carbonic acid is decomposed by plants. . the atmosphere elastic or . As at present constituted. and other vital influences are communicated to the plants and animals that reside upon the earth's surface it is also the great laboratory in which all meteorological and electrical . or more attenuated. This atmosphere. But while it is inhaled by both. its density. there is also that of size. We have thus. The atmosphere is thus the grand medium through which heat. moisture. . atmosphere. the air nearest the sea-level is denser than that at considerable elevations and by calculating the rate at which this rarity takes place. or on every side. its presence is inappreciable. and by this breathing the functions of vitality in both are alike sustained. at the height of 45 or 50 miles. a gaseous envelope or atmosphere. but which gradually becomes lighter and lighter. XL) the heat of the sun is diffused and modified it is also the recipient and d iffuser of all watery vapours arising from the earth and from local alterations in its density or expansibility. Being an . which in turn retain the carbon. which is usually regarded as the type of lightness and rarity. or irregular and fitful. avoirdupois on every square inch of surface. and partaking in all its movements. as we ascend. phenomena. the reader can easily imagine the enormous pressure exerted on the almost innumerable square inches of the earth's surface by this thin elastic medium. only -^th of a degree). or to one of water 34 feet in height and as there are 14. whether regular and steady. and thus the equilibrium or balance is restored and perpetuated. nitrogen and oxygen 79 parts of the former to 21 of the latter with a small percentage of carbonic acid and other extraneous aerial envelope that surrounds it — impurities. whose pressure at the sea-level is estimated at 14| lb. till. arise all aerial currents or winds. is mainly composed of two gases. and becomes an and indispensable portion of its constitution. the air is indispensable to the life of vegetables and animals. and set free the oxygen. . if at all. the surface temperature of the globe is scarcely. becomes so rare as to be all but inappreciable. Through this envelope (further details of which are given in Chap. owing to the weak conducting properties of the rocky crust. Both alike breathe it.

—Points. Like other circles. and thus necessarily cutting the equator at right angles. and the like. At the distance of 23^ degrees north and south of the equator. From an idea of the early geographers. the point to which a spectator looks. trope. to render himself familiar. make use of certain terms and technicalities expressive of distance. from their marking the turning-points of the these — A . by supposing the globe divided by a line passing through the poles. hail. that towards which it moves. and di\dding the earth into two equal portions (Lat. that constitute and the the essentials of climatic diversity. cequus. and in this case each degree will equal about 69. and hence all the varied aspects and results of winds. and Africa will lie in the eastern hemisphere. and \vith geographers it will be necessary for the student. with the east on his right hand. on its surface. position. a turning). &c. Reckoning London as a fixed point on such a line. and that behind him the South. any point on the earth's surface turns towards the sun in the morning. Europe. is called the North. line distant alike from either pole. The imaginary line on which the earth rotates is termed its Axis. In treating of the earth thus constituted and surrounded. at this stage. and the west on his left. the circumference of the earth is divisible into 360 equal parts or degrees. Technical Subdivisions 20.05 British statute miles. and thus the terms Sunrise and Sunset (the sun being a stationary centre) express not real. who were inhabitants of the northern hemisphere. and that towards the south as the South Pole. equal). is called the Equator . 29 phenomena are elaborated . the northern half being known as the Northern Hemisphere. like. as shown in the accompanying diagram. the East . it is customary in our maps and charts to place the northern part at the top. and North and South America in the western. and away from him after mid -day . with the east on the right hand and the west on the left. and the terminations of this axis its Foles that towards the north being known as the North Pole. that the north pole was uppermost (though in reality there can be neither upper nor under in a globe freely rotating in space). Asia. In the same way we may speak of the Eastern Hemisphere and Western Hemisphere. Zones. clouds. rains. and the southern as the Southern Hemisphere. but merely apparent phenomena. thunderstorms. Thus. In this rotation from west to east.TECHNICAL SUBDIVISIONS. 21. Circles. and the southern at the bottom. are two parallel lines called the Tropics (Gr. the direction from which the earth moves in its daily rotation is called the JVest. snow.

''"'•"' -::::^^ \ known as the Trc^nc the Tropic of Capricorn. Or. and cutting the globe into two equal portions. posite) to that of the north. sub-arctic.^ the Arctic Circle (from the Antarctic Circle.041.. Arctos. an eclipse). 1622^ miles. The space or belt between the tropics is called the Torrid Zone.::.592 8. and those between these circles and their respective poles the Frigid Zones. The spaces between the tropics and the Arctic and Antarctic Circles.132. or 6086. because the sun. ..797 square miles. on either side.132. calculating their areas in square miles.115 51. A line which cuts the equator obliquely. that on the north being of Cancer. The bre^dtli of each of the torrid zones is therefore about 1622^ statute miles ^ . South Temperate Zone. while . arctic. Torrid Zone. the earth's superficies is made up nearly . and of each of the frigid. ekleipsis. of each of the temperate.92 yards. opZones and Circles.797 customary for the botanist and zoologist to subdi^dde those zones more minutely into equatorial. and tliat on the south as NORTH POLE / 1 > — Rx\ cANCEB .r-. are termed the Temperate Zones (north and south) . is called the Ecliptic (Gr. sub-tropical. or 5280 feet a geographical mile is 2028.314.e OF from either EOUATOR parallel — that pole is a on the north being called \ ^^. the Bear).^Wbo?^^~^^ -^'. 22. and polar but we It is . as follows : North Frigid Zone.76 feet. produces a greater degree of heat than in regions where his rays strike more obliquely. tropical. South Frigid Zone.. shall notice these subdivisions to treat and their characters when we come of the distribution of vegetable and animal life. and that on the south space.30 sun in the GENERAL RELATIONS OP THE EARTH.^m. and touching the tropics.592 78. about 2969 . . because opposite {anti. The ecliptic of 1 The length of a British statute mile is 1760 yards. 51. North Temperate Zone. warmtemperate. cold-temperate. being alwa3'^s vertical in some part of that SOUTH POLE ^v^J-''^ oy the northern constellation.041. Tlie equator has been already described as a circle midway between the poles. 8. distance At (23^ line the same degrees) -~-~Jaop. because these constellaoccupy sponding part tions corre- in the heavens. ecliptic .

in any particular part of Britain. Longitude. equal . are termed Meridians (Lat. Diametrically opposite points on the globe are said to be the Antipodes of each other (Gr.) . TTieWrfiee.TECHNICAL SUBDIVISIONS.) in the southern hemisphere. noctis. 23. Lat.) in the northern hemisphere. in opposition to each other. as it were. A point in the sphere of the heavens vertically over a spectator's head is the Zenith. night). or twelve o'clock. according as a place may be situated eastward or westward of the meridian of Green- . and pous^ podos. hence we speak of north latitude (N. and are. of course. The position of a place on the earth's surface is determined by what is termed its Latitude and Longitude. foot). hence English geographers speak of east longitude and west longitude (W. anti^ opposite. Lat. on the 21st March and 21st September. and cutting the equator at right angles. another set of lines. or in planes that pass through its centre and that of Lesser Circles to the tropics. The points where the equator are called the Equinoctial Points or Nodes (Lat. When it is noon. is measured east and west of any fixed meridian the plane of this circle. arctic and antarctic circles above described. 31 the heavens is the great circle described for the sun in his apparent annual journey round the earth. on the other hand. nox. The term Greater Circles is sometimes applied to the equator and ecliptic. — different countries adopting different meridians (usually that of their capitals). and so on for the intermediate hours at directly opposite parts along the same meridian. Long. or very near ecliptic cuts the celestial — . and Britain that of the Koyal Observatory at Greenwich (E. These equinoxes take place twice a-year namely. These points are the Poles of the visible horizon. and of south latitude (S. because when any one of these lines is opposite the sun it is midday. 90 degrees distant from every part of it. for instance. drawn from pole to pole over the earth's surface. The latitude of a place is its distance north or south from the equator . Besides these circles. because the feet of their respective inhabitants are placed. because they encircle the earth at the thickest part. while on the opposite side it is midnight. and is so named from the circumstance that eclipses can happen only when the moon is in it. the day and night are of equal duration. cequus.). at all the places situated along that meridian on the same side of the globe. mid-day). while one in the same sphere vertically under his feet is the Nadir. because when the sun is in these parts of his course. it is midnight at an opposite and corresponding point near New Zealand. The ecliptic dra-vvn upon our terrestrial globes and maps of the world merely indicates the angle which the plane of the celestial ecliptic makes with the earth's equator. Long.



The terms longitude and latitude arose from a notion of the ancients that the earth was longer from east to west than from nortli to south in other words, that it had length (longitudo) and breadth (latitudo) an idea which is thereby most conveniently


circles on the earth being divided into 360 and each degree again into 60 minutes, each minute into 60 seconds, and so on, the position of a place can be indicated with great precision and for the sake of brevity certain signs are employed, as 4° 6' 12", meaning thereby 4 degrees, 6 minutes, and The distance between the equator and either pole 12 seconds.




being only the fourth part of the earth's circumference, the latitude of a place north or south of the equator can never exceed the fourth part of 360, or 90 degrees. Longitude, on the other hand, being measured east and west of a fixed meridian, embraces a whole hemisphere, or 180 degrees ; and as the meridians all converge towards the poles, the size of degrees of longitude becomes less and less as we approach these extremities. The lines of latitude being necessarily parallel to each other, geographers speak of parallels of latitude, designating those that lie near to the equator as low latitudes, those that approach the poles as high latitudes, and those that intervene Parallels and Meridians. as middle latitudes.
[It has been stated above that the value of a degree of longitude varies according to the latitude, being equal to a degree of latitude at the equabut gradually becoming less as we approach the poles. The following table exhibits this diminution for every 5 degrees of latitude both in geographical and British statute miles

Degree of



Degree of



5 10 15

20 25 30 35 40 45

60.00 59.77 59.09 57.95 56.38 54.38 51.96 49.15 45.96 42.43

69.07 68.81 67.95 66.65 64.84 62.53 59.75 56.51 52.85 48.78






50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

38.57 34.41 30.00 25.36 20.52 15.53 10.42 5.23 0.00

44.35 39.68 34.50 29.15 23.60 17.86 11.98 6.00 0.00





In the foregoing chapter we have noticed those primary con-

and the like, which belong to the earth as a member of the solar system. These conditions lie, as it were, at the foundation of all change and diversity on the earth's surface day and night, heat and cold, summer and winter, meteorological fluctuation and climate, oceanic tides and currents, geological waste and reconstruction, and, in fine, all that confers diversity on land and water, and consequently on vegetable and animal life, being directly or remotely dependent on the original constitution of the globe, and its conditions of form, motion, size, density, temperature,

nection with the solar system. It is necessary, then, that the student should render himself familiar with the jplanetary relations

and annual and admeasurements, as well as with those terms and technicalities by which its several portions and positions are known and described. As an ohlate spheroid, then, the earth has an equatorial diameter of 7925.648, and a polar diameter of 7899.170 miles (or, according to the mean of measured meridional arcs, 7926.05, and 7899.6) rotates on its own axis in 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds, or in one day; revolves round the sun in an elliptical path or orbit in 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes, and 10 seconds, or one year; and is in turn attended by the moon, which performs her revolution
of the earth

spheroidal form,


daily rotation



density, temperature, magnitude,


As the mean circum24,858 miles, and as she rotates on her axis once in 24 hours, it is clear that any spot on the equator must be borne round at the rate of more than 1000 miles an hour. With every successive removal from the equator, however, the circles of latitude become smaller and smaller, and as they are all carried round within the same period of 24 hours, their rate of motion must be proportionally less. At the 60th parallel, for example, this motion is only 500 miles an hour, and at the absolute poles it ceases to exist. The mean density of the rocks known at the surface of the earth is about 2\ times that of water, while that of the entire mass is 5^. The earth's own proper temperature, as
in 27 days, 8 hours, or one lunar month.
ference of the earth

from that received by its atmosphere and surface from the sun, increases according to the depth, and this increasing temperature is apparently the cause of volcanoes, hot springs, and other thermal phenomena. Of the earth's interior we know little, except that the materials of which it is composed are intensely

heated, and are subjected to enormous pressure.

It is





that these heated materials are retained generally in the solid state

by the excessive pressure, but where this is locally relieved they become liquefied, and force their way to the surface in volcanic regions. Rocks being bad conductors of heat, the surface temperature, it is calculated, cannot be affected by the internal heat beyond the merest fraction of a degree. The earth is surrounded by an aerial envelope or atmosphere, consisting in the main of 7.9 parts nitrogen and 21 oxygen, with a fractional percentage of carbonic acid and this gaseous envelope, being an elastic medium,

it presses with a weight of 14| lb. on the square inch), and becomes rarer and rarer as we ascend in space, till at the height of 45 or 50 miles its presence becomes inappreciable. This atmosphere is the medium through which the sun's light and heat are equally diffused the laboratory in which all meteorological phenomena, winds, rains, clouds, storms, &c. are elaborated and, in fine, the source whose varied mutations are the proximate causes of all climatic diversity. In treating of the earth, various terms and technicalities are necessarily employed by geographers, and with these the student should early render himself familiar. Thus, the imaginary line on which the earth turns in her daily rotation from west to east is termed the axis ; the extremities of this axis, north and south, the poles ; the equator^ the circle between the two poles which cuts the globe into two equal portions or hemispheres ; the torrid, temperate, and frigid zones, the varying belts of surface temperature as we proceed northward and southward from the equator, where the sun's heat is greatest the ecliptic, indicating the apparent path of the sun round the earth meridians, those lines drawn from pole to pole over the earth's surface, and at right angles to the equator, along which the sun is vertical at his highest daily ascension or noon ; latitude, the distance of any place, measured in degrees, north or south of the equator and longitude, the distance of the same place east or west from any arbitrary or convenient meridian that in Britain being the meridian of Greenwich that in France, Paris and that in Germany, the Faroe Islands. To the student who wishes to enter more minutely into the consideration of the earth's planetary or astronomical relations, we may recommend perusal of Lockyer's Elementary Lessons in Astronomy and Sir J. Herschel's Outlines of Astronomy.' For a fuller explanation of the technical terms of his science, he may consult the Glossary appended to the present volume.

densest at the earth's surface (where














The Rocky Crust


Constitution and Formation.

24. Having considered in the preceding chapter some of the more obvious relations of the globe as a member of the solar system, and the terms usually employed to express these connections,


we now proceed to describe the leading features of its own special As the knowledge of its general relations was derived

from Astronomy, so a knowledge of its individual structure mainly obtained from the teachings of Geology. As the one set of facts could be taught without going deeply into the problems of the astronomer, so the other may be understood without enWhat, for tering largely into the reasonings of the geologist. How are its instance, is the nature of the earth's rocky crust ? rocks arranged, and how does this arrangement affect its superWhat has stretched out the level plain and ficial character ? upheaved the rugged mountain ? What renders one soil ungenerous and sterile, and another genial and fertile ? And as the earth's crust is continually undergoing modification under the operations of external and internal forces, what the effects of such modifications on the general geography of the globe ? These and similar problems geology endeavours to solve, and, with a little explanation, these solutions may be rendered intelligible to the student of Physical Geography.

25, Geologists speak of the " crust of the globe " just as the housewife talks of the " crust of her loaf." The crust of the loaf The crust or exterior poris one thing, the inside of it another. tion of the earth, composed of rocks and rock materials that can be seen and handled, is one thing ; the interior, of which we can know nothing by direct observation, may be, and in all likelihood is, a very different thing. By observation and comparison we can determine a great many truths respecting the structure and



composition of the former
best little

respecting the latter

more than


we can offer at This outer portion or rocky-

the is the great theatre of all geographical phenomena foundation of the land and waters the arena of climatic influcrust



field of vital



and, as such,



the geographer to know something of its history and constitution. That history, as geology has taught us, is a long and varied one ;
that constitution, as bearing
of geography,



more immediately upon the problems endeavour briefly to explain.

On the most cursory inspection of quarries, railway-cuttings,

and ravines, the observer will find a great portion of the rocks arranged in layers, or lying one above another in beds or
strata (Lat. stratum, spread out). These are said to be stratified, and generally consist of sandstones, clays, shales, or consolidated muds, limestones, and other similar rocks. He will also find another set not spread out in layers, but rising, hard and massive, in no determinate arrangement. These are termed the unstratifi£d, and consist of such rocks as the granites, greenstones, basalts, and lavas. How, he will naturally inquire, have two sets of rocks 80 dissimilar in character and arrangement been produced ? And as we can only interpret nature's productions by a knowledge of nature's operations, we must seek for the answer to this question in what is now taking place around us. And first, if we turn to any lake, estuary, or bay of the ocean, we will find that the mud, sand, and gravel carried down by the rivers or washed from the cliffs by the waves and tides, are deposited and arranged along the bottom of these receptacles in layers or strata more or less horizontal, and in course of ages one above another, precisely like the shales and sandstones of the quarries and sea-cliffs. Here,



are entitled to infer that rocks arranged in layers or

have been formed through and by the agency of water (Lat. aqua) that is, have been deposited as sediment (Lat. sedere, to settle down) in water, or brought together and assorted by the action of moving water and hence they are termed aqueous.

AAA, stratified; B B,
sedimentary, or stratified.

Unstratified Rocks.

place, to the other molten volcano or and these, when rock-matters are discharged from its crater cooled and consolidated age after age, form mountain -masses, and fill up chasms and rents produced by earthquakes, precisely as the

we turn, in the next burning mountain, we find that lava and


granites and greenstones


and basalts do among the
Here, again,


with which they are associated.
infer that the greenstones, basalts,


are entitled to

products of

fire (Lat. ignis, fire),

and other similar rocks, are the and hence they are designated

igneous, eruptive, or unstratified.

In the crust of the earth, then, we have two main sets of stratified and the unstratified the one formed through and by the agency of water, the other through and by the agency of fire. The former are chiefly the products of aqueous and atmospheric waste, the latter the products of igneous reconstruction and between these two forces, the aqueous and igneous, the crust of the earth has ever been held in habitable equilibrium. Were the aqueous and atmospheric forces to operate uncontrolled, all the higher portions of the dry land would in the course of ages be worn down, and the whole reduced to a dreary uniformity of level but to prevent such a contingency, the volcanic forces are perpetually exerting themselves from below, and once more upheaving the crust into dry land and diversity of surface. What the frosts and rains and rivers are wearing and carrying from the higher lands is deposited in layers of mud, sand, and gravel in the lakes and estuaries below and what is wasted from the sea-cliffs by waves and tides is borne along and distributed in the bays and other sheltered recesses of the ocean. These deposits, in course of time, become consolidated, by pressure and internal chemical changes, into shales and sandstones and conglomerates and we might readily conceive the low, level, superficial aspect of a globe where this sedimentary process had gone on unchecked for ages. But the forces from within are as incessantly at work as the forces from without, and sooner or later (according to some law whose order is yet unknown) these strata are upheaved into dry land, Avith all that diversity of surface which seems inseparable from the efforts of the earthquake and volcano. The great design of creation seems clearly to be diversity in time as well as diversity in space. Hill and dale, level plain and rugged mountain, are ever attended by diversity of soil, diversity of winds and clouds, heat and cold, and all the other climatic influences on which diversity of plant-life and diversity of animal life are so intimately dependent. To the primary geological oscillations of the earth's crust its submergences and upheavals, its volcanic outbursts and earthquake convulsions, the wearing away of its softer rocks, and the resistance of its harder are we therefore indebted for all that confers on its surface geographical variety and diversity. Hence the value of some knowledge of geology to him who would thoroughly comprehend the existing aspects of nature. If some











knowledge of anatomy be essential to the artist who would depict with accuracy the animal frame, equally so is some acquaintance with geology of importance to the geographer who would comprehend aright the mountains and plains, tlie hills and dales, and all the other aspects of superficial variety which give to our globe at once its endless forms of scenery, and its subtlest modifications of climate and vitality.


Age and Arrangement

of Rock-Formations.

28. If, then, the crust of the globe be in a state of oscillation between the aqueous and atmospheric forces that waste and wear from without, and the igneous forces that reconstruct and upheave from within if cliffs and hills are worn down, and lakes and estuaries filled up and converted into alluvial plains if plains are thrown up into mountains, and the sea-bed into dry land if large tracts of the earth are gradually raised higher and higher above the ocean, while other regions are gradually submerged it is clear that diff"erent portions of the rocky crust must be of different ages, and composed of different materials. The present distribution of sea and land has undergone many noted modifications even within and if such changes have been accomplished the historic era within a period so brief as a few thousand years, what may we believe to have taken place during the thousands of ages that preceded human history ? So numerous have been these changes, as clearly demonstrated by geology, that every portion of the existing dry land has been repeatedly beneath the waters and that which now constitutes the bed of the ocean, has probably been the dry land of former epochs.

— —




Tliere rolls the deep where grew the tree Oh, Earth, what changes hast thou seen There, where the long street roars, has been


stillness of the central sea.
hills are

shadows and they flow

From form to form, and nothing stands They melt like mists, the solid lands
Like clouds, they shape themselves and go

Tlie record of these changes lies in the stratified rocks, each

period producing


own sedimentary



deposits, and these deposits term formations^ as having been

formed at certain periods, laid down in certain areas of sea, lake, or estuary, and as bearing some impress of the geographical conditions under which they were collected. Farther, as the sediments

Tertiary or Recent Accumulations. dug up). As a general rule. 4. Ordovician. but merely that such is their order in time wherever they have been examined by the geologist. . ) Post. and more crystalline lie below the recent and . or Lower Silurian System. we have the intelligible representation that appears on the following page. or Upper Silurian System. or Metamorphic &c. or Chalk System. 2. stone fieri. or Lower New Red Sandstone. and a different aspect of vegetable and animal life during the period of its deposition. 3. 5.— AGE AND AKRANGEMBNT OF ROCK-FORMATIONS. 1. Carboniferous System. as they are termed. which contain few extinct forms of life. or fossils (Lat. the older strata are the deeper seated the older. The Old . It is not asserted that these rock-formations and systems occur in full and regular succession in every part of the world. and crusts . geologists have arranged the stratified rocks into formations and systems superficial . or Oolitic and Liassic System. V j "j rATTsrormp /oti ? rv^\ Mf^ozoto and Eocene. and descending through systems whose fossils belong chiefly to extinct races. — and the older the strata. bones. to become). Devonian. Arch^an. . 7. 6. Thus. Founding on principles such as these. 12. we have : — Systems. or Old Red Sandstone. teeth. Triassic. as they occur in the British Islands. 29. Silurian. Miocene. so the sediments of former ages contain the remains of plants and animals that then existed these remains being petrified. (-^^^^^^ ^V«)- Cretaceous. fossus. or Pliocene. branches. These petrifactions (Lat. beginning at the recent and superficial. 11. arranging them in diagrammatic form. Systems (Laurentian. or converted into stone. 39 of existing lakes and estuaries and seas imbed the remains of plants and animals that have lived in these areas. Or. Permian. ) ) Eozoic (Damn of Life). Tertiary System. Pre-Cambrian. 9.). 8. according to their relative antiquities each division representing (as nearly as can be determined) a different arrangement of sea and land. ( Cambrian System. — shells. or have been drifted from the land leaves. differ widely in many instances from the plants and animals now peopling the globe and this difference may be said to increase with the depth and age of the strata that contain them. Periods. 10. \ Paueozoic (Ancient Life). trunks. petra. Af-r/^ir-f \ l^^*««^ ^V^). the greater is the difference between their fossil plants and animals and the plants and animals now existing. or v j Upper New Red Sandstone. Jurassic. harder.

Tertiary or Cainozoic Period.. Laurentian or Dimetian. ATERNARV.\ . &*c. Triassic.40 STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH. Pliocene. Silurian. or Mesozoic Period. Ordovician. . Carboniferous.":. Chalk.Tertiary.• ' Old Red Sandstone. Ca^nbrian. Glacial Deposits. Recent and Alluvial Deposits.'. Secondary Oolitic or Jurassic. Oligocene.:'. Permian. Eocene.:: • . Neocontian. Miocene. Devonian or •. Primary or PALitozoic Period. "J Post. Or ECKNT Period. GENERAL VIEW OF THE STRATIFIED SYSTEMS OF GEOLOGY. &*c. '. ARCHyEAN or Eozoic Period. Liassic. Huronian or Pepidian.

marls. the volcanic forces have been in a state of activity breaking up the stratified crust.FORMATIONS. : . The consideration of these systems and subdivisions forms . river. so also the unstratified or igneous admit of a similar. consists of different kinds of rocks. and other superficial accumulations. associated chiefly with Primary and Metamorphic 31. chiefly with Tertiary and Upper Secondary 2. in lake-basins. stratified rocks have been arranged in chronological sequence.valleys.well as a series of rocks a portion of time in world-history when certain distributions of sea and land prevailed. The Post-tertiary System consists in the main of clays. the earlier igneous rocks are associated with the earlier stratified deposits. or which have been formed within a comparatively recent period. coral-reefs. race. associated strata. Trappean. arid filling up earthquake fissures with molten-rock matter from below. Granitic. associated strata.— — — 41 AGE AND ARRANGEMENT OF ROCK. without having the whole of the older strata below but the oolite never occurs above the chalk. just as the . As a general rule. the following summary may be of use to the student of geography 1st. and the older and deeper-seated are more uniform and crystalline in texture than the newer and more superficial. geologists have roughly arranged the igneous or unstratified rocks in the following chro- As the though — nological order 1. In course of the earth's mutations these earlier products become submerged beneath the waters of the ocean. gravels. and presents different soils and surfaces. As at present. so during every former epoch of the earth's history. the special subject of geology but as each formation occupies a distinct portion of the earth's crust. just as certain reigns and dynasties and nationalities represent successive stages in the history of the human 30. and this consecutively and continuously from the most distant ages up to the present day. sands. and overlaid by newer sedimentary deposits. less precise. again to be broken through by another set of igneous operations. peat-mosses. and when certain forms of vegetables and animals lived and died. Founding on principles such as these. and each surface of a country without sent. : Volcanic. chiefly with Secondary and Upper Primary strata. 3. Eed Sandstone or the Carboniferous system may occupy the whole any of the newer systems being preChalk or Oolite may be the surface rock. The order of their succession is fixed and determinate. throwing out lava and other products in the formation of hills. nor the old red sandstone above the coal. which are still forming. system represents a portion of time as. arrangement.

recent). quently removed from. and constitute the surfaces of valleys. they occupy low-lying tracts. down to the 40th parallel of latitude or thereby. as in the Alps. and shallows of the ocean. Pyrenees. 2d. The Tertiary System consists. state. of clays. oligos. little or few) between the Eocene and Miocene. or Glacial epoch. The System is usually separated by geologists into three main groups characterised by the proportion of recent shells which they contain. creta. gravels. or extinct in. The igneous rocks associated with them are lavas and basalts. are in many instances extinct (especially the gigantic quadrupeds). As a general rule. limestones. in a siibfossil the remains of plants and animals still existing. these seem to point to a time . pleion. and the third division. In volcanic districts they are associated with recent lavas. dawn and cainos. and boulders on the then submerged surface. 3d. and holds a place intermediate between the Post-t«rtiary and true Tertiary systems. certain localities which they once inhabited.worn blocks or boulders. fourth division is recognised by some geologists. marls. or now but partially active. scoria?. The Cretaceous System (Lat. They imbed. and lignites or beds of woodcoal and occupies well-defined areas. plains. A — . and Himalayas. though closely allied to existing genera and species. who place what they term the Oligocene (Gr. Pliocene (Gr. and point to conditions of climate and distributions of life very different from those at present prevailing. and other alluvial expanses. but for the most part lying beneath them. gravel. meion. more . and similar products and. or subjected to the drift of icebergs that dropped their burdens of clay. gravel imbedding huge water. this period is generally known as the BouldeVj Northern Drift. as its name . as if these at one time had been extensive fresh-water lakes. . Associated with these superficial accumulations. eos. being typical examples but the Tertiary rocks are often found upheaved to great heights upon the flanks of mountainchains.42 STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH. and as when large areas of the northern hemisphere were under ice. Paris. but fre- estuaries. less) . because the fossil shells it contains include an extremely small proportion of species known to be living at the present day. The oldest division is known as the Eocene (from Gr. and the basins of London. and Vienna. there occur over the northern hemisphere. thick deposits of clay and . The next division is termed the Miocene (from Gr. sands. recent). undulating lowlands may be said to constitute the physical features of tertiary districts the pampas of Buenos Ayres. and inland seas. generally speaking. The fossils imbedded in tertiary strata. in general terms. and cainos. long since extinct. chalk) consists. the products of volcanoes. estuaries.

Surrey. softer clays and shales. The Jurassic System consists largely of limestones. with dry intermediate depressions. and flat physical features of the system in Britain fertile vales. implies. 5th and 6th. and is characterised by its abundant marine remains. and especially by the profusion of large nautilus-like shells (Ammonites) and gigantic land and water The unequal wasting of its harder limestones. egg lithos. and occasional beds of ironstone and coal. The Triassic and Permian Systems. oon. and the Lower as the Liassic. The system the lower title is falls into two well marked divisions — the upper porclays. asso- localities with belong almost wholly to extinct species and even where the chalk beds are wanting. As a system. . as be witnessed in that broad belt of inland counties which stretches from Yorkshire on the north-east to Dorset on the south-west of England. where the chalk and sands prevail. The fossils that there is generally little difficulty in recognising the system. of 43 tMck beds of chalk or soft marine limestones. It derives its title from its magnificent development in the Jura Mountains of Europe. like those of Kent. which were formerly considered as one great formation under the name of the New Red Sandstone (because of its position above the coal bearing rocks. in contradistinction to the old red sandstone which lies below the coal). ciated with sands. sandstones. tion containing the vast masses of soft white limestone. where its strata are typically developed.AGE AND ARRANGEMENT OF ROCK-FORMATIONS. alter- nating with calcareous clays and sandstones. the other strata are so replete with their characteristic marine remains. be said to be low rounded hills. 4th. lignite. while mainly composed in Britain of sands and is The of Chalk formation therefore usually restricted to the Upper Cretaceous. The former derives its name from its peculiar limestones or roestones (Gr. and in some beds of coal and . and reptiles. which consist in many instances of rounded grains like the roe of a fish. it occurs in many parts of the world. clays. land plants of sub-tropical growth. bituminous shales. confer on its landscape an agreeable succession of easy undulations. consist in the main of soft reddish sanddale is may — . stone). In England its strata are classed in two main divisions the Upper being known as the Oolitic System. may where the rich fossiliferous clays come to the surface. while the Lower Cretaceous is termed the Neocomian System. and unless where tliro\ATi up into higher hills by volcanic forces. this gradual alternation of hill and the characteristic geographical feature of the system. from the town of Neufchatel (Neocomum) in Switzerland. The associated igneous rocks are chiefly basalts and greenstones and the . and Sussex.

being largely developed in Perm in Eastern Russia. is little attractive in the physical features of the coal-formasoil monotonous moorlands of cold retentive (Northumber- occurrence in the geography of the system. The physical features of the new red sandstone are by no means decided the limestones and harder sandstones forming inconspicuous hills and ridges. tufas. lead. Belonging to the Palaeozoic or far-back ages of the world. it may be said that there are three main divisions in the system as it is developed in the typical localities in South Britain — viz. however. Broadly speaking. yellowish magnesian limestones. some (mountain limestone) so characteristic of Yorkshire and Derbyshire scenery. 8th. and retentive character. it is rich in mineral and metallic products coal. and the Coal Measures. the Millstone Grit. — — consists of sandstones. Lanark. The fossils of the system are abundant marine. iron. clays. estuarine. &c. subjected to repeated subsidences and elevations. and antimony being among its most important contributions to modern industry and civilisation. carho. Linlithgow) being a common — . sUver. and terrestrial —the most notable being that excess of vegetable growth that led to the formation of numerous seams of coal. and of which Cheshire in our own country may be taken as a typical example. 7th. ironstones. the Mountain Limestone. the last named being the highest in position. consisting in Germany of three well-marked members the Keuper. as if they had been deposited ages in seas and estuaries. lime.. The fossil remains of these systems are chiefly marine. cliffs and those bold and scars of limestone there tion. The Carboniferous System^ so called from its yielding the main supply of coal (Lat. makes its appearance under two very land. or triple group. moist. these remains have but little relationship to existing genera species. better fitted for pasture than for corn-culture. Muschelkalkj and Bunter (sandstones. with occasional deposits of rock-salt and gypsum. The system of arenaceous rocks. Like all the older systems. zinc. has received the name of Trias. . and the highest known forms are merely fishes and reptiles no bird or quadruped having yet been detected beneath the new red sandstone. has given rise to the term Permian and the upper. With the exception of the trap hills and — (greenstones. the softer clays and marls being worn into vales and expanses of a flat. and marls). and for coals in frequent alternation.— 44 STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OP THE EARTH. with footprints of birds and amphibious reptiles. The lower portion. basalts. coal) in Europe and America. which immediately underlies the Carboniferous. and variegated clays marls.) that intersect the system in localities. limestones. limestones. shales. and stones.

irregularities by trap (often felstone) eruptions.AGE AND ARRANGEMENT OP ROCK-FORMATIONS. the home of the ancient tribe of the Ordo- vices) consists essentially of massive gritstones. 9th. but. Central Wales and Shropshire. and gives origin to some of the the mountain piles of Snowdon. the system. and these only in the upper portions of stones. tains It con- excepting trilobites. and shaly and slaty beds. flagstones. conglomerate. so called from its existence in West Wales (the ancient Cambria). from St Abb's Head on the east to Portpatrick on the west. the physical features of the old red sandstone are often varied and picturesque. It occupies but little ground in Britain. and in these areas it is known as the Old Red SandIn Devonshire. Helvellyn. may be taken as typical areas of Silurian scenery. it consists of sandstones. and Skiddaw being composed of Ordovician — strata. and Forfar being typical — areas. are eminently marine. but these are remarkable for their abundance and variety. and shale. containing a few fish and plant remains that suggest a fresh water origin for the system. sandy flagstones. distinct types in Britain. System. with a few zones and bands of conglomerate and limestone. Its fossils and consist almost wholly of the lower or invertebrate orders (corals. and the scenery to which it gives origin is rugged few fossils and forbidding. shales. with all their variety of hill. ^dth sand- and intercalated limestones. and the Southern Highlands of Scotland. Cader finest scenery in Britain Idris. and less abrupt and prethan those of the older strata. and crustaceans. and molluscs. The Ordovician System (so called from its typical develop- ment in North Wales. and limestones containing Thrown into many marine fossils in remarkable abundance. . few fishes being found in its strata. 11th. and in general its slopes are dry and of moderate fertility the larger portions of Devonshire. and corals. and valley. consisting chiefly of hydrozoa. The Silurian System (so called from its typical development in South Wales. The Cambrian System. Its fossils are all marine. which was anciently inhabited by the Silures) consists of numerous slaty or hard shaly beds. irregular cipitous. is made up of enormous thicknesses of gray grits. Hereford. are more rounded and massive. 45 In Scotland and tlie West of England its beds consist of red sandstone. shell-fish. and slates. conglomerates. The physical features of the formation are frequently softer nature of the and mountainous. The system includes many volcanic rocks. from the rocks. glen. where it is denominated the Devonian stone. and Crustacea). 10th.

The cones of Vesuvius and Etna. They are supposed by some to have undergone a metamorphism (Gr. or chemical alteration from ordinary sandstones. and consist of trachytes. an ancient tribe of SouthWest Wales). The gneissose rocks of the Western Hebrides are referred by some authorities to the Laurentian and the crystalline rocks of the Highlands are supposed by others to be also of rocks. quartz- and crystalline marbles. the Arvonian (from Arvon. The crystalline strata of these metamorphic systems excel all others in the grandeur of the scenery to which they give origin here sweeping up in ridges of vast extent. beyond morphe. Such are the leading features of the stratified systems. three successive systems are said to occur the Dimetian (from the Dimetai. shales. — . — — — . so with the unstratified. . 32. and harder and more compact in the older and extinct volcanoes. and by such. as in the mountain regions of Scandinavia. and granitic Ist. and limestones.— 4G 12th. . mica-schists. . a hundred near St Davids). change). or internal change. Schiehallion. below the Cambrian system are essenand are known collectively as the Pre-Cambrian or Archman (Gr. primeval) or Metastrata that lie tially crystalline in their nature. The morphic Rocks. archaios. They rise up in dury rocky hills. and the crateriform hills of Auvergne. and the Scottish Highlands. slates. and other similar products loose and less consolidated in the more recent and active. each great group has its own physical features and though perhaps less sharply defined. . by heat pressure. the former name of Caernarvonshire) and the Pebidian (from Pebidian. they may be readily detected in the various areas they occupy. meta. they are still sufficiently distinct to be recognised in hill and mountain ranges as volcanic. with a little field practice. are associated with the more recent formations. : The Volcanic^ as already stated. — — trappean. more or less conical and crateriform and these are sometimes grouped round some common centre. and the Huronian (from Lake Huron). The study of these rocks is still in its infancy. Their study is attended with great difficulties. the Laurentian (from the Laurentide Mountains of Canada). In Western Wales. and in the summits of Ben Lawers. and that an extremely doubtful one the so-called Eozoon Ganadense of America. scoriae. and they have as yet yielded only a single fossil. and sometimes arranged in linear or axial directions. vesicular lavas. In America two main groups have long been recognised. are familiar and well-known examples. and Ben More. there weathering down into splintery peaks and crags. pre-Cambrian age. basaltic lavas. They consist of such rocks as gneiss.STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH. As with the stratified. .

Their soils being dry and genial. felstones. which. the most valuable agricultural portions of the district in which they occur. Wicklow. syenites. Connection between Geology and Physical Geography. They are ancient volcanic rocks. consists of granites. slopes. which confer on the landscape a beauty and diverthe harder greenstones and basalts sity peculiarly their own standing out on the crags and terraces. or oldest or deepest series of igneous and the like. and Cornish Mounrocks. and from their higher antiquity and longer subjection to wasting influences. consist of greenstones or whinstones. and Arenigs of the Trappean and the Grampians. . so called many of the hills they from the terraciform aspect of compose (Swedish. basalts. tains of the Granitic. Plutonic. " lying in an irregular tertiary basin . a stair). and the hills of Auvergne. preserved in hiU-ranges more or less persistent. tufas. Understanding the natiire of the preceding subdivisions. porphyries. but presenting of themselves broad massive shoulders of cold sterile moorland and unprofitable heath. porphyries. 47 The Trappean. Vesuvius." AGE AND ARRANGEMENT OF ROCK-FORMATIONS. " "a cold retentive soil derived from the subjacent carboniferous rocks . The Granitic. while the softer tufas and ashes have been worn down into gentle slopes and declivities. tions. trappa. the trap hills of a country are generally possessed of great amenity and fertility. may be taken as typical examples of the Volcanic group of Igneous rocks the Ochils. 2(]. — . perhaps. whose grassy slopes and terraces " " bounded by sterile whose snow-clad summits " and hundreds of . others that are of continual occurrence in geographical descrip- He will still more of geology with his own immediate fully perceive the intimate connection science when he reflects that . and other kindred rocks. — 3d. and terraces. 33. and constitute. are generally hard and crystalline in texture and massive in structure. " " intersected by a low range of trap triassic hills. " " crossing a plateau of sandstones . are now worn into rounded heights. exposed crags. Sidlaws. They are of frequent occurrence in the central parts of all the higher and older mountain-chains being often surrounded by the splintery peaks and abrupt ridges of the metamorphic schists. the student will be able to attach some intelligible idea to such phrases as the river " cutting its way through secondary strata . from their more ancient or deep-seated relations. granitic ridges. and are generally associated with the secondary and upper primary strata. Etna. .

In the preceding chapter we have directed attention to the rocky structure of the globe as that which gives colour and character to all external phenomena. Geology and geography are inseparably connected and thus it is that some acquaintance with the nature and sequence of the rock-formations that constitute the solid crust. as subject to external and internal change. confers new features on the landscape. every plain formed by the deposition of alluvial silt. are widely different. and with the causes that produce them. every inequality produced by earthquake convulsion. potash. and less fitted for tillage than for pasture the disintegration of trap rocks." composed of materials that can be seen . and every inch that one region is elevated above the ocean. every glen eroded by riveraction. disturbs the existing geographical equilibrium. for instance.— . both in outline and in vegetable covering. In fine. 48 STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OP THE EARTH. shouldered mountains of granite or the splintery peaks of metamorphic strata. which their structural fissures ever keep dry and pulverulent while the scanty disintegration of an impervious granite is poor. rich in soda. RECAPITULATORY AND EXPLANATORY. and is therefore of paramount importance to the student of physical geography. Every hill that vol- canic energy raises above the general surface. . or that another may subside beneath it. many of the soils which give character and colouring to vegetable growth are derived directly from the disintegration of the subjacent rocks. and lime. We have seen. and barren. and are further affected in their fertility by the porous or retentive nature of the beds on which they rest. geography. We have spoken of the " crust. new varieties of superficial aspect or scenery. genial soil. NOTE. moreover. cold. have produced. on the other hand. terraces. is light and absorbent hence the short sweet herbage of the " downs " of the south of England that derived from the clays of the Oolite is stiff. that every geological . more characterised by its own physical or The soft rounded outlines of a chalk range are altogether distinct from the slopes. and modifies the habitats of vegetable and animal existence. and are ever producing. retentive. these formations and rock-groups constitute the framework on which the geographical features are moulded . from broadformation is less or geograpliical features. and conical heights of secondary trap hills while these. Tlie soil derived from the Chalk. and their inherent characters. yields a fertile. becomes so indispensable to the student of physical . .

7.. Eozoic. It by no means follows. 9. and these systems again grouped into certain periods. we stated. the connection between physical geography and geology is intimate and inseparable and hence the necessity that the student of the one should be less or more acquainted -with the leading facts of the other. however. character of landscape. and the causes that are incessantly productive of new . then. Silurian. Devonian. Ordovician. composed of stratified and iinstratified. — modifications of the earth's crust. as diversity of surface. This crust. — then lived entombed in them in greater or less perfection. 4. } "i C-ozozc. and the character D . Paleozoic. and Granitic. are concerned. Cretaceous. have been arranged into certain systems. So far. that the student of geography should be deeply read in the theoretical problems of geology.. These formations being arranged by the geologists in chronological sequence. and similar peculiarities. . 8. Trappean. expressing roughly the relative antiquities and nature of the great igneous groups that give character and indi\dduality to the hills and mountain-ranges of the globe." of which nothing can be kno^\*n by direct observation. fertility of soil. and each varying in mineral character. is held in habitable equilibrium between the disintegrat- ing forces of water from without. as distinct from the " interior. and the remains of plants and animals that of fire from within. Triassic. so with the unstratified their arrangement into Volcanic. 11. Permian. it is of importance in physical geography to know the order of this arrangement. Jurassic. Cambrian. 10. > J 5.— RECAPITULATION. Carboniferous. Mesozoic. thus : k^t^ZT''3. An acquaintance with its general principles. or of water-formed and fire-formed rocks. the leading formations that compose that crust. the nature of their rocks. and These formations. 6. 49 and investigated. and consequently conferring on the landscape different aspects. and the reconstructing forces To these two opposing powers are chiefly owing the continuous geological modifications of the earth's crust each modification representing a period during which certain rocks were formed. As with the stratified systems. 12. Metamorphic. according to the leading features of their fossils. the nature of these distinctions.

50 STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OP THE EARTH. or Green. or of several epochs. but never wholly effacing all traces of its operations. however.' and the manuals of Jukes. Sir Charles Lyell's Student's Elements of Geology. that he requires. Geikie. that the existing geographical aspects of our globe are not the effects of the forces of one epoch. This information he can readily obtain from such manuals of the science as tlie Author's Introductory and Advanced Text-Books. which. should he wish to extend his information beyond the outline sketched in the foregoing chapter. ' — . but the resultants of all the forces to which the crust has been subjected throughout the whole of Geological time each succeeding epoch obliterating so much of the former. or nearly all. these impart to the soil and landscape. Philipps. is all. He must ever bear in mind.

000 square miles. we now proceed to consider the more intimate relations of its surface. Their Relative Positions and Areas. and what the influence of these reactions on currents. the superficial area of the globe has been computed at 197. we have to consider what are the respective areas of land and water. sequence of their different extents. &c. and harmonious whole. rains. stated.500. while the lower and more depressed are covered by the waters of the ocean.500. and all those kindred phenomena that constitute climatic The present distribution of land and water tends to diversity. Geologically speaking. and the explication of these results forms the sum and substance of our science. extent. 34. or reckoning the whole surface of the globe as equal to As formerly .IV. in con. capacities for heat. we mean that all the more elevated portions of the crust stand out as dry land. their positions on the earth's surface.000 consists of dry land. Having noticed the general conditions of the earth as a member of the solar system. and about 145. When we speak of the earth's surface as composed of land and water. undergoing change and modification geographically speaking. or configuration. winds. their actions and reactions on each other. DISTRIBUTION OF LAND AND WATER. Of this amount about 51. the production of certain physical and vital results. positions. as composed of Land and Water.000 of water . without being accompanied by a modification of these results. and having also adverted to the structure of its own rocky crust as the groundwork of all geographical diversity. so intimately is the one element bound up with the other in the production of a definite 35.000. though slowly. the relations of land and water are continually.. No portion of the present distribution could be altered either in its position.

Had the earth's surface been perfectly spherical. The mean depth of the ocean. 13. here the land rises up in mere specks and fragments. Hence it has been calculated that the cubic contents of the ocean is about 40 times that of the solid land. is at least 15. . — — — — . physical and vital. that the land forms about one-third of the north frigid zone . Land. mountains as well as plains is estimated by Humboldt at somewhat less than 1000 feet. there the water inserts itself among them in areas equally limited and irregular. or. one-half of the north temperate zone one-half the of the torrid zone one-tenth of the south temperate zone amount in the south frigid zone being at present unknown.000 . or nearly as one to three . temperature. expressing it fractionally. — — DISTRIBUTION OF LAND AND WATER. Land.000 square miles. Here the land spreads out in broad unbroken masses. . The mean elevation above the sea-level of all the land on the globe islands as well as continents. As to the distribution of land and water in the different zones. it would elevate it only 375 feet above its present level.000. do. it may be stated. northern and southern. 36.— 52 1000 parts. as deduced from recent soundings. there are about 37 millions square miles of land in the former. in the southern hemisphere and land in the northern as if we make the estimate in eastern and western hemispheres (20° W. Water. Do. do. the proportions of land and water are nearly as follow water. 262 of these parts will consist of land and 738 of of land to that of water is tlierefore as 3 to 8. the other Considered three-fourths are covered by the waters of the ocean. as regards the distribution of plants and animals. in hemispheres.500. long. vital. physical^ in all that relates to winds.). water) are extremely irregular. terraj land aquM. in very general terms. while one-fourth of the earth's surface is composed of dry land. to 160° E. Water. there the waters stretch away in vast continuous expanses . Were the mass of the present land spread out equally upon the ocean floor.. 38. climate . 60.500. it would be everywhere buried beneath an ocean nearly two miles deep. while there are only 14^ millions in the latter. Do. Here the land juts boldly out into the ocean in capes and promontories^ there the ocean runs sharply . 85. The boundaries of this terraqueous arrangement (Lat. and the features and habits they are compelled to assume. The proportion : Northern Hemisphere. long. The present arrangement of sea and land the mean depth of the one.000 „ There there is is thus about three times as much . rainfall.000 „ Southern Hemisphere.000 feet. and mean altitude of the other are attended with most important results.000.

while one indented with gulfs and creeks and bays has more of genial diversity. and one unfavourable to maritime enterprise . interest 37. we will find that the greatest proportion is situated in the north temperate zone. and is better fitted for the purposes of na^dgation and commerce. geography would be shorn of half its — — — — A . and has been continually changing throughout all geological time. S. and Australia 432. to be convinced of this reality. there the ocean embays itself with gentle curves into the bosom of the land. N. or — . . The space alternately covered and laid bare by the tides is termed the beach or strand. In like manner. Africa 895 . is spoken of as the seaboard of a country or continent. This boundary between the land and water is known as the shore-line or coast-line the former having more especial reference to the margin washed by the waves. here the land trends uninterruptedly for leagues. America 265 . And if we look at the distribution of this land as regards the zones of temperature. and the fringe of land bordering on. and defining the " hither shalt thou come. and instruction. its proximity to the sea. yet we may rest assured and not the less assured because we are unable to discover it that there is a law governing the insensibly varying relations of sea and land. and more or less influenced by. A glance at the Map of the World will show that the land- masses are situated chiefly in the northern hemisphere there being about three times as much land in the northern as there is in the southern hemisphere. the more valuable is that country for the requirements of industry and enterprise .RELA. the latter to the terrestrial verge that opposes the ocean. America 434 . As a general rule. as compared with those of Africa or South America. regular and unbroken coast is generally an exposed and ungenial one. The actions and reactions of the physical world are not more marked and certain than the influence of the physical on the intellectual and industrial . but no farther.TIVE POSITIONS AND AREAS. on the configuration of the shore-line depends much that relates to the climate as well as to the industry and commerce of a country. as well as by the character of its inhabitants these differing in many points from those of the interior or inland districts. and one has only to glance at the shore-lines of Europe. 63 into the land in hays and gulfs. and but for the establishment of such deductions. the greater the number of miles of coast-line in proportion to the size of a country. Although this distribution seems to obey no regular order. a power protecting the barriers of the one." of the other. This sea-belt is generally marked by the peculiarity of its plants and animals. Europe has 143 square miles of surface to every geographical mile of coast-line Asia 469 .


This much.RELATIVE POSITIONS AND AREAS. if we suppose the globe to be divided into hemispheres by the plane of the horizon of London (the dividing line being 90° all round from London). Again. — . we will find that nearly all the land lies in the one hemisphere. and North America while only comparatively narrow or isolated tracts are cut directly by the equator or central torrid line. while the other is termed the Oceanic or Water hemisphere. and that continents existed where seas now roll. and constitute our . geographers as the Continental or Land hemisphere. that the present terraqueous arrangement is not the arrangement that obtained in former ages. These and other noticeable facts connected with the arrangement of sea and land have been often adverted to by writers on geography and though it must be confessed that many of their comparisons are more curious than suggestive. composed of hard enduring rocks. the south in curious gradually tapering projections. geology has shown. Another glance at the map will show that while the land lies in broad unbroken masses towards the north. stand out in bold projections. Some portions. it stretches towards . it may be suspected that the present arrangement is the result of some great cosmical law a law concerning the nature of which neither geology nor geography can give any certain indication. and seas extended where continents are now established. Asia. while the other is almost wholly occupied by the waters of the ocean. 55 in that which contains all the better portions of Europe. We can often readily account for the minor modifications of coast-lines. The former (see illustration) is spoken of by Laiid and Water Hemispheres. however.

. Of the greater forces that slowly upheave some regions and as gradually submerge others. or with the on the whole. consisting of soft and wasting headlands and aipes. creeks. these changes. australis. as the Old World. together with those of the Southern Ocean. and Australia. it will be seen. South America. The silting-up of lakes. are changes. North America. embracing Europe. from its. that the land is broken up into two main masses that of the Eastern Continent.) 38. (The Land. Asia. Their Subdivisions. lying within the Western hemisphere. so silent and gradual as scarcely to interfere our conceptions of geographical permanence and stability. being the only portion known to the ancients. 66 DISTRIBUTION OP LAND AND WATER. we are. material. including North and South America. speak of Australia and New Zealand as Australasia (L. and that of the Western Continent. Australia and its contiguous islands. are worn into bays. however. the wearing away of coast-lines. southern). and the like. altogether ignorant. Others. black). are frequently grouped as the sixth great division. of AustraHa. drawing more restricted lines. Africa. and while we find that it is continually undergoing modifications under the operation of geological forces. as Aicstralasia or Melanesia {melas. in refer- . Admitting this condition of the terraqueous surface. and Africa. on further reference to the map. distribution of living forms.. and known (from its comparatively recent discovery by Columbus in 1492) as the New World. Properly speaking. but in a general survey of the globe they are scarcely appreciable and not till after the lapse of ages does their continuance interfere perceptibly either with the relations of land or water. situated in the Eastern hemisphere. there are only two great continuous land-masses or continents (Lat. under the title of Oceania. of local importance. the increase of deltas. are \vith . — — — 1 A few geographers and ethnographers speak of the East Indian Archipelago as Malaysia. and described. Papua. and the minor contiguous islands. New Zealand. with conditions of climate. and of the many islands of the Pacific proper as Polynesia^ (polys^ many. those of Europe^ Ada. while others. holding together) that of the Old World and that of the New but geographers occasionally speak of six continents or principal sections viz. Natural and Technical. But while we fail to account for the present distribution of sea and land. con and tenons. and irregular recesses. no doubt. the upheaval of one district and the depression of another by earthquake convulsions.

as follows : Old World. the East India Islands. Asia. in a majority of cases.— SUBDIVISIONS.000 16. or with adjacent continents . small) and of the many groups lying south of the equator and east of Australasia as Polynesia. as it were. or Eastern Continent. . ence to the colour of their aboriginal population of the numerous small Pacific islands north of the equator and east of Malaysia. South America. and the Sandwich Islands. . Ceylon. or depression into new seas but the consideration of such oscillations in the earth's crust belongs more appropriately to Geology than to Physical Geography.000 8.080.820. are curiously connected with the extremity of some peninsula and continent.200. such as the "West India Islands. .000 . have been computed. Africa. the Isles of Greece. termed (though the " four quarters " of our embraced only Europe. This disposition is no doubt in intimate connection with geological centres of uprise or depression uprise into new continental areas. „ „ „ „ „ „ or Western Continent. or Maritime World. . The closely connected with the continents to Islands included in the above estimate are more or less which they belong. NATURAL AND TECHNICAL. island). Tasmania. and America). 57 The as they are sometimes forefathers areas of the respective continents. Spitzbergen. mere outliers while. with their respective islands. and become widely detached. the islands proper are found in clusters or Archipelagoes (a term originally applied to Isles of Greece). others again as Tierra del Fuego.900. .360. Asia.725. though larger scale.000 square miles.000 11. Still it is interesting and important for the geographer to understand that by such uprises islands may be brought into terrestrial contiguity with each other. and have no discoverable bearing either on the problems of geology instances many Many of the larger islands as Iceland. 39. to which they form. . . 6.000 . New World. &c. as Micronesia {micros. . but these resemblances are in more fanciful than real. nesos. and the like are solitary and independent . the Japan Isles. in truth the continents themselves are merely islands on a much In the disposition of the islands.250. Europe. Madagascar. It is in this way that the flora and fauna of islands often differ from those of the adjacent mainlands. Africa. . 4. and in some cases present a facies that even belongs to some antecedent geolog- — — — — .000 Oceania. or Novaia Zemlia. . .000 North America. 01 geography. . — . ical era.165. some curious coincidences have been noticed by foreign geographers. Sicily. . 31. while by such depressions lands may be separated into islands. or quarters. 14. 3.

island). which refer to the contour or disposition of the land as connected with water. or a peninsula with the mainland and a cape. . which. prairies. tahle-lands and plateaux. In geographical descriptions it is also useful to employ the terms " North and South Atlantic. or still higher into mountains. . extensive flats are known as plains. . dales." and to speak of the expanse that stretches away in unbroken vastness between the Indian Ocean and the south pole as the " Great Southern Ocean. geographers make use of the following designations. — . &c. lands elevated more or less abruptly above the general surface are spoken of as rising into hills. steppes. while level elevated tracts are spoken of as . Thus. almost by water . lies the Indian Ocean. to speak of jive great oceans^viz. and between it and the New World. carses. In describing the features and peculiarities of the Land. straths. pampas. 40. Indian. . on the west of the Old World. hills and mountains may stand less or more apart from each other and be isolated. Pacific. and Antarctic the two latter being respectively within the arctic and antarctic circles. for the sake of method. pene. there are others which relate to surface configuration or vertical relief. promontory. east and Africa on the west." and " North and South Pacific. may occur in groups as if connected with a common centre. Thus. a portion nearly surrounded (Lat. a continent. the Water is still divisible into certain areas that are more or less defined by the Thus.) 41. the Atlantic. Arctic. the narrow neck that connects two adjacent masses of land. a point of land jutting out into the water. (The Waters. expands another natural division known as the Pacijic (from its comparative freedom from storms) while between Australia and its contiguous islands on the It is usual. Besides these terms. or they may stretch away in determinate courses known as chains and ranges . .68 DISTRIBUTION OF LAND AND WATER.). headland. and the like smaller flats as valleys. an islandj any smaller portion surrounded by water a peninsula insula. be briefly recapitulated. though familiar in everyday language. Though encircling the globe on every side. as already indicated.. and in all its parts most intimately connected with one great ocean. and between it and the Old. an isthmus (Gr. however. . may here." intervention of the land. extends one main division known as the Atlantic (so called by the ancients from its washing on the west of the the western base of Mount Atlas in Africa) New World. or ness. is any extensive region uninterrupted or unbroken by seas .

smaller areas are known as seas . and the lakes. and where the sea stretches inland to receive the waters of a river. but give off their surplus water amount The by these inland waters it is impossible to estimate with anything like accuracy and this difficulty is greatly increased by the fact that. or channels. the narrow belts or openings connecting two adjacent seas as straits. as lochs. have no river of discharge. terms. there are others of a more local the fiords or rocky inlets of arms of Scotland —the Norway —the and or lake-like sea- lagoons. . the streams. the term ocean is applied to the large uninterrupted expanses above defined . occur along the shores of the Adriatic and other seas but these under the respective areas to which they belong. minor and sudden indentations as creeksy inlets. and often traversing whole continents with gradually increasing volumes . . of shoals and hanhs .000. . of surface occupied . or. deeper indentations as gulfs. though there is.000 „ 17. . Atlantic Ocean.000 „ In treating of the waters of the globe. geographers speak of deeps and pits . of sounds that may be readily reached by the sounding-line of roads and roadsteads for anchorage of harbours or landlocked inlets for shelter .000. These are the springs. there are other considerable volumes that belong more especially to the land. . the rivers. arms. though occasionally occurring isolated along the courses and apparently fed by springs. 59 The areas of the three chief expanses are usually estimated as : follows Pacific Ocean. and similar terms. 50. 42. . . whose meanings are so ob^dous as to require no special definition. issuing from the earth's crust. pressions in the land. &c. 43. Indian Ocean. gradual bendings of the water into the land as hays. only one great ocean. comparatively few being brackish or saline. whose bed seems to be as irregular and varied as the surface of the dry land. referring to the depth of the ocean. or runnels of water formed by the union of several springs .000 square miles. . . formed by the union of streams. if recei\dng the waters of a river.— WATERS. and more or less impregnated with the mineral substances through which they have percolated . expanse is known as a frith or estuary. Besides these general restricted character. . Again. and most frequently lie of rivers. 25. such an strictly speaking. . Besides the great oceans and inland seas above alluded to. which occupy dewill be best described . in countries subject to periodical by evaporation. or shallow intercepted sheets that . . and which consist mainly of fresh water.000. and which all consist of salt water.

Springs. dissolved. Indus. reconstructed. or. while parched and thirsty in summer. The main volumes of fresh water. that in the present era they are. a great . Lena. and La Plata in South America the Nile. mutually adapted and harmoniously adjusted. Danube. — — ." are the North American lakes. embodied in the substance of the hardest rocks. in other words. the lakes of Northern Europe and Central Asia. and the greater and more permanent rivers as the St Lawrence. a certain amount . Their Mutual Actions and Reactions. Mackenzie. as will be seen when we come to treat of the " River-systems. it is refreshed and vivified by the moisture evaporated from the more extensive ocean while in winter its tendency to grow colder is modified by the heat given off by the ocean. . and seas thus constitute what may be termed the geographical phases of water. Orinoco. and Mississippi in North America the Amazon. and Rhine in Europe. are — . circulating in the tissues of plants and animals. 44. and such the general feaand water that form the surface of the terra- queous globe. liquid. as it were. is circling everywhere. within certain limits of change. there is also the interchange of aerial currents and winds. Water. tracts which become lakes and rivers during the wet mere swamps and dry shingly channels when the period of drought returns. storehouse of heat for the exigencies of the land. and is everjrwhere many season. . coursing over the earth's surface. vapours. As the terraqueous surface is at present arranged. and Obi in Asia and the Volga. .60 rains. however. Yang-tse-kiang. Such is tures of the land the relative distribution. Besides this interchange of heat and moisture. in the air that surrounds us. . or solid condition. caused by the unequal effects wrought upon the two great surfaces by the heat of the sun and thus. the whole machinery of climate hot winds. cold winds. combined. lakes. or percolating deep in the solid crust. and Zambezi in Africa the Ganges. Whatever may have been their distribution in former ages as revealed by geology. rivers. whose slower radiation renders it. it is the great vital fluid of the globe by which its crust is permeated. The land is more rapidly heated and cooled superficially than the water and thus. in visible or invisible vapour. Niger. either in its aeriform. and vivified in endless revolution and progress. Floating present. and the like is set agoing by the primary diff'erences existing between land and water. its position and disposition on the earth's surface. Yenesei. rains. streams. DISTRIBUTION OP LAND AND WATER. as will be more fully explained hereafter. one thing is obvious.

breaks the chain alike. or in the relative positions of land and water. the two elements are harmoniously co-adapted for the production of certain results. and their plants and animals affected by the slightest disturbance in the existing terraqueous arrangements. geological. and the latter about three-fourths of the entire area. and these by geographers — are usually further subdi\ided into the so-called "quarters" or . and plants and animals upon both. and vital and the student must readily perceive how the force of tides and waves and currents would be altered. of our planet. let these or any similar set of changes be effected on the present arrangement of the continents and oceans.— RECAPITULATION. do the conditions of the one element depend upon those of the other. — — — — — From Nature's chain whatever link you strike. and dispositions. and modifying the kind and character of the plants and animals that people these regions. the climate of regions changed. or a league of sea-bed upheaved into dry land the land raised a foot higher or the sea become a foot deeper mthout a corresponding change being effected on the whole economy. in the relative configurations. climatological. altering the climates. and the Western Continent or New World. configurations. . In their present areas. So intimately. in fact. Tenth or ten-thousandth. and a whole host of new secondary influences would be set in motion. . that not a league of land could be converted into sea. is partly occupied by land and partly by water the former constituting more than a fourth. of moisture is 61 a certain amount of heat evaporated from the ocean and carried to the land. RECAPITULATORY AND EXPLANATORY. Let North and South America be severed by the disappearance of Panama let the bed of the Atlantic be upraised so as to deflect the Gulf Stream on the let the central coasts of Greenland. certain tides rise and fall. The surface of the globe. NOTE. On a cursory inspection of the Map of the World. or that which comes in contact with the atmosphere. certain seasons. physical and vital. certain winds blow at is interchanged — and certain currents flow in the performance of certain functions but all this would be changed by the slightest alteration either in the relative areas. the land will be seen to resolve itself into two main masses the Eastern Continent or Old "World . instead of those of Europe plain of Europe be submerged so as to be occupied by another Mediterranean.

Southern. that it is part of a gi*eat geological sequence of continuous oscillations between sea and land.. or rivulet. and gradually narrowing towards the south in the cape-like projections of South America. The main divisions are the Atlantic. arctic Oceans. nor upraise it. and the Malayan Peninsula." . continents of Europe. The ocean. and Africa in the former. but with its human occupants also in all that relates to their physical and mental peculiarities their avocations and industries. embracing Australia. which. South Pacific. without interfering to that extent with all its oceanic and climatic phenomena. so in the present. rains. " Every mountain. Asia. and largely within the temperate zone. Hindostan. vapours. as in the past history of the globe.sphere. — . We could not. Arctic. no alteration in this terraqueous arrangement can take place without a corresponding alteration in all the essentials of Physical Geography. And not only with the flora and fauna. and Polar Seas. plays its part in the history of mankind. North and South America in the latter together with a south or insular division. Reclus. The physical results arising from the present distribution of sea and land are manifested chiefly in tides. however. for convenience of description. Indian. Of these continents the greater portion lies in the northern hemi. " every headland. though encircling the globe on every side. alter the disposition of any of the great continents. and as a consequence. Africa. currents. and as a necessary consequence with the nature and distribution of its flora and fauna. One thing. river. the broader masses spreading out towards the north. and stretching from pole to pole." says M. every islet. every lake.62 DISTRIBUTION OP LAND AND WATER. unequal reception and radiation of the sun's heat. What may — — phenomena and that. winds. is also arranged in areas more or less defined by the intervention of the land-masses. for example. are fre- ({uently subdivided into North and South Atlantic. and Ant. nor depress it. each change being attended by its own physical and vital diversity. the Pacific. North and Northern. and all the other phenomena that give rise to climatic be the proximate cause of the present arrangement of sea and land why the land should lie chiefly in the northern hemisphere. under the name of Oceania. while it disappears in a succession of narrow cape-like lobes towards the south neither Geology nor Geography can determine. &c. is certain.

Having glanced at the distribution of land and water. as composing the terraqueous surface of the globe. in the present chapter. depth. by which it is on every side surrounded ? This. temperate. or arctic zones. the composition. and the student will readily perceive that upon these three elements of position. . tures —the mountains. tides and currents of the other. 45. And first. whose fea- more within our reach. and vital diversity of any portion of the dry land. table-lands. of the Land. How. . be it islet. we have said. No doubt climatic conditions are greatly modified by contour and altitude. and must ever continue to . What is the outline of its form or shape as regards the ocean. Latitude tion of .I THE LAND — ITS CONFIGURATION. is its contour. island. so will its climate and products assume aspects of 46. How is this dry land disposed on the surface of the globe ? This is its position as depending on latitude and longitude. does it rise above the waters and what are the surface inequalities presented to the atmosphere ? This is its vertical relief. and relief. and have been longer and more minutely the subjects of geographical investigation. determine the posiany spot on the earth's surface. Position is the place it occupies on the surface of the globe contour the outline bathed by the waters of the ocean vertical relief the surface-line that rises into the atmosphere . tures are . physical aspects. Relative Position. a corresponding character. or continent and just as these limits bring it within tropical. temperature. again. and valleys of the one we now proceed to consider their special fea. plains. depend the climate. in geographical language. contour. but position is the main determinator of a country's character. and longitude. and their general relations to each other.

and perhaps also the intellectual. Europe. in like allels of latitude And how same parmanner. and Asia within the temperate zone. mainly How different. be 80 under the existing relations of the earth in the solar system. In this way. characterGreat Britain. there are some features in the contour of the respective land-masses that demand a passing notice. and of necessity by its peculiar . that of 50° : — — N. from ! east to west. along the altered. Contour or Horizontal Outline. while the New World. presents a greater uniformity of external conditions . but simply because they are arrangements productive of obvious results. Thus 1st. they had ! lain. if. to all the conditions that arise from this diversity.— 64 THE LAND — ITS CONFIGURA-TION. vital. and. as a consequence. instead of trending northward and southward. while only the narrower disposition that places —a — much of . crossing the zones frigid. beyond the indications of science. Both continents attain their greatest dimensions from east to west along the same parallel of latitude namely. temperate. 47. Not that we know the producing cause of these features. the Old World. between the 50th and 60th parallels. in fact. while that of the New World is from north to south. : The alternations belongs to Geology Geography has mainly consideration of these to deal with the existing aspects of nature. We learn from Geology that the existing position is not that which obtained in former ages and that. is an all-important element in geography. instead of stretching. How different. cause of the present position of the dry land lies far. and torrid is subject to a greater diversity of temperature. if. every epoch was characterised by its own special distribution of land and water. the condition of along temperate latitudes North and South America. in fact. North America. as yet. for instance. climatic and vital appointments. through all the different zones of temperature. like the Old World. also. lying largely along the same zones. it had stretched ! westward to the same extent into the waters of the Atlantic The Position. had been istics of the physical. would have been the physical and vital characteristics of Europe and Asia had they lain mainly witliin tropical. nor that they are deserving the attention occasionally bestowed upon them. 2d. Though Geology and Geography are alike unable to account still for the present disposition of sea and land. The greatest extension of the Old World continent is from east to west. instead of stretching from north to south. as they now do.

in Tasmania all the broken and worn extremities of expiring mountain-chains. South America is bounded on the west by the Andes. &c.) is towards the south. — . 5th. Europe from Africa. and on the east by the Brazilian Cordilleras. moreover. Greenland. low basin-like interiors. Hindostan. 4th. Greece. Amazon. is 7th. and the East India Islands lie directly under the burning heat of the equator. The continents are arranged in pairs the larger continent of each pair lying to the north. and AusAnd in connection with this may be noticed tralia by Tasmania. given the direction of the mountain-chains. while North America is almost as practically divided from South America by the Carribean Sea. Thus North America is margined on the one side by the Eocky Mountains. in Tierra del Fuego Cape of Good Hope near its Table Mountain Cape Comorin. the fact. 3d. or given the direction of a continent. Malaya. Africa by Madagascar. where they nearly approach each other. and we can foretell the strike of its mountains. Hindostan by Ceylon. . Europe — . spread widely to- wards the north. and terminate broadly along the same parallel (72° N. in India and Cape South-East. The marked resemblances that obtain between North America with the "West India Islands on its south-east. are in most instances curiously accompanied by an outlying island or islands as South America by Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands. The general disposition of the continents and larger islands in the direction of their principal mountain-axes so that. which include between them the vast hollow of the Orinoco. Italy. while the basin-like plain of the Mackenzie and Mississippi occupies its interior. while the less elevated Brazilian ranges face the Atlantic. Africa. Scandina\'ia. All the continents have elevated mountain-borders. Both continents. the elevated range of the Andes overlooks the wide Pacific. 8th. that these promontories terminate in abrupt rocky precipices as Cape Horn. 6th. we know the longitudinal disposition of a continent. Tlius 9th. — — . and on the other by the AUeghanies. and . Kamtchatka. Spain. 65 portions of South America. Florida. as formerly noticed. terminate in far-separated promontories. and . 10th. These southward-trending spurs. they gradually grow narrower. towards the south. Asia is wholly divided from Australia by the East India Straits. The direction of all the principal spurs and peninsulas — in both continents (California. and La Plata.CONTOUR OR HORIZONTAL OUTLINE. The larger mountain-border faces the larger ocean.) or nearly so while.

I 49. — . and all those facilities for navigation and commerce which confer on nations their wealth. there are several others that have been noticed by geographers and though such comparisons are often more fanciful than real. The numerous indentations of the sea. lain chiefly within the tropics been situated partly in the north- — ern and partly in the southern hemisphere. theory. by the physical conditions of the region he inhabits. man has nature to a certain degree under his control and modification but in the main his progress is not only fostered..66 THE LAND — ITS CONFIGURATION. and North America 1 mile of coast for every 265 square miles of surface a proportion more than double that of the other continents hence one great physical reason for the maritime and commercial supremacy of their populations. power. giilfs. The general tendency of islands to arrange themselves in clusters or archipelagoes. 11th. with the Grecian islands on its south-east. We have already shown that Europe has 1 mile of coast for every 143 square miles of surface. Besides the preceding analogies. This last relation viz. larity southern hemisphere. and independence. Africa. But whatever may have been the causes that produced the present arrangement of the land-masses. We may assume that the capacity of a country for external communication can in some degree be estimated by the proportion of its coast-line to its superficial area. and Asia with the Indian Archipelago in the same quarter. 48. that of a broken and deeply indented coast-line. as on it . that confer irreguand extent of coast-line on the land in the northern hemisphere. maritime enterprise. . furnished with peninsulas. in the 12th. but to a great extent educed. no change could take place in their relative situations without being attended by corresponding changes in the nature of their climate. and may occasionally lead to a satisfactory . with a broad belt of tropical ocean between been arranged either longitudinally or — . is a fact suggestive of a common geological cause. and harbours is one of the most important in Physical Geography. and civilisation. are curious coincidences that have been long noticed by geographers. and in the Had they character of their vegetable and animal inhabitants. — — depend greater diversity of climate and productions. In the higher stages of his civilisation and scientific skill. form a feature that strongly contrasts with the uniform and unbroken coasts of South America. they are all less or more suggestive. and Australia. inland seas. Europe and North America stand pre-eminent for their relative extent of coast-line and hence in a great measure their industry.

as an individual. If we cannot determine with satisfaction the causes that have produced the existing position and contour of the continents. that the main instruments of their surface diversity into mountain and valley. considered as a whole. At present the plants and animals of the Old World differ from those of the New. whole races of plants and animals are extinguished. and those of Asia from those of Australia . those of North America differ considerably from those of South America. so its vertical relief is productive of similar results every rise of 300 or 350 feet being sufficient to diminish the temperature by about one degree of Fahrenheit. in a manner infinitely varied. the play of the forces inherent in the matter which composes them. in a word. while others shift ground and find means of dispersion over the newly elevated regions. and with respect to the seas or the neighbouring masses which is not found identically repeated in any other. or its configuration as broken up by seas or lying in one unbroken mass. and and animals." Vertical Relief or Elevation. the most important feature is its vertical relief. — — which really give it something of individuality. Guyot. and the forces of erosion and transportation as per- — .a VERTICAL RELIEF OR ELEVATION. and in the language of M. those of Europe from those of Africa. or been broken up into smaller masses by the more frequent intervention of the ocean a totally — different set of climatic agents would bave prevailed. we know. but these differences would have been still more striking and decided had these continents lain still more apart. are the volcanic forces acting from within. and animal life . of the forms which belong to it situation relatively to the rays of the sun. when large tracts are being gradually submerged and others are gradually elevated into dry land. must each affect the nature of its climate. 50. All these various causes excite and combine. at least. table-land and plain. or elevation above the level of the ocean. As it is. Next to the contour or horizontal configuration of the land. a vegetation. and been consequently attended by a totally different distribution of plants During geologic changes. its disposition along the parallels of latitude or along the meridians. has a particular disposition of its parts. and secure to each of them a climate. 67 latitudinally in parallel zones. " each of these terrestrial masses. an assemblage of physical characters and functions which are peculiar to it. or been more widely separated in their geological connections. As the position of an island a few degrees farther north or south.

in obedience to some great law. along the old primary ranges of Europe. in course of elaboration . In all the continents this line of greatest elevation does not occupy the centre. as contrasted with their great concentration in groups and lines along the shores and over the surface of the Pacific. Among these features continents (exception being may made . Ist. which Geology will one day or other be enabled to discover. and this continuously. is also that slow {e. and glaciers are to be mainly ascribed the principal features in the vertical relief or and to these — — superficial diversity of the land. along the main ridges of modern America. The former. at one time. be noticed. with apparently unabated vigour. the upheaval of continents. part and parcel of the great machinery of the world's evolution a machinery by which the sea-bed is upheaved into new land. &c. We say. but gradual elevation and dethe uprise of Northern Scandinavia. .). there is a gradual rise from the sea-shore towards certain points or ridges in the interior. the uprise of the Arctic Islands. in all likelihood. The student cannot cast his eyes over a Map exhibiting the present terrestrial distribution of Earthquakes and Volcanoes. from without. like all other gigantic and Africa — — — operations in nature. such as those occupied by the Caspian. and with equal intensity. That in all the of a few depressed areas. but is placed more towards one side than 51. and prevailing extensively. along the secondary hills of the same continents and now... and observe the paucity of volcanoes in several large tracts of the world. rivers. assisted by the wasting and wearing of water in all its forms rain. and the up-piling of mountains and the evolution of mountain-chains. These successive shiftings and upheavals form. for. Besides the more obvious operations of the earthquake and volcano. Asia. are the works of innumerable earth-throes and volcanoes operating through untold ages. Dead Sea. in fact. and the groups that stud the bosom of the Pacific. which in course of time must effect most important changes combined forces. without being impressed by the conviction that in the lastnamed region some great cosmical change is in course of elaboration. have been continuously but irregularly shifting place from the earliest traces of geologic history .). the islands that fringe the eastern shores of Asia. These ridges. successively. 68 sistently acting THE LAND— ITS CONFIGURATION. there pression of vast regions &c. form the grand and a glance at the watersheds of their respective continents courses of the principal rivers will at once direct the eye to the line of these mountainous elevations. the depression of South Greenland. 2d. and.g. or points of maximum swell. in a determinable order. and old surfaces submerged beneath the ocean. at another.

the north. would be a frozen and uninhabitable desert. prevail in all the continents. and the AUeghanies of the United States. in other words. 69 two gradients of unequal length. and confer on these spurs and peninsulas their elongated forms. the most civilised half of the globe. Though this difference of arrangement in the slope and counter-slope takes place in the two worlds. As another general law it may be stated. and the short towards the south while in the New World the gentle slope is towards the east. Italy. if we may so speak. In fact. on the other hand. the ranges of the Pyrenees. at the present day. whose greatest length is from east to west. and to belong to these and the elevation of the lands went on increasing towards the north. in the New World. Carpathians. another . Himalayas. the long and the shorter the counter-slope. Greece. that extend in the same linear direction from Patagonia on the south to Russian America on the north a length of about 8000 miles while the backbone or framework of the Old World is similarly composed of a series of ranges that extend with but little interruption from the Pyrenees on the west to Kamtchatka on the east. the ranges of the Andes and Eocky Mountains. : — . or rather chains. Thus. lie chiefly in the same direction. and Greenland. If this order were reversed. In the Old World. of its surface towards the south. the islands of the Indian Archipelago." 52. stretch all less or more regularly in the same direction. Malaya. so with the principal islands and peninsulas they are all less or more continuously traversed by mountain or hill ranges in the direction of their greatest length as witness Scandinavia. Caucasus. whose greatest length is from north to south. As with the continents. That the grand elevations or mountain-ranges lie in the direction of the greatest length of a continent . " The effect of this law of arrangement. and the short and rapid one towards the west. 3d. it is the great lines or axes of upheaval that confer on the continents their main relief or configuration. and Altai. give variety of climate to them a which seems not countries of the globe. Madagascar. The backbone. Alps. it is the mountain-ranges that determine the strike of the land. " is to temper the burning heats of the tropical regions. the Cordilleras of Brazil." it has been well observed. of the In the Old World the long slopes are turned towards continent. .VERTICAL RELIEF OR ELEVATION. 5th. a general flattening of the land towards the north. 4th. — . throwing the great rivers to the north and south of these watersheds. of the New World is the great mountain-chain. and a general rise and irregularity hence arise side forming the slajpe. Kamtchatka. California.


Asia. Australia. 24. These altitudes. whose superficial aspects the table-lands and plains. small a proportion do these extreme ridges bear to the great mass of the continents.000 feet the Cordilthe Alps in leras of Mexico in North America. so the extreme heights of their principal mountains. and Polynesia. beyond the indications of science. It will be seen from the preceding paragraphs that the three great elements in the configuration of the land are relative position.780 feet feet . while the vast mountain-chains of Asia.740 feet the eastern mountains in Africa. — 71 53.000 Europe. Keserving the arrangement of the world's highlands into mountain-chains and systems for subsequent consideration. South America. Or taking the whole continents and islands. and in the alternate uprise and submergence of large tracts of the . respectively 15. North America. however. as yet. By relative 'position is meant the place an island or continent occupies on the surface of the globe and just as this position is frigid. it may be noticed in the mean time that the loftiest ridges in the vertical relief of the land are those of the Himalaya in Central Asia.000 feet. treated in a similar manner. and 16.— CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OP CONFIGURATION. contour. 17. in the gradual shiftings of volcanic energy from centre to centre. would not add more than 150 feet to the general elevation of that continent. 54. 1800 feet and Australia. — — Causes and Consequences of Configuration. that it has been calculated by Humboldt that the Alps spread equally over the surface of Europe would raise the general level not more than 21 feet . as it lies — . those of the Andes in South America. and vertical relief. uniform or diversified. . 15. 1496 feet. mountains and plains the mean elevation of all the land has been estimated at somewhat less than 1000 feet.000 feet next. 500 feet.000 feet. wkose highest peak is. Blending all their heights and hollows into a general average. . though we may rest assured that. The causes that have determined the position of the existing continents lie far. 1342 feet. the hill-ranges and depend more on valleys. than on Indeed. convey no idea of the general relief of . tlie several continents. 7000 feet. . 29. 20. 2264 feet. or crosses meridionally two or more zones so will its climate be genial or ungenial. 2302 feet Africa. and the highest ascertained points in Malaya. : . temperate. . in round numbers. the mean elevation of the respective continents above the sea-level have been calculated as follows Europe. or tropical on broad parallelism along the same zone.

enterprise. productions. during the slow oscillations of the earth's crust. THE LAND — ITS CONFIGURATION. or irregular and indented hj seas. and pine-forests into regions of everlasting snow and glacier. of course. and variety of their even after elevation into permanent islands and more subjected to aqueous and atmospheric agencies the wearing of frosts and rains. according to the harder or softer nature of the rock-materials that compose them. the erosion of waves.72 earth's cnist. pasture-lands into pine-forests. The relief of the land is thus a thing of slow but incessant fluctuation. and by every action of the aqueous and atmospheric forces that waste and wear down the exposed surfaces. and the grinding of glaciers which are slowly but irresistibly moulding them into newer outlines. mainly on their lithological or rocky structure. Combined. as already noticed. and on the amount of waste and degradation chiselling.lines undergo from the ceaseless action of the ocean the softer rocks being worn into creeks and coves. So gradually. on the intensity and continuance of the elevatory and volcanic forces to which they have been subjected. bays. the greater height. A few hundred feet more or less of elevation is sufl&cient to change the whole physical aspects of a country converting arable fields and vineyaKls into pasture-lands. and civilisation. with favourable relativ'e position. This vertical relief of continents and islands depends. do these forces operate. irregularity. aflFected by every uprise and depression of the earth's crust. there are few tracts of the existing land that have not been more than once under the waters of the ocean hence the amount of denuding. surfaces. By vertical relief is meant the elevation of the land above the level of the ocean and just as this is regular or iri'egular. upon the origiral inequalities of the crust. we behold operating law. but partly also upon the waste and degradation which all coast. this varied configuration exercises most important influences on climate. and gulfs. And continents. low or lofty. by every volcanic outburst. however. by the water and just as and uniform. so will the whole character of a country be determined. industry. This contour depends mainly. as in the case of Europe. smoothing. and rounding of their reliefs. these surfaces are all less or — — . . rence of elevation or volcanic activity . and hence. abruptness. so will its external conditions be varied. in proportion. while the harder stand out in headlands and promontorieB. if we may so speak they may have subthe land receives by being surrounded this outline is simple — : — — — Thus. There are also few tracts that have not been subjected to a recursequently undergone. and its coasts better fitted for the purposes of navigation and commerce. By contour the results of a definite and continuously is meant the outline or figure which .

they are all-powerful in modifying and regulating the climatic and vital conditions Thus. with great accuracy. with its contours taken at every 100 feet of ascent. as it were. taking the shore-line. The closer the lines of contour lie together. their contour with its bays and friths and estuaries running deeply into the land. Suppose an island.. we may have similar lines taken at every 50 feet or every 100 feet of ascent. are alike influential in modifying the external conditions of a region. the rif ings and fallings of the surface configuration. for example. the position of our own islands confers on of a country. Avill show the profile for that direction. Thus. and relief. in any direction. RECAPITULATORY AND EXPLANATORY. 2 will show the same in profile or absolute elevation in the line of section A B. The facts connected with the general configuration of the land have been so fully stated in the preceding chapter. that no appreciable change is . them a temperate though somewhat fickle climate . Latitude and longitude determine the posi- additional explanation and relief. or more accution . rately by a system is all of contouring. 73 produced for centuries and thus permanency with what in reality But whatever may is incessantly but infinitesimally changing. a sufficient number of similar observations fix the con. Such a series of lines gives. . the moulding or model of the surface and a section of this model. contour. or barometrical observation (mercurial or aneroid) can define the relief or outline of elevation. and are better adapted for the requirements of grain-growing and miscellaneous husbandry. be the causes of position. and these (when the observations are sufficiently numerous) will exhibit. the . we are led to associate ideas of . BECAPITULATION. and trigonometrical survey. that very little is required. and its longer slope and plains to the east. the . contour. as the first contour. renders the western districts more hilly and humid and pastoral while the eastern are spread out in plains with a decreased rainfall. tour . Position and contour are readily showTi on maps by actual out-* line relief can be indicated by a scale of shading. . which on the same level. to be represented by fig. — NOTE. 1 then fig. Eelative position. affords unusual facilities for navigation and commerce while their reliefs with its heights and counter-slope to the west. steeper is the ascent more rapid or and the more widely apart they are.

with their ultimate bearings on the features and characters of the respective continents. ' ' . as will be more fully illustrated when we come to treat of the mountains and table-lands in the succeeding chapters. ' ' .' of position. It is by sections developed in this manner that the profiles of the diff'erent continents are usually shown by geographers. Should the student desire to enter more fully into the subject and relief. . * ' ' .74 flatter is THE LAND — ITS CONFIGURATION. he will in Mrs find more ample details in Guyot's Earth and Man in M. Reclus's Earth Somerville's Physical Geography and in several of the chapters of Humboldt's Cosmos. the slope of uprise. contour. Contottr and Profile.

or of many slow and long-continued compressions. its table-lands and plateaux. and subsequent erosions mountainand denudations. lofty peaks. In the first place. is thus a thing of slow and gradual growth . chain ten or twenty thousand feet in height and hundreds of miles in length. we now proceed to describe tlie special features of that relief as exhibited in its mountains and mountain-chains.VI. THE LAND — ITS HIGHLANDS. but that they are in reality elevated tracts. it is not a simple upheaval. so." we must recollect that mountain-ranges are not mere ridges. but the work of innumerable volcanic outbursts. 55. and again with renewed activity each contributing to augment the mass of final elevation and accumulation. as one of the most obvious causes of climatic. vital. or of one s\Wft and sudden crushing together of its component rock-formations. and boldly escarped plateaux. And as the times of contortion. Mountains and Monntain-Sy stems. operating tlirough countless ages. with intervening valleys. As. often of great breadth as well as length. we shall treat of the mountains. and political diversity. and accompanying volcanic action usually alternate with periods of A — — . geologically speaking. and eruption after eruption now with widespread intensity. geographically speaking. and consisting of rounded heights. upheaval after upheaval. which have long attracted the attention of geographers. the result of one paroxysmal outburst. but a brotherhood of many elevations . Having directed attention to tlie general configuration of the land as dependent on its contour and relief. now slumbering for generations. Defining a mountain as " any portion of the earth's crust rising consider- ably above the surrounding surface. rising abruptly on one side and descending as abruptly on the other . upheaval. a mountain-range is not a single ridge of elevation.

and sloping away in long gentle declivities. those which conof upheaved strata by the second. when gradually tapering to a point. that geologists speak of mountains of upheaval. we are able to judge of the relative ages of the formation of the several axes of mountain-ranges. 56.— 76 THE LAND — ITS HIGHLANDS. planation. with that of the gently sloping and undisturbed beds which repose upon their flanks. Again. escarpments. domes. or of a combination of these . applied to their outlines or profiles. and others again terraced by crags. as to require no special exMountain-sides consist of slopes. mountain-range is a series of elevations having their bases in contact. over a considerable extent of country as the Grampians. also. on the one hand. when still more pointed. comparative repose. The terms undulating. others serrated with splintery peaks and pinnacles some conical and dome-shaped. as in volcanoes . when their outlines show a succession of peaks and by the French word aiguilles. of the comparatively soft and easily eroded sandy. or tertiary eras. and the like. of accumulatioriy — . slaty. meaning by the first. are so familiar in everyday language. secondary. and quiet deposition. gentle depression. serrated. on the other. — sist of harder rocks (stratified or unstratified). by comparing the geological dates of the contorted and disrupted strata out of which they are composed. A Trwuntain-chain or . Mountain-summits are distinguished by such terms as cones. that stand up while the softer materials which originally enveloped them have been worn and washed away. terraces. It is in this way. those which con. or needles. Understanding the general character and formation of mountainous elevations. and precipices. or Andes a group consists of several ranges more or less connected and a system. and detached. rugged. and their axes or lines of elevation continuous. when abrupt and insulated . by the Spanish word sierra. of several groups that e\ndently belong to the same set of geological operations. and finely laminated beds of the fossiliferous systems Geology enables Geography to account for the external characters of mountains. we may explain that the term mo^mtain is usiially applied to heights of more than 2000 feet all beneath that height being regarded as hills. and those of still minor eleva- — tion as hillocks. splintery. . when more massive and rounded . and say whether they were formed during primary. and to explain why some should be massive and rounded in outline. or schistose metamorphic rocks or. . . of intractstrata affected able granitiform. and these outlines . Urals. peaks. shaly. those formed mainly of volcanic eruptions and by the third. by noting the direction of these axes of upheaval and the varying nature of the whether consisting. — — sist chiefly and of circumdenudation.

— of our isolated hills presenting a bold precipitous front or crag to the west or north-west. . and the sierras of the central table-land the SardoCorsican. have ever been objects of political and commercial importance. and partly. In Asia we have the Western system. and Hibernian ranges the Iberian or Spanish. It is in this manner that hills composed of hard basalts and greenstones. Sierra Nevada. the Sierra Morena. but to a great extent the nature of the external forces by which it has present outlines. the longer declivity is spoken of as the slope. . .slope is shorter one as the counter-slope. To the skilled geographer every mountain and mountain-chain — — has. Cheviot. comprising the Taurus. consisting of the mountainous range of Sardinia and Corsica the Alpine. Auvergne. alternating with soft tufas or stratified rocks. Thus— In Europe. With these explanations. and the Tliis slope and counter. also. if we may so speak. the only means of transit across mountain-barriers. and these. depend chiefly 77 on their geological structure. its its own physiognomy — a physiognomy which bespeaks not only been carved into its original rocky structure. on the amount of waste and degradation to which they have been subjected. comprising the Grampians. they often do. Balkan. the principal Mountain-Systems may be here enumerated the student remembering that there is — much in this arrangement that is arbitrary and provisional. and sandstones present a tabular appearance with mural (wall-like) precipices . the Cantabrian Mountains. Carpathians. 57. and a long slope or tail to the east or southeast. assume terraciform declivities (trap-hills) . put on a crateriform aspect that those largely composed of hard massive strata as limestone. Cumbrian. Apennines. like those of . . as known as defiles and passes. Cambrian. . that extinct volcanic hills. and a short and abrupt one on the other and where this occurs. gentle declivity on one side.MOUNTAINS AND MOUNTAIN-SYSTEMS. or mountain plateaux of Norway and Sweden the Sarmatian^ or central high-ground of Russia the Uralian and Caucasian. geographers usually distinguish the British system. . The outlines of mountains depend chiefly on their geological structure. In general. conglomerates. embracing the Pyrenees. and that mountains capped and flanked by crystalline schists of unequal hardness are serrated with peaks and pinnacles. The depressions and narrow valleys which occasionally in- tersect mountain-chains are oifering. and Hellenic ranges the Scandinavian. and partly on the and degradation to which they have been subjected. equivalent to what is known in Britain as "crag and tail" most amount of waste . . including the Alps proper. mountain-ridges have a long.


so far as is known. Armenian. skirting along the western coast of that following all its flexures in the southern half. the Southeastern system. extending from the Bolor Tagh in the centre of the continent to Behring Strait. and other Chinese ranges . the Altai. but still preserving the same general character of a lofty. As regards the general. In-shan. nearly or exactly parallel. In Africa we find the Atlas system between the shores of the IMediterranean and the Sahara . Lebanon. Kihanshan. Siam. the Brajzilian system on the east and the system of Parime. and Stannovoi ranges. the . it has been aptly remarked by Sir John Herschel that. the Pe-ling. Lupata. throughout the whole of this border. on the other hand. the Guinea system. and the mountains of Burmah. and resumed again and again when interrupted. though one main ridge in Australia. better known as Kocky Mountains. western border to a vast expanse of eastern lowlands and. which increase in altitude from Cape Town to the interior. comprehending such as the Drakenberg. comprising the Kuen-lun. In the Old World. and other contiguous ranges . would seem to indicate a sameness and continuity New Zealand. . and Cochin-China . and Elburz ranges . Yablonoi. &c. embracing the Hindoo Koosh. the Eastern system. in the middle island. and the North-eastern system. and comprehending the Thian-shan. hibits a high. we find .000 feet) are clad with snow. bold range on the west. 79 Anti-Taurus. but extending for hundreds of miles in succession. " In the New World we find a continuity of a vast and extremely precipitous line of very elevated mountains running from the Arctic Ocean almost to the extremity of Patagonia (a distance of 8280 statute miles). closely and in the northern opening out somewhat more. and whose glens are occupied by glaciers. immense continent. not here and there for short distances. between the rivers Amazon and Orinoco. on the north. In North America occur the Pacific system. extending along the eastern coast from Torres Strait on the north to the extreme point of Tasmania on the south. in the west and the Atlantic or Ap-palachian system (AUeghanies. exof geological upheaval. Of Australasia and its mountain-chains we know too little as yet to enable us to arrange them into groups or systems.MOUNTAINS AND MOUNTAIN-SYSTEMS. In South America we have the great system of the Andes on the west . distribution of mountains.) on the east. the Himalaya. . it is true. consisting of several parallel ranges. the Eastern system. and the Cape system. we perceive a most distinct and unmistakable tendency to a system of double or triple ridges. whose summits (10. mountainous. embracing the Kong and Cameroon Mountains . Yun-ling.

Thus. and as they generally appear in ranges consisting either of one central chain with branches or spurs running off at right angles. What is the determining cause of these directions ? French geologist. a greater degree of confusion and interlacement prevails. linear prolongation. their parallelism. running throughout. and carried through the heart of the continents. through the Hindu Koh. high degree of parallelism is preserved among contiguous members. shores of the Pacific. while in others the branching character prevails quite as conspicuously. the higher Alps. is very far from disOn the contrary. as their central masses were formerly supposed to consist essentially of igneous rocks which have been protruded from below. as they are especially so in the north-western region of Asia and it requires some determination in tracing connections to follow out a leading line through the Pyrenees. and as far as single.80 no THE LAND — ITS HIGHLANDS." 58. the termination of the Hindu Koh. Neither is the principle of parallel association carried out with anything like the same precision and sequence in the old as in the new continent. well-defined. various theories have been advanced to account for their upheaval. but a broad belt of mountainous country traversing the whole mass of land in a general direction. Elie de Beaumont. from the extremity of Europe and North Africa across to the western In the European portion of this system. Along the Caucasian and Elbrouz range. attempted to show that every recognisable mountain-system occupies a fraction of a great circle of the globe a cleft or fissure in the earth-crust being supposed to be more easily made in that direction than in any other . continuous chain less following the coast-line. this principle is pretty clearly maintained . and beyond the termination of these ranges in Assam and on the Chinese frontier. the' mountain-system of China and south-western Asia spreads out like an immense fan in some of whose ranges a . the Caucasus. and their geographical connections. the question The arises. but from the point in Little Thibet where this lastmentioned system forks out into the two great chains of the Himalaya and Kuen Lun which enclose the table-land of Thibet proper. ment are there the dominant features. or of several chains running less or more parallel to each other. except in the Pyrenees. and as this protruding force must have acted along the line of least resistance in the crust. As mountain-systems exercise very decided influences on the natural history of the globe. and the mountains of Elbrouz. much . up to the great system of Asiatic mountains which enclose the plateau of Thibet. while he further endeavoured to demonstrate that ranges of the same — . divarication and embranchtinctly indicated.

of streams and glaciers. and others. the fissures must neces- sarily be parallel. if not modified. This has led Professor Dana of . whatever may give the initial direction and mass to a mountain-range. crushing and crumpling together the strata along the lines of contact. we may now advert to the character of 59. treating the subject from a mathematical point of view. however. and dying out towards the plains on both sides. its slopes and counter-slopes are the effects of erosion. according to the hardness or softness of the rocks of which the mountain-range is composed. even Professor 81 when in opposite hemispheres. Each broad subsiding area. not exclusively of igneous rocks. further proved that when the expansive force acts uniformly over a wide area. Hopkins of Cambridge. age are parallel to each other. to refer the origin of all the grander mountainchains to the elevation caused by the enormous lateral pressures developed in the unequal contraction and sinking down of the cooling earth-crust over its supposed internal molten mass. occupies of necessity a less superficial space than before. its present features its peaks and precipices. and that in more places than one. the lines of greatest tension and upheaval must lie in if the crust yields the direction either of the length or breadth of that area. was the first to show that when the upheaving forces in the earth's crust act upon a single point. scooping and gouging. have. — . as formerly imagined. with effects that are ever varied and modified locally. and presses against the neighbouring areas with irresistible force. any original parallelism or uniformity of system has been considerably obscured. made evident that their central parts are composed. as it were. and forcing them upwards in a long mountain-chain a mountain-ridge of ten or twenty thousand feet being a mere wrinkle. continned throughout countless ages. as it descends towards the centre. by subsequent geological changes and it must also be remembered that. Yale. but almost wholly of aqueous strata greatly folded and compressed the amount of compression being most intense along the axis of the ridge. He . — — European Systems. F I : . Of course. Accepting such generalisations as initiatory steps towards the explanation of one of the most important problems connected with the history of our planet.EUROPEAN SYSTEMS. upon the surface of a globe nearly 8000 miles in diameter. The more extended studies made of late years of the great mountain-ranges of the earth. all wearing and wasting. the results of the degrading action of rains and frosts. its glens and gorges. the hence the suplines of upheaval must radiate from that point posed origin of lofty central mountains with diverging spurs.

climate. 4406 . the Cheviots. rising.. Pen-y-Gant. Sierra Morena. and production. None of them rise to the height of perpetual congelation (about 5000 feet for the centre of the British Islands) but in an insular and northern position such as that they occupy. they exercise a still more decided influence on the external condition of their region. . Aracena.000 feet in the Sierra Nevada). . . . . Their geological structure confers on them considerable boldness and diversity of scenery. . they are as follows : Pyrenees. . Arranging them in tabular order. Cantabrian mountains. Macgillicuddy's Reeks. . Loftier in their altitude. Mountains of Toledo. .— 82 — THE LAND — ITS HIGHLANDS. Cumbrian or Cumberland range. and all formed of strata. . Devonian range. the Cambrian or Welsh. Dartmoor. . . 3166 . all having less or more a south-west and north-east strike.. respectively composed. . Cantabrian Mountains. inhospitable summits exercise a decided influence alike on climate. . with their culminating heights or points of highest elevation. heath-clad. 3571 . . Grampians. . Mountains of Toledo. Maladetta.. : Northern or Ross-shire range. they appear as follows . Ranging chiefly in an east and west direction. 4000 feet. S. than the British system. though their minor elevation prevents that massive grandeur and ruggedness so often displayed by loftier ranges. . above the line of perpetual snow (which ascends from 8000 feet in the Pyrenees to 11.552 „ 5. 10. belonging to the earlier or primary geological periods.. and being intersected by numerous deep defiles and narrow glens. the mountain chains or ranges of which the preceding systems are Under the British system are embraced the Northern or Ross-shire range. 6. . Scaw Fell. Sierra Nevada.110 . 2600 „ 2500 . with their culminating points. Guadalupe. and natural productions. their cold. and more extensive in their ranges. Cambrian or Welsh mountains. the Cumbrian or Cumberland mountains. Ben Nevis. Sierra Morena. Hibernian mountains.168 feet. S. Arranged in tabular form. . and other associated elevations that give character to the rocky table-land and peninsula of Spain. 11.550 . . they create great diversity of scenery. . Credos. 1800 „ 3400 „ 60. the Devonian.. ^ Sierra Nevada. . in many parts. The Iberian or Hesperian system embraces the Pyrenees. Cheviots. and the Hibernian or Irish. and are of themselves the frequent storehouses of the minerals and metals. 11. . .687 „ . scenery.. Ben Attow. Snowdon. the Grampians. consisting of rocks of primary and secondary formation. by circular valleys (cirques) and rocky passes. Mulha9en. Pennine chain.

. and southward into the Pindus chain on the other and (6) the long range of the Carpathians. as its name confined to the islands of Sardinia Jeulada in the former. and irregular range. and with the still active craters of Vesuvius. . the different members of the Alpine system present great diver. Etna. traversing the entire length of the Italian peninsula. Connected with the older range of the Pyrenees on the west. Noric. perhaps. an additional altitude has been given of not less. — rugged. and other contiguous French ranges (4) the Apennines. In its geological it is evidently connected with the Alpine development.Apennines and the recent lavas and scoriae of Vesuvius and Etna. attaining its culminating point in Monte Rotondo. and other Alps). which in that latitude ascends to 9000 feet. Pennine. Carnic. and confer on southern Europe one of its most marked and peculiar features. The strata upheaved in this grand Alpine system are of various geological ages. or Hercynian Mountains. ramify in ranges more or less persistent. Under the Alpine system are usually comprehended the bearings and ought. in Corsica. and terminating in the still active volcano of Etna (5) the SlavoHellenic ranges. Helvetian. to and Corsica. Krapacks. Cottian. and the Lipari Islands on the east. Graian. properly speaking. Rhaetian. whole of those extensive and lofty mountains which. and to the Alps themselves. and mark the northern limits of the system. to much of the Auvergne. Even since the tertiary period. but for our present purpose it will be enough to range them into the (1) Western and (2) Eastern Alps. and which stretch eastward into the Balkan chain on the one hand. ranging from the crystalline schists of the Western Alps. is The Sardo-Corsican system. . Apennine. 63 implies. through the secondary limestones and altered shales of the Jura. than 4000 or 5000 feet. to be regarded as a mere outlier of that gigantic but imperfectly defined system. extend in a northeast direction from the shores of the Mediterranean to the tableland of Bohemia the (3) Gallo-Francian mountains. which. Bernese. including the Jura. It is a high. Being of different geological structures and altitudes.EUROPEAN SYSTEMS. and extends from Cape Cape Corso in the latter. and Hellenic ranges. 62. down to the tertiary beds of the sub. lying between the shores of the Adriatic and the plain of the Danube. These ranges have many minor subdivisions. which rise between the plain of the Danube and the great plain of Europe. under several local names (the Maritime. Vosges. from Switzerland as a centre. which rises to the height of 8767 feet an elevation closely bordering on the line of perpetual snow. . 61. the Alpine system may be said to have been on the increase from Permian times to the present moment.

Matterhom. Olympus. Apennines. as in the Helvetian Alps swelling and sloping in outline. . . Tatra.146 feet.. . a distance of 1160 miles. „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ 63. but beneath this limit the mountain-sides are covered with straggling forests of birch and pine. connected with the development of the Alpine ranges the whole being a true typical mountain-series of ridge and valley. and the Kiolen Mountains in the north. in the proper sense of the term. Mount Mollecon. or high open fields (Fjelds). peak and pass. . Eastern Alps. .108 15. as in the mountains of Transylvania.026 13.461. Carpathians. Geologically speaking. Subjoined are the component ranges of the system. . rather than of a continuous mountain -ridge these elevations narrowing from a breadth of 200 miles in the south to 60 or 40 in the north. Mount PeWoux. The Scandinavian system^ as the name implies. Rising in many places above the snow-line. glacier and narrow gorge.217 14.781 15. Monnt Blanc.— 84 sity of character THE LAND and aspect —ITS HIGHLANDS. as in the Balkan and Pindus ranges or rich in minerals. and being distinguished as the Hardaangar or Langefeld in the south. the Dovrefeld in the middle. . Monnt Kom. . Gallo-Francian. 14. the range presents a steep face and rugged coast-line of fiords and cliffs to the North Sea on the west. Jungfrau..700 8. embraces the whole of the mountainous highland of Norway and Sweden. as in the hills of Auvergne rocky and precipitous. with their culminations — — or points of highest elevation : Western Alps. .. Mount Rosa. there are no table-lands. With the exception of the plains of Bavaria and .749 9.671 6. and extends in a north-eastern direction from the Naze to the North Cape.000 9. .780 14. they are rugged with peak and precipice. Bohemia. It consists of a series of plateaux.688 9. . which lie on the very outskirts of the system. Many of the "passes" are practicable even at great elevations that of the Col du Geant being 11. Balkan range. . and a terraciform slope downwards through Sweden to the shores of the Baltic on the east. „ Slavic range. A great portion of the range rises above the limit of perpetual snow (which ascends from 2400 feet at the North Cape to 5000 feet in the — Langefeld). which sinks from 9000 feet in the Alps to 6000 feet in the Carpathians. Intersected by numerous ravines and gorges. beetling precipice and rugged ravine.685 feet. as in the Apennines crateriform and terraced. Finsteraarhom. .493 9. Tchar Dagh. Gran Sasso. Hellenic range. and the Adler not less than 12.

lead. thus Langefeld. and the watershed between the extensive basins of the Volga and Obi. . and consists of round-backed. There are no mountains throughout its extent. Sulitelma. and across which the eye wanders for immense distances. and Petchora to the Baltic and White Seas and those of the Volga. or by small mountains which rise here and there with comparatively little picturesque effect above the general level... 85 formed of primary rocks granitic. which form the natural boundary between Europe and Asia. turning the waters of the Vistula. . of Norway. they form plateaux or table-lands of great breadth. Though the general elevation of the irregular tablelands seldom exceeds 5000 feet. that upon what may almost be called their summits a coach and four might be driven along or across them for many miles. Don. These wonderful expanses of mountains are often so level. According to Principal J. Duna. The Sarmatian system (from the ancient Sarmatia or Poland) is meant by geographers to embrace that extensive swell of country which stretches diagonally through Eussia from the plain of Poland to the flanks of the Uralian Mountains. . 7620 „ 6200 . and generally more or less connected together. the culminating points rise to a line. which are concealed by their narrowness.— EUROPEAN SYSTEMS. zinc. being transverse to the usual strike of the Old World mountains. Forbes. . which is abundantly traversed by metalliferous veins of iron. D. . Under the Uralian system geographers embrace the welldefined range of the Ural Mountains. runs in a true meridional direction for a distance of more than 1600 miles. Kiolen. which in their less interrupted or more elevated parts have acquired specific names. Skegstol-tend. These table-topped mountains are the Fields. Sneehatten. the Scandinavian mountains do not constitute either unbroken chains rising from the low grounds and forming a ridge. Dwina. though occasionally separated by deep but always narrow valleys. copper. and which forms the great watershed of northern Europe. plateau-shaped masses of very . did roads exist. 65. 8670 feet. — and palaeozoic rocks considerable altitude . in the southern division of the country especially. but. overlooking entirely the valleys. The range. Dovrefeld. . or more properly Fjelds. . and antimony. and Dnieper to the Caspian and Black Seas. nor are they a series of distinct detached elevations. 64. . the Valdai Hills attaining an elevation of only 1100 feet and it is chiefly of geographical importance as a great and continuous watershed of gently swelling upland. and interrupted only by undulations of ground. the whole system is . crystalcomposing the mass...

being among its geological treasures. and separates the basins of the Kuban and Terek on the north.493 feet. and. and rises in many places above the snow -line. 5397 feet. and culminating in a few points only at upwards of 5000 feet.000 feet. Among these may be noticed the Taurus and Anti-Taurus. 5542 feet. we may begin with the Western system. near the centre of the chain. which is the main headquarters of mountains and mountain-chains in the Old World. being on the European side. and the Indus on the east. as well as the region of highest elevation on the globe.000 feet. moderate elevation generally not exceeding 2000 feet. The culminating point is Mount Elburz. and Savalan. which there attains to the altitude of 11. and which give feature and character to the contiguous highlands of Asia Minor. 16. Comparatively little is known of its geological features. 5286 feet. and though the table-land they support is on the whole bleak and humid. full of glens and mountain-fastnesses. and diamonds. and Beloochistan. iridium. — — may feet. snow-line. whose hilly and irregular ranges encircle the table-land of Asiatic Turkey. The Caucasian system. topo- . though from the reported abundance of metalliferous veins portions must consist of the older formations. and consists of an axis of igneous rocks. and is rich in the precious minerals and metals gold. while in the south and east there are abundant evidences of recent volcanic activity. platinum. Its culminating points are ToU-pors. Konjak Ofski. Turning next to Asia. from those of the Kur and Eioni on the south.750 Asiatic Systems. Persia. Closely connected with them. under which is comprised those more or less associated ranges that lie between the Levant and Black Sea on the west. 15. which forms another part of the boundary between Europe and Asia. and whose culminating Argish. or 2712 feet higher than Mount Blanc .532 feet. Several other points rise far above the snow-line. The range is a truly mono-lineal or mono-axial one. The range is a massive one. is thus the highest point of the Continent. 67. and Obdorsk. Affghanistan.86 THE LAND — ITS HIGHLANDS. 66. among which be mentioned Kasbek. copper (malachite or the green carbonate). its height being 18. flanked by crystalline schists and the older palaeozoic formations. varying from 80 to 120 miles in width. their own slopes are often intersected by valleys point is Mount A of great beauty and fertility. extends in one immense chain of 750 miles from the Black Sea to the Caspian. attaining an elevation of not less than considerable portion of these ranges is above the 13.

which are all intimately connected with the first plateau stage of that continent. whose height has been variously given at 16. where it attains.000 feet.210 feet. and in fact but prolongations of the same ranges. in the slumbering volcano of Demavend. separates Aifghanistan and the Punjaub from Independent Tartary. The following are among the highest points of the system — — — : Hindoo Koosh. They are largely of secondary and tertiary age and though intersected by minor valleys. which. and Beloochistan hills. 10. terminate the chain. Kurdistan. though lower. as the Lebanon. Lebanon. but in the southern portion. They form a series of broad-shouldered mountains.000?.197 „ 9.469 feet. Also intimately associated with the Taurus and Anti-Taurus. stretches southward along the Syrian coast to Mount Hermon. 20. with lofty intervening valleys. Elburz range. and Sinai. trending eastward in broad massive ridges into the Kuen-lun and Himalayas. and arid. the mountains.— ASIATIC SYSTEMS. as it were.800 „ 12.675 „ 17. into the high grounds of Tartary and the chain of the Hindoo Koosh. and. proceeding transversely from the Taurus. though sending out several southern spurs. summit. they fade away rather into high arid table-lands than alternate with river-plains of corresponding dimensions those of the Euphrates and Jordan being the only alluvial plains of any importance. while the lower slopes are wooded and fertile . summit. and southward into the Zugros and hills of Kurdistan. the Hindoo Koosh or Hindoo Koh. and culminate in the steep-sided. are abrupt. Jebel-el-Makmel. is the Lebanon range. „ Hermon. they run in east and west directions. Armenian mountains. Taurus.916 and 17. Its maximum elevation is about 20. and thence through Palestine to the peninsula of Sinai. 87 graphically as well as geologically. where Horeb. 8593 feet. 14. This last-mentioned range.232 feet. Argisch. which trend eastward in the Elburz. .. In the main. of the Armenian and Taurus mountains skirts the southern shores of the Caspian. snowcovered cone of Ararat. The Elburz range a continuation. 7497 feet. an altitude of 18. . are the mountains of Armenia. Ararat. rocky. and forms the watershed between the Amoo and the Indus. . nearly 10. with less defined elevation. and thence stretches eastward.210 „ 13. Demavend. Such are the principal members of the Western mountain-system of Asia.000 feet high. In the northern portion of the chain the loftier heights are covered with perpetual snow. it may be regarded as the commencement of the great central system of the Asiatic continent.000 „ . Anti-Taurus.

Indeed. 10. forming the northern and all but impassable boundary of India. Geologically speaking. or Deodunga. and constituting the southern buttress of the great central table-land. the great South-eastern system of Asia. . 28. at elevations of 6000. but as yet very partially known or explored.eou±herly direction. Gahurishank. and plateaux. The snow-line rises. and a large portion being thus perpetually covered with ice and snow.156 feet. a conjgeries of great irregular heights.002 feet. and gi^ang contour and character to the Cambodian and Malayan peninsulas.. Abruptly separated from the Himalaya by the transverse Talley of the lower Brahmapootra. and even 17.000 feet on the south side. Closely connected with. and Cochin-China all trending in a .000 feet on the north side.670 feet and rises in many points (upwards of forty. according to Humboldt. Chingopamari.000 feet above the present sealevel. it is said) to an altitude of 23. Kinchinjunga. lie the well-defined ranges of northern Burmah (the Kakhyeen Hills). passes. according to position in the range. Little is known of these peninsular mountain-ranges. the whole ehain. .of their elevations . are the mountains of Assam. but the highest of known elevation on the surface of the globe.000 feet the three highest peaks being Everest. but. is 68. of 15. 29. but still in continuation of the . partaking of much of the Himalayan character.ff^etem. mth a few exceptions. «or . extending from the knot of the Bolor Tagh to the extremities of Malay and Cambodia. stretching in a somewhat south-easterly direction be- tween the basin of the Ganges and the upper basin of the Brahmapootra. where the air is drier . and comprising not only the highest mountains in that continent. The range extends about 1500 miles in length varies from 150 to 350 miles in breadth has a mean elevation. and following the western.000. Siam. — lagiri. gorge and glacier. rugged ravine and headlong waterfall. separated by low -lying river -valleys. to 16. has been elevated many thousand feet since the tertiary epoch tertiary fossils being found on the terraces. the Himalayas present every possible feature of mountain grandeur peak and precipice. Beyond the mountains of Assam. 88 THE LAND — ITS HIGHLANDS. but still holding less or more in the same axial direction. the higher and central portions of the Himalaya.826 feet. consist of granitic and metamorphic rocks their flanks exhibit in many places palaeozoic and secondary strata and at elevations of 3000 and 4000 feet along their bases in the Siwalik or sub-Himalayan hills occur limestones and gravels replete with the remains of tertiary mammals. from 13. 27. well watered and approaching the — — — — — . as well as a large portion of the Asiatic continent. and Dwha. Preeminent in the system stands the chain of the Himalaya (" abode snow ").

the northern barrier of the Deccan . and is. Tabulating the south-eastern system. and those of the Amoo and Yarkand on the north.— ASIATIC SYSTEMS. — — Himalaya. and rising from 12.002 28. Nilgherri. we know that to great elevations they are covered with impenetrable forest-growth.826 25.000 feet „ „ „ „ „ „ „ from the same central knot of the Bolar Mounand extending eastward to the Pacific. and the Eastern Ghauts.000 feet above the sea.000 to 18.760 5. into the main ridge of the Pe-ling Mountains.156 27. and alternating with alluvial plains in the eastern districts of China. we have next the Eastern system of Asia a series of vast and partially known ranges. that rise between the basins of the Yang-tse-Kiang and Hoang-Ho. Starting „ „ Dwhalagiri.000 feet. -with its culminating points. that guard it on the west . the loftiest inhabited region in the world. Western Ghauts. 8^ equator.749 8. Dodabetta.000 feet in the east. geologically dependent on the same axial elevation. as we have stated. 29. to 4000 feet in Mysore . having a mean elevation of 15. and extending in an easterly direction for nearly 1200 miles. 8760 feet high. „ Eastern Ghauts. Lying as it doeskin the same line with the Elburz on the west.. as it were. The plateaux of the Deccan rise step by step southward from 1500 or 2000 feet in Nizam. . rising between the valleys of the upper Indus and Brahmapootra on the south. and the Nilgherries in many points from 6000 to 7000 feet attaining their culmination in the peak of Dodabetta. the Eastern from 2000 to 3000 feet . Bonasson. fan-like. the Western Ghauts ascend from 2000 to 7000 feet . Tandiamole. and prolonged into the Pe-ling on the east. the Western Ghauts. the system at the same time diverges.000 feet in its western area to full 17. Nandadevi. so the Kuen-lun tains — forms the northern wall of the plateau of Tibet.781 7. that support it on the east.000 3. are the mountains which give figure and relief to the peninsula of Hindostan. As the Himalaya formed the southern. 69. Holding eastward. The system commences with the chain of the Kuen-lim. „ . into the Yun-ling . These are the Vindhya chain. no doubt. Everest. the whole looks like one great range. Kinchinjunga. at an altitude of 15. we have. the two latter chains converging into the loftier heights of the Nilgherri Hills in the south. associated with high desert table -lands in Tibet and upper Tartary. but still connected with the same area. Outlying the system. which forms.

which is said to have an elevation of about 11. ascending in greater portion above the line of perpetual snow. marking the broad line of mountainous elevation that — . Like other clustering ridges. The highest point is the peak called Bielukha. the Daurian. are still in active eruption. 16. the whole system is more or less volcanic active cones. — . occurs the Northern system of Asia. or the minerals and metals they contain. comprising several parallel ridges (the Tang-nu. The system embraces the Thian-shan. Bolor. Still northward and eastward. between the basins of the Yang-tse-Kiang and Canton River . like Pe-shan and Ho-tscheou. and other little known ranges all rising between Siberia and Mongolia. Yablonoi. and descending by gradual stages to the great plain of Siberia on the north. the Eastern system is little known to geographers. Indeed. occur the Aldau. either as regards the altitude of its mountain- chains. Stannovoi.131 feet. 1400 miles. and the conjunct chains of the Ala-shan. . In-shan. and Dzungari.90 THE LAND — ITS HIGHLANDS. and other kindred phenomena. and contain numerous volcanic cones which. flanked by the arid deserts of Tartary and Mongolia on the south. 10. . chain. and separating the basin of the Amoor from those of the Yenesei and Lena. which is there about 6000 feet and culminate occasionally in peaks of 10. which find an outlet by narrow cross valleys.000 feet. but comparatively free from glaciers on account of the dryness of the air. that trend in a north-easterly course and form the southern wall of the great Mongolian desert. and other chains that terminate in the volcanic system of Kamtchatka. with the central knot of the and stretching away in broad. in like manner. These closely associated ranges are said to have a mean elevation of from 5000 to 8000 feet embrace a few active and many extinct volcanoes rise high in numerous points above the snow-line. and Khingan.000 feet. the Altai and Daurian Mountains enclose a number of lakes. to Kamtchatka and Behring Strait.000 feet. but ramifying more irregularly. and exhibiting throughout a number of volcanic cones. These ranges are for the most part covered with snow (the snowline sinking to 4500 and 4000 feet in Eastern Siberia). through terrace by terrace downwards to the larger rivers of Siberia. are said by some authorities to be still active at elevations of more than 10. some of which. their physical features. Ulam-gom.000 and 1 1. Altogether. like Schiwelutch. and Klieutschewska. hot springs. or Celestial Mountains.548 feet. more or less parallel lines. their geological structure. dormant craters. ranging in an easterly direction for nearly 70. the Nan-ling. between Tibet and China . Commencing. In north-easterly continuation we have next the Altai Mountains. gas-springs.

river and lake. as likely embracing within their limits the elements of separate and independent systems.3. 7700 in Algeria while in Morocco. which ascend stage by stage from the basin of the Mediterranean. it is evidently — . and Umbattai and Beyeda. Mount Miltsin. The system consists largely of granites. and increase in altitude from east to west being about 2000 feet in Tripoli. ries. syenites. The two most persistent chains. 15. and in no feature is it more interesting than that which reveals an interior of mountain and plain. and consists of three or four parallel ranges.707 feet . the heights descend from 9000 to 6000 and 5000 feet towards the Red Sea and the plain of Egypt. This plateau. however. connected with and forming the lofty table-land (Amhara) of Abyssinia and upper Ethiopia the gathering-ground of the Atbara and Blue Nile. and. or above the line of perpetual congelation. as at one time supposed. and in many points above the line of perpetual snow. between the Mediterranean seaboard and the Sahara. 14. The culminating points in the Samen or upper range are Has Detschen. an arid and monotonous desert.000 feet Abba Jarrat. Of the African continent. which is there about 14.. which is 8000 feet above the sea-level. 4500 in Tunis.000 feet.400 feet. and crystalline schists. our knowyet too limited to enable us to do more than merely advert to some of the more prominent mountain-regions. Our knowledge of Africa.000 feet. or Atlas. and extending from Tripoli on the east to the Atlantic on the west. to which we next turn. that . — Cape Spartel at the Straits of Gibraltar. instead of. ledge is connected with the systems of southern Europe. under the names of the Samen and Taranta. porphy. terminating in gically. AFRICAN SYSTEMS. Next in importance is the Abyssinian system. skirt- — ing the shores of the latter. in the higher range. strike in a northerly direction between the upper forks of the Nile and the Ked Sea. extends from 91 Demavend on the Caspian to Klieutschewska in Kamtchatka. Several secondary spurs proceed from the main ranges one northward. is supported and traversed by several clustering ranges of great elevation. and several others southward into the desert plateaux of the Sahara. are prolonged into the lower hills of Egypt.968 feet Buahat. 15. each 12. In the extreme north we have the Atlas system. African Systems. Geolo71. is every year becoming more precise. and exhibits.000 feet. which at the Gulf of Suez connect themselves with Sinai and the mountains of Syria. In the Taranta or lower range. ascends to 11. and Jebel Tedla to 1. 72.

1278. and separated from the Zwellendam by the Kannaland Karoo and. 18. and intersected by narrow defiles (kloofs). It consists. rather than characterised by a series of well-defined mountainchains these flats (karoos) rising step by step. while many of the hills are curiously capped by basaltic outflows. and 6000 feet above the sealevel. 75. the northern chain. and stretching for nearly 200 miles in length. and overlook the sources of the . from south to north. 6000. From this point begins what may be termed the Eastern system. and intersected by. 1st. ranging in an east and west direction. the Zwarte or Black range. . about 30 miles further north. consisting of the Drakenberg or Quotlamba Mountains (10. . The steps of this ascent consist of rocky walls and flattopped mountains. 4000. and other ranges that hold northward in parallel lines and increasing altitudes towards the equator. and generally averaging from 1200 to 3000 feet (Soracte. In Southern Africa the surface is occupied by a series of sandstone plateaux.000 feet). about 20 miles inland from the Cape coast. but under the Guinea system are usually embraced the Kong and Cameroon Mountains the former rising between the in the lower — Gulf of Guinea and the Niger. and attaining heights of 4000. . and the Omatako Berg. the seaboard rises in terraces. separated from the Zwarte hills by the great Karoo. for the sake of reference. Winter Mountains. Wittebergen. at elevations of 2000. where several of the higher peaks (Kenia and Kilmandjaro. Sneeuwveld. From the Cameroons. of the Zwellendam range. 9000.700 feet. resting on. 3d.000 to 14. 3200 feet) and the latter stretching eastward and unknown into the centre of the continent. from 8000 to 10. of which very little is known chain is said to attain an elevation of from 12. be denominated the Cape system. In Western Africa the mountains are by no means well known. and even 8500 feet. and Mount Ramel. granitic rocks. backed by several though the Campleda ranges. which form the only means of passage from terrace to terrace and these mountains (bergs) may. 74. . Nieuwveld. 92 THE LAND — ITS HIGHLANDS. southward to Damara Land. — . and attaining. as in the Compass Berg in the Sneeuwveld or Snowy range. bold and nigged character distinctive of these formations .. an elevation of 3550 feet 2d.000 feet . and other contiguous ranges. from 8000 to 9000 feet.000 feet the Mozamba. and even 13.0(X) and 18. the Lupata Mountains (8000 or 10.700 feet) are said to be covered with perpetual snow. 73. and rising in many points to elevations of 4000. in Table Mountain.000 feet). whose steep and disintegrating cliffs give to them the aspect and character of impregnable hill-forts. 6000. consisting of the Koggeveld.

and of great altitudes (6000. Their highest ^own . the islands of India and Australasia.View. though one main ridge. extending along the eastern coast.000 feet in height. and Mount Humboldt. and the peak of Mfumbiro (10. 8270. 5502 feet.200 feet high.chain of considerable elevation ranging north and south. and as the rudiments of systems yet to be elaborated. Mount — — Euapehu. and the latter said to be practicable at elevations of 6000 and 8000 feet. 6500 feet. 76.points are Mauna — : — . This great backbone is full of peaks and passes the former often exceeding 10. the Society Isles. according to Dr Hector. the Japan and Kurile Isles. and 14. and Sea. The Aleutian Isles. 9195. it may be remarked that they are chiefly active volcanoes. and their results on the geography of future ages cannot fail to be as marked and decided as the influences of the Andes or Alps are on the physical features of the present day. they are merely to be regarded as chains in embryo. 10. but slopes gradually towards the interior. being the highest known points of elevation. Australasian and Polynesian Systems. are scattered irregularly throughout the upland lakeregion between the Zambesi and the equator. New Zealand contains one mountain . and often in full activity. and send their ice-streams fully 13 miles down into the lower country. Of Australia and its mountain -chains it has been already stated (par. 13.000 feet). the Philippine and Molucca Isles. and about 30 miles from the western coast. in Tasmania. Others of somewhat inferior elevations. The culminating points of the system are Mount Cook. Of the mountains that occur in the many islands of the Pacific and Indian Archipelago. in Australia. 93 Nile and Congo. of the New Zealand Geological Survey. and seldom exceeds 5000 feet in elevation Mount Kosciusko. from Torres Straits on the north to the extreme point of Tasmania on the south. and though often occurring in obvious linear — connections. occupy many of the higher valleys.— AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN SYSTEMS. such as the ranges of Balegga and Lokinga. the Sandwich Islands. would seem to indicate a sameness and continuity of geological upheaval. and Marquesas aU form volcanic groups and series of evident central and axial connections . 57) that we know too little to enable us to arrange them into groups and systems.000). This chain is extremely rugged and inaccessible on the coast side. 6000 feet. Glaciers. and Mount Egmont. The mountains on the eastern side are chiefly volcanic Tongoriro being 6200 feet in height.000.

or Atlantic system. It separates the waters that flow eastward into the Atlantic from those that flow westward into the basins of the Mississippi and St Lawrence and though trending in one concalled we have from its : tinuous direction from the St Lawrence to the Gulf States. first the Eastern. Appalachian. Katahdin. Geologically. and Indrapura in Sumatra (12. and its eastern slopes comprise some of the finest and most diversified country in the American Union. Separated from the preceding system by the valley of the St Lawrence. where the arrangements are altogether on a simpler and more uniform plan. and Adirondack Mountains are more or less irregular and interrupted but in the southern. the ridges of the Notre Dame. occur the Wotschish and Mealy Mountains. of the New.760 feet). has . High Peak. In length the system is nearly 2000 — — an average breadth of 100 or 130 miles and though its is only about 2500 feet. Alleghanies. though frequently cut across by ravines and river-courses. and in Mount Katahdin in Maine to 5360 feet. the Alleghanies consist of several closely parallel chains of great continuity. . and Alleghany on the south. (14. Adirondack Mountains.— 94 . are yet. we now turn to those Having reviewed the mountain-systems of the Old World.150 feet). Mount Jefferson. the system consists chiefly of the older palaeozoic rocks. THE LAND — ITS HIGHLANDS. White. flanked on both sides by an extensive development of carboniferous strata .140 feet). and the Green and White Mountains on the north separated from each other by the narrow cross-valley of the Hudson. 6428 6476 5860 5467 6360 feet. The following are the culminating points of this Eastern or Atlantic system miles. Carolina. though seldom exceeding 1400 or 1600 feet in height. Maine. . the Green. Black Mount. In the northern section of the system. from their boreal position. mean altitude : Mount Washington. „ „ „ „ . In North America 77. may be said to consist of two divisions the Blue Ridge.. Shenandoah Ridge. it yet ascends in Mount Washington in New Hampshire to 6428 feet. which. Fusiyama in Japan Semeroe in Java (12. .177 feet) Loa in the Sandwich Islands (13. so general proximity and parallelism to the Atlantic seaboard. American Systems. New Hampshire. for the most part covered with perpetual snow. but still trending in the same general direction to the northern shores of Labrador. in Black Mount between Tennessee and Carolina to 6476 feet.

consists of two main ranges the Pacific or Oceanic. stretches in several more or less connected ranges from the Isthmus of Panama to the shores of the Arctic Ocean.. skirting the western seaboard from Cape Lucas in California to Cape Elizabeth in Aliaska and the Rocky Mountains proper. the clustering or Anahuac or Southern Mexico. and the Sierra Verde and Madre.000 feet. . which rise in Mount Hooker to 15. Columbia. The former of these ranges forms the watershed between the Pacific on the west. Horn. the long watershed between the tertiary valleys of the Colville. — . firstj the volcanic chain of Guatemala. on the other hand. . the northern and parallel ranges of the Rocky Mountains proper.337 and 17.970 feet. though obeying the same axial direction. ascending in Orizaba and Popocatepetl to 17. whose highest points are Mount St John 8000 feet. 1 elevation. and the Colorado. . &c.. the Wind River Mountains. and Colorado on the and the great Lake region and the plains of the Mississippi on the east. of several members. Geologically.884 feet thirdj the Cordillera of Cohahuela and Potosi. in Holy Cross. in like manner. Geologically. and Mount St Helens 15. This extensive system. which after all is but the northern prolongation of the great backbone of the New World. 15. Freemont's Peak. Big transverse mountains of . second. The latter or Rocky Mountain range forms.900 feet. yet separate and converge so as to constitute a series of plateaux of varying magnitude and west. AMERICAN STSTEMS. and ascend in Pike's Peak and Long's Peak to 10. which support the lofty table-land of New Mexico. and in Mount Brown is to 15.000 feet.750 feet and the Sea Alps in the north.000 feet.000 feet . and Mount St Elias 17. between Nebraska and Oregon.000 feet the Cascade range in Oregon territory. rising in the craters of Atitlan and Agua to 12. extending in double and sometimes in treble chains from Panama to the Arctic shores. 1t consists.000 feet fourth. 13. At the southern extremity of the range we have. Interiorly and beyond these eastern ranges the country is one immense plain till we come to the Western or Pacific system^ which. the range is of comparatively recent origin. which.500 and 15. it consists of several members. Fraser. an elevation of 17.700 feet. Columbia. under the familiar name of the Rocky Mountains.000 and 12. culminating in Mounts Hood and Jefferson 15. and Colville on the east. Though continuous as one great range. and evidently connects itself with the still active series of the Aliaska peninsula contains and the Aleutian Islands. having their highest points in Mount Fairweather 14. the whole of this vast range of .783. many extinct and dormant volcanoes. lastly. and Mount Tsashti 14. Lucia and Sierra Nevada in California. such as the Sierra S. attaining.568 feet and. 95 78.

Mexico. while in the inland range the reverse is the case the only section of activity being in Mexico and Central America. and the extent of surface covered by their bases not less than 531. Cascade Range.. „ „ „ „ „ „ „ 14.. by vast accumulations of lava. Holy Cross. and in consequence is largely covered. Though presenting any crowned and . Orizaba. Aliaska.. and other volcanic products.. Among the many elevated points of the Pacific system. Do. and in general it presents a steep slope towards the Pacific. and La Plata. Mount St Helens. Indeed.830 feet.900 17. the system is composed of granites. Do. however.000 square geographical miles.. with the exception of the Rocky Mountains proper. partakes less or more of the volcanic character . Mount Shasta. in other places of two or more ridges supporting lofty but narrow plateaux . 17.— 96 THE LAND — ITS HIGHLANDS. Volcano.700 15. from which it is distant from 20 to 80 miles. with the exception of the volcanic mountains of Guatemala and Mexico. the following may be given as the higher and better : — known Mount St Ellas. . v. It number of active craters than other mountain-chain.500 feet. and varying in breadth from 40 to 350 miles. with this observed difference. As a mountain-range the Andes form one skirting in of the most definite and persistent on the globe unbroken ridges the entire Pacific shore for nearly 4500 miles in In some length. ancient formation. Do. Mount Hood. and these are evidently portions of the still active development of Central America and the West India Islands.. scoriae.783 „ 79.750 15. the mean elevation of the Andes is 11. Do.400 „ 14.. Rocky Mountains. Do. Mount Brown. while towards the east it descends by gradual stages into the broad plains of the Orinoco. especially on its western slopes.. piercing metamorphic schists and palaeozoic strata.337 17. Aliaska. places the range consists of a single ridge . and / porphyries. In South America the pre-eminent system is that of the Andes. which extends along the Pacific seaboard from Tierra del Fuego on the south to the Isthmus of Panama on the north there almost connecting itself with the onward prolongation of the Rocky Mountains. V. v.884 17.000 15. — — which are abundantly intersected by metalliferous exhibits throughout a greater veins. Geologically. Popocatepetl.. Amazon. that towards the north in the seaward range the igneous forces are becoming more active. Mount Fairweather. According to Humboldt. Mount Hooker.970 15. the whole of the Pacific system. greenstones.

which terminates in the Knot of Cusco. and the Colombian Andes. and Tolima. and hence all the higher peaks and volcanoes Chimborazo. and western Cordilleras of Peru the western being the highest. 13. as the Patagonian. but ascending in several points (Mount Darwin. which terminate in the Knot of Loxa. the Andes open up into three parallel ridges.525. and high above it. unknown in other parts of the Andes. the 97 range consists of several members. which rises in double or treble ridges. from 30 to 40 miles wide. 21. 23. — — In this region.800 feet. 19.904 feet. 15. the central portion of the system.140.132 .534 . rising in two parallel ranges the Cordillera of the Coast and the Cordillera Keal and supporting between them the table-land of Desaguedero. . rise Sahama. the Bolivian. 17. and Cochabamba. known as the eastern.500 . and enclosing Lake Titacaca at an elevation of 12. and though their mean elevation is inferior to those of Bolivia. we next meet in northward order the Colombian Andes. the Peruvian. 18. one main portion extending in the direction of Panama. and another bending north-eastward to the Caribbean by the countries in which they — . — G .000 feet .a . and high above it.898 and 18. rise the lofty peaks of Aconcagua. As the snow-line descends in Southern Patagonia to 3000 feet. much of the range is perpetually frozen. 21. the snow-line ascends from 15. AMERICAN SYSTEMS. The Chilian Andes extend. the snow-line rises to 15. 18. in one immense ridge .000 feet .373 feet and in the eastern range Sorate. and the Knot of Pasco.286. make their appearance in the higher glens and gorges. In these Cordilleras the highest points are Sasaquanca in Lima. Leaving the Cordilleras of Peru. they yet contain the giant Aconcagua the culminating cone of the system.000 feet and the volcanoes Chipicani and Arequipa. — — . 19. much of which lies directly under the equator.000 or 16. 17. Next in northward order occur the Bolivian Andes. Northwards.000 feet above the sea.290 feet Tupungata. in the western range. 21.000 feet . 11.120 Sea. Vilcanota. and separated from the Pacific by a sandy and arid desert 120 miles in breadth. central.000 feet.000 feet Chiquibamba. 21. 16. Antisana. . one continuous axis. 500 miles in length. in like manner. In this. in perpetual winter. 17. from the Bolivian plateau. 19. or the Andes of Quito lofty volcanic portion of the system.846 feet. Illimani. 22. Cotopaxi. known occur.000 to 18. The snow-line in this portion of the system rises from 8000 to 10. Mount Stokes. and the highest known point in the New World continent. The Patagonian section consists of a single range of moderate elevation.000 feet and the volcanoes of Chilian and Villarica. Coyambe. the Chilian. and glaciers.424.000 feet. the volcanoes of Yanteles and Minchinmadiva) to 6400 and 8030 feet.




Such are the various porAndes a system

—are covered with perpetual snow.

tions that constitute the giant system of the

which, whether in its extent and linear continuity, its boldness and altitude, its high inhabited table-lands, its mineral riches, or its physical influences, is, even more than the Himalayas, the most remarkable on the globe. As already mentioned, the mean elevation of the Andes (according to Humboldt) is 11,830 feet upwards of forty points rise above 14,000 feet and at least twenty points exceed 19,000 feet. The following are the more important



Aconcagua, Volcano,


Sahama, V., Peru,
Sorate, Illimani,


Chimborazo, Ecuador,

Do,, Chiquibamba, Do,,

Ecuador, Cotopaxi, V,, Do., . Chipicani, Peru, Arequipa, Do.,


23,290 22,000 21,424 21,286 21,140 21,000 19,534 19,500 18,898 18,373


„ „ „
„ „ „

The mountain-system n ext in mportance in South Ar


that of Brazil, occupying the eastern portion of the continent,

extending in several parallel ranges from the plains of the La Plata on the south to those of the Amazon on the north, and spreading inland for nearly 1800 miles in a broad plateau, whose mean elevation is about 3200 feet. These ranges or ridges of table-land are separated from each other by the afiiuents of the Amazon and the St Francisco on the one hand, and by those of the Paraguay and Parana on the other, and succeed each other ridge and plain with wonderful continuity. Proceeding from the Atlantic westward, we have, ^rsi, the Sierra Espinha9o, whose culminating heights are Itambe, 8428 Orgaos, 7700 Piedade, 5830 and Itacolumi, 5750 feet and the Sierra do Mar, or Searange, which attains in Morro dos Candos an elevation of 4476 feet ; second, the Sierra Tabatinga, forking northward into the Irmaos and Sierra Mangabeiros third, the Cordillera Grande, whose chief heights are from 6000 to 7000 feet and, lastly, the Sierra de los Vertentes and other inferior ridges, that gradually descend into the great central plain of the continent. Greologically, the Brazilian system is eminently primary, consisting of







and crystalline schists rich in the precious minerals and metals abounding, from the character of its rocks, in picturesque beauty and from its tropical situation and minor elevation, clothed to the summits with an exuberant and varied
granitic protrusions
; ;





and only other mountain-system in South America which occupies the oval tract of country lying between the Amazon and Orinoco, and forms the high ground from which descend many of the minor affluents of these gigantic This plateau, whose mean elevation is from 1600 to 2000 rivers. feet, is traversed in an east and west direction by several closely-




that of Parime,

set ridges (Sierras Acarai,

Parime, Pacaraima, Imataca, &c.), w^hich,

though of no great general elevation, yet ascend in Duida to 7149 feet, in Roraima to 7450, and in the Sierra of Merida to 15,000 Like the mountains of Brazil, the system of Parime confeet. sists essentially of crystalline schists, and has not inaptly been described as a primary island rising from the vast tertiary and recent expanses of the Orinoco and Amazon. L}dng almost directly under the equator, the higher sierras are clothed with impenetrable forest-growths, while the lower grounds, according to the season, are alternately arid wastes or covered with a carpeting of the most luxuriant grasses.
82. Such are the principal mountains of the world as arranged by geographers into groups and systems. The arrangement may

not in every case be a natural one that is, the mountains composing some so-called " system " may not strictly belong to the same set of geological causations but the arrangement, such as it is, greatly facilitates reference, and aids our comprehension of the effects produced by any mountain-group on the climate and vital economy of the region in which it is situated. The arrangement has also its topographical advantages, for little can be done in the way of correct description till the objects to be described have been arranged and classified according to some principle of similarity

But whatever may be the ultimate grouping, we see in mountain chains and systems one of the most important features in the physical machinery of the globe. Rising and falling here in easy undulations, there in
either in position, aspect, or origin.

steep peaks

—they produce a diversity

and ridges

— —here in abrupt


and there in gentle

of surface eminently fitted for

diversity of vegetable and animal life. Presenting their high ridges to the moisture -laden currents of the atmosphere, they serve as so many points of condensation, producing clouds, mists,

and showers that temper the heat in the lower regions, and reand nourish their vegetation. Elevated into regions of perpetual snow, in hot countries they cool the higher atmosphere,

which descends in refreshing breezes to the plains below while their snows and glaciers become perennial storehouses which, under the summer sun, yield a copious supply to the streams and




their geological structure

rivers of the thirsty lowlands.


and formation they are necessarily the chief repositories of the precious minerals and metals, and even such deposits as occur in the sands and gravels of their streams have been worn and washed from their disintegrated veins. Their healthy, life-bracing heights have ever been the notable nursery-grounds of active, courageous, and independent races while their snow-clad heights become boundaries and barriers to nations, as well as to the dispersion of plants and animals, more impassable even than the breadths and depths of the ocean. In whatever light they may be viewed, whether as conferring diversity of surface on the land, and consequent diversity among its plants and animals as intercepting the currents of the atmosphere and condensing its vapours into mists, rains, and snows as fulfilling the office of gathering-grounds and storehouses to the streams and rivers or as becoming the great natural barriers between different regions and races, we see in mountains and mountain-ranges one of the most important parts of the machinery of the globe. Compared with the plains and valleys they may appear rough, barren, and inhospitable but were it not for their existence, many of the existing plains would become deserts, and all the lower valleys be shorn of much of their amenity and fertility. Mountains and plains are but the complements of each other the clouds, and rains, and snows of the one becoming the streams and rivers of the other while the weathering and waste of the heights above become in time the



fertile soils of

the lowlands below.

Table-lands or Plateaux.


in importance in the vertical relief of the land are

those elevated expanses
table-land, as the
for the surface,


as table-lands

and plateaux.



suggests, is a flat elevated surface

must be received only in a comparative sense, though plain-like on the whole, is usually diversified by minor undulations and irregularities. Being, in effect, broad mountain-masses, many of these plateaux form the gatheringgrounds and sources of some of the noblest rivers while their elevation confers on them a climate and a vegetable and animal life distinct from that of the surrounding lowlands. Some, however, are flat tracts of sand and shingle, partially dotted with verdure in spring and early summer, scorched and desert in summer and autumn, and shelterless, desolate wastes during winter.
this idea of flatness


their superficial character, they are inseparably associ-




ated with the mountain-systems, most of these systems not rising in narrow ridges from low-lying plains, but towering aloft from
the elevated floor of plateaux. 84. On turning to the map of Asia, it will be seen that all the great rivers flow north, south, east, and west from the central region, which consists in reality of a succession of lofty terraces or plateaux. First we have the table-land of Iran or Persia (including large tracts of Beloochistan, Afi'ghanistan, and Bokh-

from 3000 to 4000 feet above the sea-level, upwards of 300,000 square miles in area, and presenting throughout a riverless, parched, and desolate region ; next in altitude, the great
ara) rising

sandy and rainless desert of Gobi, rising from 4000 to 6000 feet, and occupying an area of nearly 400,000 square miles then, rising on either side of this, towards the centre, the plateaux of Dzungaria and Upper Tartary, less arid and more varied in sur;

face ; and, lastly, the still loftier plateau of Tibet, the highest inhabited region in the world, with an elevation of from 11,000 to 15,000 feet, and an area of 166,000 square miles. Besides these great central uplands there are in Asia the lateral and more isolated plateaux of the Deccan, rising from 1600 to 2000 feet in Hyderabad, to 4000 feet and upwards in Mysore ; of Arabia, the sandy and arid, varying from 3000 to 6000 feet high, and spreading over an area of more than 700,000 square miles ; of Armenia, 7000 feet high, supported by the Taurus and Anti-Taurus, and extending from the Dardanelles to the Caspian ; and, lastly, that of Ust Urt, between the Caspian and Aral Seas. With the exception of the Deccan and the mountain-platforms of Armenia and Tibet, the whole of these table-lands, from Arabia on the west to Gobi or Shamo (sand-desert) on the east, belong to one great belt of high, arid, and rainless country, sandy and stony in soil, desert in character, and evidently belonging to the same Taking Central Arabia as typical geological age and formation. of this broad desert belt, we find it graphically described by Mr Palgrave " as hard and stony in soil, with few sources of water rising to the surface even in winter ; in spring thinly sprinkled

with grass and herbs ; in summer and autumn absolutely dry and in general appearance level, monotonous, and desolate." Again, alluding to the ethnological effects of these long desert ranges of high land, it has been remarked by Humboldt, that " they separate the ancient and long-civilised races of Tibet and Hindostan from the rude nations of Northern Asia. They have also exerted a manifold influence on the changing destinies of mankind. They have inclined the population southward, impeded the intercourse of nations more than the Himalayas or the






permanent and refinement in a northerly

Snowy Mountains

of Sirinagur and Gorka, and placed

limits to the progress of civilisation

85. In Europe, less elevated and more broken up by seas, we have a smaller development of table-lands, and these generally of limited area, and in the southern or higher division of the continent. The most notable is that of Castile, in Spain, having an elevation of from 2000 to 2300 feet, and traversed by hilly ridges (sierras) that give great irregulaiity and diversity to its surface. There is next the less defined upland of Switzerland, from 3000 to 4000 feet in elevation and, trending north-eastward in the same direction, the lower plateaux of Bavaria and Bohemia, the latter having an elevation of only 900 or 950 feet above the sea. The so-called plateaux of Auvergne and of the Scandinavian and Balkan chains may be regarded as mere mountain-flats, too limited in extent to possess any physical feature, or to exercise any In like influence distinct from those of their associated ranges. manner, what has been termed by some geographers " the Carpathian-Uralian plateau" that flat open region that stretches between the Carpathians and Urals may be looked upon merely as the southern belt of the great European plain, more elevated, no doubt, than the rest, but still exhibiting more of the characters of the plain than of the upland or plateau. 86. Africa is essentially a continent of vast table-lands. The most northerly of these is the plateau of Barbary, which fringes the southern shore of the Mediterranean from Morocco to Tunis. This is succeeded to the southward by a parallel zone of depressed country, some portions of which are actually below the level of the sea. The t}^ical region of the Sahara is formed of a series of

arid uplands, stretching across the entire ^^^dth of the continent

from the Nile to the Atlantic, and occasionally rising to heights of 2000 or 40(K) feet. South of the minor depression occupied by Lake Chad and the basin of the Niger, the surface of Southern Africa is one connected mass of elevated land. To the northward this upland region is prolonged in the plateau of Abyssinia, from 7000 to 8000 feet above the sea-level, supported and traversed by the mountain ridges, which form the gathering -ground of the Atbara and Blue Nile. The central parts of the great South African table-land are occupied by the remarkable fresh water lakes that are drained by the rivers Nile, Congo, and Zambesi, and are well- watered and fertile. Towards the line of the Orange

To the south of that river river much of the surface is desert. the surface of the inland plateau descends stage by stage towards the sea coast, from an elevation of 2000 feet, in the haroos or ter-

race plains of


Cape Colony, which are carpeted with grass during the rainy season, but parched and barren for the rest of the year. 87. In the New World the great superficial contrast is less between mountain and table-land, or plain and elevated upland, than between the gigantic mountain barrier that walls the Pacific from one extremity of the continent to the other, and the low
broad plains that stretch eastward from its base towards the Nevertheless, in South America, the chain of the Atlantic. Andes presents several table-flats of vast elevation the most. remarkable being that of Bolivia, a great table-land 120,000 square miles in extent, rising from 11,000 to 12,500 feet above the sea, and early the seat of a busy and wealthy civilisation. Much also of the interior of Brazil partakes of the table -land character, having a mean elevation of 3000 feet, and traversed by the sierras

and tropical country. In North America, from the Russian territory on the north to Mexico on the south, there occur a series of elevated uplands, upborne, as it were, by the parallel ranges of the Rocky Mountains. One of the most remarkable of these plateaux is that comprising the highlands of Oregon, the upland region of the Colorado, and the saline desert or inland basin of Utah, whose elevation is from 4000 to 5000 feet, and the waters of which, having no outlet, form a series of salt lakes, one of which (Utah) is of considerable Desert and inhospitable extent, and almost saturated with salt. as this upland tract undoubtedly is, much of it consisting of dry, almost rainless plateau lands, that present an appearance of almost
(par. 80) that give feature to that fertile

complete barrenness or desert, covered "svith sago-brush, it is nevertheless one of the richest regions upon the face of the globe as respects its mineral productions. It abounds in gold, silver, Of late quicksilver, coal, and other valuable mineral products. years several important towns have sprung up within its limits ; it is traversed by lines of road and railway, and is the great overThe most land highway between the Atlantic and Pacific.

MexiCiifi Tablc-latid.

decided of the American table-lands, however, is that of Mexico, not more remarkable for its elevation than for its persistent ex" On the eastern and western coasts," says M. Balbi, " are tent.





low countries, from which, on journeying into the interior, you immediately begin to ascend, climbing to all appearance a succession of lofty mountains. But the whole country is thus in This fact raised into the air from 4000 to 6000 and 8000 feet. conformation of the country has most important moral and physical results for while it gives to the table-land, on which

the population is chiefly concentrated, a mild, temperate, and healthy climate, unknown in the burning and deadly tracts of low countiy into which a day's journey may carry the traveller, it also shuts out the former from an easy communication with the sea, and thus deprives it of a ready access to a market for its agricultural productions." The plateau of Mexico, although it lies mainly within the tropics, is blessed with a temperate and equable climate. The mean temperature at its capital is only 62^° Fahr., and the difference between its summer and winter temperature, which exceeds 30° in the south of England, is only about 12°. As with the Mexican table-land, so in fact with all others of any decided elevation. distant island in the ocean is not more separated from its contiguous continent, or more strongly marked by its own physical peculiarities, than a high mountain -walled tract raised several thousand feet into the atmosphere is characterised by a climate and vegetable and animal productions unknown in the regions that surround it.




In the preceding chapter we have directed the student's attention to those more elevated portions of the land known as mountains and table -lands. These mountains are arranged by geographers into chains or ranges ; and these ranges in turn into groups or systems^ which occupy a definite area, and are, so far as may be judged from their association, of the same age of elevaThe continuity of mountain chains has been observed from tion. the earliest times, and hence the antiquity of the names by which

many of them are distinguished. The grander classification of these subordinate ranges into groups and systems is of recent date, and can only be regarded as yet in the light of a convenient
to future correction and amendhave discovered the laws upon which their formation and elevation depend. There can be no question that

and provisional arrangement, open

ment when we


to elevatory forces taking effect in linear or radial directions

more or



we owe our

present mountain-ranges



to a series of such ranges that


to be intimately associated as


Iberian. and consequently and animals. science can regards direction or position But what is more than merely conjecture. In whatever form the highlands of the globe appear. those of Bolivia and Brazil are the most notable in South tracts deserv. In the meantime. the more important and better known in the Old World are those of Castile. Cape. and Eastern systems. and those of Africa into the Atlas. A temperate flora or fauna may range almost from one end to the other of the Andes . Switzerland. and river dispensing their stores to the thirsty lowlands in moderated but never-failing supplies. In the torrid zone they afford the climate and produce of temperate regions. Mongolia. Alpine. and of Brazil. and the Western or Pacific while those of South America are distinguished as the systems of the Andes of Parim^. however. Uralian. the zones of temperature that lie on either side. In the New as yet do little . Tibet. . and Bohemia in Europe and of Armenia. Eastern. than those that run in a meridional course the former severing. we give the name of mountain-system. As to the table -lands. Arabia. Abyssinian. or within these special areas. the warmer by their lower heights. those of Asia Scandinavian. Tartary. as it were. and for the sake of reference. while in North America the only similar ing of notice are the table-land of Mexico and the desert uplands World America of Utah and Oregon. whether as linear mountain-chains or as broad-spreading plateaux. and North -Eastern. It must be observed. they most important influences on climate. In the New World the mountains of North America are usually arranged into the Eastern or Atlantic system. the mountains of Europe have been arranged into the British. and Caucasian systems into the Western. and the colder by their greater elevations. whereas the life north and south of the Himalayas is separated as much as though they existed in difi'ereut continents. Persia.106 THE LAND — ITS HIGHLANDS. — — . depending primarily upon the contraction and subsidence of the more rapidly cooling earth-crust towards the centrei and secondarily upon upheaval acting along lines of least resistance. Guinea. the law which determines the abnormal elevations along these special lines. and the Deccan in Asia. exercise on the distribution of plants . and in temperate zones they assume the characteristics of polar latitudes while everywhere they are the great gathering-grounds of glacier. is the most that our present knowledge can suggest. South -Eastern. that mountain-chains which run in a latitudinal direction become more certain barriers to the dispersion of plants and animals. That it is purely dynamical. Bavaria. . the latter connecting several zones. stream. and better boundaries between nations.

88. As surface consist of mountains the higher and more irregular portions of the earth's and table-lands. and thus contributes to that variety of aspect so pleasing in the landscape. metamorphosis of their component strata. as each other. yet several of the great plains of the world are considerably above the sea -level. and present every variety of surface. and point to a time when large ex- . and the silted -up sites of lakes and estuaries. In a general view. Not only does their general contour convey this impression. rugged. but their soil and subsoil reveal their origin. Plains and Deserts. consisting of only slightly elevated. and so indispensable to diversity in its animal and vegetable productions. THE LAND — ITS LOWLANDS. from green glassy flats to deserts of shingle and loose shifting sand. mountain and plain are the direct antithesis of counterbalances. and. The one set of features were. and resulting in the crumpling. In general terms. and in most instances represent the beds of former seas. and is apt to be associated with verdure and fertility." As mountains are the results of crust-compression.VII. latter low-lying. fertile. Though the term plain is usually applied to level expanses of no great elevation. and everywhere open to the dis- persion of plants and animals. cold. so plains and valleys are the less disturbed portions of the earth's crust. more or less. gently inclined or flat-lying strata. contortion." or " Plateaux. —the former high. the other. and inaccessible—the warm. and to the settlement and growth of human society." or passing into the still loftier altitudes of " Mountains" and " Mountain -ranges. the lowlands of the globe feet — may all be regarded as lying at elevations under 500 or 400 above those heights taking rank as " Uplands. and enormous upheavals continued through indefinite ages. so the lower and more level consist of plains it and valleys.

. Bearing in mind this origin. The term steppes is applied to the plains of northern Asia. but carpeted with grasses and flowers during the periodical rains. and enable us to account for certain distributions of plants and animals that might otherwise remain inexplicable. panses of sea occupied the areas of the present plains. but also partially wooded. In treating of the low level tracts of the land. Africa . grassy plains of North America . though simply the French word for " meadow. densely covered with natural forest-growth and pampas. and are therefore the most frequently employed in geographical description. the term prairie. or are of local origin. and reduced to a desert by periodical droughts selvas (Lat. In Britain the terms dale and vale are usually applied minor river . the higher tracts of the same region. . in Scotland. and which have evidently been reclaimed from their waters either by the ordinary to . and fen to £>eiia of the Nile. marsh. frozen flats of Siberia and northem Russia and tarai to the belt of unwholesome jungle that lies between the plain of Hindostan and the Himalayas Sahara is the long-established and familiar name for the great. which are hard and arid in the dry season. however. slightly undulating. . . level. There are others. to those level alluvial flats that occur in connection with existing estuaries.plains . while karoo is ap- plied to the open flats in the southern region of the same continent. llanos are the river-plains of South America. generally covered with long rough herbage. the terms plain and valley are sufficiently general and well understood. silvay a wood). . the treeless but grassy plains of the Parana and La Plata. .108 THE LAND — ITS LOWLANDS. low partially drained reclamations from the sea strath. to any wide stretch of generally flat-lying land and carse. it will help to explain certain appearances of soil and surface. arid. alternately covered with rank vegetation. and these it may be useful at this stage to explain." is usually applied in a technical sense to the open. which refer either to some peculiarity of surface and condition. 89. and sandy desert of northern tropical . and not unfrequently shingly and desert tundras to the boggy. and shallow estuaries and chains of lakes the sites of our alluvial valleys. Thus.

The principal plain in the Old World is that usually It known to geographers as the Great Northern Plain. and the Sarmatian plain on the east while in Asia it comprises the Steppes of Kirghis. as may be seen by the courses of all the great northem rivers.000 and 5. asses of Holland. which received this name from the resemblance that the triangular space enclosed by its two main mouths bears to the Greek letter Other terms than the above are still more local and restricted in their application. and steppes. 90. and traversing a space estimated by Humboldt to be three times the length of the Amazon.000. heathlands. "Take away the Ural. should make regular and systematic reference. process of silting. The term delta is also largely applied to the alluvial land formed at the mouth first or rather Tnouths of a river. and climate. Each of these subdivisions is necessarily characterised by . this great lowland stretches from the shores of the Arctic Ocean almost to the base of the Carpathians in Europe. and to the table-land of Persia and the flanks of the Altai Mountains in Asia thus occupying between 4. and partly occu- The Germanic — . " and a continuous line could be drawn from Breda. across Europe and Asia. and will be better explained as they occur in the text. or 109 by partial upheaval of tlie land. may be roughly sketched as commencing with the shores of Holland on the west. situation. section includes the low-lying polders and morand the sandy boulder-strewn plains of northern Germany and Prussia partly under cultivation. Eussia. insignificant hills. it may be traversed from east to west (if we except the Uralian range) without changing the level more than three or four hundred feet. near the confluence of the Meuse. and may there- fore be briefly described in detaU. — its own peculiarities of soil.000. Ehine. passing over a continuous series of low. to which the student A or delta. such as that of the Nile. Plains of the Old World." In width. While it slowly rises from the Arctic shores towards the interior.PLAINS OF THE OLD WORLD. latitude. and the Siberian plain on the north and east. or in the Glossary.000 square miles. In Europe this vast expanse is usually "subdivided into the Germanic plain on the west. and Scheldt. on the west. without any very marked interruption save the intersecting range of the Uralian Mountains. following the line of 50° N. Poland." says Carl Ritter. and extending eastwards through Prussia. and Siberia. or nearly one-third of the entire area of these continents. as far as the Chinese frontier. Ishinij and Baraha.

or black swampy peat-mosses. and partially wooded uplands. presents a greater diversity of character. but soon converted into arid deserts by the drought of summer.\ 110 pied THE LAND — ITS LOWLANDS. water-logged. occupying a larger area and extending over a wider range of latitude. from which the plain imperceptibly declines towards the Arctic Ocean on the one hand. extensive heaths and open pastures. while others — — — This description applies. and saline deserts. river-swamps. ever. and especially after passing the Dnieper. frost and snow reign supreme. and prosurface tected is little by by sea-walls and embankments. Towards the eastern extremity of Europe. and consists. again. Ishim. treeless. clothed with shrubs and grasses hard. ing the unimportant heights of the Valdai Hills. and into bleak. and passes by degrees into. the whole is one exposed and inhospitable snow-waste. and only here and there dotted with vegetation . and undulating tracts and. overlaid by still increasing tundra. and partially wooded flats in middle Russia. the varied. of indifNeglectferent grassy steppes. monotonous tracts covered with rough grass and shrubs during a brief spring season. In summer (from June till the middle of August) the tundj-as are thawed to a small depth. the other. and treeless. and sterile some. is of a more varied character. wide. the steppes of Kirghis. and the elevation inconsiderable. the Siberian plain is of very recent origin its frozen sands and gravels. consisting of low-lying tundras. and towards the Caspian and Euxine on . shelterless wastes by the storms of winter. on the other hand. much of is one dreary and inhospitable wilderness. containing the remains are soft. . sandy clay. swampy. howand early summer for during the droughts of summer all are alike desert save round the springs and runnels of water and during winter. of sand. richly wooded. The Sarmatian section. The Siberian plain. these steppes differ considerably in aspect according to the nature of the soil of which they are composed some tracts consisting of deep black others of earth (tchornozem). These steppes present. — . flat. and Baraba. only to the spring . the steppes are scantily covered with grass and mosses. in northern Russia. Throughout. the great plain assumes the character of. in the south. some portions of Holland being even under the tide-level. as might be expected from its extent. which comes on in October. of moderately temperate. and marshy. the maximum elevation of the middle or Moscow portion is only about 480 feet. and the banks of the great rivers and uplands are green with the birch and pine but during the long winter. of cold. or rocky shingle. fertile. Though they are all open. . and the whole plain Geologically. . as the name implies. of broad undulating steppes.

and Lombardy." about 7000 square miles in area. and the still more restricted but locally important plains of Ireland. The secondary plains of the Old World. and the Euphrates. undulating in many parts. rhinoceros. Among the secondary plains in Asia may be noticed those of China. or country of the five rivers.PLAINS OF THE OLD WORLI>. through that slow uprise of the land which is taking place within several areas along the shores of the Arctic Ocean. watered by the Theiss and Danube. and is the fertile seat of the oldest. Hindostan. and from the Ganges to the Indus.000 square miles. and rising in its highest parts to little more than 400 or 450 feet . and still rapidly on the increase by the silting-up of the Yellow Sea. So low is the plain in the neighbourhood of Shanghai that it has to be protected from the tides by embankments. are now converted into fertile rice-lands. in the recollection of Chinese voyagers. the mud-shoals of the Yellow Sea increase about 1 foot in height in twelve or fifteen months . the basinshaped jplain of Hungary. comprising the conjoined low grounds of the Seine. Asiatic Society). and if observation be correct. is also lowlying and alluvial. on the lower Danube. According to Dr Lamprey (Jour. Enjoying every variety of climate from tropical heat and moisture to the mild largely inundated . The great riverplain of China occupies nearly 200. and consisting of a hard clayey subsoil overlaid by arid shifting sands . and that portion known as the " Run of Cutch. Among those in Europe may be noticed the plain of France. Loire. " the jplain of Wallachia. are not without their decided influences on the physical and vital phenomena of their respective regions. and other animals. is crossed in every direction and irrigated by canals. The plain of Hindostan. and. Turan. abundantly fertile under irrigation. fertile but swampy . from 300 to 400 miles broad. that of the Thur. is alluvial throughout. Denmark. watered by the main tributaries of the Indus . The lowest portion of the plain is that of Bengal and along the Ganges. Ill of mammoth. 91. most industrious. mud-flats which forty years ago were indicated by beacons. Punjab. during the rainy season (June to September). is alternately a sandy desert and covered by the waves of the sea. and sometimes spoken of as the "European Pampas . is the most fertile and healthy is that of the . though of minor extent. in wonderful preservation . and most numerous population on the face of the globe. Andalusia. is stiU on the increase. lying along the Caspian and Volga . stretching from the base of the Himalaya to the Deccan. which. and Garonne. the most desert. and only light and sandy in the district of "the Thur" or the lower Indus. the step'pe of Astrakhan.

others sink.. are those on the lower courses of the Senegal and Gambia Senegambia . Immense tracts are shingly and saline. stretching from Morocco on the west to the valley of the Nile on the east. and Tartary to Mongolia. which. between or in the middle of the rivers). salubrity of southern Europe partially inundated during the rainy season. as it were. with an occasional oasis of life and verdure. where it terminates in the equally arid and sandy desert of Shamo the whole tract from the Sahara to Shamo pointing at once to similarity of conditions and sameness of geological origin. The surface of the Sahara is not. mesos and potamos. a uniform plain of burning and drifting sands. In Africa. which may be described as a vast expanse of arid sands and shingle. as a vast inland plain with a sufficiently extensive to — the — . which extends along the southern shores of Lake Aral westward to the Caspian. while at distant intervals over the arid waste some spring or surface retention of water gives birth to an oasis or islet of vegetation. Persia. and 3000 feet above the surrounding surface. that stretches between the Euphrates and Tigris southward to the shallow waters of the Persian Gulf. Respecting Australia World may only other region in the Old admit of plain-lands its interior be defined. there are few regions that present such diversity of aspect as the great Indian plains. The minor low grounds of Africa. others consist of loose drifting sand. verdant with luxuriant growth after the rains. and the fertile periodicallyinundated delta and valley of the Nile. occasional patches are rocky and scantily covered with thorny scrub. broadly speaking. 1000. however. the swampy and jungle-clad delta of the Niger . for four or five thousand years. as at one time supposed. there may be noticed the plain or steppe of Turan. but presents considerable diversity both in composition and altitude. has been the classic site of industry and civilisa- — — — tion. Some portions are low and flat . we know of no continuous plains like those of Europe and Asia. 92. with the exception of the Sahara or Great Desert. and is fertilised by the waters of the Syr and Amoo and the historic plain of Mesopotamia (Gr. Besides these larger Asiatic low grounds. or have been so long the seat of civilised populations and shifting empire. 93. 2000. while many rise. sufl&ciently known to geographers. in bare broad plateaux. 112 THE LAND — ITS LOWLANDS. is prolonged. and largely parched and dusty during the season of droughts. though several minor flats and deltas give diversity to its generally unbroken and monotonous seaboard. it is said. even below the sea-level . eastward and northward through Arabia. This great desert.

which occupies an area of nearly 3. and . almost as numerous as those of Auvergne . others are flat and level in surface many of them are treeless. there are marshes and saltswamps more dank. the south. it presents considerable diversity of surface swampy marsh. to the New World. are all included in its far-stretching boundaries. and has been characterised by Humboldt as "an almost continuous region of savannahs and prairies. The most notable feature in the surface of this great central plain. extends. we find the plains on a conspicuous and decided scale. slightly undulating. Towards the north (Gulf of Carpentaria) the character of the land gradually improves. extensive plains. unwholesome. stretching more continuously. These prairies are of vast extent some are rolling. grassy prairie. country. and burning heat. 113 here scrubby and waterless. the Great Central Plain. sandy deserts. Throughout this long course it is only once interrupted by the gently swelling prairie grounds (1500 or 94. in wide expanses. — inland seas.000. and vying with them for bleakness. With a climate like that of the south of Spain. In North America.— PLAINS OF THE very irregular surface ing. and those of the Missouri and Mississippi to Varying. there presenton the contrary. forest-land.000 square miles. E. Turning next much more 1600 feet in height) that turn the courses of the Eed and other rivers to the north. " more interesting in its formations. there are caves which exceed in magnitude the Guachero caves of Humboldt. and rising less above the level of the ocean. green forests. from 100 to 600 and 800 feet in elevation. J." says the Kev. or in stalactites the Antiparos of the iEgean Sea. United States . Woods. grassy flats. and river-creeks. and grassy portions denominated prairies. and in others deserts like those of Arabia. NEW WORLD. : . it may be said. a distance of nearly 3000 miles. than South Australia lofty mountains." Plains of the New World." is undoubtedly that of the open. aridity. and. or more varied in its mineral productions. falls to rival finally. while towards the south (South Aus" There is no tralia) we have every diversity of soil and surface. There are chains of salt lakes which render unprofitable a larger area than England . there are extinct volcanoes of large dimensions. and barren ground. H . lying between the Eocky Mountains on the west and the Alleghanies on the east. from the Arctic Ocean to the GuK of Mexico. and extensive than any in the there are rocky precipices and chasms and wateralmost the Alps . it possesses the scenery of the Highlands in some places.

these llanos become — parched and withered hence the frequent conflagrations to which they are subject.. which may be taken as a type of swamps and morasses in whatever region they occur (always making allowance for the climate and vegetable productions). This Dismal Swamp. ." 95.. rising not more than 200 feet at the distance of 500 miles from the sea. — ' : ' ' — . The only other notable lowland in North America is the Atlantic plain. and the La Plata. spite of its semi-fluid character. to make the anomaly complete. .114 THE LAND — ITS LOWLANDS. it is higher in the interior (to the extent of ten or twelve feet) than towards the margin. The soil of the Swamp is formed of vegetable matter. instead of being lower . which is almost wholly inundated during the rainy season. it is actually higher than nearly all the firm and dry land which encompasses it and . and distinctive river-plains viz. the Amazon. but shortly afterwards is so densely covered with luxuriant grasses that it is known to the natives as the " sea of grass. in Georgia and Florida. and twenty-five miles in its greatest width from east to west. . the perpetuation of their treeless character. The llanos occupy an area of about 160. soft and muddy. I observed that the water was obviously in motion in several places. except where the surface is rendered partially firm by a covering of vegetables and their matted roots yet.000 square miles.' and is no less than forty miles in length from north to south. . The second or Amazonian plain. and the morass has somewhat the appearance of a broad inundated river-plain. In South America we are presented with three w*ell-marked . The first is one of the lowest and most level tracts in the world. . than the level of the surrounding country. the northern half being situated in Virginia. those of the Orinoco. Dismal Swamp). in a great measure. It is one enormous quagmire. strange to say. and hence also." During the ensuing tropical droughts. g. and covered only with luxuriant grass and flowers towards the south some tracts verge into shrubby woodland while in the extreme north the soil is largely swampy and desert. in . . covered with all kinds of aquatic trees and shrubs the soil being as black as a peat-bog. especially towards the south (e. and often flat and swampy. periodically overflowed grass-flats (llanos). and throughout that course marked by swamps. the southern in North Carolina. lying between the Alleghanies and the Atlantic a district of little elevation. . and numerous trunks of large and tall trees lie buried in the black mire. is thus alluded to by Sir Charies Lyell in his Travels in North America "It bears the appropriate and very expressive name of the Great Dismal. and tropical forest-growths. usually without any admixture of earthy particles.

000 square miles. The desert terraceland or steppes of Patagonia. Kichly alluvial in soil. slightly undulating and grassy towards the interior. and thence southwards to the deserts of Patagonia. these selvas present the rankest luxu- and are in many places so densely tangled with undergrowth that they are only accessible by the river-courses that traverse their areas. and by similar grassy the largest river-basin in the world. being flat and thistly towards the coast. The third. and well-watered surfaces. tracts that exercise a decided influ- and animals of the countries These are the dales and vales of existing streams and rivers. and full of bogs and swamps and scrubby ridges as we approach the Andes. and Colorado. there are numerous valleys and minor low-lying soil.000 square riance of primeval forest -growth. Stretching from the flanks of the Andes to the shores of Buenos Ayres. the basins of lakes and rivers. these pampas differ considerably in character. — . and is thistly flats. and the climate cold and tempestuous. is characterised is fluences of a tropical sun. Whether they have been formed by subsidences of the earth's crust. and under the inmore extensive and unique. broad and grassy pastures. or by the slow erosive power of rivers {valleys of erosion). embraces an area of not less than 880. Besides the great plains of the world. vegetables. known as pampas. extending southward from the Eio miles. Parana. The whole region is treeless. Colorado to the extremity of the continent. have ever rendered them the grand nurseries of vegetable and animal growth . characterised chiefly by its deep alluvial soil. region — Valleys and Minor Depressions. the grass stunted. comprising the contiguous basins of the Uruguay. and the purposes they subserve identical. carseSj and deltas of our estuaries. in which they occur. and this fertility and amenity has ever attracted the human race. their tempered climates. La Plata. verdant during the rains. and the straths. their rich soils. Their low-lying situations. but withered and parched during the dry season. their characters are much alike.500. 96. To particularise the lesser valleys the dales and vales that confer amenity and richness on the land-surface would be merely to enumerate the rivers and streams that flow ence on the climate. periodically inundated. by the silting-up and drainage of lakes and morasses. is a sterile undulating the soil shingly and strewn with boulders. occupying an area of about 1. and rendered them the main theatres of industry and civilisation. still 115 plains and forest-growtlis (selvas).— VALLEYS AND MINOR DEPRESSIONS.

the fens and levels of England. to the valley high among the mounttiins and in every variety of surface morass. along many of the more sheltered bays and recesses of the ocean. as the Niger and Amazon. — . and the swamps of Florida. while in semi-civilised regions they constitute the pasture-lands of the . are gradually on the increase and in process of time assume a flat or plain-like surface. perly so called. — nomadic shepherd and herdsman. like the links of our own islands. 97. from the polder and fen. and other banks and shoals will arise as new sediments are carried forward into the area of the ocean. partially covered with jungle-growth during the dry season. silt. at all altitudes. increasing and consolidating. like the Rhone in Lake Geneva in inland seas. We have here alluded merely to the larger and more notable of deltas. through the different continents. protected from the tides by embankments. the landes of France. the existing mud-flats and sandbanks. and the Orinoco and Amazon. but the student must remember that every river that carries down sediment is forming to some extent a deltic accumulation at or near its embouchure and this whether in lakes. it is the low. sandbanks. sand. and still forming. and sedimentary nature of these deltas that compels the rivers to seek their way to the sea by many mouths or outlets these outlets being alternately silted up. gravel from the warp of the latest flood to the greensward of a thousand centuries. and converted into lagoons and reaches. The older and higher portions of these deltas have long since been converted into fertile alluvial plains. from the meadow of a few acres to the dale of many leagues . formed. and lagoons. the Indus and Ganges. bifurcated. can scarcely be said to belong to the domain of the land. according as the flood or sediments prevail. In fact. These. the Mississippi. Besides the dales and vales and valleys properly there are also the deltas of many rivers —low-lying tracts swampy and so called. yet inundated as far as the eye can reach during the periodical overflows of their rivers. the carses of Scotland. and which. level. from their partially- inundated character. there are also considerable low-lying tracts of marine silt and sand-drift. To this category belongs much of the deltas of the Nile and Niger. will be converted into alluvial land. still in course of formation. In course of time. like the Po in the Gulf of Venice or in the ocean Besides these river-deltas proitself. In civilised countries these lowlands are the principal seats of culture and husbandry. — — — . however. the dunes of Holland and Denmark. Every stream has in some part or other of its course its strip or patch of valley-ground and these occur of every extent.— 116 THE LAND — ITS LOWLANDS. but the lower portions consist largely of mud-flats. shifted.

being actually 83 feet beneath the level of the Black Sea. partly silted up and partly upraised others. the most remarkable of these ascertained depressions are the AraloCaspian basin. it was evidently connected by the dry stony valleys or "wadies" that now lie between.000 square miles in extent. The Dead Sea. 117 98. have been formed by the slow alluvial increment of river-deltas. so there are several areas of the land surface depressed — — — — . even beneath the general level of the ocean. in which are situated the Caspian and Aral seas. at some former period. The former of these. . Laying aside some tracts of the Sahara which are said to sink beneath the sea-level. and all considerably below the ocean the surface of the Caspian. The Aral and Caspian would be discharged into the Euxine over the low steppes of the Volga and Don while the waters of the Dead Sea would find their way to the Gulf of Akaba in the Red Sea. deserts. so the lowlands — — — . and others again scarcely raised above the overflow of the tides. Many of the larger plains are but old sea-beds shoals and banks and marine plateaux that have been gradually elevated above the waters others are the accumulated silts of shallow seas and bays while some. though a mere trough in comparison with the Caspian. As there are plains and valleys at considerable elevations. the lowest portion of the cavity. again. and their surplus find an outlet by the lowest course to the sea. and separated by high ground prolonged to the southward from the mountain-range of the Lebanon. . many occupy the sites of former estuaries. Of the minor plains and valleys. . is still more remarkable for its depression the surface of the water being from 1290 to 1298 feet (according to the season of the year) lower than that of the Mediterranean. is a depressed area of 162. the areas of lakes and morasses now converted into dry land by the double process of silting and vulcanicity.— ORIGIN AND CHARACTERISTICS OF LOWLANDS. and valleys depend for their formation mainly on the levelling effects of water. of the world As the terrestrial highlands the mountains aiid table-lands owe their origin chiefly to the elevatory forces of — — the plains. Origin and Characteristics of Lowlands. and the trough of the Dead Sea. Whatever the origin of these cavities whether by subsidence of their areas or by upheaval of barriers that cut them off from the general ocean it is clear that were their river-supplies not fully counterbalanced by evaporation they would in process of time become filled with water. 99. with which. from which it is 50 miles distant.

railways. we may rest assured. Their general fitness for the purposes of human settlement and civilisation being readily traversed by roads. sand. The main and valleys. and canals. . slimy mud-flats clothed with verdure and forest-growth . The general tendency of their soils to be further increased and renewed by fresh detritus . confer on them a milder climate. Their pared with those of mountains and table-lands. . THE LAND — ITS LOWLANDS. again. and thus permit the growth of plants that refuse 2. which. These and similar characteristics. 100. . whether rich alluvial silt. sufficiently distinguish the lowlands from the highlands of the terrestrial surface. streams. unless where rendered sterile by cold or desert by drought and 8. to flourish at higher elevations . have been formed by the erosive and levelling operations of rains. the smoothing and levelling powers of water have been exerted. Their amenity for culture. and render still more apparent the intimate union that everywhere subsists between the vital and physical in the scheme of . The general features may long remain with little percep- been and are still tible alteration . clay. borne by streams and rivers from the adjacent highlands 4. . consist of loose detrital and alluvial matter. and rivers. vegetable earth. — the universe. which.3. of course. The superficial aspects of these lowlands have. Their accessibility by river-navigation 7. or — loose stony shingle. the minor surface -changes are incessant and characteristics of plains interminable. been considerably changed since their first formation. 118 drainage . and this whatever the nature of the soil and subsoil. favourable also to vegetable growth as compared with the hard rocky structure of hills and mountains . which wiU readily suggest themselves to the reflecting student. and are still undergoing modification under the influence of meteoric and aqueous agency. Wherever we have a flat and uniform surface of any extent. and sandy plains blown into shifting dunes and ridges. are low-lying situations. as : com- 1. there. Wet and swampy marshes have being converted into dry land by the accumulation of vegetable soil . The favourable nature of their surface for the formation and increment of rivers by which they are usually traversed 5. Their soil and subsoil. while others. for the most part. flat and uniform surfaces grooved and furrowed by water-channels .. latitude for latitude. Their uninterrupted facilities for the dispersion of plants and animals 6. gravel.

the main line of elevation is from south to north . will have their valleys and dales running less or more in cross-courses. the rivers. thus giving additional features of diversity to the land. as already stated. and these lines and centres give rise to mountain chains and groups. in other terms. 119 NOTE. Br B H B - be situated among their groups or along their axes. hence. seem.. As the great plains are but the undisturbed portions of the continents. we see that it exerts itself along certain lines and in definite centres. As with the main continental masses so with the minor spurs and peninsulas their direction of greatest . the obvious groundwork of geography regulated Geological Map of Europe. of plains and valleys. as composed of mountains and table-lands. trappean. and hence also the determination of the rivers and river-plains in northerly and southerly courses from this axis. the granitic. plains and valleys. and the relation they bear to each other in the scheme of Physical Geography. In the Old World. the corresponding direction of that continent and the opposite courses of the principal rivers. we see in the arrangement of the present continents the more violent effects of the igneous action and contraction in producing abrupt and mountainous irregularities. Mountains and table-lands. for the extent and directions of the mountains of that continent. Whatever be the nature of the vulcanism acting from within. On the other hand. the latter would be but thirsty deserts were it . also. RECAPITULATION. f In the two preceding chapters we have endeavoured to present an outline of the superficial features of the land. the main axis of elevation is from east to west hence the greatest length of the continent in this direction. and volcanic outbursts are but expressions. for instance. are thus but the counterparts of each other former may and rugged and inhospitable as the . Whatever be the geological law that regulates the successive upheaval and submergence of large tracts of the earth's crust. again. and the more gradual efforts of air and water in moulding into uniformity of surface its plains and valleys. they will naturally take the same just as the table-lands main direction as the mountain-ranges which are upraised by the mountains will . RECAPITULATORY AND EXPLANATORY. and these again give contour and configuration to the terrestrial areas. In the New World. — length being invariably Geology thus becomes and on reference to the it will be seen that all by the direction of their hills. obeying the laws of descent from the opposite sides of these axes.

120 generated THE LAND — ITS LOWLANDS. — descendants. the Euphrates. and more abundant and of higher biological value as we descend into the sheltered and fertile lowland. The plains of China and Hindostan. Ethnologically. And as in former ages. . as mountain regions have ever been the nursingfields of hardy. brave. mechanical. and commercial plies — . just as in the Western the valleys of the Missouri and the Mississippi were the chosen grounds of primitive mound-building races. city-dwelling. among their summits. Botanically and zoologically. and the Nile. so even now the principal sites and centres of industry are to be found in the river-plains of the Old and New Worlds the causes that induced the early shepherd settlers being equally operative on their agricultural. of the Tigris. mountain and plain has each its own peculiarities and numerical abundance of forms these forms becoming fewer and of less importance as we ascend. were the early and populous abodes of mankind in the Eastern hemisphere. and descend in perennial sup from their glens and recesses. and independent races so plains and valleys have ever been the chosen seats of settled industry and civilisation.

configuration. The specific gravity of pure or distilled water. composition. colourless in small quantities.. or of eight parts of oxygen to one of hydrogen by weight 88. tides. ebullition.89 oxygen and 11. — ) . at the level of the sea.11 hydrogen. In other words. according to locality and the depth from which it is taken. VIII. a cubic inch of water being converted into 1696 cubic inches of steam. — Land — phous. without taste or smell. and is converted into steam. and is taken as the standard of gravity for all other bodies but sea-water varies. their areas. When heated to the temperature of 212° Fahr. depths.029. that. chemically speaking. water boils. Having considered the various conditions of the and lowlands we now turn to those of the Water. from 1. consisting of two volumes of hydrogen and one of oxygen. it is fluid and amorits area.— . and kindred phenomena. and under the ordinary pressure of the atmosphere. THE WATER — ITS OCEANS AND SEAS. at 62° Fahr. takes place at a lower temperature and this decrease in the temperature of the boiling-point of water as we ascend into the higher regions of the atmosphere. like the corresponding decrease in the height of the mercurial column of the barometer affords the observer a ready means of calculating his approximate elevation above the . Their Area and Configuration. which forms so important an element in the constitution of the globe. The absolute temperature at which water boils (its boiling-point) becomes less and less as we ascend above the sea-level. 101. And here it may be observed of Water.024 to 1. When pure and at ordinary temperature.000. but in large masses of a peculiar bluish-green or blue. is assumed at 1. it is the protoxide of hydrogen. highlands. as exhibited in its oceans and seas. as the weight of the atmospheric column becomes less. or the phenomenon of boiling. currents.

magnesia.5 lb. and a volume increased in the proportion of 1. Of all known substances. carbonic acid.918. : — gravity of . in the case of the ocean. The effects of boiling at the sea-level. protoxide of iron. nitrates. it will be found that the water sets free 33 times as much heat as the mercury. soda. silica. and boiling at an elevation of 12. level of the sea. Water. brittle. and forms part of. till it is wholly converted into vapour. but contains more or less of various substances. while its freezing- point is at least as low as 28^°. whether organic or inorganic. sulphates. the circumference of the globe. and salts (carbonates. in which it rises slightly above its general level . rivers. and in the form of rain. if both are allowed to cool one degree. that is to say. alumina. it enters into the composition of all bodies. water is indispensable to the life of plants and animals . . and the tissues of the vegetable kingdom. and also. As an agent in nature. also iodine Like all other fluids whose particles are free to arrange themselves. or chlorides and fluorides of their 102. expanding and becoming lighter as it rises above that temperature. At 39^° Fahr.122 THE WATER — ITS OCEANS AND SEAS. and in the substance of the rocks and min- — . and in the sea and some saline springs. The only exception to this uniformity of level is in the case of capillary tubes (tubes with hair-like bores) and narrow interstices. corresponds with. is the great modifier and remodeller of the geological aspects of the globe. fresh water is at its minimum volume and maximum density. tides. If a pound of mercury and a pound of water are both raised one degree.099 to 1. manganese . crystalline solid. The point of maximum density of salt water is considerably lower than that of fresli. two very diflFerent things the temperature falling eight-tenths of a degree for every — and what would be cooked by the former heat. which weighs 55. as atmospheric air. and currents. it requires more heat to raise it through a given range of temperature than any other known substance. in fine. potash. has a specific half-inch of the barometer . however. Water. on the earth. streams. phosphates) of lime. and bromine. a cubic foot. as found metallic bases . nitrogen gas . till at 32° it is converted into ice a transparent. water at rest always assumes a level surface. even below 32° . is everywhere in the atmosphere. as it falls below it. and it may be through waves. water has the greatest specific heat . are. might remain unchanged for hours under the influence of the latter.000 feet. is never absolutely pure. and this surface. in visible or in\dsible form in the tissues of plants and animals . and this capillarity is of essential service in disseminating moisture through the pores of soil rocks. it requires the application of 33 times as much heat to do this for the water as for the mercury again.

Taking the Atlantic Ocean as extending from the arctic to the antarctic circle. North and South Pacific. viz. zero. but spreading out towards the south over nearly half the globe. its length is upwards of 9000 miles its breadth varies from 900 to 4000 miles. Arctic. These divisions become apparent on the most cursory inspection of the map of the world the former lying like an irregular valley between the two continental land-masses. and Indian Oceans. the term Southern Ocean will often be found to be convenient. yielding only a 51 -millionth under the pressure of the atmosphere. 104. Or. erals that 123 and would be impossible. by which its mass is broken up and dispersed in the polar 103. its contraction as ice at temperatures below ant.000th part of its bulk. individuality in the undefined expanse of antarctic waters. the Arctic and Antarctic constitute well-recognised though imperfectly known oceans. Many of the physical properties of water as bearing on the problems of physical geography are at once curious and importcompose the solid crust. . again. 41). Antarctic. at 32° for fresh water. the Atlantic Ocean while on the west of the New World. and between it and the Old. and thus we have on the west of the Old World.THEIR AREA AND CONFIGURATION. . . : . sides the Atlantic Be- and Pacific. seas. . and the inorganic world would be deprived of its main modeller and modifier. and spreading over nearly three-fourths of its surface. and not inappropriate. and communicating freely with the arctic and antarctic waters the latter narrowed to a mere strait on the north. and ultimately losing its — — . and between it and the New. It is the great solvent life circulatory medium in nature. or the 32. without which — — its capillarity its all but incompressibility. that though encircling the globe on every side. under a ton per square inch its maximum density or minimum volume at 39^° its expansion as ice to one-ninth of its bulk. and at 28J° or less for salt water its expansion as steam to 1696 times its bulk at 212° and. various names and subdivisions are employed by navigators. spreads out the still vaster area of the Pacific. It has already been noticed (par. . Australia. are sufficiently explicit and comprehensive. being only 900 between . but for all practical purposes in Physical Geography the terms North and South Atlantic. In treating of these great oceanic expanses. the great " world of waters " is more or less configured into certain expanses which are termed oceans . while between Africa and Australasia stretches the familiar and much-traversed area of the Indian Ocean. and South America as one great united mass. looking upon the waters that extend southwards from the extreme points of Africa.

although it appears as if it had been destined to keep them asunder. This vast expanse is little interrupted Uy islands. computed area about 25. physically and vitally. the Mediterranean still confers invaluable advantages upon the numerous occupiers of its coasts. moreover. transit easy even to imperfect vessels. and its shores comparatively uniform. and Africa which encircle its shores. the most important. naturalist. and bounded by almost every variety of soil. whether the inhabitants . 105. but towards the south it is quite open. Bay of Biscay. Norway and Greenland. . Asia. English Channel. and on the east or Old World side.000 square miles. Gulf of Mexico. Bay of Fundy. Here navigation made its earliest efforts . or nearly all. it facilitates commerce with every part of the globe. and the Gulf of Guinea. its products are proportionally various and from its communication with the Atlantic. of these recesses occur in the northern division of the Atlantic . — — curred on the shores of this remarkable part of the ocean. Of the minor seas or ramifications belonging to the Atlantic (some of which are ice-locked for a considerable portion of the year. and through them on the interior of the surrounding continents. the Gulf of St Lawrence. independently of its classical and historical associations. The leading branches are Baffin and Hudson Bays. the great bond of intercourse between the nations of Europe." says Admiral Smyth in his instructive Survey. and the Caribbean Sea. Asia.124 THE WATER — ITS OCEANS AND SEAS. and whose waters are still the highway of communication. is the Mediterranean. not merely between the three continents Europe. on the west or American side . Iceland. Beautifully diversified with islands. and navigator. whose shores formed the early nurseries of civilisation and commerce.000. . and the comparative shortness of the distances between port and port. Sierra Leone . the Mediterranean Sea. All. form. and Norway . In its northern section it is irregular in . hence the greater interest of this section to the geographer. 1700 between and 4100 between Marocco and Florida is and its and Brazil. and merges broadly into the Antarctic Ocean. It is. and Africa. Baltic Sea. " are closely connected with the history of almost every country in the world but. but between these and every other portion " The political and social events which have ocof the globe. tended to promote and diffuse civilisation it being an unquestionable axiom that whatever is calculated to make men better acquainted with each other. and others encumbered by reefs and shoals). . Towards the north it is partly enclosed by the rocky coasts of Greenland. by rendering the. and throws several important branches into the land but in the southern its form is regular. the North Sea.


of distant lands or neighbours,
results for the whole."


must invariably produce

106. The Pacific Ocean, though less important as a highway of commerce, occupies nearly twice the expanse of the Atlantic its greatest breadth being 12,000 miles, and its computed area about 50,000,000 square miles. Unlike the Atlantic, it is almost enthe tirely shut out from communication with the Arctic Ocean only passage of connection being that of Behring Strait, not more than 36 miles in width, with a maximum depth of 25 fathoms but, like the Atlantic, the Arctic opens out towards the south, and merges undefinedly into the Antarctic. It is thickly studded with islands and clusters of islands, and these physically and vitally constitute one of its most distinctive features. Its leading branches are the Sea of Kamtchatka, Sea of Okhotsk, Sea of Japan, Yellow Sea, and Chinese Sea, on the west or Asiatic side while on the east or American side, the Gulf of California and the small bay of Panama are the only indentations that break the uniformity of its coasts. The most important of these minor seas are those of Japan and China, whose shores have been the seat of an early and peculiar civilisation, and whose waters have long been traversed and every newer generation still more frequently traversed by the ships of every maritime country. 107. The Indian Ocean, stretching between Africa and Australia on the one hand, and between Asia and the Southern Ocean on the other, is upwards of 4000 miles in breadth, and is computed to have an area of about 17,000,000 square miles. If we except the Indian Archipelago, which forms its boundary rather than belongs to it, it is encumbered by few islands and it also penetrates the land by few branches the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and the Bay of Bengal, being the only minor seas and these all on its northern or Asiatic boundary. The most important of these minor branches are the Red Sea and the Bay of Bengal the former early and intimately connected with the


history of man,

and the


the leading highway of modern


to the varied wealth of India.


Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, from their circumpolar

situations, are largely

blocked up with


and consequently but



to geography.

a circular basin, bounded in Europe, Asia, and America, which remarkably conform to the parallel of 72°, and having an area roughly estimated at 4,000,000 square miles. It penetrates northern Europe by the White Sea and Sea of Kara, and northern Asia by the Gulf of Obi and a few small inlets, and northward from these shores seems interrupted

The Arctic forms, as it were, general by the northern coasts of





by comparatively few islands. The northern shores of America, however, present so many islands and ice-locked inlets that it has, up to the present moment, been impossible to determine whether land or water continues northward and surrounds the pole, notwithstanding the repeated heroic attempts that have been made to solve the problem. As far as the Nares Expedition has determined and it reached 83° 20' 26" N. lat. the sea is encumbered all the year round with floebergs of considerable magnitude hence its not inappropriate title, Palaeocrystic Sea (Gr. kryos, ice), or sea of ancient ice. palaios, ancient At that point the depth was 72 fathoms the bottom temperature of 28.8° Fahr.; the surface temperature of 28.5° Fahr. and the air temperature of 8° Fahr. in May 1876. The Antarctic Ocean, on the other hand, is open on all sides to the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans, which thus insensibly merge themselves into the great Southern Ocean. So far as navigators have ventured to approach the southern pole, various islands and shores have been observed which would favour the idea of a circumpolar continent but whether land, sea, or an ice-bound archipelago occupies the immediate region of the pole, is likely long to remain an undetermined problem. Altogether, the Antarctic is a cold, boisterous, and unapproachable ocean its ice extending 10° nearer the equator than that of the Arctic offering few of those inducements that have stimulated repeated research in the Northern Ocean. 109. Such are the areas occupied by the waters of the ocean areas and subdivisions which are not only necessary to intelligible description, but which are marked in reality by different characteristics in nature. Generally speaking, position on the globe decides their surface temperatures area and configuration determine







and currents and the sum of these physical conditions regulates the nature and distribution of their plants and animals.
their tides


change, therefore, either in position, area, or configuration,

would be attended by a corresponding change of conditions, and any such alteration would affect all the consequences, physical and vital, that depend on external conditions. As they exist, the North and South Atlantic, situated under different latitudes, enjoy different temperatures while the North, by virtue of its greater irregularity of form, and numerous ramifications into the land, exhibits a much more varied display of vegetable and animal life. The same also holds good of the North and South Pacific, "with these important modifications, that the North Pacific, compared -with the North Atlantic, is almost excluded from Arctic influences, while the numerous islands of the South Pacific

occasion conditions, physical


and vital, peculiarly its own. The Indian Ocean, surrounded on three sides by land, and situated, for the most part, in the torrid zone, presents peculiarities unknown in other subdivisions while the Arctic and Antarctic,

receiving the minimum of solar heat, are ice-locked for the greater part of the year, and have little in common with the other sections of the ocean. As already stated, it is on these

primary relations of position and configuration that the different

temperatures, tides, and currents of the various oceanic subdividepend and it is entirely owing to these conditions that

of one sea or ocean differs from the life of all other seas and oceans. And yet it must be borne in mind that, though diversely situated and characterised, there is still the

the specific


most intimate connection and interchange between their waters the colder usually flowing under and towards the warmer, and the warmer over and towards the colder, so that in this respect they constitute in reality one great and indivisible " world of waters."

Composition, Density, Pressure, Depth, &c.

110. This great ocean, in all its areas


ramifications, is

degree of saltness this saltness arising from the presence of certain substances held in chemical These substances are chloride of sodium solution in its waters. (common salt), and sulphates of magnesia and lime, together with minor and varying proportions of salts of potash and ammonia,

by a greater or


and bromides of sodium, carbonate of lime, silica, &c. amounting in all from 3j^ to 4 grains to the hundred of water. According to M. Regnault, the following is the mean of several
analyses of sea-water

{Chloride of sodium, Chloride of magnesium,
Chloride of potassium. Sulphate of lime, Sulphate of magnesia. Carbonate of lime,

96.470 2.700 .360
.070 .140

Saline Ingredients,

Bromide of magnesium,
Loss (including
iodides, silica, &c.),

.003 .002 .025


The preceding ingredients may vary in different seas, and according to the locality whence, and the season when, the water is taken, but only to the extent of a fractional percentage the



incessant circulation and intermingling of the ocean's waters

waves, tides, and currents, producing a uniformity, or all but uniformity, in its saline composition. It has been found, however, that the waters of the Southern Ocean are slightly Salter than those of the Northern ; that the greatest saltness takes place along the parallels of 22° north and 17° south, or in the courses of the trade-winds, which absorb and carry off an excess of evaporation towards the equator, where it descends in freshening rainfalls ; and that from these limits of maximum saltness there is a slight progressive diminution towards either pole. In the southern hemisphere, says Captain Maury, there is more sea and less land than in the northern. But the hydrometer indicates that the water in the seas of the former is Salter and heavier than the water of seas cis-equatorial and man's reasoning faculties suggest, in explanation of this, that this difference of saltness, or specific gravity, is owing to the excess of evaporation in the southern half, excess of precipitation in the northern half, of our " When water passes at 212° Fahr. into steam, it absorbs planet. 1000° of heat, which becomes insensible to the thermometer, or latent ; and, conversely, when steam is condensed into water, it gives out 1000° of latent heat, which thus becomes free, and affects both the thermometer and the senses. Hence steam of 212° Fahr. will, in condensing, heat five and a half times its own weight of water from the freezing to the boiling point." M^Gulloch. Now there is in the southern a very much larger water-surface exposed to the sun than there is in the northern hemisphere, and this excess of heat is employed in lifting up vapour from (and rendering Salter) that broad surface, in transporting it across the torrid zone, and conveying it to extra-tropical northern latitudes, where the vapour is condensed to replenish our fountains, and where this southern heat is set free to mitigate the severity of northern climates. 111. Though communicating freely (by currents and countercurrents) with the ocean, the majority of inland seas are less salt than the ocean, in consequence of the influx of rivers into their circumscribed areas ; but some, like the Red Sea, receiving no rivers, and subjected to active evaporation, have their saltness As a general rule, inland seas receiving slightly in excess. numerous rivers, and from their situation subjected to little evaporation, will be fresher than the ocean (e. g.^ the Baltic and Black Seas) while others also receiving rivers, but subjected to a more active evaporation (as the Mediterranean), will have their Though the saltness of the sea be saltness somewhat in excess. pretty uniform at great depths, still at the surface, owing to the
; ;



admixture of rain, river, and iceberg water, it is not quite so salt and this freshness will increase, of course, according to proximity to the mouths of the entering rivers. It has also been ascertained that water from the surface contains less air than that from depths, and the diflference may equal one-hundredth of the volume of water while that from greater depths is richer
; ;

in carbonic acid.

Referring to the Porcupine expedition of 1869, Dr Carpenter "that whilst the percentage of oxygen in surface -water averaged about 25 per cent, and that of carbonic acid averaged somewhat less than 21, the oxygen in 6o^^om-water did not average

—the percentage of nitrogen being reduced at the same time from
54 to 52.5. higher than

above 19.5 per cent, while the carbonic acid increased to nearly 28

of carbonic acid often rose much being frequently between 30 and 40, and in one instance more than 48 but the percentage of oxygen did not show a corresponding reduction, being never less than 16, while that of nitrogen came down from 54 to 34.5. Thus it appeared that so long as oxygen was jpresent in sufficient proportion, the increase of carbonic acid to nearly half the amount of the gases removable by boiling did not exert any unfavourable influence on animal life from which it might be surmised that the carbonic acid dissolved in water under great pressure is in a condition altogether different from that of gaseous carbonic acid as regards

The percentage




relation to animal respiration.

Another noticeable property of





it is less

sensitive, if

we may

so speak, to cold than fresh water
at 32^,

—the latter

freezing, as is well


while sea- water


not converted
It is likewise

into ice


the thermometer sinks to 28^° Fahr.

than fresh water that is, a given extent of saltwater surface gives off less vapour during the same time, and under the same conditions, than an equal extent of fresh-water surface. Such composition and properties are no doubt allless vaporisable

essential in the

economy of nature. Shell-fish, Crustacea, coralzoophytes, and other creatures, derive the calcareous matter of

from the salts of the ocean fishes breathe the aerated waters of the sheltered and undisturbed depths ; and
their structures

both plants and animals obtain conditions of existence which absolutely pure water would fail to supply. By its lower freezing-point a larger amount of surface is ever kept open and accessible and by its slower evaporation a less amount of moisture is borne from its greater expanse to the comparatively smaller surface of the land. As sea-water freezes (the ice being

fresh) the surface portions





and then,

; ;





specific gravity, sink downward, while the and warmer portions arise to supply their place a circulation which at once limits the surface-cold and maintains the

through their greater

equilibrium of density. 113. It will be seen that no notice has been taken in the preceding paragraphs of ingredients sand, mud, and organic debris that may be mecJianically suspended in the waters of the ocean. These are purely local and accidental, depending on river-floods, When the tidal currents, waves, storms, and other commotions. commotion subsides, the waters regain their transparency and altogether, unless along wasting shores, in tidal estuaries and river embouchures, there is really very little matter mechanically suspended in the waters of the ocean, and that in particles of On the other hand, the ingredients infinitesimal minuteness. held in chemical solution are all but constant and universal. The water that evaporates from the ocean is all but absolutely pure percolates the soil it falls on the land in mist and rain and snow and rocks ; and returns again to the ocean, carrying with it the The saline substances it has dissolved from the rocky strata. ocean is thus the great equalised repository of all that is borne from the continents ; and there they would accumulate, were it not for the beautiful counterpoise that is ever kept up by the requirements of plants and animals, as well as by the intervention of new chemical arrangements among its multifarious sediments. So far as Geology can determine by a study of the marine life (shell-fish, corals, foraminifera, &c.) of former ages, the composition of the ocean seems to have been much the same as it is now and thus, in all our reasonings, we may regard its saline contents as having long arrived at a state of equilibrium and fixity. Even if there were a slight excess at any one period, that excess would be merely temporary, as those incessant mutations of sea and land, involving the formation of new limestones, magnesian limestones, rock-salts, and the like, are ever taking up the surplus, and re-




storing the equilibrium.
114. The mean specific gravity of sea-water, as compared with absolutely pure water at 62° Falir., is found to be 1.0275 an amount that corresponds to a percentage of 3.505 of saline ingredients. The Salter, therefore, that water is, the greater its gravity

and hence the
float for

fresh water of rivers, of melting icebergs, &c., will


miles on the surface of the sea before the two

thoroughly diffused and commingled. It is owing to this that potable water has been skimmed from the surface several
fluids are

for this reason of

miles from the mouths of large and rapid rivers and it is also unequal densities that currents are established



in different parts of the ocean the heavier ever seeking to establish its eqidlibrium. On the whole, the difference in specific gravity between the two great oceans is very slight thus, in the

N. Pacific, it is 1.0254 in the Indian Ocean, 1.0263 and in the northern part of the Eed Sea, 1.0279. As already mentioned, fresh water acquires its minimum volume, or greatest density, at a temperature of 39^°, and becomes lighter and lighter as it rises above this temperature to its point of evaporation, or sinks below
; ;



to its freezing-point.

115. Again,

water being slightly compressible,
t<ikes place


follows that

than at the near the shore will be impossible at extreme depths. According to experiment, water at the depth of 1000 feet is compressed and at of its bulk this ratio the pressure at the depth of one mile would be equivalent to 160 atmospheres, or 2320 lb. on the square inch while at the depth of 4000 fiithoms, or about 4| miles, it would amount to 750 atmospheres It is owing to this enormous pressure that corked bottles sunk to great depths have their corks always forced in ; and that pieces of oakwood carried down to similar depths have their fibres and pores so compressed as to be afterwards incapable of floating on the surface. This pressure, being equal on all sides, does not affect the life of the deepest ocean any more than the pressure of the atmosphere (15 lb. to the square inch) affects the life of the terrestrial surface. We shall afterwards see, when treating of the distribution of marine life, how, and to what extent, it is influenced by pressure, heat, light, composition of water, nature of sea-bed, and other physical conditions ; and meanwhile need not further allude to the vital aspects of the
at great depths in the ocean the water will be denser

and consequently what






116. Touching the depth of the ocean, it has been abeady observed, that as the dry land rises variously and irregularly above the level of the ocean, so the bottom of the ocean sinks variously

and irregularly beneath

its waters. The soundings of navigators establish the fact that there are shallow shoals and banks, deeper

and plateaux, and still deeper troughs and valleys and that were the whole dry, we should have presented to us inequalities of the same kind as are presented by the surface of the land, but upon a somewhat larger scale. In all probability the bed of our present ocean is but the submerged surface of former lands but unless, perhaps, in the instances of coral-reefs and submarine volcanoes, the outer edges of which usually descend suddenly into deep water it may be regarded as certain that the contour of the


ocean-floor is

much smoother and more

flowing than that of the

In fact. slope gradually into the shallow bed of the Arctic Sea. just as the abrupt terminations of South America. however. Our knowledge. its — its abrupt narrow gorges and deep valleys have their origin in the local and ever-varying effects wrought by rain and rivers upon the ever. in like manner. But as the floor of the present ocean areas slowly sank during the progress of submergence. is being rapidly extended.varying rocky materials by which that land-surface is underlain. however.132 THE WATER — ITS OCEANS AND SEAS. of necessity. The level plains of China spread gently outwards into the shallow waters of the Yellow Sea the low shores of eastern England. Africa. thick sheets of the usual coarse shore-sediments must have been flung down upon it. partly from the imperfection of the apparatus employed. on the other hand. As it sank still lower beyond the reach of the waves. As a general rule. to which there is scarcely an exception. ally . . filling up its minor hollows and masking all its smaller promi- — overlianging nences. where the land slopes gradually towards the ocean. and in a few years we shall know much not only of the mere depth. this is only the natural consequence of slope and counter-slope. So far as experiment is concerned. on the other hand. suddenly and abruptly. dry land. that low lands are generally bordered by shallow seas and high lands by deeper water. —a great relation. Finally. for example. as it descended. in like manner. . affords no idea. 118. there has been great liability to error. the waters also deepen gradu- and. This fact. comparatively little and even where is knoAvn of the absolute depth of the ocean deep soundings have been made. The lieights. its sliarp irregularities of the land-surface cliffs. and partly from the chance of the line being deflected from the perpendicular by the force of under-currents. but of . have given upper surface that soft plain-like contour which has been held some to be characteristic of the deepest parts of the oceanit upon floor. where the land descends abruptly. the precipitous coasts of Norway dip suddenly down into a corresponding depth of water. and for these we must either appeal to theoretical deduction or to actual observation. the continuous but gradually dim- inishing rain of sediment its l)y must. its minor irregularities must have been more or less planed away by the erosive action of the waves within tide-marks. to its greatest depth. in the course of long geological periods. slope slowly into the comparatively shallow basin of the North Sea while. and Australia dip suddenly into the deeper waters of the Southern Ocean. 117. it may be stated that. . of the depths of distant and central expanses. the sea deepens. The northern plains of Eussia and Siberia.

There is a rapid descent on both sides from the edges of the continents into deep water a depth of 6000 feet being reached generally within 100 miles of the shore. . so the greatest depths sink little below but this is a mere coincidence. of eight or ten miles. Indeed. circunina\'igated the globe during the years 1872-76. under the command of Professor Sir Wyville Thomson.000 feet while from calculations on the velocity of tidal waves. to make up the mean. and a depth of 12. — — . The mean continents and islands. or about four English miles. as deduced from their observations and the confirmatory and supplementary — . as the highest mountains rise little above five miles. however. is of the ocean depths given upon page 134. ETC. which.000 to 46. It was supposed. the average depth of these oceanThe Atlantic Ocean has an average depth of 12. perhaps. 133 tlie iicitiire of the sea-bed. Our acquaintance with all the more important ocean phenomena has been greatly augmented of late by the extended and carefully conducted researches made by the officers of the Challenger expedition. soundings (open to the objections given above) were made in the South Atlantic. and of tlie kind of life (vegetable and animal) by which the extreme depths are peopled.000 feet.COMPOSITION. results obtained shown in the map by American and Norwegian investigators. DEPTH. and not a tithe of this depth and therefore. which are found to proceed according to the depth of the channel. and the mean depth of the ocean was calculated by Laplace. varying from 27.000 feet in about the same distance be- — . The general contour of the ocean-floor. is we have still no form of the three chief oceans of the globe we are now beginning to gain a fair concepWhile the average height of the land above the sea-level only about 900 or 1000 feet.000 feet but this depth is by no means uniform throughout. to be at least 21. but of the general tion. Of the inner and ice-bound areas of the polar seas precise knowledge. It appears probable that the extreme depths of the sea correspond to the extreme heights of the land that is. basins cannot be less than 15. PRESSURE. it was estimated that the extreme depths of the same ocean are about 50. But the careful investigations carried on of late years render it very doubtful if any part of the ocean-floor reaches this enormous depth. that a very large proportion of the ocean is comparatively shallow. from tidal waves and kindred phenomena. both by British and American navigators.000 or 16. DENSITY. mountains and elevation of all the land plains was formerly estimated by Humboldt at somewhat less than 1000 feet . to the extent. there being no that amount necessary connection between the two phenomena.000 feet. or more than nine miles.000 feet. . some other portions must be proportionally deeper.


the depression in the neighbourhood of the largest island . and upon it are situated the The volcanic islands of the Azores. The third lies midway between Brazil and the island of St Helena. or more than four miles. and has a measured depth of 23.450 feet that off the Kurile Islands one of 27. It shows the same rapid descent along its continental margins into deep water as the Atlantic. whicli averages 21. 135 yond. which ranges parallel with the steeply descending edge of the American continent from Alaska to Juan Fernandez. The floor of its western division is formed of an alternation of submerged platforms and narrow trough-like depressions. DENSITY. the most northerly extends as far as the Sandwich Islands. several hundreds of miles in width.COMPOSITION.250 feet. Ascension. It includes three interior abysses.valleys separated by this ridge descend generally to a depth of 18. and ranging down both sides of the Atlantic These parallel to the outer margins of its bounding continents. but include within them three interior depressions or "abysses" of much greater depth. After attaining this depth.930 feet while.000 feet of the surface. roughly parallel to the islands which fringe the Asiatic con. DEPTH.000 feet of the surface. . which rise within 12. Its eastern portion is formed of an enormous ocean-valley some 18. with a depth of 18.900 feet. and has a depth of 20. The most southerly of its platforms supports the islands of New Zealand the central platform is the prolongation of the partially submerged area of the East Indian Islands .000 feet in depth. two grand ocean. ^'alleys are divided from each other by a broad ridge which runs down the centre of the ocean-basin from Iceland to the Antarctic continent. the ocean-floor spreads itself out in two vast and gently sloping valleys. PRESSURE. &c. The Indian Ocean has an average depth of 16. The depression off the Lad rone Islands has a measured depth of 27. ac. tinent. cording to observations made by the officers of the American navy. The floor of the Pacific Ocean. The trough-like hollows and pit-like depressions between these platforms are of great depth and remarkable irregularity of form. Its interior appears to be a broad and flat depression about 18. ETC.700 feet. The upper surface of this central ridge reaches to within 10.000 feet in depth. St Helena. The first of these hollows lies between the Bermudas and the West Indies. and upon which are scattered the host of oceanic islands of Polynesia. Its central parts are apparently occupied by vast submerged platforms. is on the other hand greatly diversified. The deepest of these hollows ranges from south-west to northeast. The second occurs west of the Canaries.000 feet. which are the most profound depressions yet detected on the ocean-floor.000 feet in depth.000 feet.

and mud brought down to the sea by rivers. others run from Denmark and Holland upwards of 105 miles to the north-west . it appears tolerably certain that the sediments which are at present being deposited upon the ocean-floor of the globe arrange themselves into three main groups the coarse deposits of the shore. if any notable quantity of these land-derived sediments is In all probability the carried as much as 200 miles from shore. while the very finest muds are carried some distance out to sea. The shore-deposits are composed of the stones. sand. according to Mr Stevenson. mixed with comminuted corals and shells. the sands are swept out into deeper water. one of which. occupying a central position. and altogether open up a new field of life and speculation to biologists. The Mediterranean. trends from Gulf. the soft muds or oozes of the intermediate depths. . These consist of fine muds. and Challenger. partly of shells. 119. consists of fine and coarse silicious sands. and the materials of composed. which occupy fully one-fifth of the whole area of the German Ocean. while the greatest of all the Dogger Bank extends for 354 miles from north to south. Outside this fringe of shore-deposits.000 feet in depth. The German Ocean. comparatively little was knoAvn till recent years. and the impalpable clays of the deepest abysses. especially by the recent dredgings of the Porcupine. shore-deposits form a mere coast-fringe to our mainland areas. consists of sand and shells in the eastern. Respecting the nature of the sea-bed. generally — — — . mud and partly of calcareous rock. for example. when improved sounding-apparatus and more systematic surveys were adopted. in the western portion. Of late years most valuable additions have been made to our knowledge of the varied sedimentary deposits which cover the bottom of the great ocean-basins of the globe. and occupying those enormous areas of the oceanfloor which vary from one to two and a half miles in depth. or washed off the sea-cliffs by the action of the waves. enclosing which are sometimes grouped in families. of a breadth varying from 50 to 150 miles. The upper portion of these banks. of the Japanese group has been estimated at 30. This material is all deposited in the neighbourhood of the present coast-lines. however. are found the Deep-sea Oozes. It is very doubtful. The stonier and heavier matter is distributed along the edge of the coast-line itself. is traversed by extensive banks.136 THE WATER— ITS OCEANS AND SEAS. From the extended observations made during the recent Challenger expedition. Lightning. of impalpable mud and comminuted shells and in the Adriatic which it is . the Firth of Forth in a north-easterly direction to a distance of 1 10 miles .

and when dried resembling powdered chalk. Pacific. but it seems to be placed wholly beyond question by the fact that the half-fossilised bones and teeth of extinct fishes have been found to lie in many areas almost unburied upon its surface. It contains from 40 to 80 per cent of carbonate of lime. formed of tlie shells of microscopic animals closely allied to the foraminifera. These are of a deep purple. but it has been suggested that it is in great part identical in origin with the Globigerina ooze already described. 137 white in colour.water at these extreme depths. The inconceivable slowness of the gradual accumulation of this deposit not only foUows of necessity if this be actually its mode of origin. and fragments of which occur in more or less abundance in the red clay itself. a half miles. PRESSURE. These creatures live near the surface of the ocean. In the Antarctic Ocean. The actual derivation of the material of these abyssal clays is not yet satisfactorily determined . The lime forming the main mass of these shells is supposed to be dissolved by the excess of carbonic acid known to occur in the sea.000 occupy the space of a square inch) sinking to the bottom after the death of the animal. the place of the Globigerina ooze of the Atlantic is taken by a silicious ooze (DiatoTnaceous Ooze). the calcareous shells of the Globigerina ooze are found gradually to grow more and more decayed. and is almost entirely made up of the microscopic shells of a single genus (Globigerina) of the group of the foraminifera. ETC. preserved . which covers vast spaces in the Atlantic. DENSITY. however. chocolate. and existing at all depths in the ocean. DEPTH. formed of the remains of similarly In the deepest areas of met with {Radiolarian Ooze). south of the Cape of Good Hope. Great force is given to this opinion by the fact that when the Globigerina ooze is treated with acids. that the abyssal clay is derived also in great part from the disintegration of pumice. and Indian Oceans. or dull brownish-grey colour.COMPOSITION. and are generally wholly destitute of calcareous matter. their shells (which are so minute that 15. and the floor of the most profound depths of the ocean is covered by the very distinct Abyssal Clays. being similarly derived from the remains of the calcareous foraminifera li\'ing upon the surface of the ocean. by Mr Murray of the Challenger. and the red clay is supposed to be made up of the non-calcareous residue. and finally to disappear altogether. which is found floating in small quantities upon the surface of the ocean in all regions. but having silicious shells. It is believed. The most widely distributed of these pale muds is the well-known Globigerina Ooze. In descending to depths exceeding two and the central Pacific another silicious ooze is minute microscopic plants (Diatoms). the residue is almost identical with this coloured clay.

varying from 2° to 8°. from the sur- . though the superficial portions are colder in summer than the surrounding atmosphere of any contiguous terrestrial district. from experiments conducted by himself in his Antarctic voyages. and much remains to be discovered as regards its various areas and its successive depths. Temperature. possibly derived from the volcanic products already referred to while the red clay itself contains an abundance of minute specks of iron. The suror is necessarily highest along the equator rather along a belt. however. like those occasionally collected off the surface of long-frozen snow. who. so a greater amount must be given — can be reduced to the same temperature. Though varying in surface temperature according to latitude from 80° at the equator to perpetual ice towards either pole it has yet been found that at very great depths the ocean preserves a pretty uniform but not altogether equable temperature. that it is more equable than that of the land. temperatures have been found ranging from 78"^ to 85° higher exceptional temperatures (87° and 88°) having occasionally been taken in parts of the Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Colour. they are in winter always several degrees higher thus exercising the function of a great storehouse of heat for modifying and equalising the climates of the adjacent land. This arises from the high specific heat of the waters of the ocean. 120. and which are supposed to be the . As a greater amount of heat is thus required to warm the water up to the same point as the land. from complete dissolution by a coating of the black oxide of manganese. on either side of the equator and thence gradually diminishes as we approach either pole. and that. as contrasted with that of the rocky substances of which the land-surface is composed. Eespecting the temperature of the ocean. dust of shooting stars. Along this equatorial zone. Luminosity.138 THE WATER — ITS OCEANS AND SEAS. ture of 39^° was thought to prevail at all depths. drew the following conclusions The circle of the mean temperature of the ocean in the southern hemisphere lies between the 56th and 59th parallels of latitude along which belt the uniform temperaoff before it face temperature — — — — — : — . The first to attempt a connected account of the distribution of ocean temperature was Sir James Ross. It is calculated that four times as much heat is necessary to raise water to the same temperature as the land. We know. all our trustworthy information is of recent date.

while at the equator we have to descend 7200 feet before the same mean is obtained. varying from 40° to 45° Fahr. In ing) in the total capacity other words. TEMPERATURE. owing to the absence and the mean of 39^° till not reached in the 70th parallel we descend to the depth of 4500 feet. almost entirely from the Antarctic. varies with the locality. This cold water is apparently derived from the polar oceans. above the line of 500 fathoms. while in other areas it rose to 44° and 46° . This generalisation of Sir James Boss has recently been — wholly disproved by the experiments of Drs Carpenter and on board the Porcupine and Lightning during the summers of 1868-69-70. and then at all depths below this it maintains the unvarying mean temperature of is To 39^°. in consequence of the absorption of the sun's heat. At a depth of about 500 fathoms over the greater part of the regions surveyed. and creeps gradually over the ocean-floor in the direction of the equator. there were colder and warmer reaches of sea-water. approaches within 300 fathoms of the surface. Wy\^e Thomson North Atlantic. until in the deepest areas it descends even below the freezing-point of fresh water (32°).7°. Presuming that a similar order prevails in the northern hemisphere. is the south of this line. currents. the temperature of the water of the ocean-basins was ascertained to be tolerably uniform. To of solar heat. we have thus three great regions of oceanic temperature an equatorial and two polar. and varies from an extreme of 83^° under the equator.. the surface depths are warmer and in the 45th parallel the mean of 39^° is not reached till we descend 3600 feet . while the surface temperature is only 30°. Instead of finding at great depths a uniform temperature of 39|^°. and the latter by cold. to . These facts were subsequently corroborated by the more protracted experiments of the Challenger expedition. the great ocean-basins are filled to four-fifths of their with water of a temperature only a few degrees above the freezing-point. where the line of 40° Fahr. beneath whicli to the greatest depths the temperature uniformly at 39^°. and the bottom temperature as 32. COLOUR. though the surface is at 80°. when surveying (dredging and sound. the surface depths are colder. The temperature is occasionally as low of the ocean waters. Below this line the temperature sinks very slowly and gradually. they ascertained that in some areas the thermometer fell to 30° and 29° (or that of ice-cold water). LUMINOSITY. and the like. face 139 downwards. thus showing that in the region within and beyond the Faroe Islands at least. prevalent winds. the north of the line of mean temperature. the former characterised by warm water at the surface. and seems to be dependent npon conditions of latitude.

on the other hand. Such are the facts. This exceptionally higli temperature of the north Atlantic is possibly a result of the influx of the super-heated waters of the current of the Gulf Stream. Sulu. has its bottom water reduced to a temperature of 33° Fahr.. must be regarded as merely approximative. below the freezing-point in high latitudes. the margin of the basin they occupy being elevated above the lowest horizon . met with even where the waters exceed . the waters of the Gulf Stream are also several degrees higher in a large portion of its course than those through which it flows while the Arctic Current.' We have a striking example of the same phenomenon in the N. on the other hand. the minimum temperature is met vnth at 500 or 600 fathoms. Atlantic. the Mediterranean is the only one whose temperature has In this enclosed area the limit hitherto been carefully studied. while in the former it occurs at a depth of about half a mile.of ocean temperature the constant temperature of the waters of their lower depths being that of the deepest stratum of polar water which is able to its way over the margin. respecting the general temperature of the ocean . At this horizon a temperature of 54° or 55° is and remains constant to the bottom. Thus in the partly enclosed China. for example. The depth of the superficial and heated stratum of water is much greater in the north than in the south Atlantic the datum line of 40° being reached at a depth of a mile or more in the latter. and remains constant to the bottom this minimum temperature apparently affording an index of the height of the rocky barrier separating these basins from the ocean depths. but inland setvs and currents may be colder or warmer according to the position they occupy and the direction in which they proceed. The depression off the coast of Brazil. The surface temperature of the Gulf of Mexico. so far as ascertained. make — . This has been explained by the — theory that the abyssal waters in these depressions are cut off from the general circulation. Again. is several degrees warmer than the main Atlantic under the same latitude . beyond which it remains without further change to the bottom. 121. and other seas to the east of Asia. Of inland seas. in certain local depressions of the ocean-floor the temperature of the sea is found to decrease in the normal manner to a certain depth. 140 THE WATER ITS OCEANS AND SEAS. The deep waters filling its two great depressions have a uniform temperature of 35° below a depth of 2000 fathoms that being the height of the ridge preventing the influx of the much colder Antarctic waters from the south. is considerably colder. of invariable temperature is met with at a depth of about 100 . This generalisiition. being open to the southward. liowever. fathoms.

and temperature. Black. and this altogether indepen- dent of the colours of the sky which may be mirrored on its surface. we learn that the greatest depths at which a white <lisc. the shallowrise ness of the Strait of Gibraltar preventing the entry of the cold polar water into the basin. This curious uniformity of temperature of the waters at great depths in this sea is easily explained by the fact that its interior hollows are cut off from the general ocean circulation. Contrasting the temperature of inland seas with that of the outei' ocean. from peculiarity of bottom. Thus. represent nearly the mean temperature of the earth in the latitude where they are situated whilst in the ocean. however. or about half the distance to which the sun's light is supposed to penetrate into the abyss of waters. depth. " that all inland seas. — . under favourable circumstances. but that of the ocean assumes different hues. " it may be regarded as a general rule. in the open ocean. arising from the entrance of river-water. 11 feet in diameter. objects are reported to have been seen at a depth of 300 and 400 feet. Green. Yellow. Cialdi and Father Secchi in the Mediterranean during April 1865. In general. at great depth. however. density. from the experiments made by M. some localities there may be accidental or even permanent discolorations. 123. shallow water is indicated by a green tint of different degrees. . The temperature of the waters in its depressions appears to be identical with that characteristic of the crust of the earth in the neighbouring countries. the low temperature of the bottom in every latitude is produced by the cold currents setting in eternally from the polar . according to Professor Tyndall. was only 151^ feet. could be seen. perhaps. White." says a high authority. and. regions. and seems to depend in a great degree on locality. Above this 100-fathom line there is a rapid from 54° to a maximum temperature of 78° upon the surface. Such reports. . by the refraction of light by the infinitesimally small Of course. the ocean water is clear and limpid. COLOUR. 141 12. LUMINOSITY.000 feet in depth. even under a vertical sun. in particles which remain suspended in the waters. there are also those of coloiir and luminIn osity." 122. and Vermilion to certain seas and areas of the ocean.TEMPERATURE. while profound depths are characterised by an indigo blue a colour induced. The phenomenon of luminosity or phosphorescence is less general. must be received with caution for. Besides the preceding conditions of saltness. usually adverted to by navigators and geographers. small quantities water is generally regarded as colourless. or from the presence of countless myriads of vegetable and animal organisms hence the application of such terms as Red.

Their further subdivision into zones. and the technicalities (bays. are subjects for experiment and observation. and where the surface of the water is disturbed by tlie stroke of an oar. the oceans and seas. density. and state of the weather. season of the year. Luminous creatures of various kinds. or other peculiarity. general geography. regions. encircled on three sides by land. in mind that the main oceans. and currents. NOTE. which communicates freely with the north while the Indian Ocean. ditions. The divisions of the ocean into and Antarctic areas. the normal effect of the earth's daily rotation. or the friction of a passing keel. properly so called. by the intervention of the land. appear to be the proximate cause of the phenomenon. as well as decaying animal matter in solution. depth. temperature. are necessarily characterised by different physical and vital congulfs. Their dimensions are matters merely of measurement and calculation their composition. or at right angles to the equator. lie meri- and are thus prevented. from wliich they receive the primary impulse of their tides and currents but while the Indian and Atlantic are deep and free. 42.142 THE WATER — ITS OCEANS AND SEAS. has been long established in . All three open broadly to the great Southern Ocean. Pacific. straits. It should also be borne . and the like. Occupying different positions on the earth's surface. and lying largely in the torrid zone. colour. The Pacific. presents external conditions differing widely from either. minor sections are distinguished. dionally. which be- comes more apparent in still. . and the like. depth. Arctic Ocean. have been already noticed in par. is almost shut out from the influences of the . in a different condition from the Atlantic. temperature. In the preceding chapter attention has been directed to the divisions of the ocean and to the composition. the Pacific is largely obstructed by reefs and islands.) ology rather than of Hydrography by which their . position. from receiving in their winds tides. Arctic. and having different configurations. adjacent country. characteristics of their waters. dark nights. heltSf comes under the consideration of Climat. Indian. are sufiicient for the ordinary purposes of description and the nomenclature ot their various ramifications after some discoverer. luminosity. like the great continents. RECAPITULATORY AND EXPLANATORY. Atlantic. and other physical main natural . &c. colour. creeks.

it deeps and and ridges. will decrease where the water is fresher. these depths ocean-bed that — —or A knowledge of is rather of the shoals and irregularities of the of vast importance in geography. and inset and velocity of tides . to the perpetual frost of the latitude. it is nothing but the submerged surface of former lands. but. while that of sea-water is 28^°. as a large portion is much under the general average. at the same time to navigation. stage by stage. and the crust-depressions filled by the waters of the ocean. or by the influx of large and rapid rivers. and also keeps it longer from freezing the freezing-point of fresh water being 32° Fahr. RECAPITULATION. corresponding as it does with an average saltness of 'S^ per cent. So far as we know. The average density of seawater. may lar areas subjected to active evaporation. and increase where it becomes Salter. and 3^ per cent of saline be set dowTi as the general average. Tliis composition is all-essential to the wants of its plants and animals and though the rivers are incessantly carrying in fresh accessions of saline matter. than the general average. the equilibrium is ever maintained by these wants. its pits and precipices.winds. the ocean-bed has shoals. the crust-elevations forming the dry lands. in all probaIn fact. and this density. In the torrid zone temperatures varying from 78° to 88° have been noted. This saltness and density renders the ocean less vaporisable than fresh water. the composition of ingredients on the whole.. its troughs bility like the surface of the dry land. in circumscribed seas. as compared with pure water at 62° Fahr. this percentage may be slightly increased correspondingly decreased by periodical rainfalls. being highest at the equator. very equable. and reliable soundings have been taken at nearly 5j miles . gradually but irregularly interchanging their positions in the progress of long geological ages. is 1. it is all-essential The safety of the commerce . it is highly probable that some of its recesses may sink to the depth of 8 or . and other simiis. of the civilised world depends upon correct chartography these deeps and shallows determine the direction of currents. as well as by the chemical interchanges that take place among its sediments.. while in others it may be — 10 miles. The average depth of the ocean is estimated at 3 miles. Along the courses of the trade. 143 Though sea-water differing slightly in different areas. by the melting of polar ice.0275 . The surface temperature of the ocean varies of course with the and gradually decreasing towards either pole. and marine life is visibly regulated both in its dispersion and numerical amount by depth and mineral conditions of sea-bottom. . and from these maxima it declines irregularly..

the student should study the same Author's work. Below less this invariable horizon the temperature sinks very slowly to the bottom. rather than impart to.) in the most profound depths it occa. however. The Atlantic. It — current flows. . In the torrid and temperate zones'the heat of the water declines rapidly to a depth of about 500 fathoms. while his conclusions have been largely superseded by the results of more recent research. and so also is that of the South Pacific compared with that of the North.' an account of the general results of the dredging cruises of ' will also afford important information touching the physical H. or — during one brief season. must be borne in mind. polar regions. the water of the South Atlantic is heavier and colder than that of the North. though occasionally impeded by reflections which impair. though in a marked degree.. where there is found to be a uniform temperature of about 45°. according to the direction from which or to which the sionally falls below this it. we cannot recommend them to a more attractive source of information than Captain Maury's Physical Geography of the Sea' a volume replete with reasonings as well ' — as observation. are generally local and seasonal depending upon the presence of mineral or organic peculiarities impurities which may occur in one area and not in another. luminosity. and yet be absent for the of the year. the temperature of the bottom layers is slightly above the freezing-point of fresh water (32° Falir. gi-eater portion To its those who desire more extensive details of the ocean and physical peculiarities. that normal temperature is greatly interfered with by surfacesome areas being colder and some drifts and deep-sea currents warmer. 144 THE WATER — ITS OCEANS AND SEAS. Wliere the depth is greater than 2000 fathoms. Porcupine and Lightning during the summers 1868-69-70.' and ' the numerous scientific papers treating of the discoveries of the Challenger. and the like. Sir Wyville Thomson's Depths of the Sea. Colour. and other recent exploring expeditions. and vital conditions of the deeper parts of the ocean to which it refers while for the most recent developments of this great subject.S. On the whole.M. the value of its information.

or up-and-down movement of the surface waters and this commotion. — — — . from the gentlest ripple to billows 30 or 40 feet in height. and occasionally by earthquake commotion tides by the attractions of the moon and sun and currents chiefly by that incessant tendency which waters of different densities and temperatures have to assume a state of equilibrium. . whose main characteristics are magnitude. But in obstructed and shallow seas the lower part of the advancing undulation is retarded by frictional contact with the bottom the upper portion advances with headlong motion. the more important of which are waves. of Waves. Velocity. Such is the beginning. is not sensibly felt at a depth of 220 fathoms. Waves are produced by winds. course. the waters of the ocean are subject to several movements. velocity. part of the ocean. and Impact. however. THE WATER Waves 124. In deep and open seas a continuous wind produces merely an undulation. . Like otlier fluids whose particles are free to yield to every impulse. even in the case of a wave a quarter of a mile in breadth and 40 feet high. tides. —their Height. the wind shifts. And. which increase. which is worn and abraded by the backward and forward motion of the surf. and termination of ordinary waves. and sets in waves from opposite directions. according to the power of the propelling force. and currents. Waves occur in every . Occasionally. ITS OCEANS AND OCEAN-CURRENTS. and these crossing and commingling produce . . and ultimately breaks with forcible impact on the opposing shore. at first a mere ripple as the and ultigale increases. a long roll and swell in the deep sea mately. a cresting and dash of breakers on the shehdng shore.IX. and force of impact. first. and wherever the ^vind blows the friction of the aerial current on the surface of the waters produces undulations.

In the \\anter of 1870. the long undulation as a 125. weather. however they rarely exceed 10 or 12 feet and all accounts of their running " mountains high " must be received as mere poetical exaggerations. but these and similar terms belong more to nautical In technicality than to the generalities of Physical Geography. they have been found to exceed 40 feet in height.weed. waves. the destructive wave that rolled in upon the coasts of Portugal was estimated at 60 feet . in the . In British seas. from 25 to 30 feet above the parapet. the magnitude of wind-waves has been greatly exaggerated. fallings. the shorter undulations as they approach the rollers and breakers. oil. waves from 20 to 25 feet are by no means uncommon . Generally speaking. they have been known to attain a height of 36 feet. and as the whole mass of water is then thrown into commotion by sudden and abrupt risings. or rather walls of water.— 146 THE WATER — ITS OCEANS AND OCEAN-CURRENTS. where. floating sea. even far out at sea. which is 20 feet above high-water level. the waves which broke down the breakwater at Wick were estimated at 40 feet high having risen. swell shore as as surf. and characters of waves are known to sailors names the ruffle or ripple under a rising breeze being spoken of as a catspaw. . Whatever diminishes the friction of the w4nd packs of ice. partly from the difficulty of making correct observations. and in the deepest waters. or billow. circumscribed and shallow seas waves are short and abrupt in the open ocean they assume the character of a long rolling swell. under the influence of a north-west gale. In the Lisbon earthquake of 1755. a violent commotion. and in the North Atlantic. Off Cape Horn they have been measured at 32 feet from trough to crest . and partly from the impression of dread produced on the mind of the observer. and the broken water along shore The big heavy waves that occasionally set in when no wind (having been produced by storms far out at sea) are said to form a ground-swell. may be thrown with tremendous impetus upon the land. and necessarily lessened concomitant friction. while waves of even 43 feet in height have been measured in stormy weather. it is said. during violent gales. 60 or 80 feet high. and whirlings. the commotion produced by cross-waves forms a chopping sea. The greatest waves known are said to be those off the Cape of Good Hope. In the Bay of Biscay. 126. The aspects by many diiferent . and in a less degree a jabble or cross-Upper. in consequence of the diminished attraction of the atmosphere for water. — — . and the like suppresses the rise of the waves and even during fogs and rains the sea is not so rough as in dry there is . In the case of earthquake-waves the conditions are altogether different.

Of course the force with which a wave simply strikes is not to be altogether estimated by its propulsive power.WAVES Siniotla (Japan) THEIR HEIGHT.921 53.543 71. 10.933 56.000.933 56.883 22. The force barrier depends.260 226. several tons in weight. rushed into the bay.300 wath wliich a wave strikes against any opposing upon its bulk and velocity and in the case of huge waves this impact is enormous. vals of a few minutes. VELOCITY. . Cliili.671 17.154 7. upon the power and continuance of the wind. in like manner.320 7. and Bolivia in 1868.513 5. and bears an ascertainable relation to.262 2. certain portion of their weight. The velocity of waves depends primarily. Peru.262 2.000 feet in breadth and in water 10.330 567. and the depth of the water in wliich it travels.671 17.300 5.000.262 2.154 7. their effective pressure during severe storms has been estimated as high as 6000 lb.933 56. for substances submerged in water lose a 128. and the distance to which blocks of stone.154 7.262 1 10 100 1.671 17. destroying the native and completely submerging the town of Simoda and during the earthquake convulsions which visited tlie coasts of craft.000 Depth of Water in Feet 1 10 100 1 1000 1 10.33 56.264 22. its velocity of progress. to be convinced of their great propulsive power.262 2.210 566 720 1688. has been embodied by Mr Airy in the following hour .100 1793.000 feet deep.300 71.710 179. will sweep forward with a velocity of not This relation between the breadth less than 154 miles per hour. and leaving it high and dry at various elevations. have been hurled forward.000 10.543 71. at inter.667 16. of a wave.900 715. rate of table 1 :— Breadth of the Wave 1 in Feet.210 533.671 17.264 5. AND IMPACT. .264 22. at the 48 miles .000 1.000 5. of course.9.671 17.830 226. carrying the shipping hundreds of yards inland. 100.154 5.672 168. 147 earthquake of 1854. 127.154 7. similar waves were thrown upon tlie shores. which greatly facilitates their dis- placement and transport.000 j 10.710 179.430 5.000 Corresponding Velocity of Wave per Second in Feet.710 179. Thus it has been Ciilcidated by Professor Airy that a wave 100 feet in breadth and in water 100 feet deep travels at the rate of about 15 miles per one 1000 feet broad and in water 1000 feet deep.000 100. per square foot and one has only to observe the breaches occasionally made in sea-walls. 2 262 2. three huge waves. whereas another. but is greatly modified by.260 5. From experiments made at lighthouses and breakwaters. . their magnitude and the depth of the w^ater over which they travel.264 22.

. or The followin" diagram may assist the comprehension phenomena xj : — EaT^h. tlie spray was thrown to a height of 117 feet equivalent to a pressure of 6000 lb. and then we will have the least rise. this bulging out of the waters would have been ocean but as she turns on her axis. acting in a different direction. is quarters).- Here t being the nearest point of the earth's surface to the moon. more by the latter in proportion and water alike experience this the latter being free to is Land attraction. The next. occasioned chiefly by the attraction of the moon. at her nrst and last stationary . that of the Tides most important and persistent a term applied to — the periodic rising and falling of the waters. we have said. . and thus the rising of the waters becomes a great tidal wave or Jlow that travels round the globe. Had the earth been immovable as regards the sun and moon.148 THE WATER — ITS OCEANS AND OCEAN-CURRENTS. but the particles of move among themselves. Influence. or in opposition (that is. will diminish the lunar Tieap-tides. or nearly three tons per square foot. exercises the greater attraction (her attractio:J^ing to that of the sun as 100 to 38). 2086 lb. e ^. the mass of the drawn out beyond its normal circumference towards the attracting bodies.' but when the sun and mo^lare in conjunction. — Tides—their Origin and 129. Moon. is sometimes buried in spray from groundswells when there is no wind and that on November 20. found the average force of tlie waves for the five summer months to be 611 lb. 112 feet higli. at new and full moon). and when the moon is in her quadratures (that is. In obedience to the universal law that " every particle in nature attracts every other particle of the distance. The moon. Mr Stevenson. meridian after meridian brought directly opposite to the attracting force. known as s^na-tides. . He mentions tliat the Bell Rock Lighthouse. but to its greater proximity. but partly also by that of the sun. 1827. the sun's attraction. the sum of the two attractions will cause the greatest possible rise. of these tide. . and perhaps is tlie of oceanic movements. the waters at that part are most attracted towards tliat luminar}'. per square foot and for the six M-inter months. in his experiments at Skerryvore Lighthouse (Western Hebrides)." the earth is with a force inversely as the square attracted by the sun and moon.

exactitude. with the moon's age and this being known. it requii'es more than 24 hours to bring the moon round to its vertical position over any given place. . but the sun. of course. east and west. The solar day. their recurrence and culmination at any given spot can be calculated with the greatest \ — . and the lunar (owing to the moon's monthly course round the earth) being 24 hours. at t' the earth is drawn. and a higher tide is the result. But as the waters rise simultaneously at t t' they are drawn away from e e'. the sea Jlous or rises as often as the moon in her apparent circuit passes the meridian. 130. In other words. when the sun is at S and S' his attraction is combined with that of the moon. is the theory of the tides . when she is in her first and last quarters. being only 24 hours. it requires rather more than a rotation of the earth to bring the same meridian to the same position relatively to the moon. and I the lowest the slowest.TIDES —THEIR ORIGIN AND INFLUENCE. Thus. and the result is the lower or neap-tides the proportion of spring to neap being as 138 to The height and time of the tides thus vai-y 62. as a consequence. exerting a simultaneous attraction either along with or against that of the moon. in general terms. had the moon been the sole attracting body. creates an alternate maximum and minimum of flow. away from them. and it is new moon . highest in the region of . and as the earth turns round. or nearly as 7 to 3. when the moon is 90° from the sun's place (that is. as it were. and about hours to the highest must necessarily be the stmftest. and it is full moon . The greatest tides occur. In other words. and ebbs or falls as often as she passes the horizon. so that the higher or spring-tides take place alternately at new and full moon. his attraction. counteracts that of the moon. and thus the tides of one day are always about an hour later than they were on the preceding day. however. 54 minutes. or half moon). On the other hand. Such. being exerted at right angles. as it had the preceding day. 149 and of course rise highest while on the opposite side. when the lumi- naries are nearest tion six . and they stand out nearly at the same heiglit as those at t. and when at S' the illuminated face of the moon will be towards the earth. both the arc above and the arc below the horizon. the tides would have risen always to the same height . and had the surface of the globe been entirely covered with water. and. and pass most vertically to the place of observa- and as each tide has only about six hours to Jl€w ebb. each point on its surface will necessarily have two high-waters and two low-waters per day. When at S the darkened side of the moon vriR necessarily be towards the earth. the tidal wave would have been regular and continuous from meridian to meridian. Again.

the is obstructed. on entering the troughs of the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. The Southern Ocean. We say northern waters. As the . and wafts the merchandise of the world to the quays of the port of London. . and mark the progress of the summit of high-water from its origin in the Southern Ocean to its remotest ramifications in northern waters. and thirteen to reach the Cape of Good Hope in another twelve hours it has passed up the at the end of the third Atlantic. . uniting with the minor tide-waves generated in these expanses.150 tlie THE WATER — ITS OCEANS AND OCEAN-CURRENTS. and Pacific Oceans. and heights. as well as being and consisting in many parts of islands. encircling the globe. and gradually falling away towards either pole. islands. where. Thus the new or full moon high- water that passes Van Diemen's Land every morning at twelve. . for though the primary and normal direction of the tidal wave is from east to west. may be regarded as taking their rise in the uninterrupted expanse of the Southern' Ocean. The tides.) 132." (See Map of Co-tidal Lines. equator. may be regarded as the area in which the tidal wave receives its great primary impulse. and being comparatively uninterrupted by land. a series of lines connecting these points may be laid do^^Ti so as to indicate the course of the tidal wave with great precision. and subdivides. and is opposite to Aberdeen at the fourth twelve. deflecting itself northward into the Indian. these courses are. Atlantic. according to the outline of the coasts. complications arising from these and ebb of the tides and by noting the times at which the same high-water reaches difi"erent parts of the coast. it flows. or lines of simultaneous tide. Under the present arrangement of sea and land. and arrived at Newfoundland twelve it has rounded the north of Scotland. can be determined with accuracy for the purposes of navigation. Notwithstanding the . we have said. and measure meridionally. course of the tidal flow . 1 But the continuity of the ocean being interrupted by this land lying in a great land. or at midnight of the second day. sufiiciently persistent and thus their directions. Such a series of lines are termed co-tidal lines. it is compelled to assume a northerly course in accordance with the causes. velocities. yet. however. . in obedience to the apparent course of the sun and moon. the depth of water. and deflected into various courses. there is still great regularity in the bi-diurnal flow configuration of these seas. takes twelve hours to reach Ceylon. times. and the obstruction of irregular in outline. rises. It is thence carried forward. 131. it is opposite the mouth of the Thames and it is " not till the morning of the thinl day that this wave fills the channel of the Thames.


our own Bristol Channel. . the Amazon. inland seas and gulfs whose openings are narrow. where its course is obstructed by numerous islands and coral-reefs. it may rise to 20. . rapidly and deeply into the larger channel of the Atlantic. : . As the tidal wave differs from a wind-wave in not being a mere undulation. as well as over a large portion of the Pacific. termed a BorCj wliich ascends the river with sudden and destructive impetuosity. strictly inland seas and lakes may be considered as tideless. they afford a pretty correct estimate of the tidal velocity the wider the lines (that is. which rises 10 feet high from bank to bank. and are next to tideless. The velocity of the tidal wave depends primarily on the conformation and depth of the ocean proceeding with the greatest rapidity where the ocean is freest and deepest. but a wave of translation. . and narrowing towards their interior recesses (such as the Bay of Bengal. but in bays and gulfs opening broadly to its course. still converging. the form of bottom. and the closer the lines the slower the rate of progress. and other rivers whose gradually narrowing estuaries are exposed to the concentrated incidence of the tidal wave. even to 50 or 60 feet in height. wave proceeds westward. it is deflected northward broadly into the Indian Ocean. Not only is the primary wave that sets up the Atlantic excluded from such seas. its height in any sea will depend mainly on the configuration of the shore. the wave. for all practical piu-poses. 30. and ascend with a velocity of 25 miles per hour of the Hooghly. As the co-tidal lines are laid 1 — down at hourly distances. . or. and breaks in twelve or fifteen huge rollers in succession of equal height and force of the Garonne. 20 and 25 feet high of the Sakerang.152 THE WATER — ITS OCEANS AND OCEAN-CURRENTS. and in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans perhaps eight or ten . while in restricted seas like the North Sea the rate is scarcely a twentieth of that amount. forms a high head or wall of water. the greater the distance travelled over in one hour) the greater the speed. and slowly and feebly into the Pacific. 12 and 13 feet. 9 feet. which it is propelled. On the other hand. experience little or no rise. the tidal wave rarely exceeds five or six feet. and the direction in In the open expanse of the Southern Ocean. and lie transversely to the course of the tidal wave (as the Mediterranean and Baltic). in Borneo. 10 and 12 feet the Severn. and the American Bay of Fundy). Such are the tidal-bores of the Tsien-tang. And where such seas terminate in river-estuaries. but their own areas are too limited to admit of the formation of any perceptible tide-wave of their own and thus. which are said to extend across the river 30 feet high. under favourable circumstances. In the free depths of the Southern Ocean this velocity may equal 1000 miles per — hour.

They form. Currents —their Causes and Functions. says liar interest. are ever transferring the waters from one region to another. and throws into the river ojfferings of fruits and flowers. in shallow seas and narrow gulfs." 133. 153 Speakin« of the Tsien-tang. which. on the other hand. and yet the Chinese do ascend it. will continue the same while sea and land remain undisturbed in their present : . T. when the governor of the province (Tche-Keang) goes down in great state to the banks. but spoils it as a commercial river . arranging. and abrading action the tide-waves. . and is no longer dangerous to such craft as are prepared This bore is always highest about the autumnal to meet it. the circulatory system by which the ocean is maintained in a state of equilibrium. : relations. and the surface of the ocean be as smooth as a mirror while it is driven from one coast it may impinge on another or the wave from one direction may counteract that from another but the ebb and flow of the tidal wave is regular and incessant. . and in its direction. In this manner they push on till they reach an upper portion of the bore-tract. scientific men are not fully agreed. like great rivers. as it were. act more like currents. and then Avait for a steady favourable wind.). 134. the destructive impetuosity of whose tidal-bore has often been described by travellers. The wind-wave may be stilled.wave passing upwards. As to their actual causes. rivers and renders their navigation dangerous the tidal wave. height. .CURRENTS — THEIR CAUSES AND FUNCTIONS. they weigh anchor and chase the bore. by its influx. and power. and the unequal evaporation sus- — . equinox. in their ebb and flow. We now proceed to what are termed the Currents of the ocean movements which. a friend " The bore gives it a pecu(T. to escape from its successor. time. writing from China. velocity. in fact. are ever transferring. fills the river-channel and renders it navigable. where it has faUen to two or three feet of vertical height. and carries them forward into the general reservoir of the ocean. M. Immediately on the tide. wearing. and by its efllux scours out impurities. The mechanical effects of the wind -waves are felt chiefly along the shore-line in their battering. and reassorting the sediments The Avind-wave merely breaks upon the bars of of the ocean. The pilots anchor just below where the bore begins to form. By Dr Carpenter and others it is believed that they depend primarily upon the unequal temperatures and densities of different zones of the ocean.

fact. such as may be produced by local peculiarities in the tides and winds. But whichever theory we accept.154 tiiined THE WATER by these — ITS OCEANS AND OCEAN-CURRENTS. It is usual to arrange the ascertained currents into constant. It is also customary to speak of drift currents. there the lighter will ascend and the heavier descend and wherever a the primary causes. it may be useful to note the distinction between a marine. and deep-sea currents. or upper current. and that the movement thus established necessarily draws the remaining waters into the general circulation. there the waters will the deficiency. and a countercurrent coming from an opposite direction and between the mode the former being named of naming winds and water-currents. there at the same time will the fresher and lighter flow in from above to restore the equilibrium. if we bear in mind that the continuity of the ocean is interrupted by continents and islands. reefs and shoals. the currents and counter-currents of the ocean are extremely complicated and though the courses of some of the main streams . or. By Dr Croll and others it is contended. But from different degrees of saltness. the constant being those arising from the combined influences of unequal temperatures and densities in the waters of the ocean. the former due to the long-continued agency of the wind. that the grander currents owe their origin solely to the action of the prevailing Avinds. and extending their influence hundreds of fathoms beneath the surface. periodical. are intelligible enough. of different densities. deficiency takes place tlirough evaporation. or under current between a cun-ent flowing one way. the monsoons. and the variable. and variable. wliicli modifies the directions imparted T by Wherever we have waters of different temperatures. and further disturbed by local winds and flow in from the adjacent parts to differences of density make up may also arise periodical variations of temperature. which force the surface waters before them in certain regions. on the other hand. by the tides. 135. and the trade-AA-inds the periodical. as a "west wind " (that is. — . and a svJ)-marine. after the direction /row which they blow. and only affecting the waters to a trifling depth the latter arising from the great primary cavises of ocean circulation above alluded to. . its it Tsill readily be seen why In currents should assume different characters and courses. and the sea and land breezes in tropical countries . — — — . there remains very this much to be done in department of Hydrography. and wherever the Salter water subsides and flows off as an under-current to some fresher region. zones. — . one blo"vnng from the west) and the latter after the direction . In like manner. the melting of ice in polar regions. what is the same thing. the rotation of the earth. and other similar causes.

perhaps. self chiefly in Equatorial. the Guiana. Besides these there are some minor and branches. an abyssal body of ice-cold water of enormous depth creeps along the bottom of the ocean both from the north and the south towards the equatorial regions. ha^dng different directions. as the name implies. one flowing towards the east. the heat of the torrid zone. the Brazil. as an " easterly current. unequal reception of heat by difi'erent areas. at the same time. and this tendency increases till within 300 or 400 miles of Cape St Roque. where they come under the influence of the trade-winds. manifests itthe region of the equator. These force them swiftly onwards in a westerly direction in the form of the well-known equatorial currents in which a portion is evaporated. and in the first place. The constant and deep-sea currents being the more important. again to become colder. and occasions a greater evaporation there than in any other region perhaps from 12 to 16 feet per annum and as a consequence. while. When The more than half-way across it shows a tendency to bifurcate into a north-west branch and a south-west branch. Here the united waters growing wai^mer and warmer. the influx of rivers. by being arranged under the three great oceans Atlantic. the courses of which will be better understood by reference to the Map (p. southwards along the shores of Brazil. velocities. warmer and lighter surface-currents northwards and southwards to find their to either pole.CURRENTS —THEIR CAUSES AND FUNCTIONS. As already mentioned. direct attention. 137. and temperatures will be better understood. when it fairly divides. renders them lighter. and Pacific in which they re- — From these four primary — — — spectively occur. . Indian. and again way to the equator in incessant circulation. while the remainder overflow as — . by warming the equatorial waters. which is modified and broken up into a number of minor currents by configuration of coast. somewhat feebler. and other kindred causes. 155 to which they are flowing. being heavier. 136. the Guinea. The length of the — — . sending one main stream northwards by the coast of Guiana into the Caribbean sea and another. and flows across the ocean from the African towards the American continent. The principal and better-known currents of the Atlantic are the Equatorial. it is to these that we would mainly. set in chiefly as under-currents. These various currents. form of bottom. the waters of the polar regions. the Gulf Stream. and the two from the equator towards the poles arises the great circulatory system of the ocean. volumes. and the Arctic. 156) than by any amount of drifts description." that is. flows the two from the poles towards the equator. gradually rise to the surface.

f 'ft D A IS. !2 o £ § ^ ___ f- . SJ _|.' 156 THE WATER — ITS OCEANS AND OCEAN-CDRRENTS.

As it makes the circuit of the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. it is reduced to 3 miles . that is sensibly diminished by the cross stream from the Plata. spreading out as it proceeds and gradually diminishing in speed. off Cape Hatteras. 138. and that intense blue colour so characteristic of briny waters. Its southern. or 9° above that of the ocean in the same latitude. Doubling the Cape of Florida. and which gradually declines till the current ultimately The north-west branch of dies away in the Strait of Magellan. its breadth at its commencement 160. — . flows at a distance of about 250 miles from the coast (the intermediate space being occupied by variable currents). k . and where it divides 450 miles its velocity is from 20 to 60 miles a day. . 157 Equatorial Current. the maximum of which in the Strait of Florida is 86°. CURRENTS — THEIR CAUSES AND FUNCTIONS. and. impinging in its course against the western coasts of Europe.. on the Newfoundland banks it is further reduced to l^ miles . from the coasts of Africa to the Caribbean Sea. it is said to be from 25° to 30° above the water through which it flows . With these new acquisitions it leaves the Mexican Gulf. and its average temperature about 75° Fahr. and its gradual abatement of force con. similar decrease temperature. in winter. becomes the celebrated Grulf Stream of all the Atlantic currents the most wonderful in its character and the most important in its results. the Equatorial. or Brazil branch. Off Newfoundland. and its greatest breadth about 120 miles. it spreads out into two great branches one curving southwards towards the equator. in reality. When it leaves the Strait of Florida its velocity is about 4 miles an hour . this western branch of the Equatorial Current acquires more heat. The length of this great ocean-river from its commencement to the Azores is 3000 miles. with increasing width and diffusion. proceeds across the Atlantic. and ultimately losing itself in the waters of the Arctic Ocean. and the other flowing northwards. 8° to 10° . however. from its diffusion across the Atlantic. pressing through the narrow channel of Florida.. in mid-ocean. stream from the Gulf of Mexico) flows north-east in a line almost parallel to the American coast touches the southern borders of the banks of Newfoundland and thence. till. . and at the rate of 25 miles per day a rate. in North Carolina. The Gulf Stream is thus. this Gulf Stream (that is. its A takes place in nor is the heat wholly lost when it impinges against the shores of western Europe. — tinues with. in the region of the Azores. ultimately merges into the drift of the northeast trade-winds while the Guiana section proceeds unimpeded to make the circuit of the Caribbean Sea and the GuK of Mexico. a greater degree of saltness. is about 4000 miles . or from 4° to 6° under that of the ocean through which it flows.

and becomes at the same time the great natural barrier between the life of the Northern and Southern Atlantic. 39^. 65°. 250. on entering the Gulf Stream found the water 70° at the bow. 72°. 475.M. and 75° Fahr. 64°. 450. The Equatorial Current. it fathoms . 200. flowing westward from Africa to the Gulf of Mexico. 600. incessantly flowing from warmer to colder regions. It sets a limit to the southward flow and chilling influences of the Arctic iceberg. and 400 fathoms. becomes diff'used. Off 100. 40°. its temperature becomes lower and lower but its surface warmth is still well marked at Sandy Hook. thermal ocean-river. Admiral Milne. and along the north-western shores of Europe onwards to Spitzbergen. and its genial influence is felt even in Britain. it is also alternately warmer and colder within itself. that in 1861. where. As it spreads out.S. Compressed. 57°." and the entrance into the waters of the current. 50°. 150. ^ — . and more than three hundred at . 300. 37°. The most surprising part of this result is the abruptness of the change along the line where the two great currents meet each other a change so abrupt that the boundary of the Arctic Current is now technically designated the " cold wall " of the Gulf Stream. 66°. as it were. : ftice. assumes tlie ordinary level. that melts away in its warm stream. 25. Nile. one hundred and fifty miles off Charleston. of H. 68°. and 400 miles. 55°. at its commencement between two areas of colder water. flowing from that gulf 80°. while it was only 60° at the stem. 300. to a depth of thirty fathoms. So marked. 55° Fahr. its deep-blue warm current rises in convexityabove the surrounding ocean but as it proceeds it cools. and the Gulf Stream. 350. averaged 64°. and 65° Fahr. As the Stream flows northward and eastward it gradually widens being little more than forty miles off Cape Florida. 450. at a depth between forty and a hundred averaged 50°. 47°. and tempering the climates of countries that lie within its influence. 81 ^ . Sandy Hook. and at a depth below three hundred fathoms it averaged 37^.158 a f^reat THE WATER — ITS OCEANS AND OCEAN-CURRENTS. 550. indeed. being made up as it were of distinct streaks of water of diff'erent temperatures. from the shore to a distance of two hundred miles. 250. The rapid rise of the temperature after the fourth sounding indicates the position of the "cold wall. 52°. the temperature near the sur. 139. is this boundary. at successive distances from the coast of 100. the follomng depths were successively measured 10. and partakes of the greener hue of northern waters. — Sandy Hook. The investigations of Dr Bache have shown that while the Gulf Stream has a temperature higher than that of the waters on either side. diffusing warmth and moisture along its course. 350. The inequalities of the bottom may be appreciated by the soundings off Charleston.

the Equatorial Current. Following the southward flow from the Azores. it holds southward to Newfoundland. it sends a branch through the Strait of Belle Isle to the St Lawrence. peculiarly its own. This area. but counter to. and thence curving southwaKls. forms the United States Counter-Current. they are finally lost in the general southward movement . 159 eastward to the Azores. from 150 to 180 African and Guinea Current. Arriving at Newfoundland. so called from the vast accumulation of the Sargassum bacciferum and other floating sea. of greater or less extent and thickness. while the western trends southward. as we have already indicated. it partly doubles Cape Farewell. Setting strongly down the eastern coast of Greenland. The next and last great current of the Atlantic to which our limits will permit us to advert is the Arctic. produce a great whirl. and presents one of the most remarkable features in the geography of the Atlantic. in the centre of which there is the still water of the Sargasso. flowing south-west. while the main portion continues its course till it meets the Gulf Stream. closely hugs the coast. swarms with a Life. the line of contact between which and the heated waters of the Gulf Stream to the eastward is so abrupt. is formed towards the centre an area of greater quiescence. in the Atlantic. . and so well marked to great depths. one portion flowing southward to the Caribbean Sea. or Indian —there —the Atlantic. The sea.weeds. and for a long part of its course flows in contact with. against which a minor current (RenneVs) from the Bay of Biscay impinges and recoils.weed growing and matting together forms a Sargasso Sea. vegetable and animal. which holds onwards to the African continent. as it were. which it enters as an under-current the other. and the southeasterly flow from the south coast of Ireland." The main body of the waters of the Arctic Current sink downwards and continue their southward course below the waters of the Gulf Stream and after sending off" minor branches into the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. augmented by the Da\is Strait Current. in the form of undercurrents. and becomes the North This stream. or Grassy Sea.weed and other drift. the eastern portion sets in through the Strait of Gibraltar to the Mediterranean.— CURRENTS — THEIR CAUSES AND FUNCTIONS. there arises a new and increased stream. . Wherever there are return currents in any ocean Pacific. according to the stillness and temperatiu^e of the water. and in this area will be collected all the floating sea. Labrador. 140. that it is known as the ^^Cold Wall. miles broad. Of this current. where. or main cold-water stream from the north. with whose waters it is supposed ultimately to mingle in the South Atlantic. Here it divides.

160 THE WATER — ITS OCEANS AND OCEAN-CURRENTS. one main branch. it is deflected westward. and vary. Tliey are altogether less known than those of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. for it flows along the direct route to Australia. broader but feebler. and merges into the Equatorial of that ocean whereas another portion. Being all but excluded from the Arctic Ocean. again to be united with that from the Mozambique Channel. the currents and surface-drifts of the Indian Ocean are regulated by the monsoons. We say "important" counter-current. and local gyrations. In the more limited and land-locked area of the Indian Ocean.. surface-drifts. where. obstructed by the Agulhas bank. The currents of the Pacific are coextensive with its greater area. Persian Gulf. and modifies the climate of Central Americii and the Gulf of Mexico. and the periodical numerous The Equatorial is less defined tlian in the and important. The combined stream. but for this beautiful and benign system of aqueous circulation. and Bay of Bengal. doubling the to 100 miles broad. and. with the seasons while in the Ked Sea. and with a velocity of 60 or 80 miles a-day. Atlantic. it is to the great interchange between the cold waters of the Antarctic and the warmer waters of the equator that we must look for the primary . though gradually declining. — ." 141. and consists of a westward tendency of the tropical waters towards the coasts of Africa. " The Arctic Current thus replaces the warm water sent through the Gulf Stream. and often change in a very complicated and capricious manner. would be one of the hottest and most pestilential in the world. while another. of course. Arabian Sea. flows northward into the Atlantic as far as St Helena where. 142. which. sets in towards the Cape of Good Hope. divided by the large island of Madagascar. constitutes the important Counter-Current of the Indian Ocean. one branch sets down with considerable force. they set in and out with the local winds. Of this current. and constitutes the Agulhas or Cape Current. is turned back. now from 90 with a temperature 7° or 8° above that of the ocean. and forms the Mozambique Current. with a velocity (after leaving the Agulhas bank) of nearly 50 miles a-day a motion which. but are less decided in their courses in consequence of the numerous obstructions presented by its reefs and islands. trends southward. North of the equator. the constant currents are few. quency of counter-currents. combining with the connecting flow from the Southern Ocean. of the deep-sea waters of the tropical regions of the Atlantic. and their investigation is greatly complicated by the fre. meeting the Guinea Current. Cape. is still sensibly felt at more than midway bet\veen the Cape and Tasmania.

to wliicli opens broadly. to the torrid zone. however. Chili. is an alternating rather than a constant one depending on the monsoons of these coasts. and lastly towards the east-north-east till it nears the coast of Chili. and setting south-eastward during winter and north-eastward during the opposite half of the year. we have first the Drift Current of that ocean setting in towards the north-north-east. -with diminished temperature. Besides the preceding. sweeps l)oldly across from South America on the one hand to the Indian vast current. it sweeps round the Aleutian Isles and shores of Russian America. where it is broken up into several sections. and another holding still southward and merging into the waters of the Mexican Current. then north-east. which it greatly resembles in its course and character. under the name of the New South Wales Current. occupj-ing the entire torrid zone. As it holds on to the north it gradually becomes warmer and inclines to the west. one brancli trending westward into the ocean. This last current. it sends off a few minor streams to the north and south. still more decided. and another northwards to form the Peruvian Current^ so remarkable for its cold stream along a coast of torrid temperature. Beginning witli the Antarctic. and enters the Antarctic Ocean while another. As it proceeds. Archipelago on the other. like the Gulf Stream of the Atlantic. or Black Stream of the Pacific its clear deep-blue waters being darker than those of the Yellow Sea through \yhicli it flows. This Peruvian. till in 20° south latitude it turns fairly to the westward and merges into the great Equatorial Current of the Pacific. and becomes further complicated by the monsoon drifts of that region. As it proceeds along the shores of Oregon and California it begins to bifurcate. This current. sets southward with its warm waters along the coasts of Australia. and 8° or 10° below that of the ocean through which it flows.CURRENTS —THEIR CAUSES AND FUNCTIONS. — . after its first investigator). and returns again. other minor currents have been L . and becomes the well-known Japan Current. This it — and aided in its westerly flow by the trade-winds and the tidal wave. but the main mass holds onward to the Indian Islands. One main portion. where it divides sending one branch south along the coast to fomi the Gape Hm-n Current. has a temperature along more than 400 miles of its course 12° or 14° below that of the surrounding atmosphere. which become countercurrents. — . or " Humboldt's Current" (as it is sometimes called. 161 impulse of its currents. carries the warm waters of the equator to the Northern Pacific but having but a partial opening into the Arctic Sea by Behring Strait. trends northward of the Philippine Islands. which flows along the coasts of Mexico and Central America.

in a general sense. and into the Black Sea from the Mediterranean. Monsoon Current^ noticed in the Pacific. 143. while the fresher and lighter flows . Wherever there are local curreijts depending on seasonal evaporation. 162 THE WATER — ITS OCEANS AND OCEAN-CURRENTS. The under-currents which set in from the Indian Ocean into the Eed Sea and Persian Gulf are constiintly flowing. whatever character marine currents may appear. and yet. manent machinery 144.— . In of the ocean. there will be seasonal variations in the volumes and velocities of these currents. are constant as to the time and extent of their periodicity. and others of less note. the undercurrents which set into the Baltic from the North Sea. and yet. — . and thougli periodical as to the season of the year. are constant as to direction . and Mentor's (after the Prussian surveying vessel of that name) or the South Equatorial Counter-Current. as regards these latter. denser water of one area subsides and flows off" as an under-current to some fresher region . . and yet they will vary in volume and velocity. arising from the south-east and easterly winds that prevail there during the summer the North Equatorial Counter-Current. Excessive evaporation in the torrid zone is instantly counterbalanced by an influx from the temperate and frigid. we may regard them as constant in volume and velocity. And yet. the influx of flooded rivers in spring. will vary according to the season while a similar variation may take place in the surface and under currents which flow in and out through tlie Strait of Gibraltar. Such are the principal constant currents of the ocean the periodical and variable being too multifarious and local for the limits of a general outline. however. while the warmer and lighter waters of the equator The Salter and flow over to temper the rigours of the polar seas. but rendering the minor ones more complicated and less decided in their directions. These. though variable in volume and velocity. the season of greatest evaporation in these inland waters. In like manner. being greatest from May to October. it may be observed that some. The drift currents of the Indian Ocean which depend on the monsoons (see Winds) are periodical. The heated waters of the equator are modified by the colder currents from the poles . but to a less degree. or the melting of snow and ice. they are all-essential to the equilibrium and uniformity of the ocean. as the Carolinian —an alternating flow depending on the influence of the Indian and Chinese monsoons the Okhotsk Current an easterly set of the waters of that sea. are but partially known the numerous islands and reefs of the Pacific not only interrupting the regular flow of the major currents. they may be considered as a part of the constant and per. one season with another.

Climate. are modified by these currents . " are among the grandest phenomena presented by the wise economy of nature. Besides these great natural functions. Some coursing in shallow streams. the currents tend to equalise differences. Owing to these permanent streams the sea-waters mingle from pole to pole. the warm waters of the Gulf Stream lessen the severity of the climate of Norway and the British Islands. Like the winds. separating others that — — . and this unending agitation preserves their healthfulness and purity. that drop their burden of boulders and gravel on one zone. lavouring or obstructing the intercourse of one country with another. Their extent. an incessant circulatory and equalising system is The colder established throughout the expanses of the ocean. vegetable and animal. and in all likelihood they play equally important parts in the distribution and arrangement of the life of the ocean. and thus. corals. " The great oceanic currents. The cold waters of the antiirctic pole temper the scorching heats of the coast of Peru .). 163 in from above to supply the deficiency. fluence of another. and move with sleepless flow from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean. &c. that drop their exuvia) and rear their structures in another zone equally definite and restricted. the prodigious length of their course in some nearly equal to the circumference of the globe fill us with astonishment. — . trace the great lines of communication upon the highways of the oceans. and leave far behind everything of this description to be seen in the watercourses of the continents. they often subserve the purposes of navigation and commerce and though the steam-ship has rendered the mariner less dependent on winds and tides and currents. vertically as well as liorizontally. and others pressing forward as deep and impetuous rivers.CURRENTS THEIR CAUSES AND FUNCTIONS. they must exercise considerable influence in transporting the sediments of the ocean here arresting the progress of icebergs. he still skilfully seeks to avail himself of the favouring stream of one current and to avoid the opposing inpinge. and from thence to the Atlantic . together with the winds. and the warmer to the colder. bringing near together places apparently the most remote. ever flowing to the warmer. It is the currents which. to soften extremes. and there fostering the growth of animalcules and zoophytes (foraminifera. 145. their influence also extends to that of the lands against which they im- and thus additional warmth and moisture are borne to one country and refreshing coolness to another. The heavier ever descends and the lighter ascends . and conse<|uently terrestrial life. Their importance is no less in the relations and the commerce of the nations." says one of the most eloquent expounders of our science.

20. and luckily confined to limited areas . are rare. and. but earthquake. and owing to the moon's revolution. The latter.waves vary from a mere ripple of the surface to billows 10. . and velocity all round the glol:>e but and conformation of the continents. the varying depths of sea. the extent of sea. are far more powerful and destructive. Wind.1G4 THE WATER to — ITS OCEANS AND OCEAN-CURRENTS. and 40 feet in height. Had our planet been covered by a uniform sheet of water. oM-ing to the interruption . tides. while the former may be said to be universal. accoi-ding to the power of the wind.waves have been kno^vll to rise to 60 or 80 feet. the flow of the great tidal wave would have proceeded vnth unvarying . The currents of the ocean depend partly upon the unequal temperatures and densities of its different regions the colder and warmer. the Salter and fresher. height. incessantly tending to interchange and ef^uilibrium and partly upon the the trade-^nnds of the movements of the atmosphere above tropics and the constant breezes of the temperate regions forcing — — . and depth of water . sjitellite. depth. Waves are produced by the friction and impact of the winds. and occasionally by earthquake commotions. . currents. Their importance in nature and mind even of the most unolj- seem touch each other. and similar irregularities." NOTE. it differs in different areas and yet in each of these areas its rise and fall are as unvarj^ng as the rotation of the earth or the revolution of her regularity in time. In consequence of the earth's rotation there are two tides a-day. and her position as regards the sun. Tides are produced by the attraction of the moon and sun acting on the mobile waters of the ocean. In the preceding chapter. her attraction or tide-wave compared with that of the sun is as 100 to 38 and from this cause also the difference between spring-tide and neap-tide in any locality is as 7 to 3. and the extent. attention has been directed to the waves. there are two spring-tides and two neap-tides a-month. The moon being the nearer luminary. RECAPITULATORY AND EXPLANATORY. and conformation of the sea in which they occur. and other movements to which the waters of the ocean are generally subjected. rolling in with wall-like front and greater impetus. history cannot fail to impress the sers'ant. the denser and lighter. 30. however. but varying in magnitude according to the force of the wind.

' The Challenger publications should also be consulted. the Tlmlassa of Dr John tion of the waves. velocities.' formerly the only popular treatise upon the subject in the English language. 138 of the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. I . James Wyld. and sea . tions. in No. or circulation. as well as the able memoirs of Dr CroU and last but not least. tides. and causes we have again to recommend perusal of Captain Maury's ' Physical Geography of the Sea. and other similar contingencies. tides. melting of ice. an excellent popular work upon the entire subject.' by Dr Carpenter. — — . variable —the relations of the earth constant depending on the primary and established the periodical. and land breezes.. though many of his conclusions are now superseded. on local winds. periodical. To those who may wish to enter more fully into the considera- and currents of the ocean their direcvolumes. the superficial waters beneath them to move in a corresponding and drawing the surrounding waters into the general These currents are either constant. on monsoons. An able paper on ' Oceanic Circulation. may also be read ^^ath much instruction. river-floods. RECAPITULATION. as may also his article "Atlantic" in the recent edition of the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica. 165 direction. which occur in certain seas at stated seasons and the variable.

sleet. spring. 147. The vapour elaborated from the ocean ascends invisibly and diffuses itself through the atmosphere. and this without intermission while the present relations of the universe endure. nourishing life. we now turn to its minor exhibitions in springs and streams. remodelling the rocky crust. stream. however. in the present instance they are more terrestrial. rain. lakes and lacustrine areas. now coursing its surface. water belongs to the domain of Meteorology . it returns again to the earth in the form of dew. river. and becomes visible in clouds. and cliaracterised by their saltness. rivers and river-systems. 146. solid more ceaseless in movement vapour. and anon in the ocean again to repeat the Siime circuit. hail. RIVERS. and. tide. now in the crust of the earth. — . who tracks it in spring. and fogs. In general. The circulation of water is incessant now in the ocean. performing some of the most important mechanical and chemical operations. In the former instance the waters were truly oceanic. STREAMS. there is no substance in nature more protean in form vaporiform. where. rain. so far as civilisation is concerned. when it returns to the earth.— X. by their freshness. now in the tissues of plants and animals. ReceiWng further condensation through greater cold or electrical agency. it is condensed. mists. wave. and river to the ocean. Tlian water. and snow. and characterised. as manifested in the larger expanses of oceans and seas. stream. liquid. the circulation of water is slow and gradual so slow that the spherule of vapour now rising from the ocean may : — — — . oceanic current or more beneficent in function tempering the atmosphere. subjected to colder cuiTents. Having directed attention to the Water. to the same great aquatic system. it comes once more within the province of the Hydrographer. When in the atmosphere. They belong. THE WATER — SPRINGS. if we may so speak. LAKES. for the most part. now in the atmosphere. .

condensing into rain. it first makes it impalpable. bottling the caloric away in the vesicles of its vapour. LAKES. however. Disseminated in the tissues of plants. its circulation is so rapid that ceive the hazy vapour ascending from the sea. its cycle seems interminably arrested and yet we know that decay and degradation will some day or other bring about its liberation. in returning to its native source. great receptacle arose. and ice from tlie frigid . From runnel to stream. and again to perform analogous functions. or out of the gold-fields of Australia.. and the sea-conch its shell. THE WATER — SPRINGS. or locked up in the crystallisation of minerals. and valleys in all latitudes. ri\'er. coming in contact with cold mountain-peaks. or from the mines of Potosi others from the battle-fields of Europe. rocks. RIVERS. are gathered by this restless leveller from mountains. or from the marble-quar- . " Water.' " is Nature's carrier. rolling you absolutely perlandward in mist and cloud. or. from stream to Circulation of Water. 167 be years." says the eloquent author of the ' Physical Geography of the Sea. and in cer. tain localities. or even ages. With its current it conveys heat away from the torrid zone. and then conveys it by unknown paths to the most distant parts of the earth. and falling in torrents to augment the runnels and rivulets. On certain occasions. STREAMS. Some it washes down from the Mountains of the Moon. The materials of which the coral builds the island. and hurries dowuNsard and onward to the whence the light and filmy vapour originally there to renew the same career. the mass swells.

the outlets are known as springs . holds on its course to the valleys below. and rises to the Surface with a force proportionate to the height and volume of the accumulated waters. it collects in chinks. and far below the surface of the adjacent valleys but sooner or later it is arrested by some obstructing stratum. and earthy limestones holding nearly their o^^^l weight of water. is office. and delivered by the obedient waters to each insect. or find its way again to the surface. intermit- . are transported from river to sea. rubble. and there forms extensive sheets of subterranean water some beds of sand. In whatever manner water may accumulate within the crust. and.168 THE WATER — SPRINGS. it accumulates in the porous strata above. springing forth. in process of time. or pounds them into Siind. through rents and crevices. at the right time and temperature. fluid. everything on the surface of our planet seems to have been removed from its original Protean in foundation. ries of ancient Greece and Rome. in proper form and in due quantity. finds its way. RIVERS. In virtue of the great law of gravdty. it grinds them into dust. or. and partly sinks into the soil and rocky strata. plains. Where there are no impervious beds in the higher lands to intercept its downward tendency. the abrading and triturating power of water. or rolls and rubs them until they are fashioned into pebbles. Percolating the rocks. it often percolates to vast depths. sandstone. LAKES. solid. It is usual to speak of — them as surface springs and deep springs. benignant in or gaseous. STREAMS. and fields for man's use. and thus what gathers in the higher portions of the crust. partly supplies the wants of plants and animals. water. Treating the rocks less gently. and lodged in its present place by water. thus collected and carried over falls or do^vn rapids. whether fresh or its salt. it bursts forth through the nearest outlet. and these springs occur in all countries and at all levels some issuing with force even from the bed of the ocean. and other cavities. chalk. and spread out into the Saving the rocks on valleys. which the everlasting hills are established. By water the soil has been brought down from the hills. fissures. marvellous in power. or boulThe sand and shingle on the sea-shore are monuments of ders. ence to hydrostatic pressure. as perennial." Springs — their Characteristics. in obedi- — . water is ever tending to lower levels. shape. These materials. and there. The water that falls on the surface of the land is partly and mainly carried off in runnels. and every plant in the ocean. 148. meeting in with some impervious bed.

that surface springs are those — Physical Geography. as the name implies. are those that well forth at one period. sideration of 149. Germany. and accompanied by violent jets of steam) occur abundantly. and other volcanic they occur also in Britain. Intermittent. but that below this depth the temperature went on increasing at the rate of 1° Fahr. at the depth of 80 or 90 feet. are those that flow year after year without signs of abatement. to Geology than to be noticed. arise either from vast depths. for every 60 feet of descent. in Iceland. perhaps. 150. Central Asia. and being immediately dependent for their supplies on the amount of rainfall. Perennial springs. 18 that the earth's crust. flow steadily at all times —though. cold. being beyond these influences. and seemingly in a capricious manner. and at another stop suddenly. may from superficial beds of sand. regions carried. — — upwards. California. and altogether independent of the nature of the strata through which they are generally flow from chilled mountain on the other hand. by the ebb and flow of the tides. It was stated in par. . is unaffected by summer's heat or winter's cold . the conwhich belongs more. Surface springs generally vary in temperature with the great majority of springs are more or . Thermal and hot springs (hot even beyond the boiling-point of water. Deep-seated springs^ on the other hand. and other kindred causes. mineral. New Zealand. Cold springs sources . It and tlie like cliaracteristics. . hot springs. gravel. seasons. hot. uninfluenced by summer droughts or winter which issue rains. Springs whose sources are above this invariable stratum will therefore fluctuate in temperature according to the season of the year those that ascend from beneath it will gradually increase in heat the deeper being the hotter. whose waters alternately sink beneath and rise above their outlets and this may be occasioned by sudden droughts and rainfalls. on the other hand. the less affected by the seasons. and this strictly according to depth.SPRINGS —THEIR CHARACTERISTICS. They are no doubt connected mth subterranean reservoirs. deep-seated ones. are often very feeble or altogether dry in summer. They are evidently deepseated . the Pyrenees. are equable at all times. by the expansion and escape of steam and gases. however. and on a gigantic scale. 169 tent. generally speaking. and the like. though gushing forth copiously during winter. the Andes. Of the latter we have instructive examples in the Artesian wells of France and other countries those {^borings emitting water from 60° to 90"^ and . or are situated in the neighbourhood of volcanic action. and many that were celebrated by the ancients gush copiously now as they did thousands of years ago. the Azores.

or borne onward to the ocean. The quality of mineral springs. or are impregnated with the salts of various minerals and metals. percolating the crust by capiland hydrostatic pressure. as it were. and at another parched by destructive droughts. In familiar language the water of mineral springs is spoken of as hard. and so forth. on the rocks through which they pass. which confer on them very complicated chemical characteristics. some silicious. but curdling on and refusing to mingle wdth the former. hot springs are either perennial or intermittent perennial. hcjwever. — STREAMS. The waters that percolate the earth being of different temperatures. like those of southern France and the Pyrenees. . or . hold in soluwhich are either deposited along their courses on land. as remedial agents. which generally come to the surface in connection with water. so frequent in volcanic districts and in the same way may be ranked discharges of gases. and accumulating in its fissures and porous strata. they perform in the aggregate most important functions in the economy of nature. Romans and and intermittent. and often containing carbonic acid and other gases. less or more. . which are said to be soft soap readily dissolving in and forming a lather with the latter. the silicious hot springs of Iceland and the Azores. hot mud. New In this way they become mineral springs that is. act chemically. that have flowed without abatement volcanic activity. or contain lime (calx) . Sinking. its larity mass by capillary attraction. or contain tion various mineral ingredients. To the same category also belong escapes of steam. since the time of the (" roarers ") of Iceland like the Geysers Zealand. were immediately carried off by surface-rumiels. for example.170 THE WATER —SPRINGS. are saline. If the waters. in contradistinction to rain and river waters. is of general importance. — iron (chalybs. or contain salt some chalybeate. and are seemingly dependent on its percolating and hydrostatic power. naphtha. calcareous. the travertine or lime-depositing waters of the Anio. and other countries far removed from any centre of T Like ordinary springs. for future . Insignificant as springs may individually appear. and the like. 152. and thousands of others that occur in almost every countrv'. Austria. and has long been studied it is also of special value to the geologist and miner as indicating the nature of the rocks tlirough which the waters percolate. — . LAKES. RIVERS. into the soil. petroleum. Such are the sulphuretted waters of Harrogate. . the earth would at one time be flooded. iron) contain flint (silex) some while others give off sulphurous vapours. the borax-springs of Tuscany. this water is stored up. the brine-springs of Cheshire. as they fall from the atmosphere. and diffused through . Some. 151.

pensate for the abstraction of mineral ingredients by the plants and animals that inhabit its waters.3. increasing in breadth and volume. melting of snow. as explained in par. (each country. they are temporary. this internal permeation of water is e^ddently connected with the formation of mineral crystals and metalliferous veins. gorges. with never-failing currents. Temporary streams. they form ^a^^nes. whose channels. and also with that greater metamorphism of rock-masses by which strata of one nature are in process of time converted into strata of another and verv diff'erent nature. Streams —their Characteristics. they assume the character of rivers. valleys. but for this incessant discharge from the earth. according to their dimensions. either deposit it along their runnels or carry it to the ocean. creeks in Australia. as rills. having its own and their currents form ravines. tudes. of course. — THEIR CHARACTERISTICS. of several springs. gorges. brooks. 4. these springs dissolve some minute portion. When mainly dependent on springs (though augmented by rainfalls). are formed by the union by the union of one stream with another. they are said to be permanent. 171 and given out by springs in moderate and continuous supThese springs are the great vi\Tiiers of external nature. Acting chemically. there to complies. glens. They are the frequent fountain-heads of our streams and rivers. but when arising solely from rainfalls. and even province of a country. till. and waterfalls their excavating power* de- — . expressive term for such distinctions). instead of flowing. bringing it to the surface.supplying one of the main wants of animal life. and there they impress on the country geographical features and geological relations peculiarly their own. and often of short duration. and clothing even the desert around them AN-ith vewlure and blossom. Permanent streams are 153. would often be reduced to a mere succession of stagnant pools.STREAMS use. . Streams. streamlets. Ever silently seeking their way down through the rocky crust. and. Streams occur but fewest and least. on in other localities. as they now do. Coursing down the mountain-sides ^nth headlong speed. on the other hand. in all countries. are little noticed save in regions subjected to periodical rains. and other descriptive excavations. &c. their dry courses being kno\\Ti as nullahs in India. rivulets. in rainless latiand so Their great headquarters are the slopes of mountain-chains and the outer margins of valleys exposed to the moisture-laden currents of the atmosphere. and the like. and usually distinguished. icadies in Arabia.

— Rivers —their Characteristics. rial — —here cutting out ravines. to the less rainy regions of the plains below. then. so rivers are formed by the union of springs and minor by the union of streams. tributary streams. Geologically. and there assisting in that universal transport of sediments to the ocean which is destined to become the strata of future lands. melting snow and ice of the higharily. ever early locates himself on their banks. — — — lands. The aggregate amount of debris brought down by streams and torrents is enormous and one has only to cast his eye over some lofty mountainslope to see how deeply it is scarred and seamed and furrowed by these restless and resistless agencies. and gorges there filling up lakes with the eroded matehere wearing deeper channels for the further drainage of swampy lowlands. or as a cheap and effective agent in the turning of his machinery. As streams are formed . becomes a main stream and this stream. than on the meteoric and aqueous agencies to which they have been subse• quently subjected. and morasses. This infant current. in the irrigation of his fields. LAKES. No wonder. Streams. every spring and stream had its presiding deity and spirit to be worshipped the untutored mind adoring. secondon tlie nature of the materials to be eroded. In general they have their origin in some notiible spring. employing their perennial supplies in the wants of his home. the great diversity of mountain scenery depends on this erosive power of water all the hills and highlands depending less for their present outlines on the igneous forces by which they were upheaved. STREAMS. runnels. too. augmented by the accession of other springs. A river is thus said to liave its head or source in some higher . far up among the mountains. . RIVERS. in secondary causation. lake. glens. they are incessant workers of change. very soon assumes the dimensions of a River. morass. They are at once the carriers and distributors of water dispensing in measured supplies the heavy rainfalls. subserve important purposes in the economy of nature. In fact. . swamps. They constitute a great network of drainage for the land carrying off superfluous moisture. . 154. or melting glacier. and preventing its accumulations in bogs. like springs. that in times more primitive and poetic tlian our own. that vivifying principle which the more enlightened intellect can trace to a higher and di\dner source. pending primarily upon their volume and velocity and.172 THE WATER — SPRINGS. Man. by the influx of other affiuent or 155.

Where the wliicli form the essential features of its existence. in the ultimate part of a river course. 173 region. however. as in the Nile. even of the " basin of the Atlantic. Ganges. the Atlantic System. every river has a rise.RIVERS THEIR CHARACTERISTICS. and the left bank on his left. Niger. is low and level. so several river-basins may descend towards the larger depression of some inland sea and thus geographers speak of the "basin of the Baltic. or fluviatile. may — bank on his right. the terms wp and domn have reference to this natural condition and as a spectator descends with the current. . When he ascends. lacustrine. or estuary by a mouth or In other worIs. and the current becomes sluggish. the Pacific System. from the hollow or valley -shaped aspect which such districts usually assume. there often accumulate shoals and eyots or river-islands and not unfrequently the augmented waters discharge themselves by several branches and form a delta (par. — . 156. and ultimately to waters into some lake. whose margins form its hanJcs . " basin of the Mediterranean. and the System of the Indian Ocean together with the Aralo-Caspian System. There are thus two kinds of riversystems the oceanic discharging themselves into the ocean and the continental. the Mexican table-land and the plateau of Bolivia." and. The whole extent of country drained by a river and its tributaries is spoken of as the basin of that river (basin of the Thames. known as a bar . carrying the idea still further. to wear out for itself a hed or channel. basin of the Tay. and confined to these areas.) and this naturally. Wliere the tides and river-currents contend and neutralise each other's force. to flow along a certain course. &c. flow." As the great oceans form the ultimate receptacles for all the rivers (with one or two excepis descend to any ocean constitute what termed the river-system of that ocean and thus we have the Arctic System.4round. and the minor basins of Utah. . &c. but are held in equilibrium by evaporation and absorption." the left . and fall. whose streams are strictly continental. . a lake. whose waters never reach the ocean. The line or ridge that separates one basin or system from another basin or system is termed the watershed of these basins (or watersched. or another larger river. and such <liscliarge its mouths. and the deltas . . As all livers flow from higher to lower levels. — . be either marine. this order is reversed the right bank being then on his left hand. the right hank lies on his right hand. As streams unite to form rivers. and these bars are serious impediments to the na\agation of some of the finest rivers. sea. 89). Indus. the river-basins that . there frequently accumulates across the entrance a spit of sand or gravel. if we affect tions). according as the rivers flow into the sea.

In the Old World. all the springs and streamlets " shedding from the ridge of a house.— 174 a THE WATER —SPRINGS. and must be traced to a higher and farther fountain-head among the mountiiins. where merely accessories. velocity. it does not follow that watersheds should always consist of elevated ground a few feet of foil being sufficient to determine the current in either direction. in obedience to the relief of that continent. sideration. it is justly regarded as the " source " of the river to which it gives rise but where one of the feeders assumes decided importance. especially those issuing from chasms and caverns in limestone districts. it may be. completing the passage by water from one side of a con- German derivation) off. — — — . Many of these springs. Himalayas. to their rise. between river-basins. is . LAKES. full-flowing streams when they make their appearance at the surface. that feeder . Where a mountain lake receives a number of small feeders. 157. their rise. capa- bility of navigation. But while this is true. become in like manner copious sources the streams that flow from them being already The same may be said of morasses and high rivers in miniature. to their respective Though hills and mountains generally form the boundaries areas. 158. volume. as in the Alps. become important regulators of supply in the regions where they occur their waters flowing freest when the summer's heat has most diminished the lowland streams. Whatever their origin and it must be confessed that the exact sources of many of our larger rivers are unexplored and undetermined their courses are primarily directed by the general slopes of the continents. lake. being. and the like — require more detailed con- been already stated that it generally takes place in some upland spring. The low ridge that thus separates the streams of different basins is spoken of as a portcuje (Fr.). swampy tracts. tinent to another. and not unfrequently in the melting terminus of some descending glacier. — STREAMS. being saturated with springs and rainfall. or morass. and other snow-clad mountains and. the characteristics of the rivers themselves that is. in fact. the great slopes being north and south. depth." as if or parting — . course. being the recipients of springs and other runnels. from the fact that goods and boats are frequently carried across from one stream to another and thus. just as in the New World their courses are easterly and westerly. the principal rivers flow in these directions. it has As — discharge at once regular and continuous streams. Glaciers and melting snows are also occasional sources. Mountain lakes. length. are often of considerable magnitude. RIVERS. looked upon as the infant river. Such are the usual terrtis employed by geographers in treating of rivers. which.

of the importance of a river. There may occiisionally be some peculiarity of basin as regards rainfall. are. As to the length of their courses. and velocity. In temperate latitudes this volume is somewhat lessened in summer and increased in winter . but. accessible entrance. so often tabulated in geographical works. — — — — — — — — . its depth. freshets. it should mind that there are causes tending to modify the courses and directions of rivers. but still guided in the main by the primary slope of the region. — and turned aside in another direction All these. as regards the main slopes. The lengths of rivers. for . example. generally speaking. and the alternation of softer and harder beds the current readily excavating its channel in the line in the crust . concur in giving to streams and rivers very irregular courses winding and bending. the quantity of water which its channel contains depends on many collateral circumstances. and debacles. but chiefly on the extent of country drained by its affluents. and many other circumstances of a geological nature. the greater the area over which the tributaries ramify. 175 be borne and necessarily in so. arising from heavy rainfalls.RIVERS — THEIR many CHARACTERISTICS. In tropical countries. but obstructed by the latter. secondarily. producing what are termed floods. and the like. This absolute length gives no true idea. which are usually at right angles to the main chains the occurrence of lines of fracture the passage from one formation to another whose strata lie in a different direction . and. even were they more accurate as to figures. The direct distance between the source and outlet of a river may not exceed two hundred miles. as we have already said. the supply is pretty equable and permanent. turning and returning. 159. on the other hand. nature of channel. Sudden excesses. from the permanence of its volume. the greater the quantity of water brought to the main trunk or channel. where the rains fall and the snows melt only at stated of the former. through all its doublings and windings its development. 160. melting of snow. upon the bendings and windings to which they may be subjected. and. on the whole. its depth. and the like . that mil depend primarily upon the extent of the region through which they flow the larger area giving scope to the longest river . and influx and efflux of the tides. but. the slowTiess of its current. rapid melting of snow in spring. they are still of little use the real natural and economical value of a river resulting. either in nature or to navigation its value mainly depending on the permanence of its volume. however. Among these. or magnitude of a river that is. and yet its absolute course. The volume. size. little better than guess-work. are merely temporary. for the most part. as it is termed may amount to a thousand. may be noted the strike of the secondary hills and spurs.

like Niagara. more or of drought. many of their so-called rivers are merely temporary^ being roaring impetuous torrents during the rains.176 THE WATER — SPRINGS. and the far-off mountain snows melt at another. however. As all rivers descend from higher to lower regions. 161. And where temperate zone (as in the case of the Nile). and waterfalls. and Kaieteur on the Potaro in British Guiana. The velocity of a river depends mainly on the slope or dedown which it flows. Victoria on the Zambesi. — — — river. where the sources of a river lie near the equator and its outlet in the seasons. they may be said to have an upper. as Australia and South Africa. though detrimental to the navigation of rivers. large rivers run faster than small. a considerable time must elapse between the equatorial rainfall and the deltic inundation and the length of this lapse will depend partly on the windings of the river. middle. Rapids. the more rapid the current the greatest velocity l)eing in the centre of the stream. under the same circumstances. and the changes in the \\idth of the channel. Other things being equal. and lower the upper being characterised by rapidity of stream through gorge and glen and waterfall the middle by less velocity through rapids and cataracts and the lower by a quiet steady flow through level and allu^-ial plains. tliere may be two such inundations occurring with. cataracts. each individual stream the velocity is perpetually varying with the form of the banks. LAKES. being amongst the most stupendous of natural phenomena. STREAMS. the winding of the course. where there is least retardation from friction on the sides and bottom of — " The speed. these floods cal inundations. but in . according as this may be straight or winding." . the river itself less i^erniaiunt ." it has been well remarked. Again. but also upon the height of the source of the river. and the pressure of the body of water in the upper part of its course consequently. Yosemite. whether subjected to ir. assume the character of regular and periodithe rain falls in the low countries at one period. In the preceding instances. RIVERS. is always but in some regions. partly on the nature of its channel. deep and narrow. wonderful regularity both in time and amount of overflow. " does not depend entirely either upon slope or depth. are objects often of great interest and mars^el some of them. and a succession of stagnant pools and dry shingly reaches during the season regular floods or periodical inundations. and partly also on the amount or volume of its current. the channel. and many of them from very elevated sources. and a little below the surface. the deeper tlie course . cli%'ity or wdde and obstructed by rocks and shoals. and partly on the slope and freedom of the channel.

China. so that the stream has to Tseen-chang-yan Waterfall. M . or beds of conglomerate and siliceous limestone. are generally the rocks over which the current has to fall. felstone. basalt. leap as were over these harder rocks into the chasm or channel Dykes of porphyry. Among the more stupendous waterfalls in the it below. 177 by the river Cataracts and waterfalls are usually produced cutting through harder and softer rocks — the softer yielding to the current. and the harder resisting.RIVERS THEIR CHARACTERISTICS. and the like. . or through which it has to force its way.

. ternal communication. on the Potaro. . for example. . and the transport of blocks many tons in weight an operation greatly facilitated by the circumstance that stones of ordinary specific gravity (from 2. membered. however. and shales '— rapidly deepening and widening its : — . and 12 inches fine gravel a velocity of 24 inches per second to roll along rounded pebbles an inch in diameter. and the greater the geological effect on the countries through which they flow and in proportion as their velocity increases. the sweeping city away of bridges. so their fitness for the purposes of navigation is diminished. where the river. the less the irrigating effect. RIVERS. . 3225 feet wide. 134 yards wide. on the Rhine. very much on the nature of the rocks through which it flows one traversing a country consisting of the softer rocks sandstones. geological. 1000 feet wide. is divided in two by Goat Island. is suddenly swallowed up in a narrow perpendicular cleft. world may be noted that in tlie Yosemite valley. . land-floods the currents of rivers often greatly exceed this velohence the tearing up of old deposits of gravel. .5 to 2. clays. the cutting as well as transporting power of rivers is greatly aided by the rapidity of their currents hence the effect of mountain torrents compared with the quiet sluggish flow of the lowland river.8) lose more than a third It must ever be reof their weight when immersed in water. has a total fall of 822 feet 741 of which is a sheer perpendicular descent into a vast seething caldron below Schaffhausen. Formerly a descent of more than 1 foot in 200 was considered unnavigable and though the power of steam has enabled man to contend with higher velocities. . California. and on Victoria Falls. an all-important consideration in and commercial relations. . STREAMS. it is still the velocity of current more than the depth of water that renders a river unavailable as a means of in162. that 6 inches will lift fine sand. that a velocity of 3 inches per second will tear np fine clay. Geologically. where the stream. — . where the the other 149 feet river. and 2000 feet) which descend from the Alps and Pyrenees. . their geographical. 72 feet those and of the Glonimen in Norway those of the Clyde in Scotland some lofty threads of water (1000. The velocity of rivers is . and 36 inches per second to sweep angular During periodical rains and stones of the size of a hen's egg. on the Zambesi. that the eroding power of a river depends . and falls on one side sheer 162 feet. where a stream as large as the Tliames at Richmond is said to make a Niagara^ between Lakes single leap of not less than 2100 feet Erie and Ontario. LAKES. 1400. in British Guiana. 100 feet deep Kaieteur.— 178 THE WATER — SPRINGS. The more rapid their currents. It has been calculated. 8 inches sand as while it requires coarse as linseed.

It will be seen —their Characteristics. their facilities for navigation will depend in each case on the nature of the outlet as accessible from sea and free from bars and banks. depth of channel may be rendered unavailable by shallow bars and shifting sandbanks at its mouth. —THEIR CHARACTERISTICS. OCEANIC RIVER-SYSTEMS channel . . and one or two minor continental ones. again. depends altogether upon the conformation of the country. All that our outline will permit is the arrangement of the basins into Systems. and superficial configuration of its basin. In this way we have four great oceanic river-systems the Arctic. The outlet.. as the Nile to the Atlantic through the Medi- As — terranean belong to the same river-system. extent. Pacific.). and greenstones — — . the greater the volume of water. may Oceanic Elver-Systems 164. Atlantic. In their upper and middle courses. till they find their way into the sea by several main mouths. and are consequently affected for a certain length by the flux and reflux of the tides wliile others. that — all the affluent streams of a river belong to one basin. generally speaking. and belongs more especially to hydrography and general geography. though. and on the velocity of the of current current. so all the river-basins that descend to the same ocean-basin whether directly. To give an account of these basins would be to describe in detail the rivers that traverse the surface of the globe a subject which extends beyond our limits. the deeper the channel of excavation. creep sluggishly along. and Indian. The depth of rivers is as various as the circumstances under which they occur. as the Aralo- — — . or embouchure (Fr. Some rivers discharge themselves at once and by a single mouth into the ocean others into an estuary. the stream. cliaracteristics of rivers. from what has been stated respecting the each has its own individuality. being for the most part through steep rocky excavations. on depth and volume of water. as it is frequently termed. as the Niger to the Atlantic. passing over the harder rocks granites effects little or no change for ages. Length of course and volume be obstructed by rocks and shoals in the bed of the river . or intermediately through some inland sea. 163. branching and bifurcating through their swampy deltas. is of no great depth but in the lower and slower portion the waters accumulate and deepen as they proceed. and a notice of some of the more remarkable rivers that belong to each system. and that this indi-vdduality depends in the main on the geographical position. 179 while another. Seeing that the conditions of rivers are so exceedingly varied.

most of which. 165. The Yenisei is still larger. which rises in the mountains north of Lake Baikal. having a development by either branch of 2400 miles. It is a deep sluggish stream in the lower part of its course. As it is. The Obi. interrupted by rapids and cataracts. Indigirka. there is a degree of sameness in the conditions of these waters which renders the Arctic more homogeneous in its character than any other river-system. which in former ages (prehistorical). and the Bolivian. rising in the Altai. STREAMS. wind slowly through the plains. The Arctic System. and a basin of not less than 784. as the name implies. and of little geographical importance and here the student has an instructive example of how much relative position has to do with the physical and vital features either of land or of water.000 square miles. are impetuous torrents. as it may be termed. For convenience. and Obi. which. Yablonoi. and is computed to drain an area of 594. they are little known. however. The Lena. Lena. receive numerous tributaries in the upper and middle stages of their course. tlie attention of the student is now directed. To the main and the leading rivers tliat compose tliem. characteristics of these respective systems. inhabited the plains of northern Asia. in their upper and middle stages. which. ha^'ing a development of 2800 miles. had they discharged themselves into temperate or tropical seas. and a conjoint basin embracing nearly one-third of the — — : — . The largest of these are the Lena. LAKES. from the equal importance of its two main branches. Yenisei. receives several important tributaries (Vitim. It receives several large aflluents the Great and Little Kem. is the most notable of these rivers. in which are embedded the remains of mammoth.— 180 THE WATER —SPRINGS. RIVERS. rhinoceros. it may be divided into three sections Asiatic. and finds its way into the sea between high banks of frozen mud and sand.000 square miles. the Utah. has a development or winding course of 2400 miles. the Angara from Lake Baikal. European. the Mexican. Lying for the most part within the limit of constantly-frozen ground. and Obi. The Asiatic section comprehends the great Siberian rivers the Kolyma. and American according as the rivers belong to these respective areas. or Irtish-Obi. 166. and other huge mammals. embraces those rivers which. and the Upper and Lower Tongouska. would have taken rank with the noblest rivers on the globe. and under diff'erent geographical conditions. discharge themselves into the basin of the Arctic Sea. and Stanovoi Mountains. Caspian. and flowing through notably level plains. and ultimately discharge themselves by wide estuarial mouths into the Arctic Sea. and Aldan). obeying the northern slope of the Old and New "World continents. Olenek. Olekma. Yenisei.

finding an insuflicient outlet by the level. The European section of the Arctic river-system embraces the Petchora. they are unfit for na^^gation . after passing through Lake . and after leaving tlie mountain region its current is said to be scarcely perceptible having a fall of only 400 feet or thereby in a distance of 1200 miles As already mentioned.OCBAXIC RIVER-SYSTEMS entire area of Siberia. while. so in this river-region of Russia. which render its surface still more dreary and inhospitable. Frozen. and the Mezen. It is only during a brief summer of two or three months that their embouchures are free and open. with the Black Sea and Caspian. and capriciously — ! shifting their channels. This great river. like the ocean into which they enter. the Mackenzie. the Coppermine. As in Siberia. which enter it indirectly through the White Sea. of which the Mackenzie is the largest and most important. One leading characteristic of all the Siberian rivers is. which drains an area of 441. and Onega. and which drains an area of 106. find their way through a labyrinth of lakes and swamps. and more northerly mouths.000 square miles. and ultimately fall into the Arctic Sea. The more noticeable of these are the Great Fish. ice-locked. The most important of these are the Athabasca and Peace Rivers. and otherwise flowing through a flat and uninviting region. — THEIR CHARACTERISTICS. which. undermining their frozen banks. being usually ice-locked from September . for many months of the year. the main affluent of the Obi is the Irtish. overspread the country in lakes and morasses. however. that though rapid and sufficiently diversified in the upper stages of their courses. permits of an extended canal-system and it is thus that the White Sea and Baltic are connected. on which Archangel is situated. and then they are in high current. they become sluggish and monotonous on entering the low boggy plains. and the Colville. is formed by the union of several streams that rise in the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. just as they will eventually be by the more rapid and effective system of railway. Comparatively little is known of the sources and ramifications of these rivers. The American section comprises those streams and rivers to June. "With the exception of the Dwina. 167. rendering it the most inhospitable portion of the empire. which. which falls directly into the ocean. 168. none of these rivers are of much importance. obeying the northern slope of tliat continent. This flatness. the swollen floods. on the melting of the snows in their upper and more southerly sources. and the Irtish receives in turn the streams of the Tobol and Ishim.000 square miles. 181 It rises in the Lake of Toleskoi (Lake of Gold) in Great Tartary. D\vina. there is much bog and marsh. through these northern rivers and the Volga.

embraces all those rivers that find their way directly or intermediately into the great basin of the Atlantic from the slopes of the adjacent continents. as the name implies. descends rapidly to Lake Constance (1250 feet). necessarily one of the most rapid rivers in Europe. American continent. Dniester. and this. and inhospitable swamps. liaA^ing an actual course of only 550 miles. and thence with a navigable course to the North Sea. thence through the Falls of Laufen or SchafFhausen to Basel (800 feet). those of Arctic North America flow through low. RIVERS.000 square miles. Vistula. The Atlantic System. Athabasca. a development of 700 miles. frozen. 170. African. directly are the Elbe. according as the rivers descend from either of these continents. Guadiana. the thiKl in importance. and Don into the Euxine Sea. . The Rhine the " beautiful Rhine " of the Germans springs from Alpine glaciers at an elevation of 7650 feet. STREAMS. Dnieper. Of these the Vistula (whose windings are said to be nearly equal to nine-tenths of its direct course from source to mouth) has the greatest development and drainage its length being 520 miles. upper and lower course. It necessarily arranges itself into four sections the European. reissues as the Mackenzie. and Oder all more or less obeying a northwesterly slope. like their recipient. The waters that fall from the European side into the basin of the Mediterranean are the Ebro and Rhone into the main sea . ice-locked for a considerable portion of the year. a feature peculiariy characteristic of the northern section of the 169. It has a drainage of 23. and. and enter the sea by wide mouths but. Like the rivers of Siberia. Weser.000 square miles. has a length of 400 miles. and Rhine from the western slopes of the Germanic plain . unlike those of Siberia. Tagus. and. In the European section we have certain rivers that flow into the Atlantic directly. and a drainage of 21. Loire. they are connected with a labyrinth of lakes. unite to form the Slave River . and Garonne from France . 182 THE WATER — SPRINGS. and Guadalqui^^^ from the Spanish peninsula. Niemen.000 square miles. and the Douro. The Rhone — — . and others that enter it indirectly through the The chief of those flowing into it Baltic and Mediterranean. the Po into the Gulf of Venice and the Danube. LAKES. and a drainage of 33. and a drainage of 65. rises among the Alps at an elevation of 5500 is feet. North American. — — — . and its basin 56. while the Tagus. which it enters by the The Rhine has thus a weU-marked largest of European deltas. the Seine.— . after entering the Slave Lake. The principal streams that discharge themselves through the intermediate basin of the Baltic are the Neva. and South American.000 square miles the Loire an absolute course of 520 miles.000 square miles .

their volumes are wonderfully regular and persistent. these rivers constitute an essential feature in the physical geography of Europe. and all in their lower courses flow through flat. except within the rocky defile of the " Iron Gate. the lower portions of their courses are in most instances easy of access and more or less navigable. the most important of the suite. and Dniester have comcontinent.— OCEANIC RIVER-SYSTEMS discharges itself — THEIR CHARACTERISTICS. central region in every direction. and aftbrd at once a perennial supply and an available mode of intercommunication to its busy populations. they equalise the water-supply L more than in any other continent. when in high surface several miles out at sea. and Save form important channels of internal communication for eastern Europe an importance that has been greatly enhanced by the adoption of steamers fitted to the pecu- — — liarities of their currents. during a large portion of the year. The Danube.080 square miles. and thence to Passau it traverses the plain of Bavaria. Europe that fall directly Lying in the temperate zone. Dnieper. paratively gentle currents. From Passau to Vienna it runs through a second hilly region. swampy plains. are little better than quagmires and morasses. The African section of the Atlantic system embraces all those rivers which flow from the western and northern slopes of . rises in the Black Forest at an elevation of 2850 feet. or as means of internal communication. 183 flood. has a winding course of 1496 Originating in the miles. and an area of 234. projects its current with such force that its fresh waters can be skimmed from the that enter the Black Sea branch of the The waters Mediterranean basin obey the great southern and south-eastern slope of the European Of these the Don. or from sudden meltings of the snow in early spring. union of several mountain-streams. Drave. Such are the principal rivers of or indirectly into the basin of the Atlantic. which. Flowing from the 171. from which it runs tlirough an Alpine country to Ulm. being merely liable to occasional floodings from excess of rainfall. The extent and configuration of the continent prevent the formation of large and long rivers but as the rapids and waterfalls are confined to their upper stages. 172. confer greater beauty and amenity on its surface. and having their sources at no great distance from the ocean. embouchure by three main mouths into The Danube and its navigable tributaries the Theiss. it is first known as the Donau or Danube in the Duchy of Baden." till its the Euxine Sea. by two main mouths. and. and the remainder of its course is generally through a flat country. . "Whether "S'iewed as channels of drainage and irrigation.

also frequently interrupted by rapids and waterfalls. especially ' its tributaries. and Orange are the more importthat continent — some of these are but very partially known in their upper courses. it receives. RIVERS. after a considerable coitrse. Nyassa. Niger (Joliba or Quon-a) drains an immense but unknowTi extent of tropical Africa has a navigable middle course of many hundred miles. thougli extent. though traversed by Stanley. as has been shown by Stanley. the former discharging themselves directly into the ocean. Of those entering directly into the Atlantic. or . Congo. Known in its middle course as the Livingstone. Niger. and are navigable to some ant. to flow through regions of unequalled luxuriance which seem and fertility. with many others (Bangweolo. are comparatively unknown. and originally issues from Lake Tanganyika. form the conjoint basins of Senegambia. 173. and depositing a thick coating of mud on the swamps and banks of the delta. The enters. but rendered unfit for continuous navigation by these obstructions. Gambia. The Senegal and Gambia. varying from 1 to 6 miles in width. the Senegal. The former. and a shallow shingly stream during the season of drought. which. is one of the noblest rivers on the globe. STREAMS. and running at the and possesses a low. after a circuitous course of more than 1500 miles. the noblest of tliese western rivers. and. — quires further exploration. river in the world. Victoria N'yanza (3300 feet above the sea-level). it receives many important tributaries. Coanza.). and indeed the only African river the that discharges itself into the Mediterranean. is supposed to have its sources in the northern slopes of the Kong Mountains. The course of the Congo. is the Nile most classical. and have courses from 600 to 850 miles in length. — Flowing from the equatorial lake. The Congo and Coanza. as the Bahr-el-Abiad. is of varied width. still re. being alternately a large impetuous torrent during the rains. the latter indirectly through the basin of the Mediterranean. by several navigable mouths. The Niger. during which it receives the Chadda and other large tributaries. which rise in the Kong Mountains. the Balir-el-Azrek. The Gaboon and Ogowai are so far navigable. . the Gulf of Guinea. or ^Vhite Nile. pestilrate of 5 and 8 miles an hour ential delta of 14. occupies the central table-land south of the equator. and remain unknown as to their tributaries and courses in the interior. &c.184 THE WATER — SPRINGS. LAKES. alternately choked with the rankest jungle-growth and overspread by inundation.000 square miles. The most important. The Orange or Gariep is unnavigable. which atovertopping the tains its height about the middle of August mangroves. and in many respects the most remarkable. but are interrupted by rapids and cataracts.

till its final discharge into the Mediterranean by the two main mouths which form its delta. the Rosetta and Damietta. The most remarkable feature in the Nile is the regularity of its annual inundation. when it begins to subside. without receiving any additional accession of waters. So far as we have evidence. in like manner. but at Cairo the flood is not perceptible till towards the summer solstice. and remains at its greatest height till the middle of October. rent of the Nile. where it spreads out over a wider area. In the plain of Egypt. OCEANIC RIVER-SYSTEMS —THEIR CHARACTERISTICS.000. has arisen the formation and increase of the delta or Nilotic plain. upper course of the White Nile is described by Captain Speke as flowing through a beautiful and fertile country its middle course through Nubia is marked by a succession of low rapids or " cataracts. and in the northern part of the delta. This delta commences 90 miles from the sea. the amount of rainfall. toria Little is yet known with certainty of the feeders of Vic- and other adjacent lakes. when not in flood.y'pt. though the general opinion is that all of them derive their head. in all likelihood. is about 2^ miles an hour but in its deltic branches the flow is almost imperceptible. which arises. 185 Blue Nile. the greater portion of the sediment is brought down by the Blue Nile and its tributaries from the highlands of Abyssinia the character of the rocks. and has a coast-line of 187 miles between its main mouths. . this inundation has remained unchanged for the Its height in Upper Egypt is from 30 to 35 feet. from rainfalls dependent on the south-east trade-mnds of the Indian Ocean. and after a further tract is augmented by the Atbara from Abyssinia the conjoint stream flowing downward through Dongola. — . and on the melting of snows among the equatorial ranges near its In its upper branches (those of the Blue Nile in partisources. Nubia. from the Galla country. which is from 2 to 18 miles in width. The total length from Lake Victoria is about 2300 miles. at Cairo from 20 to 24." nine or ten in number and its lower course ha\T. the cur- plain of Eg. The fine black slime or mud deposited by this inundation has been the unfailing source of wealth and fertility to Egypt and from its accumulation. and reaches its lowest point in April and May. It then continues to rise for nearly a hundred days. According to Sir Samuel Baker.. and Egypt (a distance of 1200 miles). partly explored by Speke and Baker. the current flows gently through the : .000 square — miles.waters from the labyrinth of mountain heights which ranges The westward from Kilimandjaro through equatorial Africa. last 4000 years. cular) the river begins to rise in April. and its supposed drainage-basin is not less than a fall of only two inches a-mile. it seldom exceeds 4 or 5 feet.

— — — — . as well as from melting snows and perennial springs. are navigable for hundreds of miles inland. and flowing between. whose discoloration is perceptible far out the Atlantic. and Pilcomayo from the deserts and Salinas of the Lower Andes the Paraguay and Parana. In this case we have at once area for development.186 THE WATER —SPRINGS. of 284.512. Some of these affluents. embracing the basins of the Plata. and. two noble rivers. rising among. the San Francisco.000 square miles. on the whole. being described as " of small magnitude.000 square miles.000 square miles^is that which gives life and character to the lowlands of tropical America. The rivers of South America constitute by far the most unique and gigantic section of the Atlantic system. Vermejo. LAKES. or Para.000 square miles . Their united waters meet in the estuary of the Plata a fresh. and making straight across the dry shingly terraces of that sterile region. and the Tocantins. supply from heavy rainfalls engendered by the moisture-laden winds of the Atlantic. from the wooded slopes and verdant plains of the central regions and the Uruguay from the low sierras and valleys of southern Brazil. RIVERS. but are subject to periodical and destructive inundations." North of this the gi'eat river-system commences. and an estimated drain- age of 187. the Tocantins. 175. the sien-as of that country. till they enter the lowlands that fringe the Atlantic. all the rivers of that continent obey its great eastern slope towards the Atlantic the streams that flow down the abrupt and rainless counterslope towards the Pacific being mere runnels fed by the melting snows of the Andes. like the Paraguay and Parana. 174. The Amazon. and Magdalena. and an estimated drainage of 1. I and the impetuosity of the streams being highly favourable to rapid disintegration and erosion. and breadth of volume arising from the flatness of the surface over which these rivers flow. 176. the Amazon. Begin- — ning at the south. the Paranahyba. and 120 broad at its entrance but shallow and loaded with mud. have deep and accessible channels. STREAMS. having a drainage of 115. The Kio de la Plata. the Paranahyba. Orinoco. 180 miles long. Little is known of their sources. having a length of 1400 miles. with few or no affluents.000 square miles . are strictly Brazilian rivers. by far the largest river in the world ha\'ing a length of 3500 miles from its remotest feeder (the Apurimac) in the Andes to its union with the ocean. whose drainage is estimated at 886. receives its affluents from very distant and different regions the Salado.water sea. Tlie San Francisco. Entering the ocean by an — — . the rivers of Patagonia are of little importance. Indeed. from which they are navigable for long distances inland. but they descend with considerable currents.

on the other hand. Like other tropical rivers. and Ucayali. and on the other a number of smaller streams from the ranges of the Parime. During high flood. which descend from the mountains of Parime and the northern Andes. its waters overspread an immense extent of country. Its principal aflluents on the right are the Xingu. The head-waters of the Amazon drain the entire circle of the middle Andes. and decreasing by the end of August. and actually uniting it by the Casiquiare with the channel of the Orinoco on the north. Increased by these aflluents the Guaviere. Meta. When in flood. it takes a circuitous course northwards and then eastwards. and a naWgable course at all seasons of more than 1000 miles. the Japura.water sea.— OCEANIC RIVEB-SYSTEMS — THEIR CHARACTERISTICS. though much impeded by mudbanks and islands. and selvas teeming with the rankest tropical vegetation. Tapajos. The Orinoco the last of South American rivers to which our space will permit us to advert has a basin of nearly 300. would be esteemed important rivers in the geography of other countries. and Putumayo. whose tides flow upwards into its main channel for more than 250 miles.000 square miles. The disposition of the . 187 estuary 200 miles long and 130 broad. its freshening influence is hundred miles out at sea . and will. Many of these tributaries are largely navigable. The counter178. the tidal rise is perceptible at the distance of 576 miles from the felt several embouchure. and Apure. almost connecting its stream by a low portage with the Paraguay on the south. and lowest in July and August. which flow from the sierras of Brazil and the central region and on the left the Eio Negro. 177. one day or other. . river-systems of North America are governed by the Kocky Mountains much in the same way as those of South America are governed bv the Andes. The main stream. Kising in the mountains of Parime. constituting the celebrated llanos of the Orinoco. which thus becomes alternately a fresh. though treated as mere feeders of the Amazon. alternately flooded and covered wnth long rank — — grass. and the Paraqua and Caroni on the right it ultimately finds its way by a perfect labyrinth of mouths into the basin of the Atlantic. on the left. receiving on the one hand several important tributaries from the Andes. Madeira. while. the Amazon is subject to periodical inundation its waters beginning to rise in December. Its annual floods take place — — — — mth great regularity commencing about the end of March. being at their greatest height in March. is navigable for 2000 miles inland. thousands of square miles of the low flat basin are inundated to a depth of 30 feet these flats. become the highway of commerce and civilisation to the fertile and exuberant region through which it flows. Punis. and.

RIVERS. its length is 4260 miles . barren. lies. bein^' less abrupt than that of the Andes. containing every description of soil and scenery prairie. . and the main stream downwards is very little more. but if the Missouri be t^iken as the main stream. Rising in the small lake of Itasca. froin the melting of . and Ohio. the great conjoint basin of the Missouri. with its numerous feeders from the western slopes of the Alleghanies. as the Mackenzie and Coppermine. while that of the Arkanstis is 2000 miles. LAKES. The Rio del Norte. in which they take their rise. Between the Rocky Mountains on the west. and the Ohio more than 1000 miles. during floods. . The Mississippi. larger. we have said.000 square miles. Of these the Rio del Norte and the Mississippi fall into the Gulf of Mexico the St Lawrence directly into the Atlantic and the Saskatchewan and Churchill into Hudson Bay. and having more affluents.MS. having an area of more than 1. on the verge of the middle table-land. — . 179. in which it receives few affluents but as it descends into the lower grounds it gains considerable accessions. Its main tributaries on the right or Rocky Mountain side. and woodland watered by innumerable streams and several navigable rivers and possessing every variety of climate. has its upper course through a desert region. Its drainage area is estimated at 180. and belong to the Atlantic system. but in the main the great river-basins are directed towards the Atlantic. STREA. . at an elevation of 1500 or 1600 feet. and the Red River while on the left its chief tributary is the Ohio. and becomes a natural boundary between the United States and New Mexico. which rises among the sierras of New Mexico. falls through a swampy delta into the Gulf of Mexico. Tlie central plain that stretches from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Sea being divided by a low watershed of 1300 to 1500 feet. Mississippi.188 THE WATER — SPRINGS. having also many affluents. slope of the Rocky Mountains. therefore. gives development to two or three streams of some importance on the Pacific side. from the coldly-temperate highlands of Nebraska to the sub-tropiail warmth of the Gulf of Mexico. and the Appalachians on the east. receiving numerous accessions from either side. a few rivers. after a winding course of 3160 miles. Though gentle.000. The Mississippi (" father of waters ") is by far the largest of North American rivers. — — . . and.210.000 square miles (1.000). has a winding course of 3160 miles. trend northward to the Arctic basin but all the larger and more importiint lie south of this watershed. The breadth of the Missouri and Mississippi at their confluence is about half a mile. the current is by no means sluggish and thus. . it runs southward through the great central plain. . are the Missouri a river even longer. than the Jklississippi itself the Arkansas.

Erie. after flowing from lake to lake with irregular and tortuous courses. under the name of the St Louis. and disproportionate to the encircling areas. and Ontario. . far west in the central lake-region of North America. among the labyrinth of lakes that characterises the extreme northern plain of America. from whence it flows to Quebec. is frozen and icelocked during the winter. it issues from the last by the name of the Iroquois. The chief canon of the Colorado has for the greater part of 200 miles of its length nearly vertical walls from 2000 to 6000 feet in height. The ]\Iissouri is said to be navigable " from the Great Falls in the Rocky Mountains to the sea. creeks. After uniting the Lakes Superior.000 square canons or gorges. of which 94. and pestilential marshes. and by that of Asia on the other. and drains with an arid and rocky area of 170. from its northward trend. but.000 square miles. often of extreme depth. which rises among the sierras of New Mexico. there is not a single stream of importance. The basin of the Saskatchewan is estimated at 300. and. Its estuary is 350 miles long. and thence to Lake Ontario. the rivers sweep downwards immense quantities of mud. alternately contracting and expanding into lake-like reaches. from those of St Anthony. and other debris. 2240 while the Ohio. carries out a water-communication between the Gulfs of Mexico and St Lawrence. descending with impetuous current over waterfalls and cataracts its tributaries miles. and thence by its long sippi. wdiich forms the great water highway to Canada. cutting its way through f ." The delta of the Mississippi. in like manner.000 or more is covered by fresh-water lakes.000 square miles. and. From that point northward to Behring Strait the chief river of note is the Colorado. and full of lagoons. but a large portion of both is occupied by lakes and frozen morasses. which projects itself forw^ard into the Gulf of Mexico. Huron. a distance of 4000 miles the Missis.OCEANIC RIVER-SYSTEMS — THEIR CHARACTERISTICS. Encompassed as the Pacific is by the continent of America on the one hand. Next comes the Columbia. On the American side. with its main tributary the Lewis.000. Its drainage basin is estimated at 297. driftwood. its river-system is altogether peculiar. The St LawTence. being connected by a system of canals with Lake Erie. it is known as the St La\\-rence at Montreal. from Tierra del Fuego to the Gulf of California. find their way to the North Atlantic through Hudson Bay. nearly 14. 189 the snow in the higher latitudes. and that of the Churchill at 73. and ultimately ftiUing into the Gulf of California. 181. The Saskatchewan and Churchill take their rise. and 80 broad at its mouth. 180.000 square miles in area. takes its rise. estuary into the Atlantic. is a low and unhealthy region.

the very shores of the Pacific. we have the Yukon. falls. Cation of Colorado. after a course of more than 1500 miles (600 of which are navigable for flat-bottomed boats). there is no space for the development of rivers . RIVERS. 182. . from the Rocky Mountains. Finally. Columbia. and are flanked by minor hill-ranges. by many mouths. into the Behring Abutting as the Andes and mountains of Mexico do upon Sea. and draining an area computed at 194. traversing tlie Oregon territory. that the Colorado. rising among the ranges of the Rocky Mountains. and. and Fraser make their appearance. On different. and it is only where the Rocky Mountains bend inland. LAKES. and watering the wild but picturesque country of British Columbia. a large but little kno^vn river. draining the inhospitable uplands of Alaska. an equally rapid stream. the the Asiatic side of the Pacific the case is altogether mountains from which the rivers descend being not .000 square miles the Fraser. STREAMS.190 THE WATER —SPRINGS.

receives several large tributaries in its descent. . and Tche-kiang in China. that buttress the plateau of — — . and its basin at 537. The Amoor (Tunguse. and relative position to Japan and Russian Siberia. but being. is likely to become of conThe great rivers of China siderable commercial importance. canals. and other similar changes. while the course of the Yang-tse-kiang ^s 2900 linear. the Hoang-ho (Yellow River). moreover. One of the most notable of these shiftings took place in the Hoang-ho. descending the eastern slopes of Asia. it took a northerly bend. and the Menam and Mekong in Cochin-China all first-class rivers besides a vast number of affluents and minor streams that add to the fertility and importance of that region. and. It drains an area of nearly 583.000 square miles. " Great Water " of the Manchoos. the recipients of abundant rain and snow fall. the Pe-che-le Gulf. Though their main mouths are wide apart. and embankments. Sagalhien. — making their descent between the minor ranges wind with slow and steady flow through the plain of China into the Yellow Sea. instead of falling due east into the Yellow Sea. The burden of sediment which these rivers carry down to the shallow basin of the Yellow Sea is immense and their deltas are rapidly of the Yang-tse. the Hoang-ho. or Yellow River (so called from the colour of its waters) is estimated at 2300 linear.000 square miles and. the Amoor in Chinese Tartary . that within the memory of some Chinese traders. and liable to be flooded and broken in upon by shiftings of the river-courses. and after of the Yun-ling and Pe-ling. or " Black Water ") rises high in the Daurian Mountains. yet they may be said to fall into the same delta their broad navigable streams being united throughout their lower courses by innumerable canals and natural chan- — nels. from the southernmost branch is which enters by channels. what were mere mud-shoals are now fertile — . about 1854.— OCEANIC RIVER-SYSTEMS — THEIR CHARACTERISTICS. when. and on the other into the Sea of Japan. after a course of 2400 miles. intersected — growing into dry land so rapidly. 191 only far inland. the Hoang-ho and Yang-tse-kiang take their rise among the Kihan-shan and Kuen-lun Mountains. from its navigable capabilities. and its drainage area not less than 548. We have thus. The course of Tartary. Yang-tse-kiang (Great River). safety of entrance.000 square miles . Indeed the whole country. north to the Pei-ho or White-River. enters as a navigable river into the land-locked Gulf of Tartary. and now enters the south-western portion of the Gulf of Pe-che-le a deflection caused by the Taeping rebels stopping the dredging in the lower artificial course. and thus affording ample area for development. one alluvial flat. which opens on the one hand into the Sea of Okhotsk. and cutting the embankments at Kae-fung.

. Kising among the Kakhyeen Hills and ranges of Western China. and the — African. The Menam begins to rise in June. rent through a country rich in tropical vegetation while in their lower courses they spread out and enter the sea by several mouths . according as the rivers flow from either of these regions. they are navigable by vessels of considerable burden for 600 or 800 miles. is in full inundation in August. The delta of the Irawady. along witli the Menam. and Indus in India and the .000 square miles. The Asiatic embraces the Martaban. rice-lands. their upper courses are generally through gorges and over rapids their middle courses are long and straight. The river-system of the Imlian Ocean has three separate sections the Asiatic. is navigable for 500 or 600 miles. a great similarity among all the rivers of the Indo-Chinese peninsula.). and Irawady into the Indian Ocean. and other rivers of Further India. the Australasian. these islands are lined with mangrove . Very little is known of their sources or affluents but the Irawady.192 THE WATER —SPRINGS. During is a channel of vast importance to the Burmese empire. vol. The Mekong (" mother of waters ") is a large but little-known river. the season of inundation it spreads to a breadth of 3 or 4 miles. Sitang. occupying the narrow valleys which lie between the parallel hill-ranges of that region.. Sitang. and falling into the Gulf of Siam or Cambodia by a many-mouthed delta. and on its subsidence deposits a thick layer of fertilising mud. runs at the rate of 4 or 5 miles an hour. flow southward in long and comparatively straight courses. through low and gradually increasing deltas. though encumbered in its lower course by mud-banks and islands. Thoiigk frequently shifting their channels. RIVERS. LAKES. and by smaller craft to perhaps double tliat extent. which enters the Gulf of Martaban by a broad and many-branching delta. The Martaban. accoKling to Captain Yule (Geog. draining. and Euphrates in Persia and Asia Minor. and Irawady in Burmah . and cumbered by shoals and mud-banks. and. and independent 183. an estimated area of 216. flowing with a long course between the mountainranges of Cochin-China. Irawady. There is. soon gives rise to a luxuriant and tangling wilderness of vegetation. under a tropical sun. STREAMS. and is heavily laden with sedimentary debris. for instance. the Brahmapootra. Jour. xxvii. Ganges. and flow with considerable curTigris . indeed. is cut up in its lower part into an infinity of islands by a vast labyrinth t)f creeks and channels. or like the Martaban. whether flowing like the Menam and Mekong into the Pacific. which. Sitang. rising in the mountains of Eastern Assam. Within the full tidal influence. which forms a sort of equilateral triangle with a side of about 70 miles.

enter the delta of that river about 40 miles above the sea. Like other tropical rivers. and even far from sea vast tracts of fertile soil remain in a state of nature or aban-with a fringe of gigantic grasses. and there flowing with gentle current. and flows eastward till its union with the Brahmapootra proper. descends rapidly to the plain of India. 193 and further up with forest of a nobler kind. overspreading the plains for hundreds of square miles. lagoons. 200 miles in length and 180 broad at its base. or more very small portion of these sunderbunds is under cultivation. commonly A donment. from the rapidity of its current and the ob- N . which rises at an elevation of 13. runs southward towards Assam. the Ganges and Brahmapootra are subject to annual inundations the floods commencing in April. and from the northern slopes of the Vindhya high grounds on the other. several of the branches of the Gangetic delta are navigable at all seasons for vessels of large draught . has its origin in the northern slopes of the Himalayas. and freshening more or less the whole upper area of the Bay of Bengal.OCEANIC RIVER-SYSTEMS thicket.000 square miles. The Brahmapootra (" offspring of Brahma ") is formed by the union of two main streams.000 feet among the glaciers of the Himalayas. 184. The quantity of water arising from these two causes and brought do\\Ti by the Ganges and Brahmapootra is enormous. but before this influence has reached the low grounds these are %vddely under water from the periodical rainfalls. The more northerly of these.000 or 14. flowing south and westward with a volume considerably exceeding that of the Ganges. which. and the whole delta. mth all its channels. cut transversely the eastern Himalayas. while the main stream can be ascended by smaller craft to the foot of the Himalayas. the Dzangho-chur. the united waters. till it ultimately falls through a many-branching delta into the Bay of Bengal. the Brahmapootra. is estimated at 432. The conjoint area. They begin first to swell from the melting of the snows among the mountains. creeks. it receives numerous affluents from the southern slopes of its parent mountains on the one hand. under the name of the Brahmapootra. — THEIR CHARACTERISTICS. The Ganges. The amount of sediment brought down by these rivers when in flood is also immense . Though liable to sudden shiftings during inundations. and then. Though possessing a large volume. and their respective lengths at 1980 miles. descending from the distant recesses of the Tibetan mountains. After their junction. and mud-islands (sunder- — bunds)j is clearly the offspring of this debris. attaining their maximum about the middle of August. drained by these rivers and their affluents (several of which are larger than the Khine). and continuing till October.

and lower courses. RIVERS. once the seat of an extensive population. fully one-third of which flows through a plain naturally one of the most fertile and exuberant. The annual floods commence with the melting of the Himalayan snows in April. 186. the greater river. " The banks of the Tigris and Euphrates. LAKES. and then forks into a delta 80 miles long by more than 100 broad at its base. covered also in its . and after a precipitous course through the western Himalayas. takes its rise in the higlilands of Tibet. Both rivers flow parallel for a long distance through this beautiful lowland. a distance of 150 miles from the head of the Persian GuK. and thence descend by slow and winding channels through the Mesopotamian plain. and after a long and tortuous course the main river descends in rapids through the Taurus chain into the plain of Mesopotamia. is estimated at 1600 or 1800 miles. civilisation. or Five Rivers. Their conjoint drainage-basin is roughly estimated at 200. discharging itself by many mouths. nearly deserted. is of less importance as a means of internal communication. The development of the Euphrates. Nineveh. The winding course of the river is nearly 2000 miles. STREAMS. which receives their united waters. After their union near the southern extremity of the Suleiman hills. it has. pierce middle course the Taurus chain. where it is aug- mented by the streams of the well-known Punjab.c. and ultimately join at Koma. attain their greatest height in July. middle. distance of 60 or 70 miles. but flows with gentle current through a somewhat arid country for nearly 300 miles. and its estimated drainage 312. 185.194 stiicles THE WATER — SPRINGS.000 square miles. a rapid and dangerous hore^ which ascends the main channels to a . The Indus. the third great river of India. and of art. like the main stream. and terminate in September. and drain a large expanse of upland as well as fertile lowland. the Indus receives no more tributaries of any note. only three or four of which are navigable. The Tigris and its tributaries rise in a — similar manner to the east. These affluents. The Euphrates and its affluents rise in the table-land of Armenia.). The only rivers of importance that enter the Indian Ocean from western Asia are the Euphrates and Tigris celebrated in ancient history. in the highlands of Kurdistan. and industry (Babylon. it is navigable only by vessels of comparatively small burden. are the offspring of the Himalayas. Lying open to the great tidal wave of the Indian Ocean. in its channel. and still flowing through a fine but neglected country. are now. like the Ganges. «&. and both have well-marked upper. however. descends into the plains.000 square miles but owing to the shallow and shifting nature of its mouths.

flow also in meridional courses. only temporary streams and lakes the surplus being carried off by evaporation — — — rather than 188. 195 grass. and Murrumbidjee. Thus the rivers of the Arctic system run more or less meridionally. to be very regular in their rise and fall and attaining their greatest height in June. Australia. while those flowing from their western slopes seem to lose themselves in the great central plains.000 square miles in area. are the only known rivers of note. and its tributaries the Darling. and thus the plains tlirough which they pass are largely occupied by lakes and morasses. 600. and these. for the most part. Atlantic. The Zambesi is the largest and most important. deriving its main watersupply from rains. though roaring torrents during the rains. and consequently their embouchures are open at aU seasons. Lachlan. formerly covered them. on the contrary. by a regular system is of stream and river drainage. but are desiccated and partiaUy obliterated during the season of drought. The rivers that descend the southern slopes of Asia. The Murray. owing to its geological conformation. By the melting of the snows in their upper courses they are flooded before the thaw has reached their lower waters. own and necessarily among members of a system. which form. and North America. which spreads out in plain-like expanses. basins of which they are composed have their characteristics. Pacific. there is still a great similarity. Though the individual so. Europe. flow from warmer to the various embouchures are for a large portion and impervious to navigation. reticulated by streams that flow during the periodical rains. from colder to warmer latitudes. under an admirable system of irrigation. but pass. recent investigation seems to point to the interior of Central Africa as a plateau-shaped plain. with a winding course of 1300 miles. are often reduced to a mere chain of ponds and creeks in the dry season. dependent on the rivers alone for that luxuriant vegetation which. apparently draining an immense extent of inland country. and Indian. 187. On the whole. all their and of the year ice-locked . and rising in the course of two or three days to 20 or 30 feet. is singularly destitute of rivers those descending the eastern counterslope of its hills into the Pacific being mere streams.OCEANIC RIVER-SYSTEMS with brushwood and — THEIR CHARACTERISTICS. world —the Such a brief outline of the chief river-systems of the Arctic. Of the African rivers that enter the Indian Ocean. Those of them that belong to the Atlantic system derive their floods chiefly from the melting colder latitudes." The floods of the rivers are said beginning in March. geography knows too little as yet to offer anything like reliable description.

and includes the Lob. This is the " Basin of Continental Streams " in Asia. which is 82 feet below the level of the Euxine. These and other great courses. . as already mentioned. drains an estimated area of 397. The Volga is the largest river in Europe. or lose themselves in the sand and shingle of the desert. or African continents. Balkash. 189. some similar depressions in Australia and Central Africa. Balkash. Lake — . with its rivers the Oural and Volga. The seas and lakes of this basin. geographical conditions must at once present themselves to the mind of the inquiring student. LAKES. all the basins of the Atlantic system. has a fall of only 633 feet during a course of 2400 miles. RIVERS. Besides the oceanic systems there are what have been termed Continental Systems a few inland basins cut off from all connection with the ocean. . . during which it receives many important tributaries (the Kama. and the rivers that enter the Mediterranean on the other. — — . and other lake-hollows. and. On referring to the map. . while the inundations of those belonging to the Indian system depend partly on the melting of the snows and partly on the periodical rainfalls in their lower sippi With the exception of the Kio del Norte and the Missison the one hand. and constitutes the great internal water-way of Russia. it will be seen that a number of the the Asiatic plateau streams of central Asia run inland to lakes. having no escape for their waters save by evaporation. are the Aralo-Caspian basin in Asia the Utah and Mexican in North America the basin of the Andes plateau in South America and in all likelihood. STREAMS.). and having the equilibrium of their waters maintained by evaporation and absorption. Viatka. Aral. Helmund. run in latitudinal courses . and thus.640 square miles. whether from the American. each passes along the same climatological zone. when better known. &c. and produce the conviction that the idea of river-systems has something more to recommend it than the mere convenience of artificial arrangement. with its main feeders the Syr and Amoo and the Caspian. as indeed of all other continental basins. with their tributary streams the Aral. from their sources to their embouchures. after a long and -svinding course of 2400 miles. .196 THE WATER —SPRINGS. Dead Sea. falls by two main mouths into the Caspian Sea. Of these the most important is the Volga. must necessarily be more or less salt and hence the saline peculiarities of the Caspian. Continental River-Systems —Inland Basins. The chief of these. which rises on the Valdai slopes at an elevation of 633 feet. European. of the snows along their upper courses .

Guadiana. . Geog.000 33.440 29. Garonne.400 48. 440. tinental streams.ABSTRACT OF RIVER-SYSTEMS. Lena. the sheets of water would accumulate till they overflowed their margins. Tagus. Indigirka. m. m. Geog. like other lakes. . Rhine. Oder.160 25.250 24. and others occurring in these so-called " basins of con- Basins of this kind necessarily occur in rainless for were the amount of rainfall exceeding the evaporation.950 28. Saskatche-wran. Albany. Yenisei.100 .. 1276 2400 924. Dwina. Neva.400 500 910 76." flats and plateaux . . Douro. towards the nearest oceanic area.800 924 964 668 380 Atlantic.280 56.530 2400 1280 594. 197 of Utah.000 520. Petchora.800 Obi. . Rhone. Vistula.600 52. Olenek or <Dlensk.960 19. Drainage Basin. Development.. Abstract of River-Systems. 67. .400 106. Anadir. Kolyma.860 39. . and found an outlet.. in.800 550 300 63. .600 73. Sq. Po.360 15. Duna. Ebro.640 41.800 1228 2800 784. Length. Niger. Guadalquii^ir. 380 360 864 600 1664 1154 850 560 Mackenzie. .400 440 800 107. Seine. Loire.000 441. 360..200 23. Churchill. Arctic. Nile.450 22. .000 315 360 280 344 280 320 280 260 200 220 360 240 180 1200 1100 1320 232 248 268 440 700 520 684 480 520 560 440 320 340 400 420 260 1500 1400 2300 552 560 420 Congo..620 21..000 33. .000 520.200 600 1000 86. Elbe.200 65.

Zambesi. . .680 92..600 237. Geog.. . ..000 Danube.. Dnieper. Ganges and Brahmapooti-a. Menam.420 440 360 23. Rio del Norte. 432..200 64.. Kistna... . .200 194.480 312. Lob Lake. Paranahyba. Magdalena.000 830 560 72. .. Essequibo..080 1080 548 169..000 600. . Development Geog.000 1840 1220 180.. Araoor.. Drainage Basin. Connecticut.. La Plata.. Volga...... S......000 193. Lakes are thus strictly terrestrial expanses.400 99. .. Amoo. Yang-tse-kiang.400 170.. Amazon.700 1350 370 292.800 537.198 THE WATER —SPRINGS. .. Orinoco... Sir. . .612.640 53.000 900 550 300 600 800 620 2400 700 640 1200 1400 1000 Lakes and Lacustrine Areas. . Colorado. 582..000 821 900 600 600 540 440 1100 1800 1980 1900 1499 1600 750 690 2200 1500 CONTINEN TAL Systems. Lake is the general term for any considerable body of standing water surrounded by land. in.050 1800 860 297. Don.880 548.000 265 180 8. m. STREAMS... .480 744 566 115. Francisco.. 190.210..800 81.680 960 408 168.000 216.000 177.000 1120 990 284.660 3500 1548 1. Great Lakes and St Lawrence. . Irawady..400 4260 2100 1. Godaveiy. LAKES. and not directly connected with the sea or any of its branches.000 420 350 61. . . Oural.... Mississippi-Missouri.. Kour. Delaware. RIVERS. m. Length..200 1400 870 187.. Columbia. Euphrates.. Tche-kiang. Dniester... Tocantins. Indus... Hoang-ho.000 331. Sq.200 1920 1028 886. Pacific..... and belong to the land as much as the streams . 397. . 1496 880 234.000 195. .000 1200 1550 1150 480 576 512 2400 2900 2300 960 1360 800 India N Ocean.600 270 231 8.

there water will accumulate (unless carried off by evaporation) till it rises above the lowest part of the enclosing margin and flows off by some river-channel. Speaking of the connection between lakes and glacial action. like the Caspian and Aral. and hence their frequency and magnitude in the northern regions of America. in the eastern hemisphere. lie apparently in the deeper wrinkles formed during the compression and partial elevation of the rocks of the Others. of which counterparts are described as equally charCanada. occur more numerously in tracts that have been subjected to iceaction during the "glacial period" of geology some being dammed up in glens by old moraines. far from mountains. When travelling over some of the lower lands in Sweden. like those of depressions of the earth's crust. that lakes. are brackish. I was much struck with the innumerable ponds and acteristic in Finland. In consequence of less evaporation. The i-elation of a certain number of these sheets of water to the . there lakes will accumulate. and the amount of rain and snow fall. like the lakes of Central Africa. from the merest pools to lakes occupying thousands of square miles. the magnitude of the obstruction. having no river of discharge. as compared with other areas. are off merely shallow bays cut from the sea-waters by piled-up bars and sandbanks. at least the smaller of them. Wherever there is a want of decliv- any obstruction to the natural flow of the surface-waters. In this way we may have sheets of all sizes. in the western. regions. and other districts in North America. seem to lie in broad Others. Europe. or A few. They occur in all regions. many great plains. It has been further noticed. and 50° N. they occur also more abundantly in high than in low latitudes . small lakes. and comparatively rare in tropical and sub-tropical regions. and on the lower reaches of loater . and others scooped out as rock-basins — by glaciers. and Asia. having only partial outlets. and rivers that channel its surface. Some.LAKES AND LACUSTRINE AREAS. I have never seen any similar form of the surface south of latitude 40° N. while others. Sir Charles Lyell remarks " that they are common in countries where glaciation occurs. as well as over the coast region of Maine in the United States. Lakes generally consist of fresh but some. and the Hudson Bay territories. but most abundantly on mountain table-lands and plateaux. like the lakes of Central Italy. lie in the craters of extinct volcanoes. Lakes owe their origin to a variety of causes. are salt. 199 is Wherever there a depres- sion of that surface beneath the surrounding country or the bed of the nearest river. like the lagoons of gently sloping shores. and this in proportion to the extent of country. many mountain district. ity.

By similar reasoning other geologists. their waters whilst those they receive may be turbid and laden with impurities. they act as settling-pools for the debris and sediment of the streams they discharge being pure and pellucid. In this way they get gradually silted up. moreover. being fed by springs rising from their bottoms and rocky margins. These are generally of small dimensions—lowland pools. such as lateral may liave and terminal moraines of glaciers. 191. STREAMS. — . Such lakes are more or less impregnated with saline matter . 4. lakes form essential elements of diversity in the landscape. as Professor Ramsay. for not a few of them are dammed up by constituted the barriers of unstratified drift. Those which. the while that their outlet-currents are deepening their channels and forming the means of a more efficient drainage. —subterranean springs and rain supplying the water. Those which have an outlet. 192. fertile dales and vales of long-established regions to perceive how . but receive no running water. like the Caspian and Aral. In this way lakes become important agents in the surface-modification of the land and one has only to cast his eye over the restraining. and for the most part situated in upland districts. — as checks to the too rapid discharge of rivers —retaining for per- ennial supply what would otherwise be run off in a few days. and which form alike the most numerous and most extensive in both hemispheres. and which is brought to Occurring so frequently in the course of rivers. Lakes of this class are also small. LAKES. Those and not unfrequently the craters of extinct volcanoes. RIVERS. mounthat have neither outlet nor inlet off It is usual to arrange lakes into four kinds : 1. glacial period obvious enough. and this saltness must be still on the increase. 2. at the same time that they act as so many reservoirs in which the superabundant supplies of winter are stored up for the increased requirements of summer. but have no visible outlet the balance of level being maintained by evaporation. To whatever class they belong. and form rich alluvial tracts. and perform important functions in the economy of nature. receive streams of running water. In many instances they act tain-tarns.200 THE WATER is —SPRINGS. 3. Those that both receive arid discharge streams of running water. by the long erosion of glacier — action. Exposing considerable surfaces to evaporation. they serve to temper the aridity of their respective districts. account for the occurrence of mountain-lakes in rock-basins these basins having been hewn and chiselled out. the destructive flood rest in their placid areas. or may have been thrown dowTi from melting icebergs when the country was still under water. and evaporation carrying the excess. as it were.

and 1430 feet high and Zurich. 201 mncli of these areas was at one time a mere succession of lakes Biologically. or nearly all. on the other hand. Loughs Neagli. — . 98 square miles. Maggiore 150. and are for the most part tame and unattractive. the . Switzerland. though others of smaller dimensions (Killamey. 74 square miles. which the accumulation of aquatic vegetation and sedimentary matter is year after year converting into alluvial land. — . at an altitude of 1250 feet Neufchatel. in Sweden the latter being only three or four feet above the level of the Baltic. 63. 194. and Sweden. 56. . Onega 3280. Peipus 1250. . Prussia. The more notable in the northern lowland regions are Lakes Ladoga 6330 square miles. . and 1440 feet high Lucerne. . 680. On the contrary. water they have all. consist of fresh . through which the outflowing stream is gradually deepening its channel. Neusiedler . Wetter 840. In the British Isles. and Maelar 760 square miles. 114 square miles. 130. . and affording conditions of existence that no other habitat could supply. and Enara 1200 square miles. and 685 feet. 228 square miles. the drainage of lowland sheets is often slow and sluggish hence a large portion of their areas is little else than morass. 240 square miles. and from their situation and adjuncts are celebrated for their scenery the lowland. and 45 square miles in area. With two or three exceptions (Flatten See. Saima 2000. these fresh-water sheets become the habitats of a peculiar flora and fauna thus extending the range of Life. and Loch Lomond. spread over areas little depressed beneath the surrounding country. 31. The waters of . streams of ingress and egress vary in size from a few hundred square yards to several thousand square miles and all rise slightly with the rains of winter and fall wdth the droughts of summer. Corrib. and 48. strictly so called. The larger Alpine lakes are on the Swiss side Geneva or Leman. or the Boden See. . In Europe there are two main lake regions a highland and a lowland the former embracing the picturesque lakes of Britain. and 22 feet in elevation.). too. at an elevation of 1330 feet while on the Italian side there are Garda 182. . &c. and Italy the latter the numerous sheets that stud the Baltic provinces of Russia. See. The highland lakes generally occupy the deep narrow troughs of mountain-glens. are the largest.: LAKES AND LACUSTRINE AREAS. respectively 150. and thus their dimensions become less and less as the drainage outlet becomes deeper. highland or Alpine lakes are usually retained by rocky barriers. and Como 66 square miles. — 193. Erne. at elevations respectively of 326. . and morasses. Westmoreland. in Russia and Lakes Wener 2130. European lakes. at an elevation of 1230 feet Constance.

This great chasm in part of its lengtli (180 miles) is depressed to an extent which has been variously — . LAKES. and having an area of 26. 1500. commerce. the more important and better known are the Caspian (slightly fresher than the ocean).' occupies the lowest or deepest part of the Ghor. and the Dead Sea. Unlike those of Europe. . or from errors in analysis. and all valuable aids to the internal communication. Van. . an extreme depth of 1308 feet. Besides these may also be noted Zai-zan in Mongolia.202 THE WATER — SPRINGS. 195. 76 square miles. 1800 . the percentage must be gradually on the increase. and TaiHou in China. 360 square miles. and the Trossachs) are better known for their picturesque scenery and associations. . Urumiah (25 per cent of salts). 1000 square miles Booka-nor in Tibet. having an area of 130. RIVERS. the lakes occupy three main and distinctive regions the mountains and plateaux of the central highlands. in Siberian Tartary. at different seasons of the year. 800. 1800 . lake).000 square miles and an extreme depth of 960 feet .000 square miles . having an area of 7000 square miles . accounts differ considerably as to the amount of saline matter held in solution in their waters a difference that may arise either from taking the specimens at different places (some being drinkable at one end. 500 and Tiberias in Syria. The Dead Sea. Of the saline lakes. Erivan in Armenia. Whatever the source of error. the deep valley or fissure which extends from Mount Hermon to the Red Sea. and this peculiarity belongs more especially to those having no river of outlet. 36 feet above sea-level. and none carried off by running water. . salt and undrinkable. In Asia. and containing from 24 to 26 per cent of saline ingredients. . STREAMS.Yang. and at an altitude of 1363 feet and Tong-Ting. 1600 Tongri-nor (nor. many of the Asiatic lakes are salt or brackish. there can be no doubt that where new saline supplies are continually carried in by rivers and springs. 1300 . the alluvial lowlands of China and Siberia. Balkash or Tengiz. and at the other very brackish). and of an exquisite blue colour .500 feet. Lob. and the depressed areas of the Aralo-Caspian and Dead Sea. Poo.800 square miles. ha\ang respectively areas of 2000. with a depression of not less than 1298 feet beneath the level of the Mediterranean. at a depression of 328 feet beneath the Mediterranean. as may be gathered from Robinson's * Physical Geography of the Holy land. the Aral. at an elevation of 10. and 700 square miles. — Respecting these salt or brackish sheets. 1000 . with an area of 14. Of the fresh-water sheets the largest is Baikal (the " Holy Sea " of the Russians). Koko-nor. 1600 Zurrah. and agriculture of that peculiar country. 83 feet beneath the level of the Black Sea.

according as the water is taken nearer or further from the influx of the Jordan.23. save nowhere over 10 or 12 feet. Between the Atlas range and the Sahara. to 1312 feet beneath the level of the Mediterranean. Fittie. The Dead Sea lies about midway of this whole line of depression. from the western flow of their eflluent rivers. of which the largest (Loudeah.) has been so far determined. Dibbie. and several other reservoirs of the Nile. Bangweolo.) lies in Tunis 196. The greatest length of the sea is about 40 miles. without it effort. . &c. or can lie upon the water. and of unknown depth. .. It is most intensely and intolerably salt far more so than sea-water.500 square miles. and leaves behind a nauseous bitter taste. This great specific gravity gives to its waters much buoyancy. &c. : . Indeed. in the equatorial region. and potassium and its specific gravity. as shown by . 9000 square miles in area. as has been proved by Stanley.LAKES AND LACUSTRINE AREAS. In Africa there are several lakes less or more known to geographers but while the internal configuration of that continent remains undetermined. and 3300 feet above the level of the sea Albert. by precipitous cliffs from 1000 to 1500 feet in height the mountains sometimes jutting down into the water. Its greatest depths are from 1080 to 1308 feet. it is impossible to arrange them into anything like systems or areas. magnesium. stand in aquatic it . or sit and — — . In the southern table-land occur many fluctuating sheets Nyassa. &c. 21. in the hilly region of Nigritia the existence of sheets of considerable magnitude (Tchad. 203 estimated at from 1298. — The water of the Dead Sea has a and objects seen through it appear as if seen through oil. and 2720 feet above the sea. slightly greenish hue. and those swept the floods of the Jordan expire the moment they breathe and bitter waters. and persons unable to swim elsew^here can here swim without difiiculty. 150 miles long. but towards the south where — it shoals it is sides. and fed by streams from the former.15 to 1. 2756 feet above the sea. It is surrounded on all the extreme south. form the sources of the Livingstone or Congo. Victoria. It contains from 24 to 26 per cent of saline ingredients chiefly chlorides of sodium. The last two. calcium. 9240 square miles. there exists a series of minor lakes. and 1500 feet above the level of the sea Tanganyika. varies from 1. . and only here and there leaving a narrow strip of pebbly and shingly shore. not unlike Glauber's salts. Its saltness is utterly inimical to life down by its saline contains no fish or shell-fish. of unknown area. of wliich it occupies somewhat less than onefourth part. and its breadth from 9 to 9| miles limits which somewhat vary with the dry and wet seasons of the year. &c.

feet beneath the level of the Ked Sea. and other explorers. but mere marshes and salt pools (salinus) during the period of drought. 198. Lake Gardner. may be arranged into three distinctive regions namely. which after a short course disappears. be mentioned Dembea or Tzana in Abyssinia. In North America the lakes may be said to affect only two main districts a highland and a lowland the former the troughs and depressions of the Kocky Mountains from Panama — . partly by evaporation and partly by absorption into the sandy and arid soil through which it flows. being extensive sheets during the rains. Of the Andean lakes the most remarkable is Titicaca. Stanley. at an and embracing an area of 1400 square the deltic areas of Menzaleh and Mareotis in Egypt . and Lake Torrens. In the lower plains of the Plata. the chances are against the existence of perennial lakes. It is fed by several streams from the Andes. extending to 30 square elevation of 6270 feet. the low plains that border the eastern flanks of the Andes and the still lower river-plains that trend toward the Atlantic. and stamping peculiar features on the scenery. the mountain-glens and depressions of the higher Andes . and that along many portions of the sandy coasts there exist saline and brackish lagoons but we are yet too slenderly acquainted with the interior to speak with certainty as . Among the longer known lakes may . are scattered at occasional intervals over the continent. . in the true sense of the term. life. RIVERS. and the salt-water lake of Assal in Abyssinia. instead of being a thirsty and arid table-land. either fresh-water or saline. and civilisation of the surrounding district. Cameron. — . the Desaguadero. So far as has been gathered from the reports of exploring parties. miles miles. the heart of Africa. STREAMS. such as Lake Eyre.847 feet. and Orinoco there exist many creeks. lagoons. and stagnant areas that appear in the dry season as lakes. Livingstone. for reference' sake. 197. Of the lakes that skirt the Andes on the east. vegetable. and lying in a depression 570 to Australia. and these. and during the rains as one vast area of inundation. With regard we know that certain areas covered with water during the rains are but marshes or mud-pools during the season of drought.204 THE WATER —SPRINGS. embracing an area of 3800 square miles. situated at an elevation of 12. is a well- watered plain. LAKES. to the existence of lakes. In South America there are comparatively few lakes. and animal) unrivalled by any other tropical region. and abounding in products (mineral. many of them are of temporary nature. though numerous creeks and temporary pools. Amazon. but discharges itself by a single outlet. or series of plains. often densely wooded.

Wollaston. Manitoba. at an elevation of 128 feet Maragua. 150 square miles and the Great Salt Lake. . RECAPITULATION. it is still the same vast volume of waters we have to deal with. 3000. and to carry with them a portion of those ingredients which.000 square miles. In the preceding chapter attention has been directed to what be termed the terrestrial waters of the globe that is. 9600 square miles. These are Superior. its appearance on the land being only local and temporary. Deer. and the latter the northgreat central plain from the southern boundaries of Canada to the Arctic Ocean. Michigan. constitute the peculiar saltness of the ocean. 2400. at an elevation of 4200 feet. to the springs. it falls and forms springs and streams. . 2100. 24. 1200 square miles. Of the larger of these boreal. 205 on the south to Columbia on the north. Erie. . 1000 square miles and in the United States. 450 square miles and Yojoa. and a depth of 900 feet.000 square miles. . Utah. 9000 Wimiipegoos. 6300 square miles. and again to course the dry land. forming with that of Canada a lake-region unsurpassed by any other on the globe. 1800 square miles. . and lakes that occur on the land in contradistinction to the great united mass which constitutes the Ocean. with an area of 32. and all but impassable even to the hunter and trapper. 20. Of the lowland section the more important and extensive are the great " fresh-water seas " that form the lacustrine chain of the St Lawrence. and depth 84 and Ontario. But the stream and river are ever hurrying to the ocean again again to be evaporated as fresh water. rivers. altitude 574. 3000. and depth 1000 feet Huron. the presence of which tends to render the region more rigorous in climate. and these by their union give birth to rivers and lakes.. . Though separable in this way. altitude 565. The vapour exhaled from the ocean is conveyed to the land. Besides these. — NOTE. again to fall as rain and snow. where. In the former area the more important sheets are Nicaragua. Athabasca. 1900 and Lake of the Woods. 12. . .000 square miles Great Slave. in Central America Chapala in Mexico. 3500 square miles. streams. there is the immense lacustrine network of the extreme north.000 Winnipeg. and depth 1000 feet. marshy. em section of the . accumulating within certain limits. and depth 500 feet. The rain and snow that percolate may — — . 19. altitude 232. and long-frozen lakes we may enumerate Great Bear. an altitude of 628 feet. . 150 square miles. RECAPITULATORY AND EXPLANATORY. condensed into rains and snows. shallow.000 square miles. altitude 574 feet.

the Utah. and other mineral and metallic substances. or perennial . The river-systems are necessarily named after the great oceans into which they flow . and the land that forms the margins of this channel is known as its banks that on the right hand as we descend the current being termed the right bank. which. By their union. the middle by rapids and cataracts. and the lower by a broad gentle current which often finds its way into the ocean by several branches through a low-lying and marshy delta. impregnated less or more with saline. whose waters flow inwards to certain lakes. It is usual to divide river-courses into upper. the ridge from which the streams of a country flow in opposite directions is the watershed of that region. and all such basins discharging themselves into the same sea constitute a river-system. Where the slopes of a country are pretty uniform.— 206 THE WATER — SPRINGS. through course. temporar}'. middle. the rocky crust reappear at the surface as springs. Pacific. according to their situation. . whose continually augmented volumes constitute one of the most important features in the hydrography of the globe. springs and surface rivulets form streams. and generally speaking. An ideal line. RIVERS. and Indian systems. calcareous. and lower stages the upper being characterised by ravines and waterfalls. cold or thermal and according to the rocky material through which they pass. the Mexican. siliceous. together with a few inland systems whose streams flow towards certain depressed areas altogether cut off from connection with the ocean.. river constitutes its source or rise . according to their temperature. the Atlantic. and from this source. either pure or mineral that is. so several river-basins may descend to the still broader basin of some sea or ocean. STREAMS. These are the Aralo-Caspian basin. the surface waters are at once carried off by streams and windings mouths. the Bolivian. and thus we have the Arctic. LAKES. lies its all its till it finally falls into the sea by one or by many — — . forms the watershed of its basin . intermittent. The highest or farthest-off spring to which we can trace a . As all the streams of a river-basin fall to the lower level of that basin. may be superficial or deep-seated according to their supply. The track worn or hollowed out by running water constitutes its channel. «&c. the left hand the left. chalybeate. connecting the ultimate sources of all the tributaries of a river. unite one with another as they descend to the plains. and are thence carried off by evaporation. and these streams occurring most abundantly in hilly regions. The streams that enter any river or main current from either side form its afliuents or tributaries. and the entire expanse of country drained by a river and its tributaries is said to be the hasin of that river. and there ultimately form rivers.

in the Manual of Modem Geography of Dr Mackay as to hydrographical characteristics in general.196 . Dead Sea. Carb.628 24. . .282 The student who desires more minute details on this portion of his subject will find ample data as to lengths and develop- f Eoyal Physical Atlas of A. calcium. II N .. of 1. . rivers . The following table exhibits the salinity of several of these lakes as compared with that of the Mediterranean . . there they accumulate and form lakes and morasses. of II Mediter.217 1 Br.003 . potash.110 7. Zambesi. the Niger. . magnesium. 1.946 . Sea. . ' . neither receive nor discharge running water while others again receive streams and rivers.063 .011 .322 . 12. . always less or more brackish and saline. .453 1. Sulpli. .123 .252 trace II II .771 1. Indeed... receive and discharge running water being fed by springs and reduced by evaporation. ments of rivers in the * ' as to to^vns ' ' .019 . K.135 .013 . . 2. and Dead Sea. .4.049 .050 . . Azov. like the Caspian.005 . : Percentage of Clilo.55 20. Most of these lakes both but some of a small size.966 . / 3. . Perox. .013 .029 •076 .021 magnesia. considering the attractions which all river-banks present to mankind. The former set of lakes are always fresh the latter. Nile. ..004 .011 trace Br. of iron.882 2. magnesium. Utah.117 22. magnesium. . .008 trace . but have no outlet their surplus waters being carried off by evaporation. and Yang-tse-kiang.130 . Blk. Congo.367 .. there are few things so interesting in geographical descriptions as the ascents of rivers and these the student should lose no chance of carefully perusing. Aral.248 .089 0. .402 .147 0..001 . of lime.036 . . . 207 but where any unusual depression occurs. — .056 . in Das Wasser. . sodium. Johnston and populations which their waters have attracted to their banks. savage or civilised.017 . Caspian. 1.— RECAPITULATION. .193 . of sodium. ..' a German publication of great merit and much information of an instructive kind may be gleaned from books of travel devoted to the exploration of such rivers as the Amazon. . . \ . of lime.768 1.834 .

These gases are admixture or diffusion.XI. as an elastic fluid. the air . and beai*ing on everything organic and inorganic that presents itself at the surface. This special composition is alike indispensable to vegetable and animal life. cold. and What is sphaira. As already stated. and the seas. it is sionally of local merely in a state of . what its capacity for heat and moisture. or 77 to 23 by weight. but ranging from . Both animals and plants breathe. lakes. in the leading features of the — — — — — and temporary impurities. but as an integral portion of the globe. but while carbonic acid is exhaled by the former.) on which the Life of the globe is so intimately dependent ? This varied subject of climatology belongs more especially to the science of Meteorology . the atmosphere and its principal phenomena become important themes to the student of Physical Geography. what are the motions to which.04. directed attention to Land and Water the mountains. 200. and rivers of the other we now proceed to consider the main relations of the Atmosphere or aerial envelope (Gr. together with a small and variable percentage (averaging . rains. table-lands. and occa199. winds. &c. as is also the invisible A-apour which less or more is ever present in the atmosphere. THE ATMOSPHERE —CLIMATOLOGY. the nature and composition of this envelope. tlie Having. a sphere) by which the whole is surrounded. if we may so speak. and partaking in all its motions of revolution and rotation. and generally. the atmosphere surrounding the globe. is an aeriform fluid consisting of nitrogen and oxygen gases 79 parts of the former to 21 of the latter by volume.02 to . what are its conditions as the great medium of climate (heat. it is subjected. and plains of the one.10) of carbonic acid gas. atmoSj vapour. Nature and Constitution of the Atmosphere. preceding chapters.

One of the chief causes of this is the circumstance that only a o . Humboldt found that the barometer stood exactly at 30 inches. The mean pressure of the atmosphere taken at the sealevel is usually reckoned at 14| lb.332 feet. the barometric column will fall in proportion. is still an undetermined problem 200 miles. 209 absorbed and assimilated by the latter.. the air nearest the sea-level. for meteors become ignited in passing through it at the height of 90 and 100 miles. being the test of its heat. where the air becomes too rare and light to maintain respiration. 212 miles. avoirdupois (14.THE ATMOSPHERE CLIMATOLOGY. or to retain sufficient heat for the functions of vitality. may be. while at the elevation of 19. at the sea-level. and may in like manner be taken as a measure of altitude. being equal on all sides. As a general rule. This aerial pressure is balanced by a column of mercury 30 inches in height . at the height of 45 or 50 miles. The pressure or weight diminishing as we ascend. and not mere ebuUition or bubblingup under diminished pressure. which in turn exhale oxygen for the requirements of the animal kingdom. any local variations being too unimportant to affect the general result. and even greater altitudes being given. pressed upon by all the superincumbent mass. and hence also the term barometric pressure as applied to the oscillations of the atmosphere.7304 lb. the temperature of the air decreases in proportion as we ascend above the ordinary surface of the earth. it is estimated that. hence the construction of the barometer. the only inconvenience being experienced at great altitudes (5 or 6 miles). 201. What the absolute height. which sometimes rise above and at other times fall below this normal standard. By this means the balance of composition is harmoniously maintained. is insensible to living beings. Of course. 202. or extension. is denser than that at considerable elevations . ebul- — — — lition takes place sooner.000 feet in the Andes) will produce very different effects— absolute temperature. and by calculating the rate at which this rarity takes place. and this fall (correction being made for varying ejffects of temperature) becomes a convenient measure of altitude. water at the level of the sea boils at the temperature of 212° Fahr. water at 212° and water at 190° (the boiling-point at 13. according to the principles on which the calculations are founded. but as the pressure becomes less. the boiling- point diminishes. Again. Being an elastic or compressible medium. to which he ascended. it fell to 14§ inches. near the foot of Chimborazo.) upon the square inch a pressure which. Thus. the atmosphere becomes so rare or attenuated as to be all but inappreciable and yet not iiiappreciable. under the normal pressure of the atmosphere. as we ascend. and thus.

have nothing to prevent them from gi\ing off what little heat they naturally receive from below into the intensely cold regions of outer space. air is expanded by heat and contracted by cold. the colder and denser air from the surrounding regions rushing in from all sides to supply its place. becomes lighter. The vapour. where the surface of the earth is abnormally heated by the sun's jays. very small fraction of the sun's heat is arrested in its progress through the atmosphere. as it is released from the pressure of its own superincumbent mass. and this in so rapid a ratio that at the altitude of 5 or 6 miles it is all but inappreciable. the following beautiful passages from the pen of our early friend and fellowworker the late Dr George Buist will be fully appreciated by the student whose mind is duly alive to the chain of harmonies that links together the remotest members of our cosmical system " We have already said that the atmosphere forms a spherical shell. so far as its heat and moisture are concerned. In both these ways currents or icinds are generated in the atmosphere. being farthest removed from it. ascend and are diffused through its mass in an invisible state. and this in proportion to the temperature so that in areas of excessive evaporation a similar ascending current is originated. are the coldest. the greater part reaching to. Its upper surface can. by reason of its growing tenuity. and heating the surface of the earth. invisible at first. The humidity of the atmosphere decreases with the height. the air in contact with the ground expands. snows. the vapour or minute watery vesicles generated from the earth's waters by the heat of the sun. With regard to the functions of the atmosphere. and other kindred phenomena. Again. Like all gaseous bodies. and on these currents depend in great measure the essentials of climatic diversity. hence arise fogs. The large amount of watery vapour in the atmosphere acts as a cloak to prevent the free radiation of the heat of its lower strata while its higher strata being almost wholly devoid of moisture. and the heavier air of the colder regions flows in to fill up the vacancy. The effective portion of the atmosphere. becomes visible on being condensed by colder currents . As a property of the gaseous or aeriform nature of the atmosphere. whUe the highest strata. In every region. ^ — — : . surrounding the earth to a thickness which is unknowTi to us. rains. The lowest strata of the air in contact "vvith that heated surface are consequently the warmest. lies therefore within a few thousand feet of the earth's surface. 203. all above the limit of 5 or 6 miles being inoperative or nearly so in the production and regulation of climate. mists. the addition of watery vapour to the air lessens its density. therefore. and ascends into the higher parts of the atmosphere.210 THE ATMOSPHERE — CLIMATOLOGY. .

The date-trees that grow round the falls of the Nile. . and which removes it when combustion is over. — . . But for the atmosphere. in both cases it affords the food of consumption. 211 not be nearer to us than fifty. yet we do not so much as feel its weight. as it revolved on its axis. or from seventy to one hundred tons on us in all. moun- and dash the strongest ships to pieces like toys. . It is in both cases consumed.ITS NATURE AND CONSTITUTION. We should have no twilight to soften and beautify the landscape. more impalpable than the finest gos- cobweb undisturbed. sunshine would burst on us in a moment and fail us in the twinkling of an eye removing us in an instant from midnight darkness to the blaze of noon. it leaves the lightest flower that feeds : buildings. to raise the waters of the ocean into ridges like tains. It is the girdling encircling air that makes the whole world kin. and is thrown off as noxious. bends the rays of the sun from their path to give us the aurora of the morning and t-svilight of evening it disperses and refracts their various tints to beautify the approach and the retreat of the orb of day. it presses on us with a load of fifteen pounds on every square inch of surface of our bodies. and throws them down It again. and in both cases it becomes combined with charcoal. It surrounds us on all sides. and can scarcely be more remote than five hundred miles. which requires it for combustion. When in motion. The carbonic acid with which to-day our breathing fills the air. yet we see it not . tomorrow seeks its way round the world. . no clouds to shade us from the scorching heat but the bald earth. . It warms and cools by turns the earth and the living creatures that inhabit it. when they are required. retains them dissolved in itself or suspended in cisterns of clouds. It feeds the flame of life exactly as it does that of the fire. would turn its tanned and weakened front to the full and unmitigated rays of the lord of day. will drink it in by their leaves the cedars of Lebanon will take of it to add to their stature the cocoa-nuts of Tahiti will grow rapidly upon it and the palms and bananas of Japan will change it into flowers. its force is sufficient to level with the earth the most stately forests and stable Siimer. It draws up vapours from the sea and land. and scarcely stirs the on the dew it supplies yet it bears the fleets of nations on wings around the world. " The atmosphere affords the gas which vivifies and warms our frames it receives into itself that which has been polluted by use. Softer than the finest do\vn. . The oxygen we are breathing was distilled for us some short time ago by the magnolias of the Susquehanna and the great trees that skirt the Amazon and the Orinoco the great rhododendrons of the . and crushes the most refractory substances by its weight. as rain or dew.

of the earth's various regions. In other words. and when his beams fall at a lower angle during the cooler afternoon. the movements of the atmosphere are so broken up and complicated that the winds and rains. far beyond the Mountains of the Moon. Under these circumstances we shall glance merely at the leading features of the atmosphere its heat. but which the lotus-lilies have soaked up from the Nile. When the sun's rays are vertical.212 THE ATMOSPHERE . are rendered extremely variable so variable. older than the Flood. and exhaled as vapour again into the ever-present air. the higher the angle at which the sun's rays strike the earth the greater their heating power. as at A .on the summits of the Alps. that lies buried deep in the heart of Africa. and the lower the angle the less the amount of heat imparted. and this land lying not only in irregular masses but presenting also irregular surfaces of highland and lowland. — As is well known. and this effect gradually declines as we proceed through the temperate zones towards either pole. moisture. or weather-conditions. the inter- changes of heat and moisture between the colder and warmer. when the sun is high above during the scorching noontide. indeed. if we may so express it. We feel the truth of this every summer day. And the causes of these differences are evident at a glance. — CLIMATOLOGY. would have been regular and continuous. or Had the globe presented either one uniform surface of land or one uniform surface of water to the sun's rays. 204. the heat and cold. the and moister regions of the atmosphere." wtis thawed for us out of the icebergs it polar star for ages. the solar rays exercise the greatest effect within the tropics. The rain we see descending which have watched the came from snows that rested. drier — — — Heat of the Atmosphere. Himalayas contributed to it and the roses and myrtles of Cashmere. the superficial or atmospheric temperature of the globe may be \aewed as wholly dependent on the heat of the sun the amount conveyed from within (paragraph 18) or radiated from the moon and other external sources being by far too feeble to have any perceptible influence. In dealing with the subject of climate. and motions as bearing more directly on the climate. gave it out. that Meteorology consists as yet more of collections of facts and approximations to results than of ascertained and definable laws. where they fall vertically or nearly so on the earth's surface. the cinnamon-tree of Ceylon. But the earth's surface being composed of land and water in unequal proportions. and the forest.

on the other hand. there is a gradual decrease in the temperature of the air as we ascend from the level of side of the equator forms a belt within is heat received .). hence the student will perceive the applicability of the terms " torrid. and that it gradually becomes lower and lower as we proceed towards either pole. In this way it has been calculated that the portion of the earth's surface lying between 23° 44' 40" on either which the solar equal to what is received by all the rest of the world .. When the sun has declined to D. as well as by the sun's alternate passage to the northern and southern hemisphere along the course of the ecliptic. at A. it may be received as the first great axiom. Keeping out of view all minor modifications produced by the peculiar disposition of sea and land. 205. the thickness of the atmosphere through which the rays have to pass is immensely increased much more heat is absorbed. and the quantity remaining to heat the surface of the earth at any single locality in the space B E is proportionally diminished." " temperate. Again. the same amount is necessarily spread out over the much larger space B E. As we have already indicated. (see fig. that the superficial temperature of the globe is highest under the vertical incidence of the sun's rays near the equator . At D. receiving a very much smaller proportion than before. each single spot A Figure s/unving the itifluence of the varying inclination of the suns rays." and " frigid " zones. and but little of their heat is arrested it. HEAT OF THE ATMOSPHERE. the all 213 amount of heat represented by the angle B C is concentrated upon the small space B C of the earth's surface. the sun's rays pass through a comparatively thin film of by moisture-laden atmosphere. and this in proportion to the obliquity at which the heat-giving rays fall upon the surface.

firm. moisture. — but. slope. and the following generalisation be adopted viz. "We have thus two great causes affecting the superficial temperature of the globe distance from the equator. it varies primascending from the sea-level at either arily \vith the latitude pole to 15. and though slightly modified by surrounding circumstances. and that in the southern being less determinable in consequence of the greater expanse of Antarctic Ocean. In the case of elevation. in both we will meet with corresponding changes in animal and vegetable life. that there is a decrease. this limit is known as the snow-line. In this way that is. when radiation from the earth begins. and in both we ultimately reach a limit of perpetual ice and snow. The rate at which this diminution takes place depends. and partly radiated into the atmosphere. in consequence of the unequal distribution of sea and land. and dark-coloured soils being most favourable for absorption) and according also as it is naked The or shut out from the sun's rays by a covering of vegetation. The amount absorbed will differ according to the colour. so that at any given latitude it is much the same whether we travel towards the nearer pole or ascend a lofty mountain. 206. while the higher mountains are enveloped in perpetual snow. . &c. heat falling on the land is partly absorbed and conducted downwards into the soil. the sea to higher elevations. at which the air in summer attains the temperature of freezing water . but a variable one. In the case of horizontal extension. as a general fact. on many . and elevation above the level of the sea . goes on as we ascend and.000 or 16. that in the northern (see Map of differs in either hemisphere Isotherms) assuming an irregular course. by a general diminution of the temperature as we ascend the lower plains of a region may be teeming with vegetation. correlative circumstances —dry- ness. Another cause of variation in atmospheric temperature is the difference in the manner of reception and radiation of the The sun's heat by the respective surfaces of land and water. and character of the land (dry. apparently more rapidly in the upper than in the lower strata of the atmosphere. the line of constantly frozen ground. and the heat is arrested by the vapours in the atmosphere. In both we will meet with a gradually decreasing temperature. and a small but also variable increase up to the same height during the night. from Professor Wahl's experiments.. for every 100 feet of ascent during the day up to 2000 feet. for every 300 feet of ascent must therefore be abandoned. currents. The old rule of a regular decrease of 1° Fahr. the decrease — — — — — — .000 feet in the vicinity of the equator.214 THE ATMOSPHERE CLIMATOLOGY. as has been shown by Mr Glaisher's balloon experiments in 1863.

The greater quantity of heat absorbed by serves to retard it. In tropical latitudes. whereas that falling on any zone of the ocean is diffused and interchanged between all the surrounding zones. it becomes. is said. The depth thus affected by summer's heat or winter's cold will differ accord- — radiation . for example. clear sky. As the specific heat of the ocean is much greater than that of the land. on the contrary. the interior of continents is always much warmer than the sea-coasts and adjacent islands. the soil in Siberia. while the greater expanse of ocean in the southern confers on its similar latitudes more of an insular climate. or even a passing mist. while under the equator the sun's influence has been known to extend to the limit of 90 . the heat that falls on the water penetrates to a considerable depth. while it exposes more than thrice the surface to the sun's rays. to possess a continental climate. ing to latitude. may be regarded as confined to a very few feet beneath the surface the slow conducting power of the soil and capillary attraction of moisture from below combining to limit its downward tendency.HEAT OF THE ATMOSPHERE. as affecting climate. 207. a great storehouse of heat for the exigencies of the land. and situation. It is. and accumulates within the upper waters of the ocean. of course. while a cloudy atmosphere. day is given off by night and the amount accumulated during summer is returned to the atmosphere during winter. having unequal distributions of sea and land. 17). by winter. The heat that falls on any zone of the land is absorbed and radiated wholly ^vithin that zone . with its excessively hot summers and cold winters. a continental climate . being never thawed beyond the depth of a few feet. for all practical purposes. deed. The British Isles. on the whole. are difterently affected in their zones of climate the greater extent of land in the northern imparting to it. the superficial temperature of the land. amount radiated the atmosphere differs 215 with almost every passing condition of going rapidly forward under a still. further. soil. It is for this reason tliat islands and seaboards possess a milder and more equable climate than the interior of continents being warmer during winter and cooler during summer. It is also for this reason that the northern and southern hemi- — — — spheres. but. while the interior of Germany. to — this unequal specific heat of land and water that we owe the . it may be safely asserted that beyond 60 or 80 feet the temperature of the earth's crust is Inlittle or at all affected by external influences (see par. On the other hand. as it were. unaffected. with their comparatively cool summers and mild variable winters. is diffused by waves and currents. are thus said to possess an insular climate . as it were.

and becomes visible only when condensed into mists. but most rains. where the sun's heat is the greatest. Moistxire of the Atmosphere. it is mainly owing to the cooling surface of the ocean. immediately above the land is heated to a far higher temperature by terrestrial radiation than that above the ocean. Whatever the temperature of the air. that is The incessantly counterbalanced by influx from other latitudes. It arises alike from land and water. that we owe the great essentials of climatic diversity — the air and ocean-currents. unless where clothed with vegetation. of one region. mists. fogs. whether in the liquid condition of lakes and seas. So great is the evaporation within that zone. currents. This vapour arises and is diffused through its mass in an invisible form. of course. or in the solid state of ice and snow. is rapidly converted into vapour . lakes. form of 209. Surface for surface. within the tropics. and seas in every latitude. varpng from the winds. it is incessantly receiving moisture from the surface of the land and water. It arises from rivers. dew. that it has been estimated as annually sufficient to reduce the surface of the sea to a depth of 12 or 16 feet a waste. copiously and persistently. warmer the air the greater its capacity for moisture. cir- As in the case of other meteorological phenomena. hence the cooler sea-breeze sets in towards the land to restore the balance while during the absence of the sun the more rapidly cooling land-atmosphere sets out as a land-breeze towaKls the more slowly In fine. and moisture of another. but the supply from this source is irregular and limited compared mth that derived from the water. and snows.216 THE ATMOSPHERE— CLIMATOLOGY. salt water is less vaporisable than fresh . from the surface of the water. Any decrease in the temperature of it is said to be saturated. 208. of sea and land breezes. the air in tliis condition reduces its point of saturation the moisture in excess is at once condensed. the vapours and rains. or rain. phenomena During day the atmosphere ^ . unequal distribution of sea and land. fogs. and becomes visible in the — . When the air contains as much vapour as it can retain in the gaseous state. and to the different modes in which these two elements are affected by the sun's heat. the cumstances connected with the production and retention of atmospheric vapour are extremely complicated but in general terms : . of course. but most abundantly. of course. hence a slight check to evaporation from the vast and extended surface of the ocean. The superficial moisture of the land.

either along the — earth's surface. The warmth of our fields and gardens would pour itself unrequited into space. any current of the atmosphere produced by inequality of temperature or density is termed a wind ^the denser and colder air rusliing in to supply the place of the lighter and warmer. 21U. or in the higher strata of the atmosphere. snow. may be stated that heat that a gentle current of vapour as sphere air. The quantity of moisture evaporated from the surface of the globe may differ from day to day. and so rapidly does the quantity diminish as we ascend. " No doubt. the grand promoter of evaporation by removing the pressure of the formed. we may now proceed to its special effects in the production of winds." As previously mentioned. As already explained. CHARACTERISTICS. and other kindred phenomena. While ." says . Understanding the general conditions of the atmosphere as regards its heat and moisture. its . and least between November and March. Professor T\Tidall. and the sun would rise upon an island held fast in the iron grasp of frost.WINDS it —THEIR is air. that at the height of 5 or 6 miles it becomes all but inappreciable. hail. the occurrence of winds is incessant and universal. it is returned again in the state of dew. and therefore the non-luminous heat radiated by the earth. the humidity of the atmosphere is confined chiefly to its lower strata . rains. rain. or number Winds— their Characteristics. and from year to year . 217 . is more favourable than a stagnant atmoretarded by moist and cloudy conditions of the even though the sensation of heat be considerable . like glass. In other words. Aqueous vapour is a blanket more necessary to the vegetable life of England than clothing is to man. and you will assuredly destroy every plant capable of being destroyed by a freezing atmosphere. is conserved or kept in by the vapour surrounding the earth. and that it is that it is amount is greatest between March and November. As inequality of temperature is ever arising alike from general and from local causes. allows the solar heat to pass through it but non-luminous heat. but on the whole. . and for any given of years. Kemove for a single summer night the aqueous vapour from the air w^hich overspreads this country. and the most frequent cause of such motion is disparity of temperature between adjacent districts. " can exist of the extraordinary opacity of this substance to the rays of obscure heat particularly such rays as are emitted from the earth after being warmed by the sun. tinnd is air in motion. Vapour.

079 . a great storm producing universal devastation tearing up trees and sweeping current floating above . . a flowing beloiv from the colder to the is from the warmer to the colder. " Common Appellation. per Square Foot.492 1. and within a few degrees beyond. — away buildings. Light wind.107 1. according to locality and other accompanying conditions.300 17. they have been arranged as follows to their velocity : Velocity in Miles per Hour. Stiff breeze. those blowing at certain periods (the Monsoons. Violent hurricane. West. . One of the most obvious characteristics of winds is their velocity. having different times. Hurricane or tempest.873 12. &c.005 . South-south-west. as periodical. a good sailing breeze of 41. dry or moist. As concerns direction. warm .027 7. 1 4 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 80 100 . . As the homogeneity of the ocean is maintidned by its currents. South. which may vary from a few miles to upwards of a hundred miles an hour and between these extreme rates we have every variety.). These winds.123 .200 Breath of air. Gale. Brisk wind. according to the quarter from which they blow. of 61. according and force. According to meteorological authorof ities.715 31. High wind. Great storm.490 49. gentle or boisterous. and characters. Avoird. and distinguished by various designations. the tropics (the Trades). Or more minutely. Light breeze.075 4. . those blowing constantly in one direction between. Geutle air. East. a gale 14. &c. Brisk breeze. Force in lb. as variable. they are distinguished by the points of the compass as North.. Strong gale. and those obeying no fixed period. a velocity of 7 miles per hour is regarded as a gentle air of 21. are necessarily arranged into different classes. are spoken of as permanent winds. Storm. as a light breeze of 82. from the gentlest zephyr to the most violent hurricane. healthful or unhealthful.429 6. .— 218 THE ATMOSPHERE is —CLIMATOLOGY. And as regards inherent or climatic character. a tempest and of 92. a hurricane.968 3. they are cold or hot. 211. warmer the colder current region. South-west. directions. so the equilibrium and uniformity of the atmosphere is preserved by its winds. As regards times. .

. as the sand-dunes of the sea-shore and the sand-drift of the desert while through the agency of the ocean-waves. man not unfrequently avails himself of their power to turn the wheels and shafts of his machinery. wliile their incessant commotions tend to They preserve the atmosphere in ever-healthful equilibrium. This is occasioned by the fact that the region near the equator is most intensely heated the other zones becoming colder and colder to- nial air -currents are the Trade -Winds influence on the trade or — wards either pole. — Permanent 213. piling up. while in their fiercer demonstrations their track is marked by ruin and devastation. in a great . Geologically. winds are important agents in the production and modification of climate. Under these circumstances. the atmosphere were — . By their impulse the commerce of distant nations is wafted from shore to shore . The most remarkable of the 'permanent. the air of the torrid zone becomes rarefied and ascends. colder There are thus generated two great sets of currents under-currents setting in towards the equator respectively from the north and south. between the land and water surfaces transferring the moisture of the one to the thirsty uplands of the other. are ever sweeping round the globe in a westerly direction. or peren- (so called from their commerce of the world). they are intimately concerned in the production of rains and other aqueous phenomena . are the great bond. constant. 219 212. Winds—the Trades. and fickle and fitful as they may appear. and warm upper-cuiTents flowing off from the equator towards either pole. If. winds have considerable effect in removing. as has been well observed. those currents of the ocean which are ever producing interchanges between the colder and warmer surface-waters of different latitudes. and reasserting all loose superficial matters. then. which are created by their power. In whatever character they occur. &c. within the torrid zone and a few degrees beyond it on either side. ETC. measure. PEKMANENT WINDS —THE TRADES. By their agency the moist and heated atmosphere of one region is transferred to another and on their agency also depend. important changes are produced along every shore of the world. Besides these great climatological functions. In their gentler manifestations they assist in the fertilisation of plants and in the dispersion of their seeds . and the dry cold air of the former to disperse and rarefy the humid and depressing atmosphere of the latter. which. while the colder and denser air sets in from either side to supply the deficiency.

as they glide along the surface. In the Atlantic. But as the polar currents proceed towards the equator. the former is comprised between the 30th and 8th degree of N. the equatorial portion of its surface has the greatest velocity of rotation.wind may — . But as the air.e.— 220 subject to THE ATMOSPHERE —CLIMATOLOGY. lat. and therefore unable to keep up with the speed of the new surface over which it is brought. " revolves about an axis passing through the poles. are not altogether stationary. however. and drag upon it in the direction opposite to the earth's rotation i. the north-east trade. These limits. Hence. the currents of air which set in towards the equator from the north and the south must. and wafting onwards in safety the merchandise of the globe.. and a south vnnd in the southern hemisphere. " Since the earth. As they approach the continents. is only so because in reality it participates in the motion of rotation proper to that part. but depend on the seasons advancing towards the north during the summer of the northern hemisphere." says Sir John Herschel.. and the latter. Thus these currents. no other influence than temperature. so as to become a north-east wind in the northern hemisphere. Within these fluctuating zones. and the 28th of S. and receding to the south as the sun withdraws to the southern tropic. in every point of its progress towards its new situation it must be found deficient in rotatory velocity. In the Pacific. when relatively and apparently at rest on any part of the earth's surface. 214. and a south-east wind in the southern. which but for the rotation would be simply northerly and southerly -winds. which may be estimated at 1000 miles in width. acquire from this cause a relative direction towards the west. and assume the character of permanent north-easterly and south-easterly winds. they gradually come into zones having a greater velocity of rotation." prevail between the 25th and 2d degree of N. and all other parts less in the proportion of the radii of the circles of latitude to which they correspond. lat. at the same time lag or hang back. within the 3d of N. . and thus they assume a more westerly direction (as exhibited in the accompanying Sketch-map). lat. their courses become interrupted. it follows that when a mass of air near the poles is transferred to the regions near the equator by an impulse urging it directly towards that circle. in consequence of the unequal heatlat. the tradewinds are steady and perennial. from east to west. travelling at the rate of from 10 to 20 miles an hour. on the other hand. a north wind would always prevail along the earth's surface in the northern hem/ispliere. be said to while the south-east trade ranges more widely between the 10th and 21st of S.


. which ascends from the tropics. lat. and though many — . but as this is seldom the case. ing of tlie land and water surfaces . If the approaching trades be equally reduced in any locality. is further characterised by the frequency and intensity of its thunderstorms the crossing and collision of currents of unequal densities being favourable to the manifestation of electrical phenomena. augmented by the upward tendency of the highly heated air of that region. and those in the southern hemisphere from the north-ioest . gradually descends as it proceeds but as it passes from latitudes having a high to others having a low rotatory velocity. In the Atlantic. there are certain winds in the higher latitudes The heated air that also blow with considerable continuity. the region of calms is comprised within the 2d degree of north and south lat. portion of this zone near the Cape Verde Isles is known to sailors as the " rainy sea " and is described by M. of little extent and power. which vary in force and direction according as either main current prevails. . according to the seasons. accompanied by torrents of suffocating heat prevails.222 THE ATMOSPHERE — CLIMATOLOGY. and being characterised by the same phenomena as the calm zone of the Atlantic. A . This zone of calms and variables. near Cape Francis and the Galapagos Islands a narrow belt of 300 miles or thereby separating the two trades. and flows off towards either pole. produces a zone or belt of calms. which fluctuates a few degrees north and south. being deflected at certain seasons from their normal directions. and the torpid atmosphere is rain. and assumes a south-easterly direction in the northern hemisphere. a dead calm will be the result . 215. A — — ." In the Pacific. and a north-easterly in the southern. As the north-east and south-east trades approach the equator of temperature. lat. In these latitudes vessels are sometimes detained for weeks. their currents begin to fail. the zone is also characterised by short gusty winds. In this way the prevailing winds in the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere are from the south-west. broken up only by terrific storms of thunder and lightning. disturbed at intervals by short and sudden gusts. hence within these coast-areas they assume the character of periodical rather than of constant currents. as it is termed. which blow from every quarter of the heavens in the space of an hour each dying away ere it is succeeded by another. which are the most persistent of all aerial currents. 216. the region of calms (see Sketch-map) ranges in August between 3° and 12° N. Besides the trade-winds. but in February it extends from 1° 15' to 6° N. it is deflected from its original course. Guyot as " a region doomed to continual calms. and this effect.

wind prevailed on the seaboard.wind. a few days after. found in the circumstance that " The existence of the upper trade. in the North Atlantic. position nents. seems constantly flowing in an opposite direction. again. and had been carried by it from west to east. 217. while the regular trade-wind is blowing from an opposite direction below.000 ft. the volcano of Cosiguina. in the opposite direction to the lower trade-wind. westerly winds are three times more frequent than those from an easterly direction. they were seen to cover the streets of Kingston. in one of its eruptions hurled a column of volcanic cinders to a great height in the atmosphere . In our own islands. threw into the air such a quantity of cinders that the light of the sun was darkened during five days . coming from the west.PERMANENT WINDS causes — THE TRADES. tinuity. even when the north-east trade. we may notice also the lupper west wind of the tropics. on the whole." says M. and in the vicinity of Cape Horn. —tend to disturb this con- still. irregularity of land-surface.wind. Among the constant currents of the atmosphere must also be enumerated the north and south polar winds. and also in the often-observed fact. or anti-trades as they are sometimes termed. &c. the inhabitants of Barbadoes.). In these two cases it is evident that the cinders had reached the region of the upper tradewind. At the summit of the peak of Teneriff'e. saw with astonishment the cinders falling upon their island. And further. while the return voyage requires 40 days . high above the trades. situated 800 miles north-east of Guatemala. ETC. . The volcano of the island of St Vincent. the average packet-voyage from New York to Liverpool is 23 days. The 25th of February 1835. are dust ejected from the volcanoes of the West Indies has fallen on ship-deck several hundred miles to the eastward . are continually flowing north and south from either pole. as an under current almost invariably implies the existence of an upper current in a contrary direction. most travellers have found a west wind." or of the return trade. Proofs of these iipper tropical winds. seems to be proved in the Atlantic. belonging to the lesser Antilles. Guyot. which. " by two facts often cited and very conclusive. which. which has often been doubted. in Jamaica. as mentioned in the theory of the trade-winds. 223 of conti- — unequal distribution of sea and land. that a similar ^vind prevails near the summit of Teneriffe (12. there is a marked predominance of westerly winds. situated east of St Vincent. in Guatemala. the fact must be sufficiently ob\aous to every observer .

moving in a south-west direction across India and China from the Indian Ocean. which in certain countries within and near the tropics blow from a certain quarter for one-half the year. lat. in Arabia it commences a month earlier than on the coast of Africa . and the north-east in the northern hemisphere. the farther from the equator. fifteen or twenty days earlier than on the 219. due to corresponding causes. 10° N. tempests. 8° ZQf N. . the most important are the Monsoons (from the Malay word moussin. In winter we have exactly the reverse of this. In other words. about the 15th of May .other half the period of change being marked by calms. into which the colder and denser air from the surrounding areas flows in a spiral form. blo^ving across north-east Siberia from the north-west. at Bombay. Similar periodic winds or monsoons. .224 THE ATMOSPHERE — CLIMATOLOGY. In summer the great elevated expanse of land in Central Asia becomes excessively heated under the rays of an almost vertical sun. and across India from the north-east. Off Mozambique the trades change to the east during summer and the south-east trade-wind of the Atlantic is changed into a south-west monsoon on the Guinea coast. and seawards in the cold season. and the south-east in the southern hemisphere . Of course. From April to October. the monsoons are but the trade-winds interrupted in their regular action by the — geographical peculiarities of the regions in wliich they occur. and a region of low atmospheric pressure is formed. but from October to April the north-west monsoon blows south of the equator.. occur in other regions but none are so well marked as those of the Indian Ocean. the south-west monsoon commences as early as the 8th of April . the south-west monsoon prevails north of the equator. and in the northern part of Ceylon. signifying seasons). across China from the north. The cause of the monsoons is to be sought in the eflfect produced by the sun during his apparent annual progress from one tropic to the other. coast of Coromandel. and a north-west monsoon off Brazil. . at Anjengo. and thus it happens that in India. on the Malabar coast. 224) upon the warmer areas around. Periodical Winds —the Monsoons. lat. and from an opposite point during the. and variables. the later in the season will the south-west and north-west monsoons occur . The air above expands. The high and dry table-lands of Central Asia become excessively cooled. 218. &c. The winds of Australia blow landwards in the hot months. Of the periodical ivinds. the air above is condensed and flows outwards in a spiral form (see par.

latitudes. and then a cool land-breeze sets out towards the ocean. and these. and thus almost every district has its temporary winds varying in direction. and entering upon it in a spiral manner. and become most decided where this inequality is greatest. 221. tropics. when the sea-breeze again commences. This sea-breeze. becomes rarefied and ascends. these breezes arise from the unequal heating of the land and water surfaces. but most notably. 220.) occur to disturb these currents. within the As formerly explained. But in extra -tropical regions. the variable winds are exceedingly numerous and capricious so capricious. irregularity of surface. due in part to its own p They —the all . that " fickle as the wind " has become an established simile in every extra-tropical country.VARUBLB WIXDS. In some localities they blow only for a few miles within and outside of the shoreline. During day the land-surface. Equally remarkable for their persistency. maintain a remarkable degree causes that may — of permanency or periodicity. extent of these breezes is extremely variable. a thousand causes (as unequal distribution of land and water. partaking of this heat. they are. force. while in others their bracing and refreshing influence is experienced for many leagues in either direction. We say extra-tropical. blows freshly during the night. and the air above it. which occur on almost every seaboard. &c. for within the tropics the trades and monsoons are the prevalent winds. where the force of the permanent winds becomes feeble. 0^^'ing to the mobility of the atmosphere. while the cooler and denser air from the ocean sets in as a sea breeze to restore the equilibrium. and duration. and dies away The towards morning. Fickle and uncertain as they may appear. 225 their areas though local in and limited in their times. as we have seen. the air over the surface of the land becomes more rapidly cooled by radiation than that over the water. are the land and sea breezes. nevertheless. from its low conducting power. Variable Winds. As evening approaches. and the many temporarily affect its temperature and density. and falls away as the sun declines in the afternoon. especially in tropical creases commences about nine in the morning. of course. — atmospheric pressure have their origin in local differences of wind blowing from a region where there is a surplus to one where there is a deficiency of air. gradually inin force till the middle of the day. nature of soil. acquires a more elevated temperature than the adjacent waters. the results of law and lawdirected forces.

that the harvests perish by the moisture . at least. In the southern hemisphere the order of succession is the reverse. ' : . and from east by south to west. or transition winds. until it is established in the direction of that one of the currents which has overpowered the other. on the limit of the same wind. noticed more fully under the heading of Storms (par. a rotation from west by north to east. This will be easily understood if we remember that in advancing along their course the south-west tends always to become more west. while. between the hope of a good harvest and the fear of a dearth. and in this order. gives to our climate one of its most characteristic features. while further east or west the trade-wind will spread the south winds fertility by its beneficent rains. The polar winds will prevail in a country. It has been remarked that a mild winter in Europe coiTesponds frequently to a severe winter in America and Asia while the mildness of the winter in America affords a presumption of a — . and will endanger the crops by the prolonged dryness of their atmosphere . In the place of the conflict of the two currents. only two normal winds that of the north-east. whenever they meet and change places. the wind will then blow successively from three different regions. . which he has called the law of rotation of the ^\4nds. these winds succeed each other in an order always the same. of fair weather and of foul. opposite in character and direction. of dryness and of moisture. that extreme variety of temperature. Nature lavishes all her treasures upon the labourer. " The winds bloMing in other directions are local winds. and that of the south-west the former being the cold polar hurrying towards the equator. properly speaking." Eeferring to the winds of the northern hemisphere. Not only are the variations in the same year considerable. that changeableness. but they are still more so from one year to another. — Thin will be impetus. and changes place. the eloquent author of ' Earth and Man has the following suggestive remarks " This conflict of polar and equatorial winds. 224). It lias been held that in the middle latitudes of the northern hemisphere there are. The system of these currents oscillates from east to west.: 226 THE ATMOSPHERE — CLIMATOLOGY. Or the opposite acquire such a preponderance. and the north-east more and more east we shall see that the result of tliLs disposition ought to be. that uncertainty of the seasons. at a somewhat greater distance. and Professor Dove endeavoured to prove that in Europe. and the latter the warm equatorial trending towards the poles. which always keep the merchant and the farmer in anxious suspense. from one of the general currents to the other . But no one of these transition winds blows for any great length of time. and in part to the rotation of the earth.

and hence the various characteristics assigned to the Etesian Winds (Gr. where its temperature has been noted as high as 120 and 130 degrees. as is kno\vn in the history of Europe. Khamsin (fifty). In Turkey it is called the Samieli. Generally speaking. The wet was such that the harvests failed entirely. a north wind is cold and dry. this southern wind is felt more or less along the whole northern shores of the Mediterranean. ing desert of Africa. Then was revealed the commercial importance of those countries. The Solano (Lat. spheric currents belonging to our temperate countries. and is supposed to originate in the Sahara. etesios. in Egypt. on the contrary. It is for this reason that the westerly and southwesterly winds of Europe are humid and genial. parching wind. did not extend beyond Poland and it was the south of Russia whose corn supported famished Europe for many long months. One of the most noticeable of local winds is the Simoom (Arabic. and receives different names in the respective countries Fohn. 227 The years 1816 and 1817 were marked. and constantly increasing Who does not still remember the immense impulse given since. annual) that prevail very much in early summer all over Europe. it often gives a reddish colour to the atmosphere. especially in certain parts of Asia and Africa. the sun) is a similar south-west wind that occasionally visits the Spanish peninsula." 222. is regarded as a modified sirocco. and thus forewarns the traveller to take shelter from the approach of its pestilential breath. that occurs in most countries bordering on sandy deserts. colder \viiiter on the other side of the Atlantic. blowing from the direction of the African deserts. because it comes from warmer regions. which damaged the corn-crop in Europe while America had an abundant harvest ? These examples alone tell us the important part played in the life of nations by those variations of the atmo. because it usually continues fifty days and in Guinea and Senegambia. and the north and north-easterly hard and ungenial.— VARIABLE WINDS. a south wind is warm and moist. sol. and. that occasionally passes over Sicily and adjacent districts. by a general famine and distress. Harmattan. or great burn- — . previously unknown. in the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere. and which drenched it in its vapours. and passes over a greater extent of ocean . which blew without cessation over the western part of the continent. These major currents are of course much modified in their passage over certain localities. The Sirocco (Arabic) is another hot. hot and poisonous) a hot suffocating blast. to the commerce between Europe and America by the drought of 1846. and for opposite reasons. But the south-west wind. Coming from the arid desert. while. Indeed. for . and laden with the minutest particles.

Pampero is the name given to a violent west wind. its chilling influences far Storms. generally sudden in their . and carries them forward to the coast of the Atlantic. are vast tracts of desolate table-land. descends in spring and early summer from the snow- covered Alps. under the name of A Bise (Fr.). These regions are swept for four months in the year by piercing cold winds (the Puna ivinds) from the snowy peaks of the Cordilleras. known by the name of the Puna.000 feet. between the Cordilleras and enervating influoccasionally causes rapid warm ^ the Andes. 223. SO extremely dry. in Switzerland. as even to prevent putrefaction in dead animal bodies. which are D:4si or Sand Storm. raises whirlwinds of dust. which either recur at tolerably regular intervals. In Buenos Ayres. at the height of 12. which. —over which ences are experienced. traversing the arid plains of the Pampas. The pamperos seem to be portion of the return or north-west trade-winds. In addition to the variable winds already noticed. and in which it and destructive meltings of the Alpine snows and glaciers. there occur in all countries violent commotions in the atmosphere. and absorb moisture with such rapidity in their passage. similar north-east mountain wind. its example. and occasionally carries into the southern provinces of France. or are confined to definite tracts upon the earth's surface.228 THE ATMOSPHERE — CLIMATOLOGY. In Peru. 224.

British storms come from off the Atlantic Ocean— the centre of the storm area passing north of Ireland . is a necessary result of the earth's rotation from west The incoming air-currents start from all directions towards the centre of the cyclone. the cyclone rotates from right to left. as a south-west wind. When rarefied. With very few exceptions. the northerly currents arri\dng with a less easterly velocity than that natural to the area. 229 appearance. and leaving Europe by way of the North Cape or crossing the central parts of Ireland and England.STORMS. and the Baltic. and thus makes its appearance For a corresponding reason. These are usually classed under the general title of Storms. the centre of the storm moving onward at a rate of from 15 to 30 or even 45 miles an hour. Here their mutual pressure causes a calm. and a wind is generated of an intensity proportioned to the difference between the atmospheric pressures. This. and thus form a north-east wind. In the northern hemisphere the rotation of the currents of air in a cyclone is from right to left. and dying away in the . as the velocity of rotation of the earth's surface decreases as we pass from the equator to the poles. appear to lag behind. contrary to that of the hands of a watch. . the wind approaching the disturbed area from the south reaches it with a greater easterly velocity than that of the latitude. JcuJclos. cyclones have a generally progressive movement in some definite direction. and Scotland. gradually ascending as they approach the centre. for a of which is from left to right. and were the earth stationary. Denmark. to east. These incoming currents of air do not pass in straight lines to the centre of the area of low atmospheric pressure. areas. a circle or whirl) while the corresponding outflowing motion from the areas of high pressure is termed an Anticyclone. and they rise and flow upwards and outwards into the higher regions of the atmosphere. This incoming spiral or vorticose movement is termed a Cyclone (Gr. it ascends. and most destructive in their effects. the North Sea. which continues until equilibrium is restored. In addition to this rotatory movement. In this way a gyratory movement of the air is set up. like the direction of the movement of the trade-winds already explained. corresponding reason. The colder and denser air of the surrounding areas at once rushes in from all sides to supply the deficiency. they would all meet and neutralise each other at the centre but . Like all other winds. the direction In the southern hemisphere. they are due to the aerial currents set up by a want of equilibrium between the weight of the atmosphere in adjoining from some cause the air in any locality becomes and the weight of the atmospheric column below is diminished. but circle round it in an ever-narrowing spiral.

area of country affected by a storm is of a circular or ellipti- Figure showing Storms crossing British Islands. plains of Russia The the former direction is by far the more common. cal shape. averaging twice that amount The force of the wind is strictly proportioned . and is seldom less than 600 miles in diameter.230 THE ATMOSPHERE : —CLIMATOLOGY.

and there consequently the winds are comparatively light and gentle. The corresponding hurricanes of the southern . One of these cyclones (or storm-areas of low barometric pressure) is partly seen passing off into the Arctic Ocean to the north of Norway. northward in the wind rushes From — German Ocean. it is clear that the atmosphere surrounding the British Islands is whirling round in a spiral form from left to right. the widening of the barometric lines shows that the atmospheric disturbance is small. To the north and west of Ireland. the Channel. 231 to tlie difference between the barometric pressure at the centre of the cyclone and that of the neighbouring areas where that difference is small. 230) we have a synchronous chart of Western Europe. where they generally follow a north-west course roughly parallel to the curved line formed by the seaward edges of Hayti. They blow with a velocity of from 80 to as much as 150 miles an hour. and are drawn through those points where the weight of the atmosphere is the same. and the difference in the weight of the atmosphere in neighbouring localities consequently very great in amount. to the storm-area of Britain. showing the direction of the ^^'ind. Portions of two anticyclones (or areas of high pressure) are seen in Spain and Austria. and travelling slowly north-eastward along the line C D. In the accompanying figure (Fig. along the dotted line A B. the disposition of the small arrows.STORMS. Cuba. where the barometric lines are crowded together. having previously travelled across the north of Scotland and Ireland. where it is large. while occasional gusts may have a speed of from 100 to 150 miles in the same time. and in central Norway and Sweden. 225. and from these the in. and committing the most fearful devastation in their course. These have been most fully studied in the North Atlantic. the wind increases to a gale. westward in Scotland. and Florida. the resulting breeze is light . hurling the waters of the ocean upon the land. A second cyclone forms a storm-area extending completely round the British Islands. p. and the Bay of Biscay. showing the barometric pressure and the direction of the wind when a storm is passing over the British Islands. in a spiral course. The dark circles represent lines of equal barometric pressure. having its centre about the middle of England. The winds blow their fiercest in the north of England. blowing a velocity of from 60 to 70 miles : an hour. The most violent and destructive of these local storms are the Hmricanes of the tropical regions. it will be seen that we have here evidence of two cyclones and two anticyclones. blowing eastward in the Channel. From the arrangement of these lines upon the map. and to the southward in Ireland.

I. those of the northern hemisphere moving in the contrary direction. 2 ^ / Northern Trcpic / Southern Trcp tion Fig. Fig. and their direction of rotation is determined by the relative strength of the opposing currents.— 232 h THE ATMOSPHERE CLIMATOLOGY. tournar. They gener- ally sweep in a south-west direction parallel with the coast of China. Some of these whirlwinds have their origin in the meeting of contrary winds. The name Typhoon is given to similar hurricanes which occur in the China N. hemisphere cross the central parts of the Indian Ocean in a southwesterly direction towards the Island of Madagascar. from June to October.— General direction and rotation of Hurricanes in the Southern Hemisphere. sand-storms. dying out as they reach the confines of the Indian Ocean.-' Fig. -z. Sea and its neighbourhood. General direction and rotaof Hurricanes in the Northern Hemisphere. The phenomena known as Wliirlwinds. all these hurricanes the same law of rotation obtains as that already indicated the storms of the southern hemisphere rotating with the sun. Fig. &c. In — . 1. are merely local and violent cyclones of small diameter. Tlieir occurrence at sea produces waterspoutSj and on the sands of the desert sand-pillars. Tornadoes (Span. to turn). Others are caused by the eddies formed between the ascending columns of air rising from neighbouring spots unequally heated by the rays of the sun.

. As already stated. and it deposits that portion of its moisture which it is no longer able to retain in the gaseous state in the form of dew. . rains. Mists. The consideration of these subjects belongs especially 226. snows. but as much may be here recapi- tulated as will enable the student to trace their connection with the subject of Physical Geography. Closely connected with the winds. 227. whose exact weight is known. and greatly influenced by them.XII. &c. . . and then to weigh them afresh after they are covered with dew. The lowest stratum of the air in contact with the ground is cooled by it. dew-measurer) but perhaps the most simple process is to expose to the open air bodies like locks of wool. Dew is. The warmer the air the greater its capacity for this moisture hence the greater amount taken up during the heat of the day. THE ATMOSPHERE — CLIMATOLOGY. Clouds. Dew never begins to be deposited upon the surface of any body until its temperature is below the dew-point of the contiguous atmosphere . After sunset the earth loses much of its heat by radiation. Its point of saturation is consequently lowered. in their character to the province of Meteorology. and other aqueous phenomena which enter so largely into the determination of climate. Fogs. therefore. The quantity of dew deposited during any night may be ascertained by a drosometer (Gr. are the dews. insensible vapour to a greater or less amount is always present in the atmosphere as one of its accidental ingredients. the moisture insensibly deposited from the atmosphere resting on the surface of the earth and what is termed the dew-point is that temperature of the atmosphere at which dew begins to be precipitated. Dews. and the quantity deposited depends chiefly .

however.. there will be little or no dewfall. . serenity. " In countries. which comes from the south. surface. cleiir nights are therefore more favourable for the deposition of dew than windy and cloudy ones and all substiinces like glass. grass. tlie humidity. thick and frequent fogs may be ex.234 upon THE ATMOSPHERE — CLIMATOLOGY. and other kindred phenomena. . has a higher temperature than that of the air. 228. The same is the Newfoundland. and rivers. These fogs occur most abundantly along the courses of rivers. But for this beneficent arrangement many intertropical countries would be altogether sterile and barren of vegetation. the dews are most abundant and refreshing. is great. Wlien the temperature of the air is reduced below the point of saturation." Like dews and rains. where the frequent interchange of sun and shower preserves the earth from the extremes of heat and moisture." siiys Kaemtz. pected. and conducting power small. and appears as fogs^ mists. . where the day-heat is excessive. " where the soil is moist and hot. where the air is excessively dry. where the Gulf Stream. and locality of the bodies receivinr. well as on the constitution. the intensity of nocturnal radiation. Still. And in contrast to this it may be noticed that (all other things being equal) the most abun- dant dews occur in the neighbourhood of coasts. the coasts of which are an elevated temperature.' the moisture. and no rain falls for months. the moisture becomes visible. over shoals and banks at sea. are naturmost copiously bedewed while substances like rocks and metals. wool. Bodies freely exposed to the atmosphere are more rapidly bedewed than those in any way screened or sheltered and those near the soil more copiously wetted than such as are placed only a few inches higher. It is thus that the grassy turf is often pearled with dew while the taller herbage is comparatively dry and the open country refreshed when the fall within towns is imperceptible. contract but little dew. It must be remembered. and generally along the sea-boards of continents and islands and this obviously in consequence of the unequal temperature of the contiguous lands and waters. and the air moist and cold. lakes. and tranquillity of the atmosphere. that over arid deserts. no matter what radiating power ally . like Peru. but in tropical regions. fogs exercise a refreshing influence on vegetation and in some counti'ies. This is washed by a sea at the case in England. which possess opposite qualities. whose {IS . on mountain-sides. where the atmosphere is in general more highly charged with moisture. In temperate zones. silk. their occase with the polar seas of . very little dew is deposited . &c.

Clouds have been defined as " masses of visible aqueous vapour which float in the sky. and consequently physical characters. and nimbus. The cirro-stratus is composed of little bands of filaments. CLOUDS. they exercise but an indirect break. The stratus or spread-cloud is a horizontal band. and is by some supposed to consist of frozen vapour or light flakes of snow. and at times a filmy texture of network. the association of which resembles curls of woolly hair. and presents itself in the form of rolling hemispherical masses resting on a horizontal base. MISTS. . FOGS. which at the zenith seem composed of a great number of thin clouds whilst at the horizon. clature in tabular order. These clouds form horizontal strata. assuming every variety of colour and form. and stratus and four secondary or transition sorts the cirro-cumulus. . and passes into the state of nimbus^ or rain-cloud. only when they liail. and to a great extent supplies the place of minfall. a long and very narrow band is visible. where we see the vertical projection. cumulo. ETC.—— DEW. the garuas or sea-mists of that country V>eing for weeks so dense as to wet the traveller to the skin. cirro-stratus. — cumulus. Meteorologists distinguish. resting all but motionless in the thin blue atmosphere. they come directly within the province of the . little rounded clouds which and when the sky is covered with them it is said to be fleecy.stratus. Sometimes these hemispheres are buUt one upon the other. and resemble at a distance mountains covered with snow. When the cumulus clouds are heaped together. and become more dense. according to Luke Howard . three primary sorts of clouds the cirrus. are often called woolly clouds — the sun has sometimes a difficulty in piercing them with his rays. we have." As clouds. Under the name of . snow. It is the highest of all clouds. 235 currence is periodical and regular. which forms at sunset and disappears at sunrise. which often assumes at the horizon a black or bluish tint. more compacted than those of the cirrus for cirro-cumulus are designated those . geographer. according to form. The cirrus or curl -cloud (the catstail of sailors) is composed of thin filaments. or drift through it with the wind. this species of cloud passes into the condition of curmdo-stratus. The cumuhis or heap-cloud (the ball-ofcotton of sailors) is generally a spring or summer cloud. into rain. The latter is distinguished by its uniform grey tint and its fringed edges and the clouds of which it is composed are so compounded Arranging the nomenthat it is impossible to distinguish them. and that and it is effect on terrestrial climate by further condensation. and form those great clouds which accumulate on the horizon.

it must happen (other things being favourable) that the amount of rainfall is greater in warm than in cold latitudes. and snow are thus to a certain extent convertible phenomena. } Intermediate. and greater also in low-lying than in elevated districts. According to M.). 229. Cloud. Cirrus. Rain. As the capacity of the air for moisture increases with the temperature. The capacity of air for moisture decreases at a faster rate than the temperature. 3. l:^Z. 4. THE ATMOSPHERE— CLIMATOLOGY. and at elevations where the thermometer continues below 32°. Pallio-cirrus. 7. Pallio-cumulus. hail. Cumulo-stratus. the atmospheric vapour may be converted into snow . Cumulus. or if rain has been already formed in the upper air. vice or Sno. and carry up the air of the sea and plains into the colder regions of the atmosphere. and thus the mingling of two currents only slightly differing in temperature may so reduce this capacity. rains will occur most frequently where these currents are shifting and variable. but snow only in the colder latitudes. 6. that heavy rainfalls will take place even where there is no great decrease in atmospheric warmth. hail occurring in all latitudes and JLowKain Cloud. Fracto-cumulus. Where the winds are constant and of equable temperature. 5. Cirrus. }' Kain and Rainfall. High Ice or Snow Clouds ^ — Cirro-cumulus. 5. The precipitation of water from the atmosphere in the form of rain depends chiefly on the further condensation of clouds and fogs by the commingling of colder and warmer currents. )> 2.— 236 1. Where the temperature of the air falls below the freezing-point (32° Fahr. . 4. Cirro-stratus. the drops in passing through strata beneath the freezing-point will be converted into hail. ^ Aqueous Vapour Clouds. rain seldom happens. Winds being the great natural agents by which the colder and warmer masses of the atmosphere are brought into combination. Poey: 1. Cumulus. unless at points where these currents impinge on lofty mountains.

. 2. lat. and storms are rare. 231. 230. periodical. which attains a maximum at the sea-shore. however. It is also greater at the sea -level and moderate elevations than it is on lofty table-lands and mountains. 5. 134 and between 50° and 60°. there is more chance of rain being formed. in countries vdih a high barometric pressure.RAIN AND RAINFALL. or where the winds are constant. 1. The moisture of the air. and the annual amount of rainfall greater. since the rainy — . and presenting merely a grassy or rocky surface. . In Britain. and variable winds. such as those in the 30th degree of latitude possess. rainfall depends on the following circumstances 1. Eain increases with the temperature. where the winds are shifting and variable. In proportion as the mercury falls. In like manner more rain descends upon the coasts than upon the central regions of a country the humid air from the ocean gradually parting with its moisture as it is borne farther and farther inland. 3. that though the annual rainfall within the tropics is greater than in the higher latitudes. as many as 161. the form of the soil plays an important part in the production of rain. To these deductions it may be added that a country thickly clothed with forest-growth (other things being equal) receives a larger amount of rainfall than one destitute of wood. Renou. the number of rainy days is stated at 78 between 43° and 46°. Inversely. the student will readily perceive. 103 between 46° and 50°. and decreases as we advance north or south into higher latitudes. 4. Of course. "Why heavy and frequent — . because hot air dissolves more water than cold air. the rains must be much more powerful a fact sufficiently recorded by all travellers in tropical regions. the distinguished French meteorologist. belatitudes. According to M. and bearing in mind what — : — was stated regarding the constant. there is little prospect of rain such regions have a tendency to become deserts. Variations of temperature and irregularities of climate increase the chances of rain. and most numerous in the higher Thus. the number of rainy days is fewest within the tropics. tween 12° and 43° N. while on the east coast of the island it rarely exceeds 25 inches. whilst the circumstances which tend to produce rain in the atmosphere being present to the slightest extent. An ascending concave soil receives a maximum of rain when it is exposed to rainy winds. where the prevalent winds are from the Atlantic. the annual rainfall on the west coast is about 37 inches. for example. tends to produce a maximum of rain. It must be observed. Finally. especially small showers. This cause being constant. . days are fewer in low latitudes. rain is frequent. Understanding these principles. 237 rainftill is greatest For the foregoing reasons the amount of within the tropics.

is excessive. . : — . As much. . 166 Singapore. south of Bombay and in the Khasia Mountains. at the head of the river-flats or jheels of Bengal.' has the following instructive passage " The climate of Khasia is remarkable for the excessive rainfall. . Why almost constant rains should occur in some countries. Referring to the excessive rainfall at Khasia. and the coasts of Peru. and moderate supplies in temperate and milder In the British Islands the annual fall (as ascertained by zones. As may be expected. having an average of less than 47 inches while in tropical countries the mean is upwards of 200 inches. . should be altogether rainless and. . rain-gauge) ranges from 20 to 28 inches on the eastern side. . . and its effects iir carrying oft' the soil and denuding the surface. like the central deserts of Africa and Asia. 75 Bahamas. 106 Rio Janeiro. 232. however. and from 40 to 80 and even 150 inches on the western side. of course. like Guiana while in others showers of excessive violence should occasionally fall. The following are given as approximations of the annual rainfall of certain tropical disIsle of Bourbon. 78 tricts Pernambuco. upwards of 600 inches. 6. . . have been registered by several observers. a wet and a dry 4. 276 in Brazil. the annual rainfall of these different regions will differ very widely and will be attended. . within the so-called zone of calms. — — . or 50 feet. . * : . and the air often gusty and variable 2. in his Himalayan Journal. 56 and Vera Cruz. Dr Hooker has recorded 30 21 inches have been noted at Cayinches in twenty-four hours enne during the same period and 23 inches are not uncommon near Port Jackson in New South Wales. . Why rain should seldom fall at sea within the region of the steady and equable trade-winds 3. . 264 inches fell and that during five sucDr cessive days 30 inches fell in every twenty -four hours. adding to their annual rainfall as much in the space of a few hours as ordinarily happens during the course of many months. Why some regions. . 302 at an elevation of 4200 feet in the Western Ghauts. At the same place.238 THE ATMOSPHERE — CLIMATOLOGY. Why the rains within the range of the monsoons should be periodical. Why the rains in the higher latitudes should occur at no fixed period. . who stated that in the month of August 1841. Attention was first drawn to this by Mr Yule. rainfalls should take place where evaporation . and the year divided into two seasons. 45 Georgetown. by proportionate results heavy falls being beneficial in hot countries (unless they occur with such violence as to denude the surface of the soil). as 229 inches has been noted in Dutch Guiana. Dr Hooker. but be irregularly distributed throughout the year 5. 97 inches Canton. 183 but we still want accurate and more prolonged observ^ation. .

l!!llii .RAIN AND RAINFALL. 239 lll!pilll!lllllllflillll!il!lllli:.

This unparalleled amount is attributable to the abruptness of the mountains which face the Bay of Bengal. while the dry season extends from October till April. the streams have not cut deep channels. it begins earlier in those regions that lie near the equator than in those more remote. . In Africa. tropics the rainy season commences at the shifting of the monsoons and as this change is dependent upon the position of the sun. The limestone alone seems to suffer. and the turbid streams from it prove how rapidly it is becoming denuded. In general terms.240 THE ATMOSPHERE — CLIMATOLOGY. The direct effect of this deluge is to raise the little streams about Churra 14 feet in as many hours. and during the seven montlis of our stay upwards of 500 inches annual fall perhaps greatly exceeded 600 which has been registered in succeeding years From April 1849 to April 1850. from which. the rainy season in the northern half of the torrid zone may be said to commence with April and last till October. as to render a tract which in such a climate and latitude should be clothed in exuberant forest. the rainfall of the globe may be arranged under three great heads the periodical of the tropics. also. the variable of the higher latitudes. — . Owing. and to inundate the whole flat. In India. Thomson and I also recorded 30 inches in one day and night. . the natural drainage is so complete. elsewhere washed away by these rains and I have remarked traces of the same over many slopes of the hills around. and the season of rain from October till April. ever. 502 inches fell. and there is no soil for cultivation of any kind. In the New World." 233. but does not reach Delhi till near the end of June. that no tree finds support. and the abnormal of certain districts where it Within the occurs either in excess. the wet season begins in April and continues till October while in Senegambia it does not commence till June. so sterile. near the equator. and then lasts till November. The great mounds of angular gravel on the Churra flat are perhaps the remains of a deposit. nor have the cataracts worked far back into the cliffs. I . not even of rice. to the hardness of the horizontally stratified sandstone. or is altogether absent. 50 feet thick. howfell. or 50 feet. from which they are separated by 200 miles of j heels and sunderbunds. so that the total inches. however. the rain falls at Panama early in March. Commenting on the periodicity of the dry and the rainy . but it seldom appears in California before the middle of June. Extending the facts alluded to in the preceding paragraphs. In the southern half this order is reversed the dry season embracing from April till October. the rain commences early in May. on the Malabar coast. 234. for instance. — . .

the sky preserves a constant serenity. overspread for a few months with enchanting verdure which furnishes pasture to thousands of animals. the Malabar coast. inundating the earth with torrents of water. Of course. is now.wind blows with its wonted regularity. They occur more and more frequently. On the Malabar coast. mountain-chains. The air is at this time so damp that the inhabitants are in an inThe heat is heavy and stifling. It hurries the vapours to the heights of the atmosphere and the upper limit of the tradewind. the rains diminish. and the heaven shuts its windows once again until the following season. for example. : destroy so great a number of the settlers who have come from the temperate zones. as if by Q . nothing is heard for several days but the rush of the descending rain. the atmosphere becomes once more serene.RAIN AND RAINFALL. especially when the sun is in the opposite hemisphere the air is dry and the atmosphere cloudless. and the earth. which before was withered by the glowing atmosphere of the dry season. the Coromandel coast. But vegetation puts on a new freshness and vigour the desert itself becomes animated. Guyot makes the following lucid and graphic remarks " Whenever the trade. within the tropics as elsewhere. the trade-wind resumes its regularity. the regularity is of the periodical rains land. where they are condensed and fall back in a deluge of and is rain. and the coasts of Australia. the south-west monsoon (coming from the humid region of the equatorial ocean to supply the place of the highly rarefied air of the heated continent) is said to be " ushered in by terrific storms of thunder and lightning. sons of such areas as the east coast of Africa. ical fevers that . In a few days the storm ceases. The water pours down in torrents. Nevertheless. M. the sun in liis annual progress advances to pour down his vertical rays upon other places . But in proportion as the sun approaches the zenith. the trade -wind grows irregular. sudden showers accompanied by fierce storms ensue. 241 season within the tropics. They fall everywhere during the passage of the sun through the zenith. ere long." 235. and the roar of the swelling streams. the body cessant vapour-bath. becomes dull and enervated this is the period of those endem: . it becomes overcast. the Red Sea. The heat is then so violent that the ascending current neutralises the horizontal trade-wind. clouds appear. Such is the normal course of the tropical rains. and turn at length into floods of rain. and when the thunder has ceased. the sky assumes a whitish tint. that mark the times as interrupted by the configuration of the and similar causes hence the peculiarities well as intensities of the wet and dry sea. and a deep azure blue.

when they again return with great violence.. the rains fall at intervals for the space of a month. the coasts of Guinea and Senegambia. in spring and autumn and in others. In July they attain their height. and bright tropical clouds sail tranquilly through the sky. . suddenly clothed with the richest verdure the air above floats pure and balmy. are remarkable for similar phenomena. and the north-east winds borne from the ocean give rise to the long-continued rain-storms of spring and autumn. par. Thus. parts with all its moisture. (See Rain Map. are all notable for their heavy and continuous rains . are distributed throughout the year in a very irregular and uncertain manner. while in the Old World. the West India Islands. Central America. again. in Britain. . most abundantly in summer. 229. and mainly in the immediate neighbourhood of the equator. there are more rainy days in winter than in summer but in Siberia it rains four times as often in summer as in winter. Guiana. In some countries they occur most frequently in winter . and the Indian Archipelago. 237. in thunders and tempests. 242 THE ATMOSPHERE — CLIMATOLOGY. and reaches the eastern side as a hot. the amount that falls in the west of England in winter is said to be eight times greater than that in summer . Again. 236. in some. The south-west monsoon. as it began." On the eastern. In Europe north of the Alps. or Coromandel side. in passing over the Western Ghauts and the central table-land of the Deccan. — . in Grermany the winter and summer amounts are about equal . magic. but in St Petersburg the winter fall is little more than a third of what descends in summer. Brazil.) It must also be noted that in every latitude the rainfall becomes excessive in the neighbourhood of lofty mountains that lie in the course of . . but become variable that is. dry wind and it is not till the northeast monsoon begins to prevail in October that the rainy season is experienced on the coast of Coromandel. the districts of excessive rainfall lie within the tropics. the north-east winds (as coming from the higher and colder latitudes) are comparatively dry while those from the south-west (from the humid expanse of the Atlantic) are warm and laden with moisture. Beyond the tropics the rains no longer occur at stated periods. The countries of Europe bordering the Mediterranean are generally regions of winter rains while those of western Europe are distinguished rather by the abundance of their autumnal rains. In the New World. and from that time gradually subside until the end of September. Eastern Africa. and the shores of the Mexic^m Gulf. . After this. India. As might be expected. the order of things is reversed. when the season closes. On the eastern coast of North America the reverse holds good.

Of the other aqueous phenomena more immediately bearing on climate. and those accumulations of frozen water kno^vn as glaciers and icebergs. and this limit at which it remains unaftected by the heat . arrests the formation of hoar-frost. and occurs chiefly in early spring and autumn. and for fifteen or twenty degrees beyond them in either hemisphere. and when the surface of the earth falls below the freezing-point. snow is unknown and it is only during winter that it falls in the higher latitudes. during serene nights. and Mongolia an almost continuous area. Glaciers. Icebergs. which is often very destructive to tender plants and to buds and blossoms in early spring. and yet at Tolmezzo in the Alps. Whatever prevents the rapid radiation of heat (overhanging foliage. Hoar-frost or white-frost is produced in the same manner as dew. where the moist south-west winds from the Mediterranean are condensed. Except on its borders this vast expanse — is all but absolutely rainless. Of these rainless tracts the more noted are the great desert lands of Africa. As some regions are celebrated for their rainy character. Of course. it becomes perennial . exposed to the moisture-laden winds of the At! . GLACIERS. its heated atmosphere readily absorbing and converting into invisible vapour whatever humidity may be carried towai-ds it from adjacent regions. Snow is the frozen moisture that descends from the atmosphere when the temperature of the air at the surface of the earth is near or below the freezingpoint of water. the limits of a text-book will only permit the briefest allusion to hoar-frost. snow. Snow. while the lowdaUds around receive an average of only 26 and while the Norwegian side of the Scandinavian chain. ICEBERGS. ETC. Arabia. The average fall in the south of Europe may be about 36 inches. the ! experiences little more than 20 Even in our o\vn country. Swedish side where the average fall is less than 40 inches in the plains. receives as much as 82 inches of rain. passing clouds and currents). Persia. varying in breadth from the 15th to the 47th parallel. and in length from 16° west to 118° east longitude.SNOW. and at considerable elevations. and some years more. so others are equally remarklantic. at the sea-level within the tropics. . 238. and at extreme heights in all latitudes. able for the entire absence of rainfall. the fall amounts to 90 inches The summits of the Apennines receive 64 inches of rain. In the polar regions. hail. 243 moisture-laden winds. have been noted in the hilly regions of Cumberland and Argyleshire. upwards of 100 inches. &c.

as also by the falling and and other atmospheric vapours. as was formerly noted in Chap. and this compression will be greatly augmented — by its partial meltings in freezing of rain summer. as well as on peculiar electrical conditions of the atmosphere.CCO 1.000 ^6. on Mountains and Mountain-Systems.000 lO. as the line of jyeriietiial congelation. it will become more or less compressed. according to the nature of the situation. VI.oco ftet. — summer known as the snow-line. which descends constantly. which is an admixsnow and rain. or. it seems mainly dependent on the meeting of aerial currents of greatly unequal temperatures. equator to latitude 30° there is little variation in the height of the snow-line unless there be some peculiarity as regards winds and moisture in the situation but from 30° to 60° the descent is very rapid. but somewhat irregularly. and though the producing causes are not always discernible. It occurs in all latitudes and at all seasons . The lower the latitude that nearer the equator the higher the snow-line. so liail may be described as frozen rain. and of short duration. and the hail or snow from another. as well iis on the surface of all polar lands within the limits of perpetually frozen ground. As snow must accumulate on all mountain-ridges above the snow-line. or of small particles of hail and rain. Falling in pellets from the size of a pea to that of a pigeon's egg. B>leet. The following diagram will convey some idea of its gradual descent from 16. As hoar-frost may be said to be frozen dew. but Inckily are always restricted to .000 From the feet at the equator down to the sea-level at the poles.000 QO° 80° 70° 60° 50° 40° 30° 20° 10° O 10° 20" 30° to 40° 50° 60° 70° 80° 90° Cun<e of the Sncnv-line according Latitude. as we proceed towards either pole. 12.244 of THE ATMOSPHERE is — CLIMATOLOGY. 239.000 ^. and snow frozen mist.000 i__V 2. — i4. is. hail-storms are frequently very destructive. From this ac- . less accurately perhaps. gen- erally occurs during squally weather in spring and autumn. and seems to fall from cloud-strata of different temperatures the rain from one. ture of limited areas. and the limit rapidly approaches the sea-level..

into the valleys and plains below. compression. as they melt away. Junction of Glaciers exhibiting lines of medial Moraines. They originate on the higher slopes. or when rainy weather destroys its adhesion to the surface. though kindred phenomena. on the other hand. In mountain-gorges. or of ice and snow. but on polar lands. the latter smoothing and rounding and striating the whole rock -surface of the country. Glaciers. Some idea of differ — . which are fre([uently precipitated with destructive violence from lofty mountain-ridges. ICEBERGS. 246 cumulation. and re-freezing. The true mountain-glacier and lowland ice-mantle. ETC. they begin to melt and disappear. and there. and leaving mounds of debris (moraines). icebergs. lateral and terminal. losing their support. smoothing the rocks over which they pass. widely in their results the former merely smoothing and grinding a course for itself in the mountain -gorge. glaAvalanches (Fr.) ciers. and other kindred phenomena. like those of the Alps. GLACIERS. are accumulations of ice. arise avalanches. glaciers descend as ice-streams till. rising from 40 to 200 feet above the water.SNOW. where they cover almost the entire surface. are accumulations of snow. and begin to descend when the weight of their mass becomes too great for the declivity on which it rests. Such ice-masses have been met in the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans several miles in circumference. they move downwards to the sea-shore. or on boreal uplands like those of Greenland. and which move downwards with a peculiar creeping motion. and as it moves downward to the shore discharging its broken fringe of iceberg and debris forward into the ocean. coming below the snow-line. the advancing fronts break off and are floated away as icebergs (ice-mountains) and ice-floes (ice-islands). which collect in the valleys and ravines of snowy mountains. and loaded with stones and shingle. like the Alps and Himalayas. or of snow and ice.

As climatological agents. From the polar circles to the poles there were six climes . may be formed from the fact that little more than a ninth of their hulk rises above the water. at 10 degrees lower latitude. snow and ice have considerable influence on the regions in which they occur. and of course contracting in breadth from the equator towards the difl'erences of these climes equator. Within the polar circle. on an average. or. 241. snow forms a warm covering for the soil (the snotv-blanket. also. klima. entangles among its interstices a large amount of air. " Fields " and " packs " of such ice are familiar jjlienomena both in arctic and antarctic waters the bergs of the north being seldom carried — southward in the Atlantic beyond the 44tli ])arallel of latitude. 240. — Causes affecting Climate. the term climate (Gr.246 their size THE ATMOSPHERE— CLIMATOLOGY. Between the equator and the polar circle there were twenty-four such climatic belts each depending on the increasing length of the day (half an hour's increase for each belt). Accumulating on mountain heights. because the depend on the inclination or obliquity of the sphere. the seas and coasts in theii' vicinity being cooled and fogs and rain-storms generated as they In the higher latitudes. and so called — poles.9. of the plains below. Composed of crystals. the specific gravity of ice being only 0. instead of absorbing like the bare ground. dropping their burden of boulders and debris on the bottom of the ocean. the darkness of the long winter is considerably diminished by the snow-sheen or snow-blink snow reflecting. they are the perennial sources of the springs and streams that descend to refresh and fertilise the thirsty lowlands while in tropical countries the winds that pass over them are cooled. In its clination) denotes technical sense. and flow downwards to temper the sultry atmosphere . while those of the south are not unfrequently found northward as far as the Cape of Good Hope. Masses of floating ice are productive of similar results. on the other hand. where the winters are severe. as it is termed by farmers). and greatly defends vegetation from the rigour of the frost. an inan imaginary belt of the globe parallel to the by the earlier geographers. the faint light that there proceeds from the sky. which is a bad conductor of heat. and thus it at once prevents the escape of heat from the earth. by melt away. it their presence. As they are floated by the polar currents to warmer latitudes they melt away. and sets a limit to the depth to which severe frosts can penetrate.

autumn. as the West Indies. that the subject becomes extremely complicated and difficult of determination. — . 247 — the differences of ployed in a tlie longest day in tlieir case being counted of half-hours. winds and rains. 242.CAUSES AFFECTING CLIMATE. again. when that luminary never sets. the amount of heat received main element in climate is the by the sun. to the obliquity of the earth's orbit. direction of mountain-chains. polar circles there is a brief summer period when the sun never sets. on the other hand. as The term is now emembracing the entire weailwrconditions of any district. height above the sea. there are two rainy seasons and two dry seasons within the year. is — . cultivation. In the latitude of Greenwich the longest day is nearly seventeen hours. and the like. and the shortest only seven while within the — . during a portion of which the sun never rises above the horizon. Owing. Within the tropics day and night are all but equal the longest day being little more than thirteen hours. distribution of land and water. yet so many circumstances tend to disturb and modify these conditions. 233) follow the sun. and a corresponding winter season when he never rises. . In some intertropical countries. nature of by monthly periods instead much wider soil. In the temperate zone. however. In the frigid zones. currents of the ocean. and as such we shall now proceed to consider its relations. and this diminishes (par. sense. the regularity of this decrease is alternately interrupted in either hemisphere. and a brief but fervid summer. As repeatedly stated. — . The latter is regarded as the summer. all exert their influence in modifying the weather-conditions or climate of any special locality. as the rains (par. and the former as the winter but they are in direct opposition to the astronomical seasons. the year within the tropics it will be readily understood why divided into two seasons a wet and a dry. From these circumstances it will be at once perceived that the torrid zone is the region of greatest heat throughout the year. 204) according to the latitude or distance from the equator. Latitude. Although the climate of a locality is mainly dependent on its heat and moisture. summer. distance from the ocean. only two seasons are known a long and severe winter. and the shortest nearly eleven. and the respective length of day and night at opposite seasons becomes an important element in climatic diversity. with comparatively little difference between its seasons that the temperate zones stand next in order as regards the annual amount Bearing these facts in mind. the year is divided into four seasons spring. and winter but this regular succession of climatic change can hardly be considered as extending farther than from the 35th to the 60tli parallels.

droughts on the leeward or sheltered declivities.). which. &c. is more rapid in the southern than in the . . and at the same time subjected to seasonal extremes. and Persia. takes place in the lower regions of the atmosphere for every 300 or 350 feet of ascent but at great heights and in extreme latitudes the decrease is more rapid. and in like manner. &c. — — — Germany.) are several degrees colder than the contiguous lowlands and in temperate zones such table-lands experience much greater extremes of summer's heat and winter's cold than the surrounding districts having. insular climates. in this respect. Another great cause of modification is the unequal specific heat of the land and water (par. that the continents and larger islands in the northern hemisphere are warmer on their western than on their eastern sides nected with while in the southern hemisphere the reverse holds good the western being the colder and the eastern the warmer. but experience great difference of temperature during the successive seasons and that the frigid zones are regions of small annual heat. may be noticed the observation of Humboldt. a decrease of 1° Fahr. favours the production of rain on the windward slopes and : — . the decrease of heat. its operation is not altogether uniform. The direction of mountain-chains. Conthis. slopes of the Andes. . Armenia. Zealand. &c. Altitude is the next great modifier of climate. summers of tropical heat and winters of almost polar severity. and proximity to the sea. Armenia. It would exceed the limits of a text-book to describe in detail the many causes concerned in the modification of climates but besides those of latitude. . but owing to many correlative circumstances (prevalent winds. As it is. the latter is about 3^° warmer than the former. intercept the The eastern humid trade-wind? . and Tartary. proximity to the sea. Alps. Tibet. for example. northern hemisphere so that. central Russia. New lias been termed insular and continental climates. by intercepting cold winds. under every latitude the loftier mountains (Himalayas. on a general average. as we depart from the equator. continental ones. Andes. As formerly stated. altitude. 243. by which islands and sea -coasts are rendered cooler in summer and warmer in winter than inland tracts creating what Britain. 206). renders the countries on one side warmer than those on the other . 244. and depending on the set of the trade-winds and ocean-currents. THE ATMOSPHERE —CLIMATOLOGY. . Such is the general climatic order as regards latitude though. like Spain.— 248 . owing to the smaller extent of land. by intercepting moist winds. Bolivia.) are perpetually covered with snow the higher j)lateaux (Mexico. and Tasmania enjoy. slope. received. may be noticed the following 1.

but that it requires a long series of observations to determine the seasonal temperatures of summer and winter.LINES OF EQUAL HEAT. warmth. while cold and dry ones blow from the land. Cultivation has also a marked effect on the climate of a country the felling of forests. as this may lie to the heat of the feebler 3. mitigates the winter climate of western Europe Arctic current. draining of lakes and morasses. 2. The prevailing winds of a region. — — . their counter-slopes on the The general inclination or slope of a district. As with winds. the relative masses and configuration of the land and water greatly affect the climatic peculiarities of a country for as moist and warm winds generally come from the sea. or be turned rays of his afternoon and evening declension. Under circumstances mentioned it in the preceding para- graphs. being all favourable to greater dryness. even though the latter be several degrees farther south and the southerly slope of the valley of the Rhone enjoys direction of river-plains to favourable . by bringing warmth and . and also a careful average of these to ascertain the mean yearly teriiperature of any given . the summer climate and valleys. morning and noonday sun. &c. The westerly reception of the Rhine basin produces a finer climate than the easterly trend of the Danube. . and the like. as these may be cold or warm. 4. so in like manner with the influence of The Gulf Stream. 5. to the Owing to their different specific heat. on the other hand. ETC. The amenities unkno^^^l in the westwardly-trending basins of the Loire and Garonne. eastern. moisture. as they open out winds and ocean-currents. and general amenitv. 6. 7. oceanic currents. — Lines of Equal Heat. 245. the seaboard has a moist and cloudy sky that prevents radiation. while the interior has a serene sky that favours it and lowers the temperature. dry or humid. and consequently interferes with the amount of heat directly received from the sun. will readily be perceived that the belts of climate can by no means correspond with the parallels of latitude. The westerly winds of our own island are humid and warm the easterly are cold and dry hence the greater rainfall and mildness of our western coasts as compared with the . 249 Pacific side are from the Atlantic arid and rainless. tempers the of the eastern shores of North America. and radiation is greater in summer than in winter.


summer heat of an island may be several degrees below that of a continental country between the same parallels. 20°. . but this not being the summer and winter temperature is many degrees higher. and are termed and theros. The difference between the summer and winter temperatures may amount to 2°. winter) and those connecting places of the same mean annual temperature. isotheiinal lines (Gr. 40°. the following passage from Mrs Somerville may be read by the student with advantage " Places having the same mean annual temperature often dift'er materially in climate. and cheimon. of course. In amplification of the preceding remarks on Climatology. St Petersburg. the daily temtemperatures. are the more correct indicators of the general climatic conditions of any given locality. and by imparting its heat to the winds it diminishes the severity of the climate on the coasts and in islands. equal. distance from sea. the . as well as the mean annual temperature of any two places in the same latiIn this way the maximum tude. influence of ocean-currents. England is an example of the first Quebec. and from its saltness does not freeze so soon as fresh water hence the ocean is not liable to the same changes of temperature as the land. summer). isos. In this way. LINES OF EQUAL HEAT. A series of lines drawn through places having the same summer temperature show these variations at a glance. . . and. isos. or all land would have determined case. and their bendings northward and southward (according to distribution of land and water. isocheimonal lines (Gr. In some the winters are mild and the summers cool.) convey to the eye instructive proofs of the operating causes adverted to in the foregoing paragraphs. 251 If the surface of tlie globe of equal altitude. or more degrees of Fahrenheit but the isothermal lines show the mean amount of heat received throughout the year. may differ very considerably. . In the accompanying Sketch-Map the isotherms are laid down for every ten degrees. the mean annual temperature of some island or sea-coast may be equal to that of some inland district situated several degrees nearer the equator. or lines of equal summer heat those through places having the same winter temperature. whereas in others the extremes of heat and cold prevail. locality. altitude. ETC. also. . and the arctic regions are instances of the second. &c. The solar heat penetrates more abundantly and deeper into the sea than into the land in winter it preserves a considerable portion of that which it receives in summer.. the parallels of latitude had been all water. heat). : . isos. cheimonos. while its winter the lines of climate perature. which are never subject to such extremes of temperature as are experienced in the interior of isotheral lines (Gr. and therme.

. RECAPITULATORY AND EXPLANATORY. The difference strikingly exemplified in the high latitudes of the between the influence of sea and land two hemi- in the south. in the temperate zone it is about 60°. the air In consequence of the unbounded extent of the ocean is so mild and moist that a rich vegetation covers the ground. " Professor Dove has shown from a comparison of observations that northern and central Asia have what may be termed a true continental climate both in summer and in Avinter that is to say. while the sea tempers it. and they differ still more from the spheres. as in northern Asia compared with others in Europe or North America. In the two preceding chapters attention has been directed to the Climatology of the globe that is. and that difference increases everywhere with the latitude. At Quebec the summers are as warm as those in Paris. on the contrary. Even in places which have the same latitude. which renders the air dry and cold. As an aerial an admix- ture of 79 parts nitrogen and 21 oxygen. and gi-apes sometimes ripen in the open air. 2 Fahr. in Siberia. 114°." NOTE. and at Yakutsk. and greater in North America than in Europe. a hot summer and cold winter that Europe has a true insular or sea climate in both seasons. . nor to the isothermal or geothermal lines. the difference is very gi-eat. a map through places having the same mean simimer or Annter temperature are neither parallel to one another. parallels of latitude. The main medium its of climate being the Atmosphere. is THE ATMOSPHERE— CLIMATOLOGY. yet the winters In short. it consists of it was necessary to advert to nature and composition as an integral portion of our planet. while in the corresponding latitudes in the north the country is barren from the excess of land towards the Polar Ocean. A superabundance of land in the equatorial regions. — . fluid. the summers being cool and the winters mild and that in Noi-th America the climate is inclined The exto be continental in winter and insular in summer.4. within the tropics. lines drawn on are as severe as those in St Petersburg. tremes of temperature in the year are greater in central Asia than in North America. In Guiana.252 continents. to those weather-conditions on which its vegetable and animal life are so intimately depend- — ent. raises the temperature. the difference between the hottest and coldest months in the year is only 2°. together with a small .

produces condensjxtion into dews. and other kindred phenomena. are denser or heavier than those at great elevations and as its capacity for heat and moisture decreases with its rarity or attenuation. variable and irregular. Constituted as plants and animals are. In their physical characters they are governed and the nature of the region from which they are thus hot or cold. moist or dry. at the sea-level. its lower strata . or by the conUict and commingling of colder aerial currents.— . but mainly owing to the fundamental differences in the mode of reception and radiation of heat by land and water becomes variously heated in its different regions. It is then said to be saturated. and the rise and fall of the barometer according to changes in the weight of the atmoappear. and chiefly locality — buildings. and always holding in suspension less or more of aqueous vapour in a visible or invisible form. and the colder rushing in from all sides to supply the deficiency. as the monsoons and the sea and land breezes and others. 253 but variable proportion of carbonic acid gas. by coming in contact with the colder earth. The winds thus generated assume various directions and physical — — characteristics —the chief cause of modification being the different amounts of heat received by the different zones of the earth. RECAPITULATION. hail. Thus some are said to be constant. and in this state any cooling. by blow. the latter. in counterbalance. sphere. as the trade-mnds of the tropics others periodical. it exerts a pressure lb. . or sweeping as hurricanes that uproot forests and overturn higher latitudes. relaxing or invigorating floating as a zephyr that scarcely disturbs the thistledown. Light and invisible as this aerial envelope may on the earth's surface. . avoirdupois to the square inch a pressure which is balanced by a column of mercury 30 inches in height hence the barometric column of the meteorologist. the atmosphere the light and heat of the sun partly — owing to the varying inclination of the sun's rays. and hence arise winds or aerial currents. this composition is indispensable to their existence the former decomposing carbonic acid and setting free the oxygen. as the Avinds of the . emitting carbonic acid gas and absorbing oxygen. snow. &c. fogs. the greater its capacity for moisture but in every case there is a point beyond which it is incapable of sustaining more vapour in an invisible form. again. As an elastic or compressible medium. As the medium through which are conveyed to the terraqueous surface.. of about 14| — . the warm air of one locality expanding and ascending. the higher regions of the air are colder and drier than those at a lower elevation. These aqueous rains. The warmer the air. traces of ammonia.

Some tracts as the Sahara. in general terms. and within tropical. and Peru are rainless. . The altitude at which snow remains unaffected by the heat of summer (the snow-line) varies with the latitude descending from 14. proximity to the sea. north and south (the snow-limit).— 254 phenomena. tolerably regular and persistent. glaciers. are the great regulators of climate and thus. than their climatological The any causes which affect the climate or weather-conditions of locality are thus extremely varied —latitude. and icebergs — phenomena whose geo- logical influences are not less apparent effects. all more or less exerting their modifying influences. peratures of the earth and air as fogs and mists. according to latitude. though varving from month to month and year to year. however. The perpetual presence of snow and ice on lofty mountain-ridges and polar uplands gives — — . — . and the like hence its great difference. direction of mountain-chains. Nevertheless. Heat and moisture. influence of cold and warm ocean-currents. like the winds on which they mainly depend. from — — the unequal tem- — mies. of course. — — rise to avalanches. varies also according to the distribution of sea and land receding and advancing as either element prevails. and irregular in all the higher latitudes. are almost constant within certain equatorial districts . by more sudden condensation. and at great elevations above the sea in all latitudes. and the like. or all but rainless but in most countries the rainfall. but in polar regions. are all essential to the vegetable and animal econo- —whether descending as dew. It will vary. direction of mountainchains. Arabia. from 100 to 500 or 600 inches.000 or 16. this decrease by no means coincides with the parallels of latitude . Persia. distri- bution of land and water. periodical within the regions of the monsoons . cultivation. its presence is perennial. hail occurring in all latitudes and at all seasons of the year. even on opposite sides of the same island. . Rains. The latitudinal limit. Within the tropics at the level of the sea snow is unknown in temperate zones it falls less or more during winter . THE ATMOSPHERE— CLIMATOLOGY. Mongolia. When the temperature of the air falls below the freezing-point. is. altitude. prevalent winds. Egypt. in the long average. hence. climatological zones may be said to decrease in importance from the equator to the poles. annual falls within temperate zones varying from 10 to 80 inches. proximity to the ocean. nature of soil. fogs and mists are converted into snow.000 feet at the equator to near the sea-level at either pole. and rain into hail snoio being mainly an extra-tropical and winter precipitation. direction of prevailing winds. slope. from unequal temperatures of aerial strata or as rains. to deter.

exhibiting them at a glance by means of vsotheral. I ' 255 numerous thermomonthly. or Buchan's Handy-book of Meteorology. made at hourly. as the essay by Sir John Herschel Dr Thomson's * Elements . To the student who would and enter more fully into the considera- tion of the atmosphere its phenomena. we would recommend perusal of some treatise on meteorology. and yearly intervals.' . daily. isocheimonal or isocheimal. mine the mean temperature of any metrical observations have to be locality. winter. and especially into the subject of climatology as affecting the plant-life and animal-life of the globe. and other lines. ' ' . isothermal.RECAPITULATION. The results of such observations enable the meteorologist to connect places having the same summer. and mean annual temperatures and hence the scheme of .

. and the principal phenomena arising therefrom. jects which belong to the domain of Botany and Zoolog\% and only come under the notice of Geography in so far as they are dependent on external conditions for their position or distribution on the globe. 246. constitute and other vital phenomena some of the most interesting and subtle problems of Philosophy. a little more moisture or a little more drought. the study involved consideration merely of chemical and mechanical forces acting from without now we have to deal . and function of Life form the theme of Biology (Gr. The origin. then. . the animal increases or dies. bios.— XIII. specific change. that. LIFE — ITS DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION. Under the term Life is embraced suball that appertains to the vegetable and animal kingdoms. A little more heat or a little more cold. dependent for or decays. with the superaddition of vital action operating through peculiar organs from within. it is clearly its continuance on the physical conditions by which it is surrounded. and the plant flourishes 247. life) its distribution and external relations become important considerations in tlie study of Physical Geography and the interdependence of Plants and Animals . we now turn to the Life by which they are respectively peopled. nature. Water. It is obvious. their food. Whatever be the nature and origin of Life. Hitherto we have dealt with the inorganic phases of nature we have now to consider the organic. locality. — . In the former case. having regions of . Having noticed the general relations of the Land. Life as affected by External Conditions. The material aspects and relations of nature form the themes of the physicist the vital or organic constitute the study of the physiologist. and Atmosphere. on a globe having different zones of climate.

— . mosses. it thins out towards the poles and densest near the sea-level. shrubs. however. so the consideration of its relations becomes the highest theme of our subject. tribution in time. the main not for these causes there is no reason why the same forms of life should not prevail in every region from the equator to the poles. the physical conditions apparently con- — belongs cerned in their restriction to these areas. can air. What the geographer has more especially to consider is their distribution over certain areas. of external conditions is insuperable. and a few thousand feet beneath it in the waters.LIFE AS AFFECTED excessive humidity BY EXTERNAL CONDITIONS. light.) is employed to designate the plant-life of a region or epoch. life is everywhere present —in the . by the microscope. or even parasitic on and within other plants and animals. different areas of land — — — herbs. its occuris the distribution of plant-life or animal-life in space rence in one or more of the geological systems constitutes its disthe one . Unless. birds. As it is Life that gives to creation its highest interest. and food. and from the shore-line to the darkest abysses of the ocean. its manifestations are sufficiently apparent and even in these situations some forms unknown to observation may find a permanent or temporary home. So far as the eye. in like manner to the province of Zoology. and the dependence of kingdom upon the other. terresinto flowering and flowerless into trees. A few thousand line of greatest intensity. &c. shell -fish. terrestrial. and food. as completing the economy of nature. . And level yet. — —belongs to the province of Botany amphibious &c. grasses. light. For the sake of brevity. or the eye aided perceive. Were it B . soil. The influence. are the great regulators of life or heat. The arrangement of plants into aquatic. lichens. and the term fauna its animal-life hence we speak of the " Flora of South America " and the " Fauna of South America " the Flora This of the littoral zone and the Fauna of the deeper sea-bed. and in the water. fishes. nature of . — and of animals into aquatic. trial. regulators in the ocean. Air. limit this stratum of life on either hand. Thickest at the equator. sea-weeds. among the perpetual snows and ices of the poles and lofty mountain-peaks. and aerial ing. perhaps. nature of bottom. moreover. saline composition. the term fiora (Lat. 257 and regions of excessive drought and havand water life must be as diversified in its nature as the conditions under which it is destined to exist. and into mammals. it is confined to the merest film of the terraqueous globe. it becomes rarer and rarer the more it rises above or falls beneath this . moisture. 248. on the earth. feet above the seaon land. The palm of the tropics would on the land depth. universal as life may appear. reptiles. heat.

however. problems in biological philosophy. obeying the instincts of food. in Australia. and within that position it continues to fulfil its functions so long as the surrounding conditions remain unchanged. inhabit the saline waters of the ocean. These are the subjects of importance to the merchant. and not to that of physical geography. &c. why certain forms should only appear in certain . returning at stated times to repeat the migration. have a more elastic constitution. What more immediately concerns geography. Some tribes have naturally a wider range than others some. and of plants and animals to one another. Every plant and every animal is adapted by nature to the position it occupies. dwarf and die in the temperate zone the whale of the Greenland seas would perish in the waters of the equator the rush that luxuriates in the marsh would wither if transferred to the arid upland the shell-fish that swarm within the influence of the tides would die if submerged to the depth of a few hundred fathoms the fresh water that forms the vital element for one family becomes the poison of another that has been destined to . Of all animals man has the widest range. at all events. the amount and quality of products. migrate from the unfavourable season of one region to the favourable season of another. for instance. —the and the llama in South America — of man. 249. necessities — 250. is one of the most curious. trader. and thus man has been — — . and the possibility of the profitable growth and cultivation of the plants or animals in other countries than those which they naturally occupy. man may never know and. and are capable of enduring greater diversities of climate . and others. The correlations of life to its material surroundings. again. . Many. that lie beyond the scope of our subject. and farmer the determination of the regions of supply. and acclimatised in. procreation. of the domesticated animals and cultivated plants have also considerable elasticity of constitution. . Again. his superior intelligence enabling him to modify and overcome conditions that would be fatal to other creatures. kangaroo. and from the fresh. Why one genus or kind should difi'er from another genus. . 268 LIFE — ITS DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION. and of geological alternations of land and water. as it is one of the subtlest. the inquiry belongs to the subject of biology. other districts for the luxury and regions Africa.water river to the salt-water sea. and the question how far they are capable of being transferred to... is a question involving considerations of origin. the ostrich in while other regions seem equally fitted for their residence. are the existing distribution of plants and animals. the conditions accompanying that distribution.

however. moisture. and its gradual declension as we proceed towards either pole. by transferring. can never extend beyond a mere modification for over and above his control remain the great conditions of heat. and is continually modifying. therefore. . according as his wants and wishes may compel. and this.. temperate. though many species have been so long transferred and retransferred that original habitats. which ever govern the main geographical arrangements of plants and animals and conditions are eA'idently the it . As already mentioned. 259 enabled to carry them along with him over the greater part of the habitable globe. and soil are the principal conditions affecting the terrestrial distribution of vegetable life. few months of high summer heat. &c. this declension is governed more by the isotherms than by the parallels of latitude the mean amount of annual heat being the predominant condition in vegetable distribution. Plant-Life — its Distiibution and Governing Conditions. hence the greatest exuberance of vegetation within the tropics. it is now impossible to point to their While. light. Much. even where the winter cold is intense. therefore. botanists make a minuter — A . 251. light. must ever be borne in mind that man has already modified. In this way we require to distinguish between the truly iindigenous or native products of a country. again. is regulated more by the monthly than by the annual isotherms. and while external main regulators of this distribution.PLANT-LIFE. These conditions have their greatest intensity near the equator . and destroying. and the exotic or imported. His operations. cultivating. this distribution. As might be anticipated. are much more favourable to the maturation of certain fruits and grains than a milder climate where the summer and winter temperatures are less decided. though the amount of summer heat (isotheral) has also much to do with its ripening and perfection. The mean annual temperature of two places may be the same. and yet the summer temperature of the one may be 10° higher than that of the other. and frigid). heat. however. moisture. in Botanical Geography depends upon the amount of heat which a plant receives during the period of its greatest activity. it is to these alone that the limits of a text-book will permit us to refer. The zones of vegetation shading more gradually into each other than the astronomical zones (torrid. there is a natural apportioning of plants and animals to certain areas. while the winter temperature may be 15° or even 20° lower.

more underwood in the forests than in the equatorial zone. sugar-cane. Latitudinal Distribution. the equator. &c. Burmah. include. so may arborescent ferns and species of fig be said to predominate either side of the equator. tlie earth's surface into equatorial. La Plata. bounded by the isotherm of 63°. bread-fruits. tree-ferns. equatorial zone. and Paraguay in the southern hemisphere. Ceylon. and California in the northern hemisphere. and cotton. pepper-shrubs. there being fewer parasites. 253. banians. the southern portion of the Indian peninsula. Paraguay. are typical of this belt. arborescent grasses (canes.temperate. These zones are characterised by palms. They are characterised by a luxuriant growth of magnolias. colder -temperate. gigantic parasites and climbers. for reasons given in the preceding chapter. extending to the isotherms of 73^° on New World. including Columbia. And as palms and bananas may be said to mark the equatorial zone. and South Arabia.). Guiana. myrtles. and the northern parts of Brazil. together with certain palms. Malaya. species of fig. the Southern States of North America. and North Australia in the southern hemisphere. and the like. Madagascar. Syria. silk-cottons. though partaking on either side of the forms that belong to the two — adjacent zones. North Arabia. Peru. the greater portion of which. and part of Mexico in the northern while in the Old World they embrace Nubia. orchids. custard-apples. cinnamon.260 LIFE — ITS DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION. palms. arctic. Persia. bamboos. . the Indian Archipelago. bananas. laurels. Egypt. Northern India. and other Pacific islands in the same latitudes. — in the tropical. Senegambia. coff'ee. Guatemala. and the West Indies. Mauritius. India. sub- warmer. bounded by the isotherm of 79°. and figs. in the Brazil. &c. tropical. Yucatan. and polar each characterised by some peculiar feature. bananas. is wherever moisture is present. sub-arctic. The sub-tropical zones. Bolivia. by its luxuriant vegetation. embrace Southern Africa and Australia. . part of China. New Guinea. and Southern China in the northern. The characterised. Mexico. lies to the north of 252. pineapples. The tropical zones. a large portion of equatorial South America. Succulent stems. large and showy flowers. and Chili in the southern hemisphere and North Africa. subdivision of tropical. . indigo. It embraces the central regions of Africa from shore to shore. 254. the northernmost parts of Australia.

olives. poplar. and never attain . pomegranates. In the Faroe Islands barley does not always ripen. unless where rainless. cactuses. 261 In these zones. spruce. 257. and it were. the north of China. but the turnip and potato generally succeed. and Kerguelen's Land being the only important portions. Falkland Islands." as it has been called. as tropical zone. This " region Deciduous forest-trees. oaks. or those which shed their leaves in winter hence the seasonal contrasts unknowTi in warmer — regions. as well as those of Asia Minor. Grasses. and juniper. 255. spruce. &c. " is of extent than the preceding. and araucarise in the southern." . in the northern hemisphere. larch. zones. larch. are still marked by the absence of palms Europe. of evergreen trees. The suh-arctic zone. The colder-temperate zone. the north of France. limited by 53^°. which become dwarfed. form features in the physiognomy of Iceland in ^beria. acterised birch. this zone. is char. and Japan. zamias. and in the interior of Asia it is perhaps not so easily distinguishable from it as in Europe..— LATITUDINAL DISTRIBUTION. . is in the damp laurel described as delightful. 256. the great zone of deciduous forest-trees. by willow. yew. outlying forms from the sub- and and the vine. vegetation is green throughout the year. are typical of the warmer-temperate in the northern hemisphere shrubby ferns." says Professor Balfour. and expanses of heath adding peculiar features to the area. as regions of the preceding belts. and heaths and on its northern limits. &c. to the size of trees. " This zone. and Iceland belong to . and birch occur.).). The northern parts of Siberia and Norway. being. chestnuts. embraces the wellkno^Ti flora of southern Europe. The cultivation of wheat scarcely extends beyond this zone in the northern hemisphere in the southern it is occupied chiefly by the ocean Tierra del Fuego. Germany forests of coniferous trees pine. &c. oranges.temperate regions of evergreens. The Amentiferae (plants bearing catkins) in these as well as in Iceland do not become trees. figs. common heath. the palmetto of North America. and (fir. and arborescent euphorbias. beech. but are the dwarf palm of the Chilian palm. the Faroe Islands. and the climate. juniper. bounded by the mean annual temperature or isotherm of 42^°. and alder. poplar. The characteristic vegetation of this zone is well seen in that of our — own country. In the northern hemisphere it is the zone of firs and willows in the southern it embraces a few barren islands. They are pre-eminently the lands of the The warmer . and myrtle. grasses. forests of pine. limited by the isotherm of 39°. is. . arborescent grasses. less by coniferous trees (pine.

and characterised by the vegetable productions appropriated to their habitual temperature. and metron. cabbage.. and azalea are not unfrequent. but also as we ascend from the level of the sea into the higher regions of the atmosphere." Thus Humboldt. turnips. The polar zone is characterised chiefly by its flowerless though. cycads. where the ocean alone prevails) is marked by the dwarf birch. for instance. remarks " In the burning plains scarce raised above the level of But the student — . hypsoSj height. of vegetable life as is we proceed from warmer already familiar with the fact that temperature decreases not only as we proceed from the equator towards the poles. &c. according to the authority just quoted. in general terms. 260. rush. is the characteristic distribution to colder latitudes. nor any cultivation of plants for food. cinchonas (Peruvian-bark trees) appear. The arctic zone (which has no equivalent in the southern hemisphere. in describing the South American Alpine flora. saxifrage. after them. plants ^lichens and mosses dwarfed species of ranunculus. and that while the species are few the individuals . rhododendron. and next in succession. during its brief summer. willow. Altitudinal Distribution. the traveller who ascends a lofty mountain passes through a flora much akin to that which marks the successive horizontal zones alluded to in the preceding paragraphs. This ascent hypsametricalj as it is technically termed (Gr. 259. Such. and carrots generally succeed. in lat. scurvy .grass. " through the same series of climates. and willow by occasional pines and firs . In the cold zones it has been remarked that there are more genera and fewer species. bedewed misty clouds. and palms in the greatest luxuriance . 258. which we should do by travelling from the same station to the polar regions of the globe and in a country where very great differences of level exist. we find bananas. — — are numerous. .— 262 LIFE — ITS DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION. At Hammerfest. andromeda. 71°. shaded by the lofty sides of the valleys in the Andes. alder. make their appearance. In this zone there are no trees nor bushes. tree-ferns by cool." says Herschel. . we find every variety of climate arranged in zones according to the altitude (hypsometrical zones). potatoes. " We pass. measure) is marked by analogous belts of vegetation and at the equator. In the American section. by {grasses and by numerous lichens and mosses on its northern limits. . : the Southern Ocean. . so far as temperature is concerned.

oak. we come to aralias (ivies) and myrtle-leaved andromedas (heaths) these are succeeded by bej arias.500 or 19. Shrubs continue in abundance for about 1000 feet more . At 5000 feet the arboreous vegetation of the plains is altogether superseded by such trees as oak. At about 11. and a few grasses. Turnips and radishes on rare occasions.500 feet the forest ends Webb's pine and the Bhojatran birch being usually the last trees. rhododendron. andromeda. and the highest flowering-plants are sedum. In the stony region of the Paramos. and leprarias (lichens). probably a species of : — — — echinospermum. cypress. On the southern face of the mountains the snow-line is probably at an elevation of 15.ALTITUDINAL DISTRIBUTION. consisting chiefly of caragana. The highest dicotyledonous plant noticed was at about 17. species of artemisia.500 feet scanty pasturage being found only in favoured — localities at this elevation corydalis. From 7000 to 11. The European character of the vegetation is here thoroughly established . and are succeeded by large meadows covered with grasses. the representative forms are most abundant. bramble. and pine. on which the llama feeds. In Tibet itself the vegetation is scanty in the extreme. A nettle. Patches of recently-fallen snow now begin to cover the last efibrts of vegetable life. also. potentilla. maple. pine. abounding in resin. horse-chestnut. berberry. 263 When lofty trees cease. to 261. In the Tibet "Ascending. as seen in species of pine. and forming a purple belt around the mountains. through Kemaon. and although specific identities are comparatively rare. ebn. primrose. The cultivation of barley extends to 14." . cruciferae. . on which the lowest tribes of plants flourish. snow begins." . and a few others. we find forms of temperate climates gradually introduced above 3000 feet. with their many-coloured thalli and fructification.000 feet the vegetation becomes almost entirely herbaceous. hazel (growing to a large tree) and many others. is common at these heights. Paramelias.000 feet the region of the Alpine forest the trees most common are oak. &c. We now reach the bare trachytic rocks. Old World similar phenomena present themselves and out of numerous examples we may take the following account of the Himalayan vegetation. The snow-line here recedes to 18.500 feet. the more lofty plants and showy flowering herbs disappear. yew. lecidias.500 feet.000 feet. The first ridge crossed ascends to a height of 8700 feet in a distance of not more than ten or twelve miles from the termination of the plains. and then the line of eternal hospitable zone. and about 12. Vegetation ends at 17. form the flora of this in.000 feet. rose. as observed by Madden and Strachey in their journey from the plains of India.000 feet. are cultivated at nearly 16.

and the oak is unable to maintain itself the birch ceases to grow at an elevation of 4680 feet and the spruce fir at the height of 5900 feet. . charac- by the dwarf juniper. the following belts have been observed 1. At the height of 1950 feet the vine disappears and at 1000 feet higher the sweet chestnuts cease to thrive 1000 feet farther. . and beeches. . &c. The rhododendron then covers immense tracts to the height of 7800 feet and the herbaceous willow creeps 200 or 300 feet higher. to 8400 feet is an Alpine zone. Soldanella alpina. Saxifraga bryoides. zone. : A . trees. Shrubby Region. sweet chestnuts. ^^. and grasses while lichens and mosses struggle up to the imperishable barrier of eternal snow. The zone of vine and maize cultivation. characterised 5. of the vine to about 4200 feet. in the midst of warm vineyards. 4. From the limit of the cultivation of esculent vegetables at 4200 feet to the zone of the spruce-fir. though the variety of vegetation be necessarily wanting.. by the presence of the From 7200 6. for instance. and tread on pastures fringed by borders of perpetual snow. trifidus. be and the lower zones of tropical flora similar phenomena present themselves. Region of Grasses. Hypsotnetrical Zones Scotch terised fir. 2. . Region of Lichens. From the limit of the spruce-fir less. accompanied by a few saxifrages. " We may begin the ascent of the Alps. zone extending from the limit and of the chestnut woods. till we gain the elevation of the more hardy pines and stunted birches. of Vegetation." On the Pyrenees. saxifrage. 3. at 6000 to 7200 feet. gum. gentians. J uncus A zone above 8400 feet exhibits a few . . in like manner. 262. at which limit the cultivation of rye ceases here we meet w^ith box. &c. ^64 LIFE — ITS DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION. beyond which no tree appears. Limit of Peruvian-bark trees. and pass through a succession of oaks. In temperate latitudes.^^ ^ Limit of ordinary large the Vine.

of course. Nor must it be forgotten. 264. and the effect of their greater abundance aloft is shown in animals. &c. Local Distributions. but a greater variety of species than is to found on the northern and darker side. it must be remembered that while some families require full exposure to these influences. 263. as RaniTnciilus glacialis. that the quality of the sun's rays is affected alike by altitude and the nature of the atmosphere (clear. cerastoides. slope. and Saxifraga Groenlandica. colours. it is the diminished it is at all appreciable temperature at such altitudes being the main cause of change in the plant-life of such situations." As to the effects of density. questionable whether : — . are nevertheless equally imperative. Stellaria Draba Androsace alpina.LOCAL DISTRIBUTIONS. though less general. And yet. is as well marked on the fossil trunks of the Carboniferous and Jurassic epochs as on the concentric layers of the modern flora. 265 nivalis. as dependent on latitude and altitude. exposed to the full influence of the sun's rays. ." says Sir J. Besides the great governing conditions of temperature. Again. partly from the mere mechanical nature or texture of the soil. than the northern and so unfailing is the con. influencing their luxuriance. moisture. in general terms. the influence of soil is equally observable hence we seek in vain on the clayey moorland for the species that form the rich and verdant carpeting of the calcareous district or on the thirsty sand-dunes by the sea-shore for the flora that flourishes so freely on the alluvial meadow. others luxuriate only in the shade. The accompanying sketch exhibits. Herschel. nature of soil. which. from the sea-level at the equator to the limit of perpetual snow. " are powerfully absorbed in passing through the atmosphere. as already noticed under Climatology. and secretions. there are others arising from light. exhibit not only a greater profusion of foliage and blossom. or dense and foggy) through which they pass and hence the difference of their influence on plants and tinuity of nature that this effect of insulation . though heat and light are so indispensable in the economy of vegetable life. Even the southern side of a tree will make a larger amount of annual growth.. The southern slopes of a mountain-range. This influence arises. or pressure at great heights. Alpine species. and present a greater exuberance of flower and fruit. the superior brilliancy of colour in the flowers of Alpine regions. the order of these ascending zones of vegetation. " The chemical rays of the spectrum.

and between zones of summer rains. It is owing to this influence of moisture that botanists distinguish between rainy and rainless regions. others lakes and rivers. Oceanic Distribution— Horizontal and Batbymetrical. The North Atlantic. while humid regions. arid tracts being comparatively barren. and some. — mudflat. Further. Every geologist has noted the difference of vegetation on the different rock-formations of a — country. to the breath of the sea-breeze. horizontal and vertical. wheat-soils. — . season. though. direct The effect of moisture on the distribution of vegetation is and perceptible. like South America. the ocean has been divided into certain botanical provinces of which our limits will merely permit the enumera1. from the pole to the 60th parallel. As plants have a fixed and natural distribution on land. the marsh and — — . winter rains. and turnip-soils certain peculiarities of soil being most favourable to certain peculiarities of husbandry and rotation. being characterised by a predominance and luxuriance of certain species and the skilled farmer talks of hop-soils. each belt of limestone or clay. some plants are truly littoral. lying so also they in the waters . Even in tropical countries.a 266 LIFE — ITS DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION. Horizontally. — — . 266. in consequence of the greater uniformity of temperature. there is a natural adaptation of certain forms to moist situations and for this reason we have plants some inhabiting the sea. tion the 2. The Northern Ocean. and partly also from chemical composition the plant deriving therefrom cei-tain ingredients which are necessary to the healthful growth and elaboration of its tissues and secretions. are 265. and corresponds to the winter of temperate zones vegetation being dormant till the rainy season returns and once more renews its growth and foliage. noted for their luxuriance. and flourish only (like the mangrove and cocoa-palm) within the influence of the sea-spray while others become stunted and diseased if exposed. of granite or trap-rock. the dry season is one of torpidity. and its capabilities of retaining heat and moisture. But beyond this common influence of moisture on all vegetable forms. even for a . the marine areas are less marked and decided. each zone being stamped by its own vegetable aspects. bean-soils. The Mediterranean great headquartei'S of Fucus proper sub-region of the warmer-temperate zone of the Atlantic. and especially humid and warm ones. between the 60th and 40th parallels 3. : . again. and rains at all seasons. have a similar distribution.

weeds {jloridece) coralline. . and the common sea-weeds disappear and the coral zone. median. circumlittoral. deep-sea. light. will be best understood littoral is by referring to our that which lies between high . and the beautiful scarlet sea. Median. The nature of these bathymetrical subdivisions own shores. 139) 5. of a littoral. as it is termed when treating of the ocean (Gr. and nature of sea-bed seem to be the prime regulators of aquatic Littoral. coralline. par. In the abysses of the ocean diatoms (microscopic vegetable forms) alone occur and generally as the corallines increase the true sea. and where corallines (millipores.weeds disappear. The tropical Atlantic. or bathymetrically. deep . in which Sargassum abounds (Sargasso Sea. The Antarctic American regions. . vegetation. metron.OCEANIC DISTRIBUTION. . . which lies between 300 and 600 feet. and New Zealand 7. and the whole . and is the region of the calcareous and stronger corals. Deep-Sea. dulse. as its name implies. and is characterised by such plants as the bladder-wrack. and extends to a depth of from 40 to 60 feet. sertularians. laminarian. flustrse) luxuriate. 267. infra-median. where the and low water mark. Circumlittoral. Bathy metrical Zones. 6. by the broad waving tangle (laminaria). the the larger algae. Thus. In the limited areas of streams and fresh. S67 between the 40tli and 23d parallels 4.water lakes the order of arrangement is less perceptible. a measure). latitude . The Japan and China Seas. and in the ocean generally. ordinary algae scarcely existing beyond a depth of 300 feet. from ChiU to Cape Horn. besides certain less decided provinces in the Pacific. and abyssal zone. that which extends from 90 to about 300 feet in depth. Vertically. . The Indian Ocean and Red Sea 8. circiimpolar ocean south of 50° of S. and carigeen the laminarian. and marked. The Australian . . that which commences at low-water mark. but in the ocean each gradually-deepening zone is characterised by its own peculiar forms. in the British seas naturalists speak of a littoral. and coral zone . bathys. Abyssal. heat.

however. the " Northern Flora. are peculiar to eastern Asia. this constitutes a botanical " region. — there being in all are readily distinguished even twenty-two such forms. that every tribe of plants has a special aspect or physiognomy. Dr Bentham has proposed to arrange existing plants into three main geographical groups viz. like the eucalypti and casuarinse. Heath form. &c. Admitting. some. par." the " Southern Flora. and so on making in all some twenty-four regions.. subdivide the earth into regions vinces according to their prevalent floras. into which the earth's sur- — been botanically divided. therefore. the region of magnolias. Willow face has form. which by the eye of the unbotanical Having regard to the geographical distribution of the various forms of plants upon the earth's surface. the Temperate. and where such tribes prevail. . and camellia. that some forms. the region of camellias and teas. and the Mediterranean the Southern Flora is divided into Antarctic-alpine. certain orders are peculiar. by which certain forms are naturally restricted to certain areas. that physiog. Plant Distribution— Regions. and the like. the Banana form." The Northern Flora includes three geographical types or sub-floras the Arctic-alpine. and so on while.Malaya.— 268 LIFE — ITS DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION. In like manner with aspect or "physiognomy. and thus botanists. to the southern latitudes of North America.) . observer. in the fullest degree. — — . and South America. imparts a certain physiognomy to these regions ." and the " Tropical Flora. This arrangement. Andine. Cactus form. light. which is seemingly not dependent on climate (for the plants thrive equally well when transfeiTed to other areas)." as the Palm form. the influence of heat. entering more minutely into the geographical aspects of their science. moisture. 268. Mid -Africa. there still lies over and above them a primal arrangement. Mexican. Grassy form. : when he nomy will be imparted to the landscape. &c. like the magnolia. and a certain number of genera and species prevail. but the learner will readily per- considers first. second. the Mimosa form." such as the region of saxifrages and mosses. and South African while the Tropical Flora is made up of the three sub-floras proper (See also to Indo. and proSuch subdivisions lie beyond the limits of our ceive their bearings like the tea -plant outline. Australian. Wlierever. to Australia others. 276. region of palms. in the distribution of vegetable life.

269. Berghaus distinguishes the following zones 1. oats. sago. peas. and the south boundary 57° in Scotland. &c. buckwheat. and the most northerly part of Scotland and Ireland the north boundary being 62°. This zone extends from about 15° N. In the tropical zone maize is the principal cereal grown. ." In the New World. and 67°. dye-woods. yams. 52° in Ireland. 3. and potato. vegetable ivory. 70°. or and that as far as the polar limit of the cultivation of the vine in this zone buckwheat. wheat. mahogany. broadly made up of its own peculiar products The first. and extends to about 50° latitude. and 60°. ginger vegetable butter. That the zone of wheat includes those parts of Europe and western Asia which lie south of the 50th degree and that in several districts maize is cultivated as well as wheat. oats. southern temperate. rye. 3. rice sugar. to about 28° S. on the whole. cotton. northern temperate. cassava. . Commercial Zones. " the zone of barley. Eye. cloves. pepper. in something like the follow- ing order. and barley (summer cereals) 2. maize. and beans. has also been attempted the tropical. tamarinds. betel . guavas . 269 Agricultural Zones. for example. peas. That the zone of rice and wheat embraces those provinces which are subject to the influence of tropical seasons in tropical western Africa rice and maize being the chief grains. lat. Barley. vanilla. cinnamon. culture 1. . Ill the same way it is not unusual to divide the Old and New Worlds : into agricultural zones. and arctic each. — . are also important articles of food. Economically or commercially. guttapercha. teak. is characterised by and yields such produce as dates. sandal-wood. . bananas. Maize and Wheat . lat. the Faroe Islands.— COMMERCIAL ZONES. coffee. The second 270. from the tropics to the northern limit of profitable 2. 65°. indigo. it to arrange the earth's surface into four great vegetable zones — : . . cocoa-nuts. Commenting on the agricultural zones. That the zone of rye and wheat occupies the greater part of Europe north of the Alps. aromatic gums. melons. . and beans 4. and the potato. Zone of rice and maize Wheat. Rye and maize . caoutchouc . but still. Wheat and maize 4. that in the Old World. opium. includes Finmark and the higher districts of Scandinavia. shading into the other. — — : . no doubt. Professor Balfour remarks. nutmegs.

possessing this greater adaptability. fig. lemon. yet others having greater facilities for the dispersion of their seeds. moreover. larch. wheat. cabbage . currant. tobacco. transferring. &c. hemp beet. willow. chestnut. cotton in the northern part. and the laws on which that distribution depends. birch. pear. . the great natural laws of distribution are supreme. alder. . . and then to give way in turn to new and advancing cranberry . plum. cranberry . It is thus that a knowledge of the geographical distribution of plants. cherry. a«h. tea. however. becomes a subject not only of scientific interest. beech. is the distribution of plants over Though many families have a very the surface of the globe. and the majority of plants attain their perfection only in the habitats to which they originally belong. Others. and juniper. — species. and naturally are never found beyond it. by the pomegranate. hops. mimosa. as it were. and flax and tobacco throughout walnut. elm. vine by the apple. cork. And the fourth by the gooseberry.270 is LIFE — ITS DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION. buckwheat . maple. again. . The third rice. flax. pine. Scotch fir. strawberry. and being. barley. olive. Such. oak. but of true economic importance. In general. oate. characterised . and this often at the expense of other families that are destroyed by their presence nature exercising. narrow range. In densely-peopled and cultivated countries man is ever destroybut. lime. Paraguay tea . millet. . strawberry. 271. date. of a more elastic constitution. he will cease to rear in one region what can be more abundantly and cheaply procured from another. maize. by which some races are extinguished and others brought prominently forward to predominate for a period. barley the potato . knowing the limit to ing. &c.countries to which they naturally would never have found their way. have a tendency to increase their area. transferred region. a power of selection. birch. birch. currant. in general terms. gooseberry. alder. orange. Iceland and reindeer moss . larch. are by man for their utility or ornament from region to and are now found acclimatised and growing luxuriantly in many . turnip. wheat. and acclimatising which this power can be profitably exercised.

and though not so sharply defined as the regions of vegetation. affect the that find subsistence mountain-sides are distinct from those the higher and colder elevations. regions. In like manner. hoonoios. and from the sea-level to the loftiest . food. These belts (horizontal and vertical) of similar as homoiozoic zones (Gr. — heights of land. less precise or more Endowed with greater powers of dispersion and locomotion. animals. are still of utility in the arrangements and descriptions of the zoologist. life). The fauna of the tropics.— XIY. and in the case of an animal as its habitat. 272. in size. and beauty. strength. life are known zoe. their limits are. similar . this. than that of the temperate zones and . . the creatures that throng the shallow shore are specifically different from those that are scattered through the deeper among ocean. by races and those that more abundant than that of the arctic and antarctic The more luxuriant and sheltered lowlands are peopled differing from those that inhabit the mountain-slopes. again. and otlier external conditions. are necessarily less restricted to certain geographical regions. perhaps. taken in general terms. or to the greatest depths of ocean. Animal Life— its Distribution and Governing Conditions. is more exuberant in kind. In the great stratum of life every plant and animal has its own natural horizon. LIFE— ITS DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION. Being influenced by climate. than those of plants but in the main there is a similar horizontal and vertical arrangement of animal forms from the equator to the poles. like plants. and in that horizon it takes some particular spot better fitted for its growth and development than another and this spot in the case of a plant is known as its station.

for wherever there is abundance of plant-life. goose. 275. brovvTi bear. &c. in size. and brilliancy of hue. . The reindeer. sheep. with the size. The Temperate zones. the ex- ception of beetles. grouse. . turtle. .272 LIFE — ITS DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION. flamingo. bison. and often each species.. . also attended by a greater variety of insect-life —each genus. but still. being limited to its own peculiar vegetation. musk-ox. there certain insects increase in corresponding numbers and variety in plant-life is . Thus. — . 273. The Arctic zone (for the Antarctic is almost exclusively occupied by the ocean) is characterised by greater uniformity in its fauna. and tapir the crocodile. — gradually declining towards either temperate zone. on the other hand. on the whole. among birds while reptiles become fewer and smaller nearer we approach the arctic zone. buffalo. decrease in species. though inferior in size and brilliancy of colouring. wolf. tiger. Peculiar to them also are the Bactrian camel. rhinoceros. those mere especially — the horse. the Tropics are the great headquarters of the apes and monkeys of the lion. stag. This declension does not take place. fox. . humming-bird. parrot. ox. Insect-life is also much more varied and exuberant in tropical than in colder latitudes attaining its maximum in variety. hippopotamus. a temperate. everywhere in the same ratio. while the larger carnivora decrease not only in species. hyena. and larger carnivora of the giraffe and zebra the elephant. are. jackal. Guinea. and into a tropical. like — southern ant. characterised by genera and species that do not naturally occur in the other sections. hyena. goat. peacock. the opossum in the northern hemisphere and the kangaroo in the fitted for domestication. panther. and elk. Latitudinal Distribution. the wild boar. and larger reptiles the ostrich. Insects also. polar bear. and beaver . of course. 274. In this way terrestrial animals may be broadly arranged and an arctic fauna each shading to a certain extent into the other. and brilliancy the beetles being specifically more abundant in temperate than in tropical climes. within the luxuriant regions of Brazil. increase in the milder zones. in the main. crocodile. dog. and pheas. and generally by the quiet and sombre colouring both of its birds and quadrupeds. — . boa. but in power and numbers. The useful animals that is. by few species but by numerous individuals. activity. the eagle and falcon. the headquarters of such ruminants as the ox. though marked on their warmer limits by the presence of such tropical forms as the tiger. &c. and the Indian Archipelago. turkey. sheep. and generally of birds remarkable for their brilliant and variegated plumage.

and reptile-life is unknown. Localisation and Representation of Species. It must ever be borne in mind. over and above. Nor are these strange phenomena peculiar to the groups of living beings which now inhabit these different areas . the crocodile of the Nile by the gavial of the Ganges and the alligator of the Amazon. The Life of the Antarctic zones occurs in dissimilar and far-scattered specks and patches. wolf. there is. America. for example. But natural causes such as these must have greatly s . while in the southern it consists of far-separated spurs and patches. by species zoologically distinct but representing each other in the economy of nature and fulfilling corresponding funcThus the lion and tiger of the Old World are represented tions ] by the puma and jaguar of the New the ostrich of Africa by the rhea of South America and the emu of Australia . — and showing precisely the same strange correspondences their faunas of the present day. so there is a greater similarity between the fauna and flora of northern than of southern zones. the camel to the Old World. are peculiar to this region . do we find distant regions. 276.varying distribution of sea and land. should the kangaroo be refactory solution. the sub-fossil faunas of Asia. peopled not by forms precisely idenbut by representative spetical. reindeer. is not yet fully determined. as do How far these peculiarities in the animal populations of widely separated areas are dependent upon the inevitable changes brought about in the lapse of ages by the ever. on the other hand. and Australia differing from each other in the same direction and to the same extent. polar bear. that as the land in the northern hemisphere lies in great contiguous or all but contiguous masses.temperate zone . the seafowl that frequent its summer seas are chiefly migrants from the waters of the colder. and the llama to the New ? Why. and arctic fox occur in uninterrupted continuity wherever they can find a habitable locality. stricted to Australia. 273 and sable. and the hippopotamus and giraffe to Africa . however. but they were to the full as strikingly characteristic of their predecessors.LOCALISATION AND REPRESENTATION OP SPECIES. that although external conditions have most distinctly a paramount influence in regulating the range of living beings. the musk-ox. Esquimaux dog. an aboriginal dispersion the origin of which is one of the most difficult problems for which science has yet to furnish a satisWhy. while in the Arctic. as might have been expected cies . that is. arctic fox. And here it may be observed. — — . having nearly the same climatic conditions.

together with such remarkable birds as the ostrich. (4. the countries of Hindostan and Further India. These regions. magpies. first indicated by Mr Sclater. Its fauna is marked by the absence of northern forms. is pre-eminently distinguished by the absence of the higher mam- . and the southern portion of Arabia. and finches. These regions. Polynesia. and Africa north of the Great Desert. each peopled by a fauna largely peculiar to itself. the chimpanzee. &c. (2. or even. naturalists : . and to its limits are confined almost all the known species of goats and sheep.. and the East Indian islands. horses. and the flying squirrels the magnificent peacock. finally. the tiger. or diminish in numbers. the large island of Madagascar and its dependencies. which have only subordinate relations to climate. In this region only do we find the orang-outang. the guinea-fowl. Relying upon these affected the wellbeing of the species have found it possible of late years to parcel out the land surface of the globe into six Zoological Regions. as the bear. the hippopotamus. composing these faunas. but possessing a certain proportion of species in common with its neighbours. the laughingthrushes. shade into each other along their lines of contact. possess the following characteristics (1.274 LIFE — ITS DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION. and the whole of the group of the pheasants. of moles and dormice. to disappear altogether. and wild goats eagles. the honey-bear. "by disturbing their local conditions of food and shelter. and the like . the flying lemurs. the majority of the robins. the argus pheasant. rabbits. deer. This region is marked by the prevalence of such animals as bears. the lion. and caused others to lose their ground. and must have thus brought about the rapid dispersion of some species. the rhinoceros.) The Palcearctic or Northern Old World Region includes the whole of Europe. This region facts. New Zealand. as far as the Strait of Macassar. jays. and by the presence of a wonderful collection of large and peculiar quadrupeds found nowhere else— the gorilla. generally speaking.) The Australian Region includes Australia. like these. and those Malayan islands lying east of the Strait of Macassar. the civet. (3.) The Ethiopian or African Region embraces the whole of Africa south of the Tropic of Cancer. hawks. and camel. present peculiarities of vegetable life almost as important in degree as those of the animal world. as do the zones already described. and the giraff'e . all temperate Asia lying north of the latitude of the southern slopes of the Himalaya mountains.) TJie Oriental or Indian Region comprises. . by destroying their relative immunity from enemies. and sparrows . and recently more exactly defined by Mr Wallace. the baboon. our greatest authority in Geographical Zoology. and the curious little tailor-birds. and. deer. ox. and the ibis and flamingo.


the curassows. are wholly peculiar. and bread-fruit trees.. These geographical regions answer equally well for the Vegetable world. pigs. as seen in the peculiar toucans. and a host of others. the tree-kangaroo. aloes. and ebony. the walnut. and. and is rich in handsome and peculiar forms. the macaws. The bird-life is equally prolific and varied. the elm. and the prairie-dog. both as regards its deficiencies in the animal t}^es found in other areas. cinnamon. the opossum. and antelope are here replaced by a large array of genera known nowhere else. marsh oaks. chinchilla. The African region south of the Sahara nourishes the enormous baobab. and finches of Europe are represented by new families of birds . This is altogether the most remarkable of all the great zoological divisions of the earth. is (5. the oil-palm. The region formed by the temperate areas of the Old World is the natural home of the larch. 276 LIFE — ITS DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION. it differs from it most materially in the composition of its fauna. crowds of beautiful flowering heaths. the alpaca. the currant.) The Nearctic or North American Region comprises the whole of the continent and islands of North America lying to the north of the Tropic of Cancer. and the kangaroo-rat. or sheep of the Old World but . farther south. the beech. such as the sloth. mango. the ash. The bird-life. the bloodsucking vampire-bat. In the Ausdo we meet with the peculiar gum-trees. as also are the rattlesnakes and most of the lizards. the crimson lories. pear. the plant. and the tamarind . while the mocking-birds. the lyre-birds. malia of other areas. and the orange among fruits. (6. and above four hundred species of humming-birds. having none of the hedgehogs. and pelargoniums. and the prehensile-tailed monkeys. their position being occupied by marsupial or pouched animals. rhinoceros. the racoon. the oak. and in the marvellous abundance and variety of the forms peculiar to itself.) Tlie Neotropical or South American Region includes all America and the neighbouring islands lying south of the Tropic of Cancer. The Old World tropical genera of the elephant. The thrushes. however. the llama. showing instead such peculiar animals as the skunk. tralian region alone . Although agreeing almost exactly with the Palsearctic region as regards temperature. wrens. The Indian region is the natural habitat of the ginger- bamboo. grass-trees. such as the beautiful birds of paradise. In the central darts of the North American region flourish the hemlock. and the strange-looking emus and cassowaries. such as the kangaroo proper. «S:c. We find each to be characterised by an assemblage of plants peculiarly its own. the blue jays. the ant-eater. rice. and the chestnut among trees and of the apple and tlie . dormice. the wombat. the cranberry. armadillo. abundant and varied. the strawberry. the todies.

277 its soiitli- Douglas pine. and are thus defined by their originator. the most important part of which comprises the whole of the Indian . cotton-plant. Marine Distribution— Homoiozoic Zones. The right whale is never found beyond the cold waters of the higher latitudes in either hemisphere . is unknowTi beyond the tropical areas of the Pacific. from the coasts of AusBorneo. near the sugar-cane. the seal and walrus occur in thousands in the colder-temperate and arctic regions. the richly prolific South American region claims as its own the brilliantly flowering cactuses and passion-flowers.— MARINE DISTRIBUTION^ — HOMOIOZOIC ." or zones of similar life these belts encircling the ocean and corresponding to a great extent with the climatic belts of the terrestrial surface. Variety of genera and species characterises the seas of the torrid zone uniformity of species and immense numbers of indi^dduals mark the fauna of . The constituents of the sea. 278. in fine attain perfection only within the colder waters of the higher latitudes. the late Professor Edward Forbes 1. pilchard. is the region where . The headquarters of the sharks lie of the Mediterranean the tunny rejoices in the genial waters while the cod. The fishes and shell-fish of the tropics are . the medicinal cinchona. so also in a great measure with the marine. This. it has been attempted to subdivide these broad divisions into narrower belts called " homoiozoic zones. In the northern hemisphere these " homoiozoics " are the median. Finally. and yet the reef-building corals elaborate their structures only wdthin the tropical and sub-tropical expanses of the ocean. the sperm whale.water are nearly the same everywhere. the circumpolar. the colder latitudes. — — : tralia. to those of Mexico and Columbia. marine animals present the most brilliant colours and varied forms. and salmon the great majority of the food-fishes. haddock. and polar. for the most part. and logwood trees. noted for their varied and brilliant tints those of the arctic regions are of uniform and sombre hues. and the gigantic Wellingtonia and. too. on the other hand. The Median zone is that of the equator and the tropics. Unknown in the torrid zone. the useful india-rubber em limits. and tobacco. 277. As with the terrestrial fauna. the circumcentral. the neutral. In this region. though at first sight there may seem no interruption to interchange and community of habitat. and the ornamental rosewood and mahogany. Ocean and the central belt of the Pacific. For the sake of greater precision. and Japan. within the torrid zone — . herring. ZONES. maize.

but it widens towards the north-east with the Gulf Stream. The third zone of the temperate latitudes of the northern seas. and rendered very irregular by the variations of climate. corals : : but the general types are the same. and the different conditions of the opposite continental coasts. In the Pacific. To the north of the median zone. where there are fisheries for the tunny. Scotland. It is narrow along the shores of Virginia and Delaware. Ireland. which* is characterised by fisheries the Circumpolar for cod and other fish of a similar nature likewise follows the immense curve of the Gulf Stream. similar to those of other equatorial seas. however. on the coasts of Georgia and the Carolinas. there is another encircling zone the Circumcentral which is much narrower. This zone originates in the Atlantic. Like the last-mentioned zone. 4. swarm with the greatest number of organisms. 2. and stretches from east to west. The Baltic Sea and its gulfs are mere dependents on this zone. and and madrepores construct their circular islands. and washes the In the coasts of Norway and Lapland up to the North Cape. like those of the neutral zone. Beginning at Cape Cod in the Bay of Fundy. and embraces all the Celtic seas of the peninsula of Brittany. and Brazil. which. molluscs. and the Shetland Isles. its boundaries curve and spread out across the Atlantic from the coasts of America to those of Europe. Between equatorial Africa and America this homoiozoic zone is still continued in spite of the interposition of two continents on the coasts of Florida. the Neutral is situated about the middle 3. which extends round the globe with an average breadth of 3700 miles. the Guianas. and red coral. then spreading out towards the east. marine currents. — — — — — — . The most northerly zone. owing to the great current of Japan and — — . sponge. In this sea the species show a gradual diminution from west to east and in the enclosed basins of the interior of the continent the Black Sea. and the Sea of Aral they are even much less numerous. this same zone (the limits of which are. Beyond the Straits of Gibraltar it embraces the Mediterranean. echinoderms. its waters wash the coasts of Morocco and of the Spanish peninsula. and corals. which stud the coasts of Asia as far as the middle of the Southern Ocean. very indefinite) stretches from the coasts of the Corea and Japan towards those of California. The great herring-fisheries are carried on in this homoiozoic region. the Bermudas. are produced by winds. the Antilles. the Caspian.278 the waters LIFE — ITS DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION. towards the north. it embraces Iceland and the adjacent seas. multiply abundantly the species are different. a circular tendency. Pacific the waters of this zone assume.

the coralline by the disappearance of the ordinary shore-shells. but. more especially in the warmer areas of the North Atlantic. 5. and the like .VERTICAL OR BATHYMETRICAL DISTRIBUTION. and brachiopod mollusca that cannot exist in shallower waters. There is no depth limit to animal life in the ocean. by such shell-fish as the periwinkle. is characterised. sponges. or muddy. and exhibit similar conditions between the respective typical species. their distribution appears to be aflfected mainly by conditions of temperature. and pullastra . trochus. All the invertebrate classes of animals found in shallower water occur also at extreme depths. as well as in size. to be the abode of a fairly abundant though lowly fauna foraminifera. and the species are much less numerous than in the southern zones . pecten. As -with the horizontal manner with its various depths littoral zone (par. for example. oyster. 279. cidaris. have recently been shown. The abyssal region of the ocean extends generally from a depth of 500 or 600 fathoms to — — — . and Kamtchatka. cockle. mussel. limpet. sandy. but as yet the comparative extent of the southern belts is very imperfectly known and defined. and the coral zone by forms of star-fish. crinoids. and even some special groups of fishes. and razor-shell . which in this part of the ocean bring about a circuitous movement similar to that of the Gulf Stream. Vertical or Bathymetrical Distribution. Behring Strait. and the abundance of buccinum. The Arctic seas are occupied by the Polar homoiozoic zone. venus. the laminarian by star. areas of the water. In the southern hemisphere. The extreme depths of the ocean that is. having being brought up at these depths. the extent of which comprises the whole of the area stretching from the Pole to Labrador. diatoms. these species are for the most part represented by a greater number of individuals. corals. star-fishes. In this region the inhabitants of the sea. on the other hand. in the abyssal areas. from 1000 to 3000 fathoms which were formerly regarded as utterly barren of life. so in like The or bathymetrical zones. polycystines. by deep-sea soundings and dredgings. according as the bottom may be rocky. the Gulf of Obi. modiola. generally speaking. As a general rule. are of rather dull colours.fishes. 279 the north-west winds. fusus. the common sea-urchin. tubularia. 267) of our own seas. and Crustacea. But it appears probable that they decrease in number and variety. the homoiozoic zones follow one another in the same order as in the northern.

sea. and is remarkably uniform all over the world. chiefly through the researches of the late Professor Sars. already familiar. is to say. . under the pressure of about 150 atmospheres. At 2000 fathoms a man would bear upon his shoulders a weight equal to twenty locomotive engines.280 LIFE — ITS DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION. according to the formula given by Jamin. with a long list of animals of all the invertebrate groups living at a depth of 300 to 400 fathoms. supposing the law ' . which enables them to subsist under a greater variety of and naturally. Any free air suspended in the water or contained in any compressible tissue of an animal at 2000 fathoms would be reduced to a mere fraction of its bulk. but an organism supported through all its tissues on all sides. . the volume at that depth by only f of its volume would be f of the volume of the same weight of water at the surface. At the depth of a mile. are not materially affected by the pressure at these depths. and a knowledge of climatology.' " are certainly very extraordinary. Acclimatisation of Plants and Animals. " The conditions of pressure. and the temperature of its waters is. and that therefore the density of sea-water at a depth of 2000 fathoms is scarcely appreciably increased. the bottom . therefore. below 40° Fahr." says Sir Wyville Thomson in his Depths of the Sea. and a remarkable group of Crustacea. Low temperature and absence of light do not seem to be specially inimical to these forms while their tissues. certain species have a special elasticity of constitution. and consequently subjected to a pressure of 1120 lb. so also (though to a less extent) in the animal. hexactinellid sponges. We are apt to forget. by incompressible fluids at the same We are pressure. 280. man has been enabled to transfer from one region to another conditions. sea-urchins. on the square inch and off the coast of Portugal there is a great fishery of sharks (Centrocymnus codolepis) carried on beyond that depth. however. that water is almost incompressible. to enjoy a wider geographical Operating upon this principle. crinoids. star-fishes. being of the same density with the surrounding medium. each with a long train loaded with pig-iron. Its more striking forms are highly ornamented rhizopods {Challengeridce). This region is peopled by a fauna characterised by the abundance and variety of certain special invertebrate groups. would not necessarily be incommoded by it. As in the vegetable world. range. within and without. —that of compressibility to continue the same. as a rule." . is compressed by the ttt of its volume and at twenty miles.water.

ass. pig. either for the purposes of his convenience or luxury. alike dependent on external conboth are. dog. sheep. there animal life is marked by a corresponding variety hence the specific exuberance of the tropics compared with that of the colder latitudes. cat. insects. subsist directly upon plants. ferring." have accompanied him over the — habitable globe. is nevertheless stimulated into life and exuberance by the presence of organic decay. for example. their genera were totally unrepresented. fish of Europe. fish. many birds. In this way the domestic animals of the Old World have been transferred to the New. within little more than a century. and- man best studies his own interest and the comfort of the lower animals. 281 a considerable number of animals. dependent on one another. Interdependence of Plants and Animals. are dependent on the atmosphere. transand acclimatising ^have been incessant and thus creatures naturally of \Nddely distant habitats have been. where they were unknown at the time of its discovery by Columbus some of the New World fauna transferred to the Old and not only the domestic animals. and the carbonic acid exhaled by the animal is decomposed and its car- 281. brought together into one common area. INTERDEPENDENCE OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS. . but the birds. and are still being. And yet the student requires caution against the application of this obvious generalisation. Herbivorous animals. Wherever vegetable life is varied and luxuriant. As plants and animals are ditions.. where. barn-fowl. and many of the lower fungusgrowths are found only where such decomposing matter is present. . and even shell- — — . ox. there is a limit to this system of transference. so in the animal. though seemingly deriving the main elements of its growth from inorganic sources. considered as "pests and vermin. The plant. transported to Australasia. while the carnivorous prey upon the plant-feeders. His efforts in this respect extirpating. rooted in the soil and casting abroad its leaves and branches in the atmosphere. to a certain extent. But as in the vegetable world. and sharing in their larger produce through the more profitable method of commerce and exchange. Both. All the domestic animals horse. mice. Excess of . . &c. and other creatures. yet the oxygen which the plant sets free is inhaled by the animal. by fostering them mainly within their own native habitats. and are thus also ultimately dependent on the yegetable world for their subsistence. so bon assimilated by the plant. as is well kno-WTi. and rats. prized for their beauty or song . goat.

and Life. the planting of the plain. or if these supplies cannot be found the birds are extirpated. . organisations. is not always an index to a gigantic fauna nor does a diminutive fauna at all times result from the growth of a scanty flora. and no portion of the circle could be removed without a corresponding change in the characters of the vegetable and hitherto . either migrate or betake themselves . birds. ' . where winter periodically suspends the life of the forests and meadows. can more intelligibly depict the aspects of nature by associating every fauna with its own appropriate and distinctive flora. Beyond the tropics. in turn. the disappearance of these specific supplies would necessarily be followed by the annihilation of the consumers. " The richness of the Fauna is thus in intimate connection. . some on leaves. The law of circulation and interdependence is complete. as some animals are fitted by their organisation for an arboreal existence some for life on the grassy plain." says M. 282. while. Certain birds. yet many depend upon birds and mammals for their wider dispersion and increase. and by the destruction of the insects you compel the birds to remove and find supplies in other habitats. though most plants have the inherent power of dispersing their own seeds. on the introduction of some new exotic. just as many depend upon insects for the fertilisation of their flowers. or the clearing of the would necessarily involve the destruction of these special Still further. Again. . Atmosphere. animals to the plants. for example. and insects may be removed from a district. It is in this manner that plants and animals become co-dependent portions of one great vital plan. This wider dispersion creates a new source of subsistence for the animals that feed upon them.' 282 vegetation LIFE —ITS DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION. animal kingdoms. and these insects. and that geographers.' " with that of the Flora where vegetation springs from the soil with most thicket. the vegetable-feeders hibernate or migrate while the animal-feeders. again. Reclus. and others for the shrubby thicket the destruction — — of the tree. find their chosen food in certain plants remove the plants and you destroy the insects. aware of these relations. in his Ocean. i same periodical repose. and others on roots. and are aided in this by winds and water-currents. as some creatures are specially fitted to live on fruits. Further. The vegetable luxuriance of the Amazonian Plain is accompanied by an insignificant fauna while a scanty flora and gigantic fauna are concomitants in Southern Africa. and thus the increased area of the one supplies a wider range to the other. certain unknown in that locality usually make their appearance. feed on certain insects. By the extirpation of certain mammals.

being much less in size and strength than the gorillas. and lions of Africa and Asia. As marked variations occur within narrower limits than the waters. sub-arctic. snow and ice the other hand. The most remarkable fact' in the removed from On present distribution of the largest species of animals is. much inferior in dimensions to the huge animals of Africa. and these. and covered with thin grass . that they inhabit the most extensive countries. and that any change in these conditions would materially affect. Each zone or belt of the earth has thus its own special flora and fauna that is. In this respect there is rather a contrast the great pachyderms of Africa feed on plateaux destitute of trees in many places. vicunas. their existence. the largest being the tapir. temperate. as might be expected. correspond with lines of temperature rathe? . camels. jaguars. It is in the Old World that the largest members of the animal kingdom live the long- — tailed monkeys. sub-tropical. arctic. and frigid zones. — — torrid. In the two preceding chapters attention has been directed to the vital aspects of the globe that is. the enor- — mous white bear fields far of the northern regions inhabits all forest vegetation. there also animals live in the greatest multitudes. In this way vital variety and exuberance culminate within the tropics and decline as we proceed towards either pole declining also in an analogous manner as we ascend from the level of the sea into the higher elevations of mountains. tapirs. RECAPITULATORY AND EXPLANATORY. and moisture being the great regulators of the one climate and food the governing conditions of the other. colder-temperate. Nevertheless. elephants. we have shown . and polar belts ." NOTE. if not destroy. tigers. plants and animals have a definite distribution over the globe heat. and their distribution over the land and through the — Leaving the nature and origin of Life to the biologist. For this reason. to its vegetable and animal life.RECAPITULATION. . that plants and animals are dependent for their continuance on the external conditions by which they are surrounded. the splendid forests of Brazil give shelter to relatively small species . light. is characterised by genera and species not naturally occurring in other regions. 283 vigour and abundance. we must not think that the animals of the largest size inhabit precisely those countries where the most gigantic trees grow. warmer-temperate. botanists subdivide the earth's surface into equatorial. and pumas of America. tropical.

who have ventured on the higher questions of zoo' ' * ' . than with parallels of acteristic As in the land. be better enabled to draw that intelligible picture of external aspects which it is the grand province of his science to depict and from a knowledge of these aspects be further enabled to indicate to the merchant and trader the nature and amount of the products which each separate region can supply.' and the various publications of Humboldt. The student who would enter more fully into the distribution of vegetable and animal life may consult for the former such works as Balfour's Class-book of Botany. Bentley. Atmosphere.' Lindley's Vegetable Kingdom. moreover. laminarian.' Reclus' Ocean. . and Life.' Meyen's Botanical Geography. he will. and coral extreme abysses of ocean. Understanding the geographical conditions under which plants and animals naturally occur. there is also an aboriginal dispersion of certain races over certain areas which science cannot yet fully account for hence the subdivision of the earth's surface into botanical and zoological " regions " and " provinces. . moreover. These provinces form the special study of the botanist and zoologist and the question how far the plants and animals of one region can be profitably transferred to another. has its char- the forms littoral. . and this because the conditions of extreme depths are more uniform and less rigorous than those of extreme altitudes.. Edward Forbes (' Natural History of the European Seas. in his own migrations over the globe. though in certain areas of these abysses certain forms of invertebrate life have been found to flourish in abundance.' The Atlantic. and the various writings of Wallace. Hooker. each zone of depth.' Schouw's 'Earth and Man. Carpenter. becomes one of prime economical importance. Huxley. Beyond these main horizontal and vertical arrangements of life. from the shore seaward. the relations that subsist between fauna and flora. 284 LIFE — ITS — DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION. . Nicholson. Darwin.') Sir Wyville Thomson (' Depths of the Sea. . the intimate interdependence of the vegetable and animal kingdoms. and the like. man. so also in the waters. Carus. being barren of all but the most lowly vegetable forms. Owen. what to attempt acclimatising and what to continue in their own native habitats. &c. Milne-Edwards. as a geographer.' and Challenger Reports). * ' logical geography. Understanding. Dyer. and knowing. coralline. will be better able to determine what to cultivate and what to extirpate. like the extreme altitudes of land.' the zoological works of Cuvier." each subdivision being characterised by its own typical forms. and others who have written on botany and for the latter the letterpress of Johnston's Physical Atlas. latitude.

. Unlike the lower animals. and the men of the sea-coast traders and adventurers. scenery. natural products. 283. Man may struggle against and so far modify them but still. are all affected by the physical cir- cumstances of his position. and the wandering omnivorous tribes of the scrubby plains of Australia between the lithe and nerveless red man of the New World. And higher still. his thoughts and actions. polity and religious beliefs. to a great extent. Man. and lose sight of those zoological relations that subsist not only between man and the other animals. his industrial pursuits. it is these conditions that still mainly determine man's habits and pursuits rendering the inhabitants of the grassy steppe nomades and herdsmen. but between him and those physical surroundings upon which the continuation of his existence is so absolutely dependent. — — . To argue otherwise were to ignore the principles of science. the indwellers of the river-plain tillers of the ground and growers of grain. Man as affected by External Conditions.XV. and the robust and vigorous negro of the Old. though inhabiting the same continent between the stationary vegetable-feeding islanders of the sunny Pacific. which either simply flourish under or succumb to these conditions. facilities for intercommunication and exchange. In savage life this influence is direct and perceptible hence the difference between the semi-aquatic Esquimaux and the hunting Red Indian. where populations have been long settled and civilisation has assumed its most advanced aspects. ETHNOLOGY —RACES AXD VARIETIES OF MAN. is always more or less influenced by the geographical conditions of the region he occupies. . climate. . in whatever stage of civilisation he may appear. are ever exercising their influence rendering one nation wealthy and independent. Even where civilisation has made some progress. his social .

284. isolated and Nor is it man's mere material condition that is thus his religious sentiments. and the tamer occupiers of the central and eastern European plain. The white men of Europe may differ physically and intellectually from the black tribes of Africa and the red races of North America . : . his social government. his poetic feelings. may differ very widely. the mechanical and manufacturing character that now stamps the British nation would have been impossible. and Scandinavia. and general physical conditions that Europe. That such is the case. that constitutes geographical diverfood. is full of such distinctions. the different nations of the same great race are similarly affected by external conditions hence the obvious distinctions existing between the livelier and more versatile nations of southern Europe and the graver inhabibetween the bold and independent mountants of the north taineers of Switzerland. The language of everyday life. So much does the general character of a people depend upon the physical or geographical conditions of the country they inhabit 285. in fact. but it may be fairly questioned whether the former would have ever exhibited their present activity and progress had it not been for the greater varieties of surface. and other metals. our countrymen would never have been the traders and adventurers they have become . summer. another bold and enterprising. and but for our natural supplies of coal. and that the slight seasonal differences between our spring. for reasons we cannot now discover. the most cursory glance at the different nationalities of the world will readily convince and though the inherent qualities of Race. are all less or more tinctured by the nature of his geographical surroundings. insular situation. clear. iron. and a third. and the " damp. and winter. Even in their minor peculiarities. There can be no doubt that the moderate climate of Britain is more favourable to bodily and mental vigour than the relaxing temperature of the tropics . all. landscape must exercise an influence on mental as well as on bodily sity character and were it not so. — — . Scotland. it may be. and depressing at. enjoys. exhilarating air " of one district. his love of liberty. Climate. Thus we speak of the *' dry. there is no reason why the inhabitants of one country should not be identical in all their aspects with those of another. however. . autumn. affected . stationary. climate. still over and above these qualities external conditions exert a direct and perceptible modifying influence.! 286 ETHNOLOGY — RACES AND VARIETIES OF MAN. and this long before science had attempted their explanation. as a continent. induce habits of continuous exertion and industry unknown in countries subBut for our jected to excessive summer's heat and winter's cold. cloudy.

and the " cheerful hues " of the open land: scape. in are surrounded. enjoying the highest amenities of civilisa- there. And above the not merely do they differ in intellectual qualities. in colour of skin. flourishing in busy commimities within the temperate zones. in colour of skin. : 287 mosphere " of another of the " dreary monotony " of one region. language. and also in mental disposition. as at present scattered over the surface of the globe. That these varieties or sub-species (for the difference seems greater in some instances than what zoologists regard as characterising varieties) have existence in nature. Within the tropics he is chiefly a vegetable feeder . obeys. and progressive . As in districts of the same country we find differences of stature. in all those purely . Here. and stationary tion . like plants and animals. dull. Whatever the influence of external conditions in modifying the characteristics of race. the zonal arrangements of the world. in the temperate zones he adopts a mixed vegetable and animal diet . active. . dialect. in form of head and expression of face. and the they are restricted to own narrow boundaries. 286. while within the polar circle But while in this respect he his diet is exclusively animal. we have only to look at the condition of mankind. there. Notwithstanding these wellknown distinctions. that stamps them as distinct from the inhabitants of other regions . unlike them the varieties of his race are distributed according to no law of latitudinal dispersion. mental constitution. in fine. Characteristics and Distribution of Kaces. : here. grovelling in a condition little elevated brutes by which they stature. physiognomy. and struggling in diminished numbers against — the inclemencies of the polar regions. Indeed it is to the influence of situation that we are in a their great measure to look for many marked national peculiarities these peculiarities diminishing the their more that nations extend less range of intercommunication. sluggish. hence arises the idea of varieties or races of the human species. mien and but in physical organisation. in strength and endurance. and manners. and habits so in the various countries of the same continent we find still wider differences in bodily appearance. and.— CHARACTERISTICS AND DISTRIBUTION OF RACES. in form of head and face. there is among the inhabitants of certain regions a certain sameness in physical aspect. intelligent. we find Man distributed at present over almost every region of the globe wandering in savage freedom under the tropics. and the " charming variety " of another of the " awe-inspiring gloom " of the forest.

288 ETHNOLOGY — RACES AND VARIETIES OF MAN. 1. Caucasian. . \. %. American. Malay. Mongolian . 2. Ethiopian.

. 289 bodily qualities by which one species of animal is distinguished from another. though varying in shade even in the same race. Blumenbach. But though he thus stands unique. about a century since (1781). Within the last three centuries the race has spread from Europe — : . The Caucasian variety is dispersed over Turkey. in Asia over Egypt. and. moral perception. in Africa and over almost the whole of Europe the Turks proper. and the Mediterranean seaboard. nature of hair (curled. and general physiognomy. the Magyars. 287. the Mongolian the yellow. — T . and Laplanders. ethnos. still further subdivides — — — — . Abyssinia. These are the Caucasian. a race logos. colour of skin is one of the most obvious. Arabia. Persia. shape of skull. is yet employed in everyday language as a main mark of distinction the Caucasian being the white. a discourse). the Mongolian. and been since modified by external conditions. and branches. Afghanistan. eyes. frizzled). the Ethiopian. . tribes. and the like. Of these physical characteristics. part of Tartary. the American the red. and the Malay . or an entirely new creation whether he has been six or sixty thousand years an inhabitant of the earth and whether the varieties of our race have descended from a single pair. or are the progeny of several independent pairs. form of face. being of Mongolian origin. a grouping which (though admittedly tentative) has had great effect in systematising our knowledge upon the subject. it may be stated as the general opinion of naturalists that the races of mankind (as they now exist) constitute in the zoological scale a single species of a single genus.— CHARACTERISTICS AND DISTRIBUTION OF RACES. according to some great natural plan. skin. Without entering upon the vexed question of man's origin and antiquity. language. it is necessary and natural to divide mankind into several varieties according to their more prominent bodily features and Ethnology (Gr. and Hindostan. tion of these The considera- minor distinctions (which are evidently produced by intermixture of races and the influence of external conditions) belongs more especially to Ethnology our limits will merely permit a brief allusion to the five varieties or races into which the inhabitants of the globe were arranged by the German philosopher. whether he is a mere development from the lower animals. each being characterised by some peculiarity in colour of . the Ethiopian the black. lank. The distribution and more obvious characteristics of these respective races we epitomise from Blumenbach and other ethnologists 288. woolly. and far exalted above other animals by his gifts of reason. these varieties into groups. and religious sentiment. the Am£rican. Finns. extending the subject to minor features. . and the Malay the brown.

Arab. the types gradually lose the beauty of their forms in proportion to their distance. — . Persian. . which now constitute the nationalities of southern Asia and Europe. I . AND VARIETIES OF MAN. . T — though still retaining enough of the original stock to mark its origin and descent.. South Africa. . . merely from the fact that the skull he selected as his highest type came from the neighbourhood of the Caucasus. wellproportioned limbs moderately small extremities and light. where we find the most deformed and degenerate races. It is also known by the term Indo-European^ from its spreading over India and Europe from the Ganges to the farther shores of Iceland. in the regions of Iran. even to the extreme points of the southern continents. . Circassian. however. the other races disappear before him. with features distinct expanded forehead large and elevated cranium narrow nose and small mouth. thousands of years have passed away in the development of these respective branches each branch springing out from its predecessor. and beliefs according to the nature of its new region. oval. and assuming new features in body. And even as regards the whole species. and the lowest in the scale of humanity. His proper field of developrally distinguished) has given birth to the of ancient . soft. departing from this geographical centre in the three grand directions of the lands. This variety was named Caucasian by Blumenbach. his most perfect type. . The WTiite race (for by this designation it is gene- most civilised nations and modern times and has hitherto exhibited the intellectual and moral powers of human nature in their highest degree. In stature the Caucasian is taller than any of the other varieties of erect gait with rounded. The distinguishing characteristics of these ludo-Europeans are a light-coloured skin. mind. for beyond them he degenerates physically and intellectually. varying from fair to tawny or swarthy red cheeks copious. 290 ETHNOLOGY — RACES . . and straight face. Australia. language. Wherever the white man has established himself. with their various mixtures and alliances. and loses the higher characteristics of his race. The more important branches are the Hindoo. elastic step. seems to be the temperate zones in either hemisphere. I ment. Slavonic. over large areas of North and South America. . it is held by some that " Man presents to our view his purest. 289. and New Zealand and wherever it has planted itself becomes the dominating power. at the very centre of the temperate continents at the centre of AsiaEurope. of Armenia. flowing hair. and Celtic. and the Caucasus and. Teutonic. . Of course." — . . generally curled or waving ample beard small.

. In stature the Mongolian is below the Indo-European but in the true Tartar. the frame is broad. Burmah. the Turks and Magyars having been so long amalgamated with Europeans as to assume a Western rather than an Oriental phase of civilisation. and Chinese. His whole philosophy and religion are reduced to a code of social morals limited to the expression of those principles of human conscience without the observance of which society is impossible. but never rises to the general ideas or high speculations of science and philthe race differ very widely . in Asia the Turks. full of sagacity for the useful arts life. the scattered inhabitants of the Arctic seaboard. exercises itself upon the details. in Europe and the Esquimaux of the North American arctic regions. square-set. Chinese. . In the Mongolian the skin is olive yellow. . Finns." Socially and morally. Turks. and in what direction. with confluent features . and straight what square-shaped little . and robust. and moral capacity the various branches oi but on the whole they are inferior. Few revolutions in human history have been so sudden and de- — . the highest attainments of the race appear in the Chinese and Japanese. Japanese. It embraces the Mongols. but to invite the whites to settle among them. or no beard head or cranium someforehead rather low face broad and flattened. and short and strong neck. over the central and northern regions of Asia Mongolia. and Siam . China. 291. moderate in range. " With the Mongol. . . with high shoulders. . and obliquely directed towards the nose wide and small nose and thick lips. —the spiritual world—seems closed against him. as the name implies. Kamtchatdales. Japan." it has been remarked. to adopt freely their mechanical and industrial appliances. 291 290. .CHARACTERISTICS AND DISTRIBUTION OF RACES. Tibetans. and includes. — . In intellectual osophy. less energetic. and Lapps. The Mongolian variety is spread. and. WhoUy turned to the things of earth. moreover. " the melancholic temperament seems to prevail the intellect. to send out many hundreds of their young men to acquire a knowledge of the Arts and Sciences in England and the United States. the hair dark. coarse. both in the Old and New World continents. inventive. and Samoiedes. How far. high cheek-bones eyes rather sunk. and conveniences of the world of ideas Ingenious. . above all. it nevertheless is incompetent to gene- ralise their applications. Tungusians. Koriaks. Indo-Chinese. and more stationary in their civilisation than the Caucasian variety. the Mongol is capable of adopting and being influenced by European ideas will shortly be tested by the recent awakening of the Japanese not only to permit of trade and interchange between them and the white men of Europe and America. . Turk.

Araucanians. Cherokees. " bears in his whole charcivilisation. beneath the scorching sunbeams." says M. and lank beard scanty skull somewhat similar to the Mongolian. ethnologists comprise all the aboriginal races which peopled the New World prior to its discovery by Columbus in 1492. . Sioux. and other tribes being amongst the most degraded of . Like the Mongols. it is rarely that a tear moistens his cheek. 292 cided . Guyot. and his stoical indifference is disturbed only by vengeance or jealousy. and not so . Patagonians. 293. their wTetched appearance being in vated by artificial distortion of we except the ancient occupants of Mexico and Peru. These are the Chippewyans. . acute in his senses. Pawnees. . many instances aggrathe head and facial features. or a smile lights up his eye. ous man of America. . . but narrower. Solimoes. and other tribes in North America Under the American and the Caribs. Foreign to our hopes. ethnologist than 292. . our griefs. and insensible race. like the negro. coarse. In intellectual and moral qualities the American Indians resemble in many respects the Mongolians. if . no subject can be of greater its final interest to the philosophical T . variety. and remarkable for his endurance of fatigue and insensibility to pain. and somewhat raised at their outer angle nose and other features rather prominent. less fitted for the White. square forehead low and retreating cheek-bones prominent. The most barbarous tortures cannot extort from him a single complaint. they have remained stationary. the inferior and more sparsely " The indigenscattered tribes have been little interfered with. but at a much lower point of savages. In North America the race is rapidly disappearing before the white settlers in South America. the Fuegians. . ETHNOLOGY — RACES AND VARIETIES OF MAN. In stature the North American Indian is rather tall spare and lithe in body and as a hunter. cold. Guaranis. his whole nature has been modified thereby. In this race the skin is reddish or copper-coloured (hence the familiar designation of Red Indian) the hair is black. whose geographical position seems to have imparted to them a greater degree of energy and activity. His lymphatic temperament betrays the preponderance in his nature of the vegetative element. he is acter the ineff'aceable of his country. The Indian is of a melancholy. outcome. The very copper hue of his complexion indicates that he lives not. but more rounded than those of the Mongol eyes sunk. stamp of the peculiarly vegetative character Living continually in the shadow of those virgin forests which overspread the earth that he inhabits. In South America the race greatly degenerates the Guaranis. and Fuegians in South America.. If he sometimes exhibits a display of prodigious muscular force. . our joys.

how far the negro is capable of attaining the higher phases of civilisation but the fact remains. and hence. Even in the fine . With him no domestic animals are maintained to feed him with their milk. again. also. with large. by the powerful influence The Indian has continued the man has seldom elevated himself above the condition of the hunter. or clothe him with their fleeces. Bushmen. in one or other of its branches. niger. Tripoli. but ungainly in form and limb. . flat feet and hands. black. but all. the people of the elevated tablelands of Mexico and Peru are the only exceptions to this picture. Abys- on the south. 293 The social condition of the Indian . narrow. — . familiar designation. their enslavement. being of average size and fairly formed . . and Morocco on the north. and slanting cheekbones very prominent nose broad and flat jaws projecting so .CHARACTERISTICS AND DISTRIBUTION OF RACES. like the Kaffir. The Ethiopian race. from time immemorial. . awkward gait . Negro — Lat. as to make the upper front teeth oblique lips. He Old World. by the v/hite variety. the hair short. the lowest grade in the scale of civilisation. In stature there are great differences . and woolly . towards the front forehead low. KaflBrs. of stunted stature. remaining in a barbarous or but very partially civilised state. Tibboos. This is not the place to enter upon the question. especially the upper one. Intellectually. for he asks not of the earth his nourishment. an equal degree. like the true negro. In this variety. and Cape Colony It embraces Hottentots. tribes is hindered. and some. ill-formed limbs. as they are by the nomadic races of the of his vegetative character. that neither of himself. also of average size. He has never even ascended to the rank of the pastoral man. nor in any of his admixtures with other races. . very thick. in . and elongated . the skin is black (hence the groes. differing widely among themselves in physical and mental aptitude." 294. among the different branches of the race some. From one to the other extremity of America we find the same lamentable spectacle . yet without endurance. skull compressed on the sides. Ne- Mandingoes. sinia. The exuberance of the soil has never been of value to him. which derives its name from the Ethiopia of the ancients. from time immemorial. and this exception goes far to establish the influence of the vegetative and humid nature of the lower plains of America. and with slender. black) . of the forest. Gallas. others. and other tribes. like the Hottentot and Bushmen. in- habits the whole of Africa. the Black race has ever remained in a rude and barbarous state hence the subjection of one branch to another branch among themselves . and shuftiing. has he 8ho^vn much aptitude for intellectual or social advancement. Tunis. with the exception of Egypt.

and the Coolies of Southern India. In the Indian Archipelago it has. . while those of New Guinea and Australia (the Papuan negroes. and the daring. who distinguishes four chief races of mankind. typified by (a) the Australian. and also the Bush. sensual. The population of these widely-spread districts differ. as described by ethnologists.294 ETHNOLOGY — RACES AND VARIETIES OF MAN. indolent. (c) the Mongol. . . much the same I genial clime of the highlands of equatorial Africa. and the mild. who lives under a temperate climate. The Australian-like race includes the Australian aborigines. . . In civilisation the Malay race has hitherto made little advancement. and clever inhabitant of New Zealand . in great part. and (d) the European or White man. and tufted and frizzled in the Papuan head rather narrow bones of the face large and prominent nose full and broad towards the lips. though the areas are apparently too small and too widely separated ever to be of much importance in New Zealand it seems reluctant to amalgamate with the new settlers while in Australia it is rapidly dying out before the encroachment of the European immigrant. and ments of science or philosophy. there being little in common between the Malay of the Indian Archipelago and the savage inhabitant of New Guinea between the stunted and miserable native of Australia. The Malay race (so called from the Malayan peninsula) includes the widely-scattered and chiefly insular inhabitants of Malaysia. . and careless character of the true islander of the sunny Pacific. or between the calculating nature of the New Zealander. as described by- Captain Speke. Taken. is Blumenbach's arrangement of the Eaces of Mankind. . and Polynesia. like the Mongolian. long remained stationary in Polynesia. some progress appears under tutelage of the white. and more closely approximated to the negro type. superseded by other and more elaborate schemes of classification but none have as yet been propounded which have met with such general acceptance. The Negro-like race embraces the Negroes proper. (b) the Negro. but never rising to the higher conceptions of social or moral polity. enslaving or enslaved. Australasia. the negro remains — easy. there is a similar difference. Malay crisp. still less to the attain- 295. Such. as might be expected. apt. the skin of the — . . in general terms. The most complete of these more recent schemes is that of Professor Huxley. also. varies from a light tawny to a deep brown and somewhat inclined to curl in the true Malay. as they are termed) are of a dark colour. facile. Intellectually. and somewhat resembling the Mongolians . very widely from each other those of Malaysia and Polynesia being of a brown or lighter colour. hair black. however. It has been.

and must remain so till man is considered more from a Natural History point of view. Mongol and American). we must remember that there are not only admixtures among conterminous races (Caucasian and Mongol. Mongol and Malay. and the Malay a sub -variety partly of the Mongol and partly of the Negro. and Islands. and American Indians. but dialects of language. Such is the usual subdivision of mankind into varieties or and such the existing distribution of these races over the . types of skull. and the progress of civilisation belong to History. Peruvians. And even as regards these sciences. and history of the human race. Mongolian. but it is one which is destined to a high place among the branches of human knowledge. mental peculiarity. the former including the people inhabiting the inland region lying between Britain and India. 296*. 297. Mexicans. and would require volumes for their special treatment and elucidation. or the natural history of man. &c. But. or even their abridgment into three (Caucasian. Greeks. atfinities. are taken into account. and the Negro-like inhabitants of some of the East Indian The Mongolian race not only includes the Mongols proper. Polynesians. which render sible. treated in the same manner as the natural history of other animated beings. Such considerations lie beyond the scope of our Outline. but admixtures also between immigrant and native races (Brazilians. facial angles. physical and vital.Arabs. and the latter embracing the Celts. it must be confessed that many of their conclusions are as yet unsatisfactory. of language. 295 men. and forms of government. and the like. sharp lines of demarcation impossible. but also the Malays.CONDITIONS OF CIVILISATION AND PROGRESS. by which not only shades of colour. and less as a being apart from the other relations. is a study that is as yet in its infancy . Spaniards. — . and Ethiopian) reckoning the American as a sub-variety of the Mongol. — . races. Conditions of Civilisation and Progress. The White Race is supposed to be composed of two main varieties the Pale Whites and the Dark IVhites. Anthropology. and Philology. retaining Blumenbach's scheme as an aid to the general arrangement and consideration of mankind. It is the general features merely that our science aims at the details of nationality.). of the universe. and unnecessary as imposThe consideration of these minutim belongs more especially to Ethnography and Philology. Ethnology. are all considered in tracing the dispersion. and the student of physical geography may consider as sufficient for his purpose the jive great varieties above enumerated.

globe. in a great this surplus — — . As to the prehistoric distribution of man. The Mongolian. in its numerous tribes and branches. Guiana. and the whole of Europe. The Malay. have ever been less or more encroaching on each other's domain the inferior giving way to the superior and more civilised. and the like. or where he enjoys products not possessed by other localities. The Ethiopian. California. in head. from what has been repeatedly stated. that its advancement (laying altogether aside the consideration of Race) depends. will establish himself — and these products form subjects of barter and exchange. after spreading wave after wave over Western Asia. and in intellectual main must be founded on nature. . surface of the globe. Peru. on the other hand. has partly repelled the Mongol. The White man. To trace the course of civilisation lies beyond the scope of our subject . arbitrary . luxuries. in one or other of its branches. has spread partially into Europe. neither archaeology nor geology. Within historical time.) of South Africa and of Southern Australia and New Zealand while his influence is felt. the higher faculties of his mind imagination. and man passes from the domain of savagery into the categories of civilisation. in every region of the capability. less or more. and. and thus he acquires wealth and the power to command E^ised above the mere physical struggle for existence. however. over the islands of the Southern Ocean and Pacific. has remained stationary in Africa. or on the natural capabilities of his Race). while peopling most densely the regions they now occupy. form of are accompanied stitution. there and increase in numbers his increase being mainly regulated by the facility or difficulty of obtaining supplies. &c. reflection.) of part of South America (Brazil. has spread itself. 298. the distinctions in the — . and religious sentiment begin to develop themselves. and largely along the entire seaboard of the Arctic Ocean. . Where he can raise more than his own wants require (and this will depend very much on his knowledge of nature's laws and operations. but it is evident. and as these physical features by strongly-marked differences in mental con- form and structure of language. The subdivisions may to some extent be but as there are actual differences of colour. Canada. Mexico. in the absence of reliable remains. 296 ETHNOLOGY — RACES AND VARIETIES OP MAN.. the various races. &c. while claiming Central and Eastern Asia as its headquarters. chiefly an insular race. Northern Africa. can arrive at any certain conclusion. invention. facial expression. has within the last three centuries taken possession of the greater portion of North America (United States. moral perception. man Wherever the means of subsistence can be obtained.

there will ever be among the human dwellers of each of the larger continents (even within ment. freedom of action. and may yet pass. industrial pursuit. such as vast deserts and mountain-chains. Tartary. greater activity. In fine. the closer unification of the human — . so civilisation will advance in a corresponding ratio. the effect of geographical condition and its necessary accompaniments is too often lost sight of in our social and political reasonings and it may be laid down as an axiom. continent possessing different climates. a population like that of China. different products. other things being equal. however. just as equitable laws. protection of property. India. from but in the aggregate its maintenance from epoch to epoch has been secure. such as those of China. and opportunities of interchange and barter in other words. and liberty of opinion are enjoyed.CONDITIONS OF CIVILISATION AND PROGRESS. which have been. and its progress seems illimitable. and necessaiily different races. Further. 299. It has passed. . or permanently united under the same forms of govern- tendency of modern times is towards a race a breaking up and absorption of small states and principalities analogous to the earlier breaking up and absorption of smaller states and chieftaincies at the commencement of the feudal system but notwithstanding this tendency and most desirable result. remain more isolated and less progressive than others separated by the widest oceans hence the sharp definings of certain Asiatic races. and greater intelligence hence the varied and superior civilisation of a diversified continent like Europe compared with the other great sections of the globe. 297 measure. It may be noted. . Wherever there exists a favourable climate. wherever there are the objects and means of successful industry there civilisation will manifest itself and it — — . It is true. variety of external conditions and variety of natural products necessarily produce greater contrasts. that. populations cut off from intercommunication by land -barriers. evolved and regulated by immediate physical surroundings. the means of subsistence. and are being. that no great nation to nation . can possibly be governed by the same laws. disposition. a maritime or oceanic population will more readily excel in civilisation than a continental or inland one their progress being directly as their means of interchange and intercommunication with other countries. enjoying vast and equable geographical conditions. Still further. mental aptitude. the same great section) minor diversities and contrarieties of bodily structure. — . on the geographical or physical conditions by which is surrounded. Again. . will remain more stationary than another even of the same race (as the Japanese) who possess more limited but more varied surroundings. and Arabia.

though drafted hither and thither as the slaves of the white man. or Red Indians. are spread. and other peculiarities. and have. The Mongolians. as well as by equally obvious intellectual and social qualities. is still.) have arrived at considerable eminence in the industrial arts. these varieties are the Caucasian or white. The Ethiopians. South Africa. The Malays. and nearly the whole of Europe. in modem times. have been equally restricted to the New World continent. the Ethiopian or black. though possessing a greater elasticity of constitution than most of the lower animals. inhabit the south-western section of Asia. extended their dominion to large areas of North and South America. form of head. differing in language. or arising from aboriginal differences which science cannot explain. have partially penetrated into Eastern Europe. RECAPITULATORY AND EXPLANATORY. Whether owing to these influences. and New Zealand. and capable of enduring under almost every climate. South Australia. and still make. having their headquarters in Malaya and the Indian Archipelago. and distinguished by peculiarities of colour. the least progress in civilisation hence their easier subjection by the higher races. the it has been shown Man. the Mongolian or yellow. 298 ETHNOLOGY — RACES AND VARIETIES OF MAN. over Australia. &c. NOTE. facial expression. or Indo-Europeans. to a great extent. the American or red. and other physical features. in one or other of their tribes. and nationalities. yet in both races the essentials of higher progress now — marked — . The Caucasians. the northern belt of Africa. social polity.. concentrated chiefly in Central and Eastern Asia. influenced by the external conditions by which he is surrounded. have been mainly stationary in Africa. According to Blumenbach's scheme. and hence also their rapid disappearance before them. I In the preceding chapter attention has been briefly directed to the varieties and distribution of the human species Ethnology — and Ethnography being the tions —the sciences which treat of these distinc- former devoting itself to the descriptive details. Man latter to the rational exposition of the subject. and the Malay or broum each embracing a great number of tribes. As a whole. but are most extensively spread in scattered communities along the entire seaboard of the Arctic Ocean. the negro and Red Indian have made. . branches. while the Americans. The Malay and Mongolian come next in order and though some of their sections (Chinese. the natural home and habitat of their race . as well as over all the island groups that stud the bosom of the Pacific. both in his physical and mental relations. that appears in several varieties or races each occupying wellterritories on the globe. Japanese.

and even of that portion a considerable share. The student desirous of entering its study of Ethnology and . of the United States and Canada and. and Colombia. Latham. Greece. and Lubbock the plates and letterpress in the Physical Atlas of A. or to be imperceptibly absorbed into his superior numbers and advancement. which proceeds by the removal and extinction of the less fitted and elastic. more minutely into the kindred branches. in whatever region of the globe they may happen to be established. and illimitable as certain. for as yet neither of the other varieties have at all approached the standard of his civilisation in temperate zones. of social. Quatrefages. of the white man. em — . are capable of being inhabited by the white man the black and brown races. but it is yet too brief and partial to constitute the basis of any satisfactory deduction. and by the introduction and spread of the higher and more adaptive and though benevolent schemes of amelioration may retard its efi'ects for a while. and Britain.' . edition of the ' Encyclopedia Britannica. The conditions favourable to this ci^alisation are partly of . By the white race alone do we find displayed the higher efforts of bodily and mental activity hence — in ancient times the civilisations of India. Assyria. there the progress We say of the white race is certain. whether they are naturally capable of the same kind and degree and also whether.RECAPITULATION. a geographical or physical nature. and hence their torpid and stationary aspect. in some of their offshoots. may rise to a subordinate civilisation but everything we know of the past points to illimit. The recent awakening of Japan to the arts and industries of European civilisation forms one of the most wonderful episodes in human history. Palestine. '299 seem wanting. may consult such ' ' works as those of Prichard. and partly intellectual and wherever the two are in fortunate conjunction. France. of European colonies. . . they are not in time destined to disappear before the spread and progress of the white. — — . Germany. and to a limit and declension in the This line of progression in Man is but part of the great law of vital evolution. Johnston the 'Descriptive Sociology' of Herbert Spencer and the articles on Anthropology and Ethnology in the recent . able progress in the white. Phoenicia. generally. they can neither arrest its operation nor divert other varieties of our species. Tylor. Mexico. Under the equatorial zone and be it observed that only a very small portion of the land-surface is strictly equatorial. Indeed it may be fairly questioned. its course. and intellectual attainments in all the temperate and sub-tropical regions at least. . and Kome and in modern times those of WestEurope Austria. moral. on psychological grounds. like the highlands of equatorial Africa. Egypt. K.

attention has been directed its figure. The object of Physical Geography being not only still to de- scribe the external aspects of the world. or for the plant-life or animal-life by which they are peopled. for example. Objects and Principles. to the planetary relations of the earth sions. it has been necessary. the details of geography would require volumes for their enumeration. AND DEDUCTIONS.XV r. Indeed. heat. summer and winter. GENERAL REVIEW. The great object in an outline like the present is to inculcate causes of climatic diversity. snows. and rains. &c. deriving therefrom directly its rota- tion. in general terms. dimen- —as on these depend its solar — its light and heat. light. there will be little difficulty in comprehending their modifications in local and limited areas. its rains. Let him once comprehend the main of winds manner in which it affects the distribution of plants and animals. so speak. to deal with principles as well as details. of tides and currents. and he will soon find his way to determine the causes that produce their modification in any special locality. if we may . its alternations of day and night. motions. our aim throughout has been to present our planet as subjected to general laws. APPLICATIONS. all that gives rise to change and diversity in its external conditions. and currents. and and . and tides indirectly its winds. and. as we believe that. 301. its life and activity. revolution. and he will have no difficulty in accounting for the peculiar climates of individual countries. in fact. but to determine the causes by which these aspects have been. It is. and the principles . when these are understood. waves. in the preceding chapters. Let the student clearly understand the origin. seasonal difi'erences. In accordance with these views. or are in course of being produced. 300. to relations that the earth owes.

and includes considerations merely of a mechanical and chemical nature the other to its Life. surrounded may be termed the On the other hand. depth. the one relates to the Physics of the earth. highlands and lowlands of the one. and conveying and supplying the vital gases so indispensable to the life and growth of the — — latter. frosts. to consider the detailed structure and composition of the globe. the study of the earth as peopled by plants and animals. capable of applying the whole to his own social and moral advantage. equalising and regulating the heat and moisture of the former. This world of ours is one great interconnected scheme an intricate network of interdependence.OBJECTS AND PRINCIPLES. and inhabited by man. light. constitute what as part of the solar system. through which the light and heat of the sun are diffused to both. form its vital or organic features. also. by which the plant-life and animal-life of both are sustained. igneous. 303. we called the attention of the student. that structure has been and is still undergoing. the distribution of its plants and animals. and their necessary actions and reactions on each other. in the first place. and the geological changes which. physical or inorganic aspects of geography. and other influences from the great central orb. On these forces depend the distribution of sea and land. and in which are elaborated the winds. It was necessary. the formation of highland and lowland. rains. tides. Understanding the relations of land and water. This aUeucircling atmosphere is the great bond of union between land and water. and meteoric forces. frosts 301 its — all that produces diversity in the distribution of plants and animals. and change in the geological relations of its rockyexterior. The consideration of this earth revolving through space composed superficially of land and by an atmosphere. In other words. the production of soils. the causes . and receiving heat. The study of the vital world. between plants and animals. and the configuration. waves. and regarding its geological changes as only appreciable at long and distant intervals. snows. . water. and involves the more intricate problems of physiology and psychology. 302. and currents of the other. under the operation of aqueous. to the relative distribution of its lands and waters the disposition. Seizing upon the present terraqueous aspects of the globe. and all those exterior aspects which influence so decidedly the character and localities of the plants and animals by which it is peopled. from which a single mesh could not be abstracted without deranging and marring the symmetry of the whole. and other phenomena that constitute the essentials of weather and climate. he was next directed to the study of the atmosphere by which both are surrounded.

and has consequently something that no other country can supply. and of more immediate interest. in virtue of its geological formation. Physical Geography has paramount claims alike on the attention of the philosopher. Man's ingenuity is ever on the rack for new inventions in the arts and manufac- . and moral progress. no doubt. becomes therefore one of the most attractive themes in geography. the farmer. Still higher. the merchant. abundance. like the rest of creation. — tables or animals peculiar to its own area. lowlands. vegetable. but it is not less important to learn how to apply them. produces vege. commerce. and. and climate of the other. and animal kingdoms. 304. and the question how far geographical conditions. the products derivable from the mineral. however. vegetable. their dispersion over the globe. All knowledge of nature is good of itself. and the mineral. their physical and mental peculiarities. the statesman. and to which. The duty of determining the earth's mineral. he must either conform or succumb. concerned in that arrangement. 305. Man in his settled and civilised condition becomes. and animal products. must be in accordance with those great primordial laws which will ever lie over and beyond his influence. and currents of the one. vegetable. mental. has some special mineral or metal in greater or less abundance and every region. and the dependence of the one kingdom on the other. Every country. is not less imperative than the solution of its physical and vital problems. But our science has its practical as well as theoretical importance. the sailor. its theoretical with its practical bearings. a modifier of nature but his control over nature is at the most only partial and limited. Combining. The material "wealth of the globe that is. is that which deals with our own race the varieties of man. and the manu- — . and capable of being employed so as to administer to the comforts — and luxuries of life forms the leading theme of economic geography. and accessibility of nature's products. and animal products of both is indispensable to successful navigation.— 302 GENERAL REVIEW AND DEDUCTIONS. but its value is doubly enhanced when it is made to minister to our common humanity. the highlands. therefore. may influence their social. tides. to be beneficial. in virtue of its position and climate. and how far they can be rendered available for the purposes of everyday life. and remembering that every country is characterised by its own natural products. and agriculture. — : facturer. It is of vast importance to be acquainted with the character. A knowledge of the distribution of sea and land the winds. and the pursuits incident thereon. its economic as well as its scientific aspects.

which must terminate. the atmosphere by which they are enveloped. 306. . there must be a gradual deterioration. the geographer regards them as all under the operation of fixed and determinable laws. and in endeavouring to ascertain their producing causes. and thereby creating new wants. and all. however intricate. and accessibility of the products that belong to the different countries of the globe. new ideas. however rare. they become sufl&ciently apparent. . in process of time. man's dependence on. the higher. in utter extinction. In this way Britain draws the raw materials of her manufactures from every accessible portion of the globe. he cannot lose sight of the fact that these aspects are continually undergoing change and modification in virtue of the great operative forces of the universe. returning thither her manufactured goods. — the bodily to the intellectual. The course of Humanity has been ever onward and upward a triumph of mind over matter. No appearance. it gradually disand makes room for the development of those higher conditions which seem to be the natural and destined end of the human species. and the resolution of the whole into one harmonious cosmos. 303 and as all his raw materials are of the realms of nature. in the long-run. This search produces commerce. in line. and relationship to. and this communion is the main incentive to civilisation and human progress. but must be the result of natural laws and the highest theme of his science is the discovery of these laws. In considering these phenomena.OBJECTS AND PRINCIPLES. each age advancing with accelerated Wherever. steps on the attainments of its predecessor. and inaptitude. abundance. he turns to Physical drawn from one or other Geography for indi- cations of the character. tiires . the plants and animals by which they are respectively peopled. in general terms. and finally. or amalgamate with. therefore. in consequence of its lower organisation If the inferior. But while he mainly deals with the existing aspects of nature. a subjugation of acted appears. new activities. cannot be upon by. These changes may be all but imperceptible even for centuries but. no set of phenomena. geography to describe the lands and waters of the globe. there is the presence of unfavourable conditions. there will be a lagging behind wherever there is a want of aptitude. that arises from the contact between superior and inferior civilisations. Such. commerce brings about communion between the most widely diverse and separated regions. the mutual actions and reactions established between the elements in virtue of the planetary connections of the earth. — is the aim and scope of physical . the whole. and stamp new features on the ex.

and why one tract should be low and alluvial while another is high and rocky each feature being the product In this of a certain time and change in the earth's relations. The air and water. kindred with those of Europe. the extinction of certain aboriginal and the spread of others over the same areas changes which would often appear inexplicable but for this law of incessant mutation and progress. . why the mountain aspects of the one should differ from those of the other. whether of distribution or of elevation and depression. — records the uprise of some sea-coasts and the depression of others. for example. of the shoaling of certain seas and lakes.— 304 GENERAL REVIEW AND DEDUCTIONS. the increasing rarity of certain forms of life or their entire extir- pation. as the present differs from that revealed to us by the researches of the . we can understand the gradual formation of deltas. the appearance of new islands and the outbursts of new volcanoes. though now widely separated by expanses of The plants and animals of Britain. again. as those of the present differ from what geology assures us existed in time past. The changes may be yet still slight so slight as to pass unobserved for generations they are not on that account less real or certain. geologist. . It is also by bearing in mind this great feature of ceaseless change that — we can account for the similarities between the flora and fauna of different regions ^regions that may at one time have been continuously connected by land. are ever changing the relative positions of sea — and land and thus the seas and lands of the future must differ from the seas and lands of the present. Bearing these —physical and vital —as must regard being in — — facts in mind. In this way the student all its relations of physical geography the earth and a state of incessant change and progress. and this through land-connections and differences that exist — that existed long before their separation by the Strait of Dover. I the eroded material in another. we can more readily comprehend why the rocks (the old sea-sediment) of one region should differ from those of another. implies a corresponding change in the nature and distribution of plants and animals and here. ever wearing and wasting the rocky surface in one district and collecting ternal conditions of the globe. too. elevating the solid crust in one region and depressing it in another. subterranean agencies. Every change of the external relations of sea and land. 307. the disappearance of certain forest-growths races of men and the succes- sion of others in their place. claim ocean. of coral-reefs in mid-ocean. way. of sand-dunes along shore. and the changes of plant-life and History animal-life incident upon such alterations of habitat. the life of the future must differ from that of the present.

and cutting out for themselves ravines. &c. waves. Notwithstanding these continual operations. 806 this idea of mutation into all our reasongeography becomes a more intelligible part of World-history connecting the past with the present. its existing aspects in an intelligible and available form. Philippine. the consideration of these agencies belongs more especially to geology but their results bear so directly on the arrangement and moulding of the terraqueous surface. the chief agents concerned in fine. 309. Guyot. within appreciable limits. . either in his descriptions or in his posed to the degrading action of waves and tides and currents and on the areas in Iceland. No doubt. and snows elaborated in the atmosphere. by carrying ings. and now submerging the dry land beneath the waters. Central Asia. do not greatly affect the general relations of the earth . Some idea of the magnitude of their combined influences may be formed by reflecting on the number of streams and rivers that are ever coursing over the earth's surface.). whose operations are alike incessant in upheaving and depressing the surface now raising the sea-bed into dry land. 308. rains. on the extent of coast-line exical observer. that are undei^oing the slower processes of gradual elevation . any limited time. that constitutes the sum and substance of our science . and the Pacific islands (see Map of Volcanoes). Japan. Mexico. and preparing the philosophic mind for the nature of the changes that must ensue in the inevitably approaching future. III. or depression. determination of the laws upon which all geographical phenomena are dependent. Arctic America. — . tides. It is. . which are ever loosening and disintegrating the exposed rocky surface the streams. Andes. and the causes concerned in their production. and just as this account is founded on correct observation and harmonises with sound induction. and Aleutian Islands. Siberia. their results. " It is not enough for it coldly to anatomise the globe by merely taking for cognisance of the arrangement of the various parts which compose u . and valleys . Italy. that are subjected to earthquake and volcanic disturbance to say nothing of those areas like Scandinavia. which are incessantly wearing and wasting and redepositing the eroded materials along the bottom of the sea and the mysterious crust-movement.OBJECTS AND PRINCIPLES. that they cannot possibly be overlooked by the geograph. so the more rapidly will Physical Geography attain to perfection. It is this intelligible account of existing appearances. rivers. Indian Archipelago. and thus the geographer is enabled to depict. glens. As has been eloquently remarked by M. and ocean-currents. "West Indies. that physical — in the modification of the earth are the winds.. frosts. As formerly stated (Chap.

it must endeavour to seize those incessant mutual actions of . will be mainly influenced in its climate. Its limits are usually comprehended within the 36th and 71st degrees of N. it in this light. best illustration in the details of the stances. if I may venture to say so. These minor sections are Europe.000 square miles. longitude but its bounding line is rendered so irregular by the indentation of seas and gulfs.500 311. life. we may now proceed to apply them in a brief explication of the respective continents or quarters of the globe which form the theatres of human action and enterprise. of which about 317. social. that an idea of its configuration can be best obtained by a study of the Atlas. ing the reciprocal action of the perpetual play of which constitutes what may be called the Life of the Globe. If the general principles are sound. take up its Physiology. and Oceania each presenting features and phenomena peculiarly its own. stands in a clearer and closer relationship to the whole. tei-s. study- — ." Underall these forces. and the projection of peninsulas and promontories. standing unity. as already stated.725. South America. Applying the principles laid down in the preceding chapfind that Europe lies almost wholly within the northern temperate zone. upon man in particular. latitude. interest. minor sections. Its area. and moral development. it should. described. at all events. is estimated at 3. Africa. can be best understood in their applications to special in- may In this way a brief analysis of the respective continents be useful to the general reader as well as to the student. and. and 64th of E. in his physical. its various portions with new Bearing in mind the principles of the science as thus and the general laws by which the various domains of nature are held in cosmical harmony. we . Asia. and the law which was perhaps but slenderly understood may find more thorough comprehension by its application to particular may come under the notice of the local observer. and. North America. and industry by this great primary condition. the different portions of physical nature upon each other of inorganic upon organised beings. Continental Aspects —Europe.306 it GENERAL REVIEW AND DEDUCTIONS. they find their 310. in consequence. the scheme of nature becomes invested assume new harmony and and man. and the 10th degree of W. and upon the successive developments of human societies in a word. but all readily intelligible and in perfect harmony with the general principles laid down in the preceding instances that — chapters. .

It is the great headquarters of commerce. or but little interrupted by elevations or depressions. the modifying influence of man must be taken into account as an important and it which civilisation. the greater proportion of the surface is more or less improved and under cultivation and though large tracts are still occupied by natural forest. Geologically. Prussia.) lying chiefly in the south. Unless in the extreme north. . pervading element. table-lands. and thus it possesses a compactness a unity in its variety. fied by man than that of any other continent. if we may so phrase it that is not to be found in any of the other continental land-masses. it is not marked by those strong contrasts and separations that belong so peculiarly to the greater portion of the Old. the natural aspect of Europe has been much more modiIn other words. from the German Sea inwards through the Netherlands. these formations are irregularly brought to the surface in all the northern and western districts northern and eastem Russia being the only region where formations are continuous — over extensive areas. from the crystalline schists to the most recent allu\da. Notwithstanding this diversity of surface. — — . also. was originally peopled. Europe presents illustrations of every system. . the plants and animals by . and morass. VII. lakes. and cultivation and thus. heath. and from the deep-seated granites to the superficial dust of latest volcanic eruptions. . 313.CONTINENTAL ASPECTS belong to its islands — EUROPE. confer on its southern section an irregular and hilly aspect while the northern section. In this way the mineral and metallic treas- . Devoid of immense plains like those of America. We have thus a southern region characterised by its mountains. this area there is . VI. 312. it must be remembered that the mountain-systems of Europe (Chap. and in a corresponding degree. and intervening valleys and a northern (Chap. on the whole. lake. and morasses. heathy wastes. it is not marked by the same uniformity of vegetable and animal life that characterises the New World and wanting in those vast deserts and plateaux that occupy so much of Asia and Africa. and Russia. the natural conditions of its soil and climate have been more interfered with by man's operations than those of any other region. sandy waste. From the broken and undulating nature of the country.) marked by a predominance of pasture-plains. yet. in all our reasonings on its geographical conditions. Notwithstanding this unity of conditions. there is everywhere the most intimate connection. is generally flat. 307 every and islets. Within diversity (within ordinary limits) of surface and it is this diver- sity that confers on Europe its especial character as compared with any of the other continents.

The mean temperature of its southern border is about 66 degrees . the alluvial formations at the mouths of such rivers as the Po. her western shores are laved by the current of the Gulf Stream. with the exception of the diamond. This abundance and availability of the useful minerals and metals enabled her inhabitants to engage at an early period in arts. As might be expected from the position. and the alternate inroads and sand-silts of the Atlantic. and otherwise indented by inland seas and gulfs. fire-clay. and at Cape North. coals. while in no part is it subjected to the same extremes of winter cold and summer heat. and other metallic ores of gold and platinum. clearing of forests. and commerce and it is to this same abundance and availability that her present superiority in mechanical. the existing geological relations of Europe are undergoing comparatively little change the pottery-clays. In general terms. lead.a 308 GENERAL REVIEW AND DEDUCTIONS. 314. and commercial industry is mainly attributable. configuration. though less profusely than in some other regions and of most of the precious or ornamental stones. gypsum. antimony. mercury. of granites. ironstones. while the draining of marshes. sulphur. and some varieties of the sapphire. copper. In fine. while even on its most southern limit the heat is by no means excessive. the climate of Europe partakes more of an insular than of a continental character and this arises mainly from the circumstance that she is surrounded on three sides by the sea. marbles. without participating in those violent contrasts which mark most of the other continents. rock-salt. limestones. it is 32 degrees mean fully equal to what is experienced in North America between the parallels of 55° and 56°. and other mineral suband manufactures of iron. have also tended — . but wards off the cold approach of the northern iceberg . — gradual uprise of the Scandinavian coast. Oriental ruby. a very small portion is uninhabitable on account of cold. . in lat. zinc. being the only appreciable phenomena. and Dnieper. and the paucity of volcanic centres. flints. . its mean temperature is higher than that of other regions within the same parallels. On the whole. Rhine. From the absence of great rivers. and surface-diversity of Europe. manufacturing. . Lying almost wholly within the northern temperate zone (only a fourteenth of its area being within the arctic circle). manganese. porphyries. 71°. ures of Europe become more readily available . its climate is also varied and variable. silver. sandstones. and other efforts of cultivation. sands. Besides this. and these consist. which not only brings an additional store of heat. manufactures. alum-shales. . stances used in the arts . Danube. so that no extensive portion of her surface is far removed from the tempering influences of the ocean. tin.

during the brief summer. The fact. and August. and the cold during the long winter proportionally severe putting an end to all field operations. three. beyond the 65th parallel. the heats of which frequently rise to 92° Fahr. and averages from 90 to 100 days . olive. 3d. Arranging the surface of Europe into climatic zones.. and having a pleasant spring. extending to the 45th degree of north latitude. the climatic effects of altitude are less striking than in other regions. the number of wet days on the Atlantic seaboard averaging from 150 to 160 annually the southern or Mediterranean side is next in order. orange. and the rest would have been periodically chilled by their proximity. the three following regions are usually enumerated Ist. : — The warm region. fig. As the snow-line in Europe makes a very gentle curve from about 8500 feet in the many Alps to 2000 feet at the North Cape. and snow the spring continues from April till June the sumis common mer. 315. also. In this region the heat. In this region frost prevails two. as seen in Chap. a hot summer. is very great. had the Alps. climate . The cold region. L . the western side of Europe is the most humid. last till September and the autumn is the shortest season. and Carpathians been situated in the north than a third of the surface would have been perpetually under snow and glacier. — 309 improve the climatic character of the country. In consequence of the principal mountain-chains being situated in the southern or warmer region. these are its only mountain-ranges that exhibit the phenomena of glaciers. . is not without its influence in modifying the that is. that the lower part of Europe lies towards the north and the higher to the south. friths. but in the interior perhaps not beyond 52°. only two seasons occur summer and winter the former lasting during June.— CONTINENTAL ASPECTS to —EUROPE. while in the centre and eastern districts a much smaller . only very limited patches in the Alps and Dovrefelds come within its limit and hence. to the north. the Alps and Pyrenees show various belts of vegetation. for had this been reversed more Pyrenees. and the latter during the rest of the year. and closing the navigation of the rivers. — 316. and vine flourish. July. — .. and short mild winter. where the lemon. myrtle. in which. or four months. . especially in their higher ridges. . though. but are subject to great and long-continued droughts in summer. when the sun never sets. extending in the islands . XIII. As might be expected. and seaboard to 55° north latitude. also. The countries within the belt have generally abundant rains during the last three months of the year. and 2d. The temperate region.

though not always ripening and beyond this the dwarf-birch and willow. middle. constitute the principal flora. but never wholly disappointing his hopes or defeating his labours. ash. but not excessive fickle. being profitably cultivated in sheltered valleys. the Iceland and reindeer grasses. On the whole. moss. mulberry. attain to perfect growth as do also wheat. are found skirting The dwarf-palm. reindeer. and western districts. for matters of mere botanical interest. where the climate is more decidedly continental. poplar. myrtle. we may here briefly enumerate the range and limits of those fruits and vegetables that have more especially a useful or economic bearing. apricot. and other bulbous roots. elm. but not important in point of size or number. can inhabit indifferently any part of the This moderate climate. and banana some of the warmer portions of the Mediterthis point north to the 45th parallel. In the central and eastern regions. the potato. The true natural fauna is varied enough in point of species. rye. chestnut. 310 GENERAL REVIEW AND DEDUCTIONS. cactus. with the exception of those (the white bear. the apple. these plants find their limits at the 50th and 52d parallels. orange. section. cypress. flourish in perfection — some of these. and the absence of great moun- . even in the lowest* valleys. oak. lemming. the pomegranate. calling forth the utmost skill and watchfulness on the part of the husbandman. as the vine. olive. turnip.. flax. &c. useful and ornamental. Forests of pine and birch continue in luxuriance as far as the 67th degree at the 70th. From the densely -peopled and cultivated character of Europe. pear. carrot. beech.. From the 45th to the 55th. its fauna (in all the larger animals at least) may be regarded more as a domesticated than a natural one.. almond. &c. proportion (from 60 to 80) is experienced. as might be expected from this diversity of climate. cherry. and common cultivated . From fig. the climate of Europe is variable. .) restricted to its arctic country. Although biologists correctly regard it as forming merely the western portion of the great Palcearctic or Old World region. 318. citron. beet. the plane. 317. XIII. and. and other forest-trees. blue fox. as far north as the 60th parallel. ranean seaboard. vine. oats. beans and peas. oats and barley are the only kinds of grain which resist the rigour of the climate. the vegetation of Europe presents considerable variety and complication a complication which is greatly enhanced by the long- — continued introduction of plants. . Keferring to Chap. from other regions. but not insalubrious . walnut. plum. barley. yet. laurel. so far as the 50th degree. and smaller garden-fruits are abundant and in the southern. as well — as from the diversity of physical aspect formerly alluded to.

ptarmigan. oyster. the continent of Europe preserves. sole. of which the cod. goose. lobster. and in a less degree also of game birds. ox. skate. the geographical conditions of Europe. ling. and Crustacea. haddock. swan. mackerel. and periwinkle. Slavonian. cockle. . peacock. partridge. shrimp. and animal productions. vegetable. and pheasant. pigeon. in an eminent degree. they have been specially favourable to the spread and crossing of the domesticated and thus improved and improving breeds are to be found in every portion of its surface. the elements and facilities for the cultivation of the useful and agreeable. . its varied surface. barn-fowl. too. sturgeon. partly from native and partly from exotic stocks. shell-fish. tusk. duck. &c. are among the most abundant and valuable. and Celtic are the predominating sub-varieties each embracing a vast number — — . . Devoid of the larger camivora and reptiles. 319. numerous seas. have risen the many and valuable varieties of the horse. of the brilliantly-coloured birds and insects that belong to warmer latitudes. while the eastern and northern (or least valuable sections) are inhabited by families of Mongolian descent. our limits will not permit us to enter but it may be remarked that the Teutonic. mussel. on the whole. goat. prawn. The causes that regulate the growth and decay of nationalities is yet imperfectly understood but however much may be ascribed to the inherent physiological peculiarities of race. give a uniformity to the fauna of Europe which is not observable in other continents and this uniformity is greatly augmented by the circumstance that the larger and more destructive animals are all but extirpated. 311 and desert barriers. — of minor nationalities and tongues. such as the grouse. which are still acting and reacting upon each other in production of newer. there can be no doubt a vast amount depends upon the geographical or physical conditions of situation.— CONTINENTAL ASPECTS tain —EUROPE. On the whole. In this way. sheep. salmon. the temperate seas of Europe are stocked with inexhaustible supplies of wholesome fish. crab. guinea-fowl. But while the moderate and equable conditions of Europe have been unfavourable to the preservation of the native fauna. turkey. pilchard. and pig of poultry — . and. In this repect the in. herring. tunny. mineral. In this way. Into the numerous families and tongues which time and the influence of external conditions have evolved from these two races.— eminently fit it for developing the enterprise and industry of its inhabitants. advancing stocks. turbot. And this development has been further fostered by the fact that all the finer southern and western portions are peopled by the more energetic Indo-European or Caucasian race. and extensive sea-coast its climate. ass. capercailzie.

Central Asia. diversified by mountain-knots that rise above the snow-line. arrange sections —each having well-marked and into northern. suffering from intense cold. and occasionally intersected by narrow valleys of considerable amenity. and here and there capable of a rude cultivation forests of pine and birch. Tibet. and hence their superior . 26° and 190° east. also. eastern. steppe-land and frozen tundra. — . Mongolia. and Situated between lat. Northern or Eussian Asia includes the — improvement. western. and southern whole of the continent north of the Altai and Yablonnoi Mountains a region (as we descend from the mountains) of rocks and forest-growth. and scarcely thawed to a foot in depth during a brief summer. north. tropical. luxuriant river -plains and tracts doomed it to everlasting possible to treat the continent as a whole. their progress in the arts and manufactures and in all that relates to mechanical and commercial industry and as a secondary consequence.000 siderable portion of this consquare miles.312 GENERAL REVIEW AND DEDUCTIONS. and long. lying principally parallels. it is imand hence it is usual to distinctive features. and presents an area estimated at 16. thinly peopled. . and arctic Occupying and — exhibiting vast mountain -chains and lofty table -lands. the most widely separ" ated in the character of its parts of any of the so-called " quarters 1° 28' 78° of the globe. to disap- 320. civilisation. are the leading features of . and Eastern Tartary a region of sandy deserts and salt lakes. and western Europe have had important advantages . between the 30th and 50th embraces the lofty table-lands of Gobi. this inhospitable section. bleak and barren. central. or more than four times that of Europe.year. snow or scorching sterility. and almost physically incapable of 321. habitants of southern.165. is insular and peninsular. whose aboriginal races seem destined pear before them. the most compact in point of configura- and yet. by far the most ex- tensive and diversified. temperate. their spread over a large portion of the New World and Australasia. broad grassy steppes and shingly deserts. but not to such an extent as to interfere materially with the massiveness and continuity of configuration to A three great climatic belts — which we have referred. gradually dwarfing to the north and east and tundra or bog-moss frozen for ten months a. 2d. Ist. central. Steppes affording a rough pasture in summer. Asia. it occupies the greater portion of the eastern hemisphere. paradoxical as it may seem. This anciently-peopled continent is tion.

geological features of regions so vast . consisting largely of high sandy plains studded with numerous salt lakes. is decidedly the richest and most diversified region of the whole. and varied must and though the geology of Asia is but imperfectly known. including Hindostan. in India. with its general features. it is a hot and thirsty region. with this difference. Farther India. and the deserts of Arabia. it has still enough. perhaps. to . China. we have gathered enough from recent surveys and travels to confirm the belief that every ormation is there displayed. and this frequently on a most gigantic scale. The steppes of Western Tartary. . Varied by minor hill-ranges and well. still exhibiting a series of plateaux. 313 As the northern section was the region of frozen. it enjoys a high though not oppressive temperature. its geomust be undergoing considerable modification. and but inadequately watered by rivers. On the whole. All the economic minerals and metals the precious are found within one or other of its countries metals and gems also occur in abundance and though less noted for its coal and iron than Europe or North America.watered valleys. and the Islands of Japan. and partaking of the desert character of the central region. China and Mandshuria give to its western and northern portions an irregular and varied aspect. but not at such a rate as to interfere. as logical relations well as in several parts of the mainland. so the central is the region of arid deserts. Georgia. Southern Asia. and being subjected in a remarkable degree to volcanic and earthquake disturbance in almost 322. and Japan. fertility. and rivers of China. Mandshuria. and the Malayan peninsula. 5th. has only a rainy season for its winter. for generations. having large rivers with gradually increasing deltas like those of the Indus. but less elevated and more broken up by hill -ranges and intervening valleys. — unfailing verdure. Ganges. the table-lands of Persia. and lying largely within the tropics. that the more southerly position of the latter confers on its deeper valleys both verdure and 3d. by deltas and river-plains. The necessarily partake of corresponding diversity all its islands. belong to this region the finest portions being Turkey in Asia. or that embracing the Chinese Empire. presents in every district an Western Asia. 4th. and.CONTINENTAL ASPECTS ASIA. . and the plains of the Tigris and Euphrates. except during long droughts in Central Hindostan. Eastern Asia. Partaking of the arctic uprise of land in Siberia. the Indian Archipelago. but its eastern consists of the great Chinese plain and low-lying region of vast extent and fertility. is one of the finest and most The mountains of diversified sections of the great continent.

On the whole. what Humboldt calls an excessive climate that is. while the climate of Europe is more insular than continental. and snow-clad mountain-masses that occupy so large a proportion of the central regions. A tropical. in Siberia. . the continent of Asia does not enjoy the same modifying and tempering influences as Europe. and placed permanently under snow and glacier its mass lies comparatively unbroken by intersecting and tempering seas it has no burning sandy tracts in the south to send warm breezes. In other words. and even its southern or tropical districts are cooled by the winds that flow from the snow-clad central mountains. while in Tibet the mountains are clear at an elevation of 16. or diff'ering greatly during these seasons from the mean annual temperature. both vegetable and animal. that at Tara. and that while all the great central deserts are all but rainless. arid deserts. while its animal life has a physiological power . If excelled in it stands unrivalled among the other continents. . of a successful mechanical fi)rm the basis and manufacturing industry.000 feet .. 324. that of Asia is strictly and emphatically continental. and yet the thermometer falls there in winter to 28° Fahr. — . the winter's ice is gradually accumulating and overmastering the summer's heat a still larger section is raised to an enormous altitude. the Japan Current. and this diversity is rendered still more remarkable by the lofty table-lands. therefore.314 GENERAL REVIEW AND DEDUCTIONS. we might naturally expect an abundant and diversified life. It suff'ers. As instances of its extremes. whose genial waters lave its eastern coast. the day-heat will often be as high as 114° Fahr. — A .000 feet. it has been remarked that grapes come to maturity on the borders of the Caspian. according to Von Wrangel. that the snow-line in the Elburz is found at 11. large proportion is situated on the confines of the polar circle. after a night of hoarfrost. where. Asia includes the larger portion of the Palceardic region — 323. vegetable luxuriance by tropical America. is of minor volume compared with the Gulf Stream . the temperature of the air in July and August rises to 82°. of biologists. while a foot under the surface the soil remains permanently frozen that in Arabia. temperate. as we have elsewhere observed. and a climate so varied. it has at least greater variety of forms. With a position so extensive. excessively hot in summer and excessively cold in winter. as the Sahara does to Europe . and in this respect. the annual rainfall in the lower plains of India amounts to 400 or 500 inches. a contour so decided. . and the northern half of the Indian or Oriental region. continent stretching over three great geographical zones and arctic must necessarily exhibit great diversity of climate .

hemp. buffalo. rhubarb. cocoa. pomegranate. hyena. clove. — pepper. rhinoceros. &c. Not only are the representatives of the corresponding families larger and stronger in the Old World. poppy. drugs. quince. betel. and other leguminous seeds. . auroch. antelope. banyan. yak. CONTINENTAL ASPECTS— ASIA. and numerous varieties of dog the horse. orange. among spices and kindred products cinnamon. the common ox. walnut. sago. so in the Old World the animal has the preponderance over the vegetable. cashew. . mangrove. marmot. beaver. mulberry. dye-stuffs. bat. argali. blue and black fox. XIII. iron-wood. Among its fruits may be mentioned the grape. we shall here merely allude to those products which. cassava. . should have a fauna of corresponding variety and power . known in Europe . perhaps. fig. . ciu- cotton. plantain. and thus it is that in all the zoological classes (with the exception. almond. gamboge. tamarind. and musk-ox . porcupine. like —indigo. of the reptiles and insects which dominate in tropical America) its animals excel both in nobleness of form and in numbers. sheep. gums. mangosteen. Among the mammalia may be noticed the apes and monkeys of the south the lion. the largest and most diversified of the Old World continents. sugar. savin. so also they excel in. seals. among grains and cultivated lentils. arnatto. peas. and other felinse of the south and west the elephant.. and camel of the central and western plains . the elk. galls. goat. pine-apple. nutmeg. and the . as governed by the great climatic zones. dhourra. . sandal-wood. are of industrial and commercial importance. cedar. camphor. lotus. and other cetacea. lemon. reindeer. yam. ermine. bamboo. it might naturally be expected that Asia. and many others while among the forest and ornamental noticed the teak. cocoa and other palms. wheat. As her mammalia excel in variety. date. and even exhibit types entirely foreign to the New. gluttons. lime. ass. apricot. together with bears. badgers. that "as in the New World the vegetable kingdom has the preponderance over the animal. jerboa. sea-cow. peach. panther. for the general features of its vegetation. axis. along may be with ebony. &c. like tea. but they appear in more numerous genera and more varied species. and others of a kindred nature." In accordance with this opinion. . lemming. jute. potato. among saffron. from their value. ibex. mufflon. cypress. tiger. coffee. beans. 325. banana. melon. . and all the garden-fruits roots —maize. aloes. barley. sea-otters. tea. dzigettai. are either peculiar to its soil. leopard. jackal. or which. rice. sycamore. trees chona. arrow-root. bread-fruit. &c. 315 and completeness imapproached by that of other regions. box-wood. . Jibres. &c. olive. and tapir of India the wolf. It has been remarked by Guyot. shaddock. ounce. Referring to Chap.

" actions it has been well remarked. on the whole. and chiefly on farseparated river-plains. goat. Polyneyet. there has been none of that action and reaction. save that of destruction. How little has China and Japan been influenced by India how little has the civilisation of Japan reflected on Malaysia and though Tartar and Kalmuck inroads from the north have been frequent enough on the south. camel. cat peacock. the physical peculiarities of the contisians nent have kept them wonderfully apart. 316 GENERAL REVIEW AND DEDUCTIONS. Syrians. The civilisations of Europe have been more maritime than continental those of Asia more continental than maritime. in vast areas. and the third the south-western region and adjacent Archipelago. Persians. Mongols. more intimate. dog.. utility . ox. and rivers are stocked with valuable food-fishes. Mongolian. iety of families and tongues Hindoos. that has marked the progress of mankind across the continent and along the seaboards of Europe. has had a tendency to develop social and complex relations the other. pig. and other creatures so necessary to the comfort and luxury of civilised communities. and thus each has enjoyed . — — its own peculiar civilisation for ages. and among her special insect-products may be noted her silk. and other kindred substances. . . altogether apart from the physiological peculiarities of the Mongolian and Malay races. and reactions upon each . more per- the possibility of a common life. "is the possibility of other. and from Asia. though less notably than Europe . sheep. has been more productive of isolation and " What has been wanting to the comstationary individualism. how little impression. mother-of-pearl. . Her seas. Tartars Burmese. the permeability of the entire continent everything conspires to establish between the European nations that community of life and of civilisation which — . lakes. and pearls are fished from her gulfs . Arabs Chinese. the smallness of the area. barn-fowl. bees-wax. ass. Ethnologically the continent of Asia is occupied by three main varieties of mankind the Caucasian. 326. and Malay the first inhabiting the south and west. have they left on the Mountains and deserts plains of Persia or the deserts of Arabia form barriers more impassable than seas and thus. that domination and absorption.. ! . as the horse. gall-nuts. as the original source. red-coral. the mid- manent it is land seas thick sown with islands. Though each of these varieties embraces a vast var- — . elephant. lac. . the near neighbourhood. munities of Asia. On the other hand. pheasant. Javanese. that commingling and evolution of higher stocks. cochineal. honey. Japanese. in minor areas and along varied seaboards. have other regions derived most of their domesticated and semi-domesticated animals. The one. the second the north and east.

which is and waterfalls inaccessible to navigation. of 11. gulfs. Where the hills decline towards the Atlantic in Marocco the dis- may — conti- — trict is somewhat flat.temperate latitudes. which is only 72 miles across. It lies between the parallels of 37° N. death for the white men to enter. the whole being marked at intervals by arid expanse. consisting partly of shingly plateaux resting and gypsum and largely impregnated with salt. that community which marks the continuity of its coast-line is relations of Europe and Asia. So far as we know the physical peculiarities of the nent. and between long. being thus mainly tropical. and 51° 30' E. and having only its northern and southern borders within warm. Africa." It is thus that civilisation in Asia stands still or declines. and a dry scorching one on the north. and has consequently little of 327. or descend by cataracts penetration. including Madagascar and the other islands. or. 328. The almost unbroken by or estuaries. Separated from Europe by the Mediterranean. but less in climate and vital aspects. seas. than the regions of any of the other continents. and composed largely of the Atlas chain. it is hilly and irreg- ular. 317 forms one of the most essential and precious characteristics of their social state. it The largest of them flow within its and either debouch through swampy jungles. Beginning with the north. . The next great " quarter " of the Old World is that of having an estimated area of 11. 2d. but. with a warm but salubrious climate towards the Mediter- ranean. and this resisting solidity of form is no doubt the chief cause of its interior being less known than that of any of the other continents.. generally speaking. 17° 30' W.360. which stretches from Marocco on the west to the Nile Valley on the east a hot — on and partly of dunes or ridges of diifting sand. oases or fertile spots that of water.000.CONTINENTAL ASPECTS AFRICA. ite . with its subordinate spurs and intervening valleys. be divided into four or five regions difi'ering more in physical structure. we have 1st. Even the disposition of its rivers is unfavourable to its equatorial limits.000 square miles. it is all but insular. Africa. The region of the Sahara or Great Desert. The Sahara has thus enjoy the presence of a spring or runnel its fertile and inhabited oases. and 34° 50' S.855. while in Europe it is ever active and progressive. and but slenderly united to Asia by the low Isthmus of Suez. where it insensibly graduates iuto the Sahara. The mountainous district of the Tell lying between the Mediterranean and the Sahara.

is aridity and barrenness. on the whole. scrubby plateaux. though during the dry season it seldom exceeds a couple of inches. a belt of luxuriant but unhealthy lowland. Though strictly tropical. but its pestilential climate has hitherto resisted all European approach. unless at a few very limited and unsatisfactory stations. the elevation of this tableland confers on many portions the climate of temperate zones . the more stony and arid country of Nubia. during seasons of drought. 6th. in rivers of permanent volume and navigable rains. .318 GENERAL REVIEW AND DEDUCTIONS. which. consist of recent alluvia the formations of the Cape are chiefly mesozoic sandstones and diamond -yielding drifts . The 6th and last region is that skirting the Red Sea. partakes of the character of a high table-land. of its civilisation. which continues from October till the end of March. has a salubrious but arid climate. or even quaternary ocean the deltas of the Nile. this region is hilly and irregular in surface. so far as we can judge from recent discovery. having a mean temperature of 65°. The Central region. however. having numerous permanent wide and deep lakes but is wanting. The Atlantic-coast region. This region is remarkable for its fine but somewhat arid climate its fertility where water is present . marked by numerous deltas and jungles along shore. for the early and peculiar character channels. . This region is rich in tropical forest-growth and verdure. and partially under a rude cultivation. which rises hill-stages towards the north or unknown interior —these stages by successive forming irregular terraces which are covered with grass after the but become hard and bare. and is occasionally subject to destructive droughts. The Southern or Cape region. 4th. 329. Its general character. and where water is present the country is described as fine and fertile. and its shifting dunes of utter sterility. Geologically. amounting to 36 or 38 inches. and hitherto the continent has contributed less to the mineral and metallic wealth of the civilised world than any other region. and the oases merely appear like islets of verdure amid an ocean of desert. Niger. . but gradually rising and improving towards the interior. or but partially dotted with thorny scrub. ethnologically. — . . and comprising the hilly but not unfertile table-land of the Galles and Abyssinians. 3d. The whole of the Sahara is but the upheaved bed of a tertiary. and other great rivers. the climate is more genial the rainfall during the wet season. we know little of the formations of Africa. In the Natal district. and. On the whole. is by no means well watered by rivers. well peopled. and the alluvial valley and delta of Egypt.

the vegetation greatly resembles that of southern Europe. The Cape region and the region of the Tell are the only parts enjoying warm-temperate or sub. having. rice. and dry tufty stypa grass while in its oases the date-palm is the inits ." 331. Nothing moderates the heat and the dryness but the annual rains. and must necessarily partake of the climate peculiar to the torrid zone. With the exception. ephedras.watered regions. the elevation of the soil moisture combined with the heat. mountains. brooms. but. therefore. of those regions in the interior to which their elevation imparts the coolness of higher latitudes. iron. and the as the while in the well. 330. to tropical forms. pistachios.— CONTINENTAL ASPECTS —AFRICA. . winds of the desert. and silver must exist in lies As already observed. and of the borders of the great lakes and rivers. can be orange. of Barbary. are of recent volcanic origin. perhaps. grown to perfection. " which the Atlas protects from the hot conditions. . olive. of these small and narrow tracts. — returns. with a greater tendency. copper. the grape. wheat. flax. though productive of the most luxuriant vegetation. Africa includes the whole of the Ethiopian region of biologists. dispensable product. where vegetation is possible. As might be expected from the tropical position and generally hot and arid climate of Africa. is characterised prickly shrubs. gold. that enjoy the advantages of countries situated within the temperate zones. the primary hills of Abyssinia and Nnbia are known chiefly for their granites and porphyries . and date cotton. "Wherever soil and water can be obtained. by The Sahara. and tobacco. tamarisks." says Balbi.tropical and even these are more or Less influenced by the ex" It is only that strip cessive climate that pervades the interior. the greater portion of the continent within the tropics. fig. and most of the islands. yield large . maize. The great interior is unknown. and that part of Hottentotland protected by the Nieu veldt and the other mountains near the Cape. and the continent generally may be regarded warmest region of the globe. " its feet in water . much of northern and central Africa is burnt up by continual heat. the sea-winds. lentil. judging from conformation as well as from native its ornaments and report. together with a large portion of the Palcearctic region the two being separated by the barren waste of the Sahara. and often. whether in the Atlantic or Indian Ocean. as the Arabs say. as in lower Egypt. is extremely deleterious to man. 319 Natal has an available but limited coalfield consists largely of soft tertiary limestone the northern belt . Along the Mediterranean seaboard and the lower valley of the Nile. its vegetation is more unique and much less varied than that of Europe or Asia. and millet .

ant-eater. thorn-apple. pangolin. . crassulas. and at the same time yields profitably such plants as have been introduced by the settlers. ginger. though from its greater uniformity of climate. chameleons.320 GENERAL REVIEW AND DEDUCTIONS.). pelargoniums. pine-apple. turtles. Adansonia. guinea-fowl. there is a greater sameness or community between its different regions. and other birds of prey ostrich. lizards. coffee. parroquets. orange. and cofi'ee. . . The tropical forests abound in apes. tea. lentil. mimosa. . crocodiles. the elephant. &c. the vegetation. 332. are nowhere so abundant it possesses also. melon. monkeys. &c. (Mauritius. apricots. jackal. banyan. yam. maize. its almost insular position. Like the other continents of the Old World. and the absence of vast intervening barriers. these forms are found fossil in the more recent tertiaries of Europe and Asia. and baboons the larger felinse (lion. Africa possesses a numerous and diversified fauna. as . cactuses. mesembryanthemums.. Africa. and millet The Cape region. peaches. of course. and their congeners antelopes. canary. melon. quail flamingo. It has also several forms peculiar to itself. crane. parrots. the nelumbium or water-lily . but many of the smaller mammals. maize.. griflBns. of brilliant . papaw. euphorbias. a tropical country. orange. being the native produce while in the islands . and other garden fruits together with rice. quagga . . pears. sugar-cane. is distin- guished for its heaths. seals." In Upper Egypt and the highlands of Nubia and Abyssinia. pelican. camel. apples. bustard. and the like. tallow-tree. nightingale. the cassia or senna shrub. — . lotus or jujub. is strictly tropical palms of many species. currant-grape. as might be expected from its arid soil and climate. dromedary. and sugar-cane can be grown to perfection. ibis . coffee. monitors. &c. Among the birds of Africa may be mentioned eagles. swallow. panther. ground-nut. are peculiar and numerous. which are only known to us as summer visitants or Though numbering among her reptiles. the Cape buffalo. in numerous species. cotton. in a special degree. remarkable enough. dragon-tree. the vine. and the cultivated ones. and species of river-hog cetacea (whales. banana. vultures. &c. hyrax. and others plumage cuckoo. In the central parts of the continent. aloes. and its head in fire. stapelias. car- damoms. melon. rhinoceros. as do also the hyena. hippopotamus. is by no means rich in serpents and though . secretary-bird. zebra. proteas. leopard. and the like. cotton-tree. manioc. lemon. tobacco. and prickly shrubs . giraffe . turmeric. as vines. dauw. tamarind.) roam almost from one end to the other of the continent. though. porcupine. dolphins) are all but unknown in its waters. jerboa. Madeira. the characteristic plants are gum-yielding acacias. household captives. . the horse.

as a whole. 334. Hottentots. though some tribes indulge in barter. the whole of the dark-coloured races Gallas. are chiefly destructive or troublesome . and the like. is limited and uncertain. &c. tinent from the Sahara to the Cape. the habitat of the true solved by the ethnologist. Dutch. Con. Fellatah. and this circumstance may yet reserve for the former an equatorial zone in which it may attain to a limited and semi-dependent civilisation.&c. The inherent qualities of the race are evidently inferior and whether it is capable of amalgamating with the white. that develops the Negro enervates the white. are rude and their commerce. raised level of barbarism. and other families arising from their admixture the Negro variety embraces. of being taught and elevated by its example.worm. 321 her seas and rivers abound in fish. Nubians. leather. the Abyssinians. on the other hand. Berbers. — gos. and has also numerous outlying islands. .— CONTINENTAL ASPECTS —NORTH AMERICA. of commercial utility. linen. North America lies chiefly within the northern temperate zone has its coast-line well diversified by bays. The Moors and Arabs. Moors. hardy. The inhabitants of Africa (laying aside English. and lively . South America. like the silk. — on the other hand keep herds. others beyond the again attempt a primitive agriculture are not. however. : — . and wholly to the Negro or Ethiopian variety in the central and southern regions. Her insects. Portuguese. The Negro races. eastern . and other European settlers) belong chiefly to the Semitic branch of the Caucasian variety in the north. Ashantees. Jalofes. cochineal insect. 333. Kafl&rs. and some North America. too (locust. tion to Africa. X . tzetze-flj. Bosjesmen. under its fiery sun he is robust. This great section of the New World bears much the same relation to the western hemisphere that Asia-Europe does to the while South America holds a somewhat analogous posiLike Europe and Asia. and she possesses few or none. are but in a state of semi-civilisation their manufactures in silk. Negro seems to be strictly intertropical . carried on chiefly by caravan.). peninsulas. civilisation in Africa is at a very low ebb. white-ant. gulfs. or is doomed ultimately to disappear before it. Krus. The Semitic or Syro. and promontories. The heat.Arabian stock embraces the Egyptians or Copts. cotton. yet in food-fishes she falls far behind the sister-continents of Europe and Asia. Arabs. beyond it he becomes enfeebled. though active traders. . and degenerates. and bee. that people the conUnless within the European settlements. on the other hand. Mandingoes. Zulus. scorpion. are problems yet to be On the whole.

The west maritime region. extending from the Rocky Mountains on the west to the AUeghanies on the east. with slight modifications. This region has a fair climate. . and from the shores of the Pacific inland to the ridge of the Sea Alps. On the whole. in like manner. GENERAL REVIEW AND DEDUCTIONS. of course. 335. rapidly developing into a rich agricultural region but near the foot of the Rocky Mountains it is dry. the continent of North America enjoys temperate position. On the in the middle it is open east this region is rich and well wooded . the trend of whose main mountain-masses are latitudinal. The narrow region of Central America. the New World has its mountain-chains arranged longitudinally. are thus given by Malte Brun and Balbi 1st. both physical and vital. on its surface many important distinctions. The great central plain of the Missouri and Mississippi. like Africa. . and thi. The elevated region which forms a sort of table-land between the Sea Alps on the west and the Rocky Mountains on the east. extent of coast-line.— 322 lies. 4th. In its southern portion it presents the arid salt plains of the Californian desert . . the continent may be arranged into the following regions. of mixed but rather poor soil. while in certain portions of the inThis region is strictly terior they form elevated table-lands. to the mainly within the tropics is also slenderly united North by a narrow peninsula has a coast-line little broken by indentations and has. and with considerable tracts of swamp-land in the south. and. 3d. which lies between the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific. which leave but a strip of low land along the sea-coasts. The eastern declivities of the Alleghany Mountains and the maritime region. and cut up by numerous cross-gorges from the mountains. lakes. Physically. extending to the shores of the Atlantic.mentioned patches of wood and desert : . Unlike the Old World. intertropical. irregular. and almost a desert. 2d. This is a region of natural forests. between 40° and 45° north it presents alternate but beyond the last . but is hilly. 5th. extending from the extremity of the Californian peninsula northwards to Alaska. unless in the more elevated portions of the interior. . and rivers. parallel it becomes largely forest-clad. the nature of which. and is traversed throughout its whole length by mountain-ranges. . and from the Gulf of Mexico northward to the 50th parallel. is marked by a tropical flora and fauna. however. and the rugged canon region of Colorado.n disposition confers. sandy. along with the West India Islands. fewer and less important islands. or rolling prairie-ground. and ready access to its interior by bays.

323 6th. and glacier. 336. the solidity of its mass. is chiefly of recent origin. this continent presents every stratified for- mation. from the old crystalline schists of St Lawrence and the Appalachians down to the recent alluvia of the Mississippi. whet-slate. the amount of forest and undrained lands. The chief metals are gold in California. limestone. and consequently yields comparatively few mineral or metallic treasures . and whose wealth arises more from the temporarily open seas that surround it. and the cold aerial currents that pass from the frozen lake region of the north over the 337. from the delta of the Mississippi north to the source of the river. and resembling Siberia in the physical character of its surface and the rigour of its climate. ice. and petroleum springs . and building-stones of every description . and from the granites. Of these may be mentioned granite. all conspire to belongs to diminish the temperature that normally geographical position. Geologically. Canada. Mexico. marble. overspread on its southern limits by pine-forests. and gyp- — sum . British Columbia. as compared with the temperature its . the climate of North America is greatly inferior to that of the Old World within corresponding parallels of latitude. interior. 7th. and from several both anthracitic and bituminous. salt-springs in great abundance. in inexhaustible fields in the United States and Nova Scotia . and tin. roofing-slate. salt and . than from the land of which it is composed. and other districts copper abundantly in the United States. Canada. . To these may be added (though not belonging to the American continent) the frozen region of Greenland and the Arctic islands a division of the globe doomed to perpetual snow. magnesian limestone. As will be seen by a glance at the sketch-map of isotherms. — . The great central plain. the flow of the arctic current that chills so much of its eastern seaboard. This diminution is usually stated to be about 10° Fahr. and other minor minerals. The great northern plain beyond the parallel of 50°. and Mexico .— CONTINENTAL ASPECTS — NORTH AMERICA. mercury. . unbroken by the tempering influence of seas. and the far north lead also abundantly in the Western States and Canada . and California. The great extent of surface that lies within the arctic zone. syenites. for four -fifths of its area. overspread with numerous lakes. asphalte. and the Carolinas silver in the Central States. a bleak and desolate waste. but beyond this. and porphyries of the Rocky Mountains down to the recent ejections of the Mexican volcanoes. Nevada.. but in the other regions the economic minerals are numerous and abundant. pitch. Mexico. iron in the United States. and antimony in Mexico formations coal.

and its rich and well-watered soil. of the same parallels in the west of Europe. as fustic. fine flowering climbers and aquatics. ipecacuanha. the vegetation (with the exception of that on the higher table-lands) is altogether tropical and hence all the low grounds of the West India Islands and Central States teem with the products of that zone. The western I or however. white cedar. orange. and does not tend to mitigate the northern air-currents that reduce the temperature of the interior. and — Russia. lobelias. hickory. ash. swamp-hickories. the coffee-plant. pimento. tamarind. fig. and the ordinary fruits and while northward and beyond lie grains of temperate Europe forests of pine and fir. and cedar. the New World excels in the exuberance of its vegetation. sweet-potato. . indigo . cornel." as it has been termed not to be found in the flora of the old. " give them an important place in the commercial world. maize. art and industry have added others not less valuable. Sweden. The boundaries of North America agree almost exactly with those of the Nearctic region of biologists. that gradually give place to the dwarf — — . the humidity of its atmosphere. with cacao. arrow-root. To their valuable native plants. deciduous cypresses. but this influence is little felt beyond the ridges of the Sea Alps. and growing in perfection all the cultivated fruits and grains. and rum . lemon. North America possesses a true continental climate severe winters and it warm summers it . . 338. with its oaks. or allspice . red maple. medicinal plants. ginger. characterised by its oaks." . the pine-ai)ple. confer on it a verdure a " leafness. yielding its threefold tribute of sugar. mango. red and white pines. North of the 44th parallel to the basin of the St Lawrence and Canadian lakes stretches the colder-temperate zone.— 324 GENERAL REVIEW AND DEDUCTIONS. The sugar-cane. to which list may be added the bread-fruit.* From the 27th north to the 35th parallel is the warm-temperate zone of the continent. sassafras. cocoa. guava. maples. and other tropical . Pacific seaboard. The breadth of its plains. fruits." says a recent authority. molasses. * " The rich and varied productions of the West Indies. marked by its magnolias. yellow birch. and cotton various dye-woods and stuffs. is much warmer than the eastern on the same parallel . and from this circumstance has been supposed that will be impossible to carry the arts of civilised life much beyond the 56th or 58th parallel latitudes beyond which are situated the capitals of Norway. elms. manioc. birches. and compared with the Old World. jalap. tobacco. yam. building and cabinet timber. and luxuriant climbers and aquatics and between the 35th and 44th parallels may be said to lie the true temperate zone. as mahogany. the plantain and the banana. cassava. lignum vitje. Altogether. papaw. as liquorice. logwood. plane. From the Isthmus of Panama north to the 27th parallel. anona.

Besides these. sheep. the lynx. grapes. the reptiles and insects alone excepted. there is a greater paucity of specific variety even in the forms that occur. her own aborigines have dwindled and died at the sight of industry and application. hippopotamus. and other deer. less hardy. &c. From the proximity of the continents. though both are chiefly tropical and hence such forms in the north as the Esquimaux dog. the sugar-cane to 32°. red. peaches. It has been already stated that while the cels in the New World ex- vegetable forms. there is a feebleness and want of numerical abundance even in these. beaver. almonds. 325 willows and birches of the arctic regions. black. as compared with feline and carnivorous animals of Asia and Africa. ox. melons. goat. it is certain that since the current era cies . the marsupials of Australia by the opossums. . moose. rice in the Gulf States. . Whatever may have been the condition of the New World during geological times. it falls far behind the Old in the variety and importance of its animals. and grizzly bears badger. It is chiefly from this cause that all the domestic animals of the Old World horse. perhaps. reindeer. gener- exuberance of its . and hemp. while oranges. and hops in the western and middle districts. camel. the ostrich by the rhea. oats and rye chiefly in the north. the camel by the llama. In like manner the monkeys of the New World are inferior to those of the Old the native red man also is less robust. dog. and so on of other orders. or other equine specamel. cotton to 37°. ally speaking.CONTINENTAL ASPECTS —NORTH AMERICA. and less lively than the black man of the Old and thus. wolf. poultry. and ocelot may represent the lion. Many of the higher forms are altogether wanting. and the like have been introduced with such it no giraffe. it may be stated that all the common garden-fruits of Europe can be reared in the northern States of the American Union . bison. wheat aU over the Union. but still inferior in power and numbers as. In an economic or agricultural point of view. . ermine. flax. jaguar. .. I had no native horse. or dromedary no elephant. figs. the crocodile by the alligator. otter. while the latter has thriven and multiplied even under toil and oppression in the New. or rhinoceros no useful ruminants comparable to those of Europe and Asia and though the puma. tiger. there is a stronger resemblance between the fauna of North America and that of Asia-Europe than there is between those of South America and Africa. 339. tobacco as far north as 40°. cat. and leopard. ass. zebra. olives. . pomegranates. for example. can be grown in the south. — — . . others are but feebly represented while. elk. . pig. other Old World forms have their representatives. — . fox polar. Indian corn is cultivated all south of Maine. ass.

the shores of the northern seas.000 square miles. and obtained their subsistence by hunting and fishing. 12° north to 56° south. but now over the whole habitable surface of the central areas. like sphere. a civilised offshoot of the race who inhabited the Mexican table-land. for the characteristics of the aborigines of the New World the American or red variety of mankind we may here remark that at the time of its discovery in 1492. stretches away into the southern hemito is little — . and its geographical conditions and consequent industry too diversified. We say phases. unlike that continent. who led a savage life. and who. but gradually tapering till it terminates in the bold rocky promontory of Cape Horn. before whose advance the native tribes are rapidly disappearing. XV. British. to be governed by a single and uniform rule. as they do now. and from their admixtures. and subsist wholly by fishing. nor even attempting the rudest forms of agriculture by the Aztecs. United Panama. it has a gigantic river-system. and by the Esquimaux (of Mongolian descent). and their half-breed progeny). 341.820. and had made considerable progress in the arts . 25° to 82° west. French along the St Lawrence and Mississippi. and from long. in conformity with the special conditions of their continent. are gradually laying the foundation for newer phases of progress. Like Africa. and have spread with the colonists over every habitable region of the continent. Spaniards in Mexico and the West Indies. South Africa. and Germans originally along the eastern seaboard. but. North America was inhabited chiefly by Indian tribes. ever — — . who peopled. carrying with them and still enjoying all the advantages of European civilisation. which America. have arisen what may be termed the Anglo-American family. its triangular outline is little broken by gulfs or bays . From these. Referring to Chap. Dutch. Since then the continent has been colonised and peopled principally by Europeans (we exclude the African negroes imported as slaves. bulking broadly beneath the equator.326 success in GENERAL REVIEW AND DEDUCTIONS. North America. having neither herds nor flocks. whose estuaries and channels afford the means of communication with its remotest the All its better portions are thus fairly accessible interior. Extending from lat. 340. it has an estimated area of 6. North America by the narrow Isthmus of more than eighteen miles across. South America. fully two-thirds of which are situated within the tropics. for the continent seems too large.

eastwards of the Paraiia and Uruguay presenting alternate ridges (sierras) and valleys covered with wood towards the Atlantic. however. consisting of mountain-ridges covered with snow and volcanic ejections. and of intervening gorges and occasional table-lands. the grass stunted. the geological structure of the continent is yet imperfectly known. 4th. 3d. The basin of the Orinoco. Though observations have been made at numerous detached points. whose elevations confer on. The low-terraced belt of country skirting the shores of the Pacific. The basin of the Amazon. 342. The sterile region of Patagonia. 5th. from 50 to 150 miles in breadth and 4000 in length. which have been noticed in connection with North America. and the middle sandy. enclosed by two divergent branches of the Andes. and these are comparatively small and of little importance. If we except the West Indies. stretching from south to north. and Columbia. occupied chiefly by open plains called pampas. possessing a rich soil and humid climate. the Andean belt. almost entirely covered with dense forests (selvas) and impenetrable jungle-marshes by the river-sides. and the climate cold and tempestuous. and that within the range of the — by successive stages . but in general covered with weeds. either destitute of wood or merely dotted with trees. It has been ascertained. The great valley of the Plata. and dotted with salinas. that a considerable portion of the Pacific seaboard is of recent upheaval . on which feed prodigious herds of wild horses and cattle. The high country of Brazil. which separate the eastern plains from the western seaboard. thistles. 6th. it has few contiguous islands. but covered during part of the year (the rainy season) ^\dth luxuriant herbage. Guiana. and consisting of extensive plains. embracing a surface of more than 2.000. 327 only barrier being the lofty ridges of the Andes (practicable only few narrow passes). 343. but opening into steppes in the interior.— CONTmENTAL ASPECTS . and tall grasses. intersected by numerous tributary rivers. in some parts (towards the Andes) barren and shingly. called llanos. that the great plains above alluded to are of tertiary or post-tertiary origin that primary and secondary formations occur in Brazil. at a ' ' : . And. — SOUTH AMERICA. rising from the Atlantic the soil shingly and strewn with boulders. of which the two extremities are fertile. lastly. arid. 2d. a vast plain.000 square miles. their tropical position the climates of temperate regions. In physical aspect the continent has been arranged by the authors of the New York Atlas into the following regions 1st.

copper. lead. tantamount to belts of latitude. felstones. . and other igneous rocks. enjoys a genial and temperate climate. the salutary vicissitudes of the seasons. &c. in various and Panama salt in Grenada and and potash in the salinas of La Plata and Peru diamonds in Brazil emeralds and other precious stones in most of the higher ranges. by possessing only a moderate and constant warmth like that of a hothouse. cannot by any means be compared with the zones which result from a difference of latitude. Bolivia. for example. silver in Peru. granites. . which is the Neo-tropical region of biologists. are also rich in metalliferous veins and precious minerals and. Chili. porphyries. the great bulk of South America. down to the most recent scoriae and lavas.. The Andes. as well as Brazilian and Columbian sierras. . and the plain of La Plata. laying aside the recent discovery of the Californian and Australian gold-fields. and would consequently be subjected to the uniform temperature of that zone. and the constant humidity of a foggy atmosphere. which. but it is a continuance of the heat. The temperate zone. which are thus graphically described by Malte Brun The three zones of temperature which originate from the enormous diflference of level between the various regions.328 GENERAL REVIEW AND DEDUCTIONS. Chili. Andes there are vast exhibitions of crystalline and Archaean schists. added to the effects of an extreme humidity. Peru. tin and quicksilver in Peru . that arrest the growth of the great vegetable production. excludes from its limits both the animals and vegetables that . supposed. and Bolivia districts . is found in . but are productive of peculiar climatic results. the absence of all vivid heat. Gold. which are chilled by the cold currents from the Antarctic Ocean. : 1 of these places does not experience excessive heat. is situated within the tropics. and in man perpetuate those The hot zone diseases that arise from checked perspiration. were it not for the widely different These altitudes are not. together with exhalations from a marshy soil. as might be elevations of the surface. antimony. . it is not the intensity but the continuance of the cold. no other continent has yielded so long and so plentifully such valuable supplies. With the exception of Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia. In the frigid zone. iron. that produces fevers of a more or less destructive nature. coal in Brazil. are wanting in those regions that are here distinguished by the denominations of frigid. and La Plata . Chili. temperate. Brazil. New Grenada. and spreads through the whole vegetable and animal world the agitation of an exuberant but deranged vital principle. 344. towards the Atlantic. and torrid. nitrates of soda La Plata . The agreeable. and the miasmata of an immense mass of vegetable putrefaction.

"The Amazonian selvas and Brazilian forests present. yams.000 square miles. custard-apple. the dye-w^oods of commerce . the continent of South America stands unrivalled in the luxuriance of its vegetable life. In no region is the true tropical forest seen ui such perfection. while the river-creeks are covered with the most gorgeous floaters.CONTINENTAL ASPECTS —SOUTH AMERICA. arrow-root. but living constantly in either one or other of these zones must enervate both the body and the mind by its monotonous tranquillity. in none is rapidity of growth so remarkable. acts like spring diseases of the hot regions. anana. wliile in Chili. the banana. the most luxuriant and gorgeous growth of palms and tree-ferns. the Brazil-nut. proves an important medical agent. The higher grounds of Peru and Bolivia are the headquarters of the cinchonas or medicinal barks . the courbaril or copal-tree. agave. as formerly stated. the fauna of South — . . The summer. indigo. &c. chocolate. as we have formerly remarked. and in the more tropical portions are cultivated the sugar-cane. which is sufl&cient to produce the most astonishing changes on the human body . the spring. Here are the great headquarters of the palms and melastomas the former in numerous genera and species. 345. and cactuses of innumerable species. and the wdnt€r are seated on three distinct thrones which they never quit. which does not brace the on the and like summer in those of the frigid Accordingly. tangled with rope vines and other parasitical climbers. a mere journey from the summit of the Andes to the level of the sea. pine-apple. the escallonias and calceolarias and there also flourish In the milk-tree. and a thousand luscious fruits . Here also flourish the mahogany and other timber trees . Paraguay is grown the mat^ or Paraguay-tea tree . its limits. Its temperature. and produces its own peculiar plants. and castor-bean . tapioca. But while the vegetable element predominates. among which is the celebrated Victoria Regia of Sir Robert Schomburgk. the animal is subordinated . and. zones. cassava. arrow-root. cotton. tropical situation. coffee. spreading over an area of nearly 600. and excessive humidity. guava. tobacco.' are grown the vine. vegetable ivory. and studded with the strangest forms of the orchids. and in none is there such a development of verdure and foliage. As might be expected from its vast river-plains. which can neither grow above nor de- scend below them." 346. constitution of its constant inhabitants. pepper-plants. ' the Italy of South America. potato. cocoa. and are constantly surrounded by the attributes of their power. and araucaria. . 329 delight in the extremes of heat and cold. or vice versd. olive. the siphonia or indiarubber tree . and European fruits.

farinaceous products shipment to Europe. &c. coftee. North Americans. British. it is now partly peopled by Indians. and gorillas of the Old World its bats are numerous. &c. sheep. or antelope . armadilloes. like the ox. &c. goat. partly by negroes. of Asia and Africa its gnawers . anteaters. like the Toltecans or Aztecs of Peru and Bolivia. medicinal pachyderm its All — — — — — barks.) are its everywhere abundant only ruminants are the alpaca. Originally inhabited by the Indian or Red races. 330 GENERAL REVIEW AND DEDUCTIONS.. jaguar. there being no natural hollow-homed ruminants. we may naturally look forward to the infusion of better elements . the existing condition of South America is extremely curious and complicated. pig. hides. and . skins. sugar. —for gums . Its monkeys. india-rubber. are inferior to the orang-outangs. the introduction of steam navigation in her rivers. the only important is the tapir . cocoa. (cavies. . nivora are the puma. French. though civilisation is extending. agoutis. fibres. tallow . chimpanzees. but less so than in the Indian Archipelago its chief car. &c. domestic animals horse. and the adoption of more perfect mechanical appliances.) are characteristic of the continent . since the establishment of more frequent communication with Europe and the United States. had made considerable progress in civilisation. ox. or even to that of North America. however. dye-stuffs.).. pacas. &c. and largely by a mixed race that has arisen from the intercommunion of these varieties. and the chief marsupial the opossum. &c. partly by Europeans (Spanish. and some smaU species of deer. America is greatly inferior. it is true. poultry. Frencli. In this way. and the industry of the inhabitants is chiefly directed to raising and collecting raw produce minerals and metals . the only animal it has furnished in return being the alpaca. Although there is a large infusion of the Spanish and Portuguese element. may be regarded as traders and adventurers. representing the lion. tiger. leopard. the edentata (sloths. Dutch. ass. whose naturalisation in Europe can scarcely yet be said to be established. in the arts and manufactures . goat. and ocelot. 347. in the intensity of their reptilian and insect life. some of whom. chinchillas. Ethnologically. rather than settlers in any of the so-called republics. it has by no means made satisfactory progress. woods. are imports from the Old World . has numerous and noble facilities and now. or is doing. Portuguese. though in myriads. but in all the higher orders there is a remarkable paucity compared with its area and vegetation. sheep. cat. and all the other English. to that of the Old World continents. Little has been done. both in importance and variety. dog. The continent. Its tropical regions excel. fruits. panther. the coloured races are still the most numerous.

but the follo^Ying are sufficient for our review. bismuth. lying directly under the equator. Australasia. better government. the lowlands abound in jungle and unhealthy swamp.000 feet. Embracing the Indian Archipelago.— CONTINENTAL ASPECTS of inunigration. there are no arid deserts . many which rise from 6000 to 10. while the uplands are covered by magnificent forestgrowth. the more peculiar do they become in their climatic sphere. its limits may be said to extend from lat. being strictly intertropical. and the truly pelagic groups of the Pacific. and 20° north. — OCEANIA. there are no plains deserving of the name insular and humid. which includes the whole of the Indian Archipelago. It is usual to arrange the whole into several sections (par.000 feet in height— .000 square miles. &c. iron. 96° east to 150° west in the opposite hemiIts land area has been roughly estimated at 4. extinct and active. copper. are specifically the same as those of the tropical mainland. and lies between lats. Of the first great section. 12° 40' south. and separated from the mainland of Asia only by the narrow Strait of Malacca. gold. and more satisfactory progress. and configuration ir- are extremely diversified while its contour is rendered boldly regular of by numerous lines of volcanoes. This term has been applied by modem geographers to the numerous islands that are scattered over the bosom of the Pacific and Southern Oceans. It forms indeed a portion of the Indian or Oriental region of biologists.200. tin. — and vital aspects. and Strait of Formosa. 349. Hilly and irregular. as a consequence. and. 348. with a few exceptions. the culminating altitude being Singalang in Sumatra. Sumatra. 50° south to 30° north. it being borne in mind that the further the groups are removed from the continents on either side the Pacific. it may be remarked that. Oceania. Malaysia. Java. the greater bulk of which is intertropical. its vegetable and animal productions.) and of minor clusters and chains intersected by narsisting of several large islands (Borneo. and PoljTiesia 38). The following form the principal exports of the Archipelago In the mineral kingdom. Australia and adjacent islands. and. antimony. Luzon. Celebes. As might be expected from the proximity. 331 more permanent settlement. and consequently characterised by the climate and products of the torrid zone. row straits and intricate channels. 15. coal of oolitic : . the Chinese Sea. and from long. Malaysia.000 and 12. Conit partakes largely of the characteristics of Further India. its position .

&c. sagopalm. and other minor . bread-fruits. section of Oceania. bird-skins and feathers. . Dyaks. sugar-cane. and New Zealand also temperate. tapioca. canes. water-melons. whose extreme dimensions are about 2400 miles from east to west. while the majority of the independent tribes continue in a state of semi-barbarism. areca-nuts indigo. bamboo. and other spices coffee. Of New Guinea and the other islands . and Spaniards. gums. bandicoot. very little is known but such travelhave visited them describe their soU as very life-giving and nutritious producing luxuriantly bananas. may be regarded as a minor continent. &c. and other timber and. are the better known and most important portions. or hill-ranges of any elevation in Australia . Sooloos. ivory. the interior of the . New Zealand. cloves. rice. coflfee. lying long. The native inhabitants consist of numerous tribes of the Malay race Malays. yams. sweetthat lie — tobacco. Dutch. Australia partly tropical and partly temperate.. whose principal drawback to a better state of things is their sickly and enervating climate. table. tobacco. whale-oil. diamonds. bread-fruit . and other — tion of tea and in the animal. flpng squirrels. and the foreign settlers of Chinese and Hindoos from Asia. New Britain. cinnamon. according to competent authorities. and 1700 from north to south. enjoying a tropical climate in its northern and a warm-temperate in its southern regions. There is also an increasing mixed race but neither these nor any — . ginger. . Bugis. Australia. pepper. and other precious stones : age. sandal-wood. . a large portion of the country is well fitted for the growth and cultivafibres . cassava. maize. cotton. fishing. Industrially.. 350. camphor. and British. Australasia. but inhabited by few mammals (pig. 332 GENERAL REVIEW AND DEDUCTIONS. the gathering and preparing of raw produce for shipment. 112° between the equator and 47° south lat and between and 180° east. Macassars. ambergris. Javanese. 351. and similar products. section of the natives have made much The largest. With the exception of the chain running along the eastern coast (par. edible bird-nests. in the vege- nutmegs. sharks' fins. pearls. tortoise-shell.. emeralds. New Guinea. insects. and navigation. rattans. is and in point of promise the most important. teak. cotton. lers as within the tropics. from Europe. islands. betel. New Ireland. which embraces Australia. dog. hides. New Caledonia. Battaks. rice. &c. sugar. Tas- mania. and kangaroo). Portuguese. 76) there are no known mountains potatoes. sago. progress in the arts or manufactures. cocoa. the growing of maize. and reptiles are abundant. though shells. Solomon's group. New Hebrides. Tasmania temperate. are the main employments of the most of these rich and fertile islands.

the journey on the whole was through a shingly. and South Australia liable to . and altogether a milder and finer country. about 1100 miles in length. — . and none of these navigable while in the interior what are running channels during the rains are mere pools and . 333 continent is in general flat. Australia. which occupies an area of about 24. marble. and peach down to the humblest garden produce. The climate in the settled districts of New South Wales. limestone. of the settlers) being . moreover. Victoria. . The absence of mountain-ranges and high grounds to attract the rain renders the climate of Australia extremely arid . olive. or but slightly undulating. and only occasionally interrupted by rocky eminences . iron-barks. and vegetables introduced by the European settlers. which forms. fruits. can be grown to perfection.000 square miles. but sudden changes. hence. coral-reefs. coal. They are especially rich in the useful minerals and metals gold. is strongly individualised by peculiar animal and vegetable forms of life. New Zealand. &c. iron. copper. With the exception of the dingo or native dog of Australia (the aboriginal (the Norfolk-pine. . 352. jade. All of these settlements (Australia. from the vine. and volcanic ejections. and varying from 5 to 200 miles in breadth. stringy-barks. and New Zealand) exhibit a variety of geological formations from the old gold-bearing schists down to the most recent gravels. has more hill and dale than Australia. a copious supply of water. the Australian region of biologists.CONTINENTAL ASPECTS — OCEANIA.. scrubby. blue-gums. eucalyptus. species of araucaria. and casuarina land. swampnumerous and characteristic while all the cultivated grains. which consists of three contiguous islands. . and building-stone and these supplies must naturally contribute to their future progress. is better watered. has from its latitude a still more temperate climate. oaks. there are no rivers of importance. as they have already done to their rapid colonisation. these areas are well supplied with useful timber-trees. Queensis described as delightful. Tasmania. and waterless country. Tasmania. brackish creeks during the long-continued seasons of drought. and occasionally to destructive droughts while in the interior it is hot and arid. with New Guinea and some of the neighbouring islands. Though devoid of the rich and varied vegetation of tropical regions. at least in all the low grounds and along the seaboard (for on the higher elevations it is often cold and stormy) is also more hilly and irregular in surface as well as in shore-line and has. while large tracts of the southern and western seaboard are sandy and shingly. and though the explorers who recently crossed the continent from south to north occasionally met in with wooded and grassy flats. unless in the New South Wales and Queensland districts.

opossums. iron-mines. of other Europeans. In the mean time. the making rapid material progress and be fairly questioned whether. and the active. the aborigines of the different islands of Australasia are regarded as widely different families of the Malay — and adjacent and wandering tribes of Australia. copper -mines. gold-fields. and even Chinese. — the dark and savage Papuans of New Guinea . the most intimate intercommuniaition with the mother country. and the facilities of steam communication. As the British element so greatly predominates. of the other continents. and appliances. and fishes. and other marsupial genera. since the establishment of New South Wales in 1788. In all the race islands. 353. with British laws. and more intelligent Maories of New Zealand. Scotch. the region is also indebted for the naturalisation of many of the song-birds. being the principal offshoots. colonies of Australasia belonging to the British. attracted by the lottery of the gold-fields. however. which is even problematical). iiseful insects. Polynesia numerous islands that stud the bosom of the Pacific within 30 colonies of Australasia are . whether vegetable or animal. and to the Acclimatisation Society of New South Wales. the different colonies will be ultimately governed by their geographical position and climate that which is practicable in New Zealand being impracticable in New South Wales.334 existence of GENERAL REVIEW AND DEDUCTIONS. with less trouble and expense to the mother country. with a slight infusion. As yet the Papuans have been little interfered with the Australian tribes are rapidly disappearing before the advances of the white settlers and though the Maories have shown more aptitude to imitate. and can only. there were no its mammals in Australasia at the time of discovery beyond kangaroos. moreover. and what is possible in Southern Australia being impossible in the northern and tropical latitudes of Carpentaria. be expected to exhibit peculiarities of its own. the current of Australasian civilisation may be said to run parallel with that of Europe. Of course. it may — . All the domesticated animals have been introduced by the settlers to whom. coal-fields. manners. there can be little doubt that they too must shortly succumb to the influences of a higher civilisation. in matters of this kind. and Irish. daring. Ethnologically. any settlements under British rule ever exhibited. and of the other provinces since 1828. with their wide pasture-runs. the feebler . an equal amount of satisfactory and hopeful advancement. wombats. the settlers are principally English. and with. . after the lapse of generations and the influence of new geographical conditions. the usual term employed to designate the 354. and greater boldness to resist.




degrees on either side of the equator embraces the Sandwich, Ladrones, Marquesas, Society, Friendly, Feejee, and other groups, with many other minor clusters and solitary islets that have
scarcely a name.


of these islands, like the Sandwich, So-

and Marquesas, are of volcanic origin, and are still the seats of the most gigantic igneous eruptions some have old volcanic foundations surmounted and surrounded by upheaved coralreefs while others are mere coral-reefs more or less elevated
; ;

above the level of the ocean. Many of these are extremely irregular in surface, and some, like the Sandwich volcanoes, rise to great altitudes (10,000, 12,000, and 16,000 feet) but, being generally of small dimensions, there is wanting that breadth of surface necessary to the formation of rivers, plains, and other features of geographical diversity. Being of recent geological origin, they afford no mineral or metallic wealth, and their main value lies in Situated within their fine climate and the fertility of their soil. the tropics, but tempered on all sides by the ocean, by the con;

stant aerial currents which are scarcely interrupted by their dimensions, as well as by their frequent elevation of surface, their climate is said to be delightful, though somewhat enervating and monotonous. Their native productions are the cocoa, bread-fruit, banana, plantain, taro, yam, batata, and other tropical fruits and roots ; while the orange, lemon, sugar-cane, cotton, potato, melon, guava, and the like, have been successfully introduced, and When first noticed flourish luxuriantly in all the larger islands. by Europeans there were no quadrupeds on any of the islands, save hogs, dogs, and rats (and these may have been the produce of stocks left by previous vessels) ; but now the horse, ox, goat, sheep, pigs, poultry, and other domestic animals, have been introduced into the larger islands. Most of the islands abound in birds, the shores in sea-fowl, and the waters in fishes, Crustacea,
turtles, seals,





natives scattered over Polynesia seem offshoots of the

and though utterly uncivilised, idolatrous, addicted and other barbarous vices, are yet, on the whole (apparently from the unvarying nature of their climate, easy means of subsistence, and isolation), comparatively mild and tractable in their dispositions. This has led to some degree of civilisation in the Sandwich, Society, and Friendly Islands, chiefly through the exertions of British, French, and American missionaries but as yet to little of that kind of progress which indicates the existence of an inherent and self-sustaining power of improveto cannibalism






be questioned


far the limited areas

of these islands, the distance of the groups, the

want of mineral



and metals, the enervating effects of climate, and the easy means of subsistence, will permit of more than a dependent condition of
civilisation to the inhabitants of Polynesia.

356. Such are the principal land-areas which form the great themes of Physical Geography the storehouses of the minerals and metals, the stations of the vegetable and the habitats of the animal kingdom, and thus the varied and inexhaustible fields of human industry and civilisation. Consisting of different geological formations, they possess different minei-als and metals and having different positions, configurations, and contours, they enjoy different climates, and consequently produce different vegetable and animal substances. These differences give rise to actions and reactions, physical and vital for it is only where differences exist that activities are excited and in this manner are produced the whole round of phenomena that form the sum and substance of cosmical progress. In the physical world, from the revolution of


the planets


to the simplest chemical combination,



and believe that the whole is the result of law and law-directed and in like manner, in the intellectual world, we may forces rely, though we cannot always determine, that all the phenomena of civilisation are under the direction of laws as pervading and imperative. To observe and arrange the phenomena of the terraqueous surface, to discover their producing causes, and to give ntelligible expression to the law that regulates, is the great object of our science, and it only partially performs its function when, in dealing with the human species, it fails to be guided by the same methods of research. Directed by these methods, and applying them to the whole field of nature, the ordainings of our planet, amid all their myriad ramifications, assume a unity and completeness which it is the great object of Science to discover, and the highest effort of Philosophy to establish.


Aberrant (Lat. aberrare, to wander from).

—Departing from the
mal type. Applied

regular or nor-

to forms that differ ordinary or typical ones. (Lat. ab, from, and norma, a rule). Without rule or order irregular in a condition diflfering from that produced in the regular course of nature deviating from the general type or form not occurring in the usual order, or according to that which is generally considered as the natural law. ABORIGINE.S (Lat. ab, from; origo, beginning or origin). The first or primitive inhabitants of a country; the original stock (flora or fauna) of any geographical area.—Aboriginal: first; primitive original.

Natural History widely from the






fauna of the ocean wat«rs is one of extreme uniformity. All the invertebrate classes of animals are apparently represented within it, but in a proportion different from that which obtains in shallower water. The molluscs so abundant in the littoral fauna are comparatively rare and insignificant in these ocean depths, where the most characteristic forms are rhizojiods, sponges, encrinites, star-fishes, seaurchins, and remarkable types of crustaceans and fishes.

Acclimatise (Fr. acclimater). To accustom a plant or animal to a climate not natural to it to accustom to the temperature and conditions of a new Plants and animals may, country.



of sucking in fluids; in Geography, applied to those soils and subsoils which have the quality of readily imbibing water into their pores or interstices.

— Capable

(Lat. ab,


sorbeo, I


within certain limits, become acclimatised, and flourish and increase in a new country, though not indigenous



Abyssal (Lat. abyssiis, a bottomless gulf). —Occurring at great depths. Abyssal Deposits.— Deposits occurring
in the ocean

(Gr. c, without ; kotylePlants whose embryos have no seed-lobe or seminal leaves are so termed, in contradistinction to Monocotyledons and Di-

don, seed-lobe).


cotyledons, which see. depths greater than one AcROGENOus (Gr. akros, the top; ginofrom the surface. mai, I am formed). Applied to those At depths between one and two and a half miles crj'ptogamic plants which increase by is generally found the Globigerina growth at the summit, or "growing Ooze, fonned mainly of the shells of point," as the tree-ferns. Acrogens are

calcareous Foraminifera (Globigerina, £c.). At a depth of about two and a half miles, this merges into the socalled Grey Ooze, due possibly to the partial removal of the calcareous matter from the ordinary materials of the Globigerina Ooze. At greater depths these oozes give place to the Abyssal Clays. These are frequently of a red or puri)lish tint, and have been referred by some to the same source as the Grey Ooze, and by others to the slow decomposition of volcanic materials.

therefore separated as a great botanical division from the Thallogens, Exogens,

and Endogens.


quenting the

taking place under the ; or on the earth's surface, in contradistinction to siib-aqueous, or under the water. Aeriform (Gr. aer, air ; Lat. forma, likeAir-like ; applied to gaseous ness). fluids, from their resemblance to com-

— Sdb-aerial

(Gr. aer, the air). Of or belongthe air or atmosphere; freair; growing in the air.



Abyssal Fauna.— At

all depths exceeding one mile from the surface, the


(Gr. aer, air; lithos, stone). Literally, air -stone. The so-called





or shooting - stars, small generally the harder crystalline rocks planetary bodies or mineral masses, —gneiss, mica-schist, and the like which, in travelling through space, which weather into the aiguille or enter the earth's atmosphere, where needle-top. their own proper motion is partly Alo^ ( alga, sea-weed).— The genearrested. The friction generated by ral scientific term for cellular their excessive speed causes them to aquatic plants familiarly known as become intensely heated in their pass"sea -weeds." Though mostly of age through the air. They glow with marine habitat, many are of fresha brilliant light, and, as a general rule, water growth, lacustrine, or fluviaappear to become wholly vaporised. tile. Occasionally, however, tliey buMt/ Alluvium, Alluvial (Lat. a<l, together, with a loud explosion, and their scav and luere, to— Matter washed tered fragments fall to the ground. or brought together by the ordinary These fragments afford conclusive evioperations of water is said to be alludence that meteorites consist generally vial, and the soil or land so formed is of metallic and stony materials, comspoken of as alluvium. The soil of bined in various proportions. They most of our river-plains (dales, vales, have been grouped under four distinct holmes, and carses) is of alluvial forconsisting heads mation some of these low grounds (1.) Holosiderites, almost entirely of metallic iron, or of being occasionally overflowed by the iron alloyed with nickel, together with muddy waters of the river during sulphides, phosphides, and carbides of seasons of flood, while others have several metals. (2.) Syssiderites, formed once been the sites of lakes, estuaries, and shallow arms of the sea. of a net-work of metallic iron, enclosing granular masses of stony material Alpine.— Belonging to the Alps; but also employed in a general sense to de(3.) Sporadosiderites, formed of a matrix of stony material with included note extreme heights, or plants, animals, and phenomena appertaining to particles of metallic iron. (4.) Asid*rsuch heights. ites, composed wholly of stony material. The stony portions of meteor- Alpine or Arctic-Alpine Flora. The ites consist of well-known terrestrial name given by Bentham to the most minerals, which occur, however, in comremarkable division of the great northbinations different from those met with ern Flora. It consists chiefly of plants of insignificant size, slow growth, but in the accessible portions of the earth's crust. The meteoric minerals include of great longevity and hardiness. It is olivine, enstatite, magnetite, chromite, present in part in almost every latitude of the globe where the physical con&c., but quartz, orthoclase, and mica ditions admit of it occurring at the are almost invariably absent. The sea-level in the Arctic regions, and at associated metals are numerous, and greater and greater heights as we proembrace, among others, iron, nickel, ceed towards the equator. Its widechromium, tin, magnesiiun, calcium, Meteorites spread distribution has been explained titanium, and strontium. upon the theory that during the inoccur in vast numbers in that part of tense cold of the glacial period the the heavens traversed by the earth former plants of temperate and subin its annual course round the sun tropical regions were unable to withthe average number traversing the stand the rigours of the climate, and atmosphere in the course of twentywere driven to the southward, their four hours, of sufficient size to make place being taken by the hardier Arctic themselves visible to the naked eye, forms of vegetation. As the climate has been calculated at seven and a gradually ameliorated, the southern half millions. Many appear to occur fonns again returned to the warm, singly, but the vast majority are collow-lying regions of their former habilected into groups or systems, which tat, but were unable to dispo.ssess the circle round the sun in orbits of a hardier arctic plants of the colder greatly elongated form, corresponding mountain-heights, where the descento those of the comets, with some which dants of the latter still flourish. astronomers have determined that cerAmphigens (Gr. amphi, all around, and tjiin of the meteoric groups are progiiwmai, I am formed).— Plants which b-ibly identical. increase by the growth or developAffldknt (Lat. ad, to, and fluens, flowment of their cellular tissues on all ing). —Applied to any stream that sides, as the lichens. flows directly into another— the larger or more important being reganled as Anadromous (Gr. ana, upwards, and dromos, a flight or running).— Applied the recipient, and the smaller the affliito aquatic animals which, like the ent.—See Tributary. salmon and sturgeon, periodically forAiguille (Fr.)— A needle; applied in sake the waters of the ocean and Physical Geography to the sharp serascend into fresh - water lakes and rated peaks of lofty moontaiiu. It is




rivers for the purpose of spawning. Fishes are thus spoken of as marine, fresh-water, and anadrihnotis, the two former never quitting their native elements, and incapable of subsisting in any other, and the latter possessing


variety of coal almost wholly deprived of its natural gases,— hydrogen

and oxygen,

— and

which, therefore,

bums without smoke or flame. may be regarded as a natural coke


the power and habit above


charcoal, formed from ordinary bituminous coal by subterranean or chemical heat It occurs in many coal-fields, but largely, and on a most available scale, in the United States of


(Gr. atm, reasoning).


along with,



resemblance, or correspondence which one object bears to another in funcduty or performance. Analogues, the objects that bear such resemblance or relationship. Anchorage or Anchor -ground. Any

(Gr. anti, opposite pottfi, podos, foot). Applied to those who dwell on opposite sides of the globe, as having their feet diametrically opposed. Those in New Zealand, for exaraple (or rather Antipodes Island, near New Zealand), are the antipodes of those in Great Britain. Antiseptic (Gr an^i, opjK)sedto; septos, decayed). Substances which, like common salt and tannin, prevent putrefaction in animal and vegetable matter, are said to be antiseptics, or to possess antiseptic properties. Aphelion (Gr. apo, from lielios, the sun). The point in a planet's orl>it at which it is farthest from the sun its perihelion being the point at which



portion of a bay, estuary, channel, or of the sea, where the bottom is unimpeded by rocks, and the water is of a suitable depth for ships riding at anchor, vy Anemometer (Gr. a nemos, the wind; iiutron, a measure). instrument (of which there are several kinds) for determining the direction and measuring the velocity and force of the winds. In Robinson's anemometer, the velocity is calculated from the number of revolutions made in a given time by a series of hollow cups supported upon a freely moving framework, and driven by the wind. In Osier's anemometer, the force of the wind is ascertained by noting the pressure which it exerts upon a plane sheet of metal which is kept perpendicular to the direction of the wind by means of a vane.




it is



(Gr. apo, from ge, the earth). That point of the moon's orbit in which she is farthest from the earth her perigee being the point in which



Aneroid (Gr.)—Literally, without


In the aneroid barometer the pressure of the atmosphere is measured by the elevation or depression of the surface of a closed metallic vessel partially exhausted of air. The pressure of the atmosphere being marked at a given time, any alteration is indicated by the movements of the surface of the thin corrugated metal, and communicated to wheels marking the change on a dial furnished with an index. Being easily carried about, the aneroid is extremely useful in enabling the traveller and tourist to approximate the relative heights of situations. It is by no means so trustworthy, however, as the ordinary mercurial barometer, being liable to irregularities, owing to changes in the elasticity of the metal of which it is constructed.

nearest the earth. Aquatic (Lat. aqua, water). Relating to the water having its habitat or usual position in water. Applied to plants which, like the water-lily, grow in water, and to animals which, like the duck and diver, live in or frequent the waters. Aqueous (Lat aqua, water). Watery pertaining to, or formed by, water. We thus speak of aqueous vajjours, aqueous solutions, aqueous or sedimentary strata, and the like.— Subaqueous occurring under the water in contradistinction to sub-aericd, or under the open air.







(Gr. archos, chief; and pelagos, sea).— The name given by the Greeks to the JEgean Sea. This sea is studded with islands, and the name archipelago, having been applied to

similar island-studded seas elsewhere,


(Gr. anti, opposite, and Applied to the regions surrounding the south pole, as being opposite to those of the Arctic or north pole, which see. Thus, we speak of "antarctic regions," "antarctic circle" (66J- south of the equator), and of situations " within the antarctic







now, by a very natural transition, used to designate any cluster or group of islands—€. ST., the' Indian Archipelago, or East India Islands. Arctic (Gr. arktos, a bear).— Rehiting to in the north pole or polar regions reference to the constellations of the Great and Little Bears which occur in the northern quarter of the heavens, and point, as it were, to the north pole. Arctic Regions, the high latitudes Arctic surrounding the north i>o\e Circle, an imaginary line extending





comi>ased of 79 parts nitrogen and 21 oxygen, with variable traces of carbonic acid and other impurities. Calculating from its decreasing density, as
well as from its diminislied jtower of refracting light, as we ascend from the earth, the lieight of the aiii)reciable atmosi>here has been estimated at 45 or 50 miles ; and the })re8siu-e of the whole volume on everj' .square inch of the earth's surface (at the ordiuaiy sealevel) at 14.6 lb. avoiitlui)oi8. Atoll.— The name given to a coral island of an annular form— that is, consisting of a circular belt or strip of coral-reef more or less continuous, with an enclosed lagoon.
(Lat. aurum, gold fero, I yield). Yielding or containing gold; applied to veins, rocks, and rock-substances containing the precious metal, as "auriferous veins," "auriferous gravels," and the like. Aurora Borealis (Lat.) Literally the "Aurora of the North ;" known also as the Northern Lights, Polar Lights, Streo.mers, &.C. Aluminous appearance, generally occurring in the northern heavens, and so called from its resemblance to the aurora or nifiniing twilight. It is usually referretl to electrical agency in the upper regions of the atmosphere. It is unquestionably connected in some way with terrestrial magnetism. The magnetic needle is greatly agitated when the aurora is When the arch is motionless visible. the needle is motionless, but when streamers are emitted, the needle com-

round the north y)ole 6^° ft-om the equator and parallel to it hence certain parts are said to "lie within the

arftic circle."

ARfJKNTiFEBOUS (Lat argentum, silver;
ferx), I yield)i

— A]iplied to veins, rocks,
argilla, clay).— Ap-

and other matrices containing the ores of silver, or silver in the native or me.

tallic state.

V^BOiLLACEOtrs (Lat.


plied to all soils, nxiics, or substances composed of clay, or having a notsible l)roportion of clay in their composition. Arm. Any deep and comparatively narrow branch of the sea running inland, contradistinction to gulfs and firths. Artesian Wells.— Wells sunk by boring peri>endicularly through the solid


and in which the subterranean waters rise to the surface, or nearly so. This method of obtaining water has long been known and practised in the province of Artois (the ancient Artesium, and hence the name), in France. Artesian wells are generally situated


in plains, or in basin-shai>ed valleys towards which the strata dip on both sides, and their principle depends upon the hydrostatic j)ressure of the water percolating the inclined strata. This forces its way upward by the artificial orifice to the highest level of the water-beaiing stratum. Tlie greater the dei)th the higher the temperature of the water and the lower the surface of the well compared with the outcrop of the water-yielding stratum, the higher will the jet of water rise above the orifice of the bore. Asteroids (Gr. aster, star ddos, likeness). A term applied by Hesschel to the minor planets or planetoid Ceres, Pallas, Juno, Vesta, &c. of which there are now upwards of two hundred and ten known to astronomers. Atmometer (Gr. atmos, vapour, and metron, measure). An instrument measuring the amount of evaporation in any locality. It consists of a long glass tube, having at the bottom a hollow ball of porous earthenware. Water is poured into the tube, and the outside of the porous ball being always covered with dew, the rate at


mences its vibrations, which correspond precisely to those of the aurora,
both in intensity and duration. Changing from the purest ami softest white


the colours of the rainbow, and and flitting from the horizon

which the water falls in the tube indicates the rapidity of evaporation in the air around. Atmosphere (Gr. atmos, vapour-; sphaira, sphere). Tlie gaseous envelojie or volume of air which surrounds the earth on every side, and which is either directly or indirectly the cause of numerous geological and geographical operations, as well as the immediate medium of all climatic diversity being thegreat lal)oratoiy in which all metef)r-

to the zenith with inconceivable rapidity, the aurora borealis is one of the most attractive of celestial phenomena. Auroras are most frequent between the parallels of 50° and G2° N., M'here the average is about 80 annually. They are often of extraordinaiy extent, having been sometimes simultaneously obsen'ed on both sides of the Atlantic. In height they varj- from 45 to 500 miles above the surface of the earth. Autumn (Lat.)— The third quarter of the

which commences when the

enters Libra that is, about the 21st or 22il of September, when the days and nights are equal ; hence the term Antuvinal Equinox, or Autumnal Point, referring to the corresponding point of


the ecliptic.


ological and electrical elaborated, as winds,






rains, thunder-stonns. It is

(Fr. avalange, lavange, laAn acciimulation of snow, or vanchc). of snow and ice, which descends from precipitous mountains like the Alps into the valleys below. Avalanches origi-

nate in the higher regions of mountains, and begin to descend when the gravity of their mass becomes too great tor the slope on which it rests, or when fresh weather destroys its adhesion to the surface. They are usually distinguished as Drift, Rolling, Sliding, and Glacial Avalanches Drift are those caused by the action of the wind on the snow while loose and powdery; Boiling, when a detached piece of snow rolls down the steep, licks up the snow over which it passes, and thus acquires bulk and impetus as it descends; Sliding, when the mass loses its adhe:


sion to the surface, and descends, carrying everything before it unable to
resist its pressure




masses of frozen snow and ice are
loosened by the heat of summer and precipitated into the plains below. Axis (Lat. a pole or axletree). A word used largely and variously in natural science; applied to the line about which objects are symmetrical, about which they are bent, around which they turn, or to which they have some common relation hence "vertebral axis," "axis of elevation," "axis of rotation," "syn-


clinal axis," &c.

(Gr. baros, weight; metron, measure). An instrument for measuring the height of a column of mercury when supjiorted by the pressure of tlie

atmosphere; and by this test deterThe mining the weight of the air.
variations in the pressui-e of the at-

Raised Beaches, terraciform ebbs. shelves and flats, generally consisting of shingle and gravel, occasionally containing shells and other marine exuvife, occurring at various elevations above
the present sea-level, and thus affording evidence of uprise of the land. (Gr. bios, life, and logos, doctrine).—The science of life, whether vegetable or animal, embracing botany and zoology in their widest acceptation. —Biological, relating to the science of life; life in all its multifarious manifestations and developments. Bluffs. A term said to be of American origin, and used to designate high banks presenting a precipitous liout to the sea or a river.

mosphere are indicated by correspond- Biology
ing variations in the height of the barometric column, which thus affords a means of foretelling such changes in the weather as are dependent upon varying air pressure, and of measuring heights and depths, by noting the proportional weight of the column of superincumbent air. Barometric, belonging to or indicated by the barometer.


Barrier-Reef. Bog (Celtic, soft).—The common designation for any wet, spongy, or peaty coral-reefs that run parallel (barriermorass, consisting chiefly of decayed like) to the shores of islands and continvegetable matter.— Boo -Earth, soils ents, but are separated therefrom by a composed in the main of decomposed lagoon-channel more or less extensive. The baiTier- reefs of Australia and of vegetable matter, with a considerable proportion of light silicious sand. New Caledonia, owing to their enormous dimensions, have long excited BoiLiNG-PoiNT.— The precise temperature at which a liquid begins to boil or bubble the attention of voyagers. Basin.—Applied, in Geography, to the up under the intiuence of heat. The whole extent of valley-shaped or basinboiling- iK)ints of liquids are constjint shaped country drained by any river under precisely the same circumstances. and its tributaries, as the "basin of the The causes which induce variation are Tliames," the "basin of the Forth," increased or diminished atmospheric pressure, the greater or less depth of the &c. Bathymetrioal (Gr. bathys, deep, and liquid, and the nature of the vessel in metron, measure). Applied to the diswhich it is contained. Thus, the boiltribution of plants and animals along ing-point of water under ordinary circumstances, at the level of the sea, is the sea-bottom, according to the depth 212° Fahr. ; but it will boil and bubble of the zone (measuring from the sealevel) whit;h they inhabit. up at a much lower temperature on tlie Bay. —Any bending of the ocean into the top of a high mountain, in consequeiH^e it will also land, less sudden and contracted than a of diminished pressure creek or harbour, and communicating boilsoonerand more quietly in a roughmore openly with the main ocean than surfaced vessel than in a smooth and polished one ; and also more quickly in a sea or gulf; "Bay of Biscay," "Bay of Bengal." a shallow vessel, in consequence of the The shore of the sea ; the Beach. less resistance by the superincumbent strand ; strictly speaking, that space water to the escajKi of steam. The lx)iling-point is also raised considerably by along the margin of the tidal sea over saline admixture, so that pure water, wliich the tide alternately flows and


. Aries.. A term implying importance. gale. klima. Cataclysm (Gr. belonging to. and West . carbo. the Cainozoic embraces the terti- ary and post-tertiary formations. worn blocks of stone. &c. the Ga- — in the ocean. on issuing into the air. The general term for a wind of some briskness. or holding iron in respective groups or system. boreal regions. Carnivora (Lat. however. and suggestive of the hinge or i>oint on which a thmg turns or dej>ends. the bore of the Hooghly.—The name given to the Brkeze. tul)e». — Cainozoic or Caewozoic (Or. an inclination). e. flesh. and Capricorn. tlie liquid rises within the tube to a some of which are of considerable depth level slightly above that of the general and peculiar configurations. Thus the cardinal points of the compass are the North.g. a hair). which would from their size. When a capillary tube i»«A^iRQi'ES. Generally a]iplied to some abnormal or unusual etlect of moving water. in both worlds. be regarded as jtebbles The or gravel. Literally. A term applied to the circular a partly immersed in a liquid wliich wets or bowl-shaped valleys of the Pj-renees. determined." — GLOSSARY. Cataclysmal. &c." &c. Its speed varies from fifteen to and the date when. &c. the mammalia. capWzis. are termed boulders. B<»UE. living on flesh. sweeping everything roinie. B<iREAL (Lat. iron or steel). cnro. voro. BouLDER-s (Sax. —Applied to springs and waters impregnated with iron. but attraction. generally foreign to the locality where they occur ("erratic blocks"). embracing the lion. Cancer. down to the 40th or 42d parallel of latitude.— Hairlike applied to filaments. Bottle-Track. or containing a consideri able proportion of lime.g. or inundation. . By this means the direction and velwity of currents are rudely .g. '^Calcariferous. calcareons soils. is usually restricted to the large and fretjuently water -worn before it. Applied to the upper .)—A sudden flood. tiger. &c. and which. lime-yielding. to the various belts of the earth is still popularly known as "capillary as influenced by the heat of the sun . as containing recent fonns of life. geographers speak of insular . life). cardo. genial orungenial. Cardinal (Lat. in contradistinction to lurhivorous. requires 285* when fliUy saturated with salt.. camis. — plies of coal are obtained. in contradistinction to the Mesozoic (holding intermediate) and the PiUceozoic (holding ancient and extinct forms). or to the stratified systems. Chalybeate (Gr. be mild or rigorous. as these may Carboniferous (Lat. East. and which are evidently the former cratere of ancient volcan- (Lat.— Of or belonging to the north . Libra. the violent force of water. the Tsientang. Capillary members of that e. de- — The "petrifying springs" of language. Composed of." " carboniferous limestone. they are dropped forty-two miles an hour..g. A violent nish of tidal water the advancing edge or front of the tidal wave as it ascends a river or estuary e. chalybs. — — — I . As this Climate fGr. thirty feet in height. and others that subsist solely on flesh. it. — 342 J which boils at 212*. of very fine or hair-like disolution. Calcareous (Lat calx.) —Any rounded or water- .. and smoothed blocks. The tenn is usually ai)plied to that syssalubrious or obnoxious. and the like. but of limited excourse pursued by bottles which are thrown overboard with a note enclosed tent and duration less violent than a of the longitude and latitude where. A tenn occasionally applied to springs charged with carbonate of lime. Boreas. recent zoe. which are found imbe«lded in the clays and gravel of the Drift formation. — A Spanish terra for the deep caldron-like cavities that occur on the summits of extinct volcanic mountains and islands. ealcaremts sandstones. now applied to the general weatherconditions of any district. the phenomenon sense. e.— Coal-l)earing. deluge. Tlie bore of the Tsientang is said to advance up that river at Hangchau like a wall of water. In treating of tem of strata from* which our main supcountries. which covers the northern hemisphere.— was formerly supjiosed to be due to Originally applied (as explained in the some mysterious "attraction" of the text). . graminivorous. coal fero. mensions. South. or produced by. and at the rate of twenty-five miles an hour. I yield). the Severn. the cardinal signs of the zodiac. One of Cuvier's orders of I devour). coal -yielding. the north wind).—Carnivorous. As a jjala-ontological snbdivi- Jsion. IcatTios. in a technical or astronomical tube for the liquid. lime). name. "carboniferous system. posit incrustations of calcareous tufa. hyena. not. a hinge). surface of the liquid outside. ordinarj' Caldera. caXcis. boreal fauna.

order. krater. can only exist within a few fathoms of fero. kuklos. a circle). and their ^^olence reef. upheaved — — — . so to natural order. with a central lagoon. rocks. to the motion of a watch-hand. the surface. kvklos. bed subsided. . culer. exposed to the action of the waves. Crepuscular (Lat. crepusculum. the|science which treats of the several parts of the world. Arabian. tions from more recent orifices. where they are activity during the tertiary period. to metal). and near the equaThe tween it and the shore. a circle). from motion.—A definite Darwin that they owe their present period of time. with a shallow lagoon beand the tropics. and sloping declivity (the tail) to wards the east. Such masses are found studding the Pacific on both sides of the equator to the thirteenth degree of latitude abounding in the southern part of the Indian Ocean . growth of the corals during a prolonged VIyclone (Gr. the reef became a ring-shaped rotation of a cyclone is contrary to atoll. while some of these reefs and other matrices containing the ores rise up from vast depths in the ocean.—The mouth or orifice of a volcano so called Craters from its cup or bowl shape. the slope and counter-slope of these hills. The term applied to any connected mass of coral structures. forming first a most frequently between the equator fringing reef. We thus speak of the "crateristone. copper. their course deformed into the more distant harrierscribing a curve. In general geographical terms. and Red Seas. and Applied to veins. The f originally applied by navigators to corals commenced to build along the those rotatory hurricanes which occur shore line of an island. surrounding islands of igneous and other origin (fringing or shore reefs). reef and the land. Coulees (Fr. 343 the orderly arrangement and sjrmmetrj' of its component parts. and continental climates the former. a cup or bowl). always at the water-leveL In this way Cyclones sweep round and round with the fringing reef became gradually transa progressive motion. dusk). In both hemispheres the sight. As these animals Cupriferous (Lat. Crag and Tail.— Literally. A term subsidence of the ocean floor. hemisphere moving counter. cuprum. crowning others already precipitous front (the crag) is exposed to the west or north-west. finally. Crater (Gr. ones and they may become absorbed by subsidence. of copper. form hills of Auvergne "—hills which The larger corals flourish best on the were undoubtedly in a state of igneous outer parts of the reef. it has been suggested by Cycle (Gr. the world. in the Persian. The whole framework of those in the southern following that the material universe . I yield). may be central or lateral in the mountain in which they occur there may be one principal and several subsidiary : . that of the sim— those in the northern Cosmos (Gr. — or rising as low ring-shaped islets above the waters of the ocean. like that prevailing in speak. Pacific. the universe. as the island it originbeing greater the narrower the limit of ally surrounded sank altogether out of their whirl. or copper in the native or and occur at great distances from the metallic state. coral-reefs are found forming low circular islands enclosing lagoons (atolls or lagoon islands) . whether trending away in long partially submerged ledges. or be obliterated by erup. where a bold — and relations. fcosmos). encircling islands . their laws flow. In the like breakwater-barriers.— Cosmical. y«Coral-Reef. As the seatorial limit of the trade-winds.— Cosmology. as melted Applied to the streams and spurs of lava which diversify the sides and slopes of volcanic mountains. trending for hundreds of miles along the north-east coast of Australia and occurring less or more plentifully. secreted by the coral-jwlypes. —Applied to animals which are active The smaller and more delicate kinds inhabit the inner lagoon between the in the dusk or twilight. nearest land. relating to the world or universe. . from its proximity to the ocean. and the latter cold in winter but excessively hot in summer.GLOSSARY. (coral-ledges). the upward growtli of term is now generally applied to the the coral kept the surface of the reef movement of the -wind in all storms. and. marked by the recurheight and position to the upward rence of the same natui-al phenomena. or stretching along shore in surf-beaten ridges (the Crateriform. AppUed to hills whose summits present bowl-shaped and other true barrier or encircling reef) of many leagues in length. being comparatively mild in winter and cool in summer. in patches.— Applied to a form of hills common in Britain. These reefs been the craters of once active volare wholly composed of a kind of limecanoes. and from 20 to more circular depressions that seem to have than 200 feet in width.

and un wooded. de. formation. placed). of course. such as that of the carried down by rivers. Sussex. metron. dfhadfr. sand driven and accumuDelta. simple process. and the like. direction of oceanic currents. storms. a hillock). The alluvial land formed at the lated by the wind. A term for or worn) tions arising from the integration of exposed their lacustrine. Literally dew-measurer any apparatus or instrument for deterconsist of mud. seed-lobe). The monsoons which prevail in the Indian Ocean give rise to drift-currents. the vegetable kingdom. dros. which received this name from tides and currents to distant shores. adopted from the French. The name Deposit (Lat. for any accumulation of loose material for weeks by baffling calms. Deepoch of the ice sheet in Britain. a hill).— Applied or animal matter. bodies whose exact weight is known. or of any admixture of during a single night. step). concerned in as fluviatile.'Compri8ing all and then weighing them afresh after those plants whose seeds are composed they are covered with dew. rock -surfaces. — ' . and the venation of their which are to be divided into spherical leaves is reticulated or net-like. —The name given to oceanic currents which mainly depend on the winds. drift-wood. skirts the low shores of our from the plane of the horizon. wood mouth of a river. A others incline at a very higli angle. of groH-th. mountain-cliff's. According of two lobes or seed leaves. for drifted acciunulations of vegetable Downs (Brit.step. de. as sand-drift. is occasionally applied to !the down from suspension in water. ' . measure). or increase by external layers five decigrammes. Drift period. by the positions in which they occur. river-banks. and posits are either distinguished by their the term Glacial Drift itself to the macomposition. deposits. sea-cliff"s. of the diameter of about five in parallel order.says Professor Kaemtz. or pLiins that lie between disperses blocks of stone. gravel. estuarine. and hnrls forward and the Punjaub. The degradation of hills covered with a sweet short herbage. or period of the Glacial —Applied to matter that has settled Drift. locks of wool. in so many earth. Some own island. ac- cording to the season of these winds. >/ Detritus (Lat. places. Dip. Drift -Currents.— The inclination or angle at which Dune (Brit. Removing or wasting down Surrey. down positus. &c. as mud -deposits. double . Degradation (Lat." ous endogens. dis. sand. They are to Dr Wells. and cliffs is caused by atmospheric and forming excellent sheep pasture. — .— " " 344 GLOSSARY. geneaqueous agency hence water is said to rally bare of trees. or by the agencies terial distributed over the country within that period. (Gr. to unbar). T)0LDRUMS." a degrading action on certain seaDrift. Delta. rocks dip at a low angle and are flat . and gradry. Dicorv'LEDONOUS (Gr. — all rubbed accumulawaste or distritns. wreck or waste). A sailor's term for the troDebris (Fr. down . up of the ice on a river a freshet but DoAB. de. « — ^ (Pr. koty" consists in exposing to the open air A grand division of ledon. dew. &c. are to be preferred. sand-drift like that which.. and term originally signifying the breaking are almost on edge. / marine. dvs. as in monocotyledoncentimetres.— Usually applied to strata slope or dip downwards into tli?*^ hillocks of blown sand. Thisangleismeasured. sand- Debacle — — ." . These "downs" are described "as step by . chalk hills of Kent. . dune. in the south of England to the rounded. and adjacent counties. and driven by Nile. and singularly dry exert a degrading influence on the even in the valleys that wind for miles earth's crust waves and tidal currents between them.— Literally that which is driven shores. weighing exogens.— The name given in India to the now applied to any sudden flood or tongue of land that lies between two or more confluent rivers. and arising from the waste of rocks also rains. "The most these. down. the resemblance of the space enclosed Such drift-wood is often useful in indiby the two main branches of the river cating to geographers the course and to the Greek letter a. which set alternately in one direction and then in another. rubbly mining the amount of dew deposited fragments. as the doaha of rush of water which breaks down opposing barriers. . and ^the rivers of that region other debris. gravel. Sand-dunes. .— A convepical zones of calms and variables belts in which they are often detained nient term. Detrital matter may thus Drosometer — ' ' — . and not masses.

that prevails very much in early sumor that part where it enters the sea.Exotic (Gr. The name apvapour).) which are supnatural or by artificial means. &c. Thus we speak of the " facies of the Carboniferous flora. layers as in the Exogens. &c.— The Erratic Blocks. in contradistinction to the internal mass.— Equatorial. a description). ginomai. etesios. ethnos. equal). or by other analogous the poles . like those of the Thames. a race . The great the removal of the vapour as soon as it circle. escarper. rally occur in estuaries where the tide or composed of such species as are pecumeets the current of the river and Estuarine. evaporo. With sphere. phe. annual). backwards). coi'plants whose growth takes place from nection. That great division of the Northern and Southern. such a circle cuts tlie globe means. properly speaking. formations. plied to plants and animals. . I send off" in Eozoic (Gr.— That external portion of our planet which is accessible to human tion. aries are.. investigation . animals. exo. the causes that produce earthquakes Escarpment (Fr. eos. of liar to brackish waters. and not by external concentric ous races of mankind. within . the equator. . I boil the earth's cnist. the night). without. fissures. point of which is equally distant from by absorption. from without). Evaporation (Lat. and chasms in the -fesTUARY (Lat. Heat is posed to yield the fii-st evidence of life the grand evaporating agent in natui-e.— A term frequently applied to those large and ice-borne blocks of stone (boulders) which are scattered so generally over the higher and mid- — — — .)— a convenient term employed to express any common resemblance or aspect among the rocks. elevations of the sea-bed into ing-up of the water-line. tidal rivermouths.— GLOSSARY. exo.water and marine. day those plants whose growth takes place and night are of equal duration. cequiis. either by tions (Laurentian. and not it is also termed the equinoctial line from within as in the Endogens. which marks Estudry land. Ethnography (Gr. mer all over Eiu-ope. I other words. tures. cd. Aping to. belong. posing obstacles. {nox. northerly. vegetable kingdom which embraces When the sun is in the line of the equator. The act of converting into plied by geologists to the oldest formavapour such liquids as water. and the submergence of dry its approach in river-mouths). of which we can know nothing by direct observa- leys which have been gradually cut out of the solid strata by the long-continued action of the river or rivers that flow through them. A 345 E Earth's Crust. and characteristics of the variwithin. Solway. Endogens (Gr. or fossiS of any area from the or epoch. — — — — — — — — — — Facies (Lat. every is formed either by currents of wind. but —The abrupt face or cliff of a ridge or we know that their results are frac. in seas where currents from different or belonging to an estuary.—Any rotary motion of water caused by the meeting Severn. the state of being gradually worn —that is. A grand division of the vegetable kingdom." as distinct and of floras of other epochs the "facies of the Australian fauna. dispersion. or in the region of. into hemispheres viz. gnawed or worn to the former.1 hill-range. J familiar as well as technical term for the sudden shaking or tremor of the earth's crust prodle latitudes of the northern hemiduced by subterranean agency. \JEddy (Sax. erosris." as . but chiefly Erosion (Lat. hence by external concentric layers. ginomai. dawn). and its effects are greatly facilitatetl by Equator (Lat. Eddies geneflora are mixed fresh. the am formed).— The act of gradually wearing duced into a country from other regions away . plants. graAn account or deI am formed). upheavals and deprestide . cestus cpsfwo. or rather north-easterly wind Embouchure (Fr. that have been introaway). are thrown back on themselves by op. land beneath the waters of the ocean. upon the globe. whose fauna and of opposing currents. or where tidal currents deposits. to cut steep). so called from the troubled boilsions . we are but slenderly acquainted . endon. Used in conaway. Earthquake.Etesian Wind (Gr. as estuaiiue quarters meet. &c.— Valleys of erosion :—those valtradistinction to indigenous. including those scription of the origin.)—The mouth of a river. into two equal parts or halves in Exogens (Gr. from without.on the earth's surface.

fossilis. or conversion into ice. of lofty mountains. and occur in superficial or recent deposits. any given epoch or area— as "the flora The avalanche. dug up). "in not lying so far from shore." says Darwin. When the upper current is the rarer. as the fiords soils.—See Coral Reef. Ferriferous (Lat. as the Frith of Forth. the frost becomes more intense. e. ter). "They differ from barrier. As the density of the two currents vary unequally near their plane of contact. river flood or inundation occasioned by the sudden melting of the ice and snow in spring. trict from which eruptions of smoke Fluvio-Marine. or those which contain no such relics. but from convenient term for the vegetation of the land over the bottom of the ocean. water passes into ice when the temperature of the air falls to 32° of Fahrenheit. Freshet. I become).— An arm of the sea. the term sub-fossil is emjiloyed. finally.— A known also as "shore-reefs. other Ferruginous (Lat. so genera constitute a family. which often impart to the whole a singular and fantastic appearance. .— In Natural History classifica- tions this tenn denotes the group next in value and comprehensiveness above the gentis. &c. by river-action growing or living in An opening or orifice in a volcanic disfhish-water rivers. solid state. where the warmer stratum of air is on the surface of the ground. Family.—The phenomenon of the mirage at sea. The name is said to be of Breton origin—wior." The reefs which fringe the island of Mauritius form a good example of the class. and iceberg. until. which run ence. so the plants constitute its Flora. of boulders aud other debris. As species constitute a genua. -narrow passage. and generally importance in disintegrating rocks and with bold rocky shores. &c. and in not having within a broad channel of deep water. rural deities)./retwm). the aerial mirror is formed beneath the eye of the observer. various refractions and distortions result. or inlet. Impregnated or which remained liquid'at 32° gradually coated with oxide of iron.— from higher to lower levels. Fata Morgana. rusty-lookpart with their heat. As the cold inci-eases and iron. On land. frost." or the remains of plants and animals imbedded in the earth's crust. the freezing.reefs. Originally applied to any strait." the " fauna of the Permian era. ferrum.— Applied to rocks and rock-systems containing organic remains. and gana. mercur}-. iron Gr.water and i>artly salt-water. fine lady the fairy mermaid of our popular legends. of water and watery vapours by the influence In ordinary circumstances of cold. rocks. the Frith of Tay. mains are only partially petrified.. Fringing-reefs. by which the same appearance is produced that results from the reflection of objects on the surface of the water. partly fresh. partly of and other gaseous fumes are emitted. not only Flora (Lat. — .— A class of coral-reefs. sea. FossiLiFEROUS (Lat. ^ost (Sax. but now restricted by geologists to "organic remains. I yield). anything dug out of the earth .A — 346 GLOSSARY.—See Mirage. but this influence is of prime abruptly into the land. ferrum. the rays of light proceeding from objects in the lower current are gradually refracted within the former. It arises from two layers of air of different density coming suddenly in contact. fossilis. A convenient term for the animals of any given epoch or area. moulding the outline of mounof Norway and the sea-lochs of Scottains.Belonging to a river . glacier. the objects appear inversely reflected.— A term applied to deep frost exerts a purely mechanical influnarrow arms of the sea. fumare. and other matrices that yield or contain and composition by mechanical and When these rechemical agencies.. in contradistinction to non-fossiliferous. Fiord (Norse). and assisting in the dispersion land. I bear). the goddess of flowers). Fossil (Lat. are the children of the country or epoch constitute its a running wa the polar regions. substances (such as oils.the " fauna of South America." from their fringing or encircling islands at a moderate distance from shore. and fero. and pass into the ing. iron . As a geological agent.. more and more from their naturally straight course. to smoke).Estuarine.) ginomai.— Literally. cradled on the snowy summits so the animals constitute its Fauna.)—In Meteorology." As the plants of a cal phenomena. river and partly of marine formation or origin." As the animals of an area or epoch constitute its Fauna. or in the icy seas Fluviatile (Lat. Fauna (Lat. Frith (Lat. produce UMEROLE (Ital. — — — — . fero. fluvius. of the coal-measures" "the flora of among the most notable of geographiSouth America. Applied to veins. and more or less altered in structure distinguished from the animals of other regions by their common marsupial characteristics.

The vapours of the garua of Lima are so thick that the sun. and consequently peopled in their different parts either by the same or representative species of animals. it is said the atmosphere loses its transparency. with a peculiar creeping motion. In this respect it differs from Geography. — — . but which has been gradually extended to the mountiiins themselves— viz. usually applied to a cape.— Literally "rager. smoothing the rocks over which they pass. Hail pellets are of various fonns— round. being imder nearly the same circumstances as to climat«. persistent stems. the earth. and are followed by heavy dews. kind or kindred). or flat and often of considerable size. or marked by the same life. herb. Herbivorous (Lat. and jackal are regarded as one genus. nminly under the influence of gravity. to investigate their nature and mode of formation.—Any prominent projection of the land into the sea . jackal. ice). angular. Habitat. to describe their appearance and relative positions. vulpes. homoios. and leaving mounds of debris {moraines). . the Eastern and Western Ghauts. such as smoothing and striating of rock-surfaces. fox.— A tenn applied originally to the narrow and difficult passes in the mountains of Southern India. and voro. or promontory of some boldness and elevation. the points of agreement between the dog and wolf being more numerous and intimate than between the dog and fox. and the like. I devour). but the dog. I Geyser. as they melt away..— In Natural History tlie word genus is generally used to embrace such members of a family or larger group as possess some . or of snow and ice. which are precipitated during the night.— Belonging to or produced by ice. which restricts itself more especially to the external or superficial aspects of the globe. embraces all that can be known of the constitution and history of our planet. herha. During the garua.— Zones or belts of the Herbaceous. in contradistinction to carnivorous. subsisting on vegetable food ." an Icelandic terra for the intermittent boiling springs or spouting fountains which occur in connection with the volcanic phenomena of that island.— Glaciated. are said to be hovwiozoic. which consist of two great chains. assumes the ap- pearance of the moon's disc. while the foxes are separated into another genus. seen through tliem with the naked eye. ness. &c. stretching jalo along the east and west coasts of the De Deccan. more marked in them than in the other members of the family.— The local tenn for dense seafogs that occur periodically along tlie Pacific coast of South America. Applied in Botany to stems that die down annually. canis. Herb-eating . and zoe. in contradistinction to ligneous or woody. Ghauts. doctrine). They commence in tlie morning. wolf. and which move downward. and the life that adorns it. Its object is to examine the various rock-materials of which our planet is composed. LACiAL. Thus the Canid^ or Dog family embraces the dog. ge. Genus (Lat. and that of any particular plant its station each being the locality which presents the conditions most favourable to its growth and development.GLOSSARY. wolf.— Frozen rain rain-drops that have been suddenly frozen in their downward course by passing through a stratum of air below the temperature of 32°.ACiER (Lat. and generally to discover the laws which seem to regulate their arrangement. lateral and terminal. Geology (Gr. Applied to those accumulations of ice. and the sun is obscured for months together. Glaciation. which collect in the vallej's j 4 — J — and ravines of snowy mountains like the Alps. — — — ocean which. glacies. . which disappear soon after midday. and logos. life). The term has reference to the violent discharges of steam and water which take place at stated intervals. the same. I (Hail. the effects of iceaction. the jets being thrown with explosive force to a great height in the air. applied to rock-surfaces that have been smoothed and striated by ice. and extend over the plains in the form of refreshing fogs. 347 Garua. . HoMoiozoic (Gr. Headland. The region occupied by any particular animal is called its habitat. common properties.

geological character. and therme.— The name given to the moundencies of the continent . summer temperature. Hvpsometrical (Gr. They are tion of land and water. which often rise terrace-like to considerable elevations. instrument for determining the humidity of the atmosphere. ice-pack at other times they have been Isocheimal or Isocheimonal (Gr. and loaded with blocks divisions in the earth's cnist which of rock and masses of shingle. or introduced by artificial graphy. ice-island). far ott" in the ocean. iIceberg (Gev. signifying " hard. mounds of sand and gravel which occur in lower portions of river plains and valleys. Indigenous (Lat. isos.— Applied by ing all those places on the surface of voyagers to the smaller masses of ice the globe which have the same mean that encumber the polar seas. >/Kaims or Kames. rents to warmer latitudes they melt and water. rising from 40 to 200 feet and therms. heat). applied to zones or l)elts of elevation on land . when they ture is governed by relative distribuconstitute archipelagoes. Having the same summer temthe ocean. isos. insula) occur either sinj^ly. sumder and rock-debris on the bottom of mer). isothermal lines are lines conmeans. Applied to lines f)r above the water. and as temperaor in groups or clusters. There are various kinds of hygrometers— some depending upon the principle of the varying contraction of absorptive materials. A term applied in Scotland to those long. isos. hygros. they rise up ing in the polar seas. the plants and animals that natiu*—Having the same temperature of ally belong to a country or region. and are hard and stepp<^like in the drj' season.— Applied to Isothermal (Gr. .— Altitudinal . ice. mounconnection show tliem to be dej>entain). isos. and theros. native). Sometimes they independently.Isotheral (Gr. lines connectIce-Floe (Dan. the earth. hypsos. it refers solely to the land. dropping their burdens of boul. when their proxsame parallels of latitude are often on imity. necting all those places on the surface Islands (Lat. equal temperature. ge. originally portions of glaciers launched and cheima.— 348 Hygrometer ron. winter). Known as Eskars in Ireland and Osars in Sweden. and others —An ujwn the principle of condensation upon cold polished surfaces. eis. The term is thought to be derived from the Hottentot word A'orusa. which. winter temperature hence isocheimal and there further augmented by numlilies are those drawn through such bers of them freezing en masse. cumference. where!) As they are floated by the polar curisothennal applies equally to air. height me. moist. and herg. Some have the same mean annual temperaidea of their size may be formed from ture. places on the oceanic continental. Iceplaces as have the same mean winter bergs have been seen in the Arctic and temperature. becomes hard as bunit clay under the influence of continued drought. . s GLOSSARY.— Having the same from icebound coasts into the ocean. tainous masses of ice often found floatwhen. In Physical GeoNot exotic. and usually ascribed to the Glacial period. being impregnated with iron and mixed with sand. as hathymetrioal is applied to zones of depth in water. flower-bespan{:led plains. Antarctic Oceans several miles in cir. inasmuch as of their bulk rises above the surftice. : — — .—See Osar. but in the wet season are speedily transformed into grassy. often tortuous — and flat-topped. measure). away.— A term applied to the open clayey flats of Southern Africa. of the globe which have the same when they are said to be independent mean temperature . and are generally of are formed by the breaking up of the volcanic or coralline formation. land. Karoo. (Gr. by altitude also distinguished as continental and and other conditions.Isooeothermal (Gr. metmeasure). tron. . heat). and axial very diflereut isothermal lines. and oceanic. . perature isotheral lines. and employed as being more the fact that little more than an eighth definite than isotliermal." and to refer to the quality of the red clayey soil.

as in the Adriatic. See Zone. and those on the lee-side to be to the leeward of the — (Pinus maritimus) on the seaward side. or 90°.). — Any portion of high land Littoral Zone (Lat. — 349 Lacustrijje (Lat. lapillus. the soil of which being impregnated with salt.) and if in the southern. within the tropics. and seconds along its own meridian. They are. Licks.. in other words. . — . heaths.— GLOSSARY. lat. modiola. and for the rest desolate. inundated tangle). sandy. Littoral (Lat. All objects on the weather-side are said to be to the windward.)— Literally. and by such razor . as the Baltic and Mediterranean. closed by circular coral-reefs as well as to the lake-like sheets that frequently occur in tidal and periodically. which these terms express. Generally applied. and other features which occur near the shore. cockle. by stai'-fishes. inhabiting. A peculiar variety of volcanic ashes and stones. The terms longitude and latitude arose from a notion of the characterised. litus.— That zone of marine life which lies between high and low water mark (varying in extent acconling to the rise and fall of the tide. and in such a circle every place has. abundant in some volcanic districts. latitudo. chiefly occupied as sheep-runs. and which in British seas is characterised. A nautical term of frequent occurrence in geographical descripIn sailing.—Of or belonging to a lake used in contradistinction to fluviatile and marine. while inland seas are surrounded on all sides by the land in a continuous manner. in South Latitude (S. and usually forming loose bare slopes inimical to anything like vegetation. or covered with Land-locked.tangle and name ancients that the earth was longer from east to west than from soulh to north. the same latitude. dulse. and inwards towards Bordeaux—hence often spoken of as the "Landes de Bordeaux.— The latitude of a place on the earth's sur- flat treeless plains that extend along the banks of the Orinoco. Lagoon or Lagune (Ital. life. Land-locked seas are thus only partially enclosed or locked in by the land. &c. Landes (Fr. and in British seas life is — sea- Parallels of latitude are circles drawn parallel to the equator . the Sea of Okhotsk. that it hid length and breadth." They are extensively planted with the sea-pine — Leeward. is licked by the wild cattle for the sake of the salt. As the distance between the equator and either of the poles is only the fourth part of the earth's circumference. it is said to be in North Latitude (N. Laminarian Zone {laminaria. for the most part. Belonging to. They are of recent alluvial growth. sea. that side of a ship against which the wind blows is called her weather-side. but applied in particular by French writers to those extensive areas of sand-drift which stretch southward from the mouth of the Garonne along the Bay of Biscay. If in the northern hemisphere. and carigeen. by such mollusca as the periwinkle. the common echinus. minutes. tions. mussel. the That zone or belt of marine which commences at low -water mark. and puUustra. to shallow salt-water lakes or sheets of water cut off (or nearly so) from the sea by intervening strips of beach or river-deposit also to the waters en. a lake). measured in degrees. bottom may be rocky.)— The Latitcde (Lat.—An American term for swampy or boggy areas surroimding saline springs. as the disturbance. laguna). deltas. and the shal- down to a lower level in consequence of some undermining See Zone. litus. of course. — saline incrustations. while the opposite one is kno'wn as the lee -side. and during one-half of the year are covered with tall grasses. a little stone).wrack. Applied to operations. as or disturbing action. or taking place on the shore. J Landslip. lat. deposits. breadth). &c.. the latitude of a place can never exceed that amount. and there they sometimes take place on such a scale as materially to affect the surface configuration of the country. by tubularia. Llanos (Span. Lapilli (Lat. face is its distance from the equator. lacus. are most frequent in districts subjected to earthquake that has slidden lowness of the shore). but stretch away inland in heathy undulating plains. and large areas . plants as the bladder. the shore). Applied to seas that are isolated from the rest of the ocean by peninsulas and chains of islands. the sea -shore). as its by the broad waving implies. as the Sea of Japan. and extends to a depth from forty to ninety feet. larger algae. in contradistinction to those of a deep-water or oceanic character. or muddy. limpet. might be expected.

mesos. including all the " shell-fish " proper. as 7iiiktcks. change.— the Indian Ocean the south-west monthose rocks which have been so altered soon blowing. and gradually carried downwards to the foot of the glacier. meta. the appearance of a lake-like sheet. length). of The which there are two kinds — meteoros. and form a central or medial i. &c. The glacier itself is continually moving downwards.—. form). unsupported by any internal or tegumentary frame- — . At the point where the glacier becomes finally melted. A mountain-chain or mountainrange is a series of elevations having their Ijases in contact.. Long. and 2. &c. air).— The distance of a place measured in degrees. The term applied to atmospheric vapour when it becomes visible in consequence of a reduction of the tempera- — ture of the air. One of Cuvier's grand divisions of the animal kingdom.. and seconds. as differing from the Pala. earth). in W. / like palms. Long. and evidently dependent on the same series of elevatory forces. and their axes continuous over a considerable extent of countrj' while several ranges possessing a certain degree of parallelism. to merit the . are common i)henomena in insular and estuary-intersected countries like Great Britain and Ireland. minutes. ^^ETAMORPHic (Gr. ^I^aines. andVMoNSOONS (Arabic. the rocky material brought down is accumulated in transverse mounds. If the place be east of the fixed meridian. % /^Cainozoic. and having reference to the circumstance that these creatures have soft bodies. work of sufficient density name of skeleton. season). land to the mounds of stony detritus which occur at the bases and along the edges of all the great glaciers. which are known as terminal moraines. about 69^ of which are equal to one degree. monos. tinent during the southern and north- em summer 1 is the prime producer of atmospheric. and partly by the intermixture level tracts — rarefication of the of strata of air having diffierent temIt assumes peratures and densities.— O See Fata Morgana. and occasioned partly by the unequal vapour of the atmosphere. it is said to be in E. of water. term applied to The periodical or seasonal winds of morphe. and kotylidon. often exhibiting the reflected or inverted images of distant objects. and the rocks and stones which fall uj)on it from the sides of the gorge in which it lies are accumulated its surface in longitudinal ridges or moraines. mfillis. In Britain. The geographical mile is about 6079 English feet.ozoic and A — . The term is usually applied to heights of more than 2000 feet. .Se< Latitude. constitute a mountain-system. Mollusca (Lat. The commx>n or statute mile. their nearest lateral moraines merge into one. Molluscs. east or west of any ttxed meridian. upon Mirage (Fr. and if west. — groups holding the middle forms of life. — See floating in the —A well-known unit of measure. and zoe. and when of inconsiderable height. Mist. Plants whose fruit has only one seed-lobe. haurs. Aerolite. and consequently endogenous in growth. meteoros. the statute mile 5280 feet. lilies. Mists. all beneath that amount being regarded as hills. Geographical or Nautical mile. this periodical air-current Meteoric Stones or Meteorites (Gr. mmissin.ioraine upon the united mass of the lower glacier.— The name given in SwitzerMile. V1#6untain (Lat. in general terms. are wholly or largely obliterated. fogs. Where two glaciers unite. 1. being inundated durins the rainy season.)—A meteorological phenomenon occuring most frequently on and during hot weather. that their original features April to October and the north-east. from by heat.— — 360 GLOSSARY. 60 of which are equal to one degree of latitude. In the higher valleys there are but two of these moraines lateral moraines on opposite sides of the glacier. The alternale only recognisable with difficulty. middle. the fixed meridian is that of the Observatory of Greenwich and in other countries it is usually that of their capitals. moiis) -Any portion of the earth's crust rising considerably above the surrounding surface. raised above the Mesozoic (Gr. The great division of stratified life).— Of or belonging to the atmosphere and used as synonymous with . seed-lobe). longitudo. grasses. they are partly still in progress of formation. — MoNocoTTLEDONoua (Gr. and the like. soft). heating and cooling of the Asiatic conMeteoric (Gr. Longitude (Lat. one. or from October to April.

The lowest division of stratified groups as holding the most ancient forms of life. oi'bita. the points where the orbit of a planet cuts the plane of the ecliptic . Orography. is of small dimensions. raises whirl-clouds of dust. A Swedish term for those — .courses. Palcstral (Lat. heavenly bodies are spoken of as orbs.— The science which describes or treats of the mountains and moimtain- — applied to the soft muddy or slimy calcareous deposits found upon the ocean floor at vast depths and great distances from land. Perigee (Gr. a track or path). — 4 Plateau (Fr.— Of' or belonging to the deep sea. Orbit (Lat. their form is merely spheroidal. down). Pelagic (Gr. 351 Nadir (Arabic. palaios. but on rare occasions it prevails for two or three days. Ness. pains. as the Globigerina ooze. Fifeness. met- .)— Literally. or fim. The course or path of a planet round the sun generally. Naes. The term is derived from the Latin word orbis. before it is fully compressed into the ice of . Nollah. Neve. — . . Normal (Lat. which are mountain . wase. rain. huasis). hence the name Os systems of the globe. The . Rhizopod ooze. nodus. pluvius. or vertically beneath his feet. is farthest oflT. and their courses as orbits. Though treeless. A Hindostaneeterm for those streams. ancient. and their courses elliptical. they are the opposite poles of the visible horizon. or OsAR.torrents during the rainy season. Nodes (Lat. The name given in Buenos Ayres to a violent west wind. — r^ (x Oasis (Egypt. or generally. a rule). about. Pampas.— GLOSSARY. Orology (Or. (Gr." &c.— A term applied to the collected snow.— In Physical Geography. and zoe. the course or path described by any of the heavenly bodies.— or sudden projection of the land into the sea as Dungeness. strictly speaking. &c. and carries them forward to the coast of