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NDIANAPOLIS,

IND.:

INDIANA SCHOOL BOOK CO.

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GIFT OF

Dr. H.I. Prolstley

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BOOK CO.w nCHw——I ^ INDIANAPOLIS.: IITDIANA SCHOOL 1889. . THE Complete Geography MATHEMATICAL.Indiana Educational Series. —— . IND. POLITICAL. PHYSICAL.

The physical maps are a special feature of this work. to civilization is indicated. In the department of physical geography. and sented in the course. Great pains have been taken in the preparation of the maps and charts. the plant and animal life of the continents are fully presented. In presenting the Advanced Geography to the public a few words in regard to its general plan and scope may not the be out of place. and lead to a better understanding of the subject. The by position. climate of the several continents as determined to the sea. the foundation of political geography. peoples and industries of the world with great interest and to hold the pupil in the attitude of a constant observer. PREFACE. animated creatures are everywhere. W. to manufacturing.FDH'^ATioM nETPT. in the belief that they will stimulate thought. and ready for man. the third. ocean currents. of Physical. A full outline of mathematical geography it is is given. the lord of is who appears on the scene. and modified by elevation. . to commerce. At pared to study Life on the Globe. COPYRIGHT. to The author has sought to throw him upon his own resources. SANFORD NILES. and the zone most favorable as dependent on physical geography are considered and the pupil is led to see why some peoples are why others have fixed habitations. WILLETT. second. and the distribution of plants and animals in the several climatic zones. it is The earth has now put on all. and they will be found unusually clear and attractive. the pupil's horizon is In this way physical geography is made broadened and profit. to mining. The book may be divided into three parts: the first treating of Mathematical Geography. make him self reliant. believed that all who are willing to work and think may comprehend every point pre- The diagrams are numerous and excellent. and the air are considered in the order named. the water. pointing out the regions best suited to agri- culture. then receives careful attention. "Man in the Human industries nomadic. C. and so on. many queries. 1889. mountain ranges. he is prepared to study the different countries. slope. proximity this point the pupil is pre- and rainfall. He goes over the earth. its mantle of plants. prevailing winds. artists. will The diagrams and pictorial illustrations are by skilled The mechanical appearance of the work prove a source of pleasure to every pupil and teacher. Definitions and conclusions are based upon what the pupil is required to see and do. of Political. and Different Zones" made a subject of study. He has given him many test exercises. the land.

. Description. Map of the Middle Atlantic States. Classes of Islands. . Map of the Pacific States. 25 26 Map Studies (Eastern Division).. Map Studies. Map Studies. .. Industrial and Commercial Map of the United . Austrian Empire. Globe and Climate. of of Europe. 23 23 Map Asia. —Day and Night. British Isles. Studies 122 122 122 5 64 64 64 64 5 7 Giovemment. Chart of Ocean Currents Wind Chart Rain Chart Chart of Isotherms and Climatic Zones.. Map of the British Isles... . Portugal. Description.— Cont'd. 107 109 Ill Ill States.. Dominion of Canada. 26 26 29 29 31 Map Table Studies.. 61 Description. of Africa. Map Map of Canada. 52 52 53 Life). NoETH America. Climatic Zones... Map Studies (Western Division). Europe (Plant Life). 70 70 130 Forms of Land. The Sea (Plant Life).. 32 32 96 96 Map Table — Comparative Heights of the Principal 32 33 Rainfall. .. 15 15 17 19 21 21 21 The Middle Atlantic Map Studies. Description.... The Earth as a Planet. .. 1. Italy. 36 Map Studies. Maps.32 Map Studies. Map of the Southern States (Eastern Division). States. Map Map Map Map Map North America. River Basins. PAGE. Map Studies (British Isles).. . iv 10 11 South Ameeica.. . . Mexico. 76 Division). . 94 94 96 Map Studies. 63 Map Map Studies. Africa (Animal Life). Asia.. 66 66 66 Map Sketching. Physical Physical Physical . States of Society. Map Studies (Central Europe). PAGE. Distribution of Plants . 50 51 97 101 Belgium. and Principal River Systems of North America. 131 Population of the Chief Cities of the United States.. Central America 99 99 100 100 102 105 105 105 Mountains of the World. Description. — Globes. of North America. Description. 131 Population of the Chief Cities of the World.... Sketch of Great Lakes of North America. . Oceania. 68 71 73 77 79 82 85 88 92 95 48 50 Map Studies (Europe). North America (Animal South America (Animal Europe (Animal Life). 1 POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. 2 Australia (Animal Life). of Central America. Map of Central Europe. 2 3 Mankind — Races — Man The Sea (Animal Life) 58 59 59 in the Different Greece.'. Map of Oceania Commercial Chart of the World. Map Studies. 8 NoETH America. 106 108 110 116 123 126 58 129 584717 . Representations of the Earth Motions of the Earth of Seasons. Denmark. 76 MAPS. Western Hemisphere. The West Indies South America. Russian Empire.. Map of Europe. of Asia. Test Questions and Exercises. 115 117 117 117 3 4 4 Zones. Africa (Plant Life). PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. Description. . Afeica.. 16 20 24 27 30 34 37 40 42 44 65 .. The Sea—Tides. Asia (Plant Life). . of South America. Description. ... PAGE. Forms of Water. Description. States. Life). Form and Size of the Earth. Range of Plants Useful to Man. Map of Asia Map of Africa.... Europe. . ..— Cont'd.. Circles of the Earth. Norway and Sweden. South America (Plant Life). Political Islands. . Mexico and the West Indies. Great Lakes. Europe. The Circle. Afeica.. 32 Danish Ameeica. 64 8 9 United States. Map of the Central States (Western Division).^ . Religion.. The Southeen States Map Studies (Eastern Description. 70 72 72 72 76 Area and Population of the Principal Countries of the Worid. 10 12 12 14 14 Map Map Studies. France. Map Studies. Map of the Southern States (Western Division) Map of the Central States (Eastern Division). Description.. Description... 54 56 57 Spain. North America (Plant Life).. 115 115 Turkey. Map Studies (Western The Centeal States Description. Peonouncing Vocabulary. Map Studies. World Chart Showing the Distribution of Forand Plants. 83 84 87 87 89 91 Physical Physical Description. .. Description Tables — Chief Mountains. Zones. The Atmosphere. Chaage POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. 133 Division). . Eastern Hemisphere. 46 47 Map of the United States Map of the New England States.TABLE OF CONTENTS. 112 112 112 113 113 114 III Distribution of Animals. Map of South America. Divisions of Land. Studies. 127 127 127 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. The Pacific States and Teeeitoeies. 78 81 81 Description. Geographical Distribution of Labor. 68 Test Questions and Exeecises 130 Miscellaneous Tables Railways Open in the Principal Countries of the World * Length of Principal Rivers and Area of — — New England Studies.. The Atmosphere —Winds.. Divisions of Water.. German Empire... Territories —Area and Population of the States and — Questions and Exercises. Latitude and Longitude. Australia.. Description. Asia (Animal Life). . . Currents. MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY. Description. est Trees . Ill Ill Australia (Plant Life).. Life on the Globe. The Solar System The Sphere. 43 43 43 Description.

. to be answered in the words of the text-hook. and to take be imaginary journeys on both. Directions for map sketching may be found on page 9. . rain. map is that of New aloud to his England.. The position of a country on the should give an idea of its climate. and he sees that Maine. the polar circles. Chief cities. to change the order. the points indicated by notes found on the several pages. The chart of ocean currents. It is hoped that pupils will be required to use the pencil and the crayon at every step. end the exercises on pages 5 and 10 apply alike to the globe and to the — Map Sketching. adding queries. the caiions with rushing streams. or rising here and there in the solitudes of the Sahara. Mathematical Geography. Character of coast. not the words —At the recitation the pupil recalls the mental pictures — — and the mountains. — Reading the Map. lake. with the dates lands. examines the pictorial illustrations. Principal rivers. wind-swept hills. without a thought of memorizing the words. facts. etc. The teacher is advised to hold to this general plan of work. Mountains. arteries of trade. to judge. The pupil should locate and describe the states and countries of the world in a similar manner. is the largest state of the group. These larger views should be kept before the mind of the learner. beneath. Or. with numberless peaks. the play ball may represent the earth. he will see these trees with their branchless trunks. the peaks. and so on. though he may not have mem^ orized a word of the text. to describe. water- map partings. where they rise. in a few instances. into what bodies of water. 1. Order of Map Studies. The following order may prove helpful as a guide to beginners: 5. — On page 15 is given a method of reading a map. a thread about the ball the equator. Pupils are required to trace the equator. This method has its advantages. or diagram before him. his imagination. the pupil will be able to see the date palm growing on the borders of the waste of sand and rock. 2. as above. etc. Studying the lesson for the ideas. fertilizers. Though the printer has found it necessary. where the evening lamp may serve as the sun. — maps. A Better Way. and is worthy of trial. or very little. or a meridian circle. their location and direction. its rivers are drains. great cities suggest commerce by rail. better still. teacher. storehouses of minerals. A map may value of map sketching in reviews will not be overlooked. that its coast is very irregular. or sea. tion is followed by questions or exercises to test the pupil's understanding of — made to mean a great deal. suppose the task to be "Vegetation of Africa. Some of the work of preparation for the recitation may be done at home. the wild crags. then the streams that flow down their slopes. should be studied at cal maps. "Map Studies should precede the study of This remark applies to the physical and to all the politithe descriptive matter. i^' The pupil who has used The Recitation. 3. that the great Map To this Studies. where situated. He has used the book as a means of obtaining ideas. that its surface is dotted with lakes. tion. a globe. for instance. page 17. where situated. the worth more to him than any amount of mere i)arrot dat«s and the sons of the desert are there on the mind-screen. the point under consideration. ^In preparing his lessons in mathematical geography the pupil should have a ball." page 71. wind. its mountaira are condensers of moisture. in order. In this connection it may be said that some excellent teachers prefer to sketch the mountains first. As the pupil reads the text. mountain ranges. their fronds from 30 to 60 feet in the air. he should recite from a map in the mind. circles. and has obtained these clear menhas studied his lesson to some purpose. taking the points map. but it leaves the imagination undeveloped. the tropics. and it is work. to compare. he should try to see the vast plateau stretching from the His imagination should picture the Arctic Ocean to the Isthmus of Panama. —Let us suppose that the lesson relates to the Pacific Highinspects the Tlie pupil should read the map to himself. At the recitation the several steps of the preparation may be repeated. the wild crags. The Author is of the opinion that the furnishing of questions on the several lessons. pasture or forest lands. using his When own he comes to the recitation he If the may rea<l language. SKETCH OF GREAT LAKES OF NORTH AMERICA. Throughout the book the map studies are de- signed to lead the student to observe. or the palm. ' ' — Questions Following Lessons. and does not train the pupil to observe. from a picture of the country painted by the imagination. 6. river. Comparative size. tal pictures.HINTS TO THE TEACHER. or. The swarthy sons of the desert will appear before him eating the dates ripened under the rainless skies. countries. Great care should be taken to give correct ideas of a map. is a pernicious feature often resulting in mere rote learning and perfunctory teaching. 4. and meridian and cities. Boundaries. and the Nearly every definidefinitions are supposed to be based on his observations. etc. The questions and exercises are designed to lead him to obserre closely. the intervening plateaus and valleys. a needle its axis. at the discretion of the teacher. a photograph. the hare. Lakes. and other tests as he sees that they are needed. 7. in what direction they flow. the indentations of its coasts are a key to its possible commerce. he will state these When the lesson is reviewed. at his seat. Position. 8. This plan may cultivate verbal memory. to think. to find opposite points. This is his recita which he describes in the best language he can command.

They may be known by their called them "fixed stars. It "wanderers. the ancients. giving light and heat to worlds unseen by man. makes a journey every year. MOON. as far off as the sun the earth does not shine by own it light.— Most stars shine by their own light. fair it. )nu the nearest fixed star is so remote that its light is over three years in reaching the earth. would appear as a the heavens about large. As they do not change their position with reference to each other. that twinkle in our sky while from one of the nearest stars it would be lost to sight. irregular spots would show the position of the great bodies of land. who noticed this fact. or to move about in the heavens. and no two make the journey in the same time. and light. men its and form of the oceans. Fixed Stars. moon with twinkling stars in Its surface would shine like that of the moon. They ." silvery. f'^ /. are THE EARTH AS A PLANET. mau's dwelling place. twinkling lightLight comes from the sun to ns in about eight minutes .' i' . AKU STAKS IN SfACE. —Ages ago. The Earth. or orbit.THE COMPLETE GEOGEAPHY. MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY. Planets.H V J KABTtI." Our earth belongs to this class of stars. like the sun and moon. of its own. Other planets move or revolve round the sun. each in a path. but receives its light from we could go would be the sun round which seen as a bright star. while darker portions would indicate the place If noticed that a few stars appeared These they named planets. of a half-million miles it look back upon it from a distance supposed to be suns. Could we leave it and is a ball or globe hanging in space.

Jupiter. point Tell it is marked diameter. The diameter straight line of a sphere is a drawn through the center State whether all points in the sur- face are equally distant from the center.000 141. See " Hints to Teachers. a marble a sphere? Prove that an egg is — Thrust a wire through a ball so that Turn the Tell may represent a diameter is. —The Neptune are attended by moons. Besides the planets and their moons. A and terminating at opposite points of the surface. The diameter about axis of a sphere not a sphere.THE SOLAR SYSTEM— THE SPHEEB. and round the sun. EXERCISES AND DEFINITIONS.00. —Between Mars and Jupiter are 245. 3. mapped globe may be bought for 51. Saturn. illustration ? lx)dy of this kind is called a sphere. Define a sphere by telling what you have observed. ^iiB' Scdar Syfeterh^ —^In the diagram we have a representaIn the center is the largest of all the planets." in the preface.800.186 1 2 4 8 4 1 and so far away that it would take a fast train of cars Queries.777. No. State whether through what drawn and where it terminates. are Several of the planets so It — How many move about stars can we find that do not twinkle? How many much larger than the earth. or more.300. conscientious teacher given in the book. a comevery step. or satellites. Diameter In miles. mon ball is better than a globe.693 7. Neptune and Uranus are distant that they can be seen only through the telescope. JUPITER tion of what is called the Solar System. this sphere is — One of the lines drawn through THE SPHERE. As a fair. asteroids. ^^oOJvirE^^ Diameter. table gives The planets: following various facts relative to Planets. Jupiter.650 35. Moons. the globe or a ball should be used by the pupil at One or the other should be before him while preparing his lesson and when reciting. Neptuhi Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn THE SOLAR SYSTEM.787. small planets called They revolve round the sun the same as the larger planets. what you have ohserved. Select a number of points on the surface of a globe or a ball.50.860. and they plant his feet on Pupils should be encouraged to carry queries home. Asteroids and Comets. In what direction is Venus when it is our evening star? "When it is our morning star? How may the North Star he found? Do all stars appear to rise and set? Does the Great Dipper appear -to revolve? Are there stars above us during the day-time? Can we see the same stars every clear night during the year? Do we see the new moon in the east or in the west? At the rate of 500 miles a day. Beyond our Milky these revolving bodies form our Solar solar system are the fixed stars. Length of Year in days.800 31. sphere turns. the lack of one should not stand in the way of proper instruction. solid ground. or rotates.000. Saturn has eight moons and a broad ring that consists of three parts.000. 000. but are more like flame or gas. The sun and all System. the beams to all the planets. XTranus Neptune earth. to be discussed at the fireside will not confine himself to the tests which a sphere turns is called its axis.759 30.000.333 10.005 7. 000 92. there are strange bodies called comets which are not solid like planets. Distance from the Sun in miles. and a slated globe for $1. or. and queries Such exercises load the pupil to observe closely. A Why is sphere is a body every point How many diameters can be seen in the Why may they be called diama sphere have? it eters? How many ball. There is no better way of increasing interest in the study of geography. One point of the orbit of a comet is near the sun and COMPARATI\'E SIZES OF THE TLAKETS.000 1. Mars. Note. diameters may of whose surface is equally distant Axis. It is larger than aU together and more than 1. and accompany them on their way round the Bun. . that revolve round them.370 70. takes Neptune more than 164 of our years to make one journey Earth. from a point within called the center.800 34. the opposite point is very far off. 360 years to run an equal distance.687 60.913 4. has four moons.229 86.— The thorough. of Moons. what the The axis of a sphere is the diameter about which the by young and old.600. state what you have just learned. and think of their distance from the center. how long would it take a train to run a distance equal to the diameter of Jupiter? How long does it take light to reach the earth from Neptune? that seem to other stars? Note. All these moons receive their light from the sun and reflect it upon the greater worlds they attend.000 67.000 88 225 365 687 4. State whether the points selected are equally distant from the center.000 885. of the ball about the wire or diameter.000.000 times as large as the sun. sending its NEPTUNE and Uranus the same number.000 482. Uranus. These rings encircle the planet consist of a multitude of and are believed to form a continuous URANUS small stars so close together that they seem to belt. this line is straight or crooked. — In the exercises that follow. The the Way contains myriads of such stars.000 2. For some of the exercises.

is — The earth it is is a sj^here slightly flattened at the poles. Its mouatains and valleys roughen its sur&ce a little. Proof of the Earth's Form. of 69. minute into 60 equal parts called is sec- The circumference its of a sph6re any line which divides onds. The actual circumference of the earth at the Equator is 24. if the circle be 3G0 inches in circumference. Every circle is a part of a plane that — tance equal to the earth's diameter? for ten hours a day.000 miles. The circumference of the earth is 21. while its longest or equatorial diameter is 7. real circle is the entire figure or surface which the circumference incloses. and seconds are fif- How many circumferences cumferences? are seen in the illustration? Why are they cirIf marked as follows: 15° 24' 8". read. and such a globe would appear to the eye to be a true sphere. are. by a wire.000.925. All that time. —Draw a may circle extremities of the floor. Turn the globe on its axis. The shadow of the earth sometimes falls on the moon. Were we to count one hundred a minute. Degrees.000. other proofs are not given. from the center. etc. Press on the poles of the ball and notice the effect. line it is. as it is flattened at the ix)les.eep.000 square mi^es. A body that resembles a sphere }Iow does the ball now differ from a true sphere? is called a spheroid. or a plane extending a long distance in every direction. hence. Notice the line marked diameter and state what kind of a through what it passes. — The plane forms a part. and see if the form of the sliadow changes. Poles. The circle is seen to form apart of this great plane.899. Were the earth to be represented by a globe two feet in diameter. eight seconds. twenty-four minutes. . making a difference of very nearly 26. — Stretch parts called degrees. its axis or shortest diameter is 7. 3 Press on the surface of the ball just wheie the ends of the axis These jwints are called poles. Hold it in different positions and state whether the form of the shadow Place an egg in . IIow many circumferences can a sphere have? as to draw a line alx)ut a sphere. State whether the ball still resembles a sphere. Circumference. of a circle is the great plane of which the circle The poles are the points on the surface of a sphere at the its axi.000. surface into two equal parts.. in each. being smaller circles. — Describe the circumference of a circle? of a circle is very slight that we commonly speak of it as a true sphere. its — Represent the earth by a ball and we imagine to be boundless.600 geographical degree. What must be the form of any body whose shadow is always circular ? lamp. —At 20 miles an hour. called a circle.900. — board? On the sheet of paper? On the floor? Degrees. the train would be rushing on its way. and a train of cars were to start from the depot on the first day of school. AVhat is the form of the shadow in every position in which the globe can be held? Take a plate and note the form of its sliadow when its face is toward the light. Lovell. — The diameter of a circle is thi'ough the center of the circle any straight line passing and terminating at opposite points in the circumference. and while as. and its actual area 196. does not vary with the size of the circle.5 miles. then a degree will be one inch. Were the earth a perfect sphere all its diameters would be of the same length but. Wliat represent the plane of the circle on the blackboard. so would such a line be called? you were to show the greatest distance round it. X i. — In geography the circumference often called a circle. Hold the globe in the light of the sun or of a shadow on the wall. minutes. sphere flattened at the poles is called an oblate spheroid. This shadow is circular and does not change its form though the earth is turning on its axis all the time. at the figure center to every point in the line which bounds or gives the State whether all points in the boundary line are equally distant FORM AND Form. on a sheet of paper. Its surface 200. As seen in the diagram. If a track could be laid entirely round it. its a *thread or draw a line about the ball so as to This line is a circumference of the surface into two equal parts. Slark places on the surface of the ball to indicate the •A light rubber band may be used to the best advantage.twelfth of an inch. and run 500 miles every day. Such a figure Describe a circle in your own language? line. proportionately shorter.THE CIECLE— FORM AND SIZE OF THE EARTH. The flattening at the poles is so A is circle is a figure bounded by a every point in which equally distant from a point within called the center. and where it terminates. the number of square miles axis Direction on the Earth's Surface. what teen degrees. of 60 to a degree. every circle — The is circumference of A divide ball. and notice the form of its The circumference is the line that bounds but the it.several positions and observe the form of its shadow changes. divided into 360 equal Circumference. how many years would be required to count 200. and contains about circumference. and each Tell what the circumference is. each degree into 60 equal parts called minutes.s. and notice the distance from the shorter than 90° of the outer one. and 360 degrees of 60 geographical miles each. State what the poles of a sphere are. SIZE OF THE EARTH.902 English miles. e. causing an eclipse of that body. t A degree is the aiig/e at the center measured by the 355 miles. The Equator consists of part of the circumference.000. while we were awake. and on drawn on the black- Spheroid. Diameter. the arc of each degree.17 miles. The length of Why? a fdegree of the circumference depends on the size of the circle. Exercise.278 square miles. it would be over seven weeks before we should hear the whistle of the engine again. how long would in the earth's surface? it take a train to run a dis- Plane of a Circle. Queries. the flat^ tening at the poles would not shorten its axis one. CIRCLE. have each circle. its —The diameter of the earth is nearly 8. The figure represents a level surface. an oblate spheroid. What must be the form of the earth? JWhy 1 Size. according to the size of the As the form of the earth has been determined by actual measurements. Parallels of latitude. or 24.899 miles. Tlie term decree is often used as an abbreviated mode of expression for arc of a degree. but they do not change its huge form so much accordingly as the wrinkles on an orange change the form of the orange. then a degree of that circle will be one mile long.65 miles. nearly 25.17 to a degree. 90° of the inner circumference are THE Look figure its shape. if the circumference be 360 miles. In this sense. Let us try to get some idea of the size of the earth.

and draw a great circle through the poles.J° — Tell what a meridian A meridian circle is a great circle drawn through the poles. Tell. rotate the ball from is the left over to the right. Antarctic Circle. EARTH— LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE. taken In the United States the meridian of Washingfirst. from what you have observed located. Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn are also parallels. Equator 5° 15° 25° 36° A parallel is a small circle parallel with the Equator. Find 20° north latitude. at the diagram which follows and see how many small Trace any one of them and see if its distance from the Find 80° south latitude.84 " . Degrees of Latitude. Lines that are equidistant throughout their whole extent are said to be As the small circles are drawn round the earth parallel with the Equator.72 " 45° 55° 65° 75° 85° 48. or Pole The pole which' is toward the North Star we will call the North Pole. and soath is toward the South Pole. its surface divided by imaginary These circles are of two kinds. The Tropic of Cancer is 23. Define a parallel. is sometimes used as the especially by our seamen. 80° west longitude. is distance north or south from the Equa- reckoned in degrees instead of miles. they are called parallels. Exercises.99 miles. circles are —Look MILES IN A DEGREE OF LONGITUDE IN DIFFERENT LATITUDES. we find a meridian marked what? What 20° west? One meridian indicates 20° eiist longitude.96 6. Equator is the same at all points. Length of Degrees. 0.31 " 17. Into how many parts does this circle divide the ball? How do the parts compare in size? — A circle that divides a great circle. Hemispheres. Why is it a great called a meridiim circle is. Meridian Longitude. The Equator a great circle midway between the poles. 68. great and small. near London.82 " 62. N0RTH„P01E Star. circles. A meridian is half of a meridian circle North Pole. is and extends from pole to pole. Hold the ball so that the axis shalTl point to the North Star. Think of yourself as standing on the ball facing the north. How far are these meridians apart? Find 40° south latitude. 39. 20° east longitude.CIRCLES OP THE poles. is the opposite pole the South Pole. and the Tropic of Capricorn is 2. — Each LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE. The direction of this motion from the west over to the east. The in- From the Equator trace the meridian As we reckon latitude from the Equator. circle. CIRCLES OF THE EARTH. 69. The meridian which is passes through Greenwich Observatory. the sun reaches the meridian of any place it is there.90 " 66. ^Latitude tor. as the first. and on tlie globe. In order to is fix the position of places on the earth. Trace a circle half way between the Equator and the North Pole. Length of Degrees. degrees in a meridian circle? to cither pole? a great circle divides a sphere is How many How many from pole to pole? called a hemisphere. parallel. Meridian ball or globe All places north of the Equator are in north latitude. at all other points on that meridian. 20° north latitude. Great Circles. This is Find on the diagram. 80° north latitude. Paris. Parallels. 60° east longitude. Small Circles. and Circles. of the two equal parts into which Latitude. Into how many parts does it divide the ball? Are the parts equal or unequal in size? — Noticing the diagram.76 " " 29. How many degrees are these parallels apart? How many miles in a degree'on the Equator? Are the number of miles in a degree on the Equator greater or less than the number in a degree on the 40th paralle'i? In what direction do all parallels extend? Where are the degrees of latitude marked? The Arctic Circle. what kind of a circle the Equator is is and where it is SOUTH POLE ^ PARALLELS AND MERIDIANS. With your arms extended your right hand will On point which way? same Your left? Still facing the north. a small shown. How many degrees are these parallels apart? Find 40° north latitude. 180° west longitude.?. What is the distance in degrees? What figures shall we place at the North Pole to show its distance from the Equator? At the South Pole? hemisphere. of the Equator. is the earth into two equal parts is called This circle also called the Equator. the as the motion of the earth on its axis. Equator divides the earth to a northern and a southern marked from that circle to the North Pole. Draw a line or stretch a thread about the ball midway between the poles. — Take the all places south of the Equator are in south latitude. When noon The French reckon from Exercises. Degrees of Latitude. —Longitude first distance east or west from a me- ridian called the or prime meridian. Circle 285° from the South Pole. how many degrees are these merid- — marked ians apart? How many degrees east longitude are shown? How many de- A called circle that divides the earth into two unequal parts is grees west longitude? How far are these meridians apart? Find on the globe 180° east longitude. the other 20° west longitude. ton means and midday. circle? circle. A meridian circle divides the earth into an eastern and a western hemisphere.72 " 56. 20° south latitude.16 miles. and the Antarctic The Arctic Circle is 23J° from the south.1° north. we see that the prime meridian is Tracing the Equator 20° east of the prime meridian. the surface of this ball and on the earth. north is toward the North Pole.

and then state whether half. of the Put a rubber band about the mark the limit of day and of night. Does the light fall on half. I. NOFTTH POlt . surface. That is. and travel either east or west 360°.*—What circles of the earth run north and south? East and west? circles are sniall circles? What circles are great circles? Why? What Why? Where do north and south begin? How many degrees can one travel north. or more than half. its and mark a place that is just light. Turn globe so as to the globe very slowly on axis from west to east. On them the meridians are parallel. once on its axis in twentyfonr hours. and the light part into the dark a succession of day and night? As motion about the axis brings day and night on the globe. Place a pencil on the globe so as to point REPRESENTATIONS OF THE EARTH. Tropics. water.EEPEESENTATIOKS OF THE EAETH— MOTIONS OF THE EAETH. same moment. coming into the of the light. On such a map the meridians converge toward the poles. what may bring day and night on the earth ? How many degrees round this globe ? Round the earth? As the earth turns on its axis once every twenty- — four hours. or the whole. ings Pole. . • The teacher should not &a to use Iwth globe and map for this work. or less than half. The map no^pole most of its Hold the globe in the light of the sun. Globes. under the sun. Night.. and Day and light? of water. These maps are drawn as though the earth were a cylinder. — A map represents a part. Find a point opposite that where the 100th meridian crosses the Equator. how will the length of the days and one-half and of the nights compare? Exercises on the Map and Globe. From the South Pole. is in the dark ? If one-half of each parallel is in the light in the dark. of the earth's Maps are drawn so that the top is north and the bot- tom south. and then state half.. IL In Fig. Point out the meridian circle that marks the boundary of FIG. where would he be ? Find a meridian opposite the prime meridian. of its surface? Look at the three figures. as formed a part of tlie surface of a globe. how many degrees will pass under the sun in that time? In one hour? In twelve hours ? How many degrees of motion in one hour? Unequal Length of Day and Night. A map of the entire surface of the earth is called a map of the world. If you turn the globe EASTERN llEMISniERB. Find a place in south latitude directly opposite the point above named. and give a reason for your statement. how much of its surface is always in the light? State which side of the globe has day and which side has night. Several of the maps in this book are drawn on what is called Mcrcntor's Projection. how long will it take the point you have marked to pass from sunrise to sunset? From sunset to sunrise? What did you do to bring the dark part of the globe into the liglit. the lighter. Find a place that has no latitude. Maps. Down up from the North is towards what? — The earth Such a Up is is away from what? best represented by a ball with draw- upon its surface showing the great divisions of land ball is called a globe. of each hemisphere is in the sun's light? When the sun shines on a globe. or of a lamp to represent the sun. allel do the sun's rays faH on more or less than one-half of each parin the Northern Hemisphere? In the Southern Hemisphere? Which II. how many degrees can one travel east? West? If one were to start at the prime meridian. Equator. or more than half. of each hemisphere is illuminated? How many degrees of each parallel in both hemispheres are in the light and how whether many MERCATOR'S CHART. is and another that is just going out because this merid- At which place Setting? is ian does not cut the the sun rising? it great bodies of land in such a manner as to leave any one of them in both hemisijheres. at all points on that meridian ? SOUTH pole:. What is the longitude of London ? Find 40° north latitude and 40° west longitude. Find a point opposite the North Pole. it is noon ? Is it noon The dark portions of the map represent land. . starting from the South Pole? Starting from the Equator ? Stiirting from the prime meridian. just half way between What sunrise and sunset? time is it on the dark side. navigators prefer to use them as guides. and the polar regions seem much too broad but.— Look at Fig. hemispheres are separated by the 20th meridian. the hemispheres. — From what source does the earth receive on this page shows the surface of oppositesides MAP OF THE WOELD. MOTIONS OF THE EARTH. A map of this kind is said to be drawn on a globular projection. What time where at the SOUTH POLE. though it WESTERN HEMISPHERE. as the direction of one place from another is always correctly shown. just opposite the meridian. The earth. ea^^H^H^^^^^o or the Eastern and the Western Hemisphere.

The body of vertical rays and the body of slanting rays are of the same width. seeming movements are earned by the motions of the earth on axis or in its orbit. gives far less heat than the — the northern limit of the sun's rays? What circle must mark their limit Wliich Is the sun north or south of the Equator? hemisphere receives the more direct rays? What season is it in the Southern Hemisphere? In the Northern? Wliy? How far north and how far south do the sun's rays extend on the 21st of March? The polar circles being 23j° from the poles. and its beams fall almost directly upon our heads. wliat season is beginning in the beyond the South Pole? high sun of summer. earth at four different points in seasons is brought and have learned that the change of Were the sun's position in the heavens the same at all times. The diagram will help us to see why the vertical rays impart more heat than the slanting or oblique rays. but the slanting rays cover more surface than the vertical rays. or inclined to the caused by the rotation of the earth on axis. and one-half of each hemisphere and of each parallel is illuminated by its rays. when they strike the earth obliquely. and that State whether the axis has the same inclination and points in the same direction in all of the four positions. A In Fig. Exercises. more than one-half of the Northern Hemisphere In the winter the reverse III.6 MOTIONS OF THE EAKTH— CHANGE OF SEASONS.. As the slanting rays spread over much more surface than the vertical rays. what must south does the sun appear to have traveled since the 21st of June? Over what circle is it? As it is over the Equator and moving southward. Queries. and hold the globe in a pole. nated. the is and ita orbit. III. of the Northern It will all times. and long Give the CHANGE OF SEASONS. let US take the journey .. petual day? —What would be How What lost. and. The more nearly direct or vertical its rays. The days and nights are then equal of the sun all over the earth. "We feel the heat much more at noon. I. we have sun is long days and short nights. plane of the earth's orbit. In Fig. position to give equal day and night from pole to Over what circle must Hold the globe so as to give the Northern Hemisphere^ short days nights. it is plain that the heat on that surface must be less than on the smaller surface covered by the vertical rays. is is true. the sun is directly over the Equator. The low sun of winter. In the summer at that season the II. Northern Hemisphere? In the Southern? Which pole is turned toward the sun on the 21st of June? Which pole is in the shade and which in tlie light? What circles mark the limit of the sun's oblique rays? Which hemisphere has summer and which winter? How far north do the oblique rays of the sun extend on the 22d of their northern limit. because the sun less south of the Equator. over what circle must the sun be? As the sun is over the Equator and moving northward. with its axis inclined to the plane of its orbit. The sxm itself does not move. so that its more direct rays sometimes fall on the Northern Hemisphere. Some Referring constantly to the diagram. portions of the earth would be always very . as in Fig. the length of day and night depends on the relative positions and earth. with its nearly vertical rays. than in the morning. How do the days compare with the hemisphere has the more day-light? nights in the Northern Hemisphere ? In the Southern? In what part of the Northern Hemisphere are the days longest? Which portion of the Southern Hemisphere has the shortest days? warm . careful study of the is diagram will enable us to see how Hemisphere? how do the days compare with the nights in the Northern In the Southern? Give reasons for your statements. Look at the diagram and point out the sun. always moderate. the sun be? — Use some object to represent the sun. But the position of the sun is constantly changing. the change of seasons brought about. Is the sun now north or south of the Equator ? Southern Hemisphere long days and short nights. about by the revolution of the earth round the sun. as in Fig. because illumiis north of the Equator. what season is beginning in the Southern Hemi- September? As the North Pole marks mark their southern? How far sphere? In the Northern? We have now observed the its orbit. how far north does the sun appear to have moved since December 22d? Wlien the sun's rays extend from pole to pole. with its oblique rays. and be seen that one-half of the Equator is in the light at for that reason the days and nights at the Equator are always equal. al- ways very cold and others still. sometimes on the Southern. others. and at other times both hemispheres receive an equal amount of heat. The change of seasons is due to these constant and regular changes in the position of the sun. earth. From is all this we learn that the succession of day and night its State whether the axis of the earth perpendicular. and than one-half Hemisphere is illuminated. and always pointing in the same direction. The sun is the source of heat as well as of light. the greater the amount of heat they impart. and what gained. The earth moves round the sun once every year aginary path called its in an imAll its its orMt.. when the sun is high in the heavens. if we lived in a world of perWhich pole Which pole is is and night? are plants and animals affected by the alternation of day animals sleep during the day? turned away from the sun on the 22d the dark and which in the light? of December? circle Ln What marks Change of Seasons. there would be no variation in the direction of its rays.

on the 22d of September we the sun. while the Southern Hemisphere has had its change from summer to winter. and night when it is day at the North Pole. 23 J ° south of the Equator. to June. Day pole then begins. all parts oi its surface would receive an equal number of the sun's rays. a distance of 47°.0 " " 15. and the spring flowers are bursting into beauty on the banks of the Upper Mississippi. a week later in Southern Illinois. has remained summer. by watching the widening belt of sere autumn foliage. Longest Day. the shade. cer they touch the Arctic Circle beyond the pole.3 78. Northern Hemisphere where autumn is at hand and entering the Southern. From that time on to June 21st. and we go north or south of the equaEectorial regions where it is always nearly or quite vertical. and the sun's rays extend further and further until extends to the South Pole. " " " " " Exercises. when the earth shall approach our place of starting not one second behind time. After a short sumin those far northern regions. Three months the Equator and Spring is entering. By the 1st of May the willows. season is it MAP OF THE WORLD SHOWIMO What ZONES. when the king of day again appears just in the horizon. Six months have passed since the day began at the North Pole. To represent autumn.0 " " 14. Is it day or night at the South Pole? Which hemisphere has the longest days? Place the globe so as to represent spring. The poles alone have six months day and six months night. again: On the 22d of December the North Pole of the earth is less and less of the space within the circle. Now hold the globe over the orbit with its axis inclined 23J° from to the a the year. to the warmth and life of summer. till June 21st. geographers have divided the earth's surface ical so to receive less heat as mer into five belts. which grows deeper and deeper until December 22d. It then becomes lighter and lighter until March 21st. which the later.5 15. the progress of spring may be traced northward from the land of summer to the land of ice. the sun's oblique The North Frigid Zone extends to the pole.7 13.0NEg. the birches.DAY AND NIGHT AT THE POLES— 2. when we find the North Pole turned toward it. the sun is over beams fall equally on both hemispheres. Longest Day. The sun is now over the Tropic of Cancer and the Northern Hemisphere has summer. ZONES.5 " 14. we see that. oguizing this fact.3 84.3 hours. the North Pole continues in The South Frigid Zone lies south of the Antarctic Circle and the light. circling round a few degrees above the horizon. when it reaches the Tropic of Cancer. its sun is leaving. Latitude. the North Pole remains in the light which covers The North Temperate Zone lies between the Tropic of Canand the Arctic Circle. lies north of the Arctic Circle and rays reach the North Pole. the Southern. 20° Cancer 30° 35° 40° 45° 50° 12. on the 21st of March. as we have seen.0 " 1 2 3 4 5 6 month. winter reigns in that hemisphere.0 hours. life The Torrid Zone lies between the Tropic of Cancer and is Day and Night again. "Were the earth an extended plain. Higher and higher mounts the sun.3 " 13. coming in the Northern Hemisphere. Eemem- ber to keep the axis thus inclined again find Equator. Its spher- form causes the surface to incline away from the sun. limit of the sun's apparent journey north and south of the Equator and of its vertical rays on the earth. and the oblique rays extending to the Arctic Circle beyond. TABLE SHOWING THE LONGEST DAYS IN DIFFERENT LATITUDES. and the sun. in The sun now turns its course and jourcrossing the —Draw a crayfloor to rep- on mark on the floor resent the earth's orbit. until the oblique turned away from the sun. and the South Temperate Zone . Early in March the maple buds are opening along the Mississippi in latitude 35°. The neys to the southern tropic. or zones of temperature. Equator 10° During the six months from December 22d. may be the plane of Place a lamp within the orbit to represent the orbit. and has wakened the Northern Hemisphere from the cold and apparent death of winter. in the and summer later on in the circling year.6 " 16. on the 21st of March. perpendicular and pointing North Star. Place the globe in a position to represent winter in the Northern Hemisphere. Up to Sep- tember 22d. in At the same time the Northern Hemisphere is partly in sight every moment of that time. From the time when the sun crosses the Equator on its northern journey. On the 22d of September the North Pole is left in the shade. and 47° in width.7 " 24. Latitude. we may follow the receding wave of southward. 15y the last of that month the thrill of spring life is felt to the Arctic Circle and the Alpine plants begin to put forth their tender leaves and fragrant flowers. — Looking at that at the diagram the Tropic of Capricorn. The Southern Hemisphere then receives the more direct rays of the sun and has rays again reach no further than the pole. the sun has passed from Capricorn to Cancer.3 55° 60° Arctic Circle 67. which is directly over the Tropic of Capricorn.5 69. Early in April the spread of spring verdure has reached Southern Iowa. 18. The Arctic and the Antarctic Circles are placed. to bring spring. it over the the and pointing in the leaving same direction.5 73. Equator and the belt between the tropics for the second time during so. winter. at the Poles. the slanting rays of the low midday sun reaching only to the Arctic Circle. At the South Pole it is day when it is night at the North. Southern Hemisphere? Is Which hemisphere has the longest nights? it day or night at the North Pole? Place the globe in a position to represent summer in the Northern Hemisphere.J° from the Equator to show the December.0 North Pole 17. 23j° from the poles to mark the limit of the sun's oblique rays in June and in The tropics are placed 23. " 12. which the sun is and autumn in the Southern Hemisphere.

and those portions near the tropics are nearly as warm as the Torrid. A July day in St. sea-level are lowlands. Queries. Such a plain is also called table-land. between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle. The sun's rays always fall vertically on some portion of the Torrid Zone. steppes. as we go north. the land. and this is the hottest belt of the earth. Pacific. Torrid Zone 78. The part of a continent or island which borders the sea is its coast. 102. If such points are high or bold they are promontories. ence no sndden change of temperature in passing from one to another. of water encircling the earth and surroundThe sea is and Surface of the Land. or They often have an irreg- a rolling surface. ashes. plateaus. and. with hills here and there. Points of land formed by the bending of the coast are capes. pampas. 16. —How is it There are no visible boandaries between the different zones. are very warm. —The surface of the sea is every- divided into oceans. Those portions of the Temperate Zones near the Frigid are nearly as cold as the Frigid. The increasing length of the day. and a neck of land joining two larger bodies is an isthmus.256 square miles. level level.526 square miles. and.496 square miles. as in latitude 60° north. The continents of the Western Hemisphere are North America and South America. or lava. They have four seasons. prairies. Large extents of level land are called plains. TABLE SHOWING AREA OF ZONES. very cold. Asia. Their seasons are a long winter and a short summer. and Africa.8 DIVISIONS OF LAND— DIVISIONS OF WATEE. or indents. in a little time. The Frigid Zones receive the oblique rays of the sun. Those much above. — The summers in high northern latitudes. They are. and considerable heat remains the next morning. Where the days and nights are of equal length. and we experi- the character of the when the nights are longer than the days? summers in high southern latitudes? Why? What is PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. Mountains that send up columns of smoke.221. Temperate Zones Frigid Zones though short. But where the sun pours its heat upon the earth for eighteen hours out of twenty-four. Indian. is a peninsula. DIVISIONS OF LAND. fourths water. therefore.219. and threeThe land is composed of a few large bodies called continents. ular. the earth loses about as much heat during the twelve hours of darkness as it receives from the sun during the twelve hours of daylight. called the sea. About one-fourth of the earth's surface is land. without its light. The height of lands is always compared with the of the sea. DIVISIONS OF LAND AND WATER. SURFACK OF THE LAND. . or table-lands. are. still more the following morning.459. are called volcanoes. point of land extending far into the water. hilitude 60° north. llanos. Atlantic. and no surplus heat is left over in the morning with which to begin the new day. latitude 41°. highlands. Those of the Eastern Hemisphere are Europe. and sometimes nearly surrounded by it. and melted rocks. Petersburg. may be as warm or warmer than in New York. and of innumerable smaller ones called islands. Most prairies are gently rolling. as compared with the night. A DIVISIONS OF The vast body ing the continents and islands is WATER. The Temperate Zones are neither so cold as the Frigid Zones. in part. Plains are seldom entirely level. Arctic. where at the same in elevation. Those lands which are but little above the The ocean sometimes projects into. only six hours are left for tlie earth to cool. enables us to explain this. Summers in High Latitudes. and some summer days in Minnesota show nearly as high a temperature as any day in tlie tropics. A plateau is an elevated plain. bringing vegetation forward rapidly. Lofty ridges of land extending across a country are mountain ranges. but the land surface varies greatly The oceans are the Antarctic. nor so hot as the Torrid. the days become exceedingly warm. during a portion of the year. The land bordering lakes or other small bodies of water is most frequently spoken of as the shore.

Again compare and again draw. comparing the drawing with the map.) Compare the map just 2. and of countries. Rve minutes is ample time for sketching a good outline m^p of Minnesota. menfcil picture of the northern coast line. a fourth. banks.stem coast line. Trace the Gulf coast. and jjosition clear and histing. 3. in other words. 1. Treat the Gulf coast and the coast of the CaribWan Sea in the manner described in 1." writes a teacher of extended and successful experience. The pupil should in\ariably construct maps of the country he is studying. 5. joining the drawing to that of the northern and eastern coast. or any other irregular state. a. Trace the Ohio and other tributaries in the same manner. made for each map. one minute.iy be of great advantage in reviews. joining it to the ixirtion already drawn. therefore. locating DIRECTIONS FOR SKETCHING NORTH AMERICA. etc. regular continent. "I can't. 4. iknd so as to protect — and mlhout erasing. or as drawn by the teacher. showing the sea level. in order to correct the mental picture. Have them compare their work with the map in the book. A river is a large stream of water flowing in a channel through the ducting an exercise. noticing where each enters the Mississippi. on the globe. Where water of sufficient depth is nearly surrounded by it from the winds.GENEEAL DIRECTIONS FOR MAP SKETCHING. and when they have a clear mental picture of that feature they are prepared to sketch on paper. and then draw the northern coast. from day to day. Inland Waters. from the Strait of Belle Lsle to Cape Sable. Europe can be drawn by sketching as accurately as by diagram. a third. Where it is well to take a pre- of the square or oblong counties of one's own state. to sketch rapidhi. slate or bl. tell a plateau. diagrams are to be used. tfie accuracy of work when done.same directions. another. try again. It gives a pleasing variety to the exercises. The eye is to judge of form. 1. direction. A lake is a body of water lying in a basin or hollow of the land. California. is now practiced in of the best schools with most satisfactory for the following reasons: It is strongly Observe the locations of the cities on the map. like South America or Africa. or one member of the cla-ss may take boundaries. mountain. 4. be a copy or model beyond the reach of careful and continued practice. seeing only the outlines or boundaries. Draw the map on paper or on the black board without referring to the copy until it is finished. The sketches at first may be quite rude. 1. 7. again. from Cape Barrow to the Strait of Belle Isle. Teacher. 2. A regu3. Repeat this process. Form a GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR MAP SKETCHING.. seas. Each drawing should occupy about 0)16 minute. Draw the entire outline of the map. a mountain. cultiviites the power of representation. and that there ciinnot. Some A Teach pupils to sketch a river. Draw another map. the low coasts. Time. Teach them to see quickly. 2. 3. and the benches forming the great Mexican Plateau. Sketch the entire Mississippi system from the mental map. rivers. cities. do or why the division whatever it may be. With the eye tr<ace showing the fully observing its course the Mississippi from Lake Itasca to the Gulf. 2. The scale may be used to test the judgment of the eye. following the . direction. distance. No DIRECTIONS FOR SKETCHING THE MISSISSIPPI SYSTEM. These consist of lakes and rivers. Each pupil nuay sketch the entire map. lar state like Kansas. 2. lake. so. rivers. liminary course like the following: 1. — MISSISSIPPI SYSTEM Do not allow yourself or your pupils to become discouraged or to say. Exercise. and bear little resemblance to the engraved maps in the book. Direct the attention of pupils to the feature to be sketched. but you should remember that every printed m. pointed out is As you river. Compare with copy and It trains the pupil to "careful. 4. and the mode of con- Narrow passages of water connecting larger bodies are channels or straits. drawn with the copy. It qualifies pupils to picture their thoughts. In the Old World salt lakes are sometimes called seas. the MAP SKETCHING. lakes. draw 4. comprehensive seeing.s you may desire. should be Special directions. A few moments spent in this way will show what mental pictures have been retained. or. and. or. and in after life. and on the several maps. Make the map-work progres-fire." and makes the ideas of form. Observe the form of the state. a state whatever may be before the class at tlie time. Draw another map and add the mountains.and form. . relief of continents. States of irregular forms. gradually increasing in diflculty. careand the location of each of the chief cities on its SECTION OF NORTir AMERICA. Draw a new map. boundaries. refers land. in the order in which these topics are treated in the text. Compare the sketch with the map in the book. DIRECTIONS FOR SKETCHING ILLINOIS. accurate. mountiHus. Look at the map in the book. pupils have had no practice in sketching. after forming the mental picture. and position. — Map sketching without diagrams many recommended boundary lines. adding the rivers and hakes. Compare with copy and draw again. distance. Place cities Observe the them with the cities in the mental map. . The following will serve to show the scope of this work. "If some such course is taken. 8. founded on relations of distance. etc. rivers. and sketch ajjaiu and again until it is fairly accurate. "Waters lying entirely within the land are called inland waters. and drawing again until approximate accuracy has been secured.ackboard. if not accurate. its comparative length and width where it is widest. and he should be encouraged to practice sketching when preparing his les. . and a strait or a bay of shallow water is a sound. until pupils are able to dispense with such aid. To results. In conducting a review. the class should be required to sketch wholly from memory. and draw the map again. Do this by looking at the map and then closing the eyes and trying to see the picture. 1. 3. For instance. Close the eyes and try to form a mental picture of the map. Proceed in a similar manner with the ea. Pupils should be required to sketch diagrams similar to the following. one who hiis studied the ph3'sical features of Mexico should be able to draw a simple illustration.ap was originally drawn by hand." You are not working to produce artistic maps. as they are sometimes called. a harbor is formed. Observe and draw the western coast. Rejjeat this until the mental picture is definite. and this is not the chief end to be kept in view. drawing.sous. and from memory. 6. (The above only to the outlines or — Find and the several divisions of land and of water in the pictoalso rial illustrations. which will be of great service in other studies. mountains. Close the eyes and locate them on the mental map. where ships may enter and lie in safety. forming gulfs or bays. Draw the islands from memory. It enables the teacher to test pupils iu a sure way. a lake. Draw another map of the state and locate the cities. intelligently. and rivers. and m.

which zone contains the most land? Which. stretch a rubber band about the globe so as to represent the meridian circle that divides the earth into an eastern and a western hemisphere. Name the prime meridian on the globe and on the map. on the globe and on the map. and speak of some of the points of resemblance. Find the 150th degree of east longitude on both. The 170th degree of east and of west longitude on both.st irregular coast ? What continents resemble one another in the direction of their monnir Judging by the the largest. beginning with the continents which are most alike in form. by sea. on the 40th parallel? . the Northern or the Southern Hemisphere? Which hemisphere contains the Which hemisphere Wliich the eye. Name the great rivers whose Into the Pacific. Find the 180th degree of longitude on the globe and on the map. is the continents extend into three zones? warmest continent? Point out the coolest portion of each continent. Find the same jmints on the map. ain ranges? Name eight large isLinds in the order of their size. continents are separated by the Atlantic? By What the longest and which the broadest ocean? ocean extends from pole to pole? Which ocean is bordered by the largest number of guKs. probably. waters find their Arctic. contains the most land? Which contains the most water. bays. Find the island of Iceland and the peninsula of Kamtchatka on the globe Why are these countries drawn on both and also on both hemispheres. Find name them in the order of their size.>|^ ^^^^^^* NORTH POLE S ^^^^^^ "•--< GLOBE AND MAP STUDIES. hemispheres? Find. the circle that divides the earth into a northern and. Indian. Which continent has the mo. also on the map in the same direction. Begin at the first meridian and trace the Equator round the globe from west to east. and seas? Which washes the largest number of con- Name the oceans. Which Name the largest islands of zone contains the largest number of islands? What changes of climate would the North Temperate Zone. find the points where they leave the Eastern and enter the Western Hemisphere. Judging by the least? What we largest islands? Name the continents of the Eastern and of the Western Hemisphere 10 From notice in traveling overland from Behring Strait to Cape Horn? From Lisbon to Pethe British Isles. number of islands? Name the seas Of Europe. What the Pacific? Which is tinents? Which contains the greatest that wash the coast of Asia. In tracing these circles on the globe. Of the Torrid. Trace the tropics and the polar circles. eye. to the Cape of Good Hope? kin. a southern hemisphere. way into the Atlantic Ocean.

8.000.000 6.000.. J2 Trace the following on the globe and on the shortest water route from Sydney.. New York.232..000 Pacific Ocean 72...000. in Australia.000.900 Atlantic Ocean.317.. South America.000 35.780.000 Oceania vsi~' "W' 52. From New York From Melbourne to London. Indian Ocean Antarctic Ocean. AREAS OF CONTINENTS AND OCEANS. Arctic Ocean 25.700 4.556.800 17. Square Miles. Square Miles. 80_ » New Zealand.000.500 3.000 5.900 11 144. North America.. ___N0R 1>^0LE .000 Africa 11.^^_^.829.892.^ ''^»i-^_*t7?7 NORTHERN HEMISPHERE. Liverpool to Sydney. to From San From Francisco to Shanghai.000.000 7.000 .957.. to map : The SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE.0'^ g.

The sedimentary rocks contain the forms of igneous. and they are among the richest lands in the world. cotton. to surface elevations people. nobody knows how long ago. extending to half or two-thirds of their height. slope of land. Lowlands have an elevation of less Highlands have an elevation Either upon the summit or upon the in the bottom or sides of slopes is a great hollow or depression like a bowl called the crater. consists of — N'early one-half of the surface of the continents the crater. and From all this we learn that the close observation of coast determine which continents or countries have natural advantages for trade. tain ranges. The surface cooling most rapidly. The dis- charge from a volcano turies. flourish in the dry atmosphere of the desert. llanos. reflects the glow as of a great conflagration. of 1. II ( The sea. frightful precipices. the wind. Farmers in the warm zones cultivate sugar cane. pampas or steppes. and. others descend to the lowlands by successive benches Some plants require much heat. Such . elevation above the sea. and that it slowly cooled. Coast Lines. we find some rocks. tempering the winds which blow from the sea. with intervening valleys. like those seen in the figure.000 feet. but mainly destitute of trees. in hot weather remains considerably cooler. in the United States. If covered with herbage. Mountains are usually long. than 1. Eruptions may Amazon World. and steam are forced. but The arms of t)ie sea. They are sometimes very level. between the peaks. I — many harbors. in Switzerland. and fuel. the white bear. the sea once spread over what are now continents.000 feet above the sea. the grains and grasses. There are usually many more or less parallel chains FORMS OF LAND. as the date palm. distance from the sea. and rain usually falls more freely along the coast than elsewhere. Such a ridge with its peaks is called a mountain chain. are passes. that Volcanoes. mountains were probably formed in FOLDED STRATA. An internal force like that which throws vast quantities of rock and melted matter from volcanoes. lava. and give direction to its streams. is called an eruption. bays. while others. and that multitudes of creatures found a home in its waters "before the mountains were brought forth. and to bring back the products of other lands. aspect than those formed by folds. deep gorges. or ridges and hollows. The notches. far and wide. But the cooling process went on until the inclosed heated mass shrank away from its rock covleaving it too large. from which valleys lead — down nings. this manner. Irregular coasts furnish few. stones. the earthquake and the frost. Though the peaks seem to the eye to be separated. In the night. stretching far into the land. slope very gradually to lower plains. ashes. or vapor. They include plateaus and mountains. changes the climate of a country. moisture. such as limestone. others still. the latter. the sky. lines enables us to In examining the upturned. which have wrought for long. is always rising from the water. Some grow only where the air is moist. fonning wrinkles. ocean currents. be seen that the subject of climate should As climate depends mainly on distance from the Equator. others are composed of materials brought from higher lands by the rains and streams." granite. Formation of Mountains. but not the loftiest. such as the were formed of melted matter. coflfee. but are often covered with hills or even mountains. as ice rests upon water. —The name plateau. On the other hand. and causes earthquakes. Among such are the Appalachian. Some of the most noted plateaus are bordered with lofty moun- Plateaus. water parts with its heat more slowly than Land. Such mountains have a wilder and more rugged They have many bare peaks. and the air is more moist. This is because water is warmed by the sun much more slowly than land. The elephant enjoys the heat of the tropics. water.'' will which has already been treated under be discussed in the lessons which follow. From the highest mountiiin peaks hundreds of other peaks may sometimes be seen — a sea of mountain tops stretching far away. they are joined by a common ridge. Plateaus with their accompanying mountains form the backbone of almost every continent. Many mountains were formed by upheaval. the cold of the polar regions. Portions of the cover then bent downward. Mountains. lands may be classified or a cone. leaving their edges upturned. lower valley of the Mississippi is an alluvial plain. affecting plant and animal life and even the occupations of men. determine its general shape. first. and the barren plains of the Old occur at short periods or at intervals of years or even cenDuring an eruption the mountain is sometimes shaken to its foundations. The Uocky Mountains and Swiss Alps are of this class. a thin rock-crust was formed about a vast molten center and resting upon it. regular coasts. and the Jura. broken strata. and dark valleys.12 CLIMATE— FOEMS OF LAND. In cold climates men require warm houses. these topics. clouds of vapor. and others. in the Temperate Zones. the slopes. and in which streams often have their begin- exception of the "Zones. while in hot climates cooler dwellings and little clothing and fuel are needed. direction of mountain chains. and prevailing winds. and remains warmer in winter. For these reasons countries near the sea are usually cooler in summer and milder in winter than those far inland. sedimentary. This shows that plants and animals that lived. The oldest. lowering the summer temperature of regions near the sea. or tables. CLIMATE. — The maps show us that there are great dif- ferences in the coast lines of continents. Some plains once formed the floor or bottom of the sea. while the cow does best in the Temperate Zones. abundant clothing. its The the condition of atmosphere in regard to heat and moisture. while others have regular coasts with scarcely a projection or an indentation worthy of note. again.000 feet or more. or table-land. Through holes Plains. and the red-hot rocks and huge masses of lava. It is supposed that the earth was once a heated mass. that The former are called were formed of sediment at the bottom of the sea. Climate has a very great influence on the plants and animals of a country. When first formed they were it just as we see them to-day. several large peninsulas Some continents have and are deeply indented by gulfs. — A volcano usually takes the form of a mound up from the which is Lowlands and Highlands. are so many water-roads over which ships may pass to carry away what people have to sell. some- low and level or gently rolling lands. beause their original shapes have been rhanged by the water. long ages. times with great violence and with deafening noise. From many mountain summits one may see clouds and hear the rolling thunder far beneath his feet while the sun is shining from the clear sky overhead. or seas.— All as lowlands or highlands. lifted and fractured the strata forming the earth's crust. er. and is composed of material thrown interior of the earth. they are called prairies. deserts. The wooded plains of the are called selvas. and whether the climate is probably affected by nearness to the ocean or other great bodies of water. ashes or pulverized lava fill the air and vivid lightnings play around the mountain top. Then. penetrating the land at many points. These ridges and hollows are mountains and \ alleys. The climate of a country is are called alluvial. and others thrive best where the temperature is moderate or cool. with the this it will From receive our careful attention. and also on the occupations and character of its is usually given above 1. the whole forming a mountain system. high ridges with peaks rising from them like the teeth of a saw. Few animals can live in all climates. and bananas.

the snow accumulates. arrest or change the course They shut out the cold that comes from the icy north. and offering health and freedom to those who seek homes among them. helped on the work of widening by putting in its wedges of ice to break and crumble the rock. from the rain. — High mountains condense ture of the atmosphere into rain or their sides in countless springs that flow the mois- snow which reappears along atmosphere which receives very little from the sun's rays as they pass through it. The number of volcanoes. sodden mass incapable of cultivation. The rocks are dropped at the end of the gUicier and lie in ridges across the valley. like mighty walls. forming icebergs that are carried by ocean currents far out across the track of — A VEGETATION AT DIFFERENT ELEVATIONS. sun. It is only by noticing. Mountains are also vast store-houses of iron. The canons of the Colorado River are wonderful instances of valleys of this kind. promoting drainage and preventing the earth from becoming a different regions. when moist. This mass. to Bahama. year after year. too. nothing but cracks or clefts in the rocks which formed the ridges. Por this reason the air near the earth's surface is warmer than that which is high above. the water forming numerous rivulets which rush and roar through ice crevices. moves very slowly down the valley. thrown thousands of feet into the air. they rise. — The surface of the earth is warmed by the and gives off or radiates its heat to the Uses of Mountains. The frost. in Bolivia. in a hundred thousand. or the yak train finds it way. and through which the mule. and their lower slopes and foothills furnish rich pasturage. 23. the llama. nearly 400 of bordering the Pacific Ocean. cross lofty ranges. the more slowly is the earth cooled. Those who ascend in a balloon find the temperature cooler and cooler as down the slopes in brooks and rivers. Valleys stretching across plains and plateaus have been formed in the same manner as channels are cut across roads and fields during the summer shower. Influence CLOUDS FORMING ABOUT A MOUNTAIN PKAK. and the longitudinal valley had become broader.USES OP MOUNTAINS—VALLEYS. In some mountain valleys. to unite in the valley below. Prom this it . which are on the coasts and islands it with a belt of burning Those which separate the ridges are called longitudinal. Mountain ranges generally form the parting ground or watershed between streams flowing in opposite directions to water The atmospheric covering of the earth. deeper. Uses of Valleys. glacier moves but a few yards during a year and its motion is so very slow that it appears to be standing still. called a glacier. until it is very deep. silver. that a movement can be detected. from cones that do not reach the surface of the sea. The immense glaciers of Greenland project from its valleys into the sea. the relative positions of objects on the glacier and at the sides. The lower end of this ice river. Valleys. and other minerals. keeping enemies apart. we place over us at night. While the foot of the glacier is thus wasting slowly away. of winds. like the covering in. girdling mountains. These cracks. and the hollows.000 feet above it. are termed transverse. — Every mountain chain or range has Volcanoes are of all heights. They sometimes form the boundaries of countries. its high source is receiving fresh supplies of falling snow by which the ice stream is ever renewed and moves on. coal. from time to time. Their sides are usually clothed with valuable timber. and the pressure is so great that the lower portion becomes solid ice. is estimated at 600 to 700. Valleys open up the mountains so that their mineral wealth may be secured. serves to keep the heat and the They also give variety to the surface. gold. the work goes on more slowly. carrying rocks and soil which it loosens from the sides of the mountain. transverse valleys were originally. only in the case of the greater valleys. Glaciers. and its slopes less rugged. Mountains. Hundreds of thousands of years must have been required for the water to cut those channels in the rock that forms this plateau. of Elevation. This work of the water and the frost is still going on. —Transverse valleys make it possible to They are passes where highways and railways are constructed. were gradually widened by running water. Villages 13 its valleys. from melting snow or springs. in many instances. or the deeper the atmosphere. the gorge had widened into a narrow valley. thicker the covering. active and extinct. and cities are sometimes buried by a deluge of ashes and lava. and they afford dwelling places for vast numbers of men. especially ships. is melted by the sun. age after age. dividing them into peaks or independent mountains. or longitudinal vallejrs. The longitudinal valleys were formed by the folding of the earth's crust at the time the mountains were upheaved. on reaching the warmer and broader valley below. add to the awful grandeur of the scene. furnishing refuge for the weak. In ten thousjind years the crack had become a narrow gorge. which is often many miles in length. and those which extend across the ridges. check moist winds that sweep from the sea and hot winds from the desert.

The Influence of Slope. sparkles in the moss-covered river. and we must know clearer skies. together with wheat. and receiving heat and moisture from both. the earth would be so wet that neither grains nor fruits could grow. On southern slopes the ground flowers. moves in and spreads in the boundless sea. Evergreens. We live at the bottom of a deep ocean of air. dwarf trees. — Water always seeks the lowest places. one belt gradually merges into another. come barren. nor men. THE ATMOSPHERE. We shall find such regions in South America and in Asia^ On sea and land. through which it Above 10. FORMS OF WATER. and ice hills regions. no fields of waving grain. is always ascending. Rivers. and form highways for travel and trade. also. in our obliquely and the snow-banks On fiows on the line of lowest level down a long its All the land drained by a river and branches called linger till late in spring. countries receive. nor animals. is ready for the hemisphere. These plateaus and moirntain valleys are. Lakes. so to speak. the olive. descends in Queries. its plant and animal life. grasses. animals. — Southern slopes are warmer than first Lakes supply vast numbers of fish and water-fowl. portion flows over the surface and finds its way into brooks. Alpine flowering plants. From this it will appear that the elevation. as The winds carry the invisible vapors which the air receives from the sea over the parched fields.000 to 10. Slope also gives direction and force to streams. such as the cactus.000 feet the fig family. have a cooler temperature follows that places high above the sea Under the influence of heat it takes the form of vapor. in passing from the level of the sea in the Torrid Zone to an elevation of 15. who depend on what the land produces. and lichens clinging to the rocks. and here are built and important fact that there is a gradual slope from the low plains along the Arctic Ocean to the high plateaus in the Torrid Zone. ascends from the land and from the sea. pieces of the Temperate Zone propped up on rock pillars right under the equatorial sun. In some countries of Europe the vine. and above these. In our study of the continents we shall find that large portions of the earth's surface incline to the north or to the south and that the climate is made cooler or warmer by the slope. basin. — Without streams to drain the land.se heat. are found those plants and trees are the most common trees. In this belt. Were the most elevated portions of the earth situated far to the north. — The sea is the great reservoir from whose 'sur- face water. to form rivers that drain the land into the — Lakes are bodies of water in the hollows or ba- sins of the land. soaks to form springs or to feed the sheets of water that supply our welLs. A portion of the rain water evaporates in the air and another sinks into the ground. incrusts the lakes forms glaciers in mountain valleys. A large sea. and shrubs. The vapor is borne From 8. —In the Southern Hemisphere. of a country must be known in order that we may determine the character of its climate. Streams SNOW LINE OR LIMIT It is a curious IN THE DIFFERENT ZONE. drive his machinery. or even in the cooler portions of the Temperate Zone. At an altitude of 4. As it now is. by springs. the various species of palm and the balsams grow with the greatest luxuriance. supply him with pure water. fields of perpetual snow. or by rain or They are supplied by streams. clouds and to rain. snow that falls on the surrounding slopes. earth to fertilize the stretching over the other hand. "When chilled by the cold it becomes a solid. by the winds over the continents to fall as rain or snow. They also give moisture to the air and. that serve as food. Plants. On the contrary. serve to modify the extremes of heat and cold. too.ses. Uses of Rivers. The most fruitful soil is found on the borders of rivers. something about them before we can tell the amount of heat and moisture the our climate is We know how affected warm weather and rain. They are lifted above the fierce heat of the low plains and yet never have the snow and biting frost of the northern winter.000 feet. The south wind The north wind brings colder weather and All countries have their prevailing winds. mos. whose thick trunks and delicate lace-like foliage stand out against the clear blue sky. or about three miles. fall becomes bare here. why does it not become full and overflow the land? and mountains? force is building What . We journey from the tropics to the poles. as well as the latitude. a ridge of hills. Uses of Lakes. enrich his fields. which unite Lakes. occur in succession. when large or numerous. in the polar In how many ways does water act to change the surface of the earth? Why? How does the frost act to change the form of mountains? to level all the hills What forces are operating up mountains? As the rivers flow into the sea.000 feet. Some plants thrive on one slope that cannot grow on another in the same latitude. Large lakes are often navigable. and men are alike dependent on the heat and the moisture which the air holds. brings us it falls in the summer shower. Thus.000 to 17. To ascend 350 feet gives the same change In temperature as to travel one degree north. if in the Northern Hemisphere. the gentle snow or rattling hail. On the low plains of the Torrid Zone. if in the Southern. the atmos- phere with invisible "water dust" or atoms to be changed to The Sea." A large river and its tributaries is often called a river system.000 feet we find the vegetation peculiar to the Cold Temperate and the Frigid Zones. and a thou- Here we seek early and the cand rills and brooks are gathered to form a great river that slope to the sea. the sun's i^ays grain is first northern slopes.000 feet occur those families of deciduous trees composing the forests of the Temperate Zones. up to an elevation of 4. In other words. Water has three it forms. and two degrees further south. every zone of vegetation is seen. some of the elevated regions in the Torrid Zone have the most delicious climate. and the tree ferns. common to the Warm Temperate Zone. they are generated by the sun. or simply a "height of land. gurgles in the wayside spring. in some degree. the vegetation would be luxuriant. places having an elevation of 700 feet are as cool as other places at the sea-level two degrees further north. Without these there could be no green meadows. and a change of temperature causes to another. from the home of the palm to the realms of ice. and we sometimes speak of all the rivers flowing into an ocean as the Atlantic a river sins system. and man could not find a home upon the earth. and there could be neither plant nor animal life on account of the intense cold. and the highest land between two or more bafrom which streams flow in opposite directions is called a water-shed. Were the busy winds to sleep the broad continents would belifeless deserts. no blooming gardens. the agave. the occupations and mode of life of its people. sickle.14 INFLTJENCE OF SLOPE— FOEMS OF WATEE. to pass from one of these forms As a liquid. what slopes are warmest? and streams. filling than those in the same latitude near the sea-level. and other plants raised in our fields. the flowing by the winds. etc. and great cities are built on their shores and enriched by traffic on their waters. bucket. It must not be supposed that the belts of vegetiition are so clearly marked that we can see just where one leaves off and another begins. com. •• many of the largest towns. were the surface of the earth within the tropics no more elevated than the great northern plain.000 to 8. or the Arctic system. A water-shed may be a mountain range. but man could scarcely live in a region of such inten. and the orange. they would be rendered uninhabitable by man.S. as with the zones. as vapor. in spring. and the mulberry grow only on slopes that receive the direct rays of the sun. northern. increase the fall — of rain.

It is in the east central jwrt of the continent and is one of five great lakes drained by the St. and higher plains plains. islands. — the Pacific on What portion of the continent contains a large lakes How many of these continent. hill. Islands. tation should consist in stating. Sketch the coasts. Ask him window and the features of the landscape. extendentire length. A being nearly white. Place the then described in his in his hands and teach him the level portion of the continent. between the Atlantic Ocean and Use the width of the continent. St. lakes. in his own language. to think. the Pacific Highlands.. the loftiest stand up from the Mountains are so drawn as to seem to ranges appearing most elevated. and the Caribbean Sea. He sees a lake. mountains. mountain ranges. The waters of Lakes Athabasca.. In Mexico. rivers. In crossing the continent in the latitude What highlands would be crossed ? Where would we cross the lowest portion of the Great Central Plain ? In a journey from the Gulf of Mexico overland to the month of the Mackenzie River. His through this river.) MAP Key to STUDIES. After a little how many great slopes are found ? practice he as follows: may be expected to interpret the map somewhat The coasts of North America are washed by three oceans the west. It has the Pacific Highlands on the west. is not far from the lake. The ing its In what zones does the continent tion of it? What zone includes the greater por- Pacific Highland region is in the western part of the continent. and says: "Clear Lake is long and narrow. and is surrounded by high prairie with groves here and there. Its course is northwesterly it reaches through several channels. From New Orleans to map to determine the greatest length and the greatest What is the distance from San Francisco to New York? the mouth of the Mackenzie? What is the length of the lie? Gulf of Mexico? Of Hudson Bay? The West Indies are between North and South America. and the Arctic on the north. lighter than etc. — In The Great Central Plain extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean. by the Mackenzie and other large streams. Encourage him to observe. The shading and the rivers show that they have a long eastern slope to the Mississippi. and recite better. the Atlantic on the east. From New York to the Isthmus of general direction of the coast is northeast and southIt lies the greater portion of the continent drained ? Florida is a long. Lavn-ence. Louis. describe the coast waters. to look out of the Superior is the largest lake in North America. and Jamaica are the largest of the group. the reci- into the Arctic Ocean which may be allowed to have the map before him. the highest by lighter shades. fine recitation in geography with- He saw and map in the What of portions of the continent are most mountainous ? Place a ruler over own language. Trout Brook.st? —Which coast most irregular? Point out the lowest coast. The southern portion is drained by the Mississippi and its tributaries. penin- The Mackenzie sulas. for the first time." hill. lakes. Cuba. rocky island is near the middle of the lake. — Very shade. page.— Point out and and rivers. think better. and Great Bear find their way to the sea rises in describing the coast waters. the Gulf of Mexico. The west. Gulf of Mexico. direction of each coa. At first. Hayti. with by the greatest number of islands? See map. Great Slave. work should be avoided. as indicated above. is the outlet of the lake. What is the general Which coa.st is bordered which our school-house stands. Parrot . It is a mountainous section. a round a flat top. EXEECISES. a stream. a These examples are not introduced as models to be followed to the letter. the Atlantic Highlands on the east. etc. They are surrounded by the Atlantic. The eastern coast is Panama it is low. highland regions.NORTH AMERICA. page 16. and to express his thonghts. the pupil will see little and say little. The Rocky Mountains extend north and south through the whole length of the continent. and he will soon see more. low peninsula. Their position gives them a warm climate. Draw To pupil the the Teacher. just what describe some of map says to him. peninsulas. Tour pupil has given a out memorizing a word. Name the largest islands. flows through a beautiful valley near General Questions. may be touched by is the slope of a country be determined? Into wliat ocean scale of tBe number of great lakes? a single straight line ? How may Point out the principal slopes of the quite irregular. the northern. (Phybical. the chief range is called the Sierra Madre. Porto Rico. low plains are indicated by the darkest Plateaus are still Physical Maps. or water-shed ? to observe and describe same manner. Pilot Knob. Great Basin. and great reUef diagrams as directed by the teacher. where would we find the highest land. Great Central Plain.

/CHICAGO . .' ^ >.^'^ts -s ^ LoE s" "it MEWCO <Jl(ft PHYSICAL MAP OF NORTH AMERICA « I * p^' Scale of Miles 100 Sbo ' ^/^^^ ^^y ./.' ' ^'i J Y i -.^ So ' 600 ' 800 ' 1000 ./^^<.

the Sierra Nevada. The "Mount of the Holy Cross" which is Is over 14. others are covered with scanty herbage. others after intervals of hours. 52 feet in diameter. precipices wliose granite walls rise thousands of feet. known as the Rocky MounOn crust. The steep sides of the hill are ornamented by a series of semicircular basins with margins varying in height from a few inches to six or eight feet. while through this main mass a smaller colunm shoots. were once called "Stony Mountains. or even months. from the western border of the Great Central Plain to the Pacific. — In the Yellowstone National Park are feet into many Some mo- geysers throwing columns of water and spray from 20 to 200 the air. from a few inches across to acres of hot water. many of them from 10. and numbei'less valleys. filling the timid visitor with terror. wild crags beyond tlie reach of the mountsiin goat. The greatest measured height of the eruption is 173 feet. . and beautifully scalloped and ornamented with a kind of bead work. and others still are Coasts. On the snow-white sides of the mountain is every shade of scarlet. only a basin. There are numberless peaks. its eastern fiice a cross of snow approaching the "White Mountain springs the visitor beholds a hill 1. the bather may choose the temperature that suits him best. basins. as it grows cooler with each circle of springs. is fully 1.000 miles Its and about 4. white.— The innumerable hot springs are of all sizes. to — On the north. and productions. as brilliant as the brightest aniline dyes. Inthecenter is The lands. and sounds. Size. Standing on this plateau are mighty ridges. whose crowns of snow are seen tlirough the clear air. green. All the ranges of North America. divide the immense plateau from which they rise into smaller plateaus.000 feet in height. DESCRIPTION. The Grand highland region on the a smaller highland region on the east. or about one-half these elevations above the ridges themselves. tains. at intervals. is Pacific High- — The western the geyser tube which measures 2 by 4 feet. like walls. at glitters in the sun. to a much greater height. and glaciers.800 miles in length. and the Coast ranges. 1 like that of a quiet spring. San Francisco Bay and Puget Sound being the chief indenta- Geysers. and. On the east and south are gulfs. and increases in elevation from the Arctic Ocean. climates. The mass of portion of the continent a grand plateau. of the geysers spout at intervals of a few In either of these the navies of the world tions. elevations. wind-swept hills. bays. northern shores are cov- ered with the snow and ice of the polar regions. west. caiions with rushing streams far do^vn between their jaws of rock. of dazzling wliiteness. Hot Springs. without a shrub. hot springs. on the almost perpendicular lace of the mountain. toward the bottom. to the The waters Mexican Plateau which is about 8. The Pacific coast is more regular.000 miles. The mountain ranges. and a few from 17. and offering great advantages for trade with all Besides th&se wpnders there are innumerable waterfalls. soils." Few mountain regions in the world have so great a variety of scenery or are so rocky. Its long ami right angles. The water is so transparent that one can see to the very lx)ttom of the deepest springs. days. treeless valleys.000 to 19. ments. and yellow. is its coast is deeply cut by bays. and of all and a short and more abrupt slope westward to the Pacific. having different forms.* • Consult Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel. where it is temperatures from tepid to boiling. —-The sur- face consists of a vast weeks. with its sides striped with bands of vivid red and yellow.000 feet in length. parts of the world. 800 feet. but extremely productive. and a great central plain. From the crests of these ridges rise almost numberless peaks.ser Basin are no le.500 feet above the sea. 17 The cross is formed by the snow lying in two crevices.000 feet iu altitude. stretching from North- ern Alaska to Southern Mexico. with hundreds of shorter and generally parallel ranges bearing different names. Ou a peak of the Sierra Madre range. rock-strewn. subterranean thunderoftenshakes theearth.500 feet above the sea level at its highest part. and varying in width from 300 to 1. and bare.—iVortA Ameriea. the whole region a frozen land which can never be opened commerce. the Sierra Madre. parks. from some of these springs have covered whole valleys with a hard. cliasms where the sun's rays never come. affording excellent harbors. in width — North America is more than 3.000 to 15. might ride in safety. In the Upper Gey.000. Geyser (see page 15) has no raised cone. Surface. the Cascade. Some of these divisions are d&serts. This hill is the work of springs which buret forth upon its summit and pour their water down from basin to basin on its sides. while its countries in the south enjoy the green and the bloom of perpetual summer. water carried up is enormous. glistening GBAKD VIEWS ON LAND AND SEA. sunk below the general level. geysers. After the water sinks from the sight.DESCEIPTIOI^— THE PACIFIC HIGHLANDS. It has a long and gradual slope eastward to the Mississippi.ss than eighteen of these wonders.

or temperate lands. The to one who have — Most of the valleys of the Great Basin are utter deserts. which. is along the Mississippi. and — Atlantic Highlands. lead. 17. The Yosemite plunges from the top of the cliff. Many of the streams are lost in the thirsty sands. zinc. The surface is generally level or undulating.18 TOSEMITE VALLEY— THE ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS. region. the middle bench. The Great satch ranges is Basin.— The chief wealth of the Pacific Highland region which are as abundant and varied as in any other part of the earth. In the United States there is a short and somewhat rapid slope toward the Atlantic.680 feet above. but of a whole land of naked rock with giant forms car\'ed on it. and are remarkable for their regular outlines. Leaping over its walls are several streams. The Appalachian system is made up of many nearly parallel ridges with long.000 feet above the sea. are found to be wonderfully fertile.500 feet above the sea. others flow into salt whose waters escape by evaporation. There are few peaks towering above the rounded ridges which are not very high. at this point. This central swell has an elevation of but 2. 400 feet. brown. Between the Sierra Nevada and Waha vast basin containing many mountains. the Alleghanies in the middle portion. and shafts set on the verge overhead. and occasionally sending up clouds of smoke.000 to 7. fertile. and the Nevada Fall. plateaus of rock. is seventy miles across. and a long. and there is not a drop of water in the whole extent. Mt. then descends alwut 700 feet in cascades. and on the east by the Atlantic Highlands.000 to 8. Each of these benches has a climate and plants peculiar to itself "Height of Land" crosses the plain near the middle. where it moves on. cut across by deepwalled valleys along streams extending far back from the coasts. many deep canons and few Major Powell. crags of rock. are the most noted. is in its minerals. iron. Only 350 tons of coal were consumed in the whole country It is now used in all civilized lands. is on the gulf coast. and Adirondack Mountains in the north. and the authorities caused it to be broken up for walks. with — The Colorado Eiver drains a country living streams. quicksilver. the Yosemite Valley. and chocolate. clil6 of rock. Colorado Plateau. and nickel are found in different . and a narrow belt of" lowlands along the coasts. the Great Basin into a multitude of smaller basins or valleys. and cafion walls that make the river sink into insignificance. The Great Central Plain includes the immense prairies of the United States and of Canada. 6. The marble and granite quarries of New England are widely known. and its slopes are so gentle that one might travel from the Arctic Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico and hardly notice the difference in elevation. save scattered cacti and stunted sage bushes. in the at the sea level higher than the ridges." but on returning. Plateau of Mexico. Yosemite Valley. There are the White. and no vegetation. — Minerals. rising 7. copper. and from half a mile to a mile wide. 1. one of which is the mighty cone of Popocatapetl. terraces of rock. when it was mined at Wilkesbarre.— In the heart of the great Sierra Nevada is range. nothing but rock and sand. The margin of the Great Central Plain. the Vernal Fall. The coal fields are said to cover 60. sulphur. bordered on the west by the Pacific. In many places it is the peaks.695 feet.500 feet in height.000 feet. Gold. and a smaller cone near Vera Cruz.707 feet.— This region consists of the Appalachian system of mountains and the highlands of Canada. is Death Valley— so called from the number of persons perished there from thirst. Washington in the north. but could not be ignited.—Mexico is a plateau 6.000 feet above its surface. Jorullo on the central table-lands.000 square miles." and the Black Dome in the south. The Appalachian system has different names. or hot lands. they were astonished to find the doors red-hot and the furnace in danger of melting. structure. a quiet stream. Penn. Jorullo was thrown up in a single night to the height of 1. In 1812. Green. Tierra Fria. and all highly colored buff. — The Atlantic Highlands contain inexhaustible quantities of coal. rock everywhere. or heaps of fragments. of plateaus.. which. along the eastern base of the Eocky Mountains. spires. The valley bordered by towering above it upon which are columns. through the heart of the continent. Great Central Plain. Within the basin and alkaline lakes. salt. The having no outlet to the ocean. ten thousand strangely carved forms. . It lies between two ranges of mountains. or cold lands. but some. no soil. The mountains and high table-lands are.000 feet. Louis. Besides the precious metals there are iron. says: "The landscape everywhere away from the river is of rock. with hollow domes and tall pinnacles. and burned by the blacksmitlis of Carlisle. and sunken nearly a mile below the surface of the region around. Few have succeeded in crossing this terrible waste. or even The lowest part of this United States. with lower terraces from 3. cathedral-shaped buttes. The Bridal Veil Fall is 800 feet. Mountain ranges divide north of the St. silver. its top covered with snow. 600 feet. and millions of tons are burned annually. is cliffs From the plateau tower several volcanoes.500 feet at a single bound.500 feet above the sea. and coal. and building stone. mountains with their intervening valleys cover a space from fifty hundred miles wide. of the Government Survey. is from 2. 400 feet at St. The Mexicans call the low coast lands the Tierra Callientes. stretches the Great Central Plain. Lawrence. tin. are among the most active volcanoes of modem times. and the highest bench. at the source of the Mississippi. One of the owners and the fireman spent half a day in trying to get it to bum. and about 1. and arches of wondrous Minerals. and beautiful valleys between. gray. As late as 1814 it was sent to Philadelphia. here and there. gradual slope to the Mississippi. no land.— From the Arctic Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico. some wire manufacturers near Philadelphia purchased a small quantity to use in their furnace. in 1820. We oil. Gold and silver are found in almost every section from Northern Alaska to the Lsthmus of Panama. At noon they closed their furnace and went to dinner in disgust with the "stone coal. of the Atlantic Highlands. It is six miles long. low swell called the A SCENE IN MEXICO. salt. Tierra Templada.000 to 5. tables of rock. forming two great slopes. The first successful use of anthracite coal was in 1777. localities. * * * must not think of piles of boulders. the Blue Eidge and the Black Mountains in the south. towering hundreds or thousands of feet cliffs that cannot be scaled.000 to 4. then leaps 400 feet to the bottom of the valley. from 3.288 feet. watered by small streams. 6.

570 6. copper. Jlinnesota or the which grows there.500 25. .244. way across the continent.500 1.020 1. Iceland 17. Mean Depth. Minerals.000 200^000 38.600 23.000 128 606 The melting snow from Union Peak taries to the in the Eocky Mountains forms tribuColumbia.442 14. John Susquehanna breaks through the Cascade range. Washington compare with that How Which is does Hecla compare with Popocatapetl? Great Lakes? What proportion of the entire conti- Elias? writers state that the name comes from larger.110 the St. rise in groups or above them are the hill-tops the tall stake-like — How does the altitude of Mt.. The surface is monotonous.887 14. Michigan. is —A small caverns whose ragged sides are lined with huge crystals.. called by the Indians "Great Its length is Eiver. . above his western horizon.08 250. Lawrence. Elevation.a<« Orizaba volca^no Down the Pacific slope roll the Colorado.000 33. belt stretching along the base of the Eocky Mountains. the Saskatchewan. 298. in the Do- above terrace. turrets.000 34. Lawrence they form a water-road extending nearly half Mississippi Mackenzie St.380 14. flowing to Hudson Bay. Here and there is a waterfall. Texas The Columbia the Pacific Ocean." The plains are very broad in the United States but rapidly narrow.300 2.40 589. the largest body of fresh water in the world. The rivers: following tables give the elevation of the principal tain peaks. gray. which reaches the Gulf. of Mt. Here lofty mountains crowd each other. Whitnev Shasta HarvJird TjOiiff's .000 480. > The other rivers of the Atlantic slope are much but most of them furnish water-power to cities on their Area. and the Yukon.. Lakes Superior. Holv Cross Pike's Peak Mitchell n n White Mountains TTerla volcano .15 573. Length.. Back from the stream the moun- known as "'the Plains. 2..000 Yukon Colorado.000 257.. 2. Lakes and Rivers. is 355 miles long. minion of Canada. Length. so named by the Spaniards because the few water-holes on its surface were marked by stakes stuck in tlie ground for the guidance of travelers. . There The Mississippi.000 4. OF GREAT LAKES. each with mighty streams flowing to the sea.176 14." The principal river of the eastern slope great lakes. With the St. and salt are adds to the beauty of the scene. the outlet of the five AEEA. Miles.400 25.000 1.000 it where Hudson Connecticut Savannah Questions. and here also are found many great lakes. The southern part of the plains is called the Llano Estacado. ETC.800 40. PEINCIPAL EIVEE SYSTEMS.293 5. while • hundreds of and black.. about 4.* Bad Lands. Alabama St.000 7. Feet.300 miles.worn. Feet banks.000 miles to the east. and the Missouri. or.800 miles to the south. flowing to the Atlantic.. Huron.000 26. Central Plain is drained The northern slope of the Great Rocky u tt Mouijtaiiis by the Mackenzie. and treebillowy swells.707 6. feet shafts.NOETH AMEEICA— LAKES AND EIVEES. and the area of delta is 38. silver. is Peak.000 478.000 10. — Tjake Sunerior Lake Michigan _ springs that form the sources of the Colmubia said to be less than an eighth of a mile apart. Name. as they are called. until the clouds are reached.500 miles to the north. Lake Superior.600 600 650 650 450 400 330 350 300 feet. and the Red liiver.147 13. ries into the the largest river of North America. Eri«».600 10. Name. and there are many The Plains. 19 — Immense coal fields and extensive deposits of found in this portion clothed with evergreens. and the sharp peaks of the highest range disappear in the tains rise terrace drifting vapor. and Ontario are called the five great lakes.000 590. less. the Atlantic Highlands.000 240.000 square miles. Miles. Their united area is 98. and has an area of about 32. America contains the largest fresh-water lakes and some of the longest rivers on the globe.00 1. often rising to a height of 1.000 990 '- 1. and deciduou^ trees whose foliage autumn iron. ElevatiOD. Its shores are rugged and picturesque. the Mississippi. On these the rock lying ou the surface is soft and the elements have worn it into the forms of cliflfs. Saskatchewan Columbia Colorado Rio Grande .100 square miles.720 17. giving the landscape the appearance of a ruined city. lead. stems of a yucca plant nent is drained by the Mississippi System? . and other rivers. Just west of Lake Superior. in a region of numberless small lakes. The Some tall cliffs.300 2. The Pacific Highlands. Through the heart of its southern slope the Mississippi takes its way. and the Height of Land are the great water partings of the continent. the Colorado. Lawrence. — North SOME OF THE CHIEF MOUNTAINS OF NOETH AMERICA. are the sources of three rivers the St. and draining the "Great Basin. Gulf 675. 1.. a tt the Frazer. Name. bases of the cljfifs of the continent. the size of the great lakes.000 square miles.900 1. Lawrence. red. rolling. about 2. St.000 12. Square Miles.383 14. Location. forming the western border of the Great Central Plain. Area of Drainage.000 cubic its feet of water every second. 1. and clifife of curious forms line the banks of the stream. cover large portions of the plains in the northern part of the United States. ippi Eivey system opens to The Missiscommerce the whole southern secmounand the length of the chief tion of the Great Central Plain. shorter. and towers. Feet. The and the Mackenzie are 31. tracing it from the Gulf to the sources of the MisIt carsouri. Square Miles.300 355 340 280 250 190 609. St Elias PoT>ooiitaTM*tl volcano . unless blue ranges or snowy peaks loom finds at sea.. which is the larger stream.'' is are no more landman-ks to guide the traveler than the sailor and when he leaves the traveled routes he must depend on his compass. dividing its surface into slopes. that stand in all directions over the plain. northward. the Columbia. Mexico u Sierra Nevad. especially is the largest American river flowing into Brazos The scenery along its course is very grand.800 miles.900 17. resembling the ocean in its long. The are water. or staked plain.15 589. its branches reaching to the distant highlands east and west.000 1.271 14.

o/MageUan DoBOlatti c*_ South '•CAPS HOHH . 600 700 800 ^00 /Str.St.C. ftoque ^ PHYSICAIi MAP OP SOUTH AMERICA Scale of Jlilcs 100 200 300 400 500.

Peru. intersected by narmade fertile by the melting snows of the Cordilleras. its navigable rivers are highways and these in a measure. including llanos. some 13. Voyage of a Naturalist. and. shrubs. The Peru a long. none of them being lower feet. with its regular cone. inclose barren table-lands. are the closed mountain valleys. Wliich is The ranges Which has the ashes. by Charles Darwin. On the shores of the lake are the ruins of noble temples and other buildings erected by these people. lava. the Alpine flowers. rounded outlines with jagged petual snow. has a great highland system on the west and a smaller system on the east. ing waves. Measure the rivers Magellan. sterile. like North America. hilly the coasts of South America regular or broken ? and on the eastern slopes landscapes covered with rocks. It rears a spotless cone of snow 6. La Plata. oage II. at night. STUDIES. Titicaca. Surface. with their "Cosmos. regularity of coasts.517 feet. towering like silver spires. Between two nearly parallel ranges of the mountains of Ecuador lies a valley 250 miles long and but 14 to 20 miles The Andes. selvas. The glittering snowclad peaks bordering the table-lauds may be seen far out on the ocean. about 6. The eastern slope of this of ^„ - W^ ft&. with a long narrow strip of land descending in terraces to the Pacific * Sec Near Quito. as Darwin.000 feet higher than Vesuvius in the Old World. than 7. with the climate and products of the Temperate Zones. 4.500 miles. South America is without great peninsulas or important Coasts. wliy the mule preferred to the horse? borazo. (Physical.. and describe the coast -waters islands mountaios highlands plains.^_r v^SSh . the great silver bell Is there anything in the engraving of the group. pampas. Many blue-colored glaciers descend from its snoviy cap through the dark forests at its base. and.550 feet.196 feet above the sea. which is but nine miles from the Equator. at times. is and some with and others crowned covered with perPacific slope of crests. despoblados and punas. ^St !: is very gradmerging at last into the pampas ol the Argentine Eepublic.910 feet above the sea. uninhabitable regions called by the Spaniards. . and character of climate.200 feet.— Name. . arid wast*. lakes. has worn into shapes portions of the continent are mountainous? Starting from the Straits of like turrets of ruined churches or castles. Vol.000 is mountain. — way through frightful clefts and over thundering cataracts to the vast plains below.st extensive ? How many great river systems are there? Which ocean receives the largest amount of water from the rivers? Is the general slope of the continent toward the Atlantic or the Pacific? Find the greatest length and breadth of the continent. The road leading southward from fifty the grandest mountain systems of the globe. or whether they are well up its sides? What the probable use of the structure seen on the narrow plateau ? At its southern extremity stands Mt. . the oaks and other trees. equivalent to the irregular coasts of other countries. tells us. The average height portion of the mountains feet. The great traveler. and flowers of the Temperate Zone.000 to 14. may be had one of the grandest views on earth.000 feet above the sea. For more than a thousand miles is bordered by peaks. Draw relief diagrams as the teacher may direct. are several ranges. which is situated in this valley. with a great plain between. licheiis. belching fiames 3. at a single glance. looking. where ten thousand streams that feed the Amazon gather their waters before forcing their DESCRIPTION. and also the wild islandstudded lake. volcanoes. row. Here. Quito. save at the of the mouth of the Amazon and for vessels of the largest size. from exposure to the air. . and soft. 20. how This central section of the Chilian Andes has an elevation and name them in the order of their length.) MAP General Questions. made up of In to difficult emit volumes of smoke. which. Sarmiento. indentations of its — Though coasts. deep river valleys Between the ranges are table-lands from 11. position and direction of mountain chains. extend the Andes. while several have an elevation of two and one-half miles. one travel northward without crossing mountains? Are the plains or highlands mo. Humboldt. are.—-' portion of the mountains ual. So far as temperature is concerned. In this region. and the lucas reigned for centuries before Columbus was bom. says: *"Here."* its and its crater 15. Still further north. Which largest coast is most indented hy the sea? of islands? far could lowest? Many portions of the mountains consist of chalky number What is the general direction of each coast? What rock. 21 I. what is the climate of the continent? Judging by the rivers. 19. is ASCENDISa TUB ANDES. are the tropical mountain gorges. while the highest summits reach 22. lakes and great rivers. "like so many frozen Niagaras. mountain climbing. one of the most imposing peaks in the whole Andean range. . locate. is the rainfall heavy or light? Compare South America with North America as to form. or holsonas. Sketch the coasts.415 The passes are very difficult. It was in these mountain valleys that Peruvian civilization flourished. Further north there are two nearly parallel ranges. in Bolivia. On these plateaus are the cold. and not far away is and worn by the dashof this is show whether the travelers are near the base of the paxi. EXERCISES. — Are are romantic. one of wide. — From the misty Straits of Magellan to the Isthmus of Panama. position of Great Central Plain. and ice oi the polar regions. with a roaring that has been heard 600 miles at sea.000 feet above cap of snow. three of which there but a single chain. South America.000 feet. principal mountain ranges.SOUTH AMERICA. and rivers. too. 12. too. is Here is ChimCoto- a series of old volcanic peaks rising from the lofty table-land of a coast broken by countless fiords. one may see the luxuriant forests of the tropics. the naturalist.

its nineteen principal aflSuents furnish that ately elevated table-lands from and ridges empire with 25. copper. silver. —The highlands of Guiana which hills Gold. a branch of the Amazon. so that it is easily caught. many The Andes. the bola is thrown and entangles the legs of the fleeing bird.500 feet high. Its bare. Their area exceeds that of the United States by more than 2. and everything is carried on the backs of mules or of men. and. disappearing in a cloud of mist with a terrific roar that echoes among the hills. name meaning backbone. No other river on Do the plants indicate a warm or a cool climate? What is a lagoon? Minerals.500 The summit is the source of several streams which feet in sheer precipice. The Serro-do-Es-pin-ha-co. The river rushes in clouds of foam and mist through the rocky sides of its bed until it reaches a deep gorge. the most noted cataract of South America. of the winds that sweep over condense their mois- ture to a remarkable degree.500 miles in length. Mount Roraima. It is 3. the Eastern Highlands. The elevation between the rivers which drain these is so slight plains that a large stream. the selvas of the Amazon and the llanos of the Orinoco form a continuous series of low- lands 3. The pampas of the La Plata. it indicate whether the principal mountain peak is high or low? How many "pack traing" are seen? What animal is used? Why preferred to the horse? How many kinds of plants are seen? many is of which are great streams.000 miles before leaving that country. The feathers of the uaudu are valued for dusters. are moderrise in loftiest main stream and navigation. When within sixty or eighty feet. much water different sections. Near Bogota are the falls of Tequandama.000 square miles. on the lx)undary between Guiana and Venezuela. carrying a part of its waters to the Orinoco. summits fall and all the constellations in the sky of both hemispheies. and the force of the water has scooped out a well 130 feet deep in the rock below.600 miles in length. intersected by mountain ridges. —The Andes are famed for their minerals. stretching to the southern extremity of the continent . a feet. The plunge is 580 feet. and the tributaries of the Amazon and of the Paraguay aresometimesjoined during seasons of higli water. Eising in the high mountain valleys of Peru.22 fUunee.ss than 1.000 with the monsters of the Andes. leap from the plateau in grand cascades. —Plains and lowlands con- stitute four -fifths of the surface of the continent. check the movement it. with intervening fertile plains. with perpendicular sides and a perfectly level summit 7. from the Polar Star to the clouds of Magellan. it becomes a large stream. where it plunges into an abyss. The Brazilian Highlands consist of hilly ranges with numer- ous intervening valleys or elevated table-lands. PLAIN'S AND LOWLANDS— RIVEES. life so largely controlled The engraving on the left represents a hunting party in pursuit oC the nandu.000. Elvers. iron. In the diverging mountain ranges of Colombia are valleys with rushing streams fertile and every variety of climate. is a mass of sandstone eighteen miles long. Some of the upper valleys are so rugged that no roads can be built. with their peaks. and most of them are destitute of trees. caught in the same manner. flows both ways. vertical walls are in no place le. called the Casiquiare.000 miles of water-way available for steamboat solitary clusters. platinum. Entering Brazil. greatly affecting the climate as well as plant and animal by it. or South American ostrich." consisting of a pair of balls fastened together by a string of rawhide. but none to compare Plains and Lowlands. drains a plain whose area two-thirds as great as that of Europe. navigable for earth discharges half so into the sea. has several peaks of 8. 1. The . and a part to the Rio Negro. extending along the western border of the continent. Is there anything in the engraving to Cattle are Rivers. Each hunter is provided with a missile called a "bola. and other metals are found in So vast is and saltness of the the quantity that it changes the color ocean a hundred miles from shore." —The Amazon is sometimes called the "King of with its tributaries." below the line of perpetual snow.

The Alps are the most important mountains.300. teeth.* and snowy crests glittering from afar.700. save the interior of Eussia. . Each mass of granite is like some ruined tower or castle. 15. one for 1. the traveler finds the ridges on either hand growing higher. These are perfect little gardens surrounded by foam. ridges. low islands here and there. of climate. than any other continent. jagged crests. and cover an Their average Europe has a much longer - is about 7.700 feet. named th« Rio de la Plata. The water rushes over and among a wilderness of granite rocks. lak&s. At Montevideo it is 62 miles broad. pinnacles.— -Fwrope. The Alps are very different from the Andes with their long parallel ranges and narrow plateaus and valleys stretching on for hundreds of miles in the more than 400 miles from the sea. Surface. Threading his way through these transverse valleys.781 feet in height. on the other. deep. * ^ee Stanford's Corapendiimi of Geography and Travel. A cloud of vapor hovers over the river and the rainbow shines through the verdant hues of innumerable bowers of foliage. This is the lovely spectacle the Orinoco affords for a distance of several miles The alluvial plain at the mouth of the river forming its delta. Stand- ing on a peak of the Alps one sees around his horizon. points. They culminate in Mont Blanc. many inclosed basins and fertile valleys. low table-lands. so that no is Approaching the Alps from the plains of France or Germany. the other. and are borne up stream against the On the Lower Orinoco the banks are low. it forms a part of the great highway between Asia and Europe. grow the mimosa. transverse gorges cross the ridges and carry the drainage out into the plains beyond. and is surmounted by a group of palms or otJ[ier trees. includ- ing five-sevenths of the surface. and above this elevation there are more than 400 peaks that rise to the limit of perpetual snow.000 feet in height. and the hollows between steeper and steeper. the ridges bear their slopes of rich pasture and shaggy wood. all connected with the main channel of the river. From its top. and during the season of greatest rain millions of acres are sluggish current.* great estuary. EUROPE. and west. are navigable. " Our Sea " and the "Inner Sea" of the Romans. also. north. their higher crests and slopes white with snow and hardly. the Paraguay and the Parana. are green and fertile. miles from the mouth of the La Plata.000 to 15. and so broad and deep are waters that large ships spread their sails to catch the trade winds that blow from the east. like the broken. and now. All seem thrown together as if by chance. along its The * Consult Travela and BeseaTcbes of Humboldt. The most noted peaks are from 12. some miles inland. like the undulations on the surface of a great ocean. On the Lower creeks. the Orinoco is over a mile and a half wide. horns. No other sea has played so large a part in the history of mankind. area of 90. to distinguish it from the outer sea the great ocean beyond the pillars of Hercules. the other for 1. The two main tributaries. his eye may take in the whole panorama of the Alps. or "Silver Stream. and form a water-shed between the rivers flowing into the North Sea and those that discharge their waters into the Mediterranean. a vast array of mountains crowding behind each other along the sky line. narrow as canals for scores of miles. Here and there. two rapids. On every stone where the soft mould has gathered during a flood. Even the large islands add the length of its coast and increase its facilities for commerce. others expanding into spacious lagoons and hays. tions. with its delicate leaves.EUEOPE— COAST— SUEF ACE. — . lagoons. It was the "Great Sea" of the sacred writers. (Physical. Vast seas stretch into the land and broad to peninsulas extend hundreds of miles inthe water. to be distinguished from the white clouds which rest upon them. sail in a small boat for weeks without seeing a human being. 23 and streams. a highland region consisting of a net-work of mountain ranges. he can see on one side the succession of wave-like folds of hill and valley across which he has journeyed.) DESCRIPTION.— Gettie. all hundreds of open. From ilization to same direction. X part of the continent. changing it into a mass of foam. Amazon over^^owed and the country has the appearance of an immense lake with small. — With their various windings they have a length of 700 height miles. one finds the ground begin to rise and sink in long ridges which follow each other in parallel The smooth valleys lines. giving great diversity of surface and Mountains. at times. until he reaches one of the last and loftiest of these outer elevations. frozen waves of a mighty ocean. coast. accord- / ingto its area. The Orinoco Mississippi. is a stream carrying more water than the navigable for large vessels to a point 800 its It is its miles above mouth. t Consult Elementary Lessons in Physical Geography. where one may there are hundreds of miles of side channels." is the outlet of a river system which has sometimes been called the Mississippi of South America. unequal por- one of which is a plain. At the great cataracts. the most ancient times the Mediterranean has been a highway of civbetween the nations dwelling on its shores. mostly deep and navigable. east. extends 150 It is everywhere traversed by channels and creeks. — The continent may be divided into two large. south. and orchids with their charming flowers.000 square miles.

.

and the great St. 6. the fall of a branch from some bush. chief mountains. the Simp- Gothard. or even an echo may start a mass of snow which increases in speed and in size as it descends.000 In it are many narrow gorges with dashing streams and There are valleys. size and number of rivers. often see acres of snow sliding down the silvery pyramid of the high slopes. The Grimsel and Purka passes Ion.000. and which rivers ? consists of a great plain? Are there few or many in such a Draw an two great and length of mountain chains. or even 1. and rivers.148 feet above the sea. theaters. often forming enormous waterfalls. It rushes down steep slopes. Between the ridges run numberless valleys and cross valleys. tears down trees. At the Hospice of Grimsel. grandeur. whether frt>m north to south or from east to west. like a cloud of bright smoke. Point is Baltic ? What is the length of Great Britain ? Kara Sea? From the Caspian to the Of the Scandinavian Peninsula? — Are the coasts of Europe regular or irregular? "What part of the continent Of the Mediterranean Sea? In most distant from the five islands in the order how many zones does Europe lie ? Compare What is part best situated for commerce? Name as to regularity of coasts. 1. — The Alps are noted for their ice rivers. out the lowest sea? coasts. of fine snow fill the air. of their size. the tread of the little chamois. and the whole region has again assumed its solemn calm. and move down the valley a few inches a day. In the district of the Orisons. noticed a fall — of the glaciers are from fifteen to thirty miles and from one to two miles in width. Find the greatest length of the continent. The gliu-iers have their sources in the fields of perpetual snow between the mountain walls. Its base is about 90 miles in MAP General Questions. the thunder of tlie avalanche is heard reverberating in deep echoes in the mountiiin gorges. cover 109 square miles. The glaciers of Mont Blanc alone. one of the most inaccessible of the Alpine regions. If melted. Some in length. Jungfrau. though not so large as those of Monte Eosa. some shaded by mountain walls. feet. the position. How many great peninsulas are there? Which portion of the continent most mountainous. and by erecting buttresses and heavy walls of rock. On the St. for 25 On the borders of the avalanche. In spring and summer the heat of the sun and the warm winds loosen great bodies of sometimes 800. leaps over ledges. 18. Ber- nard the snowfall ranges from 11 J to 44 J feet every year. the St. clouds buries hamlets in the valley below. a refuge for oppressed peoples. some open to the bright sun. century after century. irregular line across the continent way as to divide it into slopes. — Mt. Their depth. also. and impetuous The hills are strewn torrents and rivers. while on the St. Mt. No European Volcanoes. ridge whose high passes are but The chain little a long saw -like lower than the neighis boring peaks.. and then. the number of islands near the coast. Gothard 6i feet sometimes comes in a single night. Many rivera have their sources in glaciers. Glaciers. and vineyards extend to the ice river. Etna. Agassiz. southeast. British Isles.000 feet higher than by a series of feet. and uproot hundreds of trees. the naturalist. Bernard are among those most noted. Slowly and surely moving on. is one of the most cele- brated volcanoes of the world. What is the distance across the . full of fearful chasms and deep gorges. rise far and wide into tlie atmos^ere. head of the Rhone Valley. and even so low into the warm valleys that fields of wheat. —The Alps have many natural at the passes. with scattered fragments of rock and filled with mighty glaciers. the rivers of one slope flow- EXERCISES. Draw diagrrams showing relief of the continent. Before the fresh layers have had time to adhere to the old snow. Sketch the coasts.100 of which have been counted in the high Avalanches. navigable stream. Vast quantities of snow fall on the mountain slopes and in the higher valleys. more than Mont Blanc. as measured by dropping stones into the crevices in the ice. and lose itself in the lower stages of the mountain. it is said they would supply water sufiBcient to keep the Seine. is eastern plain from the Sea of Azof to the STUDIES. bearing with them innumerable fragments of rock and earth loosened from the ledges and slopes. peninsulas. into forests of beeches. and point is The greatest elevation at any from high plateaus. in Sicily. in the green valleys below. gardens. lakes. The Scandinavian Mountains consist of broken ranges ASCENT OF MONT DLANC. something over 8. over forty of which commercial highways have been built." The avalanches most dreaded by the people living in the Alps are those which immediately follow a fresh fall of snow. when tlie snow cloud has passed away. of the other. important mountains in Europe.526 or snowy peaks. —Next to the Alps. cipal islands. it with the two Americas from the sea. Some of the glaciers descend far helow the snow line. prin- ing northwest. valleys. loosens rocks. running for nine years. In those districts most liable to avalanches protection is sought by planting forest trees. Elburz. principal mountains. distance of the interior direction. birches. I. of 57J feet during the six winter months. the greatest extent of land. there are 500 valleys so winding and intricate that they have been the citadel of Europe. sweeps away houses in its path. The average height of the range about 8. with layers of white or bluish ice hundreds of feet thick. The Caucasus Mountains the chief of which is are rocky barriers rising ab- ruptly from the plains and crowned 2. a is large. and beautiful mountain lakes are fed by streams from the melting ice. They highlands surpass those of Scandinavia in terrific and savage are rent and torn. or gla- many centuries. by driving piles of wood and of iron. rising "First the enormous bed of snow is seen to plunge forth like a cataract. Pyrenees.EUROPE— GLACIEES — MAP STUDIES. and chief river*. and the number qf zones. with high ragged rock walls all about them.000 feet. abounding in mountain lakes imbedded in vertical rock walls. •Consult Eeclus. The Urals form a low range exceedingly rich in metals. snow which have accumulated on the- and travelers. which roars and whirls with such violence as to shake the very rocks.Locate and describe the coast waters. Vol.600 feet. nearly 1. whirlwinds of powdered snow. like huge amphiwinding foot-paths. ciers. the Pyrenees are the most is . and larches.* Passes.

deserts. Its lower course. salt.000 your conclusions. in Britain lead. and Lake Constance 208. and pyramids. and chief Draw dia^ams. ASIA. in Austria and Spain. from the Ocean? What the length of the Red Sea? Of the Malay Pen- insula? • Central Asia is a table-land. and far above and other ranges.sts DESCRIPTION. would its boundaries touch the sea at its Europe were placed over Central Asia any point? Which continent most reIn the indentations of this rise the Himalayas. Which ocean is is from the largest Determine its — Though is far the coast is deeply indented.000 to 2. or "Roof of the World.000 i'eet below the sea level.— What coast is lowest? is STUDIES. The Himalayas. called the "Abode of Snow. it rises circumference and like an immense cone to the height of about 11. as they aris Most of them are navgenerally connected by canals. in Italy marble. or between towering ledges that open now and then into beautiful cross valleys with clear streams. and England. (Physical.100 feet. its upper course is noted for its cataracts." As it Plains. every the west coast are celebrated for their wild beauty. peninsulas. The Thibetan Plateau has a mean elevation of 14. rising into crags. a fall of seventy feet.000 feet. The length of the Rhine is 960 miles. Rivers. the Kuen-lun. What is the distance from the Caspian Sea. —Europe is dotted with lakes. called by the Germans "Father Rhine. The river enters the Caspian through 200 mouths forming a delta 50 miles back.) MAP General Questions. sections.700 miles.000 to 15. rivers. copper.000 feet. The distance from the Isthmus of Suez to East Cape is 6. of which that of Schaffhausen. it flows among vine-clad hills. its coasts are in- pared with the plateaus of other continents. Rising in the Alps. fertile valley often called the cuts the plateau further down. Austria. and in Finland. The lakes of the Alps are remarkable for their number. where it crosses a rocky ledge called the "Iron Gate. which rise with a gentle swell to the height of 1. — Judging by the for latitude. inland seas. Its basin is connected by canals with that of the Danube. precious metals are found in the Carpathian Mountains . in Italy. The Valdai The Hills. their depth. and platinum in the Ural. and Its is the only active is The Rhine. plains or steppes. also. ica How many great peninsulas on the east and south? How many seas indent the coast? How many is Asia is the largest of the continents. Coal is Norway and . has a depth of 2. a broad and rapid stream. rivers equally distributed over the continent? Point out those portions of the receives water continent having few streams. in Italy and Greece. and in the mountainous parts of England.st to 2. is most remarkable. to the west.200 miles of navigation.000. There are. of Asia? the character of the Which Size. Rhone.000. the Pamir Steppe. The average elevation is 6. Those of Spain many narrow and deep In the Scandinavian Peninsula. square miles. Roumauia.000 feet. The Lake of Geneva has an area of but 220. Below this point its right bank is skirted with steep cliffs. Britain. Its height is so great that the lava breaks through its sides and has formed innumerable smaller cones all about it. although not so large as those of America. the highest and most extensive on the globe. the deepest part being 2. Section of the continent has its water-roads. table-lands are low when com- Lakes.000 square miles.000 In middle course. the longest European river. in the east. health and prosperity to The Volga is to its soil.000 feet in the west. It skirts many smiling valleys overlooked by lofty mountains. clothed with somber forests or capped with snow. The river system of the Danube has 2. 5. is through plains like tlie flat western prairies. many beautiful lakes in "Wales. principal mountains. The gold. lakes.000 feet. and Sketch the coasts. greatly differing in elevation EXERCISES.300 miles. Above Vienna it is said to surpass the Rhine in the beauty of its scenery. and the fiords on rivers of Europe.500 miles of navigable water. in Russia. in a straight line. and France. its beauty to people. After pa&sing the narrow "Carpathian Gate. the river winds through a "Garden of Germany. and fiords." as the natives call it. but the useful minerals are abundant. With its tributaries it affords about 7. are the greatest elevations of the vast eastern plain.666 feet. and the Kokonor Basin. in England and Germany. Minerals.000 feet in the ea.000 and 10." is the most famous of the continental rivers. The central plateau has an area of nearly 3. Surface. which are crossed with great difficulty. Most of the mouths are shifting channels choked with mud. in England and Spain tin.— Name. The Danube is the largest river in Europe in respect to the volume of water. Coast. showing: elevations. which part of the continent If is very cold ? Very warm? Point out Give reasons those portions of the continent that have the least rainfall. Inland seas lakes. . igable. The Gobi Desert ranges from 4. the lakes are numbered by thous- — The The lochs in the highlands of Scotland. Saone. Vesuvius feet." extend in three . its volcano on the continent of Europe. The ten thousits and streams of Europe give fertility landscapes. sulphur. In the upper part of its course. and is very abundant in Scandinavia. and describe the coast waters. the continent sea. across the northern plain. Iron is widely distributed." it breaks up into a number of branches encircling many "Golden Islands. as the teacher directs. and the beauty and grandeur of their scenery.26 ASIA— MAP STUDIES— COAST— SURFACE. coa. quicksilver. dented by ands. The largest are small when compared with the great lakes of North America. the heart of number of rivers? In what direction the continent longest? greatest length and breadth. height about 4. have an elevation of but 1.000 to 20. sembles Asia in the direction of its coasts ? mountain ranges? and may be divided into and character. islands. diamonds. till it reaches the mountain border of most abundant in Britain and Belgium." a mile in width. through fertile plains. peaks. it flows through a marshy country where its banks are bordered by "trembling forests" resting on a layer of soft mud which allows the surface to shake at every step. and great rivers. Lake Maggiore. . — The plains of Europe embrace about two-thirds of the continent. plateaus. to Behring Strait? to the Arctic What is the distance from Lake Baikal and is separated from it by towering mountain ranges and extensive deserts. is ten miles from Naples. Germany." It then flows on. — Gold and silver are not so plentiful as in the other continents. forming a cataract ot seething waters. are respectively 15. with tooth-like points projecting above the surface.000 square miles. until it reaches the great bend. and. North Amerand South America together do not equal it in size by more — gulfs? What portion of the continent most elevated ? is In what directions does the land slope? Toward which ocean the slope long and gradual ? Are the than 1. often crowned with ruined castles. feet. hut its volume of water is far less than that carried by the Danube. from Cape Romania to Cape Northeast. mountains. and other streams. are very numerous. locate.

.

sloping to the sun. or the Eastward the great " Holy Sea. are salt marshes and sandy plains. over 5.000 remarkable on the bottom being seen to a depth of 40 to 50 The shores in places are bold and feet. and the Euphrates the Persian Gulf The immense rivers of the great northern plain afford 30.000 feet in elevation. a vast plain sloping to the Arctic Ocean. but a single tree seen . importance. to 4. The water from these rivers discolors the sea 60 miles from shore. in places. for its transparency. and Yang-tse-kiang to the Pacific. is but 2.000 feet in elevation. Within is it ocean. the Mekong and the Irrawaddy through Farther India. is highlands. Yenisei. Between the ranges are some of the most beautiful valleys on earth. the largest lake in Asia. have 5. For hun- penetrate the estuary 200 miles the sea. and make but two portages of less than seventeen miles together. the Ganges.500 feet. the Brah-ma-poo-tra. So numerous are the rivers of Southern Siberia that one may travel by water from the Ural Mountains to Yakutsk. the largest glacier. On one camel route across this region. the highest land is 29. The united delta of the Ganges and Brah-ma-poo-tra is said to be the largest in the world. The Obi. They are watered by clear streams and have a genial climate and a fertile soil. some of which are dry.002 feet. with its low mountain borders. the Ho-ang ho. through others course rivers fed by gla^ ciers.000 miles. A lovely island in the lake is famous for it beautiful and fragrant Alpine roses." They form terraces with intervening valleys. Seas. depth of 850 far the line sink- ing. and the Indus. the Amoor. deep gorges. The tides up from dreds of miles inland are low. vaUeys and plateaus of China. It is three miles wide 700 miles from its mouth. though it was probably once connected with the Caspian and with Lake Balkash. flow to the south. is 33 miles long and is flanked by two peaks each over 27. Its estuary is 60 miles vride and in places 300 feet deep. stretching from east to west. The Yenisei and the Lena. is — Lake Baikal. sacred streams from the Himalayas. Lakes. with numberless salt lakes. The Obi drains a basin larger than that of the Mississippi.000 to 6. when free from ice. The plateau of Deccan. and has a mean feet. dreary wastes open to the Arctic gales. Mount Everest. As many as forty peaks of the i"^ Himalayas are known to exceed 24. It plais teau descends by rugged mountain slopes to the fertile 360 miles long. flow in all directions from the central highlands." of the Mongolians. objects The water of the lake to 3. are the rich plains of India. Rivers. but as they are closed by ice during a large part of tlie year.000 miles of navigation. the Sihon seeks the Aral Sea.28 ASIA— MOUNTAINS— EI VEES— LAKES. — The rivers of Asia —The Aral Sea is very yhallow and without an outlet. on the globe. extending 200 miles inland and 80 miles along the Bay of Bengal. are of little commercial ' nearly parallel ranges 1. pian depression The Aral-Casis way through the the largest in beria to the distant northern extent on the earth. the and the Lena find their plains of SiMOLST EVEREST. The Himalayas have many narrow. Baltoro.000 miles of navigable water. the highest range bordering the plateau of Thibet. on the Lena.000 feet high. Southward the land ascends gradually to the South Siberian highlands and to the steppes of the Aral and the Caspian. The northern continent is section of the The Yang-tse-kiang is the great river of China.500 miles southeastward from the point where the mountain systems unite in the "Eoof of the World. rocky. and hot springs abound. or Oh the south of the central below the sea level.

The highest portion of the continent is 6. even in the hardest clay or the most unpromising sands. but rich in precious stones. and we do not low. Along nearly the entire coast is a Wherever water found in a valley or hollow of the Sahara. Coast. about 20." although along the northern borders are sand- have many cataracts. we shall see lower plateaus with tropical vegetation succeeded by desert wastes. there spring grass and herbs. as pictured in the old hills. loftiest and are the highest points in Africa." open to the commerce of the world. The Caspian is 84 feet lower than Both the Aral and the Caspian receive large and. Africa not The Great or a less little — The Sahara has an area of 2. and the Desert.900 feet. elevation va- Some are strewn with sharp worn pebbles.400 feet. and. turquoises. Mt. Rubies. and ridges here and there. as the seas have no outlet.000 feet where hidden springs soak through the soil. — above the sea. that are now incrusted with salt that glistens like snow in the glaring sunlight. amethysts. and wonderful valleys that make Asia so grand. The Atlas Mountains. Africa may be considered as al vast plateau. great rivers geographies. but a region of rock-strewn plateaus with While Africa. Nothing can be imagined more utterly dreary and awe-iusplring than a mountain in the Sahara. they equal the Alps or the Apennines in extent. This waterocean was once covered by the sea. — The table-land of the interior is From all this it will be seen that the Great Desert is not a level reached by a series of broad terraces. The coal fields of China are very extensive. and mountainous region lies along the eastern coast. Several low ranges of mountains are found in the desert. Kenia. rying from 1. beryls. In the whole Sahara there is not a river-bed where the water flows throughout the year. gloomy appearance and peculiar outlines of the masses of stone.000 to 6. waste of drifting sand.APEICA— COAST— SUEF ACE. (Physical. is a plateau. But there are dry river-beds. deeply indented. evaporation must go on monds abound in the Ural Mountains. whose summits are 11.) DESCRIPTION. all rivers evaporate or are gradually lost in the sands." AFRICA. and. Silver is found in Japan and China. as its more than two-thirds the area of the United States. but they are of small extent. The highest known point in any desert range is 7. such as the Atlas in the north. few peaks rise above the line of perpetual snow. Oases watered by rivers are only found near the base of mountains.000 to 9. all much more even than the extensive sand dunes. Dia- most abundant in Siberia.000 feet.000 feet. in a journey of 300 miles. and salt abounds in all parts of the continent. the dark. in Ceylon. and Kilima N'jaro. The coast of is Camaroons. and the south half has an elevation of 4. is Gold "Gold Mountains. Minerals. carnelians. rivers. are the other important ranges.000 feet. The bare rocks absolutely void of vegetation. its Much of the desert is occupied by table-lands more or stones less level. the lofty plateaus. or water is supplied by irrigation. are of this hilly The most A class. remind the traveler that he is in the "Great Desert. or the mountain ranges. desolate mountains. near the Gulf of Guinea. a "sea of sand. —The metals are not so abundant in Asia as in it is the other continents. of hills and . especially in the Altai or very rapidly. and iu«Borneo. and others with small waterThere are a few plains whose surface is below the is sea level. rock crystals. 29 the Black Sea. the heart of the continent is not yet or dunes. there grows the palm and there is a fertile spot an oasis. as a whole. Surface. and many places where lakes have once been.000 to 9. hilly landscapes of varied beauty. and other gems are found. though they lack the elevation of the mountains of Europe.500. and some mountain groups rivaling the scenery of the Alps. 22.814 feet. but it is not. that are formed of fine particles that have been driven by the winds to accumulate in mounds which take the form of the billows of the ocean.000 square miles. find that diversity of surface seen in Europe. beginning in the highlands of Abyssinia and extending southward some distance beyond the Equator. or lowland belt from 100 to 300 miles wide. the Kong.

of 8t Helena PHYSICAL MAP OF AFRICA AaJeofMllea 200 too eOO 800 .la.

are continu- The Nile is one of the most celebrated rivers of the globe. the river enters a valley. and against islands of red and yellow sandstone. it continues a mighty stream. is and for this reason they do not afford easy access to the about 500 miles in length with an average breadth of but seven interior of the continent. At the lower cataract. and what the breadth.— Locate and describe the coast waters. The lower cataracts of the Nubian Nile are not waterfalls. ids. lie high. After the flood subsides. yet. second. often spreading out into broad lakes with no sign of current except in time of flood. and reaches its greatest height near the 21st of September. either side of the valley. the surface is found covered by the fine. there clear. The river begins to rise about June 25th. which is usually crossed by caravans of camels. is flUed with slime that goes to fertilize the plains below. nearly 1. Name the continents in the order of — their mountains of the continent situated ? What portions of the continent are most elevated ? Ou the whole. the horizon appears like a wide sea. Then come tropical forests. and the great Nubian Desert. softest blue. with innumerable monkeys. Are there many or few rivers? size. "Nothing can be more picturesque than lies ba. Which continent has the its longest coast line in proportion to its area? Considering to south? coast lines. At Thebes the flood is 40 feet. some thirty of them occurring in a In its upper course it is a rapid stream with many to its waterfalls. of the continent as determined . Here are the pyramids. On it in. except Tchad. At its mouth it Where it bursts through is 6 miles wide and 150 fathoms deep. the river receives no tributary. It has been called the Amazon of Africa. lakes. the mountains from the table-lands its channel is interrupted by almost continuous cataracts. as the eye dilates.000 above the Mediterranean. From about the mouth of the Bahr el Arab junction with the Blue Nile at Khartoum it has a sluggish The Congo appearance. or true Nile. cultivated lands. long distance. and rivers.500 miles. it falls ujjon outlying Villages. capable of watering the plains of Egypt every year. All are obstructed by rap- At miles." The Cataracts. halfbarren steppes. flows over a space of more than 30° of latitude. walls of purple hills. at certain seasons. ous ridges of barren limestone deserts In the valley of the Lower Nile lived the ancient Egyptians. the Niger. Excessive dryness and heat prevent these from decaying. save infrequent oases. 31 of river and lake beds. thus describes The route winds through a succession of bare gorges walled in by high rocks. and sprinkled by the east wind with It is bounded on the otlier side by tall and broken crescents of snowy foam. islands. mountains. Above the cataracts the river has a width of 4 to 5 miles. south of the Sahara. under the Equator." MAP — STUDIES. last. Rivers. ' and clean cut by the breaking w. The unlimited desert stretches away on either hand. and the skin becomes like parchment drawn over the skeleton. diversified surface ? Over How many of the which continents are the streams most evenly distributed ? On the whole. over stony plateaus and across rocky ridges. the White. while others take the form this first view of Tanganyika as it the gorgeous. Lake Tanganyika ton. above the delta. flecked and capped with peiirly mist. and mountains far beyond the limit of vision are frequently seen reversed in the air as if standing ou their summits. here reigned the Pharaohs. the Congo. tirely round it in his little boat. but every year for thousands of years has been innundated. and is navigable Above these it is again navigable for a to .000 miles. — Not long ago. or standing sharply penciled against the azure sky. and the track marked out by the remains of fallen camels. with rocky hills and fertile valleys interspersed with jungles where large herds of buffaloes and elephants are seen. —The Nile. all. by the scale? Which is the longest river? the length and width of the Great Desert. is the surface diversified or monotonous ? Where are the great lakes ? What portion of the continent is best watered ? What portion receives the most rain? Give a reason for your conclusion. and blocks fallen from them form islets 150 to 200 feet in height. which continent oilers the best natural advantages for commerce? Which from east to Which continent is longest from north Which continent has the longest west? Does the latitude show a temperate or a hot climate ? continent has the dryest climate ? • Which portion of the Why is does it not rain in the Sahara? mountain ranges? Which has the most extensive plains? Deserts? Plateaus? Which continent has the least. the contiit is nent was thought to be without lakes. palms. The mirage is almost continuous. and here the Israelites toiled as bondmen. black rock masses rise abruptly from the foaming current. They receive their names from the color of their water which. and the Zambesi ing against the rock-border that towers in numberless clifls.sking in is of castle towers.AFRICA— THE RIVERS— THE LAKES— MAP STUDIES. is by far the most copious stream of the contiand one of the great rivers of the world. it: Captain Bur- days. •' Most parts of the desert are without the least trace of life. The Congo drains an area nearly one-half as large as that of the United States. notwithstanding the sandy. distance of 40 miles. rich mold which has made this valley so productive further back than history can tell. — beyond which extend arid pictures of desolation save where a few oases lift their valley itself it is whose civilization began thousands of years ago. From the mouth of the Atbara to the sea. — Lake Nyanza feet on The Lakes. Equatorial Africa was marked the map as an unexplored region. canoes of the fishermen give something of life to the scene. an English explorer. Beyond a short foreground of rugged and precipitous hills. or white ant. Are the ter of its coast? indentations of the coast favorable or unfavorable to trade? Where are the Sketch the coast. nent. 37. and the freouent islets specking a sea horizon. To the south. lakes. tains. "The Lady Alice. are the four great rivers of Africa. tropical sunshine. 4. some 1. deserts. looks like a walled lake whose waves are dash- — "Further in front stretches an expanse of the lightest. or "Black River. varying from thirty to tliirty-five miles in breadth. North of the lake the river crosses a rolling. the villages forming islands. bluft' headlands and capes.avelets. What continent most resembles Africa in the characAre there many or few islands near the coast. moun- General Questions. about 4.Stanley Falls. Rising in Lake Victoria Nyanza. or Great Cataract. and chief rivers. but to those of now known is that its great lakes rank next North America a beautiful sheet of water with long Stanlfey sailed en- Victoria Nyanza reaches of lovely and picturesque shore. Only a few of the deeper valleys have moisture sufficient to support a few palms and mimosas or to give scanty food for gazelles. The naturally barren. and." the voy- age occupying ninety days. which. is some 450 miles in length. here bordered by sedgy rushes. at Rosetta. utterly desolate. and which the most. the whole plain being a sheet of water. Which is the longest lake ? Give EXERCISES. the journey requiring many Victoria is Basin of the Nile. Comparison of Continents. picturesque country. plains of sand . its lakes and rivers. heated region through which it flows. and with patches of brush wood. The Blue Nile and the Athara. deserts. walling hills. These plains are strewn with the conical mounds of the termite. at Cairo. a narrow plot of emerald green shelves toward a ribband of glistening yellow sand. At that time. Further down are low marshy regions bordered by level steppes stretching to the horizon in all directions." are large streams rising in the Alpine regions of Abyssinia. which are the warmest conticontinents lie in three zones? nents' What is the length. and opposite a low point.

".Cameroons. and are The Great There are two classes of oceanic islands the Mgh and the low. West India Islands: 10.. and they often have cones with craters still active. but average width is much less. and every kind of coral formation. in extent All the lakes are salt. Cape Verde Islands 20. from mere specks in the ocean up to the size of the British Isles. Atlas Mts.. 5. Borneo.. Sierra Nevadaj 18. Himalayas. of a red color. Great Salt Lake. 15. They are of all sizes. by degrees.ISLANDS. 3.. 17. and around them are sand ridges or salt-crusted mudplains iu which men and beasts sink and are lost. is the work of the minute polyp we have described. Ca. Dovrefeld Hits.-^cade Range 16. its Oceanic islands usually in groups. 4." societies They live in and do not work at a depth below twenty five fathoms. and injure the feet of horses so that they are often lamed and even killed. in the west. Society Islands 22. having the same kind of rock. 12. but by budding. the largest island on the globe.. Alleghany Mts. the soil is baked and becomes almost like stone. just above the sea. There are atolls. tiny toilers of the sea are usually deep and difficult of access. Caucasus 1 . but the western is richer in bights and inlets. 21. New Zealand. it. Highlands are found in the east. l.'i. still forming a circular line of islets on Surface. Nearly all the streams are subject to the influence of drought and flood. and at last. 11.000 square miles. sand. and are lost in the sands or shallow lakes. but the ring is often broken into small islands. :is it often happens. The sharp spines of this grass tear the clothes and flesh of explorers. 7. in many places contains Madagascar. Though ^Australia. Hindoo Koosh: 10. sooner or later. lie in the midst of the oceans. . on the — Its coast east. or Australia. and. Here and there are openings to the ocean. And where broad sheets of water are seen at one time grassy plains appear at another.akeTiticaca. Bolivian Andes 6. lifting up the looser fragments of coral. Mts. Table-land and >Its. and the remains of the innumerable organisms which swarm in the ocean. begin to x>opulate the incipient groves. ." coast. I. Colombian Anilm. CLASSES OF ISLANDS. In the dry season which follows. is and oceanic. This lining substance is to tlie polyp the same as the bones in the higher animals. The lake district of Australia is nearly 1. Kilmandjaro. come and take possession of the new land. l. . 14. it. its area being It ranks but less little by many geogbelow Euroiie land surface of the earth. some seed germinates which has been carried away by the currents. somewhat is than 3.'i. 9. Sandwichlslands. — break in pieces the projecting stems. 22. others several miles wide. a basin or lagoon of salt water. The riv^ers of the lowland region flow inland. Mt. what we call coral. build on a foundation which tliey find on sub- Chilian Andes. 20. Kuen-Lun. 13. 13. vian Andes. Tlie conil islands are the work of iiiarineanimals called polyps. 8. 3. they form a bank of debris on which the breakers beat. There. COMPARATIVE HEIGHTS OF PRINCIPAL MOUNTAINS OF THE WORLD.*the same plants and large animals.. the streams rise — suddenly and carry destruction over Sometimes the rain fails for years. IS. StannovoiMts. great floods occur at long intervals. bij-ds resort hither to hide their nests among tlieir foliage. clayey.. 2. . Tlie soi 1 is sandy or Taurus Mts. 25. These silent. AMERICA.. and large numbers of cattle die of hunger or thirst. of Brazil. Barrier Keef is 70 milcjs wide at its southern extremity. but at rare intervals the rain pours in a deluge. 19. 21. Some of the lakes are more than 100 miles iu length. This substance is lowlands forming some of tlie most desolate regions of the Mts.-ii. where. and 16.Sin. that imv^ the cylindrical body of the polyp. like plants. This mighty barrier against which the ocean has dashed. . converting the land into a swamp. globe. very monotonous. deep streams have not a drop of water in their beds. then insects and worms. As their structures are reared around the peaks. so that one generation seems to grow out of another. or sacs. Java.Peru4. some very narrow. 24. Islands are of two classes. and build their huts on the edge of a spring which had been gradually formed in some cavity by the subterranean filtering of the rain water. The entire reef with its numerous islands has an area of . islands are sometimes The gorges encircled by coral reefs. . Mts. attracted from afar by the beauty of the site. There are no springs. Altai Mts. 8. Apennines. Sumatra 26. Mt. large areas. Tlie channel between it and the shore is some 15 miles across. and. British Islands. of Mexico 14. Erebus (Victoria Land). The former are of volcanic origin. in size. 2 Pass of Cumbre. of Abyssinia. S.. — cocoanut palm and other tropical plants. Table Mt.ks. . 17. as it washed the coast of some distant land. tralia consists of Pyrenees.Pcak of Teneriife. of Venezuela. Ural Mts. AMEEICA. Alps. they form scarcely one-seventeenth of the raphera called a continent. they have the same circular form as the peaks themselves. as each generation dies. The interior of AusN.. are sometimes in the form of a circle inclosing several good harbors. 19.000. Carpathian Mts. hence. the calcareous bank becomes covered here and there by a thin layer of vegetable soil. In the eastern portion of the island. For hundreds of miles the arid plains are covered with porcupine griuss which grows in bunches or tussocks. 11. through which the streams flow from the hills the cones tak- ing the place of the lagoons.000 square miles. "The waves plants embellish with their verdure the gray and monotonous time trees take root there. which live in conntless numbers in warm seas not crossed by cold ocean currents. Mts. secreted from the waters of the sea and dejwsited between the outer and inner skins.. 23. some fishing party. not a blade of grass cau grow.200 miles in length. Nearly parallel with and about sixty miles from Barrier Eeef. The substance composing the coral is lime. Snow Mts. but navigation is dangerous on account of numerous sunken reefs. salt." 1. and bring from the open sea. The polyps not only multii)ly by eggs. Coast. 28. The high volcanic These highlands are generally hilly plateaus of no great elevation. Mountains with rugged sides often rise from the table-lands. continental AUSTRALIA. carried along on driftwood as if on rafts. it leaves behind the soUd limestone secreted by it. The latter are the tops of coral reels. fringing reefs. and. but they are subject to great changes in size because their water sui)ply depends wholly upon the rainfall. . after a 32 "A few land Rivers. and has They seas. The continental islands were once parts of the continents. Andes of Patagonia 9.000 miles from southeast to northwest. age after age. The northern and the southern coasts have no deep indentaCoral islands are found only in the warm waters of tropical tions.. to a limited which grow the noble extent. 6. especially. 27. 12. Enriched by these additions brought to them by the waves. have been named "world builders. almost innumerable. is the "Great" In this distance there is but one safe opening for ships. The following extract from Eeclus will islands are gradually fitted to be the abode of show how the man: coral Lakes.30. City of Quito. Rocky Mts. See map of Oceania. marine cones and pea. and. . drive them outward to the highest point of the reef. Australia. broken shells.

finally become salt. A glass of sea-water is of crystal clearness. Much saline matter is carried by rivers into the sea. the water rises the tide is said to flow. or are dashed across one another. The later every day. and the full light of day pours a flood of fire upon the billows. when it the sea are salt in recedes. and as the water evaporates the salt is left behind. is The Atlantic it raises the surface into waves that move forward regularly. Before 1513. but remains almost at rest. in breeze or tempest. In the North Atlantic the average height of the largest waves is 19 feet. who crossed the Isthmus of Panama. off the coast of Scotland. and they are lifted up. following the moon in its journey from east to west over rise. Extensive plains and broad table-lands are the rule Forces are ceaselessly operating to level the bottom of the sea. as yet pale and fiilnt. The part of the ocean seen from the mountains of the isthmus lay to the south. depths yet accurately meas- The water does not move forward with the wave. whose lantern is 72 feet above high-water mark. the wind. parts. while in the direction of the poles it is of a greenish hue. exerted — a great distance from the by the coast. Supposing the sea to have been fresh at first. and it is stated that jets of water have been thrown 80 feet higher than its light. it would. in a broad and increasing swell. the sun. a Spaniard. and basins of mud to harbors. Waves sometimes entirely cover the Eddystone lighthouse. a navigator who crossed tlie ocean in 1521. Twice every day vast plains of sand are covered. only Waves. reflecting the stars and all other objects with clear outlines. 33 — seen in the diagram at B. Its hue often depends on the color of the bottom. then the sparkling of the waves becomes more brilliant. In the vicinity of the it is continents for often shallow Tides. moon and Six hours later the sands are again bare. or two low tides. Hundreds of rivers are bringing down their deposits of soil and sand. not far from 15. but its average appears to be about the same as that island of St. has reapThese move- ments of the waters are called tides. and for six hours the tide ebbs. The Arctic "chopped sea. and when evening comes the sea reflects back to the sky all its splendor of purple and flame. and the dead bodies of countless millions of tiny creatures are falling like snowflakes from the upper strata of the water and slowly filling up its valleys.000 feet. and the falling. the waters recede. on plants growing in the waters. It contains more than half the waters of the sea. in this way. * Consult Heclus's . ured are about 4} or 5 miles. and or a forest the grain and trees remain rooted while the form of the wave sweeps on. The Ocean is the largest. and from this it received the name. or on its myriads of animated creatures. because he encountered no storms during his voyage. plateaus." The height and speed of the waves are determined by the strength of the wind. "South Sea.000 feet. Off the Cape of Good Hope waves of 50 and 60 feet are not uncommon. Mountain chains are not found except near the continents of which they form a part. all — The waters of When tide. yet its top is often enveloped in waves and spray after the fury of the tempest is past. and the Antarctic is hardly be regarded as separate from the great body of the sea.— The sea seldom presents a smooth surface. rises 112 feet above the rock on which it is built. Cause of Tides. Every day dwellers on the sea-coasts see its waters sweU and fall in regular movements. The bottom of the sea is strewn with the shells of creatures so minute that an ounce of sand often contains a quarter of a million. This may be understood by watching the waves that pass in succession over a field of grain. twice a day rivulets are changed to rivers. valleys. and contains only a quarter of the water surface of the globe. viewed from a distance. where the trade winds blow and evaporation goes on most rapidly. Depth of the Oceans. "At dawn the surface of the water is gently brightened by the glimmering of the atmosphere. named it the Pacific. It is now and then. ebbThe time between two high tides. After the moon passes on. The least movement in the air is betrayed by a change in the aspect of the water. and the time of any tide comes fifty-two minutes rising sea is flood-tide." Magellan. similar to those of the land. the ocean in tropical latitudes is of a deep blue. and bays are filled by the rising waters. — plains. Bottom sea has of the Sea. every breath of wind that just curls the waves renews the harmony of changed coloring on the face of the ocean. this immense body of water was unknown to Europeans. Thomas gave 23.200 of the Atlantic. — The sea Pacific is a body of salt water encircling its surface.—The gentle. forming what sailors call a The Indian Ocean is is next in size to the Atlantic. as just described. It diminishes toward the poles.. but the particles composing the water are alone free to move. about half the size of the Pacific. is — The average depth of the Atlantic The deepest soundings near the feet. the sea. as Color of the Sea. really but to a part of the Atlantic. for six While this swell is following the Ocean. the same as in the case of brine left in a tub to "dry up " by the heat of the sun. The Bell Rock lighthouse.. and when the lead brings up ooze it is often found to be composed of 80 to 90 per cent of skeletons. and its its its long and more abrupt slopes. but navigators have measured those which were over 43 feet. 12 h. Saltness of the Sea. and ships lie aground in the harbors. In the Mediterranean the tempest waves rise from 13 to 18 feet above the trough of the sea. that the waters Usually. is 56min. The Pacific has deeper tracts.THE Size SEA. the mud peared."* — Oceans. every cloud in passing mirrors itself with the forms and shades of its vapors. and is less in the vicinity of great rivers where fresh and salt water are mingled. but. In that year it was discovered by Balboa. but there are few places where the line goes below 18. The Indian Ocean is supposed to be of great depth. The greatest THE PACIFIC AND THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. it ebbs. moon. but their saltness is greatest in the Torrid Zone. The remains of some species cover thousands of square miles. are like a mirror. The waters of the ocean are moved not only by the winds but by a force called attraction. — —The solid portions of the earth and the water are alike drawn or attracted by the moon. the depth and saltness of the water. As the tidal wave reaches the shore the waters and hours there is flood-tide. the globe and covering three-fourths of The con- tinents divide it into parts called oceans. when the winds are at rest. Origin of Saltness.

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forming up the and other inhabitants of the Torrid Zone follow stream. apparent north of the island of Cuba. and an under. as it approaches Europe. and are called spring tides.. is Its rate of motion at the Equator 1. over the Atlantic. The mightiest rivers on land are but rills when compared with the streams that flow through the sea. called by the Indians po-ro-ro-ca. Enormoos blocks have been * axis are the chief causes of ocean currents. The bore of the Amazon. the Hoogbly. Not suspecting the flood.^ The unequal distribution of the sun's heat over the earth's surface and the rotation of the earth on its Sometimes that portion of the Atlantic east of the Banks of Newfoundland assumes the appearance of the Arctic Sea. iThe broad plateau knovra as the Banks of Newfoundland was undoubtedly built up by the meeting of these conflicting currents. Causes of Currents.* — The Gulf Stream is a branch of the equa- and the tides are torial current of the Atlantic. The icebergs borne southward from the immense glaciers of Greenland are rapidly thawed by the warm waters of the Gulf Stream into which they are carried. because of its roaring.000 miles an hour. the tides are low. and other works of human hands have been borne by the Gulf Stream from South America and other portions of the New World to the western shores of Europe. and its temthe bordering ocean that the its course. such as the Seine. at the period of high tides. and are called neap tides. their influences coincide. Gulf Stream. and were there no land. a«^'"'f- to bend westward. perature fish is Its color is of Where the advancing tide meets the current of a great river. In mid ocean tlie tide is only 2 to 5 feet in height. where the attraction of the moon is weaker. . trunks of trees. ishes until. The heat of the sun and the rotation of the earth on its axis produce movements in the oceans grander than the waves or These forces carry the cold waters from the polar seas to the equatorial regions. hovering in the warm air above the it On the contrary. When the moon is and third The name was given when Its current is fully it was thought that waters made quarter. the Weser. It was such remains that famished Columbus evidence of an unknown world across the sea. the tides. what is called a bore. and of warm water from the Equator to the poles. — In the vicinity of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland the outskirts of the Gulf Stream are met by the united Greenland currents with their icebergs. cold current. like a mighty wall of water. pass majestically through the waves which dash against them. The waters of the sea are never at rest. In the English Channel the spring tides reach 40 or 50 feet. by the creatures living in them. moves water. SPRINO AND NEAP TIDES. Ocean Currents. 500 miles. reaches it many As the earth turns on its axis every twenty-four hours. So there are always two high waters under the moon on opposite sides of 36 another swell water is heavier than warm. vessels are in great danger of capsizing. is formed on the opposite side of the earth. warm current. At the mouths of some rivers. like ships. it spreads out. The courses of these ocean rivers may be traced by the temperature and color of their waters. part of the '^^^^ heavens. are but branches of these.THE SEA— TIDES — OCEAN CUEEENTS. rises iu three successive waves. timbers of wrecked ships. and the cold waters toward the flow into and displace the poles tend constantly to warm waters of the Torrid Zone. and their waters chill and condense the fogs warm vapors. like a fan. or rivers of the sea. and the Amazon. giving rise to two currents an upper. See diagram. as at A. a part of which passes through its ''Z^---' very high. the sun adds its powerful force to that of the moon. when moon are in the same the sun and aside by the land. attaining together a height of 30 to 50 feet.?*?•'"- rents are produced. at its first the Carribean Sea and a part further east. it started — the more and more behind the bottom of the sea passing it — and instead of reaching the Equator due south or due north of the place of starting. All other currents. The water of slow-moving polar speed of the latter. — But the earth turns on its axis from west over to east. save where it is broken or turned The polar currents are thus made At new moon. often for hundreds of miles. the Elbe. which drop their sand. degrees westward. the sun acts in opposition to the moon. Seeds. though iu the vicinity of the Bahamas it flows over three miles an hour. and by the debris they bear along in their journeys from clime to clime. Icebergs. and of vast depth. At its narrowest part it is deep.and the icebergs their roeks. the Greenland whale and other animals of northern seas shun the Gulf Stream as though were a belt of flame. caused by the forms of the land. or. there would be a slow but ceaseless flow of cold water in a direct line from the poles to the Equator. giving rise to the thick and everlasting peculiar to that I'egion. becomes an enormous wave. the circuit of the Gulf of Mexico. and. The width of the stream increases some 37 miles wide and 200 fathoms and its depth dimina beautiful azure. meeting within the tropics. The Gulf Stream crosses the entire Atlantic at an average rate of twentyfour miles a day. two swells that time. On the eastern coast of North America it is from 8 to 12. and at full moon. Cold Study map on page 34 at this point. and the waters tend to fall away from the solid kernel of the earth. when It is thus that the equatorial current and two polar cur- the sun and moon are in opposite quarters.in the contending waters. and two low waters at equal distances between them. They form ocean rivers hundreds of miles in width. but iu the narrow Bay of Fundy it rises to 60 or 70 feet. at the poles diminished to zero. form the Great Equatorial Current that encircles the earth. current. the bore. and the warm waters from thence in the direction of the poles. it is at the 60th parallel. in other words.?. Were the earth at rest. as shown on the chart. regions flowing to fast-mov- ing equatorial regions cannot acquire the increased eastward and it it is left meridians on which eastward under the earth. so much warmer than summer the contending wave. . and the waves are sometimes broken up by numberless islands. causing a regular succession of tides and two troughs travel over every part of the ocean in moving in a direction opposite the motion of the earth. The course of the tidal waves is changed or greatly modiiied by the forms of continents. or to the limit of tide- while the birds of lands fly far to the northward.

Hundreds of ships have been lost by striking is felt in Japan. Air in motion is called mnd. it has its waves and currents. and the "Emerald Seas" is Isle of the so named because of its green fields. or springs in jets. On the eastern coast of North Am'irica. or about twelve times the average depth of the sea. bloom in England in October. unseen in the dense fog. — than the water. The great ocean of air is never at rest. miles above the surface of the earth. all these movements of the air. and occasionally covered with snow. the ground is frozen nine months in the year. Like the ocean of water. The temperature of the air above the land is soon raised higher than that of the air over the water. becomes lighter. The Japan current the Pacific. pounds upon every square inch. were equally warm while the warmer air is forced making a fresh sea breeze. Looking at the map. — Let nature. the air and is forced upward by the colder from the outer and less water. presses equally in all directions. toward of greatest heat. the mulberry. The land upon an island and is heated more readily Air in Motion. the land has radiated most of it the stove and we feel warm air rising. and measuring at least seven times that distance below the surface of the water. upward from the island. in the stove. It extends far above the highest clouds. — makes it or pressure of the air. Silver fountains occasionally burst alternately from either side of the iceberg as it is tipped by the waves. flourish the olive. Air is present wherever we go. . hardly allowed them to pant. singing in tlie ears. we see that most of Europe lies in what should be the Cool Temperate Zone. Whole archipelagoes of ice are occasionally met. these little winds in the room. formits heat. horizontal currents of cooler from without. like and lighter. they had palpitation of the heart. are further north than the northern boundis ary of Minnesota. are caused by the fire attached to the stovepipe current. The main body of the air is from 40 to 50 miles in depth. — At the level of the sea. through which the water rushes with a hollow murmur. Air. as far north as St. THE ATMOSPHEEE— DEPTH OF A AIE. and at last Glashier fainted away. the capital of the German Empire. light air.sing the Pacific that has little direct influence on the climate of the western coast of North America. their fingers froze and refused to move. Glaisher and Coxwell. Land and Sea Breezes. against these monsters. British brig. The sides are pierced with holes. for their lungs. The warm. the ocean to Alaska. in Southern France. the blood swelled the arteries of their temples. air. the loftiest mountain peaks. At the point of greatest expands. rose in a balloon six and a half miles. stove. are said never to freeze. Two a. The lakes the Faroe and Shetland Isles. the weight is Let us try to understand this: Heat expands thinner. 800 or 1. and the vine." Similar effects have been experienced by some who have attempted to scale the highest peaks of the Himalayas and the Andes. Cause of Wind. Paul. but their climate not rigorous. ing an ascending current. We do not feel this pressure upon our bodies. Roses of and all of England. Now. as horizontal currents the point Persons ascending to great heights experience strange difficulties. is illustrated by a heated the Place the hand above When night falls. We hear the stove drawing. A paper wind-wheel but the water retains much which continues to give and. THE ATMOSPHERE. Weight of the Air. The cooler and heavier air of the sea rushes in from all directions. or a mile higher than Mount Everest. or atmosphere. off Cape Race. because. and the hot air is moving up the chimney. flowing rapidly along the eastern coast of Japan.ronauts.000 miles north of the parallel of Minneapolis. off. where bends to and thence across the south and at last is Its genial influence again merged into the equatorial current. fifteen air.36 seen. or caves. warmth near the stove. It is is a branch of the equatorial current of a noble stream of it warm blue water. In the waters of the Torrid Zone is stored the heat which the Gulf Stream bears across the ocean to tcarm the winds which blow over Western Europe and make homes of comfort and plenty for millions of men iu latitudes where King Frost else would make his reign. ascending above replaced by steady. air rushing in above the earth it is too thin to sustain life. but so it much of its heat is lost in cros. moving. 300 to 400 feet high. Yet. Depth of the — In a very thin or rare state it probably extends hundreds of is whirled rapidly by the ascending Through the crack below the door the cool air is rushing into the room. portions of the room. The pressure Far and heavier the stove is air that is pressing heated of the air and its density diminish with the (elevation. bution of heat. would remain at This or in a state of equilibrium. and the few dwarfed inhabitants get their living by catching seal and fish that find a home in the icy Greenland current. it — Wind is caused by the unequal distri- If all portions of the air rest. remained twenty-nine days surrounded by towers and threatening peaks of ice. or rarer. always move. us take an example from fall The rays of the morning sun upon the surrounding sea. "The air becoming too thin. in the same latitude as the British Isles. and the equilibrium is thus destroyed. Those parts of the huge masses that rise above The summit is white the surface often have the appearance of pinnacles. in accordance with a simple law of nature. and it gives off its heat to the air much more rapidly. Berlin. or rare.

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Variable Winds. we might expect to find. the Indian Ocean. Constant or Trade ^Vinds. is average width The atmosphere four to six degrees. it falls more and more behind them. It will rather than sea breezes. As the tropical atmosphere rises. clouds. on a fine July night.st and six months from the southwest. Near the Equator. giving a wet and a dry season in the Torrid Zone. where the heat is intense. the other south.. one The air which is constantly flowing north. in the Reus Valley. In the equatorial zone of calms clouds gather almost daily. far above the earth. Every chink in dwellings is filled with fine dust." because there one could. and the Atlantic give rise to hot and dry winds of various names that sweep across the desert and into bordering lands. which. The Trade Winds are gentle and constant. the Gulf of Guinea. "When it is summer in Central and becomes the point of greatest heat. the air above the water becomes that above the land. vegetation dries up. always getting more and more ahead of the meridians on which they start. It is the region of hot ascending currents. and back into the Southern Hemisphere during our winter. of Calms is the region of ascendThe calms of Cancer and the calms of Capri- corn lie between the zone of constant and the zone of variable winds. the other. — During summer in the southern half of Africa is the atmosphere of that region cooler air from Asia. "When the ascending equatorial currents. from the tropics. As the equatorial regions are always very warm. following the movement of the sun in the heavens. since it generally blows from the end of April for that number of days. and there are no tempests. causing it to rise. in June. or "doldrums. presses The southwest and the northeast are. monsoon. Thus. season. but less to another is marked by high winds and terrible tempests. warmer than Land and sea border- breezes are observed almost daily on nearly all sea-coasts ing the mainlands as well as the islands. with freshly tarred rigging. in Southern Italy." The town of clearing the valleys and mountain sides with great rapidity. but the Temperate Zones are zones of variable winds. in the Northern Hemisphere. fearful tornadoes. The heavier south. a cold wind blowing to the south. These are and northwest winds of the Southern Hemisphere. that from the poles flows in and two lower currents are established. The one. and the where it is then winter. the atmosphere of the Torrid Zone is constantly rarer and lighter than that of the temperate and polar air from the colder regions. The Spancloudless. instead of following the meridians on which directly to the Equator. such as mountain ranges. steady wind moving to the north. they become. if long continued. and Sicily sometimes reaches 95° Fahr. the more common in the Northern. on the north side of the Alps. — to south. I was astonished at the extraordinary clearness of the unclouded starry sky. Hence. but may occur at any season. the southwest winds of the Northern. They wafted Columbus In their path the sky is across the Atlantic and Magellan across the Pacific. they have a greater rotary speed than the regions to which they go. be seen that the direction of these winds depends ni)on the seasons. or newly painted bulwarks. and the law now requixes householders to extinguish all fires in the town on its approach. there to begin again the same round. aLso on the western coast of Mexico and Central America. French traveler gives the following description of a storm in the Sahara: "As I was traveling. or seas. —The differences between the temper- the air ascends ature of the immense sandy deserts of Northern Africa and rapidly. Hot and Dry Winds. and south to north. however. and rain. without danger. the temperature moderate. ish sailors formerly called the tropical part of the Atlantic the "Ladies' Sea. It blows outward from the desert at intervals during Deceinber. and charged with fine dust and sand. and soon covered half the A ." which are the terror of navigators. But the rotation of the earth changes the direction of these currents. through the desert of Bisharin. and are called Trade Winds. The atmosphere was perfectly calm. begin their return to Arabia.'^ meaning fifty. Altorf. Under its breath the ground cracks. It is characterized by scorching heat. and the southwest monsoon then prevails. Reaching the tropical regions these winds bloW nearly from the east. carrying clouds of sand. brings warm weather. and often destroying human life. or bends to the westward. and of the Mediterranean.38 in THE ATMOSPHERE— TRADE WIXDS— MONSOONS. and the heat gradually diminishes as we approach the poles. a little time. and in the Southern Hemisphere. important.less rotary speed than the regions toward which it is it going. and on the coast of Brazil. to the inundation of the Nile. starts. Southern Asia that and. forming a broad Zone of Calms. and if the wind comes when the vine and olive are in bloom the whole harvest may fail. Malta. Monsoons. It It prevails in the valleys opening to the north. brings cool weather and clear skies.^ from the word samma. upon the alternation of day and night. blows chiefly during the winter and spring. scorching the vegetation in their path. violent south wind. The Fohu resembles the Sirocco in being a warm. the belt of equatorial calms. The calms of Cancer and the calms of Capricorn are characterized by light. when they reach the surface of the earth. moves with the sun into the Northern Hemisphere during our summer. has been destroyed by fire on several occasions on account of the fury of this wind. forests. and with their hot breath the poles. toward the point of greatest to the northeast giving rise The rate of rotation near the poles is very slow compared with that at the Equator. meaning hot or poisonous. and the southeast and northwest in the Southern Hemisphere. where the polar currents meet the upper descending currents from the equatorial regions. monsoons blow between Australia and Asia. Southern Europe. The Equatorial Zone ing currents. suddenly it took a different aspect. so that the painted parts assume the nature of sand-paper." The tropical winds and calm belts swing bodily from north The Sirocco is most frequent in July. To these winds the Arabs give the general name "Simoom. when starting on its journey. sweeps across heat. great lakes "Were the earth stationary. But there are many things in the middle latitudes to change the direction of these two normal winds. where it is 1. regions. a cold. The time of the change from one monsoon Similar. in the zone of calms is not without motion. The Harmattan is intensely dry. — The Torrid Zone is the zone of constant winds. and a land breeze sets in. even at midnight. the air at the poles. and "Steamers running along the coast north of Sierra Leone at this February.000 miles an hour. variable winds. etc. and. and the mixture of these with cold currents in the upper air often causes descending. sometimes called the Return Trades. in the east a black cloud began to rise with frightful rapidity. The equatorial zone of calms Its is widest on the eastern side of the three great oceans. and the wind blows from the direction of Africa where it is cooler. intensely heated. find the side next to Africa powdered with fine sand. coming from the poles. sudden squalls. and a southeast wind in the Southern Hemisphere. and. with its daily rains. confide the helm of a ship to a young girl. north and on the two sides of the lighter air of the tropics. shifting winds and absence of rain. January. the leaves of trees roll up and fall off. has . tracts of sand. The Egyptians call the hot wind "Kliamsin. as in the case of land and The monsoons blow alternately six months from the northea. and is "tlie great snow melter. pouring down their deluge of rain accompanied by terrific thunder and the most vivid lightning. ascending near the Equator moves in two upper currents back to the poles. itntil it becomes a northeast wind in the Northern. American sailors call this belt of calms the "Horse Latitudes.

from a Spanish word masterful. or rushing. Hurricanes. which are but vapor floating in the air. we see drops on the outside of the pitcher containing cold water. poles. but often sweep far into the Temperate. even in the dryest time. its moisture condensed into dew. but did not dare to lie down for fear of being buried in the sand. that always cool . or clouds. have a similar origin. and by daybreak the sky was again clear and the air at rest. Evaporation A and other objects near the surface of the earth. takes up a definite amount of vapor. to and ture velocity. and their capacity for moisture decreased. whose high saddle afforded some protection. Greater condensation forms to bring about condensation larger drops. by being raised high above the level of the sea. or a portion of it. Such tornadoes are also the water-spouts of the sea and the whirling sand-storms of the desert. hurricane. or rain. but in the Southern it is the reverse. and the Bora are icy cold northwest winds in Soutliern Europe near the coast of the Mediterranean. From this it follows. returns the water. orates the water in the kettle. I leant myself against my camel. they filled with sand every time we opened them. KVAPOKATION — Winds from the polar regions are from the northwest and cool the eastern coast of Asia and North America. Soon we were surrounded by a dense sand-cloud and stood still in the deepest darkness. more rapidly than the air. The artist has made the ascending vapor visible. which are cooled by the outside air. when the heated and moist air of the school-room comes in contact with the gla. at 100°. "We had quickly covered up our eyes. have their capacity for moisture increased. They come when tlie sky is cloudless. and my servants. opposing horizontal currents. Prom of slow-moving currents of different tempera- this we learn that the change in temperature required The meeting may give rise to an imperceptible rotary motion accompanied by rain or snow. The moisture comes from the air of the room. and give fitir skies. In summer. such as everyone has seen when the little "whirlwind" carries up clouds of dust gathered in its course. by contact with icy mountain peaks or ranges. seen in the foreground. or contains the moisture it will hold. did the same. according to its — When perfectly some of pose it saturated air is is cooled in the least degree. the pools. We Storms. But suphave but 4 grains. making them the cold coasts. are cooled. The storm passed. 70° air will hold 8 grains of moisture per cubic foot. in spite of that. In the winter. by When water evaporates. then the temperature will have to be lowered to a trifle below 50° before condensation begins. but. but they are gotten up on a much grander sweeping vast regions in their course. producing strong ascending. the world of waters. leaves. isphere. Such a movement on a large scale goes by the name of storm. is saturated. and its capacity is increased by heat. more or less of which is always present in it. may cause terrific tornadoes sweeping narrow belts and drawing trees and dwellings into the vortex above. Cyclones. depends on the dryness of the air. densed. HURRICANES. winds. scale. which are the warm Influence of coasts of these continents. where their moisture is still more condensed and falls in rain. the winds have less influence than the ocean currents. Winds may be dries up. becoming cooler. and the air again. and by moving over large bodies of water. In the Northern Hemisphere the rotary motion of these winds is in the direction of the hands of a clock. bringing clouds and rain. but we should which remember that it is geuerally invisible. Great differences of temperature. little drops say the moisture of the air is conof water are seen all over the panes. Immediately afterwards a strong puff of wind covered us with sand. rivers. nearly 20 grains. or passes off in vapor. Dew is moisture condensed from the atmosphere by blades Air is said to have a certain capacity for moisture. oration. 39 all then ceases. or other tracts of heated land. battered by the sand and gravel. — In the engraving. or about five times as much. blowing toward moving toward the regions. or colder regions. The hurricanes and cyclones which have their birth in the Torrid Zone. The chief cause of these winds is the constant difference in the terapeniture between the heated plains of the coast and the snowy heights of the mountains to the north. strength.THE ATMOSPHERE— STORMS. and then lay down. that cold decreases the capacity of the air for moisture. by passing over vast heated deserts. but. it will form dew. and moderate the climate of the western coasts of Europe and North America. Warm winds from the tropics. and. increase its temperature. we say is that it and the process of turning into vapor is called evap- Evaporation hastened by heat. cooled. In the Northern Hemwarming winds from the equatorial regions are from the southwest. forming clouds. or rain. because 4 grains is the saturation point of air at 50°. and the winds are bearing this moisture away. Air has the property of holding moisture. Moisture of the Air. andthe sea are constantly giving off minute particles of "waterdust" to the atmosphere. They may be warmed. If the condensation is slight. or cyclone. Where currents of air moving in diiferent directions meet. and threw up little stones. the water is represented as rising in the form of vapor is condensed in the cooler air at some distance above the surface of the earth. lakes. at a given temperature. The moist earth. and are sometimes so violent that trees are stripped of their foliage. At nature.ss windows. heavens. in our faces. condense its vapor upon their surfaces in the same manner that vapor is formed on the window-pane. Cold warmer become warmer. A brook." The Mistral. they often cause a whirling motion of the atmosphere. of the size of peas. the vapor ia made visible by condensation. When the of grass. to the lake where its journey began. In the Southern Hemisphere. The heat of the fire evap- coming in contact with colder currents. butthe camels and their drivere lay up to their necks in sand. The clouds are borne away over the land by the winds. The camels sank down on their knees and groaned. clouds. cubic foot of air. and evaporation begins A cubic foot of air at 50° will hold about 4 grains of vapor. the heat of the sun causes water to evaporate wherever it is found on the surface of the earth Evaporation goes on most rapidly in the Torrid Zone. the Winds on Climate. and their capacity for moisture increased. CYCLONES.

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the trade winds resume their regularity. No 20° 30° 40° 100 80 60 40 50° 60° 70° 80° 30 20 10 5 The great deserts of the world are in the sub-tropical belts just beyond the influence of the trade winds. the bending mountains. increasing their capacity clouds are dissipated. giving rise to the great streams which unite to form the Amazon. and not fairly in the region of the return trades.bath. its Rains of the Pacific Slope. increasing its capacity for moisture. Southern California receives During the summer the rains in the autumn and winter. localities But there are it where it is much greater. that the moisture of the air is condensed. The Amazon. and there is an abundance of rain at all seasons on the western slopes. left little made by the mountains on the which have moisture quantities of moistui'e Further south. A traveler on to those work in different which are clouds regions of the earth which serve to increase or to diminish the deposit of moisture. The early part of the day is beautifully clear. is a long.* — The Andes lie directly across the path of the trade winds which follow their eastern slopes amount of moisture in the air. When the rainy season is gone. in the Old World. Further north. Western Europe the westerly winds. This belt of showers keeps advancing northward with the sun. high above the earth. and the coast. there are other influences at rainfall in the mosphere. rendering it visible. the cool air condenses the vapor in the warm air resting on the surface of the water. the Orinoco. upward from the warm plains to cooler and cooler regions. Ships in this dangerous part of the ocean must frequently sound their steam fog-horns. — Northern India has fallen to the depth of 51 In view of the copious rainfall rivers are found in we cannot wonder that the mightiest the Torrid Zone. but from 1 to 2 o'clock the clouds suddenly gather and pour their torrents on the earth. in Oregon. then more and more overhead. or fogs. Right under the path of the burning sun the air is most intensely heated. the clouds gather and rain falls in torrents almost every day in the year. and the rises in strong currents. and the Congo are examples. and. Rainless Regions of the Old World. be seen that there are three rain belts in the Torrid Zone: the belt of periodical rains in the Southern Hemisphere. Inches. and no rain falls. and hoar-frost is seen in the morning. always cold. Latitude. land. are regions over which the Cooler winds blowing from any direction air is very warm. first in the horizon. is somewhat cooler than the water below. winds blow from the Pacific. and at the mouth 276 inches. When the trade winds blow with regularity the skies are of a deep azure. In the equatorial zone of calms. while those of by ascending currents. The rains of the Temperate Zones are produced by the meeting and mingling of — surrounded by mountain chains. the arid The amount wet season Zones. step. and the belt of It will The southwest winds that bring the welcome rain Sierra little to the Pacific coast lose their moisture on the western slopes of the Nevada and other mountain ranges. following the sun toward the Tropic of Capricorn. become heated. The Great Deserts Africa and Western Asia. the belt of constant rains near the Equator. World maribo of the estimated at 115 inches. receives a liberal supply of rain from The yearly average is in the tropical parts of the New made moist by the warm Gulf Stream. clouds begin to appear. and there is not a cloud to be seen. Clouds are but masses of a mountain sees fogs in the visible vapor floating in the at- Aside from these general laws relating to several zones. temperature of the air sinks as low as 32°. where it is condensed by the cold and falls in heavy showers during the hottest part of every day. On their course the moisture of the winds is condensed and falls in vast quantities. or stream. Mists. vegetation puts on new life. and there is always a very large — Influence of the Andes. the Nile. and Alaska. and causing the hot. other part of the world is so foggy as the Grand Batiks of NewfoundThe warm waters of the Gulf Stream send up vast quantities of vapor. and parched. valley. while the plains to the east are dry in the air. rainless belt. to prevent collision with other vessels. as may be seen by reference to the chart. of miles in breadth. During this period of rain the people are in a constant vapor. The clouds fly much higher than in cooler regions and the falling rain-drops are much larger. rain falls in the vast highland region to the east. — thunder and lightning. dry summers of that part of the It is only when the sun is far to the south. in the region of the return trades. carrying vast As On so the western side of the Andes east. periodical rains in the Northern Hemisphere. When the atmosphere over a pond. iDches. who dwell below. until it reaches the Tropic of Cancer. hundreds If the the La Plata. Washington. 77 inches. cold of the northern winter bears toward the tropics. when the sun returns. or southwest winds. which is rapidly condensed by the chilly atmosphere ahove the great Greenland current. is stifling. their The immense deserts and plateaus of Central Asia. *Fupil9 should refer to the chart or the winds are from the map at ever. gather in the moisture from the return trades. the Torrid Zone are caused 41 horizontal currents of different temperatures. . until the snowy peaks are reached. for that reason. the wastes of the dry season are clothed with green. In Para- has sometimes reached 142 inches. sun approaches the zenith at any point on its journey from tropic to tropic. the air and the body is weak. Rains within the Tropics. the dew is frozen. with the retreating sun. are masses of vapor that hover near the earth. generally at a considerable elevation. Latitude. AVERAGE ANNUAL FALL OF RAIN. of rain that falls in the Torrid is far greater than that which falls Zone during the in the Temperate portion of the continent. it Amazon At the foot of the mountains in feet. wastes of sand and rock Northern of crossed by the Tropic of Cancer. It then swings southward.v: THE ATMOSPHERE— MISTS— CLOUDS. These showers are always accompanied by terrific with it. are Rains of the Temperate Zones. forming the very heart of the continent. and one can almost see tlie plants grow. This is true in the Southern as well as in the Northern Hemisphere. the freezing point. for moisture. and the moisture falls on the the western slopes of the Andes. and rain falls. Within the Torrid Zone evaporation goes on most rapidly. the skies become clear and no more raiu falls until another season. sandy plateaus of the southwestern part of the continent heat the air which passes over them. which separates the northern and southern zones of periodical rains. but which at certain seasons floats vast masses of ice. 0° and fog is formed. like a great arm.

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are frozen marshes. the great lakes.CLIMATIC 20KES— LIFE OK THE CLOBE. shrubs with edible Nature has distributed her plants over the land. in Italy. the earth of whose plant life. or collected in layers.^ The isothermal lines. the grass. slope. we are prepared to interpret the chart. is reached. the western and southwestern coasts of Southern Asia are deluged with rain. The willow. when they bend from the toward poles the Equator. case.. It is thought that the different vegetable species number from 400. is on the same parallel as New York with its ice ponds. winds. Its sources are in the Torrid Zone. has the same latitude as Labrador a treeless waste. they do not tower at once into the lofty forests seen further to the south. Many frozen drojjs are sometimes clustered together. etc. and of different regions. seen on the were first used by Humboldt to show the actual distribution of heat as measured by the thermometer.ste its sweetness on the desert air. which is but condensed and frozen vapor that takes a great variety of forms. we should not be able to tell just where one zone was left behind and another entered. In narrow valleys. The Nile. As these rains occur during the northern winter. the Zone reaches its greatest breadth North Temperate where the Gulf Stream and study the Chart of Isotherms at this point. on the southern slopes of the Himalayas. For instance. ocean currents. the great Linnaeus. in — enough to show that. from the line of perpetual frost in the Torrid Zone. depositing their moisture on the rugged western coasts of AXriea. warmth. or frozen rain. flowing for hundreds of miles through a rainless country. This can be done only in the most general manner. LIFE ON THE GLOBE. tinents. and in the course of the northeast monsoons which sweep across the Indian Ocean. the floods begin to reach the land of Egypt. to the humble lichen clinging to the rock. far into the polar regions. . in determine the climate of a country by the zone in which it lies. and England. and. it falls on the northern slopes of the Altai. if from the east or west. mountains cut off the supply of moisture. but are irregular in shape. They connect all places having the same average temperature for the year. — CLIMATIC ZONES. and some of the evergreens appear here and there. or the oak with spreading boughs. if from the north. and it is narrowest where it crosses the high plateaus and the great northern slope of Asia. chart. had time to count the prodigious number of plants that surround us. — The true climatic zones are not bounded by the tropics or polar circles. which the earth is clothed constiWithout the trees. sloping to the low summer sun. It is for this we cannot. so that snow and rain often come from the same cloud. Even in the best known countries of Europe. even then. plant life is almost extinguished by the perpetual cold. the ponds. Naples. the flowers. new species are brought to light every year. Snow. the snow falling on the mountains and rain in the valleys." chief food of the reindeer. from the giant redwood. mountains. and moisture for their support. We cannot indicate by isothermal lines the precise limit of each species of plant. mined by distance from the Equator. much of the moisture of the air falls in the form of snow. and were we to make a journey from the extreme northern or the southern limit of vegetation to the Equator. is " Full many a flower bom to blush un. to study the climate of the several continents. To study the chart aright. with its fertile fields. The mantle responding with the climatic zones just traced on the chart. and in elevated regions iu warm latitudes. And In the Arctic Zone. Hail.000.seen. cheerless desert. very little is known. flowering A few herbs. prevailing winds. Far beyond the Arctic what may be called the North Polar Zone. reason that or other agencies. DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS. varying in breadth according to all the agencies operating to produce the climate of the different regions. In the Temperate and Frigid Zones. and the vast oceans are by no means barren wastes. Circle. observe that a heating influence is denoted when the lines bend away from the Equator towards and a cooling influence. Isothermal Lines. but they do not grow to be trees until the limit indicated by the dotted line on the chart plants. bringing plenty to millions of people. is supposed to be formed at a great height in the atmosphere. and the river to rise in the early summer. their moisture is condensed falls and little rainfall. of which hardly a quarter have been placed on the lists of botanists. because the change is so very gradual. ocean currents. When the southwest monsoons prevail. the birch. or tundras. has its annual overflow. with its orange groves. There are yet vast regions of or flora. no account being made of the modifying every effects of elevation. As the heat of the air increases downwards. Plants depend on sunlight. where men have been exploring since the days of of plants with tutes its chief beauty. but Vegetation of Different Zones. who lived a century ago. As we have learned something of the modifying influence of elevation. or by the base of sheltering rocks. and we find different zonies or belts of vegetation cor- and patches of grass spring up in favored places. so that this whole region has south. and even the streams. either pole . Men have not yet it would be but a barren. the temperature of the lower atmosphere may be sufficient to melt the frozen drops before they reach the earth. The influence of the sun's rays is alone regarded. forming large stones. berries. In the five zones already considered.000 to 500. — Two places on the same parallel may diffier widely in temperature. the climate is deter- the sonthwest winds carry their heat far north of the Arctic Circle. the wa. albng the northern borders of the concovered with moss. spring a few humble plants that adorn the bare spots or oases which the sun has made in the endless wastes of ice and snow.

.

beautiful. with its large. cotton. figs. corn. other deciduous trees. oats. Within the Tropical Zone are the greatest abundance of light. The May winds are loaded with the fragrance of apple. Zone. oleander. turnips. and Forests of pine. spruce. and many trees bear blossoms and fruit at the same time. tea. Here. sixty or seventy feet high. success. Palms of many varieties. and vineyards cover many a slope. grows about every tropical home. and moisand vegetable life appears in strange forms and dazzling splendor. The banana. Warm Temperate stiff. such as the bamboo. new flowers bloom every day. beeches. Broad pastures and rich green meadows are seen. and some species of grasses. poplars. Fields of wheat. olives. with its widespread leaves and huge bunches of fruit. become real trees. Eice and sugar-cane indicate that we are near the Torrid Zoue. slender trunks. ashes. In the Temperate Zone are noble forests of oaks. and fragrant blossoms. laurel. and myrtle. Oats. numbering many species. walnuts. Corn. Wheat of fine quality is also and hardy grasses may be cultivated with grown in some portions of this zone. and the dwarf palm are found in the Old World and New. rye. too. with evergreen leaves are characteristic trees. bear their grand and flowers above other trees of the forest. locusts. and grape are cultivated. and other orchard trees.LIFE ON THE GLOBE— DISTEIBUTION OF PLANTS. ture. and fir are found in the north. basswoods. Countless shrubs and flowers adorn hill and dale. maples. in the pomegranates are among the fruits. A single tree in a tropical forest often supports hundreds of twining plants with leaves of curious forms and varied hues and numberless brilliant flowers. we see the rice plant which feeds more than half the human family. heat. chestnuts. elms. potatoes. the live oak. from whose hollow trunks homes and even whole cities are built. where these plants find their best home. the foliage . peach. barley. and the mulberry and Flowering trees like the magnolia. Ferns grow to the size of forest trees. Spring returns with every rising sun. and other grains wave in the summer wind. oranges. In the large. with their tall.

and almost the sole food of the poorer classes. In India. or other countries of Northern Europe. It cannot be grown in the British Isles. becoming the food of many barbarous tribes. the fragrant vanilla. the bread-fruit tree on which grow large all loaves ready for baking. a native of the high. The choice green parcels are then eaten with water dipped from a stream with a cocoauut shell. and spices for the RANGE OF PLANTS MOST USEFUL TO MAN. The earth under the plants is sometimes thickly covered -with the fallen fruit." constituting a part of every meal among the wealthy. where it spread with great rapidity. Peru. from which tapioca is made. latitudes of every conti- The banana grows of both hemispheres. The natives wrap the green bananas in leaves and roiust them on stones heated in a fire of sticks. trojjical countries. and many tropical islands it is the "staff of life. Eice in is the principal food of more than half of mankind. cific Darwin Mandioca. One variety grows on the plateau of Thibet.000 feet Barley is is used for bread in many parts of the world. It formed the bread of civilized man further back than history dates. which now Corn. yields so abundantly. Europe it is cultivated up is to latitude 60°. but it ripens in all latitudes from 50° north to 40° south. It delights in low. is indigenous to South America. so that the eighteenth century may be said to have given the civilized world this new article of food. is the bread of the tropics. or maize. and Africa. delights in a warm climate. was hardly kno-wn The common jiotato. or manioc. more widely distributed than any other warm climates. Its geographical range extends over three-fourths of the earth's and it is the most important grain raised by American farmers. tropics only at a considerable elevation above the sea. Food Plants. In the rock tombs of Egypt. but grows in other part of this plant is useful. but botanists think it first came from Central Asia. with the embalmed dead who were laid to rest thousands of years before Christ. but some varieties of cane. because there is too The golden corn is another gift of America to the Old World. and but little earlier in our own country. outside of Ireland. China. cocoa. and coffee. 14. and Chili. and is raised by the peasantry is grain. which grows beneath a cluster of leaves at the top of the stem. Tlie leaves are from 6 to 10 feet long and alraut 1 foot wide. It has always formed the principal food of the Indian tribes. the wild banana reaches a height of 20 to 25 feet. it is said that modem explorers have found grains of this precious cereal. such as the Chinese. with stems 3 to 4 leet in circumference. The -wheat plant is not known in a wild state. to tropical America. and is produced The cooler portions of the South Temperate Zone are favorable to its growth. much nourishment as 44 tells us that in the island of Tahita. though it does not grow well in the intensely hot coast lands of the Torrid Zone. until the middle of the eighteenth century. Asia. it does not and several varieties are Though indigenous grow in the lowlands of the It is most In at home in the cooler portions of the United States and of Southern Canada. Barley and to no other grain above the sea.M LIFE ON THE manioc. which world. in the warm countries No other food plant acre of bananas is An said to produce as acres of potatoes. Torrid Zone. — Wheat 60°. After the settlement of America it was introduced into Southern Europe. little summer heat. It is adapted to cold latitudes of Europe in where will ripen. thrives in America as far north as latitude 55° and in in the Europe as high as It blights in regions of great heat. swampy grounds. but only in valleys several thousand feet above the sea. still found in a wild state in the last-named countries. a part of the daily food of millions of mankind. mature in those parts of the Temperate Zone where corn is raised with success. The Madeira and Tahita sugar-cane grow in the warm nent. and its growth is limited to the warm belt between 40° north and 35° south latitude. from which fact its name is derived. its Every The leaves and stalks are eaten by horses and turnip-like . surface. Indian com is indigenous to America. and are often used as a thatch. tropical valleys of Mexico. GLOBE— FOOD PLANTS. in the PaOcean. to the people of Europe. Eye The potato and oats flourish in the cooler portions of the Temperate Zones.

Egypt. indigo plant. even up to 300 or 350 in height for millions of human beings. Eising to the tierra templada. and only three per Plants Used for Clothing. cinnamon. and gums come from the warm zones. to Alaska. of no value except for fuel. forests. is said that Mexico has In the United States alone there are no less than 800 species of trees and shrubs. Near the mountains.woods. for their spices. and when baked resembles in taste light wheat bread. The marvelous autumn tints of our forests of deciduous trees. grapes. is a sea of short grass suitable for Forests. but that portion lying west of the Sierra climate of perpetual spring. and why is he called great? is poem What nous? life ? ' is the couplet on page 43 taken? What From what meant by "edible berries?" The Plains. are.000 to 8. elevation. known. No trees are seen except in thin skirts along the water-courses. The heavier forests are in the north. give our landscapes a beauty characteristic of this continent. half the earth. ture. valleys. and the eye is greeted by broad wastes of sand or glistening alkali. is and stretching from the high plateaus of Mexico the region of scanty rainfall. are distinguished one from the other by a characterin temperature istic vegetation. Nevada and the Cascade Mountains has an abundance of mois- magnificent woods. "Giant of the tree est. and the white cedar are among the chief varieties.) where the prickly pear. is 325 feet in height. except in barren Canada. but for its grain. and yucca take their place. and figs in the semi-tropical south. and its girth. 12 species and trees. and only in a few groves in that sfcite. and hills in countless cent of the surface is covered with forests. 400 of which are large enough to be called trees. — Most of the plateaus. ranging through all shades of color from fiery red to deepest green. LIFE.000 all feet. are On phere the low coast lands. banana. and the remains of those that have fallen show a still The rings of one of these fallen trees. perhaps. a short. and Beverage Plants. chocolate used for economic purposes. bal- numbers. Flax and hemp delight in the climate of the Temperate Zone between 25° and 50° north. tea. and allspice — and from 8 to 15 feet in diameter. and yellow pine.^ LIFE ON THE roots are gl-odnd into pulp. a native of the warm islands of the Pacific. —As a whole. GLOBE— JTOETH AMEEICA—PLANT and baked. Cloves.. and from 45 to 60 feet in girth. Agriculture in this region must depend on irrigation. Large tracts are covered with dwarf cedars and pines. Cotton is the most important It likes a warm climate and its range covers textile plant. the grass is abundant. Some localities in the Great Basin are so arid that absolutely nothing will grow. are covered with buffalo grass in the north. and many much larger. Some of the trees now standing are over 300 feet high. over 100 species of timber-trees and cabinet. Sierras. The East Indies are famed coffee grow in warm countries. and almost every variety of tropical fruit. The lower mountains. etc. where there are many streams. six feet ifrom the ground. and bordering slopes are covered with buffalo grass. It is a curious fact that the juice is is poisonous. and are found on the slopes of the higher mountains. esvast herds of buffaloes that ranged over this section. and sometimes extend over the more elevated plateaus. Vegetation of Different Continents. It supplies food The bread-fruit tree They are composed of differ- ent varieties of evergreen trees. black. which once furnished food for But there are tracts. The fruit grows to weigh some four pounds. — oil. The United States. —Who was Linnseus. is 45 The Sequoi Gigantea. 17 oil-bearing plants tree. — It of dye-woods. Silk is produced most — Temperate Zone. the heaviest forests on the globe. Cacao. dependent on position. Owing to differences and moisture. pecially in the south. there the region of the continent. red. sage brush. pepper. Over 120 species. Along the west- forming the principal food in Brazil and in some other countries. tufted. nutmeg. but the water supply of the streams is far too limited to irrigate more than a small portion of these wastes. sugar-cane. Quinine. largely in the Warm These forests are composed mostly of evergreens. — The Great Plains east of the Eocky Mountains grama grass in localities. where the heat great and the atmostree. and even different portions of the same continent. Queries. and this whole belt. sarsaparilla. 12 reach and 60 medicinal is plants. which embraces levels all the middle is Pacific Highland Region. ern slopes of these ranges and near the coast from Cape Mendocino northward into the Dominion of Canada. dried. (Plant Life. Brazil. is 200 feet. pasturage. It is are confined to a hot belt near the Equator. not of the largest size. the direction of prevailing winds. vegetation decreasing toward the south. thousands of which are 200 feet high. and is not included in the arid section. thousands of miles. from the llanos of Texas far into the Dominion of the south. of which chocolate is made. 8 varieties of gum About 120 species grow to be 100 feet in height. It is said that much of the land on which now grows nothing but wild sage may be made highly productive. The redwood. — North America abounds in magnificent Mexico and Central America. are destitute of trees. as the climate grows hotter and drier. remaining. castor sams. flourish the mahogany. 47 which is pressed. "The Keystone State. From the eastern limit of the "Great Plains" to the slopes of the Sierras. humid or moist. to apples and other orchard products in the north. This belt vegetables." is the largest. but not the tallnot found outside of California. so barren that one may travel for days over regions where nothing but cacti and wild sage are to be seen. feet. Medicinal Plants.000 years. is noted not only for fruits. its trees. nutritious grass. and Here the evergreen oak forms varieties of grains and fruits of the . though in the same latitude. and yellow fir. this is the arid having an elevation of 3. and the latter ranging from oranges. cotton and coffee trees. the white. and India supply the mills of most of the world. and 5 or 6 sometimes reach 300 or even more." the tallest tree now indicate an age of 2. larger growth. of which the cone-bearing form nearly one-half. the red. the continents. and is the difference between deciduous and evergreen trees? What are "pungent spices?" ' What What What are "cereals?" What plants are said to be indigea textile plant? What is meant by the expression "staff of does the term economic purposes signify ? is ' ' ' ' NORTH AMERICA. plains.

lemons. at least 1. may be divided into three sections. Branches and leaves of every variety are disposed in plumes. Florida for its live oak.000 miles in width. All below is dark and damp. still mature. Maine and the Carolinas for their fir and pine. once stretched to the Atlantic. and is very different from the Pacific Highvegetation. birch. Lawrence to its gulf. or a half-dried yucca constitute nearly all the vegetation of this scantily watered. timber has been cut.200 miles in length and 800 to 1. however. — The Appalachian region has an abundance of rain. around the trunks of trees and forming gigantic folds about their thick branches. and on their eastern and we-stern slopes. a cactus clump. are no longer seen. have a strange tendency to climb. there is still much valuable timber in the mountains throughout their whole extent.) Selvas of the Amazon. flowers. an accumulation of interlacing foliage where the eye vainly seeks to distinguish innumerable vegetable forms. the sky is clear and cloudless. useful in ship building. Its plants. their very summits terminable network of creeks and lagoons. oranges. and flower forms a striking feature of the high forest walls that everywhere border the in- climate produces so large a number of valuable Forests originally clothed the mountains to hardwood trees. USED FOR MAKING JELLY." * ' River almost to the Arctic Ocean. figs. SOUTH AMERICA. unsheltered soil. Some trail along zigzag-fashion or shape themselves like the steps of a ladder leading to great heights. but they are mingled with other trees. stem-like column.— Between the plains and the timbered the fertile prairie belt extending from the Gulf to Great Above the mouth of the Madeira.200 miles in a direct line. grapes. and their its leaves. tufted tree-tops others are perceived. with- timber along the streams and dotted with groves of deciduous trees. are peculiar to this section. consisting of large tracts of pine. and do not form the bulk of the forest.— From the headwaters of the Mississippi eastward over the whole region bordering on the Great Lakes and the St. Trees which have fallen from age disapi)ear under the mass of flowers. with neither green turf. but eastward and north of the Churchill River the trees become mere dwarfs. Further north are evergreen forests stretching along the Mackenzie out paths. we enter a forest 1. and While the deciduous trees predominate. Ohio. A few stalks of grass. GUAVA. as are the regions northward in the United States. maple. and other tracts of almost every variety of CAJA NUT. sandy — their eastern Most of the slopes to the Atlantic as well as most of their savanna. tain From The palm trees are the chief among the giant vegetable growths of the delta. unbroken forests like those which Daniel Boone found in Kentucky now remain. of fan-shaped fronds. forest region. spruce. orchids expand their strange flowers in the air. there scattered here are wide stretches of open. there. but the VoL L . with coarse innutritions grass. pineapples. and here we find the largest and most wonderful forests of the globe. The Ohio Valley is noted for its black walnut. and fir are found. there are pine forests from Maine to Louisiana. Here. the second extending 500 miles above the first. with its erect. and scores of luscious wild fruits abound. Thousands of climbing plants overrun all the trees. lands in the character of its No other temperate great diversity of stem. fans. and no grand. 'A tropical forest is not so majestic and regular as a forest of firs and larches. and garlands. Above the large. like snakes. On the lower portions of this region and in the valleys. Temperate Zone are raised. USED FOK MAKING WINE. in the United States is and also in Canada as far north as James Bay. Many of the creepers unite. a magnificent fir. with 6 feet Atlantic Highland Region. and all traces of tropical vegetation have disappeared. favorable to a luxuriant growth of vegetation. but much timber yet remains. — The Amazon and its tributaries drain regions of great heat and moisture. and palm trees rise united to eacli other by an inextricable network of vines. circling around lakes or covering northern slopes. ash. and the greater part of those still upright are themselves surrounded by spiral stems of parasites with elegant foliage. The various kinds of oak. It is a chaos of verdure. and the jupati palm. Above the Xingu. this forest is unbroken.000 feet Large tracts on the most elevated portions. as well as its animals. vegetables. the tributaries of the great river. while the stalks of others are twisted in a thousand ways. The forest region of the all Amazon spreads over the Brazilian Highlands along * Consult Beclus. sweet potatoes. hardwood that grows in this latitude. and cedar. Texas. foliage. Patches of forest are longer western slopes to the Mississippi. a stunted juniper. The coniferous trees have taken the place of the oaks of the middle plateau. forming huge cables or ropes of several strands. grow the wild prairie ception of a few miles of road in the vicinity of the towns and divided by narrow belts of the openings formed by the rivers. grass and flowers —^a sea of verdure when summer smiles. United States lie west of a line drawn from GalEast of this line an almost unbroken forest and the islands and banks of all the streams are heavily wooded. and its massive crown each broad and 50 feet in length. The ubussu palm. and long stretches of the mounsummits are harren. finest of the %¥« Though the Region of the Great Lakes. and. 8. coiling. to Toledo. Wheat and barley. its tulip and ash.48 LIFE ON THE GLOBE— SOUTH AMERICA— PLANT This forest region first LIFE. walnut. Flowers and fruits are found in the mass of loliage above. With the ex- Slave Lake. and impenetrable. upward on the tierra fria the air is cooler. Large portions of this forest have already fallen before the woodman's axe. Grains. nor foliage to beautify the ground. at last. The region is Prairie Belt. prairies of the veston. and the olive tree refuses to grow. the third stretching to the Andes. prairie belt wherever and it fruits flourish in the rich soil of the has been turned by the plow. yellow river bears along uprooted trees and islets of aquatic plants torn from the banks by the waters. The turbid. 80 feet high. the covering the low delta from the mouth of the Xingu to the sea. (Plant Life.

with the lichen beneath his feet. wax palm. and farther apart. El Gran Chaco. a thorny plant whose branches are covered with gorgeous purple flowers. resin. Lakes of clear water spread out before him to disappear when he presses forward to slake his thirst. high plateaus known between the mountain ridges have coarse grass oSering scanty closed valleys of this region as the Argentine Republic and much of vegetation save Uruguay. glossy leaves of the swampy forests disappear. a bland and nourishing milk flows from it. Scarcely a tree can be found on the slopes toward the in the latitude of Santiago. its branches look as if they were dead and withered but when the trunk is bored. feet. The Llanos. They are valuable for oil which is burned in lamps. appear like distant ships. nor a living "When the sun welcome raiuj all nature is quickened. The pampas form vast pasture grounds on which feed millions of cattle and horses. which Is thus described by Humboldt: parched side of a rock grows a tree with dry and leathery foliage. arid plateau. but. and a vast variety of exquisite ferns ornament the glades. where the rugged lands are covered with dense thickets of beeches and other hardy trees of the Temperate Zone. food to meadows of the llama and alpaca. the It gra. bringing its Some of qualities. of a little verdure. Brazil wood. much of it an utter desert." or the hunting ground of Indian tribes that here find a refuge from the Spaniards. while others carry them to their children. in favored places. its is The earth a desert. On the Lower Orinoco are dense tropical fores*^. a drop of rain falls Not on the parched earth. and other plants of the Temperate Zone are raised. are inclosed in a round. creature. and the grains. the mountain valleys of Colombia are celebrated for their fertility. Further north. — The are is llanos of the Orinoco. vegetation dies and blown about by the winds. deep valleys. seen through the hazy air of the plains. "On the woody THE VEGETABLE IVORY PLANT. and. in another the mimosa. One may find a home in a high valley . For several months in the year its leaves are not moistened by a shower.sels on the spot. dyes. trees. which grow so tall and thick as to afford retreats for bands of robbers. In the rainy season the wide plains preIn one sent the appearance of an ocean studded with islands. while the eastern slopes are parched. The On bright days distant fields of thistles. thick mists afford moisture sufficient for the growth. provided with large bowls to receive the milk. which grows wild. chinchona. . Further south. as we have learned. The long. On the delta and low borders of the stream grow dense thickets of seibo trees. and in their stead flowers are abundant.ss is soft and pliable as silk and of the most nutritious seems to melt away in the mouths of cattle that come in countless it. in is the region of the trade winds in Peru and Northern Chili. the character of the vegetation changing according to elevation. aud whose wood is used for making bowls aud other dishes. The Pampas. which grows yellow and thickens at its surface. used for coloring. from June to which withers on the first October. it is The Pacific slope. seem to him like forests of timber. a long. During the dry season the ground crossed by narrow. The grass is coarser than that found on the llanos. fiber. resembling low shrubs. in bloom The wood of the peach is so plentiful that it is used for fuel. One may stand on the snow line of tlie Cordilleras. there is a sea of waving grass and flowers. which cover most The little long. Brazil nuts are the seeds of a beautiful tree which reaches the height of 100 The seeds. Here and there made rich and green by is parched. At that time the blacks and natives are seen coming from all pai-ts. In the tropical forests of South America grow valuable for timber. on the pampas. and coarse. These palms. broad. rosewood. One imagines that he sees the family of a shepherd who is distributing the milk of his flock. herds to feed upon Skirting the low-banked streams and channels on the borders of the plains are thin fringes of the palm. nearly as large as a man's head. whose wood is so hard that it turns the edge of the sharpest tools. immense treeless plains. woody covering. the westerly winds give an abundance of moisture to the western coasts. as well as for food. cacao. the traveler sees a seemingly interminable ocean of grass and flowers." its large.LIFE ON THE trees are less lofty GLOBE— SOUTH AMERICA— PLANT On in the LIFE.« in which grow the lignum vitfe. reedy grass around dreary marshes becomes a troop of horsemen. fruits. known as the "El Gran Chaco. and whose stems are used for fences and huts. On the loftiest elevations the somber Brazilian pine adds to the beauty of the woodlands. region — North of the Salado River is a famous resort of wild beasts. —We have seen how the vegetation of the east- cow-tree. month of August. district are groves of palms. not a green thing. The tropical forests of the Amazon extend over the eastern foot-hills and up the slopes of the Andes. the clover. In the southern part of this region the plains are high and the vegetation scant. There are trees whose boughs are one mass of bloom. the apparently dead and dry roots revive and send up living shoots. and look down upon every zone of vegetation. aud The Andes. is so common that fences are made of it. deep cracks come in the earth. On the Upper Orinoco grows the cow-tree. in a brief period. roots scarcely penetrating into the ground. and so on. have a delightful climate. is to be seen. whose leaves are used for thatching houses and making hats and fans. are the India rubber. Some empty their ves. while the western shore pampas and islands are green and beautiful clear down to Magellan. It is at sniirise that the vegetable fountiiin flows most freely. to the number of about 24. — Standing of the region sunny day. a valuable timber from which coloring matter is extracted. the river above Buenos Ayres are whole forests of peach trees. ern slopes in the Torrid Zone changes with the elevation from the most luxuriant palm and banana groves to hardy plants of the Cold Temperate and even the Polar Zone. oil. Brazil wood. returns from southern journey. streams formed by the melting snows of the mountains. or fruit. many trees among which Near the streams the forests are so dense that the ground can scarcely hold the vegetation which springs from it.

. grow palms. steeped and boiled in water. the steam carrying off the camphor. and the hardier grains. whose northern shores are but 12° from the pole. in a land of perpetual summer and the richest perfume. thence to shrubs. and silver firs of the Black Forest. and other hardy trees. and. lemons. Queries. which is deposited in a still. where the land corn. their rhododendrons and gentians. or he may descend to an where the plants of the still Warm Temperate Zone are seen. and of beach. but on their northern borders they are so stunted and feeble that the larches are mere shrubs. the most luxuriant in the world. spruce. Denmark its Middle Europe yields almost every variety of product beBetween the Baltic and the Ural Mountains are immense forests of pine and other conebearing trees. The fruit is very refreshing in hot climates. and mulberry trees. and Italy its cypresses. life. insulas. Here all. when the surface of the ground is thawed to the depth of a few inches. desert regions of are the native home Western Asia. and maritime pines. clothed with grass. and yet produces both flowers and fruit. and if care is taken the tree is not injured. the water plunges from the zone of apple trees and rye. oranges. we pass from forests of oak. and madder. Cork is fragrant rose gardens. Alpine flowers. scarcely above the sea. and the process may be repeated once in five or six years. evergreen oaks. of the wastes. moist atmosphere. is irrigated. and groves of walnut. Further south. pered by the The pomegranate is a fruit of fine appearance that grows on a shrub. escapes from the forest and spreads itself afar. and falls into that of the palms of Mauritius. in As seen on the chart. laden with the mingled scents of the plants. nor. indeed. mulberry groves. he may dwell amidst broad leaves. with grass like that of the pampas. white clover. and snow. Its fruit resembles a black currant. plums. in Colombia. the apple. In the same on the eastern coast. England its oaks and its meadows. The flowers are fine. their proximity to the coasts of Colombia by the perfumes diffused abroad. Ireland. pomegranates. ASIA. Scandinavia has its forests of coniferous trees. but with too little moisture for the growth of forests. It is packed in bales and sent to market in that form. The bark is removed from the tree by means of a large knife with a curved blade. where the climate is temwarm Mediterranean. figs. their forests of larches. belt. pines. the wood chopped fine. olive trees. and. the pomegranate. and whose plateaus are the loftiest in the world. one tree often yielding crops for a century or longer. peaches. — fertile islands in wastes of sand. marshy wastes. The camphor laurel is a tree of considerable height. mulberries. chestnut." At the fall of Tequandama. grow hemp. longing to the Temperate Zone. are the taste. where the valley broadens into low plains.) "Within the boundaries of a continent that nearly touches the Equator. where the wheat plant thrives. flourish choice apples. In foggy weather travelers have recognized. (Plakt Life. the Alps their clumps of walnut or chestnut. On some with hairs and thorns. and divided In the extreme north and northeast. fir. where the altitude frost nips. grain fields. anywhere in the Old World. on which coarse grass and mosses grow during the short summer. In the south of the main body of Europe the low valleys and plains contain vineyards. the plants of Europe may be we find tea many a rice gardens. in minute grains. and dandelion bloom. shall we find the vast forests or the gorgeous vegetation of tropical South America. When intended for the market this bark is stripped a year or two before it would fall off. Ascending the mountains. So close is its grain that it sinks in water and emits sparks when struck with an axe. its spruces. to spruces. at one hundred miles out at sea.50 LIFE ON THE GLOBE— EUROPE—ASIA— PLANT LIFE. Germany its lime trees. The shrub makes a rapid growth in our SouthStates. in some parts. Every part is which are sheltered from the cold north winds by the of the tree has a strong odor of camphor. Alps and other mountain ranges. Taking up his abode further down the stream. with evergreen leaves and yellowish-white flowers. the vegetation consists of mosses and Jichens. To procure the camphor. orchards of prunes and pears. the Emerald Isle. we may expect to find almost every variety of vegetable In the extreme north. than further inland. In Southern and Western Siberia the steppes are. Russia its birches. (Plant Life. the bark of a species of oak which grows from 20 to 40 feet high. In the southern peninto several zones. birch. the noblest specimens of their kind in Europe. is named for its green fields. in Middle Siberia. too. When the trees are four or five years old the outer bark cracks off in large flakes. are extensive forests of pine. em "A —What called is the difference between a savanna and a prairie? What are aquatic plants? some plants milk?" The expression "zigzag-fashion" means what? Why are "parasites?" What is meant by "bland and nonrishiug EUROPE. the plants clothe themselves distill gums and oils that lessen evaporation. North of the Black Sea and the Caspian are steppes. Spain its cork oaks. beeches. we are indebted to the oases in these lands. France its elms and beeches. The saksaul is perfectly leafless. there are level. the grape. the field. Those plants which require a mild winter are found much further north on the Atlantic coast. cotton. camphor tree. above fruits. so delicious to the melon. far from running water.) In Europe. For most of these Here. with branches spread over the ground. China and Japan. they are wastes of sand or of salt. in the warm temperate of some of the finest fruits. but every country has its characteristic plants. and vines. Some varieties are sweet and others slightly acid. and The belt. in others. pears. larch. and from wheat fields. and by the African deserts.

rice. covered with rocks or drifting sands. and here the pepper and the cinnamon. equally strong. oats. the dense coast forests disappear. deposits under ground a number of tubers. dig it out and drink its juice. and European fruits thrive under cultivation. and will keep for a year without salting. In the months ests. shadier trees and shrubs. (Plant Life. creepers clasp the larger trees. coffee. The date palm On tall. or from rain that falls on the slopes. Here are the strong spices. is It a little grows them with a mass of foliage and flowers. gigantic grasses. use the fruit. and the banyan. barley. the a noble tree. vast tracts of the desert are covered with wild watermelons. Among the trees of this belt are the acacias. pulpy substance which furnishes much of the food of caravans crossing that region. an order of shrub plants. cotton. or oil tree. natives of One kind.* Africa. and barley. the bamboo. where grow the spruce and poplar. nutmegs. this part of the continent. which is more solid and pleasant to the taste than that from cow's milk. its graceful leaves spread in all directions. the most important of the many species of palm growing in Central Africa. and at the point where they branch off from the stem a huge bunch of red or yellow plums appears. the leaves of which begin a few feet above the ground. The wood resembles lighter than oak. The seeds are dried and then boiled to extract the butter. It is a creeper. the peanut. In the interior are park-like regions. The tree is highly prized. In the region of Cape Colony. which dan. The AFRICA.000 or 6. Eemarkable changes in the vegetation accompany the successive elevations. This butter forms an important article of food and of commerce. from the . There are no forests except on the mountains. their branches loaded with gourd. The "shea" or "tree butter" is derived from the oil or fat contained in the olive-like seeds of the butter tree. and oats. and the ginger. cover the vast plains. The land is exceedingly fertile. A belt of oases stretches along the foot of the mountains in Turkestan. The groundnut. and other products of warm. maize. tropical belt of the mainland and islands to the produces medicinal plants. where water comes from the melting snows. the clove. and the refuse Baskets. we the table-lands grow wheat. growing from 5 to 15 feet high. sometimes 100 feet in circumference. Along the low coasts and in many places on the streams and lakes are dense forests. equatorial Africa. * See Livingstone's Travels. the teak. and has a pleasant odor. covering from the dreary wastes of sand or rock wher- ever there moisture. is seen in parts of the desert where long-continued dry heat has parched the soil. opium poppy. with tuberous roots which lie buried deep in the parched ready to spring up when the rainy season comes on. find coifee. It is shipped to Europe and America. and these are by far the most valuable vegetable products in Thibet and on the whole great Mongolian Plateau. and as the tree grows the first leaves wither and give place to others higher up. pepper. The roasted seeds are used for coffee and for oil. with their short trunks. The little land suitable for cultivation is in the valleys. and. though there are no large forthe heaths. as of violets. and springing On the highest plateau. and sugar. GLOBE— AFRICA— PLANT On LIFE." which is highly esteemed as food. where cultivated. glycerine. or broad steppes with a growth of grass and flowers several feet in height. of the stems are tvristed into cordage. and sugar-cane. which in turn wither as the tree becomes older. sugar. rice. fruit resembles and whose In the great highland region of Central Asia we see a scanty vegetation. and. North and Persia green and dry. furnishing food to millions of the human The race. giant baobabs. On the The extreme northern part of Africa is in the same plant is first or dry coast bench are prickly shrubs. and mats are made from the leaves. as we call it. South of the desert. pear. the nutmeg. we find a luxuriant vegetation. cotton. is spread over the whole of Sou- The teak is mahogany. and capable of producing large quantities of cotton. Then there are plants with hooked horns and prickles which lay hold of the clothing and invite the traveler to "wait a little. it. they know the water-bearing tuber to be beneath. the next plateau are taller. as a chief article of diet. The is eastern coast of tropical Africa has valuable forests. and growing on the borders broad-leaved grasses. or dates. moist regions. like the potato. and far more durable.LIFE ON THE Within the south and east. which seem designed to save up the supply of water for the season of drought.000 oilyielding plums. and the netteh. in moist. fruits of gaudy butterflies. with large trees without undergrowth. and the strawberry. each bunch containing from 800 to 1. 5. cinnamon. at spots in a circle a yard or more from the stem. and the stem itself is used in building. South of the Congo. where trees become scarce. and zone as the peninsulas and the islands of Southern Europe. The grasses spring up in the valleys and favored places. The natives strike the ground about the plant with stones. and is crowned The region of the Kalihari Desert is remarkable for its plants soil with 40 to 80 leaves or frondsStolOfeetlong. cloves. finds its best home in to a height of 30 to 60 feet.) land rises by a series of benches to the great central plateau. till. by hearing a difference of sound. the sago palm. The oil is of deep orange red. from of September and October the countless varieties of bulbs and orchids cover the earth with blossoms that resemble a shower of The large oases in the desert produce the plants and the "Warm Temperate and of the Tropical Zone. which give the country a different aspect. some as large as a man's head. or. copal gum. guava. bags. the bombax or cotton tree. Many ships built of teak have been found seaworthy after plowing the ocean for more than a century. Still further inland. beneath which hangs the fruit. and weighing in some cases 50 pounds.sap. When it attains an age for bearing fruit. candles. number 300 or 400 species and give great beauty to the landscape. a lovely creeping plant. the palm- the shea or butter tree. . the baobab. rice. Arabia. is a bean pod. In years when more than the usual quantity of rain foils. 61 maize.000 feet above the sea. the tree of the desert. The crisp leaves at the top of the stem furPalm wine is made nish "palm cabbage. most of which is a desert The palm-oil tree is. called the Makuri. by far. Wine and vinegar are made THE DATK PALM. and from April to June contains a sweet. It is a thick-stemmed tree. indigo. gum-bearing trees. and as a lubricant. and for medicine. the fibers as food for cattle." Wheat. Its flowers and leaves are used for coloring.like fruit. where it is used in the manufiicture of soap. euphorbias. cocoa. much used for ship building.

making a mournful and lonely landmark. "In the Dendenong range. orange. grow in warm water and others None but microscopic plants exist in the deepest parts Sea-weeds abound to a depth of 15 fathoms. the heath is one wide sea of bloom. and when a road is cut through a scrub of this kind it appears like a deep trench. A The leaves of the eucalyptus are leathery. as they wind for long distances through the wide regions in the south which are but sandy. make the landscape very beautiful in the early spring. pink. yellow. bearing a crown of flowers several feet in circumference. E. The timber is excellent. some varieties being used for ship building. Wales have a moist. plant of Australia probably covers so wide a surface as the spinifex. or porcupine grass. These trees are found in the wastes of the interior. but are violet.) The sea has many delicate that are coarse in their structure. — The vegetation along the coast of the great plains. Many plains and slopes are covered with nutritious grasses. No The Sargasso.000 square miles in extent. "America has and Australia its prairies. From the top springs a Vmnch of drooping. about 9. Queries." * feet in length. around the Falkland Islands. or thorns. Viewed from the is of a somber sea. and sends out leaves on two opposite sides only. * Consult Staoford'B Compendium of Geogta. but there are courses of rivers. lowing description from the writings of the English natural- A. out of which. which are dusty in the dry season but boggy in the wet. in the twining plants. They plants. yellow blossoms. sandy tracts. and one edge is always turned toward the sky so that both surfaces have an equal amount of light. here and there." whose large bunches of red flowers make the slopes conspicuous The "fire tree" of West Australia. is covered with white star-shaped flowers. They grow 14 feet high without a branch. From an eminence you see nothing but a dark-brown mass of bushes The surface is generally unbroken. When spring comes. The stems of one kind of sea-weed are like cables. covered with an unbroken expanse of this scrub. "Mallee" scrub ist. Even in the driest weather the leaf stalks of the full-grown plant always contain at least a quart of water which the thirsty traveler may djaw by piercing the base of the stalk. The acacias. and beautiful Some float freely are not uniform in color. in winter. armed with such diate hue. 50 feet high. and }ii\s the color of lean. THE SEA. and similar tracts of it occur over every part of the southern half of Australia. is —Within the circle formed by the currents belonging to the genus eucalyptus. attaching themselves to the rocks so strongly that large boulders are lifted to the surface before the weeds can be torn from them. They are called gum trees because they abound in resin. On a dull day the view is most sad. is we might The The fol- seem season of bloom. and accounts for the monotonous appearance of the finds spots of varied trees. like reeds. and vegetables of Europe and America have been introduced and cultivated with success. whose orange-colored blossoms make it like a tree ablaze. Africa its deserts. remarkable plant growing in many parts of the island is the "Traveler's Tree." It lielongs to the family of plantains. the ravines contain numerous trees 420 feet high. green l)lades five or six feet more. cotton. Nearly all the foliage hangs vertically from the branches. The wood is soft but tough. There are immense level. and in the Straits of Magellan. and the changing tints of autumn are unknown. are rare below a depth of 50 fathoms. lives and bears seed. are most interesting plants. It floats ux)on the water. scrubs. for seldom bird or living thing gives variety to the scene. and the "bush" is always more or less fragrant. Gulfweed. The vivid green of spring. covered with woody vegetation called "heath. that of vegetation. (Plant Life. and even sunlight makes it little more cheerful. or as if inclosed by high walls. a tree starts up above the brushwood. covered with orange-tipped crimson stamens. Is the date palm found in the New World? What is meant by " luxuriant vegetation ? " What are tuberous roots? Why do the heaths of South Africa bloom in the months of September and October instead of April and May? Cloves are what part of the plant? Has the name "cloves" any — few species of the eucalyptus form dense forests on the mountains. waves. like the plants on land. giving a peculiar feature to the landscape. Many of the deep. connection with the verb cleave? probably the tallest tree in the AUSTRALIA. sea-weeds are so thick as to impede the progress of ships by fouling their rudders and winding around their propellers. seeming like as far as the eye can reach. green. in cold. fruits. The streams are bordered by noble gum of the Atlantic a sea of weeds called the Sargasso. which is used for medicinal and other purposes. Madagascar. "Wallace: "The appearance of the 'Mallee' is something like a bushy willow. and here are found palms and the Indian fig. A and one fallen tree was discovered which was 480 world. as among the islands ofi' Alaska and British Columbia. landscape. for miles out at sea. the stenocarpus of Queensland. often extends over vast areas. and disappear in water deeper than 200 fathoms. rendering them almost impa-ssable to men or beasts. extended areas covered with brush. wheat. Some of the heaths are covered with grass trees. and the rich. is a dwarf species of the eucalyptus. covering ilia. without roots. The various grains. in part. from the center of which rises a slender rush-like spike. its its steppes. Among these plants are many with bright-colored flowers. about 40 miles east of Melbourne. In the southeastern part of South Australia there is a tract. which. it is acacias. impossible to penetrate the mass Some of its plants. as say in this country. some of which are ornaments of our green-houses. they of the ocean." osier. and a diameter of 3 to 6 feet. which often attains a height of 250 feet trees. spreading like a huge fan. countless flowering shrubs. seen in our own forests. The aspect of such a country is very gloomy. which is spread for hundreds of miles over sandy. of which there are several hundred species with rich. a heaving ocean of dark waves.) and without the contrasts in shade where the variety of trees is so great. with long drooping branches entirely destitute of leaves. as it is called. lands color. Throughout the year some varieties of plants are in bloom. They are sometimes 700 feet in length. and one may ramble in the woods without being in the shade." which reaches a height of about two feet. Yet one with stately and exuberant vegetaand lovely Asia On the mountains in this region grows the "flame tree. treeless plains. is one of the most widely distributed plants of the ocean. but are much more plentiful in the south and west. with its winding branches and clinging parasites. the foliage of the Australian wood- The most singular trees are the beefwood or the shea oak. raw beef. tion. the softer hues of summer. while others cling to and others on the the rocks near the shore. (Plant Life. sheltered mountain valleys in New South A single variety of plants this. These trees have a rough stem and grow some 10 or 12 feet high. The stalk of each leaf is six to eight feet in length. and is unknown in the settled sections. or the stems growing close together.phj. and the grape are important products. Along some coasts. The timber belts often mark the island of Madagascar is wonderfully luxuriant. and. shadeless scrub." or. so close that there are often 10 or 12 in a square foot of ground. It is said that.62 LIFE ON THE GLOBE— AUSTRALIA— THE SEA— PLANT LIFE. Fortunately it does not grow in the south. wiry foliage. with every interme- Other scrubs are formed of bushy long spines. or brown. while light only extends the prospect and makes it more hopeless.—Autti . warm climate. and the rock lily with a flower stalk 30 feet high.

ermines. the forest boughs." said. hot air of the tropics. others on open plains. the fox. Robes of fur are too warm for the tropics. —From all this. or exalts the taste. "The sea a field of carnage. and without They give the ocean the appearance of a vast marsh roots. large or small. the ermine. The wolf and the brown bear are also DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS. may be dispatched with a stick. bark. its Nor are the waters of this zone less bountiprovided with inhabitants. bark. air. to the playful breeze. the best home of the marten. and in all the inlets of Hudson Bay. or hang from the trees awaiting their victims. and every boy knows the wild "tenants of the wood. beyond which they cannot stray. Where the pool insects. but range over vast regions in quest of food. shoots. invisible Of evanescent Amid Each the floating verdure. The eagle and the hawk are birds of prey." the fields. and whales." Among the larger animals. vast swarms of locusts or grasshoppers come from the deserts to devour every green thing. The grouse and the turkey are among the game birds. land. Larks. Void of their unseen people. or dash swiftly past at the approach of danger. stems. There are white foxes. and a random shot brings down dozens. gigantic snakes lie coiled in horrid folds among the bushes. With varying forms abounds. covering their broods.ss Most of the animals of the jwlar or cold belt conld not endure the heat of even the Temperate Zones. and threatened to put an unhappy end to the voyage. the Hebrides. unnumbered. A mal food is found in a region where moss grows. all Only a limited number of animals are fitted to spread over wide regions. either their leaves." * and brilliant colors. all the animals are camiverous. the birds with the choicest down. and streams swarm with them. where plant life is relatively less abundant. millions stray. which held them back. when the air of Africa becomes too hot and dry. Herds of reindeer and musk oxen feed on the moss and shrubs. Animals that can endure great differences of temperature. thrushes. colored greenish-yellow. seals bask in the scanty rays of the Arctic sun. When they set off' for food they darken the air. and many of them are not confined to one locality. others in marshes or swamps. as 53 The plants composing this sea are was once supposed. Nova Zembla. Among insects. the animals of every country are dependent on plants for their support. found. thousands of square miles. the polar bear makes his supper of fish or fowl. are protected by layers of blubber or fat. every form with which we are acquainted in our own seas is here represented. sometimes crossing the boundaries of the zones. and seals supply us with fur. drifted there by the circling waters. Spitzbergen. of animal as well as of plant The cireumpolar regions of North America. pressed far to the north during the short summer. such as the ox. ermine. has not watched water-fowl on their way to the northern lakes and when spring was breaking the icy bonds? The birds that gladden us with songs when summer is here. the Shetland. The foxes. the stone Holds multitudes. too. but before winter sets in they have crossed the sea to the mild air of Northern Africa. Inflames. Innumerable creatures find shelter under There is life in every direcstones. The females. and the beaver. flowers. not. the ledges and rocky islets are crowded by birds as far as one Ciin see. They follow the summer and have no winter in their year. the mink. and the melting pulp Of mellow fruit. nearly is But animals have the power of locomotion. the lion. like the seal and the whale. and the air alike teem with living crea every meadow. and the whale with oiL animals. In the sea. The eider-duck with soft down. Ifroves of wild reindeer crop the moss and coarse grass of the low coasts of Northern Siberia in summer. is some variety of palm must inhabit the palm Animals of Different Zones. but are developed and grow floating on the surface. An animal that lives on acorns moss-eating animay have a range as wide as the oak. when the plains and slopes of the high latitudes were green. on vast plains countless herds of antelope browse in fancied security. liquid. tion we turn our eyes. or dive for their scaly food. finds its way back to its German nest on the roof. buntings. Though one transparent vacancy it seems. Alaska. has its inhabitants. Some species live in forests. while others need the chilling blasts of the poles. Snowy owls. The downy orchard. immense flocks or sea-fowl haunt the coasts. it follows that life. the cow. The tures. fully Even the carnivora. . but move to the south when the snows bury their food. it will Who be seen that the habitation of each animal. but with still greater profusion and variety. whether it pierces. the abundance and variety of animated creatures increase more and more. sables. refreshes. but swept southward in vast herds on the approach of winter. and Norway. the nameless nations feed Going southward from the regions of cold. The quadrupeds of these regions are clothed with the wannest fur. The white bear in the menagerie would melt without his cake of ice. as a writer observes. That dance. or belts. and other white- feathered birds cleave the During the short summer. Greenland. Nor is the stream Of purest crystal. which once inhabited our western plains. Stands mantled o'er with green. or flesh-eaters. the otter. is In the Cool Temperate Zone are great numbers of fur-bearing The forests. wolves. and nightingales are the Jenny Linds of song. and the sheep. the Faroes. and Asia are Inhabited by the same species. some require the moist. as they are impelled by the change of seasons. Secure Within its winding citadel. and the streams. But chief. fly southward on the approach of winter. the bison. Then there are the wild pigeons that sometimes darken the sky for days when on their way to distant feeding or nesting grounds. In the Temperate Zones are found the greatest number of useful animals. would perish were there no plants to sustain the creatures they devour. or * Comult Jotuuon's Natural History. the horse. and some creatures. sables. must be limited to the region where its food is found. or to endure great diversities of climate. The air and the trees swarm with birds of gorgeous plumage. "The colossal elephant and the unwieldy rhinoceros crash through the primeval forests. * * * * "The flowery leaf Wants not its soft inhabitants. The seal and the Arctic whale could no more sport in the tropical seas than in the flames. An animal whose zone. falcons. the water Every hillside. or. " In September the stork abandons the thatched roof of the German peasant to perch on the cupolas of Egypt or Tunis. every tree or tuft of gra. or roots. eating creatures. ptarmigans. The majority are confined to their own district. and insects of strange forms different is the Torrid How Nature spreads her table for these countless millions of Most of the land animals live upon plants." Zone where. there are zones. and other predatory beasts prowl through the thickets seeking for their prey. the tiger. lakes. In Europe the swift swallow and the cuckoo wing their way in summer beyond the Arctic Circle. On the promontories. and decaying leaves.LIFE ON THE GLOBE— DISTEIBUTION OP ANIMALS. soothes. Hence. It The companions of Columbus were filled with fear when their little ships encountered the long runners of these weeds. From what has been streams. nor the lucid air. Europe. but in spring. fruit. walruses.

the cow. the deer and elk give pUice to the coyote. and have found homes in the New World. and wagon trains crossing the plains were sometimes delayed for hours. attains a length of 14 or 16 feet. where he keeps his indolent master company. and valleys along the slopes and on the bordering plains from Texas to Canada. regions are famous breeding places for several varieties of birds and the sea ledges are sometimes covered with Highlands have a number peculiar to that region. grosbeaks. the dog. though crossed by the same parallel. but is relished by the inhabitants of those regions. raccoons. and the deer. the grouse. or "dog-towns. humming birds. but in winter they retreat to the forest regions further south. and insects are not portions of the Temperate or of the Torrid Zone. gophers. herring. He can live in the Frigid Zone. as well as plants." The eastern slopes of the liocky Mountains forming the Great Plains were once the feeding ground of that noblest of American animals. and the lark do not sing. Among grizzly bear. one of them weighing from 300 to 400 pounds. but the animal runs fa. covering the brow and crown of the head. the domestic sheep. the blue crow. the only kind found on this continent. There are several hundred species of birds. dependent on the vegetation of the several regions. pursued the bison. goat. weasels. and watches the bleating flocks. the bison. whether as welcome guests or otherwise the naturalist has not fully decided. and are much huntetl by the Rsquimaux. hares. Often hundreds of families are collected in villages. and jays are a few of the smaller birds. and in the Torrid Zone. very abundant on the coast and islands of Alaska and of Labrador. where he shares the hunter's toil. and centipede. kingfishers. the horse. and even from Europe. pickerel. Hunters from all parts of our own country. the big-horn. In the region of the Colorado. The feeding grounds of the bison are becoming the great pasture region of the continent. prairie and timber wolves. They live in herds of 20 or 30. The flesh. The horns are broad at the base. Herons. and it is now nearly or quite extinct. many of them peculiar to this continent. The Columbia and other streams are noted for their salmon. where the true canon country is reached and the and flowers give place to sage. otters." a species of grouse.) Among the animals peculiar to North America are the grizI'KAIRIE-DOU VILLAUK. prairie dogs. nor does the bald eagle soar in all lands of the Temperate Zone. Sometimes rabbits are seen and wolves prowl in their quest. again. It is but a few years since millions of these creatures were seen by the traveler. and in New Zealand. shad. on many kinds of food. the vulture. After the ice disappears. and others about the lakes and streams where their food is found. and the quail are found. It is about one-third the size of the common ox. bluebirds. The hair is mostly brown. pike. cific them are the ' ' The mnsk ox Is peculiar to the polar regions of North America. the The wild turkey. the game changes. catbirds. The oceans are barriers which no quadrnpeds. barren deserts may stretch between their present abodes and other lands equally as well adapted to their existence. The bald mals. There are 180 varieties of edible fish in the waters of the Pacific coast. robins. bass. each numbering hundreds. In the temperate portion of the continent are found the bison. or the Cock of the Plains. wobdchucks. Major Powell says: 'Among the buttes on the lower terraces rattlesnakes crawl. the Pa- stunted plants of the far north. Then. occasionally. has a strong musky flavor. the elk. perch. the bluejay. grasses ' . found in all birds." as they are called by trappers. the nightingale. or with his hairless body draws the fever from his master's frame. the Eocky Mountain sheep. There are numerous reptiles. may find obstacles to their Snow-covered mountain ranges may prevent them from reaching other regions where they could find an abundance of food and shelter. wild geese. are among Man animals. and the rattlesnake. and the prong-horned antelope. in Australia. rattlesnake.st. now range in the mountains. These northern nests. The dog Fish are found in almost endless variety. the antelope. pouched rat. squirrel. the red and gray fox. plateaus. the partridge. innumerable waterseal is The fowl congregate about the lakes and streams. thrushes. can cross. the water-fowl. the panther. The ox. the barn-fowl. summer feeding on the moss and Besides animals similar to those found further east. cranes. That portion of the continent where the winters are long and zly bear. of opposite shores distinct. were conveyed across the deep by him. Among the smaller quadrupeds are beavers. or mountain sheep. and bluefish. and forests of a continent. or. the grizzly and black bear. has aided in the wide distribution of the most useful seen. a wider range than almost any other animal. plains. lizards glide over the rocks. the crow. where he draws his master swiftly over the snow in the Temperate Zone. whitefisli. (Animal Life. hawk. and so long that it hangs below the middle of the leg. and the owl the rapacious birds. and squirrels. Bodies of water often intervene to keep anidiffusion. now disappearing. and bare rock. eagle. and the jack rabbit. the The prairie dog. The legs are short. to cacti. and on the borders of Sonora and California. the moose. Some of these wholly upon the land. slaughtering thousands for mere sport. the mocking bird. The alligator. whip-poor-wills. salmon. Huge animals are not seen in every tropical forest. and even the honey bee. tarantulas stagger about and red ants build their playhouse mountains. cedar birds. the same varieties of insects do not hover over every tropical pool. may be seen stretched up and looking about. and flocks of sheep. or perhaps thousands. when lean. lives in burrows on the and Platte rivers. and easily scales rocky ledges impassable to horses. halibut. or prairies of the Missouri severe has a large live number of fur-clad animals. orioles. are often inhabited by different animals. more propBurrowing owls erly. and also further south in Texas and New Mexico. to dam large streams at their fording places. the cat. For these reasons we shall do well to take a survey of the animal life of each of the continents. badgers. minks. and rattlesnakes resort to the holes of the prairie dogs. opossums. The same quadrupeds. the buzzard. muskrats. and but few birds. Herds of cattle.64 that can live LIFE ON THE GLOBE— NOETH AMEEICA— ANIMAL LIFE. but the desert has no bird of sweet song and no beast of noble mien. nearly or quite extinct. The animals were so numerous as. the chief sorts are brook and lake trout. NORTH AMERICA. which are peculiar to the Great Lakes. waiting for herds to sweep past. mackerel. porcupines. The thrush. In the sterile regions where the sage brush grows one meets with the sage cock. and ducks are the chief Larks. of which the rattlesnake is the most widespread and dangerous. lias . pelicans. The musk ox and the reindeer are seen during the short Wish-ton-wish of the Indians. the mountains. of the southern bayous and streams. reptiles. and rails are Swans. At the opening of each hole is a small mound on which the dog.

LIFE ON THE GLOBE— NOETH

AMEEICA— ANIMAL

LIFE.

55

The wild

ani-

mals of the temperate regions of Mexico are similar to those further
north.

One hears

the bark of the wolf the plains.

and the coyote on Herds and
flocks

of cattle, droves o
horses,

of sheep are seen.

A

great variety of

brilliant colored parrots

and humming birds are
found in the low, hot regions near the coast. The puma, or American lion, the jaguar, and the ocelot are the largest
flesh-eating animals.

Noxious insects, like the tarantula and the scorpion, are common. The cochineal insect is an important article of commerce.
This tiny creature feeds on a species of cactus resembling the prickly pear. It is so small that 70,000 of them are calculated to make hut a pound, when prepared for sale. The insects are gathered by brushing them from the plant by means of a soft brush like the tail of a squirrel. They are killed by scalding or by heating in ovens. Cochineal is used for dyein" °
scarlet

and cnmson.

cochineal plant was cultivated by the Mexicans hundreds of years l)efore the country was known to Europeans. It is now grown in the West Indies, in Peru, and in the Canary
Islands.

The

From
countless

the Great Plains eastward to the Atlantic numbers of horned cattle, horses, sheep,

and swine have taken the place of the larger game animals, which are now seldom seen except in unsettled forest regions.
AJsiftiALS ui-

&ULIH AMKBICA,

56

LIFE ON THE

GLOBE— SOUTH AMERICA— ANIMAL
is

LIFE.

SOUTH AMERICA.
(Animal
Life.)

a strong land breeze blowing off the coasts of Brazil, clouds

of butterflies and other insects are sometimes blown out to sea,

and Darwin
South America has comparatively few animals in common with other continents. No ox, horse, sheep, or goat is a native of the continent. The wild cattle and horses, now found in vast numbers on its treeless plains, were first introduced by Europeans. It is especially rich in birds, some of which are of large Reptiles are numersize, and many are of beautiful plumage. ous, and insect life is immensely varied and abundant. Its most formidable beasts of prey are the jaguar, or South American tiger, which is found almost everywhere, and the puma, or lion, a much smaller beast than the lion of Africa.
Visiting the regions of the Orinoco and of the llanos
see millions of cattle feeding
butterflies."

tells

us that the seamen cried out, "It
large

is

snowing

seen,

was the flock that no space could be even with a telescope, which was free from them."

"So

cattle.

The pampas are noted feeding grounds for horses and horned The nandu, or South American ostrich; the little oven
au oven, and other
is also

bird, so called because it builds its nest like

small species of birds are found.
in this region.

The armadillo

at

home

when

on the the vegetation is green, we nutritious herbage. Prodigious numbera of birds have migrated hither from all quarters. Cranes, herons, storks, and ibises, of various sizes and colors, are sometimes seen in colonies extending for miles. Some of these birds are snow-white, some a delicate blue, others gray or pink, and many a brilliant scarlet. One kind of crane is called the soldier, from its erect bearing

and martial

air.

" The pools are the resort of myriads of ducks, which, when disturbed, rise During the moulting season, when the in such numbers as to darken the sun. ducks are unable to fly, the people of the country are said to visit the lagoons and drive home all the wild ducks they desire for food."

The marshes harbor the anaconda, an enormous water-snake, and the woods, the boa-constrictor. These snakes cause havoc among the herds of the llano farmers. Calves and colts straying near the pools fall an easy prey to such monsters. Alligators swarm in the rivers, and venomous serpents lie concsaled
in

meadows and

thickets.

Besides delicious turtles and edible fish, the waters contain many strange creatures. The sting-ray has a long spine near the end of its tail which may pierce the foot of the bather; the caribe resembles a goldfish in form, and is armed with three-edged, saw-like teeth, with which it tears the wounds of cattle that venture into the streams. It is the pest of Venezuelean rivers. The electrical eel abounds in the slimy bottoms of still pools, and stuns horses that

come

to

quench their

thirst.

In the dry season, when the vegetation on the llanos is dead, all this is changed. The horses and cattle have gone to the mountain slopes, where the pastures are green, the birds have flown, and the reptiles lie buried in the mud. All await the return of the sun, and with it the rain.

In the densest forests of the Amazon, the number of individual animals is not so great as in the more open regions.
in favored spots. Large tracts seem almost untenanted, while others swarm with life. Travelers speak of the awful stillness and somber shade of these prime-

They are numerous only

val woodlands.
" At times there echoes in the midst of the deep silence a sudden shriek of anguish or alarm, for a moment arresting the beating of the heart. It is the cry of some luckless herbivorous creature that has unexpectedly fallen a prey to some member of the feline order, or become entangled in the coils of a lx)aconstrictor. Morning and evening the numerous apes of the howler tribe set up a horrible din, increasing tenfold the inhospitable character of the forest."

MONKEYS AM)

ALI.HiATOK.

The
region,

llama, the alpaca,

and the vicugna dwell

in the

Andes

where

flies

the condor, and the

puma

prowls in quest

of his prey.

All the numerous species of monkeys are climbers, and, with one exception, none of them are ever seen on the ground. They
are born to play, eat, and sleep in the tree-tops.
frogs exist in great variety,

Lizards and

and many of them are climbers.
clatter.

In

The llama, the alpaca, and the vicugna are three very iraportiint animals of the same genus, dwelling in the higlier Andes. The formr" is a beast of burden, capable of working in the thin mountain air, where the pressure is only Mules are used to convey 8 or 10, instead of 15, pounds to the square inch. merchandise to an elevation of about one mile. The packs are then placed on the llamas and carried over the higher slopes and the great plateaus.
with long,
is

places, as in the

Gran Chaco,

brilliant parrots, in incredible

numbers, keep up their incessant
ties of

More than 400

varie-

llama, but is rather smaller. Its body is covered straight wool, much used iu manufactures. These animals are domesticated and kept in flocks. The vicugna is extremely wild and active, and
fine,

The alpaca resembles the

birds of every hue dart from flower to flower on the tropical forest slopes of the Andes.
Amazon,

humming

considered untamable. It is somewhat smaller than the aljKica, and its fine It is obtained by hunting and slaughtering the animal. hair is more valuable. Several varieties of turtles are very abundant on the Orinoco and the Ama^ Early in the month of March they assemble on the few islands where they breed, when thousands are to be seen ranged iu lines along the shores. The animal digs a hole three feet in diameter and two in breadth with its hind feet, which are very long and furnished vrith crooked claws. The laying of the eggs begins soon after sunset, and is continued throughout the night. One tortoise lays from 100 to 116 eggs. The egg ground is divided into portions, and the natives remove the earth-covering with their hands, and carry the eggs in baskets to the camp.
zon.

Bates, the naturalist, who spent eleven years on the banks of the collected 14,712 animals, 8,000 of which were new to men of science.

Fireflies light up the deafen the ear with their shrill sounds, and gay butterflies frequently fiU the air in all directions. When there
forest, locusts

Insects exist in great abundance.

LIFE

O'S

THE GLOBE— EUROPE— ANIMAL

LIFE.

fur-bearing are the most important in
north.
deer,

tiie

Bears,

wolves, several kinds of
still

and the wild boar are
is

found in

the great forests of the central countries.

The chamois
beautiful animal of the Alps.

the most noted and

Here, too, are the eagle and

the lammergeyer, or lamb-killer.
Spain.
less.

Barbary apes are found

in

The reptiles of Europe are small and generally harmThe birds do not compare with those of South America

in brilliancy of plumage, but there are
to

many

sweet singers

make glad the homes

of rich and poor.

•-.%+^
y;

p

The nightingale, or "night singer" of the Saxons, the finest of European song-birds. Is not larger than the bluebird of America, and is very plain in appearance. Its delightful song is heard chiefly in the still nights of May and June, but it also sings during the day. Though so small a bird its voice may be heard a mile. They are abundant iu the pleasure grountls around London, in the parks and gardens of Paris, and Florence rings with them during the vocal sea^ son." The bird spends its winter in the warmer parts of Asia and Africa, but migrates as far north as Sweden, in April or May.
' '

Cod, herring, and salmon abound in the northern coast waters; and the sardine, the anchovy, and the tunny are found iu the Mediterranean.

Questions.

— Of

the animals represented,

how many

are useful to

man?

Which one

most useful? Is the African elephant used as a beast of burden? In what countries is the camel of most service? For what is the eider duck valued? About which of these animals has Sir Walter Scott written? What is the meaning of the word lammergeyer? What bird of our own country
is

resembles the lammergeyer? In what way has the artist shown the character of the chamois? Which of the animals are carnivorous? Which are herbivorous? How many are found on more than one continent? How many are peculiar to Africa? To Asia? To Europe? Why did the artist plaice the lion in that position? What use may the man have for his spear?

68

LIFE ON THE GLOBE— ASIA— AFEIC A— ANIMAL LIFE.

ASIA.
(Animal
Life.)

On

the great plains and in the scrub region extending far

Most of our domestic animals had their native home in Asia. that land came the cow, the horse, the ass, the goat, the sheep, the pig, the cat, the peacock, and the barn-fowl. Cattle, horses, asses, and goats ai e found on the steppes and vast plaFlocks and herds teaus, wherever there is sufficient herbage. form the chief wealth of all Middle Asia. The yak and the cashmere goat are sgen on the table-lands of Thibet.

From

and the quagga, and no less than sixty species of antelope, some of them of great size and beauty. The antelope is seen in herds, sometimes numbering
to the south are the striped zebra

The buffalo is found in South Africa, but it has 100,000. never been tamed and used as a beast of burden as in some parts of the Old World. The crocodile is seen in all the
large rivei'S and lakes of the continent.

Goats inhabit most p.arts of tlie world, and live on scanty herbage where other domestic animals could scarcely lind a footinji;. Their flesh and milk are wholesome food; their undressed skins furnish warm clothing for a large part of tlie mountain shepherds and peasiiiits of Europe and temperate Asia. Many an infant in those lands is nursed by a goat. Kid gloves and the finest morocco shoes are made from goat skins. The most expensive shawls, costing from $500 to $1,000, are made from the hair of the cashmere goat. Skins of the goat with the hair on form the knapsack of the soldier, the wig of the lawyer, the bishop, and the judge. The horns of the goat make excellent knife-handles, and the tallow furnishes candles for many a cottage home. Their salted and dried hams make tlie best "rock venison," and superior cheese from goat's milk is the boast of many a mountain dairy. The yak, or "grunting ox," is extensively bred in Thibet and the adjacent parts of Central Asia, and is very useful to the inhabitants of those elevated regions. There are several breed.s, as the "plow yak," the "noble yak," and "wild yak." Tlie color of the animal is black, the back and tail often white, the hair is thick and long, and the tail long, silky, and beautiful. The horns are like those of a common ox. The legs are short, but the animal is as tall as a large ox. Over his shoulder hangs a great mass of hair, which has the appearance of a hump. The beautiful tails are dyed red and used for military standards and to ornament the caps of the Chinese. It is a sure-footed beast, and bears ita rider over dangerous passes and along the brink of yawning gulfs. Ita flesh is Siiid to be superior to venison.

The
burden.

largest wild animals inhabit the forests south of the

Himalayas.

In this region the elephant
tiger,

is

used as a beast of

There are the Bengal

a terribly ferocious beast,

the great yellow lion, the rhinoceros, the hyena, the orangoutang, crocodile, and pythons of monstrous length, and
species of poisonous snakes.

many

HUNTINO THE GORIILA.

Monkeys and parrots abound. In the cold north are birds and fur-bearing animals like those in Europe and North America; but the sable, the civet, marten, blue and silver fox, and other creatures, highly valued for their fur, are rapidly disappearing before Siberian hunters
and trappers.

The ostrich is the most remarkable bird. It delights to dwell in the regions bordering the great deserts, but it has been
tamed, and "ostrich farming" in South Africa.
is

now an important

industry

AFRICA
(Animal
Life.)

In the Atlas region on the north are found the domestic
animals, including the camel and the dromedary.
larger wild animals are the graceful gazelle

Among

the

and the antelope. The eagle circles round the mountain peaks; the swallow skims through the air, fattening on the swarms of musquitoes; the cuckoo's note is heard; the stork, from Europe, spends the winter there, building its nest on the terraces of houses, the
belfries of churches, or in the minarets of the

The ostrich is six to eight feet high. Its feet consist of two toes the head and neck are nearly naked; the plumage is loose, and the quill feathers of the wings and tail are remarkable for their length. These are the well-known ostrich featliers which are so highly prized as ornaments. Ostriches live in small flocks and feed upon grass, grain and the tops of plants. The nest is a hole scrajied in the ground, in which several hens lay their eggs, the points of the eggs being turned downward. During the day the hens tiike turns in sitting, but the stronger male bird goes on the nest at night, to protect the eggs or young from prowling jackalls. cats, or other enemies. Each egg weighs about three pounds, and they are considered very palatable food. The distant cry of the ostrich is often mistaken for the roar of the lion. It runs more rapidly than the swiftest horse, and its speed is lessened but little
;

with a

man on

its

back.*

mosques, and dining on grasshoppers, frogs, lizards, and snakes. The boom of the heron is heard in the swamps, the swan sits gracefully

weaver birds are found in large numbers in Hundreds unite in building a roof or thatch of grass, under which they construct a huge nest with a compartment for every bird. There
social

The

Southern Africa, north of the Orange Eiver.

are

many
but,

entrances, each forming a regular street, with nests

on both
tree,

sides.

The

nest

is

usually built in the top of a

tall

on the water, and the grebe, whose costly satin feathers are used for trimming ladies' dresses and for muffs, dives in the waters of lakes and bays. The camel is the beast of the Great Desert. Further south, in tropical Africa, the rhinoceros is found in the jungles, the hippopotamus in the shallow lakes, pools, and streams, on whose banks grows the coarse food he eats. The elephant and the giraffe delight in the more open forests. In the deep shade dwell the monkey, the chimpanzee and the manlike gorilla, and numberless parrots and other bright-colored,
noisy bl rdS.
«^ ,^,^,^^ having one hump.

where trees are not found, shrubs are sometimes
insects, termites,

selected.

Among numerous
build
tives,
tall,

a kind of

ant,

which

cone-like houses, often mistaken for the huts of na-

are the most remairkable.

They boldly attack almost

every living creature, and destroy everything except stones and metals. Locusts fly in immense swarms, and no green thing is

where they light. They are used as food by many tribes, and with the wild honey, which is abundant in some parts of the continent, form no mean diet.
left

on a

field

• Consult Johnson's Natural History.

are very numerous. while North America. and bower birds. each creek and bay. some of which are far larger than any animals on land. or bears. no cats. It has its honeysuckers. of which one called the . deer. Some of the mounds are 15 feet high and 60 feet in circumference. such as walruses. With fry innumerable swarm. Australia is said to have 630 distinct species of birds. rhi- SEA. and Europe but 500. "The great red kangaroo is five feet high and sometimes weighs 200 pounds. while the inhabitants are asleep. 59 AUSTRALIA. or pigs. and through groves Of coral stray." or fruit-eating bat. The sea is crowded with living creatures. and others other temperate climate of the world equals Australia in the variety of form.size. It lopes. even more peculiar in the character of its THE has no native oxen. part single or with mate Graze the sea^weed. very small. most of which vegetable life. which gathers an immense heap of sticks and other vegetable matter. dolphins. Life. There are several species of "flying opossum. and decorate them with colored feathers. The kangaroos are the most remarkable of the marsupials. rugs. that construct bowers of twigs and branches. and shoals Of fish that with their fins and shining scales Glide under the green wave. domestic animals of the Temperate Zone are now widely introduced. the musical magpie. and sharks. noceroses. and others nearly or quite as small as a rat. They have a our flying squirrels. or in the crevices of rocks. squirrels. the same Some varieties are nearly three feet in length to the tip of the tail. or antewolves. animals are numerous. There are 300 kinds of land shells. Of lizards there are 140 varieties. lying in three zones. hats. that live on the sweeta of innumerable flowers. and more beautiful than those of most tropical countries. whose skins are used membrane joining the fore and hind leg. is the largest and most remarkable. "The sounds and seas. Many cattle and millions of sheep graze on the hills and plains. no elephants. They are born very feeble. and their notes equal those of our favorites. The largest often weigh as much as a sheep.) (Animal animals. and run very swiftly. When brought to bay they will sit upright against the trunk of a tree and often rip open a dog with the large nail of the middle toe. No The wonderful Song-birds are abundant. Animals of great . their pasture. no apes or monkeys. on which her eggs are laid. no weasels. . Scoresby saw a rorqual whale in the polar seas which measured 120 feet in length. and some 70 varieties of snakes. but leave their abodes of gloom during the still night. whistler. that fills us with the greatest surprise. Then there is the jungle-fowl." beautiful creatures. Whales have been caught that weighed nearly 200 tons. and nine large species. and they arc left to hatch by the heat of the sun.LIFE ON THE GLOBE—AUSTRALIA— THE SEA— ANIMAL LIFE. or mound-builder. Its parrots and cockatoos are numerous. The marsupial. many of which are venomous. rather than their size. and are at once placed in a pouch of loose skin with which the mother is provided. Some are as tall as a man. or porcupines. and the peculiar habits of its birds. or piping crow. or pouch-bearing. "flying fox. and some of these monsters are found in schools of thousands. lx)nes. gives the We found Australia very peculiar in its most charming music. and shells. and not less than 60 feet in girth. The different hedgehogs. has but 720. which they spread as they fly." • There are twenty-three varieties of Their wings are several feet in extent. sea-cows. They pass the day suspended by the hind feet. Sand is then piled over them. They are hunted with dogs trained for the pur])Ose. and devour large quantities of fruit in gardens and fields. and we shall find it are of curious shape or elegantly colored. in sculls that oft Bank the mid sea. But it is the multitude of creatures that throng the deep. Of these there are more than forty small. or sporting with quick glance. the beauty of plumage. from branches in the thick shade.

to some extent. or. and the coast of Norway. and other food fishes. They are not what are commonly known as fish. In the Torrid and the Warm Temperate Zones crossing the and chocolate. may carry some of the life of the tropics to the north. and a long river of fire in the track of the ship. the voyager sees sheets of yellow or greenish light trembling on the water. these animals at times so crowd the surface of the sea as to color it yellow for many In the Southern Hemisphere the animals of the sea change with the zones. Show to the sun their waved coats dropped with gold. in 1856. walruses. it seems as if an immense island had risen. Of the animals inhabiting this region the seal. possessing mere rudimentary eyes. spring. exists at of fish are depths in the ocean. Iceland. and raises around it a series of luminous wavelets. colored yellow. A cold current. oil. It must not be supposed that we can bound the different animal zones of the sea by parallels of latitude. and whalebone. Deep- sea fishes are usually of a very dark or dull color. the marine animals are the most varied in form and in color. and others still. some of them so tiny that a small drop of water. As the darkness comes on. But man is not the worst enemy of these animals. appear in countless forms. where the creatures which are born in infinite myriads. on the eastern coast of North America. a traveler saw a swarm of medusfe covering a space forty-five miles wide. who garner the harvests of the deep. flying in clouds above the scene of the immense slaughter. but this island or continent of fishes is beset and eaten on all sides. The same fish belt touches the northern portion of our western coast from California to Alaska and the Japan Islands. in their pearly shells. when viewed by the microscope. the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. in water of moderate temperature. or under rocks their food In jointed armor watch. Others sparkle like diamonds on the rocks and sea weed. waves of flame on either side. and that a continent was about to emerge. the seal And bended dolphins play. too. and Asia in the higher latitudes. Birds. may be followed far to the south by whales. following. and including the whole of the Indian brilliant Ocean. "living water. colored brown. animals must live where their food is abundant. ivory. each drop an animated world. Some appear in the depth like balls of fire. or shell fish. mackerel. Some creatures are adapted to deep and others to shoal water. stretching as far south as Labrador. Then. shine with phosphorescent light. and we do not find them wandering at will over all parts of the sea. or olive-green. In this belt are the coast waters of New England. Wallowing unwieldy. by them." and sea nettles. Some can be seen only by the aid of the microscope. some float in shoals. In the port of Havana the least object that agitates the surface of the water said to appear like a point of flame. In the Persian Gulf the waves are often so luminous during the night that the Arabs attribute the reflections to infernal fixes shining through the rocks beneath. corals construct their Here myriad islands. Navigators in the Indian Ocean have found tracts as white as milk. but minute creivtnres that throng the sea from the Equator to the poles. Off the coast of South America. but the number of individuals of any species is usually very great. numberofif ing millions upon millions. or like ribbons of fiame moving througli the water. many When become the prey of thousands of men. which press in bands around the serried columns. the field of carnage. E"orth of the Canaries. the British Isles." Redus. serve also as food to millions and tens of millions of furious devourers. to Animals of the sea have their zones as well as those of the land. Rowboats sailing over the waters leave behind them the trace of a fiery dragon with extended paws. at ease." "sea blubbers. Many species of medusa." find miles from the coast. Off the headlands of Granada. and never cease swallowing herrings by hundreds. the species of animals are not so numerous as in the Torrid Zone. all swarming with excellent fish. mackerel. Some creatures live in water that is very cold. and a warm current. others delight in that which is warm. as tlie Gulf Stream. by minute creatures. the waves tipped with flame. as that from Greenland. was seen to contain many hundreds. though most abundant near the surface. In the polar seas. glitter as they float on the rolling current. and the whale are most useful. and moUusks. whose best home is in the colder regions. part huge of bulk. on smooth.splaying the lovely hues of the rainbow. herring. Or. gather in the cool waters coasts. Seamen near the coast of Greenland bands of water. and some of them are sightless. di.60 LIFE ON THE GLOBE— THE SEA— ANIMAL LIFE. attend Moist nutriment. "jelly fishes. is Tempest the ocean. The waters teem with living creatures. . but confined to their feeding grounds the same as animals on land. enormous in their gait. and other food fishes. about 30 miles long. whirlpools of sparks at the vessel's prow. This is called phosphorescence of the sea. It is probable that animal all life. hundreds of miles in area. Canada. Certain species known to live at a depth of about three miles. the walrus. the ice of the rivers flowing into the polar ocean breaks up in the varieties of flsh from the sea fairly crowd the waters." Schools of herring. bright red. Darwin saw large tracts. are found a great abundance of cod. furnishing fur. "Each detachment of the mighty army. like orbs of silver. plunge down on all sides to select their victims. and from 6 to 6 broad. sea is some In the Cold Temperate Zone. is accompanied by legions of great sea animals. while others form jelly-like masses that float on the waves. ThemedusMB bear the popular names. or seals. They are born to dwell where the sun's rays never penetrate. while others. as the Peruvians say. When the herrings penetrate into the North Sea. but less is known of that portion of the globe. "The an immense Some that its parts of the sea are so filled with living creatures color is changed Gulf Stream of the Atlantic. Atlantic and Pacific. and including Behring Sea on the west.

X. each comprising about two-fifths of mankind. families. The Malay race short. Man Zone. and we see him entering it on "all-fours. considerable progress in civilization when the continent was discovered. in order to supply himself with wholesome and delicious food. race takes its near which is light. broad nose. the constantly frozen ground yields but few plants suitable The Caucasian tains. mental and moral qualities. the sun itself hides its face for a time. flat nose. tap some plant or pluck some watery fruit to quench it his thirst. From it have sprung great scholars. or tribes. and in most things that contribute to the highest welfare of mankind. thick is black or dark brown. but having the same general characteristics as the race to which they belong. The Mongolian ranks next to the Caucasian. educational. He has neither wood nor coal for grate or hearth. or black. He may thatches rain. with coarse. about one twenty-fifth of the entire human family which numbers nearly 1.440. skin the skull large. ages the Caucasian has been the leading race of the world. The divi- sion is based on differences in color. and lean. They take naturally to the sea. all historical In very many portions of the Torrid Zone one has only to In shake the branches of a tree. face. and clothing. and prominent cheek bones. SPECIMENS OF THE FIVE CLASSES OF MANKIND. The and the teeth vertical. drawing him over fields of ice and snow. In his leathern kyak.000. and have written laws. but in America they have shown themselves capable of great progress. . but a few have learned to write. truthful. low forehead.000. the sea. or to pull roots from the ground. and rapid progress is being made. muscular frame. ing ice to spear a fish or a of his food seal. and often are pirates. features. Greely. that the fomily. and with palm leaves to shelter himself from sun and Little clothing is needed. straight hair. large mouth. high cheek bones. famine often staring him in the face. the negroes are mostly barharians. name from the Caucasus Mounmany suppose it to have originated. or yellow. about one-hundredth. or white. The Negro race includes about one-seventh. inventors. and generous. in some instances. and projecting jaws. The Caucasian and Mongolian We races are supposed to be who nearly equal. During the long polar winter. retreating forehead. that the people inhabit these desolate regions are so strongly attached to their native land that they sicken when obliged to leave it. The Negro race low forehead. divided into several races. The five races recognized by most writers are the Caucasian. black hair. the forehead exfull. The Chinese and Japanese are the finest examples of this race. that they are loving. as well as oil for his lamp. The human family is In their aative country. or boat. BSQUIMAU. The Malays have made little advance in civilization. and discoverers. or red. with black hair. aquiline nose. are told by Lieut. those of South America had made. In China and Japan it has reached a high state of civilization. broad of his hut. the latter furnishing most The Indian race is of a copper color. and dark.— But few tribes of men dwell Each race is sub- in the awful solitudes within and bordering upon the Frigid divided into groups. in the Different Zones. He constructs a simple hut of bamboo stems. and the Esquimau gropes about in the twilight. the face oval. In this belt. with woolly hair. and religious systems. and social institutions." creeping along a dark passage. especially in the latter country. and warms himself by a lamp placed near the center for food. including a portion of three continents.LIFE ON THE GLOBE — MANKIND." and that a few simple pleasures fill their cup of joy. or brown. the Indian. and other arctic explorers. are "all the world to one another. low. living together in one little room. he ventures among the float- lips. straight. 61 MANKIND. The Mongolians have a yellow complexion. oblique eyes. the Indian. Many of them have not risen above the lowest stage of savage life. industrial habits. the Mongolian. differing from one another somewhat. and the Malay. The Indians of North America are savages. The dog shares his master's toil. panded. and the Malay. It takes first rank in governmental. the chin and man is largely dependent upon the bounty of His hut of ice or rough stone is built near the coast. is brown. the Negro.

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What. From this zone went forth the civilized people who rule in Mexico. find two places in oj)Find posite hemispheres where the clocks strike 12 M. of another. if the —^Why should the sailor climb Why does to the topmast the plant life. to stock raising. He needs food. when he wishes to see the distant shore? the sun rise earlier to us eastern instead of the western border of the continent? How Andes were on the would the re- than to people living west of us? On the map or globe. Point out. and mountains their ores. do. and the occupations of these immigrants in order that they may live in this elevated region. the waters where the different food fishes are caught. or bays. seas. bleating flocks and lowing herds may crop the green pastures. — Point out on the several maps those regions favorable to agriculture. in commerce. or nomads. confined to one or two industries. save in a few favored localities. in regions tell where the inhabitants are constantly roving? Could you people by having a list of their occupations? the chaiactei of a . he ceases to be a savage. For what occupation has nature fitted this section? Point out such a section. In the Temperate Zones everything urges man to "be up and doing. including the greater portion of the land surface of the not. the valleys and cut across the plains. is a leading occupation of the people who inhabit this region? Give a reason Point out such a section. A colony migrates from the lower plains of the Torrid Zone to a plateau in the same zone. He prefers to take his ease. to commerce. In the same manner. TEST QUESTIONS AI^D EXERCISES. Nature wants. as indicated by native plants. How many degrees are these points apart? How many miles round the earth on the parallel of 45°? In what way does the curvature of the earth's surface determine the climate? How many zones would there be if the earth were flat? Physical Geography. diversity of industries.LIFE ON THE GLOBE— MAISTKIND— TEST QUESTIONS. but coasts and numberless inlets. and other tropical countries. people of any which the physical pursue to the best Regions Most Favorable to Progress. powers He is too indolent to improve. etc. hammers may beat. churches. for no winter or time of brain. herring. railways. diflferences in In the Temperate Zones there are alternations of heat and cold. very little rain. points may be decided in a similar manner. In a region of plains. and the inhabitants of South America. 63 nor in lands of perpetual summer. probably. come and go. rich soil. moval of the Cascade. the surface. realm of frost. Queries. unused. the seasons is incited to These occupations are not accidental. and so on. all his conclusions. but. most of Canada. forests may yield their lumber. others clothing. Nature provides everything at the proper time. and leaves his mind uncultivated. Ice closes the avenues of trade. and labor seems useless. how such a change would affect the climate of commerce of the world. State what changes must he made in the dwellings. to lumbering. TUK FOLLOWmQ WILL TEST THE PUPIL'S KNOWLEDGE OF SOME OF THE PEINCIPLES EXPLAINED IN PEKCEDING Mathematical Geography. or fishing. Streams course The winters are comparatively mild. the climate is bracing. on the globe or map. are naturally adapted to grain raising. or modes of getting on in the world. Navigable rivers and lakes are also found. papers. rounded by abundance. books. are in the North Temperate Zone. orchard fruits and vineyard clusters may ripen under his hand. and millions of them people the continents and islands of this belt. including trees. of a third. Six hours.000 or 12. Little progress can be made in this region of slanting sunbeams. to mining. there is a moderate growth of nutritious grass. China and Japan in Asia. and other fish. In every instance give reasons your He is surIn the Torrid Zone man is the heir of luxury. In the mountains are found large quantities of coal and iron. in manufacturing. and man pend on physical features or climatic to mining. aa indicated by the streams. at the same instant.000 feet above the sea. The Torrid Zone is the best home of savages. 10. world. the waters swarm with cod. ple of one section are largely engaged in agriculture. cunning shuttles may fly. " He may sow and reap the varied harvests of the fields. There is an abundance of wild grass. There is a mountainous country with forests of hardwood and pine on all the slopes. the names of the most useful plants. In traveling. and timber sulficient for building. — —How many things are required to make a good agricultural counis try? What needed to make a great manuiacturing region ? business are likely to be of most importance in mountainous countries? geographical advantages must a city have in order that it What branches of What may become great f * yon think most for Exercises. and mountain valleys. How may the people of this country get a living ? * The benefit of exercises of this character cornea from the thinking the pupil is required to His couclusions are to be reacned by making an application of what he has learned. by no effort can one There can be no bring a supply of food from the ground. Geographical Distribution of Labor." and he finds happiness and progress in the exercise of all his faculties. I notice that my watch is constantly losing time. In what direction am I journeying? Where. but usually deconditions. What may be some of the leading industries of this country? Why? Find such a section on the map of North America. In the Frigid Zone life is a long struggle with the cold. on the whole. Some regions constant activity and forethought. In a cool portion of the North Temperate Zone is a country with rugged There is little land suitable for cultivation. for there is but one way to gain a living. on the earth. Is it probable that men became wanderers. etc. It is the child of that zone in which we live. Our own country. in their proper places. the clothing. will and supply all his but must labor to obtain them. scarcity is coming. plateaus. and nothing is gained by contact with the world. Civilization did not have its birth in the In a certain portion of the North Temperate Zone we find a level country with a deep. Doing this. lumbering. its and people. to fishing. the food. the we find schools. will the sun be directly overhead at noon.. on the 21st of June? On the 22d of December? Find two points on the earth's surface where the sun rises but once a year. the Other soil. belts. for your conclusion. what would be the direction of the equatorial current? Of the trade winds? Of the return trades? What effect would this reversed motion have on the rainMl of different coasts ? What effect on the climate of Western Europe? Sketch the outlines of each continent and print. two places whose difference in time is one hour. In deciding on the agricultural capabilities of a region he will think of the climate. What would be the effect on the dimate. SECTIONS. shelter. and man prefers to depend on her bounty rather than use his hands or Forethought is unnecessary. the section engage in those branches of business and hand. is ' ' man From this it will be seen that the temperate climates are most favorable to human progress. South America. as in the Frigid Zone. gulfs. and in some parts the grass cures where it stands and retains its nutritious qualities during the cold months. In these vast globe. but she compels him to use his mind As a rule. and the Sierra Nevada Mountains the Pacific Highland region? affect the climate of What would be the effect if the waters of the entire sea were of uniform temperature? If all portions of the atmosphere were equally heated ? If the earth were to rotate from east over to west. the probable rainfall. the countries of Europe. or fruit growing. and sails may be spread on lake and sea. — Looking over the and that the peo- we find that there are many industries. indicate the regions where the most useful animals are found. to manufacturing. from choice? What jwrtions of the earth seem unfavorable to a fixed population? Why are they so? Shall — Imagine the coasts of Africa to be deeply indented state by the continent. Twelve hours. geography of their section enables them to advantage.

Vishnu. individual interest in the They are dwellers state. or half-civilized.000. or otherwise." such as have been agreed upon by the nations the seat of government. Locate the list of the most valuivble plants found in each of the zones. Its castes Siva. highlands. and rivers. and it is the prevailing religion in that country to-day. sheep. to lumbering. affected — In what zones does the continent Point out the natural and State boundaries of the several countries. by mountains? By the Great Central Plain? How are shown on the map ? Name five large islands in the what part a continental climate? Plant Zones.POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. lakes. — — Locate capes. men are usually governed by leaders called which may be represented property except place. They clear the forests. There are three states of society. Sketch. power is usually bestowed on chosen by the people. if any. a government in which the power is in the hands of a ruler. Eoman Democracy the people is government by the whole people. The NORTH AMERICA. or Empires. by ocean currents. a state. or civilized. by mountain ranges. A. construct highways. and provide for education. the metropolis transacted. shades of religious belief and the practices under those beliefs are almost endless. the prevailing systems of religion classed as follows: Christianity. matter. 160. including about 380. the mediator between them. but. It began Buddha in India. or regard him as the Savior of the world. and The Vedas are the oldest of its sacred books. However high or low in the scale. styled Monarchy and Democracy. or savage. Buddhism was founded about five hundred years before Christ. GOVERNMENT. from memory. There are few. The Jews number about 8.000. beginning with the largest. to manufacturing. carry on trade. state in A The Jews believe in one God. the destroyer. and Buddhism. and concerned. men own no what they can carry with them from place to get They The men who form a government. how the climate is ing winds. General Questions. Koran Mohammedans are followers of Mohammed. but do not accept Christ as his Son. the outlines of the continent. or ruler. islands. whose favor they are desirous of securing. and limited when he is required to govern according to fixed principles contained in the constitution of the country. Physical Features. in tents the city where the largest amount of business ^ and rove from place to place to In the highest. have fixed homes. ranges.000. and give reasons for your conclusions. lie? — How many political divisions are included in North in the order of their size. print papers and books.000. In the lowest.000. STATES OF SOCIETY. cattle. It is tlie religion of about one-fourth of mankind. dwell in tents or rude huts and live on such food as they can by hunting or fishing. Uncivilized chiefs. state. and the legislative or law-making power is shared by the crown and a popular assembly. Sanga. upon fruits or roots that grow They live from hand to mouth. Its three principal gods are Brahma. who was bom is the Mohammedan Bible. to hunting. and canals. establish manufactories. and we find the land surface of the earth divided into countries owned or occupied by nations or tribes. 571. 64 . Brah- minism. the creator. but reject the New. break the prairies.000. as all who occupy a large country cannot assemble to make and execute laws. people own horses. or a tribe must have land or territory on which to dwell. and there are two principal forms of government. the shepherd. the Mohammedans. to serve for a limited time. or wild or with little cultivation. tlie political America ? Name them Climate. in opposition to the system of caste among the Brahmins. The is capital of a country is is or other domestic animals. and describe the coast waters. drain the swamps. by rainfall. who have "While the not some faint notion of a life beyond the grave. to mining. and the farmer. and the boundaries of the several countries. by prevailWhat portions of the continent have a maritime and What many countries are crossed groups of islands size. such as mountain . makes such laws as he pleases. which the government is carried on by representatives elected by the people is a Bepublic. railroads. who inherits his right to reign. the preserver. find fresh feed for their stock. represents intelligence.— Locate and bound chief cities. Brahminism was the religion of the people who conquered India fifteen centuries before Christ. mountains.000. by the hunter. by inland waters. Kingdoms. the several coimtrles. Central Plain. but have no soil. or less than one-third of the race. Catholics.000. Judaism. may be Mohammedism. or monarch. and other religions 212. camels. Some countries have natural boundaries. Point out those sections of the continent which yon judge to be best suited to agriculture. and state whether indigenons. They look upon the Old Testament as a sacred book. REVIEW EXERCISES. Civilized men have formed states. 680. Dharma. a nation. nearly all men believe in some unseen power. state. write a order of their — In what plant zones does the continent lie? From memory.000. D. peninsulas. the Brahmins and Buddhists together. men and the Greek Church. or large bodies of water ical boundaries. EXERCISES. or others are separated by polit- providing nothing for a "rainy day. STUDIES. superior to themselves. Christians are divided into three bodies: Protestants. to commerce. are an essential part of the system. is A A Monarchy Monarchy is absolute when the sovereign. In the pastoral. MAP Probable Industries.000. called Eepublics. men own the soil and RELIGION.

^'^^^^i. W)^ ««''?^ ^if//® . ""i.5^rv^.NORTH POLt ^i¥ "fe^ \Gf 6ekV .^ ^/ ^L*. ^ J-"' / 3--"^? 'PJ'C ^^ 'BeaM I'ff.v.t4 mpico i:t Mertd»_ "*^5>*.ife. mnnipeg jixht^ '^-^ icil'^ . T fl9U rr T\ %. . »»'• ^^I'l..^ '^ ^ "' jH**"^" '9s«o„ POLITICAL MAP OF >**" isi Ifff^^*' ^-fJ^J-iBE^^ .. rJS*''*'<'>/TCKlSE**" *. y o * ^- ^ ^ ^ . e<*" 'i£ Little KocW*-^/ V*Cfc^ \ "^^^ *t*ol''^" '*b V o Galveston J®* oV/eans /---Oil -.«.v)^ H '^'30.-.eu^irt^ati>|'"'r . J..of"r KORTH AMERICA 6\J' /J'^ Scale of Miles >' Longitude West ^ -i° from Washington LoAgiCude Eaat . *""«-. *J^Miimeai)olis «J^^ /)»«' T i„w»» Kansas City SL Louis '*«-*„ ^.

66

NOETH AMEEICA— UNITED STATES— DESCRIPTION.
DESCRIPTION.
History.

Newfoundland. In the following year the younger Cabot explored a large portion of the eastern coast of the continent.
Abont A. D. 1000, Norsemen from Norway discovered Greenland, and it is said that they visited Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, and what is now known as the coast of New England.
America takes its name from Amerigo Vespucci (S-marre-go ves-poo^hee), a Florentine, who accompanied Hojeda, a Spanish commander, as astronomer, and explored a part of the coast of South Americii in 1499. On his return he
published an account of his voyage.

Italy,

Columbas, a native of (Jenoa, in sailing from Spain in 1492, under the patronage of the

— Christopher
and

sovereigns, Ferdinand

Isabella, discovered the

West

Indies.

In 1498, he discovered the continent of South America at the

mouth of the Orinoco, and,
ica.

in 1502, the coast of Central

Amer-

supposed the lands he had found were outlying portions of Asia, and died in ignorance of his discovery of what has been called the New "World.
his son Sebastian, seeking a short route from Bristol, England, in 1497, taking a more northerly course than Columbus, and discovered Labrador and
to India, sailed

He

The Spaniards, seeking gold, colonized the southern part of The central portions were slowly peopled by the British and French. The aborigines include two races. The Indians were thinly
the continent.
scattered over the continent; and on
coasts of the north
to the

John Cabot and

some of the islands and were a few Esquimaux, supposed to belong

Mongolian

race.

UNITED STATES.
DESCRIPTION

Government.
executive,

— The

goVerument of

the United States has a legislative, an

and a judicial department.

The

legislative department, or Congress, consists

of a Senate and

House of Eepresentatives.
state,

The Senate consists of two members from each chosen by its legislature for a term of six years.
elected

The House of Eepresentatives is composed of members by vote of the people, for a term of two years. At
is

the present time, each state
for

entitled to one representative

every 154,000 inhabitants.

The President
for the

is

the chief executive

officer.

He

is

elected

term of four years.

The United

States is a federal republic

composed of

thirty-

eight states, ten territories, and one
territory it ranks fourth

district.

In extent of

among the

countries of the world.

state has

The people of each state choose as many electors as the members in Congress, and the electors choose the The
judicial department, or

Inhabitants.
50,155,783.

— By the

President and Vice President.

census of 1880 the population was

Over

four-fifths of the inhabitants are whites of
Irish,

Supreme Court,

consists of a

European descent, the English,
ing other nationalities. The negroes number abont

and Germans outnumberare found chiefly in the South,

chief justice and eight associate judges,

who

are appointed

by

the President, with the approval of the Senate.
6,580,000.

They

where they were formerly held as slaves. The Chinese, who are most numerous on the Pacific coast, number over 100,000. There are about 340,000 Indians, mainly confined to the Indian Territory and the Pacific Highlands. The bulk of the inhabitants occupy the eastern part of the country and the
central plain. The center of xwpnlation is constantly moving westward. In 1790, it was just across the Chesapeake, east of Baltimore. It is now some distance west of Cincinnati.

Congress makes laws with the approval of the President. "When the President returns a bill without his approval he is
said to veto
it.

Congress

may

pass a

bill

over the President's veto by a

two-thirds vote of each HouSe.

UNITED STATES— EELIGION—INDUSTEIES.
tains the
ies,

67

The general government regulates national affairs. It mainarmy and navy, defends the country, concludes treatregulates foreign commerce, coins money, has charge of the
etc.

In the great forests of Washington and Oregon and in the timbered region of Northern Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan,

New

public lands, provides postal service,

York, and Maine much attention is given to lumbering. The Atlantic Highlands, with their inexhaustible beds of

The
valid

constitution is the

ance with which the government

when contrary
it.

to

supreme law of the land, in accordis carried on. No law is this document. The Supreme Court

coal, iron,

and building

stone, their salt

and

oil

wells, their

valuable timber, rapid streams, and noble harbors, support a large population, engaged in mining and manufacturing.

decides the constitutionality of laws
before

when

cases are brought

Along the Atlantic and the

Pacific coast,

where there are

oyster beds, where salmon and shad teem in the rivers, and
state has its

Each

own

constitution, a governor, a legisla-

schools of cod, herring, and mackerel crowd the sea,
fishing a profitable

men

find

ture consisting of two houses, and a supreme court.

employment.

organized territory has a government like that of a state, but the governor and judges are appointed by the President
of the United States.

An

In a country like ours, where one section produces grain,
another cotton, a third manufactured
articles, and so must be an exchange of products, or commerce.

on, there

Such a

territory is allowed one delegate

in the lower house of Congress.

He may

speak on any subject

The

inland, or domestic,

before the house, but he cannot vote.
ficient

Territories having a suf-

carried on by

commerce of the United States is means of many natural water-ways, canals, and

are

number of inhabitants may be admitted as states, and then members of the Union. The general government has left the interests of education to
it

the several states, but
in the

has helped to establish

common

schools

newer ones by a grant of public land, and by the same means has provided for the endowment of a college in each state for instruction in agriculture and the mechanic arts.
Nearly
cation.
all

railroads, the latter forming a complete net-work extending from ocean to ocean. Foreign commerce centers in the great seaports, and immense steamships are extensively used in this trade. Two-thirds of the imports and nearly one-half of the exports pass through New York. Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Orleans, and San Francisco are also important ship-

ping ports.

the states have

made

liberal provisions for edu-

Exports.

— The leading exports are cotton, breadstuffs, pro-

Common

schools are maintained at public expense,

and, in some cases, high schools, normal schools, and universities. In no other country are the public schools more handsomely endowed.

and tobacco. Much of our cotton goes to supply the mills of Great Britain. Large quantities of flour, lumber, and manufactured goods go to South
visions, the precious metals, petroleum,

America and the West

Indies.

no established church, and freedom of religious belief and worship is secured to all by the Constituis

Religion.

— There

tion of the

United

States.

Industries. As we have seen, the industries of a country depend very much on its physical geography. Recalling what we have learned of the different sections of the United States as a part of North America, we shall have little difficulty in determining the leading occupations of the people. See Industrial Map, pages 92 and 93.

Imports. Iron, tin, and dry goods are imported from England; silks and wines from France; teas, porcelain and raw silk from China and Japan; coffee from Brazil and Java; sugar and fruits from the West Indies; hides and horns from South America.

Groups of States.
States

— For convenience of study, the United

'^

may be

divided into the following sections:

England States.— Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island.
Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia,

New

In the Great Central Plain with
fertile soil

its

broad valleys, undulat-

ing uplands, and almost boundless prairies, with a wonderfully

and a climate favorable

to the

growth of a large num-

Middle Atlantic States.— New York, Pennsylvania, New West Virginia.
Southern States.—North
Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia,

ber of useful plants,
pation.

we

find that agriculture is the chief occu-

In the south are sugar, cotton, and rice plantations; in

Florida, Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Ar-

the middle belt grow
fields of corn, wheat,

hemp and
and other

tobacco; further north are vast

kansas, Indian Territory.

grains.

Central States.— Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana,

Illinois,

Michi-

On

the dry, grassy plains bordering the

Rocky Mountains,
valleys, is the

gan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska,

from Montana to Texas, and in the mountain

North Dakota, and South Dakota.

great pasture region where horned cattle and sheep are

num-

bered by millions, and are constantly increasing.

In the Pacific Highlands, where the precious metals are
abundant, and
ture,

and Territories. California, Oregon, ColoWashington, and the territories of Wyoming, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Idaho, and Alaska.
Pacific States
rado, Nevada, Montana,
Historical Notes. The original thirteen states, which were colonies of Great Britain before the Revolutionary War, are New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, llaryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. At the close of the war the United States extended to Florida on the south, and as far west as the Mississippi. The first states admitted after the formation of the Union were Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, Louisiana, Indiana, and Mississippi.

many

other minerals are found; where vast re-

gions are almost rainless and otherwise unsuited to agricul-

mining

is

the great industry.

West

of the Sierras and Cascades, in the rich, warm, and

well-watered valleys, and on countless irrigated slopes, are orchards, vineyards, orange groves, and wheat fields.
Fruit raising, grain and wool growing are also important
occupations.

The United States did not originally comprise much over one-fourth of the present area. Florida was obtained from Spain in 1819 The territory west of the Mississippi was secured by purchase from Louisiana in 1803; by the annexation of Texas in 1845; by cessions from Mexico in 1848-53; and by the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867.

Pacific

or

120° meridian

TiMe

MOUNTAIN

Oft 1p5»

MERIDIAN TIME

MAP

STUDIES.

General Questions. Including Alaska, how many states and territorieB are there in the United States? Name the largest state. The smallest. Which is the largest territory ? How do the states east of the Mississippi compare in dizo with the states and territories west? Does the larger portion of the United States lie east or west of the Mississippi? What states lie on the Atlantic slope? What is the general direction of the tiy«i8 of that slope? What states ate crossed by the Appalachian rauges, oi

THE CLOCK DIALS SHOW THE MEAN TIME ON THE ME the Atlantic Highlands? What states and territories are included, wholly or in part, in the Pacific Highland region? What rivers drain this region What states and territory lie on the Pacific? What state and territories are crossed by the Rocky Mountains? What states and territories are drained wholly or in part by the Mississippi and its tributaries? What states are]
drained by rivers other than the Mississippi, flowing into the Gulf of Mexico? What states are bordered by the Great Lakes? What states form a part of the Great Central Plain? What states are without mountains? What states form The west bank ? What states are crossed by the east bank of the Mississippi ? the Missouri? By the Ohio?

|

i

i

i

. Sierra Nevada and Cascade ranges. Florida? Of the northern boundary of the United States west of Lake of the Woods? In what phmt zones does the United States lie? What grains.t^ZnXr^2 is ^^^^^^^'^^0^^^^^^'^'^^^^!^ J^^^^-^ ^^^SI yonr conclusions. vegetables. the Rocky Mountams. of the g^ited S^^| ' 'Nt™a*^r ^"So° of the Woods? Reckoning by the meridians.e and locate nine gr^t citi. Which coast is most Indented? Sketch the Appalachian ranges coast range. the GuU coast.. the Rio Grande. . ana state for the distance in miles from ""m^TsnL^CgL^e^rwLhfngtonr S^^^^ Of the eastern bonndary of Maine?' What is the latitude of Cape Sable. Na. the reasons tnes. boundax^. and fruits are best suited to the northern portion? To the middle belt? To EXERCISES. what » i^ th": '^ZZrJ:'l.Sketch the eastern coast of the United States. the Paclflc coast: the northei. sketch the Mississippi.RIDIANS AS COMPARED WITH GREENWICH MEAN NOON. and Ohio. Missouri.

Commercial Advantages. John Smith. mountains. with many railways. .less hills. like that of the L'nited States does Connecticut. Minerals. rivers. of count70 See "Hints to the Teacher. Sketch boundaries. making it the greatest manufacturing region of the United States. Name. Manufactures. ing than —There are some its fertile valleys. Potatoes. and indented "'"^ coasts with a large number of excelGeneral Questions. describe the coast waters. wool. it excellent water-power. chief rivers. beautiful lakes. Manufacturing and villages are thickly scattered over a large portion of its surface. of clear. —The Merrimac. who explored a portion of its coast in 1614 and drew the first map of the country. machinery. tant. and locate important cities. —Marble. mountains. —It is a land of low rounded mountains. corn. Most of the flour. crops. —The inhabitants are mainly of English stock. butter. — New England received its name from Capt. cattle. and wood. but most of tillage. Inhabitants. aflford excellent facilities for commerce. slate. does the latitude of Northern Vermont compare with the latitude of Paul? Boston with Chicago? What land climate? What portions of New have on New EngEngland are most thickly peopled? effect does the sea north. and DESCRIPTION. leather. Surface. rocky soil is better adapted to graz- this section lie? How many stat«s in the group? Name them their size. rugged coast of the east. and other building stones quarries are very impor- are abundant. horses. granite. in the order of What is the character of the coast? tages for commerce? the general slope? What are the natural advanWhat part of New England is most uneven? What is What can yon say ef the number of lakes and streams? number of lakes? and oats are leading cultivated and cheese its farms.—Locate and largest lakes.* Locate Important cities. hay. Agriculture. but grass. bec. — EXERCISES. and other articles almost without number. Its numerous harbors along the and the more level coast of the south. spruce." In the preface. and the products of its Which portion contains the largest Forests of pine. of rapid streams. Androscoggin. metal. Much of the raw material used in manufacturing is brought from abroad. and much constitute the wealth of of the beef and pork are brought from the West. Penobscot. sheep. iron and coal from Pennsylvania.-In what physical region of the lent harbors. Ship loads of cotton come from the South. Though its six states taken together are smaller than Minnesota. and states. and raw silk from Japan and China. Kennemany other streams furnish cities Blackstone. hides and wool from South America and the West. tools. The manufactures include fabrics of cotton. Saco. capes. together with firearms. and hemlock are found in the How St. is one of the most important sections of the Union.

.

The state is noted for its lumbering. chief rivers. Massachusetts. New Hampshire. fisheries. Cities. and sheep." possesses many fine harbors. Bowdoin College. Maine. on the west. jewelry. Plymouth is remembered as the landing place of the Pilgrim Fathers in 1620. in EXERCISES. a famous — Providence. is The tunnel is nearly five miles in length. —Lewisfor its The Hoosac Mountains. for the in the western part of the state. Concord manufactures fine carriages. though the trade has greatly fallen ofi" since kerosene came into general use. STATIJS.taill products. was the first state to oppose the British government at the time of first the Eevolution. Thousands of tradesmen and professional men of the city live in beautiful suburban towns. pins. furniture.s the coast favorable or unfavorable to foreign commerce? What states are crossed by mountain ranges ? What great rivers break through the mountain ranges ? Do the long estuaries at the months of the rivers indicate low or high coasts? than that of ture New England. i St. is is Vermont. . — The great natui-al wealth of the section comes its with those of New England? Which is further north. manufactures firearms and machinery. —On the whole. one of the two capitals of the the second city It a great manufacturing center. among the foremost her sons and daughters have native hills to people new col- Common schools./' is the seat of Yale College. libraries. . the "Green Mountain the mountains which the forests of ally verdant. merce it ranks next to New York and New Orleans. Maine. John alone drains a hundred lakes and ponds.^Bath is noted for ship building. at Cambridge. and Middlebury have quarries of white and variegated marble. and the Cities. oil wells. give unusual 6ilti(SUra^«ment to manufacturing. Philadelphia from ries. the noted advocate of^religious'*niftl. scales. Lynn is noted for its shoe factories. to establish free schools. the largest town. the "Bay State. Lake Champlain and Lake George. according to the climate. the "Pine Tree State. clocks. and the great and cheapness of states takes the lead of all other sections coal. and zinc. woodenware. for their days. ton and Biddeford manufacture cotton and woolen goods. and this group of —As this section is crossed by the Atlantic High- in the value of its manufactured articles. It takes leges are established and liberally maintained. and locate important cities. and one of the United States navy yards located there. — Rutland. sometimes called the "Switzerland of Rhode Island in the Union. energy. ghiss. the raw material. noted for its comIn foreign com- known. tures. and glassware. Lexington and Concord are famed for early Revolutionary engagements. Worcester has a great variety of manufactures. Grains. at Williamstown. and platedware than any other state in the Uiiion. and market demands. moun- and Locate important cities.72 NEW ENGLAND STATES— THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC for industry. Many of Massachusetts. both lor women.l)olitlcal freedom. it is — Liverpool and Glasgow. leather. Massachusetts. rivers.— Locate and tains. and is a railroad center. '^ . boots and shoes. are widely — and is second only to New York in commerce. Lowell. are celebrated fine views." Cities. noted for and for its quarries of slate. but broader in the lumber. Manchester and Nashua manufacture cotton and woolen goods. Dartmouth College. and its ice trade. Massachusetts. the land is much more fertile them in the order of their size." It is is famed Boston & Troy Railroad. Brown University. lakes.— New Haven. is summer resort. — — — — city. Connecticut is noted for' the great variety of its manufacIt makes more sewing machines. at New Haveu. Smith College. I. producing every variety of cotton and iron and steel goods. Rhode Island. sandy belt. factures are iron goods. its ship building. is noted for the manufacture of weighing — Hartford Cities. Sketch the boundaries. Portsmouth has a good harbor. A low. the other capistate. islands. who was University. south. Yale College. The St. Over one-eleventh of its surface is covered by lakes and rivers. the "City of Elms. stretches along the Atlantic. Harvard University. rapid streams. and is merce. is They are noted states. chief lakes. —Newport. marble. at Northampton. and for having been the scene of several battles in Colonial Cities. at Providence. in New England. boots and shoes. mountains. the lead in It Institutions of Learning. — Portland. the smjallest and most thickly peopled state America." states in manufactures. ' —How many states are included in this group ? Agriculture. *. located at Pfovidenc^ Brown its fine banished from Massachusetts. the "Granite State. narrow lowland belt STUDIES. is — Cities. Name borders the Great Lakes. — Johnsbury — Burlington is a large lumber market. It is State. iron. machinery. and soapstone. and q. Surface. have been tunneled New Hampshire. academies. at Hanover. whose graduates fill places of honor and trust throughout the world. quite narrow in the north." takes its name from tal. and woolen fabrics. — Bangor is a large lumber market. left their STATES. Lawrence. St. and the hardwoods in the south. cattle. Connecticut. Manufactures. cotton and woolen goods. and the University of Vermont are noted institutions. The principal manu- lands. and enterprise. Springfield is the seatof a United States arsenal. describe the coast waters. and berries are grown. and almost every branch of agricul- Is this What is the climate of this section? What portion has the mildest climate? map drawn on a larger or smaller scale than the map of New England? state is is carried on. THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC MAP General Questions. supply of —The numerous. and in the grass and hay belt of the northern half. has a fine harbor and an extensive trade" a starting point for steamers bound for St. its public schools. stock raising and dairying receive much attention. orchard fruits. and literary institutions. and spruce and mountain forests of pine north. fir was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams. It received its hame from an island in Narra- — gansett Bay. normal schools. vegetables. which are connected with Boston by rail. New Bedford is the greatest whale-fishing port in the / world.> Which in size without mountains? How do the states of this section compare Minerals. together with-tji© aTbiuiidaiiQe DESCRIPTION. and is then the great outlet of the Lawrence Valley. its its extensive mines of coal. soil. _ . Newbury port is engaged in cod and mackerel fisheries. Williams College. and pine render perpetuhorses. beautiful scenery. the greater part of the surface is hilly or mountainous. from quar- or San Francisco ? brine springs. and Fall River are the chief seats of the cotton and woolen manufactures. the largest —When ice closes the Lawrence.. states. . — Boston is the metroix)lis of New England. at Brunswick. and Wellesley College.

Henrji ChaQ 3oyator iDcTrsford Erist. ^ Longitude from Washington.]] Norfilk ^ .y "*"*"«'»» 3««» if 3^ Scale of 31ilf« 10 30 30 iO 60 \0j Guelpho Stiatfora W x^ 1/ 2?>' Cluiry Chatham / M--*- SOUTHWEST PART OF VIRGINIA Same SraTe as "^9^ large :Map -x^ 4-^'^^ ^ 'jVcoma<ik C. 11 Salem o I'lchbui V-t'-'cnour fi^#' S'JRoclty Mount \C.79 tongitade "W^sti from 17 Qreenwlcli OTTAWA 75 K^ tf-'^o. j: '^o c MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES. I/}ngitude £ast . 10 20 <0 60 -5 80 Lm|dBayp / /'~T^ V /&^ ^^.

and the lovely Chautauqua Lake. f^^^^i t:_j MJMm^^^ /:-. is situated on Manhattan Island. and consumed hy the people of the Great Central Plain.74 THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES. It contains. The Erie Canal.. New York.e:^ :-*/'"- ««^" i^- '// W/A Commerce. Vast quantities of salt are made from the Onondaga Salt Springs near the center of the state. is a favorite camping ground for religious and literary societies. with city on the continent. the "Empire State. and cheese are its staple agricultural products. hrought from foreign lands. The lakes in Central New York are famed for the beauty of their shores. Spain. hut through their great commercial centers— New York. butter. and to South America. hops." exceeds every other state in population. wealth. and is the chief center of trade for the whole of the United States. — York. and the United States Military Academy. and other products of western farms. and Baltimore flow unending streams of grain. at the junction of the Hudson with the East Brooklyn and other suburbs. Immense hotels have been bnilt to accommodate the crowd of liishionable visitors who gather from all parts of the United States during the heated term. It is the largest and most irajwrtant canal in the United States. Through these marts of trade come a large part of the sugar. at Poughkeepsie. Vassar College. to England. a governor of New York. the largest and most important Kiver. camping by the clear mountain lakes and hunt for deer in the almost unbroken forests. Philatlelphia. at West Point. It has been of great value to the people of the West in moving their crops to the sealward at a low charge for freight. France. silks.000. New The most noted institutions of learning are Cornell University. is 363 miles long. The harbors on the Atlantic coast and the Great Lakes. in the west. or to "Ji^m. spices. Saratoga Mineral Springs are famed for their medicinal waters. facilities for domestic and foreign commerce. the Adirondacks every year. connecting the Great Lakes with the Hudson. the navigable rivers.000 inhabitants. The construction of this work is due to the untiring efforts of De Witt Clinton. —New York. Ithaca. and commerce. the canals and extensive railways afford unsurpassed the Union. nearly 2. 70 feet wide. coft'ee. cloths. and is among the first in manufactures. tropical fruits. and is chiefly employed in carrying grain and such bulky products as do not require quick transit. women. first and the Middle States constitute the commercial section of These states not only carry their own products. The canal was opened in 1825. tea. and other countries of the Old World. About . Hundreds of sportsmen visit otreiims to catch the speckled trout. for Columbia College. and 7 feet deep. Wheat and hay. etc. Brooklyn.^::< Cities. to the West Indies.

It is the seat of Johns Cities. and its Central Park is a large and beautiful pleasure ground. and parties of pleasure seekers. anthracite and bituminous. boots. where the Declaration of Independence was signed. miles. New York is a great manufacturing. flouring mills. Washington. Baltimore is called the " Monumental City " It received its name fitom the Washington. bands of music. a rock arch 200 feet high and 90 feet wide. Newark Princeton is the seat of rubber goods. as well as a commercial center. comfortable homes. the earliest settled of the original thirteen states. and furniture. The principal buildings are the Capitol. The coal of Pennsylvania is of two varieties.000 men. Lines flouring miUs. —Philadelphia covers an area of 130 square to New York in population In 1790. and is sometimes called city. The University of PennCities. and other monuments erected by its patriotic citizens. Large quantities of coal are reshipped for ports on the upper lakes. It is the great mining state of the Union. of steamships connect it with Bremen and Liverpool. cotton factories. FROM BROOKLYN HEIGHTS. Thousands of its people are engaged in book publishing. tween the Atlantic and the Chesapeake The peninsula beBay is a great peach docks. is one of the great commercial cities of the country. for its machine shops. . The anthracite region lies in that part of the state east of the Susquehanna. making clothing. which is navigable to Troy. Lord Baltimore.THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES. the large cities furnishing a ready market. rock. and a United States navy yard. and Wilkesbarre are for bituminous coal and petroleum. — centers of the anthracite coal trade. Trenton is noted for its manufacture of crockery. marshy shores of the bay. the "Keystoue in population and in the value of its manufactures. Washington was planned by Gen. Nearly two-thirds of the coal and one-half of the iron used in the United States are lifted from its mines. wheat. and large markets Scranton. Battle. It is really but a part of New York. and lawns are seen at every turn. large manufactories. is supplied with oysters from these Fine houses. and tobacco are staples of the farms. viUas. Wilmington manufactures and railroad cars. and it is a beautiful city. and oysters. and immense schools of shad and herring are taken in the long seines of the fishermen. surmounted by a statue of WashThe monument was completed in 1830. Cities —Richmond has extensive tobacco manufactories. well-supplied markets. Paterson for its silks and locomotives. the College of New Jersey. It has magnificent public famed for its fruits. is noted for its fine climate. some distance above New York. ington. Her people are extensively engaged in market gardening and fruit growing. It was named in honor of Columbus. six feet high. United the bank of the Potomac was ceded back right The portion on the to Virginia in 1846. It exports more coal than any other city in the Union. called the Palisades. and private buildings. War. two-thirds of the entire foreign commerce of the country passes through the Delaware is is next to the smallest state in the Union. Up and down the river ply steamers with flying colors. Naval Observatory. with their white sails spread to the breeze. 1776. The District of Columbia originally included an area of the northwestern part. of Rutgers College. to the height of 400 or 500 feet. Treasury. and has an extensive domestic commerce. and buildings of historic interest. and terrapin are abundant. " It contains spacious warehouses. Corn. and iron ships. is famed for its beautiful On the right bank. — Ducks swarm on the low. Syrafactured. live stock and lumber. Fruits and vegetables are canned for the western trade. The oil wells are in State. Maryland region. sugar refining. shipped over the lakes from the West. July 4. brewing. iron works. powder. 180 feet high. Pottsville. and ranks next and manufactures. Cities. and Troy for its iron works. The bituminous is found mainly on the western slopes of the Alleghanies. named in honor of Hopkins University and of Loyola College. the ' ' City of Churches. and It are rich mines of zinc. miles. an institution of great note. so that the district now contains 70 square 100 square miles. Pittsburgh and Allegheny are at the head of steam navigation on the Ohio. and coal and iron of the mines in the west. Maryland and Virginia ceded it to States to be the seat of the general government. cuse for salt. and the White House. 75 THB CITY OF NEW YORK." It is rich in coal iron. and here and there are boats. Its oyster beds are mines and of wealth. who sent a colony to Maryland in It has extensive 1634. sylvania is also located here. Smithsonian Institution. and canning establishments. and nearly all the petroleum that lights our homes is pumped from its wells. It is noted for its beautiful parks. sometimes called the "Old Dominion." ranks next to New more. spanning a stream. Patent Office. mainly in the lowland belt along the Atlantic. Baltithe seat of the United States Naval Academy. shoes. The Hudson Eiver. A large portion of the "West waters. rise columns of scenery. fish.— Norfolk has one of the finest harbors in the United — Among the curiosities in Virginia are the Luray Caves and the Natural Bridge. are transferred from vessels to canal boats. Among the latter is Independence Hall. and iron goods are extensively manuRochester and Oswego are noted for the manufacture of flour. and New Brunswick. is Virginia. and are great centers for the manufacture of glass and iron. is —Annapolis — York Pennsylvania. Brooklyn is the third city of the Union in size. At Buffalo the grain. There New Jersey lies and ranks among the first states in the production of tobacco and garden vegetables. was the capital of the Confederate States during the closing — years of the Civil States. The former is a white marble shaft. These . The oyster trade alone employs over 30.

Almost everywhere it is bordered by narrow. and the brine was formed into a separate state in 1862. The low coast or tide-water belt extends inland from 200 to 300 miles. salt. It is well pumped. and locate important DESCRIPTION. STUDIES. iron. chief rivers. mountains. Virginia. which adhered to the North during the Wells are bored through the rocks below the bed of the is river. and petroleum. mountains. and states. lakes. where the upland. in the valley of Virginia. is . The coast of the Southern States is low and swampy. is rich in COal. ALABAMA '\ -4 . the most fertile part of the state. Locate important cities. capes. at Williamsburgh.. THE SOUTHERN STATES. and . Cincinnati meat packers use large quantities of Kanawha salt. In — In what part of the United States does this section lief Is the what physical region ? map drawn on a larger or a smaller scale than thsnt of How many states in the group? Which is the smallest? the Middle Atlantic States? The largest? What states lie on the Atlantic? On the Gulf? On the Mississippi? Wliat is the character of the coast? Where is the most elevated region? Where do most of the streams rise? What is the general course of the streams? W^hat is the climate of the section ? Where is the climate most tempered by sea breezes? Judging by the cities. Coast Surface. how does the population compare with that of the Middle Atlantic States ? Name some of the commercial advantages of the Southern States. are west of the Blue Ridge. sandy islands. rivers.— Locate and describe the coast waters. with shoal water between them and the mainland.-Wheeling has important mannfectnres and tiBde. hilly country — — FATHERING COTTON. Sketch boundaries. EXERCISES. uS siaKxcept ' William and Mary College. adapted to stock raising. named after the King and ^^^ *''"' ^''^' '' ^^^ ""^''* *"'"'^* Harv^*!"""^ ' ^ West Rebellion. Cities.76 THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES— THE SOUTHEEN STATES. MAP General Questions. There are comparatively few good harbors. citieB.Charleston noted for its salt springs.

.

Mobile. Atlanta is the largest city. Education. STUDIES. and exports and cotton. is noted for its pine Rock-salt is the principal mineral. face consists of a low. of the last section studied? In what part of the United States is this section situated? Which is the smallest state? What states al-e favorably situated for foreign states commerce ? For commerce with the Upper Mississippi Valley ? Is EXERCISES.78 begins. Cities. tobacco. or crevasse. In the lowland belt they are deep and sluggish. rice. Texas has a great variety of surface and soil. who In traveling over the country. pitch. from which turpentine. the chief sugar market of the United States. produces early fruits and vegetables for northern markets. and at the head of The latter has extensive iron cities like those of New ville is the largest city in Eng- navigation on the Cumberland. Corn-bread is eaten by rich and poor. Before the snow has left the hills of the North. and the third commercial city in the Union. the oldest town in Commerce. of France. It is chiefly used for the manufacture of laces and other fine goods. as directed by the teacher. next to Santa Fe. Nashthe state. from New Jersey. and is is yard is located there. North Carolina. sea-island cotton has a long delicate fiber. The southern part of the and in Texas. works and important railroad connections. Charleston.000 square miles. and resin are obtained in large quantities. The tides are kept out by embankments that are opened when the water is required. — Cotton. Com is also raised everywhere. tion and climate of this secare very favorable to agriculture. — Knoxville and Chattanooga are the trade centers of East Tennessee. protected by levees. staples. Agriculture. Savannah exports cotton. and lumber. and cotton plantations are flooded before the break. and the planters' houses are often miles apart. The eastern Foreign commerce is carried on mainly through the part of the state ports of New Orleans. iron and marble are gin of the coast belt the streams are rapid and water-power found in the north. finally. It has extensive manufactures and a large trade. the arid Llano Estacado. . — the United States. tar. The sur- South Carolina. and speak the French language. tobacco. Thousands of people from the colder sections of the United States go to Florida to spend the winter. the "Palmetto State. Locate important towns. to the inner maris ing iron and cotton goods. at this point. Cotton is the leading staple of West Tennessee. Mississippi are leading cotton — Mobile and Vicksburg are important trading jjoints. and." because of their use in the construction of vessels. rough but grassy benches and slopes. TBE SOUTHERN STATES. and farming. Tennessee. — Key West the largest town. — Memphis is an important river town. abundant. fruits and vegetables from Florida are seen in New York. furnaces. and a railroad center. with its thickets of cactus and other thorny plants. the wealthy patronized private schools at home or sent their children to the colleges at the North. named in honor of Louis XIV. and large quantities man Empire would Great Britain and Ireland are less than half the size of Texas. Savannah. and rice. and pitch to cover the seams between the planks. and still further inland. mountainous and produces coal. The descendants of the latter are called Creoles. Manufactures. Louisiana has built and carefully watches and maintains 1. of which the Mississippi is chief. — higher education of both sexes. — Locate and describe the coast waters." is noted for its seaisland cotton and its rice. sugar. is the chief interest. The state takes its name. of cotton and naval stores are shipped. their markets are supplied from the gardens about the Chesapeake. There are vast mineral has been done to develop them. and other large cities. and later still. The chief exports are cotton. In the days of slavery. Cotton and rice are the other * Louisiana. and a government navy — St. Wilmington rice is the chief market of the world for naval stores. The products are called "naval stores. a native The tree. Sketch a map of the section. a. and tobacco are the great Cotton is Florida grown in all the states — the sea-island cotton along the coast. and the Gernot fill its boundaries by 56. They form a large part of the population. larffe and territory. as it is called.r\d nearly all the inhabitants are in the north. and stock. and Wilmington. settled staples. one does is and chief attention is given to the raising of corn. The rice fields along the coast are flooded by the tides. a little later. The slaves and the poor whites were not taught to read or write. pine and superior live oak for ship building grow in the forests of the southeast. coal. Many of the pines are tall and straight. the soil —As — — as it is called. Carolinas. There is a large domestic trade over the railways and the many navigable rivers. the plateau region. little —Manufacturing industries are springing up. and Middle Tennessee is the most populous. and is fed to horses and mules on all the plantations. Sometimes the levee gives way at some point and many sugar. the "Old North State. Public education is now receiving much attenand all the states have made some provisions for free schools. Gold. most of which would be worthless without such protection. The imports consist of almost every variety of manufactured articles. not see small farms or manufacturing villages and land or the Middle States. The shad and herring fisheries are important. Most of the manual labor of the South form a large portion of the population. undisturbed by rumbling machinery or roaring Horseback riding is much more common than in the North. Near them are the cabins of the negro laborers. comimre with that the coast low or high? Which is the most elevated jwrtion of the section? What is is the general direction of the streams? What is the climate? WTiere — How does the scale of this map the population most dense? What portion seems unsettled ? rlvors. fertile prairies. corn. or highlands. "Palmetto. Augustine." forests. Tennessee is varied in is its physical features. or planting. states. The villages are usually quiet places. a whole. can be stopped. rice. From the monntains. Galveston. Rice culture is limited to lands that can be flooded! Sweet potatoes are as common in the South as Irish potatoes are in the North. Most of the exports and the imjKjrts of the Lower Mississippi states find their way to its levees. exports sponges. and importing planters' supplies. sandy coast belt. performed by colored people. is The land Alabama and Cities. the state is low and swampy. iron.. sugar. Tar is used on the rigging. back of which are the rolling. Cities. and green turtles used for soup. was by the Spanish and French. Boston. a commercial center. rice. New Orleans is the greatest cotton market in the world.500 miles of levee to keep the floods ofl" of its lowlands. but particularly in the highland portions of Georgia. exporting cot- ton and other products. beautiful marbles." from the palmetto palm. Texas is the most extensive cattle-raising state in the Union. and most of them contain many institutions for the tion. It produces nine-tenths of the sugar made in the United States. It is famed for its mild climate and its orange groves. Cities. usually divided into large plantations. Augusta and Columbus have cotton and woolen mills. — Pensacola has the best harbor on the Gulf. The state has extensive lowlands. and are used as masts for ships. resources. with its Charleston is the first rice market in the United States. Georgia is the leading state of this section in manufactur- •study map on opposite page MAP General Questions. the upland variety in the interior.

.

and lead are the most important. cordwood chopped. and hire laborers. shingles are made.000 barrels of water in a minute. The Creeks. horned cattle. besides wheat. but is held as the The Cherokees. copper. Corn. but their circulation is quite small. black walnut. Corn. and a simple code of laws. tract of land. Cliickasaws. 50 feet high. and cattle. and swine are numbered by millions. from Florida. Galveston has an excellent harbor. Choctaws. States governas a home for tribes east of the Mississippi. and Cherokees were removed thither from 1833 to 1838. Indian Territory is a tract of country set apart by the United States as a permanent home for certain Indian tribes. have a legislature. but their chiefs visit the President or the Secretary of the Interior to secure what they desire. or reservation. visited Springs. The tribes maintain schools and churches.. raise sheep. and some of the other civiljoint property of the whole tribe. and its wheat and cotton lands together cover an area greater than all New England. Millions of bushels of com are raised. wool. represented by a delegate in Congress. who were formerly slaves. hay. There are large quantities of hone or oil stone. It has single bodies of timber as large as Massachusetts. and cotton are its great staples. cultivate the soil. One of its coal fields is larger than the state of Connecticut. and rice are the most valuable vegeta- ble products. Lumber is sawed. Among its minerals. and exports wool. about 60 miles southeast of Little Rock. fish salted. tanbark peeled. and several newspapers are printed. grass. discharges 8. maple sugar manufactured. .'*!^ Arkansas has extensive ory. mill stone.80 THE SOTJTHEEN STATES. courts. hick- The territory was selected '^^*^»%"'''^'" ' and other valuable woods. i. the largest A Little city. Many of the Indians have good farms. forests of oak. by the United ment in 1832. iron. sheep.^ '"i*"^. ' „-'*<?-" J- Its 4=. and the Seminoles. 54 in number. and cotton. live in line houses. stands on a rocky cliff. but each tribe has a large little later. and slate rock of superior quality. blankets and shawls woven. are mammoth hot spring in Fulton County seekers. They are not ized tribes. hides. etc. to cultifcV ikvate their lauds. horses. a There are no townships or counties. coal. The Hot by thousands of health Rock. cotton. tobacco. which is not divided into farms.. and manufacture many articles.

Ohio. to northern hill slopes. and to occasional upland tracts.000 " [[ ' 23. H^^^ m Surface. Wisconsin. It is re- ^^al. Missouri. and Minnesota. and Missouri have much valuable hardwood. as a whole. The ^^^^j. i^„f„ Minerals.000 12. Kentucky ??'^^ 14.[Z'Z Michigan rooo 7.000 the vast prairie region of the Up- Ohio " '' W" w per Mississippi Valley. and Michigan.^^^p3^- THE CENTRAL STATES. Kentucky.000 markable for the fertility of its soil. The only elevations worthy of note are the low mountain ranges in Southern pHed with forests. — The section includes ^''"f^-.— Minerals are widely distributed. and the ease with which it can be cultivated and made to 81 " Iron is found in Minnesota. Forests. the surface is to the best produce grains. and fruits. vegetables. Missouri and Southeastern Ken- Wisconsin. and the Black Hills of DaUlinois Missouri square MUes. spruce. Michigan. and tamarack are found in N'orthern Minnesota. Immense forests of pine.— Though the timber of the prairie states is mainly generally level confined to the river bottoms. cedar. are well sup- or gently rolling. '^^^^- about 45. * ^ r^m$.000 Soil. the hills of Northern Michigan. Copper is abundant in the Lake Superior region in . bal- gam.'ZZ'Z'"'"^Z^Z'^ZlZZZlZZ[Z'. tucky. — As this mi group of states lies in the Great Central Plain. Machinery may be used advantage in raising and securing farm crops.GHAIKzecf^^^ 31 P> ^^^^^^ - — --rimirTMBmTrMinir--'-iiirriiiirr-- . coal fields ^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^ . the states. Wisconsin. and Ohio. DESCRIPTION. Indiana.

<^etrtt>i>olis ^ * 'a*.^^l^^r''<" ' «.^ 5 /llattoon iarlestoa<^""'J o ^-n^..^^—"'"^Laf^vette o'Tranltfo-t _^'. \i7 Be'llen-|leL#* ""^"iJ?"* atc(loo/ / ^ *^ I '^"W^slungton I / o Jit. Milwaukee -J—' FUnt f . -^Allegan ^->^-^ Charlotte °\ ^ \ t4pid^ <JMt. Georgo)o>™^ S Carml'] /^Louisville Evansvlll llle fendersoAv '©s— '\^. Thomaa Janetvilley V- ^ Racine" 1^ ^ICi3nosba irollana{o| "^ ''^Js^ANSIN^ \^ 7t_i Jackson H. ./''<v*°' J^i . Vernon C \.euben.. ^ TiFalls \ *^ MADISON Vr TPralrieauChlen - B.ABhtabulj f5 Elgin/ JJataviat «.™)! Brazil i r o/Greencastl °/Green l^Xenia ^Ctrtlevilje /^ Carllnvnc„ Torre/Haute Grecnsburg ^liJ'/'''^Hamilton 4^ / WaAington t:hi!licothe .—^ ^\ Battle ^>-«x-°Crcelc ^o 3'oniiac f S Howell" . ' South' ^ XaPorteo Bend iJiPorteo Bkliart . ** . V. .*: « °"°"_jt53^ 'yv'/l S"a««Tl'<'ine oTraiiklin 'J-'iCcAnZ V 7 E Xongituae West 5 from Was.7Wbanoi BanvUlc r\ 7^^ . Ktndallvlllo "Cleveland Ifapoleon TV'arren o t I It |Talpamiso '*°'^'" "-' -Princeton :Keiraunedo Vx-^TLaSallp \ *-a oaue ^Plyn .^ -/^'V^/ . /? '^'"SrlfJ""" lonia. ••\-.r'''^: —T^. *^ ^r^rliajia 1 ^^"W ' -A:.^T.^. JCrawforasvillclecatHr Newcastle !\ INDIANAPOLIS^ I S ^ R/chmo/doi '''i"" (conirsvUle'T "Shertyvm^. „ ^oU ^"Dalva -. Sidney ^ i 10 SpringTield Xancaster I ^Quincy / / SPr'iNgVfiELD % ^ Pona o .U.sfeaing Lexington Lmorid oT 3| Q|»v<^. [aysville '-1 ^/^^ jj* Oami>olls<»\iA .. .ltrariell/^ > lortagecrx ^-^^ SarabLo" -fcrieaverlaOm °l)econih r — AT^"" °JHoricon "^' I ? < ^ PMuskegon ^orecnvflle.ik'5 yjlonro© oSturgts -Adrian V* jV_ElS*^ 'ook Islind _ ^ <«^_-. J^"<=^"'=M Jffihgiani 'andaliaj? /I / ISuHivan ^^ fji- Colum"bu: SwrenceTjuigli V<o^ XInJcINNATI Waverl^ 1^1 Pomcroy ^ ^ --' Seymc nr L Viijcennes Covi^»on\N\wpo^t iMadiaon r/v V^ ' •» r> *' K.y Cynthiona Cynfhlana^ f<^ AstlanJ' ..^ Princeton NewAIbaiy. o I >te. Detroltjj^^j^r .-*.2^^S.86 longitude "West U from Oresnwich CENTRAL STATES EASTERN DIVISION. 1- . ^ o Glasgow' W^**!!!!^ / °^*?:. Haven/ |''*i^)-. oSnneral Point ("^nnerol '. "parl/^ fFBANKFOBT \ \ „ A _ '^"^'Sharlestom s J^iMg^ „Mt.^ oDelawttre a ^annibalV^ o Soberly Beardsto ^# „ | •x^r ^f2^2:jor:s>amr/i^„o taim>.. ^ U ._ o apl oitrj South . Ft.oBardstown "Uwensboro Elizabethtown o ^. J TTauTj^ha „ JjiPeer rortKuronoJ^- <v j YwteviDeo uduoubX.-l \f'M^ ::£Si!M C ty iPaducah' ISJO Columbus ir^ i E oHopicinsviu:.^ - ^f ShawneetoMTie Carbondale o T r.j^„ mnsrieia^ iTarion IN j- [ Alima^ '^ \ /^ Havana .aer«>n I ^i'V^" /«^^f2^ — [ I^ ^-.7.-/0^o^\| GrandXRapids t. / f'^ i Uraidwood NJoStreator (> "Warsav >eUaice Tostoria Youngstowno (tifBa „ - Wayne cK> Akron\ * Fi idley ° c Alliance ^ KeokukV s_y Macombo i Canton fTekin W^ Bloominglon lo'axton ! ^iabaSl ^^ \ VasainonS og^l.CJe..Me„rontaine1 .r\r^ •A Harroatbargo ^'^-^ ^^i o '5V t »._ nuror *"^ ^ Clinton c -- 'Dixon kailcWgan CHICAGO 7 o > 7"^" .. \ t-^.„ ^-A %._. Athens Jl^fiF'^"'^ „. Carroll V oBolvinoroS Vaukegan Itf i /Kalamazoo "'""Klc.PortsmouthJ/_ «) IVo W 20 '. S^/'^ y^ ^ jonnoa 3 St.iingtoa .

Irdand. limestone. tfae "Qaeen Ctj. Hie "Foiest (Sty. and swine are mame nm . Denmaik. Beiaibeddei UAem- UnmviOe is Oe leading tolMeeoBaiket of ttewsrid. —The many rapid streams. and other mmi&etiired laqge tade in Sour. Bbck walnut." is one of the fire principal ports on the Great Lakes. and he^p. Lake Tiew Ctmataf ei taina a ^lend id Barking the lestiag place of IVesidcHtJaaMS A. and lead. Education. in» goods. and other building stones are common schools compare favorably with those of the East. flour. fruits are Grain. aad poaMiBes exedlott adnB." is one of the most important inland of tbe United States. are amoi^ its TaloaUe timber tieea. Soine mills. adorned with fonntain^ and one paik kas an dt^ant iu imrnt to Com1PIBR7. and produced in great abundance. It has a laige trade in grain. wool. woolen sale. hunbo*. and other navigable rivers are routes for domestic trade wool. consists largely It is lar«r*-lv eD?a?ed in the export of wheat. any other state of this group. and is a mann&ctaiing and eommerdal center. hickory. Lamenee? nr f9ce*t4i a map of . and the tulip. vegetables. —Liberal provision is made for educatioiL Th* a Granite. Michigan. and cotton lEibries are aaMH^ the leading artides produeed. in Missouri. other grains. Manufacturing and mining receive more attention than in Cities. and Several of the states hare valuable salt springs. n People. Us BMdicalerilegeB are widefy known.. carried and nearly half the in strx-k srrow- hemp raised in the United StatesL on over the water-ways and extensive railroads. supply of coal and wood afford excellent advantages for mannThe Great Lakes. Oevelaad. pniSDed on an extensive Flour. "Wisconsin. the 3dississippi. cities — m i i m &ttcmng stodc Kentucky produces twice the tobacco of any other state. arosnaadwkeat. and we find Ihea extcMivcly tn^fgrA in fcrwafc liuuboiug. and the large generous and increasing support. Cbmis^arewidd^giowntkaB wheat. and learned societies. a beaotafiil bniial plaee. hay. the focturing. corn.000 manufactories. wheats and Its cattle. IIm hi to te made intoflooE. than 20.Gaifidd. pork. miiriiiR Agriculture. and dairy products. and glass fabrics taking the lead. sandstone. iron and steeL in its clip of It has more and also grand outlets to the sea. ITonray. —Farming is the leading industry. There are many public libi>Spring Grore Cemetety is ries. niincris ataads first among the states in the production of BIAPSTUDIESi part oTtte United Ite g^s^? tattmt Bow d* Aer maAaaaeOiBa? OaAe dniaed bj Wbst states are Oe St. . HaUmhmprax the people of these states a fertOeaoil. SweddB. live stock. and other countries <rf Europe are well represented. ash. but Ger- lafianapoGs is aa iaqMftsBt caibaad eenter. ao^e mter-power. pork. furniture. and piorisiMH. fibrous plants. IbSB atons of miiienb. It contains sereial fine paAs. aod snpeong wlmilyifareoiBCfce. steel. Illinois. found. or whitewood. poik. —The commerce of the Central States. andttbasa The chief impor: aztides. Ohio ranks first among the states of the Union and second in its petroleum. maple. colleges. beef. the production of iron. cities Millions of bushels of wheat are raised. Commerce. Tinted hj thoosands of stm^ea. Ohio.-. the numerous normal schools. and universities receive Rivers and Lakes. It is used dnefly tat feeding and Cincinnati. accilaittaiba. benerolent institntions. beech. sheep. iiiiil It is one of the laqgeatcitiesef 1I laua fin Ibii aisnafailnii iif aelMtad Slates Mtaitaatedaanavipiilewatet It AqaariOisasaCbaAcis i many. Uie IGsBonri. — The intiahitants are mainly uudgnuitB frm Bev fingland and the Middle States. — MannCMtarii^ Indiana yiel& immense crops of Indian eoni. is Maim&ctiires. or thdr descendants. irf' the wbest is ground in wcsteiB bat n laige poctian is scat t» iswtun or aanss tbe sen.THE CEXTEAL STATES. 83 and Iowa. mtttdmrj.

fuid give their general direction. and the It has first and magnificent water-ways give it great It produces more lead than all other Coal beds cover one-third of its area.— In what part of the United States does this section Which is the largest state? Tlie smallest? What states lie on the Mississippi? The Missouri? What parts of the section are most hilly? What portion has the greatest number of lakes? State whether the streams are numerous. Which state is drained by three river systems? have the best natural commercial advantages? What parallel of latitude on the north? On the south? \\^lat is the climate? Is it moist or dry.84 THE CENTEAL STATES. Ann Arbor is the one of the most popular institutions in the West. situated eighty miles southwest of St. when Three difa fort was built. Burlington. —Milwaukee has a good harbor. Iowa is a prairie state. anc wheat and Indian corn. In 1880. is in there is The eastern portion well Cities. the southern. Over fifty lines of railway thread the state in all directions. stock lumber trade and water-jKiwer. Cities. is boundary. and hog market in the world. and other important cities. Its trade by rail is also very large. and its flouring mills and meat-packing establishments are very extensive. and Council Blu£& and among the leading cities. Detroit is adapted to grain raising. two miles from the shore. once tured in war. What is the general character of the surface? What portions are still thinly General Questions. lumber.000 steamers and barges. Iron Mountain." a large trade with Canada. as the teacher may direct. The w^estern part of the state the pasture region. along Lake Michigan. . a shaft of Quincy granit«. the richest in the world. — Locate states.000 bushels. Lum- bering the leading occupation in the forest region of the north. for salt. Cities. ports. cattle. is 228 feet and covers 500 acres. sula is noted for its mines of copper and iron. Fishing is also an important branch of business on the shores of the Great Lakes. Locate capitals. grain and dairy farming receive chief attention on the is and dairying are the chief industries. There are fifteen miles of dockage on the river running through the heart of the city. map of tt« section. * Missouri has large agricultural and mineral resources.— Detroit. and these. and is largely engaged in beef and pork packing. It has over 6. in some form. ^A^isconsin has many beautiful lakes and waterfalls. Wheat the chief com—Madison the seat of the University of Wisconsin. Its warehouses will hold over 20. It has copper and iron smelting works. a famous fruit region. its central position commercial advantages. Salt is manufactured in the vicinity of Saginajv Bay. the amount produced exceeding that of any other state.000. high. Davenport. It has been the scene of one surrender. built of iron. The city has one of the hirgest rolling mills for steel rails in the world. are railroad centers Dubuque. Kansas is an undulating foot-hills of the plain.000 bushels of grain.500. iron. There is a system of parks connected by lioulevards. The water supply is taken from Lake Michigan. great rivers. and in the amount and quality of its butter and cheese it takes very high rank. erected to the memory of Abraham Lincoln. Coal mining is an important industry. is found in every county. Hundreds of freight and passenger trains arrive and depart every day. Kansas City is a rapidly growing and important railroad center. in its physical features. Cities. tage.000 miles of direct river navigation. and in handling grain. Cities.000. pears. Wheat is shipped to Europe by way of New Orleans. and other manufactories. and fruit. and carries on immense crops of corn and wheat are produced. and describe mountains. Zinc and nickel. — St. and apples for shipment to the whole Northwest. map on opposite page at this point. and conis five is whole region south of the Platte and east of the 99th meridian is very fertile and well adapted to grain and grass. The abundant supply of coal makes cheap fuel and enraising. — Lawrence the seat of the State Uni- by the French in The first white settlement was made in 1701. with the water-ways. sloping gently from the lies Eocky Mountains to the eastern The southwestern part of the state. with groups of statuary. cut stone. and twelve bloody massacres. and is also a great manufactnring center. glass. are important i^roducts. first was — Leavenworth is is the chief manu- the site of Indian villages when factnring center. Iron. as compared with states on the seaboard? peopled? What states EXERCISES. The western portion of the state * study the Missouri bottoms and tains one of the finest capitol buildings in the West. Sketch a. Louis. steel. and a surface so level and free from stones that agricultural machinery can be used almost everywhere to the best advanwith a fertile soil. —Chicago is the largest interior city on the continent. and is conducted through a tunnel under the bed of the lake. In the production of corn Iowa is the second state in the Union. 1610. at a cost of $3. and stock raising the great industry. the latter used in the manufacture of coins. Pilot Knob is another mountain of ore. Ithastwicebeen cap- besieged by Indians. — seat of Michigan University. which are The northern peninamong its by more than 4. and marble. the "City of the Straits. Stock raising and dairying are important industries. the product of the wells was over 12. once tobiUy destroyed by fire. is noted for its Grain growing. cipal varieties caught. Louis is one of the great cities of the United States. tlfe Nebraska resembles Kansas soil of The It has a large trade in grain is mercial staple. ferent sovereigns have claimed itsallegisHice.000. Quincy. fifty pitched battles. flour and saw mills. — Des Moines. grain. Cities one of the oldest It towns in the country. which yields 55 or 60 per cent of excellent iron. and lead are extensively manufac- tured. Lead and zinc are mined in the southwest. Grand Rapids. courages manufacturing. and states of the Union. The climate is modified by the lake. and its river commerce is carried on Michigan consists of two peninsulas. and one of the great lake and lumber. or mixed farming. visited versity. It consists chiefly of ore.Peoria. MAP lie? STUDIES. and the National Lincoln Monument. lakes. supplying peaches. Whitefish and trout are the prinprairies of the south. zinc. an extensive lumher trade. afford unusual commercial advantages. It is a noted live stock market. and Bloomington are among the other important cities. and the fruit buds are seldom injured by the winter or late spring frosts. the second city in size. grain. Springfield contains a fine capitol.

<.±Hia*'^0 Boo^^^ pmton."' Austn_.lo^^aclty JlsOI * West Poin.fi ' ^ I v/^ jW^llJ^v rt.^^^. :* ^r^Abe^Jeen A rti^^ St . MusO&t^e 22.^ c^ I ^^He^o —« sTT^^fitTGenevicve^ Vichlta\ Girardeau Wei ington o' Calc wello tArkansas Cy T i E^ X A s' 1 2L Xongitude West 19 from Washington 17 I ./drie(iuChie' <^ gfaine au i-u. *2_ i IJ»i4p'<"'° Vv\ \.? P^mftnaT St. Cu]bert^^^._^ Irowo ."J La Grange Shelbyv oJaacoui -. ClayV Centra .al«?aft >j \* \}lontlceUo »^-si^oj* 12 *. c\o* River fcAJioka Taylors TaBs o )stiMwat^r ''%^po^^^^rlp^^^ -"^ Yj^riastingB ^..^%. ^^ ' aZs ^*^v^ Central^. f .TJ Tfaftiliester p-.KIceJ Cannort XT /^ "r» rTrT4^-"w»ii'"'°"?>«. \D'''>''quel '. raviao city ^"^'^ Icoufn O^iahal Ashland Plattemottl Blufftj Osceola A>„^ ^„i.-- ''^^J^S^ ** V. o ^^^»' ^ S I' ^^Y^l!!!.eS8rooitneia.r? ^APOSTLE 1».iiaconl _^G ^ Marys' JCirwin Belo: t Eiawatha o o Sene(» Pi Camerin^->i£ j3b/. Centres ^V>.tO» * fColunobia^^^j' iuk.J^eston? Creston/ ysceoitt ^Y«- _ . ^^e ^ Tecam6eli„ Z?fa ° Ua?y^ — 1/ oXlAsvilie I .1 il o \ :. t-TliiceriF "Vlnce: Scale of KHes o 150^ Grafton„ ^ Warren t A Wfek*""' Jy V ^^ 55 Beave ? Twoj On &i*n Seavtr o ^ .\»rt' Hastings ° "^ Jted Cloud <V o J oFalrmount Neljraska City3eatrlc4(^ = ^ Boafora " '^ «'>.Emm4lti{buVg \t{^\ X> W'^'^^^oVA \ Ch'^l^V/i ° All>ertl6a/sp^K'»»lW I^usftora'^ l. B. I AJ^j.11 _ A^ } -itlAtic iJl^ES^iTV- V I vNewfcno {>• -so-i oQriBnoll .^ ^*\ \ a (..6 jjcanton ^A' ^Trenton .100 I/jngitude TVest 98 from Greenwich SJ O M I K I o S^^/nVW'!* ZWINNIPE 3 li r -T ^e^me '~ CENTRAL STATES 1 'v^^ESTEIlN 50 DIYISION.arle.. ^'x^ Duiithj '^Ontonagon 2 Gf"! -2^ ndriaO .>eligt v-??» __^^ ') ^ ir -w- I ^V \ DE8 /"xjf Eldora Y* -wj- . (jl.. nnibal x^> I^uUlan»5^t>\.° ^ "^ei^ X^^^SSSSV^xV^ council ^^BurlXgame °°"''"'' oJAity IfWf JEFFERSON CY^^aaHmsto^ v° /^4<^C. O^"'""! (HolU" .J^ TV I Grand y trapahoe UNCO ^N6> ^^ I L^-b\jrgV.5fl8j2££^ •zi \ Vf „.^ oO'Nein e- 1 -Vi-i 1 IJ. lleoV heroltee.*iV>t":j!5sH WyandoU?a^o^ -^^^ V^o "ColW^"* J me°= JciarkavUlB X^ \. <o Kew mS^ N Farlba3lt i^^^fe/s /?3 \ nandreau stone— XaesoD .:.Ci^nporla !^. S'^ . - 1 . "WllbuA . ~^ Siouxl^FallsT e l-SpiritM^V c—r jv Valentine tiiobrara^ « .eavenwor^ia K I-arned ' Phet^n. 100 w f'"-^.. D X k\o T Xa] :>Lac« \ .. o " ._Fj-ESlm2 T CreBCOo IXansingA ' —— ^^ Urecora^ . \ JoWV^pyy ] Vwate^lob C«aar>><^ Palls X%^'"''^<>'-cfci.Doage grater Cltjt^ )s^<*l?y sa. Island oy-* >.ity .. o4«4°^?l«S'=i*<ock 1 Island Stnarto lndlan(ila*—<ipyitij.r^ jff "I S^'^ \q^°°^ ^5-^T<PllBPlaliieWrBdar=l\apias >. |i^i». • . <J «" _ Atchison-^ °^ li^annibaTSCtP.nel4 (JiT^imeia -i-^^ *. Glencoe° sb*kop« ^''^^^^ed \Wing WabftBhaii^.(J.H^p!ea.> )PIERR[ |^r>.^ .

Minnesota its is famed for its beautiful lakes. its bracing air and healthful climate. Grand Forks. and Deadwood are among the chief towns. on Lake Superior. It exports wheat. Cities. and are extensively mined. Mitchell. where are some of the largest wheat farms in the world. Cities. Fargo. the great industry on the prairies of the south Stock raising and dairying are receiving much atis The iron richness.86 THE CENTRAL STATES. the capital. Lignite coal is found in large quantities in and west. and wheat is the staple of the Red River Valley. barley. North Dakota includes much of the famed Red River Valley. and Grafamong the leading towns. The western portion of the state is a part of the "Great Plains. Huron. . Flax is cultivated in the southwest. oats. Minneapolis is the leading manufacturing city of the Northwest. is entirely worthless. its river scenery. is a great railroad center. the and Stock raising is an important and growing industry. Tree planting has received much attention.— Lincoln is Omaha. but other grains are produced. Sioux Falls. Cities. a very extensive wholesale trade and rapidly increasing manufactures. and swine are already introduced. There is but a limited supply of limber." and is best suited to grazing.— is favorably situated for trade by lands. in the northwest. silver. It has the western part of the state.— Pierre. and the prairies have been greatly beautified by groves. and that is found along the streams. and is best suited to grazing. state produces vast quantities of wheat. Paul. tin. is becoming a great commercial center. Duluth. the metropolis. flax. in the Black Hills. the capital. It contains some of the largest flouring mills in the world. and improved breeds of horses. South Dakota has a large area of fine farming and grazing Although its resources are but partially developed. Wheat is the great staple.— Bismarck. is poorly watered. Watertown. Gold. The region of the Bad Lands. Jamestown. and other metals abound. ores of the Vermillion Lake region are unsurpassed and large quantities are being mined. and vast quantities of coal are brought to its docks from eastern mines. St. Agriculture tention. sheep. Lumbering is extensively carried on in the forests of the north. Yankton. park-like prairies. for — the capital of the state. Lignite coal fields are extensive here. corn. ton are Cities. horned cattle. river and rail. the seat of the State University.

Where it by powerful machinery in order to release the teaus. copper. the leading occupations are mining. The gold is left in the bottom of the sluices. —The precious metals are widely distributed throughout the monnother industries. erals are also found. lumbering. Minerals. Countless trains of live stock and vast quantities of wool are sent to eastern markets. passed over the pulverized quartz.SALMOM CANNING. THE PACIFIC STATES DESCRIPTION. and some Industries. —As we have learned. iron. stock raising. carries off the lighter particles of rock. feet below. This section includes about one-third of the territory of the United States. When the gold is found in gravel it is often beneath deep banks of earth and rock. A strong current of water. This is hydraulic mining. Both processes are very expensive and require great skill. the lighter earth and stones being swept along. has been carried ' occurs in veins. WASHINGTON rZff. it many localities. The Great Plains. and. People. and the richness of its gold and silver mines. mainly in California. or both. There are many uncivilized Indian Chinese are found. The force of the water wears away and removes earth and stones. It is famed for its mild climate. in Every state and and other minprofit. The powerful stream of water is directed against the bank through nozzles attached to the iron pipes. or even 500. the quartz holding it must be crushed to a fine powder gold. —Its white population is mostly made up of immigrants tribes. . Coal. and grain growing. and every year increases the number. Stock raising ranks next to mining in importance. Stamp mills are used in crushing. The method first spoken of is quartz mining. leaving the particles of gold behind. the grandeur of its physical features. from whence it is carried in strong iron pipes to the gravel beds. Water is conveyed in ditches for many miles to the hills al)ove the deposits. and valleys pasture millions of horned cattle and sheep. territory has its gold or silver. which are sometimes 300. mines are worked with where Gold occurs in veins of quartz penetrating the rocks. by rivers or floods. lead. fruit. from the older states. carrying them along sluices prepared for the purpose. plamountain slopes. which must be removed. or in gravel beds. the large masses being first broken to the size of one's fist in a rock-breaker.

Hi Longitude "West 110 from Ureeawicli loc .

Wool growing and stock raising receive great attention. Water for irrigation rich placer is Yellowstone National Park is a district mainly in Wyoming." Among the wonders are rugged mountains. the cattle feeding upon it instead of hay cut in the usual way. Lake City is the metropolis. said to have 35. whose waters are all drawn off to moisten the parched fields during the dry is season. but the mineral reWool growing is a favorite pursuit. silver.— Locate and lakes. fine valleys. that formerly lived in the territory. of the finest harbors and roadsteads and its forests is are the best in the United States. The The other industries named are confined to narrower limits. territories in the Mention the largest What divisions are washed by the Pacific? group ? and the largest dense or thin ? How many deep dentations along the coast? What EXERCISES. to a religious sect called grass. coal. Mining and stock and quartz mines in the Colorado. inhabitants are chiefly of Indian and Spanish parentage. well adapted to grazing. lofty Irrigation brings large and long. the country. and the cost of digging and maintaining them is sometimes very great.THE PACIFIC STATES AND TEEEITOEIES. Sketch a map of the section. Coal is mined to supply the railroads. Irrigating canals. The grass is cured right where it stands. a mixed race speaking the Spanish language. fish. The winters are so mild that most oi the cattle go through without the care and shelter required furtlier east. and furnishes the safest and best harbors on the Lumber. once the bed of lakes. and most of the domestic trade is by rail. an excellent grazing region of great extent. Los Angeles or St. Puget Sound." is noted for its numerous mountain peaks. and reducing the precions and other metals are the largest industries. with some is by people who belong metals. In many localities no such streams are found and the soil cannot be cultivated. Large quantities of salt are produced by evaporation. covers the hillsides and grazing a large and profitable industry. as the teacher directs. rushing streams. Yuma way crossing the continent are rapidly extending their branches Indiau tribes. Cities. the gardener. with its bays and inlets. The five great trunk lines of rail- Arizona has a hot and dry climate. It exports large the oldest town in the United States. two hundred of which are visible from Mount Lincoln. . beautiful shade and fruit trees. and geysers. having an area of about 3. and the mineral resources are being — Helena and is Butte City are trade centers of rich raining rapidly developed.000 feet above the sea. largest town. territories. and fruits are raised. each paying according to the (juantity used. a fine or place of worship. so excellent for cattle. — Cheyenne is a distributing point. are often many miles in length. Cities. The river valleys are fertile. and chief source of wealth.000 to 6. covers some 2. Its waters contain salt that no fish can live in them. an arid plateau. Places away from rail- — roads usually receive their supplies by wagon or mule trains from the nearest station. occupied the country long ago. from its wharves. chief mountains. "set apart by Congress as a perpetual reservation for the benefit and instruction of mankind. Idaho has gold or silver in every county of the territory. are from 5. Prescott is in all directions. water-power. The Navajo Indians keep large numbers of sheep. waterfalls.000 feet above the sea. Large crops of Most of the eastern abundant crops. Cities. States is this division — In what part of the United Compare the scale of the map with the scales of the other sections. great rivers. and the water is leased to land owners along the route. One carried to every lot in the town. now chiefly settled Montana Bunch plains. is — Las Vegas famed is quantities of wool. so Wyoming lands. Jesuit missionaries were here before 1600.fiOO square miles. — Santa Fe mineral springs. Boise City derives its support from mountain districts. and Tucson 51 days. Many articles are manufactured for districts. especially in the south. Walla Walla. "Walled in by mountains are basin-shaped plateaus. but excellent crops are are gold. The as well as lead and the precious Little land can be cultivated. —Denver is 5. Arizona and New Mexico belonged to Mexico until 1848. home consumption. the "Centennial State. situated ? STUDIES. and fruit are exported Pacific coast. so that they are usually dug and controlled by wealthy companies. iron.000. sources are undeveloped. and reared walled towns of which ruins remain. museum. a tribe of Indians It is ever the population is sufficiently dense. city contains The rapid streams afford much Salmon and other food fishes are abundant.000. Mineral resources are abundant. Louis ? San Francisco or Chicago ? Salem or What is the climate of the section? Does the population seem St. deep caiions. hot springs. wheat. Mining. MAP General Questions. vegetables. Some of the irrigating canals are very is fifty-four and another thirty-three miles in length. mines are a raised on the fertile portions. 89 New Mexico was settled by the Spaniards in 1550. As much of the country Over a very large portion of this section irrigation is necessary to successful tillage. has had in a single summer 100 days when the thermometer stood above 100° in the shade. Mormons. The many palatial midst of a fine agricultural — Leadville is a great mining center. Education. incapable of irrigation. and commands a view of Pike's. — Education is receiving much attention where- Utah received name from the TJtes. or ditches. most of the settlers are found along the valleys of the Eio Grande. is a mountain territory. Locate capitals and other im- Does the surface indicate sluggish or rapid streams? Are the streams more or less numerous than in other sections of the United portant towns. but other portions of the country are better adapted to grazing than tillage. and will seat 8. wheat. Cities. residences.000 acres of fine stock much Salt Laramie Plains. There are few navigable streams. raising receive most attention. whose valleys are very fertile. It is carried over the fields in small channels leading out from the main canal. that cost |500. Washington has some in the world. The farmer. it lie ? In what physical region of North America does How many state states and in- Into how many great bodies of water do the rivets of the section flo w ? Point out the principal slopes as indicated by the rivers ? What is the latitude of San Francisco ? Los Angeles? Of the northern boundary ? Which is further north.000 square miles. called parks.000 people. Bituminous coal part is mined at several points. its and There territory is very rich in iron. and other noted snow-capped peaks. and a tabernacle. The precious metals are abundant. and the fruit grower alike depend on mouptain streams for a supply of water to mature their crops. states is the general character of the surface? and describe the coast waters. and copper deposits. for its hot Facilities for Trade. Aztec or Toltec. is in the Long's. smelting. and is shipped to settlements east and west. Minin'gand wool growing are leading industries. Paul ? States ? how many territory. Grejt Salt Lake is about 100 miles long and 50 broad. and Laramie City is the center of a great stock-i-aisiug region. It has broad streets watered by moun- tain streams. in a rich mining its region.

silver.90 THE PACIFIC STATES AND TEEEITORIES. and other metals are pro- the year 1882 the total yield of that metal was $1. Mines of ductive. quicksilver.000. gold. Quicksilver comes from the mountains near the coast.155. From the discovery of gold iu 1848 to the close of .000.

tNorth Dakota.700 9.040 12.580 84. Population 1880.250 70.200 feet deep.890 577.060 1. salmon.780 9. and yellow cedar stretch far to the north. Lines of ocean steamers ply to Panama. Halibut. and lumber are among its exports.315 58.591.915 83.000 3.946 648. fishes Millions of fur seals are found on the islands in summer.284 995.250 30. and mackerel are the most valuable fishes. Alabama Arkansas California *Colorado Connecticut Delaware *Florida Georgia Illinois Indiana *Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan . leather..282.991 1. Oregon. and Alaska. hemlock. and beautiful bay are attractive features. glass.475 56. The fine private residences.562 1.050 58.780 56.505 802.365 46. U. and agri- cultural machinery. * Census of 1885.610 131.956 41. Honolnla.855 110.266 346. lumber.286 1.168.116 618.608 342.180 24.789 33.503 64.117.800 122. Australia. .459 32. Wisconsin TEEEITOKIES. mining.. Lines of steamers connect it with San The common colleges. STATES.690 New Mexico Utah Wyoming Alaska Indian Territory Other Agency Indians. as..a.426 79. Rhode Island.690 939.262. iron goods. Middle Oregon is a rolling table-land. or a mining region? Take an imaginary journey to New England.943 1.650 36.563.871 1. Arizona 113.542.131.440 203.380 39..030 45. S. COMPILED FROM STATES.749 332.850 158.000. It is 150 miles in length and from 30 to 60 miles in width. a vein of gold and silver bearing rock that has produced more bullion than any other mine in the world.700 146.. Oregon has many fertile valleys.990 — How many states is are larger than your state? and territories which have large coal fields. South Carolina. Forests of spruce. climate and the richness of one-fifth of all the silver — on over the transcontinental railways. contains one of the finest telescopes in the world. CENSUS AND SPOFFORD'S AMERICAN ALMANAC. Ala.400 48. dry and arid.457 1. is the commercial center. flour. schools are well sustained. extensive parks.570 78.080 76.398 42.891 304. Alaska is equal in area to one-sixth of the United States.980 1. Population 1880.645 62.985 143. and hundreds of articles besides. and write an account of what you see.082. and mining overshadows all other industries. salmon fisheries are of great commercial importance.210 8.360 103.305 7. 52. Group those states an agricultural community diflTer from life in a manufacturing.990 2.301 1.750 175.170 52. firs. Portland Francisco. The population consists of Indians. popular resort.077. the Gulf States.963 20.597 2.. woolens.936 934. Mexico. used by the people of the The forests of pines.602.359 1.062 Oregon Pennsylvania.798 1. . The wool clip is large. Some of — the shafts in this lode are 3. is a depot for miners' supplies. Washis car- ington. manufacturing.057 3. and teachers are Normal schools.000 feet above the is se. and a large trade its silver mines. largely endowed by James Lick.390 64. and for the food that teem in its bays and rivers.680 59. 6. It markable for its fur-bearing animals.000 1. The number of mines and quartz mills in operation is very large. cedars. life How many are smaller? Which the largest territory? How many states of those which are engaged in stock raising.350 56.970 97. Some of its valleys are fertile. Square Miles. and marten alx)und on the mainland. Population 1880. An observatory.941.415 146.497. agricultural. —San Francisco is the largest seaport on the Pacific coast from Cape Horn ried to Asia. Its manufactures are extensive and varied.198.180 3.250 53..100. AEEA AND POPULATION OF THE STATES AND TEERITORIES OF THE UNITED STATES. and Japan.THE PACIFIC STATES AND TEREITORIES California manufactures large quantities of mining 91 coast. Sacramento has an extensive trade with the mining and agricultural districts. numbering about 30. the great plains. How does in the size of Iowa might be carved out of all the territories? Which state has the largest number of inhabitant!.648.768 4.080 40.810 69. 40.. a single group New York.040 174. and the fox. Tennessee Texas. those which have extensive forests.565 75.910 622.815 49. . Ohio Questions and Exercises. Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New York North Carolina.565 42.450 69.050 265.ska.577 300.720 33.871 1. 96.423 Square Miles. the mining districts. beaver.116 5. Outside Indians United States. grand hotels.399. near the supply much lumber and the finest of masts and spars. Cities.. to the square mile? Name the four states that stand next in order.636. The Willamette Valley is the most noted and contains the greater part of the population. some of which are large and unusually productive.. cod. flour. Wool growing and stock raising receive some attention. f Estimated.542. a wealthy citizen. China.937 1.131. Square Miles.268.978. tSonth Dakota. Oakland is noted for its beautiful dwellings and gardens. wool.. herring.525 864. In the fertile sections wheat of fine quality and excellent apples and other fruits are grown in abundance.020 District Columbia Idaho 70 84.465 1. The Pacific slope. Classify the states and territories according to their leading industries.694 243.. Puget Sound.753. which yield produced in the United States. is and other institutions for higher education are in suc- Nevada of its a highland state and is noted for the dryness cessful operation.617 1.215 1. Los Angeles is a Virginia City. but it can never become an agricultural state. Grain.. and coal is found in many places. and spruces. in cotton growing.025 82. It built on the site of the Comstock Lode. better paid than in almost any other state. or to nearly twelve states the size of lined with islands. Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia.512.024 164.925 4.321 50.159 740. Its coast is is re- numbering 1. and a few whites..

Which half of the country hag nearly all the navigable rivers? What section has the longest navigable rivers? Trace the longest inland route over which a steamer may sail. with its navigable rivers. Paul? Trace a route for a con signment of fruit from 1a)% Angeles to St. or breadstufFs from Chicago to New York by water. How many of these centen are seaports? How many are lake ports? Howmany are on navigable rivers? What ones are no on any water route? What great inland cities are connecte<l with the sea by river or lake routes' Trace a cargo of Dakota wheat or Minncajwlis flour from Puluth by an all-water route t( Quebec and Liverpool. Sketch the Mississippi system of rivers. In each of the other sections of the United States. lumbering in another. THE CLOCK DIALS SHOW THE MEAN TIME ON THE Ml MAP state STUDIES. and so on. an( where does each terminate? Mention the most important railroad centers in New England. Trace a route for a pleasure party from Boston to San Francisco by rail and by water. Take tne sections in order and why agriculture is a leading pursuit in one. Over what water-wayf may a cargo of iron or glas.s from Pittsbui^b reach a dealer in St.PACIFIC OR 120° MERIDIAN TI-ME MOUNTAIN OR 105° MERIDIAN TIME CENTR. Trace a ship load o pork. Sketch the Pacific coast. Locate the several industrial regions of the United States. and locate the chief commercial ports. Name the navigable rivers of the Pacific Highland region. and locate commercial centers. Louis. Why are the rivers of the Atlantic coast navigable for 80 short a distance ? Sketch the Great Lakes and the St. of railway reach the Pacific coast? Through what states and territories does each pass. Sketch the Atlantic seaboard. route may a cODsignment of salmon from Oregon reach Minneapolis or St. beef. Paul? What . Over jvhal citiei What sections of the country are best supplied with railroads? How many great trunk lines Trace a cargo of cotton or sugar from New Orleans to Boston by rail and by water. Ii the Middle States.and locate the great trade centers. and locate the great seaports. By rail. Lawrence. Trace an all-water route from Duluth to Brooklyn.

so that one who has correct time for any belt may know the exact time in any other beUa engaged in foreign commerce? Over what routes may a cargo of sugar froia a dealer in Chicago? Over what routes may the live stoclc of the Rocky uutain region reach Kansas City? Chicago? Cincinnati? St. which is one hour later. All places in the central belt have the time of the 90th meridian.733 miles. 90°. 128. on the 120th. Paul?* Standard Time. M. if a thousand railroad conductors from all parts of the country had met at Chicago.^th meridian. M. In November. To obviate the difficulty. known as the Eastern. time standards were adopted for the United States and Canada. on the 105th. In other words. the clock on the 75th meridian strikes 7 a. when the clock it Greenwich strikes 12 M. M.967 miles.. 1886. it acks five hours of noon at all places on the meridian 75° west. . 5 A. When it is noon at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich. and a watch set for a given belt is one hour slower than a watch set for the next belt east. 17. Central. A diflference of one degree makes a difference )f four minutes in time. and a watch set for any meridian will be too fast when carried west and (-xtensively U'est Indies reach J Years ago. Mountain. This difference in time is indicated by theclock lials seen on the map. and one hour faster than a watch set for the next belt west. their watches . under construction. which is one hour earlier than the time of the central belt. All places in the eastern belt have the time of the 7. near London... A. The United States is divided into four belts. 1883. The governing meridians are 60°. and Pacific. All places in the mountain belt have the time of the 105th meridian. 4 A.Divisiuii of Stau iard Time tl ua * * * * * lAjngitufle "West from W'nshiiigton «a lANS AS COMPARED WITH GREENWICH MEAN NOON. This confusion in time was a matter of much inconvenience to the railroads and to the public. m. would have shown a great diversity of time. • Total length of completed railroad in United States. when it is noon on any given meridian it is 1 o'clock 15° east of that meridian and 11 o'clock IS'^ west.— As we have learned. on the 90th meridian. 105° and 120° west from Greenwich. 75°.00 slow when carried east. The eastern and western limita of the several belts are shown by the irregular dotted lines on the map. In this way the time for each belt is made uniform.

— The up to latitude 55° north. and the quarries of Nova The annual yield of its coal The seams in some of the mines average coal mines is nearly forty feet in thickness. The canals conLawrence Eiver with the Great Lakes are of vast importance to the United States. connecting the two oceans. Lake Superior. Government. where both sexes can secure a higher education at a trifling cost. Nova fields is Scotia. but the French element predominates in the province of QueIndians are thinly scattered over all the provinces. ship of 4. bers are elected by vote of the people. Commercial Routes. salt. are members of Parliament. Minerals. . The Governor General by whom he is appointed. — ain forming one of the largest items of its commerce. — Canada has a magnificent system of Propellers of 1. are found chiefly in the west. and asbestos are among the mineral resources. Education. The Thunder Bay and Silver Islet mines. forms a British province. the Senate.500 tons may cross the ocean from Montreal. and the winter port of Canada. DESCRIPTION. the lumber trade with the United States and Great Brit- People. A free education is afforded in the common and grammar schools.000 tons. whose members are appointed by the Governor General in council with his advisers. The great Canadian Pacific & Intercolonial Railway spans the continent. which. gold. necting the St. — The forests of the Dominion are 94 Halifax has a large. — Iron. The Dominion of Canada includes all North America north of the United States except Alaska. safe harbor. or Privy Council. silver. which thrives in the prairie provinces able to grazing of Kansas. The lakes and rivers abound in "^1#^ ^ — salmon. slating. and Newfoundland. The Parliament consists of the Governor General.DOMINION OF CANADA. estimated to be ten times as large as the area 800. In most provinces each public school receives from the government of the province an annual grant. The fur trade is very extensive. but bec. and there are colleges and universities. coal. petroleum. among that part of its sourc- — es of wealth. His advisers. have yielded millions of pounds of silver ore. and thousands of miles of coast waters "^^ swarm with valuable fish. with Labrador. — The is climate of Southern Canada favorable to burden may load with wheat at Duluth. Britain. The area favor- Scotia are of much importance. and reach Montreal by an all-water route. to — The government is similar to that of Great which the country belongs. whose memrepresents the English sovereign. A the growth of grass and of the wheat plant. Forests and Streams. Area. copper. and railways. Most of the inhabitants are of English descent. based on the average attendance. which belongs to the United States.500 tons canals and other water-ways. is Climate. and the House of Commons.

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Its government It buildings and normal school are fine edifices. several railways. Alberta. the capital. DANISH AMERICA. It is is and considerable land suited to agriculture. and Newfoundland hover on the coast during the fishing season. and the federal district of Mexico. and a half in length. salt. as well as cod. or Creoles. They are 600 miles in length and 200 miles in breadth. New is bering Brunswick. They are intelLutheran religion. copper. the commercial capital of the Dominion. throws a column of water to the height of 100 feet. Steamers and sailing vessels from the United States. Ontario dant.96 CANADA— DAN^ISH AMERICA— MEXICO. Seal skins and ported. and a legislative assembly. and Athabasca are newly organized provinces. and sixty feet above the water at center. is wealth. holds a great annual Mr. among which the Custom House. There coast. McGill University. for the grandeur of its river its waterfalls. for its clear and beautiful lakes. It contains — Ottawa is is the center of a large lumber trade. and salmon are numerous in its waters. Large a leading industry. and much valuable grazing land. called the a country of mountains. whale oil. Near the city is the stupendous Victoria Bridge. Fishing an important industry. is the agricultural rap- These banks form the most extensive fishing grounds in the world. The governor is appointed by the king of Denmark. wheat-producing countries of and its mineral marble. is at the head of ocean It has many fine edifices. The polar bear sometimes floats in on a cake of ice. yielding tim- may be named. ne- a republic. who are of Spanish origin. on Vancouver Island.south. cod and other fish. —Toronto is the largest city. eider down and geysers. Their winter houses are usually under ground. and herring are found in the waters. British Columbia streams. It is the wealthiest and most populous of the DominIts agricultural ion provinces. The island forests is nearly the same size as Ohio. — Quebec is noted is severe. are no forests. allowing vessels to pass under it. the seat of the general government. near Mt. one territory. and oil. Its territory would make more than twenty states the size of Indiana. cod. stand next to the Indians in point of numbers. Timber Quebec. and ship Keewatin and Northwest Territory have some the south. and the Notre Dame Cathedral. found on the Mackenzie and the Upper Yukon. idly increasing. Inhabitants. "' DESCRIPTION. is beautifully situated. its which crosses the St. Geyser. — The population is composed of Indians. to whom the island is The inhabitants are of Norwegian descent. barley and a few vegetables ripen on the southwestern climate is The severe. They include prairies and forests. It is a mile which is exported to Australia and other countries. furs are ex- brought by the ocean currents. The Cascade Mountains ber. It has a governor general appointed by the Crown. a dreary waste. Quebec. The forests are of great extent. but fishing The famous Grand Banks abound in is the chief employment. is one of the most strongly fortified cities in the world. The population is about 10. very great. but driftwood is Iceland is famed for its hot springs and The Great Reykjavik (Rik-yah-vik). ligent. . and mestizoes. abundant yield of wheat. but most of the north is fertile land in is building are the chief pursuits. recently opened to settlement. They live along the coast. with a constitution similar to that of Ilr consists of twenty-seven states. which seats 10. MEXICO. a desolate region. oil. thinly peopled by Indians. horses. Danish America consists of Greenland and Iceland. and Alpine province of the Dominion. Salmon. Prince Edward Island. Most of the inhabitants of Greenland are Esquimaux. the capital. The gold mines of Praser River. — Fishing. profess the and subject. Nova Scotia. Lower California. silver. is Mexico groes. including iron. owing to the long days of summer. Manitoba noted for its a prairie province. and much commerce. Lawrence. principally on the west. mestizoes. aud has steam communication with Copenhagen and Leith. City Hall. first the world. products are varied and abun- ranks among the Newfoundland is not a part of the Dominion of Canada. an executive council. many of whom have been converted to Christianity by Moravian missionaries. Assinniboia. and lum- Liberal provision is made for education. or half-castes. and is is scenery. herring. The The pure whites form a very small part of the community.000. and The winter climate ship navigation. — forests are still found. Victoria. but. the coal fields of Vancouver and Queen Charlotte Islands are well known. has an excellent harbor. Saskatchewan. the and commercial center. Winnipeg. The population capital. Many sheep. but a province of Great Britain. and cattle are raised is on the fine pas- tures in the south. Northeast Territory contains valuable but the north is forests in the. lakes. The cod fishery opens in June and lasts until November. The Indians are much the most numerous class.000 volumes. Cities. There are excellent harbors on the coast. Montreal. Hecla. Seals. are covered with forests. Market.000 people. with a fertile soil. whites. Labrador belongs to Newfoundland. the United States. lumbering. has a library of 10.

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physicians. The mule chimneys. but the introduction of improved machinery and the opening of railroads have revived the mining interest. such as are found in sub. the sulpliur has been lifted diameter.470 feet above the sea. the soil produces nearly the important plants of the tropical. and halfThere are gaily dressed Creoles on horseback and on foot. and containing an exuberant growth of trees. but are fond of pleasure. but they sometimes rise to be artisans. iron. and labor is of the agave.600 feet. are found in the crater of Popocatapetl. and there are now several thousand public schools. coflFee. Above all other buildings towers the cathedral. cochineal. cot- them up. machinery. Indians with their pack mulos. Silver is by far the most important metal. priests with their robes. shrubs. Creoles are most numerous in the towns. straight streets. linen. indigo. whites. The lack of common roads. and indolent. hardware. and fine public buildings. They learn easily.98 MEXICO— EDUCATION— RELIGION. negroes with their burdens. on which horned cathorses. taking the place of bread. it is said. A few European tradesmen are found in the chief cities. beggars soliciting alms. the wandering beggars. woolen. The negroes. India-rub- considered degrading. tobacco. The present government has done much to establish schools. copper. agriculture. sisal the fiber a whole. from the interior by machinery. to gamble. according to elevation. coffee. They call themselves Anreriand are the landlords. — in abundance. all — As we have learned. when made into tortUlas. Religion. gable rivers. as metals. Minerals. but the land is not skillfully tilled. Maize is is the common cultivated on all the farms. Silver. and the natural resources of the country are undeveloped. railroads. and fine arts. Property and life are insecure. cattle. ton. tradesmen. lumber. Salt is abundant on the arid steppes and plains. who are the least numerous class. commerce. the mule drivers. Indians. and the best harbors are on the Pacific coast. and at moderate cost. perform most of the heavy work in the cities. merchants. medicine. with its dome often richly ornamented with many-colored tiles. or to On the streets one sees a motley crowd — breeds of every hue. and the banditti. Roman its Vera Cruz to Mexico. — Mexico has immense mineral wealth. For a time. waylay. The ' '^TrAGS OF rH£ /'£0'v 5- imports are visions. and officers of the state. There are no navi- but most of the people are Catholics. has been neglected. and Towns. tle. the herdsmen. is overlooked by lofty voland occupies the site of the destroyed by Cort«z in 1521. and a car track laid toward the very heart of the mountain. It contains many gold. Agriculture. sar- the better class are accustomed to place their children in foundling hospitals to relieve themselves of the care of bringing saparilla. The crater is 5. with taste and adorned with fountains. a tunnel is to be made. far superior to that of Naples or Sicily. —The chief exports are the precious hemp. is the chief beast of burden. without A high gateway leads to the front entrance. and proplains. negroes. in the Old World. lack enterprise. The Education. sulphur. broad. the mines having produced more than half the supply of the world. over which the sulphur may be conveyed to the base. and mules are raised in great numbers. Its meal. passionate. mines. are the chief seaports. priests. house open on to a veranda. Vera Cruz and Acapulco 7. and flat-roofed.tropical lands. In some of the cities. and water-ways has greatly hindered the progress of the country. the semi-tropical. and artisans. salt. lawyers. The country is noted for insurrections and frequent Exports and Imports. vanilla. and three- fourths of the people can neither read nor write. and the finest marble are found ancient Aztec capital. fickle. . Commercial Routes. one-story houses. but. These are gardens laid out or public pleasure grounds. even mothers of ber. which is changes of rulers. the scattered peasants. — The They have Mexican towns are generally built on the upland 'the temperate zones. besides special schools of law. and has a depth of 1. Cotton. tobacco. and grain are cultivated on the tableThere are many large ranches. — Mexico is canoes. The Alamedas. — Education Enormous beds of pure sulphur. and lazy leperos ready to steal. and silk goods. are a common feature. food of all classes. routes extends from — One of the principal — All religions are equally protected by the state. cans. much more rapidly. and are often engaged in cattle herding or on large plantations. The Indians and mestizoes generally fnmish the honse servants. thousands of mines were given up as unprofitable. Cities. lands. and the rooms of the and flowers.320 feet in Hitherto. and other lines are in progress of construction. The people. but several thousand miles of railroad are now in operation. the small farmers.

his first berries. Ruins. Honduras has fine forests of mahogany. but they form the governing class. transplanted in grounds prepared for them. the islands belong to Great Britain. and productions are similar to those of Southern Mexico. volcanic ridges furrowed trade. Gangs of natives are out to penetrate the dense forests of the Atlantic coast to secure the resin. Sweden. climate. Countries and People. into so many arms that the center of the India-rubber trade. and Venezuela. Denmark. It belongs to a species remarkable for its large leaves. with the twin volcanoes Fuego and de la Agua. The surface. contains walls. Guatemala. INDIES. and Lesser Antilles. Surface and Climate. Ifetherlands. It is is the most populous of the Central Ameriits noted for earthquakes and the eruptions of its volcanoes. now overgrown with and the densest the finest in the world." is SCEKE IS CENTRAL AMERICA. The rubber of Centn America comes from a tree difiering greatly from the rubber tree of Brazil. — the shadow of its crown covers a vast extent of surface. higher up. and one finds the same mixed population. images. which forms for its transparency. There are altars. is a healthy tropical town. Balize. about ninety years ago. in Central Guatemala. monuments covered with sculptured figures and hieroglyphics that none can rea<l. The builders of these ruins are unknown. article of export. Ownership. and there are grassy plains where large numbers of oxen. Nicaragua has are reared. and mules Guatemala an is noted for its coffee plantations. soil. Great Antilles. The planter waits five years for races from the coast belt. rearing its huge crown of shining green leaves far above all the other growths of the forest. An island in this lake contains a table-land rising in ter- The original seed of the coffee was brought fiom Arabia. hogany and cochineal are the great staples of Castillo is trade. indigo is The in portious of Mexico. or "Fire and Water. two native states. All the fruits of the tropics are brought to the capital to be sold. The capital has been repeatedly destroyed." San Salvador can States. surpassing that of Bengal in The dead city of Copan. forests of logwood and mahogany. British settlements for cutting and shipping the valuable timber of this tree were established as long ago as 1638. — Here. del though cattle The interior is traversed by sharp by torrents.500 feet above the sea. They are is situated from 2. The plants are started in beds and tended until Costa Rica. the "Rich Coast.000 to 4. France. the most majestic and beautiful trees. or British Honduras. are forest trees many remains of an ancient tropical vegeta^ civilization. by French colonists. as India-rubber and indigo are the chief articles of trade.CENTRAL AMERICA. islands. The people of the white race are far outnumbered by those of the dark races. horees. is the two oceans by way of the San Juan River and in process of construction. tion. Spain. The mahogany flourishes on the high crests of sandy hills in Honduras and " It is one of other states bordering on the Gulf of Mexico in Central America." towering above it. — The West Indies coLaist of about one thousand are divided into groups. fragments of buildings. delicacy of color. and subterranean chambers with earthen jars containing human bones. Central America includes five republics and the British colony of Balize. THE WEST Divisions. —With the exception of Hayti. They named the Bahamas. the capital. Coffee is the staple of breeding and mining yield considerable inMafitted come. belongs to Great Britain. Its trunk is often 50 feet in height and 12 feet in diameter and ramifies. Cochineal A ship canal connecting Lake Nicaragua ancient ruins. The West Indies lie in a Though some contain sandy — sea famed plains or .

mountains. islands. — The cultivation of the plantations is the great occupation. ocean and rainfaU. campeachy wood. Hurricanes. pepper. aloes. ally peopled — Occupations and Productions. whose unsettled condition "Its fertile plains Of to its 1. lakes. Mining and cattle raising are carried on.400. — It has a large trade has a fine harbor and is the greatest commercial city in the West with the United States and Great Britain. The whites own the estates and the hovels of the laborers. Jamaica Cuba.000. the "Land of Springs. Inhabitants." 16th century. SOUTH AMERICA STUDIES. rice. called the "Queen of the Antilles. arrowroot. Manufactured wares are brought from Europe and from the United States. have alike vanished before the white man. rush — the third in extent of these wonderful islands. but since the abolition of slavery they have acquired. on many of the islands. the collision causing the billows to be piled mountain high. The principal wealth of the Bahamas consists in mahogany. and the mulattoes tlie remainder of the population. but the gentle and trusting natives who welcomed Columbus. sending thick volumes of foam far above the tallest masts. and shipping are destroyed.000 inhabitants nearly one-half are whites and has retarded the prosperity of the island. island of the Antilles that produces food sufficient for its inhabitants. State how the climate is by mountains.— In what plant zones is the continent situated? EXERCISES. its the rest negroes and half-castes. — State which portions of South America seem best suited to agriculture. now disappearing in the yawning trough of the sea. mandioca. Climate. number Cuba is 1. The Europeans now form about one-sixth. who are negroes.500. and cocoanuts are produced.100 THE WEST INDIES— SOUTH AMEEIOA. Besides its tropical products it is rich in minerals. tropical fruits. to stock raising. it. the negroes more than onehalf.— Locate and Locate the chief cities. upheaved by blasts of wind from opi)osite Havana Indies. winds. the greatest sugar-producing country of the world. sources. Trees. cotton. and dark groves. The islands were originby a great number of Indian tribes. Probable Industries. houses. to mining. REVIEW EXERCISES. and its plantations are devoted to the culture of sugar-cane. The waves. and. supposed was left at the end of the mines unworked. largest." is about half the size of Minnesota.000. and coffee. cool nights. Besides these. to lumbering. describe the countries of South America. a colony of Spain. Local trade is carried on by crafts sailing from i)ort to port. "The sea is lashed to the wildest frenzy. Negroes were once imported from Africa as slaves. sweet potatoes. Name the — What divisions lie on the Atlantic Ocean? On the Pacific? On both oceans? What divisions are washed by the Caribbean Sea? What countries have no sea coast? What countries are crossed or bordered by the Andes? What countries form a part of the great central plain? What The smallest. Physical Features. .000 in 1492. Jamaica. and the white-crested breakers cover the bosom of the deep far and wide. the sea breezes. belongs to Great Britain. green meadows. breadfruit. by the elevation of the land. Hurricanes are the great scourge of all the islands. skillful mariners and the terror of their neighbors. the general character of the land of richly that wooded mountain slopes and valleys. The strongest vessels run imminent danger in the tumultuous waters now suspended in mid air on the tops of the strong waves. It is described as having bold headlands. and the warlike Caribs. coffee. and great rivers of South America. The whole number of inhabitants on the islands is about 4. The In what conntries are the llanos? pampas? Which countries seem best situated for foreign commerce? For river commerce? Which conntries must be richest in vegetable products? countries have the fewest rivers? Plant Zones. while political broils and rev- olutions go on. — In what zones does the continent lie? currents."* directions.ed on. cloves. highlands. Hayti. and tobacco. The Antilles are largely devoted to the production of sugar. affected / — How many political divisions are there? MAP General Questions. charming inlets. the "Land of High Hills. indigo.BatM." and regarded by CJolumbus as "the fairest land the eye has ever gaa. the sea heaves and tosses as in a seething caldron. vanilla. roaring streams. It is the coolest and healthiand has flourishing plantations. not one Of the red men.— ." as the natives term is madly against each other. and timber for ship building. cacao. Locate and describe the coast waters. • Consult Stanford's Central and South America. in most of the colonies. is grass-grown savannas. and it is almost the only est of the "West Indies. and many lives are lost." has great natural reIt consists of two republics. tobacco. The tropical heat is tempered by the long. capes. plains. The manufiicturing industries are mostly limited to those things connected with the plimtations and navigation. Sketch a map showing political divisions. Porto Rico belongs to Spain. lie untilled. the rights of citizens.

.

The Indians of the high valleys of Teni terraced the mountain slopes and irrigated their lands hy means of a<iueducts. fine roads. and all of them organ ized republican governments that are still maintained. and in adopting modern improvements. except Patagonia. which prevails in North America. of the ruling whites. Some countries. lie tinent now controlled by European powers. however. but in many places they are quite intelligent and form an industrious class. Colonies were established. one meets with whites. but. and of mestizoes. Millions of the Indians are savages. — Indians were the sole inhabitants of South America when it was discovered by Europeans. The negroes are found mostly in Brazil and Guiana. In 1822. whose Africa as slaves.102' SOUTH AMEEICA— CONQUEST— PEOPLE. was con- quered by the Spaniards and Portuguese. The whites are largely confined to a comparatively narrow belt extending round the continent. After a severe struggle the Spanish provinces became independent. They had large cities. some of which were many miles in length. beautifully ornamented temples. some of which llim lUUi gained a living by agriculture. part of Brazil became subject to Portugal. the only empire In the f0^ The divisions of Guiana are the only portions of the conNew World. Condition. who are from forefathers were brought mostly of Spanish and Portuguese descent. are making commendable progress in in building railroads.jBE. and the mother countries held their possessions for nearly 300 years. - — m is made up of native Indians. of negroes. — The population the whites. Brazil obtained peaceable separation from Portugal. ?. Early Inhabitants. spirit of enterprise — The mass of the people are ignorant and indolent. mi Conquest. —Early in the sixteenth The century eastern the entire continent. in all the South American States. of the continent to Spain. a mixed race springing from the other three. Many remains of their civilization are yet found. and a constitutional monarchy was established. and the rest ^flx PAm .~lBli5?»EE // irinffii -^8^1^ K^C^^SSr/A/EWHltJif DESCRIPTION. and even the whites generally lack the establishing schools. . and mestizoes of every shade. Indians. and other public works. Colonies. and portions of the continent were thickly peopled by peaceful tribes. The Indians and mestizoes together far outnumber People. the pure whites comprising the small&st class.

several states. None of the countries take first rank among the nations of the earth. and a large portion of it is shipped to the United States. and hides. best in the world. iron." and. On the lowlands. tropical productions. and the like are imported. Occupations. the cold zone. and form the chief articles of export. vanilla. Of 12. The diamond mines are the richest in the world. mules. vegetable ivory. It is the great coffee port. where the soil would yield a hundredfold Religion. while sugar-cane. and Peruvian bark are the chief exports. hides. — Rio The Panama Janeiro the chief commercial Its harbor is one of the surroundings. bananas. Flour and cheese are brought from the United States. salt. Simon Bolivar. and other medicinal every other country in the richness of its plants. The chief exports are sugar. cacao and indigo are divided into some twenty provvege- grown.000 feet above the sea. — Pemambuco exports large quan—Para the great India-rubber is Bogota is situated on a plateau 8. Diamantina is the center of the diamond region. India-rubber. rose. and give their owners little trouble. The high valleys and tablelands comprise the principal cultivated land. and 12. The white inhabitants number about one-third of the population. Peruvian bark. which is the chief water-way. while wheat. low and thick. wine. The exports woods. The grand system of rivers is little used. perfumery. cotton. Several thousand miles of railroad are in operation. and much of the wealth consists in cattle and horses. Caracas has an elevation of 3. In 1812. and horns are articles of export. In 1499.wild state. line of steamers plies on the Amazon. and in some of the provinces education is compulsory. The capitals are the centers of commerce. cedar. just oif Jthe coast. described as an "Eden of natural loveliness. and are mostly of Portuguese origin.SOUTH AMERICA— BfiAZIL—VENEZUELA. Maiiufactures are not wholly neglected. There is a lack of good common and other roads. over which goods are carried on the backs of mules. beer. and the finest of melons. and cinnamon. horses. is cotton of the South Sea Island variety. when the Spanish explorers traced the northern coast of South America. sheep. and orange groves flourish above the sea. The great natural resources pepper. cabinet-woods. is noted for Cayenne the leading occupations. sarsaparilla. Ecuador. In 1847 a diamond was found which brought nearly |200. porcelain. 9. articles of dress. copper. . It includes a fifteenth of the land surface of the globe and inces. The of the beautiful bay. silks. The Guianas. but most of the water-ways are but little used. The mines yield precious metals. manufactures are neglected. The soil is poorly tilled. The hot zone. topazes. iron.000 immigrants who came out from France in 1763. Its buildings are — sive commerce. meaning "Little Venice. from France. too. —The The eastern portion belongs to the Amazon. the exceptionally rich and varied vegetable products forming the greatest source of wealth. and enjoys the climate of perpetual spring. or often by women who take the place of beasts of burden. — It is said that Brazil derived its name The chief occupation is agriculture. hardware. and expect the negroes to do the work. tities of sugar. in the next higher region. and other Stock raising is the great industry on the llanos. The surface is made up of lowlands.000 people lost their lives. paper. there are Indian corn. as well as gold. dye-woods of various sorts. indigo. which name was afterward given whole country — The Roman Catholic is the prevailing religion. emeralds. including flour and wine. Cities. The empire is nearly as large as the United States.walled to prevent destruction by earthquakes. from England. tobacco. The true wealth and ivory. and orchard fruits flourish in the high valleys. who perform most of the labor." ands of persons live almost wholly on meat because they are too indolent to raise grain or vegetables. — The common roads are poor. rubies. Gen.000. States of valleys. oranges. hills with tropical foliage and waterfalls. tallow. the agriculturist cultivates tropical plants. They look upon labor as degrading. Much that is sold abroad as Mocha and Java grows in this country. French Guiana Three-fourths of the inhabitants are negroes. Colombia. and French. The hot. on lower levels. was bom here. cabinet-woods. Three-fourths of the coffee used in the world comes from Brazil. and timber. Ecuador took its name from the Equator. cloves. market. Its forests furnish India-rubber. rye. Coffee of the finest flavor. are found.000 perished from exposure to the climate. and mountains rising above the line of perpetual snow. to the in the Old World. Fields of wheat. guavas. but other denominations are tolerated. Immense herds of cattle graze on the plains in the southern part. and drugs. Cacao.000 cacao. It surpasses tation. are charming. sugar from the Otaheite cane. and mining are of the island of Cayenne. cocoa. Dutch. A and one may see every variety of vegetation according to elevation. is used by France as a penal settlement. tobacco. A few of the fruits are pineapples. but in a backward state. coffee. first above the sea level. and other precious stones. and the fashions. and diamonds.600 feet above the sea. Free public schools are established in the towns. Coffee. iron and cotton goods. city of South America. moist climate of the low coast does not agree with Europeans. a region of almost perpetual mists. Emeralds. tropical fruits. Besides these products. all and emeralds. rice. but tools. by which it is crossed. Homed cattle. The imports are kinds of manufactured goods. Facilities for 103 Commerce. glass." or coals of fire. and subject to storms of hail and snow. so that all zones of climate are represented. and tin. The stock raising. sugar. — Agriculture. and the cities situated at a distance from the Magdalena. the great forest region of — Guianas are colonial possessions of the English. the temperate. highest of all. they found a little Indian village built on piles in the water. The exports are coffee. rose apples. coal. cotton. continent have remained undeveloped because of political troubles and want of energy in the inhabitants. is the shortest route beis one of the most important railways in the world. and swine are found in immense numbers. and gold. that they gave it the name of Venezuela. vegetable The commerce of these countries lies in their fertile soil of the country is small. barley. feet and clover grow 10. which so reminded them of Venice. Bahia has a fine harbor and exten- are hides. which crosses the isthmus. It has three zones of climate depending upon elevation. which run at large in a half. clothing. tallow. and that. A very small portion of the country is under cultivation. Little has been done to improve the breeds. from a native tree whose wood is of a red color and called by the Portuguese "brazas. HARBOR OF RIO. from Germany. the city was destroyed by an earthquake. dye-woods. The republic of Venezuela consists of twenty-two states. Stock raising is a great industry. medicinal barks and plants. custard apples. the deliverer of the Spanish South American republics. are reached by rugged mountain pathways. goats. Thous- Venezuela. sugar. at the entrance of — Lake Mara- caybo. consisting is tween the oceans. beer. — The United States of Colombia is Its constitution is similar to that of composed of the United North America. and Railroad. and tobacco are staple products. cabinet and dye coffee. Empire of Brazil. and the lines of railroad already built are generally short.

clay roofs. tile. —Peru has some 1. peaches. the houses are roofed with and the adorned -vvith a fountain. copper. The table-lands are the chief seat of population. There are steep cuttings. silver.300 miles of sea coast. 20. shower would convert the city into a mass of mud. and the higher slopes pasture the sheep and llama. viaducts. blackberries. pineapples. —Bolivia takes Its surface is greatly name from Gen. and. snow. saltpeter. coast. Simon Bolivar. one of which crosses the continent con- .600 feet. cherries. "It rains thirteen months in the year. and other delicious tropical fruits that may be eaten with ice from Mount PinchinThe houses are built low. and wool. Cuzco was the ancient capital of the Incas. and the natives caH it the "Garden of the World. Cities. It has several lines of railway.. tin. wheat. street railways. close at hand. and spices. and iron. silver. Cities. and paved with great square flint stones. Potosi. streets are narrow. In a single province 4.000 feet. and are very low. is Argentine Republic— The Argentine Republic one of the great plateau on which of over 12. quicksilver. copper. Scarcely a drop of rain peaceful. Peruvian bark. industrious population consists of half-caste whites and InPure-blood Europeans are found only in the best families. its inhabitants are Indians. wheat. and without window-sash. copper. lead. or 3. Near the city is the mighty volcano of Illimani. At this place there is no lack of rain. A heavy Callao. diversified. silver. Then come the mountains with intervening table- lands of great elevation. bananas. but the city is a fine fruit market. and contained is the port of Lima. insurand war. The natives have a saying. one-fourth of the city consists of convents and churches. Chili is the most pros- ^^v^ '*' The expoils ver. and there is little chance for the poor laborer to become a land owner. hemp. The rections. but its mines are inefficiently worked. and normal Bolivia. rich in vege table products. and guano from islands near the sumptuous private school. and only a little maize and a few garden vegetables are cultivated in the vicinity. — La Paz The is the commercial center. wool. copper.400 miles from the Atlantic. who conquered the country and put The houses are built of clay. or bird manure. Peru. but much has been done to develop its resources by the construction of railways. by a coast and backed by the higher Cordilleras on the east. Nearly one-half are Indians. South of Coquimbo. falls. hail. windings up rough. The inhabitants live princi- pally along the valleys of the coast wooded. the country tilled or is well wooded slopes. — Lima was founded by Pizarro. The mines have been surveyed. A line of steamers runs on the Amazon. military is academy.104 SOUTH AMERICA— PEEU— BOLIVIA— CHILI. broad. and From its discovery. The steamers of Peru connect with those ports. but heavy dews are common. Chili. and its finances are in excellent condition. that. its eastern slopes clothed with tropical plants bearing delicious fruits tliat find a market in La Paz. chinchilla cities are fur. but there are many of the Torrid ^ negroes in the cities of the plains. corn. and its — Valparaiso the chief seaport. with flat. and commerce is in its infancy. Mountiiiu paths lead to the warm belt below. the Montanas or and roots of the Temperate Zones are produced. steep slopes to a height of 14. as those of Italy. of which is Here and plain. The vegetable products are those Temperate Zones. The low- lands yield tropical products. and other grains grow on the cultivated table lands. ^ Agriculture and cattle breeding are in a backward state. arecnltivated valleys. Pern has been famed for its gold. or a grand temple of the sun. vicugna and sheep's wool. fruits. and cha. progress of the country has been retarded by political quarrels.000 silver region and on the table-lands. of Peru are guano. Cities. The dians. and up these are brought juicy strawberries. Quito is situated in a valley 9. perous of the South American republics. and clean residences. a university." the ruler to death.343 feet above the sea. The table-lands are broad. railroads over the Andes connect the temperate regions with the seaThey show great engineering skill. is Lake Titicaca attains an elevation the most progressive of the South American States. and the opening of water-ways. are now much less productive. The valley is destitute of trees. which is navigable to a point only 325 miles from Lima. — — The most important exports are copper. along which much aa stretch high plains forming a narrow belt. seven miles away. once famed for their richness. — All the chief Most of is on the plateau. The grains. as barren as Sahara. and gold are abundant. eastward.— Santiago has well-paved. and even the Desert of Atiicama is one vast mine. of Brazil." Chili is noted for its mineral wealth. tobacco. The leading exports are gold. It has important railways. crossing the as luxuriant -^^"if^:^^ and lovely there. obtained in sil vast quantities from the Chincha Islands. eleva- ted valley fronted range. gums.110 feet high. The soil is held by wealthy families. — The fertile and cultivated is portion of Chili a long. streets. The silver mines of Silver.

influence. Itali. numerous navigable rivers are joined by canals. wheat. the It con- a term applied by the people of the far East when Asia was sovereign being required to rule according to the statutes of "Land of Light" and Europe the dark. Commercial Marine. These ships spread their on every sea. whose privileges members are by the people. the number of women at work in the fields." Government. next gained pre-eminence and gave laws to the world." are hereditary. Commercial Advantages. Germans. There has been a large immigration of English. and power. and have made commercial nations. is a large.000 sails The darkness of the Middle Ages ensued. Wales. copper. Its and the Dominion of Canada. Tlie land is held by men of wealth who purchase extensive tracts on the pampas and stocTc them with homed cattle. located on a hill. well-built city. until at the Christian era tlie Roman Empire included Northern Southern and Central Europe. The deep indentations of the coast open the greater part of the continent to the trade of the world. The poorer classes. — "At the dawn of history we find the continent already as it now is. are employed as overseers and laborers. hardware. Others derive it from two Greek words meaning wide mew. The Turks are followers of Mohammed. sists — The government is is a limited monarchy. waves of migration flowed westward from the Asiatic steppes to mingle with the inhabitants already in possession of the land. The vegetable products are maize. The chief wealth is in stock. — All nected by railways. republic of Cattle raising and plants grow in the north. advantageous position inhabitants. sixteen of them in the Spanish language. constitute the British Empire.791 merchant seamen. extended its power gradually. schools. by Teutons and Celts in the center and west. manufacturing.scattered population of the pampas. country. population Rank. and is small. Africa. the Protestant and the northwest. but. the abundance of laborers. and carry . generates the steam used in working the mines. Australia. British Empire. and Western Asia. fertile soil. and for propelling trains on land. Newfoundland. copious streams. zinc. It — has carried on protracted wars. but there are few educational advantages for the . and Thracians along the Mediterranean seaboard. hair. olic in the south.000. visiting their ranches only in the It is the seaport of the it steamers connect with foreign ports. the central peninsula. Parliament. and other grains. Twentyfive periodicals are published in Buenos Ayres. — Though Europe ranks fifth in size and second among the grand divisions of the earth. the carefully tilled fields. the "The poets derive the name from Europa. horses.— The many revolutions. lUyrians. DESCRIPTION. The peninsula of Greece first emerged from barbarism. and Ireland form the United of Great Britain and Ireland. or sheep. The roofs of the houses are flat and are surrounded by a railing. and dried beef. surprised to see the fine roads. peoi:)led. and com- Religion. in England. tropical nut-bearing trees Many Uruguay. The races are less intenningled than in any other South American country. good harbors. Great Britain ranks first among the nations of the earth. of the sovereign. free to all. in driving the machinery in thousands of factories. by Slavs in the east. who had often threatened the empire with destruction and. or mysterious. of the and the diet common people is meat and hard biscuit such as is used The trade of the country The exports are hides. tin. C. in — Britain. and many small islands adjacent. Some trace it to an er. and the number of cities and villages. — The chief manufactures are cotton and steel. commerce is carried on by manned by more than 199. whom they regard as the "Prophet of God. La Plata basin and iiys Lines of ocean steamers Buenos Ayres fine churches. — The Christian religion prevails. outstripping all other parts of the world in civilization. the mines yielding nearly one-half the supply of the world. the chief cities are con- ish possessions in the Americas. the whole forming a vast net-work of land and waterways. said to have been founded B. — Its name the is derived from the word ereb. woolen goods. and its — Great Britain and Ireland. Note. Manufactures. cultural implements. with the Britand Asia. D. rushed in and took possession of the capital. 476. by is sailors. its eral resources. Italy.— Its means of 18. Kingdom Name. ISLES. good miilk and Little grain is raised. 753. It produces the heat by which the iron and other ores are smelted. Coal and iron are the most abun- dant. — In mining. British Isles. great industries. wool. great Wealth. but the Spaniards still form the ruling element. Ceylon. by Finns in the north. lead. for com- An American who Western Europe merce. a small state. partly half-castes. ' ' much About 150. whose sovereign may be a king or a queen. in A. the imports are cotton and woolen goods. visits is equal to one-sixth of the land surface of the globe in extent. Every town has morning and evening nice butter are unknown. by Iberians. Repeated Greeks. — The foundation of the wealth of Great Britain min- lies in its mild climate.SOUTH AMERICA— EUROPE— BRITISH necting Buenos Ayres with Valparaiso. Rome. Europe was still occupied by barbarians. Montevideo is a pleasant city." in the center Historical — The most important minerals are coal. and its vegetable products are those of the Torrid and Temperate Zones. whose elected House of Lords. the Greek Church in the east.000 tons of coal are mined annually. Paraguay. and agritallow. iron. and the energy of Chief Industries. Italians. tending countless flocks and herds. horns. and commanding a fine view of the broad estuary of the river. vessels. and ships on the sea. and European fruits. The family sits on the roof to enjoy the cool evenings after the warm summer days EUROPE. Siculi. The commerce and the fine natural resources of the summer. with many huge warehouses and fourteen lines of carry on trade with the United States and Europe. The wealthy owners spend most of their time in the principal towns. applied first to the country north of Greece. and quickened every branch of industry. Parliament the sole law-making power. and the House of Commons. and salt. largely with the United States. it is first civilization. The British Isles consist of Great Ireland. Northern Alrica. affording unsurpassed advantages for inland commerce. the daughter of a Phoenician king. "dark. is a weak republic. and Swiss. Uruguay has been cursed by and sheep farming are the with thousands of cows. Ligurians. Scotland. and including raw material and manuvast factured articles. or the west. and leading a life similar to that of the people of the Asiatic steppes. the Roman Cath- merce. Oceania. Paraguay has a fertile soil. Its chief possessions are India. in contrast with the narrow limits of that peninsula.stern word signifying sunset. the well-preserved forests. Minerals. country are undeveloped. iron.

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Bill is chief- ly devoted to raw cotton. . meadows. lakes. Its commerce is protected hy a fleet of 2. and hundreds of other at home. mountains. In the Naval Power. of the continent. oats. islands. tea. Which countries most mountainous? What countries Europe? What Climate. barley.58 ships of war. — more hilly and mountain" ous part. Physical Features. Probable Industries. Plant Zones. They return with wheat. turnips. map showing' political divisions. needed by the peox>le and wool. most of them ironclad. and describe the coast waters. affected — In what zones does the continent lie? is how the climate countries are best situated for foreign is commerce? Which country has the by mountains. The pastures England and Wales. beef. pork. State the Mediterranean? On the Atlantic? On lie the North Sea? in low. boys. and In the agricultural section one sees well-tilled farms with hedges. rich green fields of wheat. REVIEW EXERCISES. Great Britain is the mightiest naval power in the world. and flax. ocean currents. are the great mining and manufacturing districts and extensive pasture lands. and great rivers. plains.EUEOPE— BEITI8H ISLES. prevailing winds. and propelled by steam. and longest navigable rivers ? rainfall. 107 the products of British mines aud manufactories to almost every port in the world.— Locate and describe the Locate important Sketch a cities. MAP General Questions. coffee. to the northwest. or level. — That portion of England lying to the southeast of a line drawn from Plamboro Head to Portland STUDIES. articles agriculture and commerce. — In what plant zones the continent situated? — State the probable industries of diiferent portions EXEBCISES. corn. several countries of Burope. peninsulas. second in size? are — How many political divisions in Europe? Islands? How many The of the countries are peninsulas? Which is the largest country ? The smallest? What countries border on the Black Sea ? On — Locate capes. They carry over 60. and marines.000 men.

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called loughs. (2) Duke of York's Coliiiun. (5) St (7) St. The Thames. Cardiff is a in Wales. There are seventeen cities each with more than 100. There are immense furnaces. and other trees. dustry. belongs to this district. (10) Surrey side of London. and thousands of men and boys work underground. for over 800 years. extending over nearly one-seventh Many of these are covered from twenty to thirty feet deep with Trunks peat. Seventeen bridges span the river. clear lakes called lochs. pastoral husbandry. Edinburgh is the seat of a great university.ETTHOPE— BRITISH ISLES. or from raw material brought from other lands. and linen are manufactured. the Orkney. embracing dairy products. Their fish. Coal. The Highlands afford fine pasturage. England has many cities and villages. some of which are celebrated plain. a strong fortress. sending up their columns of smoke. It contains a grand statue of Walter Scott. STUDIES. England's sovereigns have been crowned. waters abound in Ireland. and and granite are the chief minerals. commerce. oak. on which it is built. and is called the Modem Athens. and sheep. Peat is cut and dried. The pursuits are agriculture. In the mineral section are hundreds of mines. but eonhardy sheep and ponies. lie ? is EXERCISES. is noted for the manufacture of lace. of pine.000. with their living plants and animals fjx>m all climes. The southwestern counties are famed for their orcliards. and fitctories. flax. employ thousands of men.000 inhabitants. Leeds is the chief seat of woolen manufactures. is the chief in- ^oal-shipping port. The suburbs are celebrated for their Limerick Belfast is the second city in size and first in manufactures. cattle. carefully cultivated. — Dublin — • — MAP General Questions. lead. The manufactures and exports are similar to those of England. the Houses of The Botanical and Parliament. turning out ship loads of goods. manufacturing. in 1830. of all England are . tures. Westminster Abbey. and has several large publishing houses. and Newcastle for its export Plymouth and Portsmouth are great naval stations.000 inhabitants. beauty. of the islands. — Islands are attached to Scotland. Merthyr Tydvil. of its area. The herring fisheries on the northern coast. Liverpool is the second city in population. as well as the remains of the Irish elk. The Castle. lOd London. — The Hebrides. It is a wild. There are many lakes. In many places the earth is honeycombed. Including dairying and cattle raising. made from the products of the mines. yew. It has magnificent public buildings and an extensive trade. Its principal ex- port trade cattle.— Locate and Sketch a State whether the coast lines indicate good harbors. and the Shetland They are rocky. with many small. Paul's Cathedral. A railway runs for miles underground beneath the streets. between Manchester and Liverpool. and ag- — riculture. and has over 4. have been found imbedded in the bog in a good state of preservation. and rivals London in its commerce. "Em- Highlands and the Lowlands. The first railway in Engliind was opened. (4) Horse Guards and Admiralty. in which. wild.stocked with fine breeds of horses. (3) National Gallery and Nelson Monument. and is thronged — Glasgow is an important is In the neighborhood seaport. Muslin. Its mild. London. covers 122 square miles of land. and large quantities are used for fuel. iron. It is one of the handsomest cities in Europe. It is the chief port of traffic between America and the great manufacturManchester is the center of the cotton manufacing cities in Western England. and fishing. (9) Tower. and where her mightiest dead lie buried. — — — — — Ireland is not so rich in minerals as Great Britain. at the foot of which is Holyrood Palace of the Scottish sovereigns. with his dog beside him. Wales — mines and quarries. James' Park. showing (1) St. Cities. and a tunnel passes under it. tain pasture lands suitable for Islands. The Highlands are rugged and There are deep glens. linen. — Scotland may be divided into two sections — the and the rich green of erald Isle. the largest of these political divisions? Is the situation of the British Isles favorable or unfavorable to foreign commerce? Why? In what — Which plant zones do the islands cities. ship building. lace. is from 600 to 900 feet broad. with great manufacturing indtistries. moist climate favors the production of grasses. The surface of Ireland consists of a low central with mountains here and there near the coast. Among the magnificent public buildings are St. and Buckingham Palace. the headquarters of the Clyde ship-building trade. (6) Westminster Abbey. Westminster Hall." pastures has given it the name. are interesting places in the neighborhood. in sitting posture. is with Great Britain. — for their beauty. Locate important . is one of the finest cities in Europe. James Palace. Paul's Cathedral. Zoological Gardens. slate. In Central Ireland are tracts called bogs. mountainous Its wealth is in its country noted for its beautiful scenery. Large manufacturing cities have grown up as centers of the different industries. Sheffield for its cutlery. oats. (8) New Houses of Parliament. stands on a rock 437 feet high. Cities. the largest and wealthiest commercial city in the world. of coal. Birmingham is noted for its hardware. owes its prosperity to its coal mines and iron works. and wheat are raised. 514 by 286 feet. which are often bordered by high cliffs that give them a peculiar beauty. and the salmon fisheries of the rivers. or decayed and compressed mosses and other vegetable matter. mining. and supThe Lowlands are port large numbers of sheep and cattle. its Scotland. with shipping. map describe the countries. Immense store-houses full of goods stand along its wharves. Cities. Barley.

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domestic animals are reared in and also large quantities of tar abundance. It is built on seven islands. The villages of are very numerous. Marseilles. intro- duced by the Italians in the 15th century. woolens. with energy and enterprise. The minerals are iron. Herring swarm on the southwest The other minerals are found in the more hilly regions in the southeast. kingdoms of Norway and Sweden have the same ruler. Bordeaux is the chief wine port. Wheat. but Sweden has more fertile land. jewelry. Trees are often planted along the canals. — are prized in all civilized lands. hardy race. and wood carving. the German Empire. — Bergen an "Little Paris. silks. The are produced. fruits. and bronze are admired by all the world. the i^eniusula are clothed with pine. Many shallow lakes have been drained in this way. engines. rich tracts between Brussels and the coast. — The Netherlands. and and pitch. and so carefully tilled that the country is like one vast garden. Locate and describe France. coal. barley. fisheries of Norway are of great importance. are canals Agriculture is a leading industry. — Stockholm is is called the Northern all Venice. In other respects each country has its own laws. gloves. institutions. and it ranks among the first military powers of the world. The mountain cential slopes in the and southern part of and birch. Austria. in the shade of which people travel The low lands between the dikes are in boats instead of wheeled carriages. next to London. Swedish iron and steel take first rank in the markets of the world. Ghent is the — — center of the cotton-spinning industry. who went forth in ships to discover and conquer the world. olive Cities. France holds a high place as a manufacturing country. sugar- beets. oats. lumbering. The field of Waterloo is near the city. lic —Paris. Belgium. and the most beautiful of the north- ern lies cities." and carpets important town and one of the centers of the coast fisheries. Very few adults are entirely illiterate. Antwerp is the great commercial center. generally worked by wind power. They are devotedly attached to their fatherland. is the largest city in Europe. of the inhabitants live by min- and fishing. It is the great The Scandinavians are a brave. with its 485 inhabitants to the square mile. — The Coal and iron are the most important minerals. Grain. — A very large proportion ing. art gal- public gardens. patent-leather goods. politeness. and the shipment. and The people pay great attention to education. The commerce Its exports of France extends to all parts of the world. and places of amusement. zinc. hemp. and cobalt. and both governments are represented abroad by the same diplomatic corps. furnishing timber for too small to be called farms. grasses are cultivated. and leries. The white sails of the hardy fishermen are seen all along the coast. libraries. Education is now compulsory. Its goods are famed for taste. Netherlands. the great seaport in the south. the Vikings. Ill Norway and Sweden. garden vegetables. The sea has been fenced out and the rivers fenced in by enormous embankments called dikes. Belgium. Theriversteemwithsaliiion. and cheapness. the land is cut up into countless patches. brandies. and of hou. fir. — Brussels has been called Its lace the university city of XJpsala. which serve the purpose of drainage and of navigation. but agriculture is not the greatest industry. cottons. in the Baltic. Everybody works. porcelain. while its silks. Education is compulsory. There are fine streets with sumptuous dwellings. is down on a sea Lyons. drained by pumps. and strolling MAP STUDIES. who may be said to wear two crowns. durability. is a flat coun- The people are fond of amusements. outlet of Lake Malar. linens. and the choicest wines. 000 souls. cottons. and preserved is is fruits. No other country in Europe has so dense a population as the little kingdom of Belgium. Netherlands. try. flax. army and navy. On dikes. is in a very satisfactory state. and potatoes are grown. Switzerland. Iron. and the products of iron and steel are extensive. higher common schools are improving. negro. and skill. In Norway education is gratuitous from the age of eight to the time of confirmation. and proudly remember their ancestors. coast and the waters about the Lofoden Islands are alive with cod. MonteLocate their capitals and chief cities. which are the food of the silk. and flueoyster beds are found. for house building. noted for buildings. laces. lye. Bulgaria. silver. and are noted for their There are many societies of learned taste. firearms. producing carpets. The city lies in a basin of the Seine. in some places. Only about one-fortieth of Norway is fitted for cultivation. and fuel for smelting. hops. at the and cutlery. the second city in the seat of the silk manufactures.EUEOPE — NORWAY AND SWEDEN— FEANCE— BELGIUM— NETHERLANDS. copper. and the Much of it lies below the sea level. surrounded by heights from which one looks size. In the low. every village wares of gold. . France is one of the leading nations of Europe. laces. gloves.ses. Cities. but the peasantry are ignorant. its fine center of art and fashion. — many them numbering 8. Deimiark. perfumery. France. elegance. was founded before Christ by Fhocaeans. having an elementary school. Belgium is a great manu- facturing country. and the fourth in Europe. linens. especially in Sweden. or Holland. men. Roumania. are. The mulberry is grown for its leaves vine has been cultivated for centuries. It has a large trade in fish and cod liver oil. Its cottons rank next to those of England. flax. At the north is Cities. laces. Servia. and grains The sugar-beet is largely grown in the north and east. paupers are unknown. and pubinstruction.worm. The water is pumped into the canals and flows away. oil. and even the river-beds than the cultivated lands adjoining. — Christiana is a university town and a com- mercial seaport. crossing the country in all directions. are wines.

is — Amsterdam Breslau. consists of Austria and Hungary. linen. vegetables. and stock are raised. — This own laws. — The government is a monarchy with a par- People. ironware. Schools and model farms have been established in all the improvement in the methods of husbandry. Commerce. — Aalborg is an important seaport. The Krupp steel works. parts of Papua. Every child of suitable age is compelled to attend the common school. Many live by fishing for herring. wood carvings. and arsenic are found. with little tillage. jewelry. The farms are small and wett cultivated. oil. and its commercial fleet is now extensive. Magyars. etc. horses. The manufactures include earthenware. The Austrian Empire. Thirty thousjind Jews. The mountains are well wooded. Manufacturing industries are large. rich soil is EUEOPE— DENMAEK— GEEMAN EMPIEE— AUSTEIAN EMPIEB. are people. woolens. in the south. A large standing army is maintained. Celebes. or Auseacli German Empire consists of 26 states. are also numerous. coal. but many articles are imported. reside in the city. Education. One branch of the Eigstag is elected by the ^ Denmark. and attendance There are 21 universities of high rank. and every able-bodied male citizen performs military service for twelve years. Basle. buildings and palatial residences. and the galleries belonging to the mines have an aggregate length of more fifty mileSi than . linen. but united under one sovereign and a general parliament called the Delegations. and legislative power in a king and EigStag jointly. Quicksilver. vegetables. zinc. of agriculture states for — Agriculture receives great attention. iron goods. — — There are inexhaustible stores of coal and iron. Although the great Hungarian and other plains are included in the empire. Some of the cantons are so small that no state has a man can help make the Other states are larger and have adopted the representative form of government. foreign lands." is now known as a is supposed to be the wealthiest — town in the republic. and Sumatra.. Minerals. In the splendid forests of High Germany. Geneva. hemp. and abound in useful metals and minerals. or gymnasiums. There is a mercantile marine numbering thousands of vessels. horticulture. There are several universities. but the members of the Eeichstag are chosen by vote of the people. and the exports and imports are large. Switzerland. Denmark is said to have a larger per cent of its children in school than any other country in Europe. with dairythe industries of the liighlands. seat of gayety and a center of — Basle ^ Rome. . where cattle. unless its education is provided for in some other way. As producers of zinc. Many hotels in the' Alpine regions are supported by travelers who are ating. paper. but they are most abundant in Prussian Saxony. Agriculture. the plains are called the "Granaries of Europe. and mining is a highly developed industry. Agriculture. its with piles. Though agriculture is carried on with less skill than in some other European countries. Among the mineral products. leather goods. carrying on a large trade with The mines of rock-salt and brine springs in Galicia are the most celebrated At Wieliczka. silks. Olive and mulberry groves. Manufactures. lation. The vine is very successfully grown in the Ehine Valley.—The tria-Hungary. representatives are needed. and sheep are raised. and woolen goods. The exports five are grain. The foreign possessions of this country — Berlin. Linen. Elementary education is general. iron. it is the most mountainous country in Europe. and Dresden. The fiords abound in cod and herring. Berne. and a large number of academies and common Prussia has long been famed for its interest in edu- Education. noted for literary museums. middle schools. Government. in Westphalia. of which Prussia is the most powerful. — Geneva. silks. or Hungarians. with splendid museums and laboratories. — Bremen. rye. cottons. Enormous beds of rock-salt are found in many provinces. bers. is is include Java. and other cereals. colleges. and zinc are most important. and oysters. where cannon are made. and wine making are the chief occupations in the lowlands. and cheese are leading manufactures and exports. Wheat. metropolis of the book trade. fruits. The mountain slopes furnish pasturage. Slavs. The emperor of Austria is king of Hungary.— Rotterdam is a naval and commercial port. vast quantities of wooden goods are produced. and a university. —^The ligence. spirits. linen. and cattle breeding. the Bundesrath and the Eeichstag. the great commercial centea The houses are built on and canals run along the center of most of the streets. flax. vegetables. — There is an excellent railway system. and manufactured goods. Copenhagen (merchants' haven) is a strongly fortified seaport and the center of all the learned institutions of the country. and vineyards are seen in the valleys of the south. LeipCities cities is its institutions. cod. and they are sent to every part of the world. — cation. The woolen. the second seaport of Germany. and green crops are cultivated. and gratuitous to the poor. The wines of Hungary are celebrated for their excellence. are the most extensive in the world. Germans.—The own legislature Austrian Empire. and schools for mining and military science. with the exception of Switzerland. The fields are small. having its and laws. constitution. and fishing is an imporbmt industry. (We-litch'-ka) the bed of salt has a depth of 4. Commerce is extensive and a large trade is carried on with little the East Indies.— The republic of Switzerland little states. and beer are among the chief manufactures. Butter and cheese are ' best snited to grass. as they are called. and settlements in South Cities. sic. one of the great of Europe. zinc. schools. linen. The members of the Bundesrath are appointed annually by the several state governments. and flowers. Sheep farming. orchards. Watches. It has many fine public tracted by the fine scenery. Borneo. His title to the Crown is The German Empire. paper. are among the other important cities. and cattle are reared in large nnmmade and the country is one great dairy. consists of 25 or cantons. wonderful cathedral. and woolens. gold. and iron manufactures are extensive. representing immense wealth. hereditary. There are parochial schools. people are noted for industry and intelat school is compulsory.112 The moist. — Hamburg the third seaport in Europe. Strasburg. in the world. besides middle schools. flax. The last has a famous polytechnic institution. America and Africa. an attractive and channingly situated town. ranking next to London and Liverpool. Nearly one-half the population live by agriculture. and Zurich have excellent universities. The manufactures are beet-sugar. Cities. Popular education now receives great attention. Germany and Belgium surpass all the restof the world. pottery. The king of Prussia is styled Emperor of Germany. many normal schools for the educa- tion of teachers. Grains. Jews The Slavs form nearly one half the popubut they are not the most influential class. as every Great attention is paid to education.000 feet. wool. leather. Cities. a great wool market. each governed by its government with executive power vested in a king. — Hundreds of millions of bushels of the grains are raised. and picture galleries Its university one of the most celebrated in the world. once called the "Calvinistic learning." Manufactures.— The inhabitants belong tinct races: principally to three dis- liament of two houses. compulsory. are cultivated with great care.

one of the great ^ The powers. articles. and the public highways are very poor. and "'"6 ''^^s^'i "1 the north. dancing. horses. resources are undeveloped. and vine are grown. and fine commercial houses. minerals. —The kingdom of Portugal. once in the front rank. Many of the inhabitants can neither read nor write. the olive.EUROPE — AUSTEI AN EMPIRE— PORTUGAL— SPAIN. There are large native groves of cork trees and date palms. walnut. is Europe. silks. but more attention now being paid to education. plows. with its palace-crowned heights overlooking the beautiful estuary of the Tagus. The people are polite and hospitable. low state. olive oil. quicksilver. cotton. and orchards of semi-tropical fruits are numerous and extensive. Foreign trade is principally with Great Britain and Brazil. whose graceful spire silk. and almond are raised over the whole country. a great emporium. and it produces nearly half the lead of Europe. now among the weakest first in Europe. lemon. and salt. Portugal. — The imports and sisting of grain. and bull fights than of labor. In the very center 475 feet high. There are but few railroads. The wealth of the Indies flowed into its harbora. wool. or. but. ' — Spain. and the wagons. ex- ports of the empii'e are extensive. now a second-class power. the capital of Hungary. and the lower classes are ignorant and very poor. porcelain. residences of the nobles. Its and musical instruments add greatly to is railways radiate in aU directions. of beauty. government offices. . Its quick- Vegetables and garden plants are grown. is — Lisbon.inge. but these industries are in a backward state. and the commerce of the world then centered at Lisbon. The chief exports are wines. Education is neglected. was. is including glass and wine. leather. its is the gothic Manufactures of wealth. cork. raisins. peach. Precious stones are found in many places. one of the most brilliant capitals in —Vienna Spacious boulevards surround the heart of the city. lead. but much more fond of music. . during the half of the 15th century. mulberry. its No silver other country in Europe is so rich in metals and minerals. is Spain. and other farm tools are rude in construction. little —Buda-Pesth. where are Ibund the imperial palace. con- and manufac- tured Cities. fig. through want of enterprise in the inhabitants. mines are famous. is Cattle raising an important industry. lEr'^I^^'''^'^'P >^^/?/i HOUS^'^i}' ^Progress is being made in manufactures and commerce.\griculture is in a — Cities. — Oporto exports wines. competes with Genoa and Naples for the palm and is the chief manufacturing city. Commerce. Cattle. cathedral of St. Stephen.

Around the grand square are rows of splendid buildings. Italy. all named after their chief cities. with a senate appointed for life. brought from hills more than 60 miles distant.Madrid is situated on a barren plateau. The government people. is a constitu- tional monarchy. Fine cafes are seen along the principal streets. The Isabella Canal supplies an abundance of pure water. and a large number of deputies chosen by the Several millions of dollars are annually given by the gov- ernment for the support of common schools. Though great progress is being made. the census shows that over 50 per cent of the people are unable to read or write. and it has also provided 20 universities and 70 lyceums for higher education. — The kingdom of Italy consists of 69 provinces. and it also serves to irrigate the country around. including several hotels. .

but the people are too careless and indolent to make the most of the resources of their country. The Russian Empire. A few miles away are 4. and the lowest must be attended by all children between five and twelve. river Neva. derived from the soil.000 apartments. The government is now a monarchy. are adorned with towers Moscow is The churches the holy city of the Russians. old way. is one of the grandest of European capitals. In 1821 the Greeks began a hard struggle for independence. The implements of husbandry are extremely rude. sulphur. which was capable of seating 80. as in most monarchies. tion. and dried grapes. Many of the goods are brought from the far East by caravans of camels and by dog trains. and with roofs thatched with straw or cornstalks. Athens was founded 1556 B. Cities.— Kome. including olives. and oil. according to eleThere are the rich valleys of the Po. The papal palace. or about one-seventh of not able to purchase machinery. all of which glitter in the sunlight. .. butter. mosque of St. 115 That a high state of culture exists in the upper classes is shown by Italian and by the numerous museums and art galleries that form the pride cities. is the greatest source of wealth. is a mile wide. the great fair continues two months. Roumania. Odessa is a wheat port on the Black Sea. and other fruits. gold. Iron. Roumania may be divided aud a lowland region.000. speaking forty distinct languages. horses. Strolling beggars and ragged gypsy children are often seen. The state supports schools in the largest places. Jews. The peasants. oranges. lemons. and straw goods. chief exports are wheat. Petersburg Roumelia. but in most.EUROPE— ITALY— GREECE— TUEKEY— THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. who were once serfs or slaves. The government is an absolute monarchy. The chief wealth of Greece. C. Lumbering and hunting are the chief employments in the vast fertile region of Middle Russia. come from Tuscany. is Even the sultan himself may be the son of a slave mother. and any private citizen may be appointed to fill the highest oflBice. churches. figs. fruits. The churches and house-tops are often painted sky-blue. and. a city from which they are exported. sheep. wine. leather goods. and men travel from all lands to see the works of the "masters of art. All the cereals are raised and also magnificent fruits. — St." is a city of art and artists. j)ainted in gay colors. 120 feet high. — The kingdom On entering Russia. with a legislature elected by universal The state has organized schools of three grades. timber. lemons. called the Czar. Armenians. of many Italy is the great store-house of painting and sculpture. one finds the Tuanners. was one of the great naart. without the aid of pets. — . A. —The half of The land is parceled out in small plots. Western Arabia. race. and woolens. Naples has a beautiful situation on the Bay of Naples. "Golden and domes (Black Mountain) is a small. Cities. He is also the head of the Greek Church. Grazing is carried on more success- The raising of pigs. vegetables.000 spectators. All the cereals. and gypsies. Many of the higher classes are well educated. which includes the greater part of the inhabitants. the slopes and higher valleys of the Apennines.age. hemp. called the Vatican. All the small domestic animals live with the household. besides grand market places and magnifi' Bulgaria. and southern fruits are produced. Montenegro. fallow and the the land surface of the globe. its —The principality of Bulgaria has a government of Agriculture and grazing own. — Montenegro independent principality. are the chief industries. Greeks. The on both sides of which the city is built. a hilly central. which were buried by an eruption of Vesuvius. and civilization. cent public buildings. and especially in stock breeding. The Greeks carry on the chief part of the commerce of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Turkish carand arms are distinguished for excellence. At Nijni Novgorod. leather. dress." some of whom flourished centuries ago. many of live in mud hovels. usually without chimneys. choice perfumery. is little Commerce Horn. and all the trades are pursued in the the partially excavated cities of Herculaueum and Pompeii. — The of the mosques give the city a splendid appearance from the Bosporus. or dark blue with silver stars. Trade is carried on by means of fairs. and cheese. wool. linseed. of into a highland. The The foreign commerce of the country is quite large. flax. and the low plains near the coast. but agriculture receives most attention and on the black lands in the south. The highlands are rich in game. and portions of Northern Africa. and in the vicinity are many antiquities. gilded and silvered over or Every dome has a gilt cross attached to the roof with heavy burnished chains. corals from Naples. with windows but little above the roadway.000 people from all parts of Europe and Asia. together with chestnuts. Sophia is famed for its beauty. In some provinces great progress has been made in agriculture. literature. There is no hereditary nobility. customs. and domes. renowned for freedom. aud marble are the chief mineral products and exports. half the land rest is poorly cultivated.000 subjects. Turkey. and hundreds of churches of every age contain interesting objects. Servia.— Turkey in Europe is but a part of the vast Ottoman Empire. which at last succeeded through the intervention of Great Britain and other powers. and is attended by 250. as the farmers are is Russian Empire includes oneEurope and one-third of Asia. and even the coins different from those of other countries in Europe. Peter's. vation. In many provinces the wealth of the people consists in cattle. and beautiful wrought marbles from Carrara and Lucca. in the great northern forests. and chimes. glass and beads from Venice. a leading industry in the Ural Mountains. There The streets are narrow and filthy. 79. sunk in the ground. The glittering minarets trade In the country. antiquated tools are still used. — Eastern Roumelia forms a part of Bulgaria. from Corinth. The columns of Trajan and Antoninus marble. and submitted to the most degnwling oppression. including hats. Fishing and sponge gathering are carried on along the coast." is in the hands of other nations. in the extensive Millions of hogs are annually exiwrted The villages consist mainly of mud huts. tallow and other cattle products. dwell in small cabins with thatched roofs.Cotton is grown in some parte. but pays tribute to Turkey. and there are noble quays. and the sultan the "Protector of the Faith" as well as the ruler of the state.once called the "Mistress of the World. Many The articles are manufactured for home use. There are The Turks are the dominant. though schools are increasing. timber and minerals scarcely touched by the hand of man. said to be unequaled by any similar school in Europe. Its emperor. and grazing is the great industry of this secThe lowlands form one of the granaries of Europe. green. Its modern machinery. dried and fresh. called the Coliseum. fully. tions of the earth. Education is in a very backward state. and squares. Greece. Piedmont exports silks. with convents. are ignorant. and sheep are seen on the grassy steppes. is said to contain are of pure white Outside of the present city are the ruins of a vast amphitheater. Bees and silk-worms are kept with great success. called currants. D. borax. — Mining is neglected. founded 752 B. The hilly central districts feed countless herds. Slavonians. consists in its southern suffrage. agricultural lands are divided into different regions. which extends over Asia Minor. but not the most nameioos. Agriculture is in a very rude state. streets. citrons. is people are ignorant and lead a Constantinople situated on the beautiful harbor called the rough life. Belgnule contains an academy and a ladies' college. velvets. which fatten on the acorns and walnuts forests. near St. or day laborers. and goats. The number of museums containing collections of art is very great. but the millions. or ancient Greece. rules 88. The products having the greatest commercial value are silk. — Hellas. C. Honey is produced in large quantities. belonging in Russian Europe alone. For nearly 400 years the country was subject to Turkey. to one hundred different peoples. Immense herds of cattle. and mining is whom Three-fourths of the whole population belong to the peasant class. langu. little The people of this kingdom are occupied almost wholly in agriculture.

.

CanThere are no towns that ton. through Siberia. the bleak plateaus of the "Eoof of the World" are almost uninliabited. — How from the Ciispian toward Central Asia. camels. satin. With these exceptions. the learned Chinese are followers of Confucius. a philosopher. and rhubarb of the Celestials are exchanged for metals. Shiraz. Ispahan. European Influence. Asia. Tomsk. silver. The city of Bokhara is famed for its ishing is the number of colleges. and large portions of Persia and Arabia still further south. consists in horses. Physical Features. and is rainfall.ASIA. and Trans Caucasia. too. It is divided into provinces. Thibet. Tobolsk is the point to which Irkutsk. or to the Russian domains. the whole continent is without railroads. winds. mountains. styled "Empress of India. lakes. Three-fourths DESCRIPTION. influence.— Locate and cities. Dromedaries and dogs form the trains. has a foothold in Anam and Cambodia. Shanghai. cotton. China. and much remains to be learned about those countries and peoples whose names we often hear. the "Bear." sovereign of The ivory of fossil elephants is found in large quantities along the shores of the Arctic Ocean and on the island of New Siberia. this vast region is thinly peopled. The smallest. — Name the probable industries of different regions. and great rivers. but vast regions of Asia are without water-ways. silk. The noblest oak and beech clothe the mountains. Tokio. France. Japan. beautiful carpets. is of the inhabitants of Siberia are Eussian exiles and their de- Schools are few. by which the tea. and the latter has many canals. Japan has made a good beginning. Sketch a map describe the countries. Paris. peaches. peninsulas. and Arabia India. inland does Asia lie? seas. Asia Minor and a portion of Arabia are under the "Crescent. EXERCISES. is Climate. Name the largest. and ignorance prevails. The women are forests of the influence of missionaries.— Many of the renowned. to Central Asia. in China. but its people are not and silk are grown. Cities'. Madras. a part of Farther India. Commercial Routes. State how the climate affected by mountains. ocean currents. Their work in shop and field is relieved by a concert of place. famed The for their beauty. ancient cities of Asia. though nominally independent. silk. Religion. their growth to foreign commerce." lying between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea — . and Japan contain nearly one-half of mankind. for and Eussia and give reasons your conclusions. plateaus. ince of Eussia. cattle. is Bokhara." The suburbs contain beautiful gardens watered from the streams. A great trade route extends from China to Russia. at the taverns. The condition of the inhabitants of Asia seems to depend more on climate than on the race to which they belong. There are large portions of the continent but little known to western nations. and have settled and more or less civilized communities. the choicest orchard fruits. capes. "No less astonand saints of all orders. India. General Questions. What countries are peninsulas? beginning with the countries are washed by the include deserts ? Which countries are best watered ? Which countries are most favorably situated for is portion of the continent cross in sailing commerce by sea? What most thickly peopled? What waters will a ship from Shanghai to London? From Calcutta to New York? There is no highway from India to China. voices whose time is measured by the varying movements required by their labor. such as Pekin. The products and exports are belt. deserts. people live by hunting and fishing. and apricots are among the fruits. are occupied by a scanty nomadic population. In the rich river valleys of the south. and other large islands. The women weave the most hides. Asiatic Turkey forms an important part of the Turkish or Ottoman Empire. The British have opened 10. are passionThey sing and play at home. grains. outside of British India. Inhabitants. and Mohammedan religions still prevail." Calcutta. — In what zones slopes. exiles are sent to be distributed over the country. and cutlery fiom Russia. 50. and Farther India men live by agriculture. and Omsk are on the route.000. is but a prov- furs from the great forest and skins from the agricultural and grazing regions in the south. Its bazars and great caravansaries are crowded with goods from Russia and India. Plant Zones. order to produce crops. and is an article of considerable commercial importance. and.000. with cotton. —Asia. its people bowing to emblem.000 of the people of India. Turkey. and public roads. Singapore. cattle. Most of scendants. supposed human its surface. STUDIES. schools. can compare with London. Ceylon. or New York. the great peninsula. and holds treaty rights with Afghanistan and with Beloochistan. Brahminic. melons. Persia. Asiatic Russia consists of Siberia. the latter. iron.000. graveyards.—While Christianity is slowly spreading under Trans Caucasia is a beautiful." the emblem of the sultan of Turkey. grains. whose "meteoric Bombay. and copper from the Ural. — The wealth of the nomad tribes of Turkestan." is The British queen. — We found Europe full of railways. cotton goods. MAP are such as — Locate and describe the coast waters. indicatingr political divisions. contains two-thirds of the scattered evenly over family. REVIEW EXERCISES. and at feasts. Locate important of the continent. and these. Eussian Turkestan. in the market ately fond of music. among which are Asia Minor. Brahminism is professed by 180. who lived in the sixth century before Christ. furs. and Arabia. figs. and trade is carried on by means of caravans. and sheep. living principally on the steppes. Even China and Japan. under Eussian numerous mosques. and the greater portion of Siberia. What Pacific Ocean? By the Indian Ocean? What countries have no sea coast? What countries are partly included in High Asia? Low Asia? What countries largest. including one-third of the continent.000 miles of railway in India. pastoral tribes occupy the heart of the continent between the 60th and 35th parallels. Name lic highways as are seen in Europe. six islands in the order of their size. its Siberia. and grapes. flag flies over all the seas. Much of the land has to be irrigated in The tundras of the north. India and China have navigable riveis. who form the largest portion of the population. there are no such pubis pushing a line many countries in Asia. and fruits are exported over the caravan routes. canals. to be the cradle of the race. under European influence. Turkestan. with people. the Buddhist. Penang. Bagdad. or "Lesser Asia. Vienna. and Hong Kong are examples. flax. gold and precious stones from the Altai ranges. Probable — In what plant zones the continent situated? Industries. and Mohammedanism by Although Buddhism is the state religion of China. to Thibet. The chief cities of to-day 117 Georgians. Russian Turkestan. owe mnch of islands. and Goa have lost their greatness. fertile country. —While Europe is but a peninsula of its vast territory and teeming millions of largely subject to European power. North of the parallel of 60°. the great deserts of Mongolia. have opened their ports to the trade of the world.

cotton. the masses of the people are ignorant. regarded as one of the least inviting regions of the globe. attar of roses from rose gardens. and much of the surface has never been trodden by Arabia is European feet. one sees a motley crowd gathered from the four quarters of the earth. bat there are many Greeks. Cities. a product of tho opium poppy.000 people.— Mecca It is noted as the birthplace of Mohammed. and little encouragement is given to industry. wool. but 20. Jews. and the is in a desert region. It is known to have great deserts of shifting sands with oases here and there. Regular lines of bo the steamers connect it with Liverpool and Marseilles. the city of sacred memories. Lebanon. celebrated for its cedars. M 11 THCPEOPLE EBEI ilrfl l^^l MUEZZIN CAillNG TO PRAYERS. Damascus sword blades are famed for The city stands on a fertile plain clothed with gardens and orchards. The country is badly governed. and in the cities which are centers of the caravan trade. silk. city. The splendid forests and vast mineral resources in the mountains of the north are neglected. making a mixed population and a jargon of tongues.— Jerusalem. and opium.— Damascus claims to their quality. which Asses and camels are tho princiis seldom seen. — Smyrna has a fine harbor and — Beyrout occupies a beautiful situation is a commercial at the foot of Mt. contains city swarms -with pilgrims. and people of other races. and leeches from the pools and streams. place of railways.118 ASIA— TTJRKET— ARABIA. Mr The Turks are the ruling class. Caravans still take the pal beasts of burden. The buffalo is often used to draw the wooden plow and to furnish milk in place of the cow. Agriculture is carried on with the rudest tools. oldest city in the world. goats' hair from the famed Angora goat. The exports include dried figs and raisins from thousands of orchanU and vineyards. . sponges gathered along the coasts.

574. "The red locust. and wherever water can be brought.309 ships. and 15." or potic. who lives at Calcutta. but they are often furnished with beauThe palace of the shah is vast and elegant.000 head of cattle are annually destroyed by wild beasts and venom- — faith. cherry.000. agriculturists. the mals. and instruction. are in every stage of civilization." Blunt. The Brahmins are divided into castes. Herat is on the great caravan route from Western Asia to India. — Muscat a commercial town. The melons of Persia are celebrated for their flavor. at the base of the mountains. The internal trade is carried on by caravans. through the mountains on the east. barley.000. — Persia. warriors. gum arable. The natives are very skillfdl. — "The habitants are Afghans. and vegetables are raised. Castes.000. pear. ass. In the south.000. In the temperate north. Trade goes over the caravan route which leads through Bolan Pass. water." Irrigation is necessary in most places.shot was found to be full of them. and senna have supplied the markets of the world for ages. apricot. Of the total population in 1885. while others have permanent homes in the fertile tracts. generally spoken. it resembles green wheat. oil seeds. The settled inhabitants are mostly descendants of the ancient Persians. Afghanistan. are said to be polite and courteous. The is city.st and near the Caspian is very fertile. Agriculture. Little attention has been paid to education.000 private number of colleges. maize. Education. The itants. and the graceful and most useful bamboo of the south. European grains. Its beautiful gardens and orchards are irrigated by canals. over 16. fine orchards. British India includes the peninsula of Hindustan. and the camel are the domestic ani- The Arabian claims that his Js beautiful steed has descended — This region was for a long time under the from horses kept in the stables of Solomon. governed by their own chiefs.000. a narrow defile 60 miles in length. but the products of the valleys are similar to those of Persia. 119 much less to hold the only mountain passes through which lead the great routes of trade and over which armies can pass. from the most degraded savages to the learned Hindu or cultivated Englishman.000 acres. — The ruler of Persia "King of Kings. In taste. and they are regarded as excellent food. The government pays annually. sheep. cutlery. British India. that are disposed to live by plunder. These great powers are jealous of each other's political influence. the native army. carpets. Horses. The vine is raised for its fruit alone. cotton. dried fruits. The productions are similar to those of Afghanistan. and nearly every animal in the desert devours them. the queen of England assuming title of Empress of India. Locusts should be gathered in the morning when the dew is on their wings. wheat. and the oak of the north to the ebony. fori» the majority. and a hyena I . now mean something very different. and is aided by governors of provinces. To carry on the internal commerce of the country the government has constructed 20.000 miles of navigable water. a hot climate can make them. Legislative councils and courts are also established. and the rose gardens are seen as one passes through the country. The which here rise 20. — It will be seen that Afghanistan lies between the Russian dominions and British India. and one country will not allow the other to gain undue control over the ameer.000 and the native population nearly 257. culture. 2.— "The land of the Beloochees" is ruled. —Nearly 70. Thousands are now employed in the jute. and other races is make up the other half. is is was constituted an empire. They swarm with beasts and reptiles. and apple orchards. Silk is the most important of the exports. and he has since at- Population. but others cultivate the soil in a rude way. sians. sandy waste with few inhabSome of the country in the we. as the Mohammedans drink no wine. but there are many roving tribes. and the island of Ceylon. times that of the United States. commerce are rice. To hold Afghanistan is to hold the key to India. The high mountain regions of the north are is a desert plain. and in 1877 India trade. tea. These four classes are now divided into many others. are nomads wandering over the plains. foreign The rivers afford 10. the vineyards. from the pine.150 miles of canal have been cess. which is. by his people a "ShahHis government is very descalled The sovereign is represented by a viceroy and governor general. The forests yield many varieties of timber. Coffee is indigenous. some of whom rove with their flocks over the scanty pastures. but some of the old industries are dying out. and. About one-half of the in- who are warlike in disposition. but some years ago the shah visited European countries. and the most delicate muslins and the finest shawls are woven by hand. in 1857.000 were unable to read or write. the staples of food and betel nuts. Horses thrive on them.000 square miles. — The total British-born population is about 153. Our dogs caught and ate them greedily. the female. The fig grows wild. cinchona. or five The inhabitants. about $12.000 miles of canal. balsam.000 feet city is surrounded by a mud wall. Teheran stands above the sea.000 miles of macadamized road. and there are mosques tiful carpets. cotton. camels. mules. and include four different riices. having a very delitate vegetable flavor. The exports are wool. Old looms art still seen. and The coffee plant. Government. I believe. — There are 109. The divisions.000 for public education. with a total area of 1. — The and eastern part of the kingdom is a saline. and goats are reared on highland slopes and in mountain valleys. besides a large schools for special in one way or another. nomby a khan. a despotic ruler called the Ameer. who were among the earliest civilized people. . tempted to establish a system of schools and other public improvements. schools. Priests. and plants producing frankincense. supplying the chief food of the inhabitants.000 are steamers which pass the Suez Canal. said to valleys about it contain have been founded by Alex- Commerce. have been introduced and cultivated with To irrigate the land 16. opium.000 common and 26. or wanderers. Jews." is in-Shah. brocades. The nomads.400 feet above the — Candahar a fortified is sea. The Persian language ple are of the Moslem The west cold Cities. and armies of British and native troops are maintained. Cities. The Persians have a ready wit and pleasant manner. are grown. land of the Afghans" is governed by Per- from Australia. The four oi iginal castes include: 1. and 20. There are no forests. and vegetable oil. traders.000. the it passed to the Crown. and bazars that look well. and a kind of grain called durra. Indigo. The commerce employs 5. who is under British influence. leather. and should be plain boiled. The mulberry and olive plantations. and the eucalyptus succut. — ander the Great. indigo. scattered over 300 provinces and averaging 184 persons to the square mile. southern slopes of the Elburz Mountains are "as beautiful as wood. Locusts abound. the peach. The manufactures are silks. watering 7. and the people pay as much more. and almond flourish. Wheat of fine quality is raised in tlie highlands. Arabia is inhabited by scattered tribes. Arabs. inally. which originally depended on color. Many ous snakes. The Mohammedans recognize no castes. the teak. myrrh. but 130 varieties of the date palm grow in the oases. cedar." but after the mutiny of — Aden a coaling station for British steamers engaged in the East It stands on a bare rock. citizens. whether they belong to city or country. 4. and one of the most unhealthy places on the globe. 3. is the best eating. and the peach.000 miles of railway. and most of the peo- Forests. and sugar manufactories. — Cabul 6. Beloochistan. and barren. menials. and many of the houses are low and built of the same material. rice and maize in the valleys. over 200. of which over 1. jute. plants thrive in the most wonderful manner. control of the "East India Company. Those belonging to one class do not associate with people belonging to another.000 people are engaged in agrifruits. universities. A camel will occasionally munch them in with its pasture. a part of Farther India.ASIA— PEESIA— AFGHANISTAN— BEITISH INDIA. — Horses. and attar of roses.000 men and 50.

of their subjects. fish. and the primeval those of the moist climate of the peninsula is favorable to vegetable growth forests whioh cover a large part of the surface almost equal in luxuriance. fruit of and tropical many varieties. ligion. all governed by despotic rulers. national system of education has been established and all male youth are obliged to be taught by the priests.000. It includes Burmah. some of whom have power over the property.000 live in China alone. indigo. temples. In the west and northwest provinces are many followers of Mohammed. and several smaller kingdoms to the south. Rice fields. Bombay has an extensive trade by way of — the Suez Csinal. Inhabitants. Education. of the most densely peopled countries of the world.000. coffee. It has many godas. — The population is estimated at 404. ginger. and great expense and is regarded as the head of the and of the A family. and travelers follow the navigable The elephant is used as a beast of burden. Mon- and in the south to the Malay race. and even the lives.'s. 100 miles from the sea. pepper. the world.000. cinuamon. Slam. Farther India. Farther India is without European roads. in the north belong to the The inhabitants golian. of religion. Cities. The other Most of the people have adopted the Buddhist faith. with forms the chief food of the people." as it has been of the least called. is is a commercial city. Someofthevillages and cities are composed of mud houses thatched with straw. cane. cloves. The hill tribes are nature worshipers. Though most of the people aie engaged in agriculture. mos(iues. of which about 383. The white elephant is regarded as a sacred beast.000 to 870. The king's palace is adorned with gold and precious stones. and other edifices. and they often devote their lives to — . The houses of the common people are made of the bamboo and thatched with palm leaves.120 ASIA— FAETHER INDIA— THE CHINESE EMPIEE. is one known regions of Asia. Many of the people are savages. It is — strongly fortified and is a great commercial city. This la one of the most densely populated portions of the globe. is the great 8tai)le. The valleys of the rivers are covered with rice cultivated plants are cotton. temples. lavished on the shrines and temples. which is the state rebut the learned classes study and follow the moral precepts of the philosophers CJonfncius and Laotse. tobacco. or the "Golden Peninsula. state. China is one Nearly all Amazon the inhabitants belong to the Mongolian race. Calcutta is on the Hoogly. The hot. others have fine dwellings. Bangkok many The Chinese Empire tries of ranks third among the great counpossesses unlimited authority. and. Anam. The lettered classes alone are familiar with literature. education has received such wide attention that few adults can be found who are unable to read and write. The emperor The Burmese profess the Buddhist religion. In China proper. anil sixty cities with a population ranging from 50. but a large portion cultivate the soil and are skillful workmen in their way.000each. rivers. there are nearly a hall' million rural villages. The best dwellings are raised on piles. but of the inhabitants live in floating houses. and pa- The European part of th(> town contaius palatial residences and public buildiiij.

strolling There are many theaugglers. ita stndy.000 imperial roads. Corea produces the plants of the Warm Temperate Zone in great abundance.000. The Japanese bed consists of a capacious fireworks are lavorite amusements.^ — Though the much people belong to the Mongolian race and customs from their Chinese neighbors.000 inhabitants. and the work is done with great skill. and carved ivory. woolens. The Cashmere goat. thick wall. and is put ference of twenty feet. They are. No other country in Asia is making such rapid progress in what is called western civilization. Ningpo. its trunk reaching a circumThe bamboo grows very rapidly in thickets. Besides these. every grade of civilization may be found. and moats. screens. Empire of Japan. with wheat. 10. Frames of houses. and a college for the study of European languages. and tea. makes the most beautiful shawls. is found passes. nankeens. but there are 20. the 121st patches of vegetables. and manufactured goods are the chief exports. mulberry trees. Another miles. Canton has 1.000 feet. style of buildings. The Chief Wealth. is It consists of an outer do- or a Chinese quarter. — Tokio. and thrives at an altitude of value. the national beverage and the great article of export. and whole families squat on the floor to see the plays. Cities. It is a town of and precious stones." are now open to the ships of all nations. and successful students are appointed to high offices under the government. fruit trees. and Tientsin 950.000. The coal fields of China are so vast that they promise. its exports are tea and silks. containing anthracite equal in quality to that of Pennsylvania. has a grand harbor. C. In those provinces of the empire where the population is scattered. The ox. and one sees acrobats. horse. which began 660 B. The room for wild plants. Nearly all the manufacturing is performed by hand. Raw silk is another source of national wealth. growing under the outer covering. steel. and the sheep. In all cities j players. All contain temples. and fish. the precious metals. embroidery. once closed.600.000. many of California. silk. the staple food of Three plants are of great importance. chemistry. physiology. hundreds of millions. Scientific works have been translated for the use of all classes. and Amoy are the chief ports open to foreign commerce. styled "The Mikado. and poultry are kept. narrow streets. railways have been built. some day. is its Shi-ko-ku. Opium. they differ in language Its ports. rice.850 islets and the four large Hondo.000 Its chief — inhabitants. With its ing a burden of twenty to thirty pounds over the highest shrines. and. the port of Tokio. pop- iu his line. tables. but in There are some forests. natural history. the horse.000. Mats and quilting take the place of chairs. vegetables. and an inner quarter. millet. and Thibet the chief wealth consists in cattle. The high mountainous districts in the western part of the empire have great mineral wealth. and caravan routes leading to distant parts of the empire.000 the provinces.000 square has an field. and their profusely illustrated books. as it is a great source of wealth. gardens. and other sciences has been established. In Manchooria rhubarb and ginseng are two plants of great commercial The former grows from 8 to 10 feet high. foreigners. towers. land clothed with forests. For centuries silk culture has heen a great industry. The Chinese excel in the manufacture of silk. The Eice. — The islands of Yes-so. renewed every night. and bedsteads. Business men live in the outer city. formerly called Yeddo. the latter carry- the "Temple of Heaven. pipes." They manure heavily. to almost endless uses. and clowns performing in the streets. salt. a quarter is set off for sports." consists of 3. and cottons are the leading imports. Yearly examinations for literary degrees are held at the capitals of Candidates for the highest honors are examined at Pekin. pies. imports. recent growth. glass. the capital. once excluded. Agriculture. and Kiu-shiu. The camphor tree is the most remarkable growth of the forest. paper. HIS WIFE. courts. and much of the is carried on with the greatest skill. there is little education. cotton. and their "spade husbandry turns the country into a beautifully kept garden in which one might hunt vainly for a weed. . and all classes of men are equal before the law. The 22 cities.000. woolens and cottons. and the finest of crops are raised. chinaware. but agriculture CHINESE MANDARIN. as in India." He is a hereditary monarch. Great improvements have recently heen made in the system of education. ground is so occupied that there is little and the tea plant. — The country has only two railways. The Thibetans have — Pekin is surrounded by a high. but situated in ten different provinces and known as "Treaty Ports. mats. of the inhabitants are nomads. and rickety houses in large numbers. Minerals. wadded garment with sleeves into which the sleeper creeps and then draws a The pillow consists of a wooden box eight inches long on coverlet over him. is still — The soil is not very fertile. Even the Buddhist and other religions are losing their hold on the intelligent classes. forms the staple food. sheep. coal. Labor is abundant. The ruler districts little is seen except carefully cultivated rice. which is laid a paper cushion. Kite flying and ters. dog. the inner quarter contains government ofiices and pleasure grounds. but domestic animals are very scarce. or "Land of the Eising Sun. postal and telegraph lines have been established. is and about 10. saUs of junks. in Thibet. or nomadic. The towns are nearly alike in and upwards. in which the imperial palace and mesticated the yak. has nearly —Yokohama. — In Many Turkestan. with projecting roofs and very large rooms. Commerce.000 square miles. including iron. Manufactures. and a steam navy to protect her coasts and maintain her rights on the ocean. and paper wares. and turn everything to account. Pekin 1. AND SERVANT. the bamboo. Empire of Japan. are now open to the commerce of all nations. understand the rotation of crops. yielding material for the construction of houses and furniture. Cities.000. its greatest source of wealth.000 square miles less than that population is nearly 38. and goats. whose soft down. China has steam merchant vessels that run to San Francisco and other American seaports. to be. and walking sticks are among the articles made of the bamboo. area of 16. the bamboo. 121 China has over fifty cities each with a population of 100. silks. The silk-worm is by far the most valuable animal. horses. Mongolia. —The Japanese are renowned for their manTheir paintings ufacture of bronze." which the emperor visits once a year. CHILD. fields cover an area larger than Minnesota by 20. on paper and interesting. Tea. The total area of the emjiire China proper has a rich vegetation. sugar-cane. are very 1. many canals. cat. next In one province alone the coal to agriculture. lacquer. and modern ideas are taking their place. ports of China were formerly closed to the commerce of the world. several large navigable rivers. mulberry and tea plantations cover large tracts in the south. the temple measures two miles around. are now welcome. Canton. Shanghai.ASIA— THE CHINESE EMPIEE— BMPIEE OF JAPAN. People. A thorough system of public schools has been provided. and the educated are desired among them. The houses of all classes are mostly one story.

carpets. wandering from one oasis to another with their sheep. belong mainly to the The Berbers. Climate. Stanley. It is nominally a state yearly tribujie to the sultan. and Jews. and none to compare with the splendid cities of other continents. and goats are seen along the fertile valley of the Lower Nile. No other continent has so little trade with the outside world. is Africa situated ? General Questions. and some other plants. and often waging cruel wars with weaker tribes for the purpose of obtaining nent south of the Great Desert. The whole city with its 350. lakes. Other tribes are savage. and horses. Plant Zones. — In what zones does the continent lie? — In what plant zones — How many map? State how the climate is affected by mountains. manufacturing a few articles with considerable skill. Grant. Copts. REVIEW EXERCISES. The great travelers. the ancient nations. prevailing winds. Physical Features. are still found along the Nile. the influ- The people sinia. The Nile. their supplies in goat skins. rain begins to fall in some places. Germans. Italians. but their influence is still little felt in the interior. thousands of trees have been planted. Burton. and without gables or carried on over caravan routes stretching across vast deserts and plains. tant countries. European trading settlements have been established here and there along the coast. or even highways. The manners. gums. slaves or other plunder. A few Copts. The Arabs of the desert are nomadic. Greeks. rice fields. statues. and rainfall. of the Ottoman Empire.. and having some trade.000 miles of railway have been built. but they are still Caucasian race. and wax. customs. but it much to extend our knowledge of we still know less of negroes occupy almost the entire conti- than of any other continent. the caravan routes. but is really nearly independent under the rule of a hereditary viceroy. Abys- ence of the khedive being Equator. — Egypt was the seat of one of the most renowned of shown by the remains of magand sepulchers. descendants of the ancient Egyptians. elementary and higher which foreign languages are taught. 122 receives its water from the Nile. numerous. cultivating the soil in a rude way. negroes. ostrich feathers. countries are represented on the Which is the largest? What states lie on the Mediterranean? On the Red Sea? On the Indian Ocean? On the Atlantic ? Wliat countries have no sea coast? What states are situated on the Nile? On the Congo? On the Niger? On the Zambesi EXERCISES. goats. There are but few large towns. pyramids. have been established and are supported by the government. where they dwell in the depending on the date palm. improved tools and methods of tillage are being introduced. raising cattle. Its chief imports are cotton goods from England." They are vrithout schools. in felt from the Mediterranean to the Egypt. Barth. cities. and the railroads are arteries of trade. ocean currents. Livingstone. Speke. English. including the Sahara. living by hunting. pasture lands with cattle. and religions of all nations are brought together. Cairo. were conquered by the Arabs several centuries ago. sheep. — The vast body of the continent its is without rail- ways. and palm matting. edge of the outside world. and there is a baltel of tongues. —The Egypt. asses. The exports are ivory. camels. Millions of its people dwell Africa has been called the "Dark Continent. a sea of houses over which rises the tapering minarets and cupolas of 400 mosques. borne on their own shoulders or on backs of donkeys. Inhabitants. and internal commerce is chiefly with flat terraces instead of sloping roofs. some peaceful. STUDIES." The houses are all raised above the level of the ground. oases. It is the most powerful and progressive state in Africa. Turks. They are from one to three stories high. The chief manufactures are pottery. Cities. -Locate and describe the principal countries. window frames.AFRICA. paying a is There are many tribes. Cameron. called the Khedive. and the Barbary States. particularly in the desert. the Arabs call the "Queen of the Nile Valley. or on such roots or fruits as grow without cultivation. of Northern Africa. Strange costumes are worn. obelisks. More than 1. and others have done Africa. and have no knowlin huts built of mud or sticks. Sketch maps of the imporLocate chief DESCRIPTION. owing to their influence. schools. firearms. French. In the streets of the cities one sees Arabs. green seas of com. islands. Baker.000 inhabitants Water carriers are very numerous and take . and great rivers.Khartoum is a great center of the caravan trade with Central Africa. and. whose glory nificent temples. — Commerce. White cotton fields. Alexandria is the chief seaport. the Suez Canal. The Arabs possess the Nile Valley and most of the countries along the northern coast. mountains. MAP —Locate and describe the coast waters. or natives of the country. Syrians. deserts.

0olSbej. .^El Fasllor\ 01 .siW?.1 cooW.^^.-BA6H'hiMl'. ^ .30 Longitude 20 "West from 10 Grcenwicll 10 Xongituae East from sy Greenwich 40 R A N C E^ ^l^C /i^ JC „ S V A 1 N i ns- ^ SEIIUL o Is.i ? Zanzibar oAscenaioal. '.rtf^S''' O B ^ ^ JJewbong'ilSx D TIntellusfcQ -v-Taoo-y 'Jv '^7 K A .^ TROPIC OF CAPBlbORN ^ i.___e o Taufleny /„s. tr L F ST.^:. A R "iflma ^' .y '^ -..v^-v *i£ Is.ajTuiS' \. gcaJeofmieB ^.g||at\ iM>^|^AQUA! EXnliaiubaiie 'C. ' /.Mount'^ .. . S!>ckua . ^ az. THOMAS O GaboonUX -^^ C-Lopezt^ E/ u Tool' Eeopolfl "V".O-^ ^ ^v ' ''' .'V.0 GanaijeM lera© ""^ v^ tr (? d-" FERNANDO P)^ c^^ 7- ^'o PRINCE'S ' I.t__h.'*!':i^„. 8t. •" Inshalah "^t ».\ Moti^^ourlc® yy / jKplei ..^'^ 0.^^«^- A S B E W >»\ SuSAjni^.m ^"'^./j '"tjsmiila 1 ^ C.. ^ \x 7'^a. Corrientea ly POLITICAL MAP OP Hope town Colesbei-g* AFRICA 0* "I ^^.--J).C^tT. >«s^^:?»:'S '•v^. A S E . /'O - ^^ 'j^_ _^_ 7.. . Bourboal. s. ? j : : ^ '>.O EldjTjeia \ IS n \ ©ft? '.Heleiia<» I ^ Frio { Poi-t IiOulsMaur. LEONE FREE TOWfj SHUtBORO IS.' .^'^ Sliiah'' •. Paul d Loaada I nS — -#l#f J jnbrizette p Ambrizb KovQ ^Roaondo^ I enguela/C ^ Vpt St. My z ?Bong4o> . ^\ rag./ T^ralmun Tlralmun.iaoiiom.<='^.<: I ! .o.)nzi8AR.. «<= ^^--^^ ruNis r -^ ^° c^^-l ^i S A/..^fr:v ^ ."^ y TROPIC OF CANOCR GREAT oMabrool^ W. B A R C A y7 ' .p.

Whatcloesthe plow-"'-^. The most northern gave out sounds wlien the rays of the rising . 1400. stuid 0* amidst the ruins of eight'ecu others on the west hank of the Nile. s\ii)jKwed to be salutations of Memnon to his motliAurora. statues. These strange sounds were heird coming from the pedesttil of the statue as late Give an account of the Pyramids and the Sphinx. ing scene show as to the state of agriculture? Is elephant hunting a common ^-^ff '^^AYA rJ/^TIVt.sun fell upon it. — %d Su 124 . the gnu hunter chosen ? „er. as 1821.The two lossi of . The name "Memnon " was associ.C. the Co- Memnon.it< with thera B. sport la Central Africa? What disguise has.

Algeria. pure brown. making the climate more healthful and the wastes productive. Henry M. Siena Leone was purchased by Great Britain in 1787 as a home for negroes taken from slave ships. Eastern Africa. classes live in idleness — reeking with districts Cattle breeding is a favorite industry. who live in . Slavery exists in all the countries. Under a treaty of the Western Powers. and have drawn much of the trade that formerly took the ants. The trade is in the hands of Arabs and Hindus. and mosques are seen in many of the towns. Some raise millet. where the herbage is dry and stunted. with no very definite northern or southern boundary. VILLAGE IN CENTRAL SOUTHER. diamonds. The Barbary — The — Somauli Land is in possession of the Arabs. oil. The chief towns are cenSteamers ply on the Lower Niger ters of the caravan trade. returned in exchange. gold dust. and the work was vigorously pushed along the Congo and its tributaries. Senegal and Gambia. Mozambique is the seat of the Portuguese power. and tortoise shells are among the exports. — Soudan is the general name for a broad belt of country. and went routes of the desert. manly race. The Orange Free State. whose chairman the king of Belgium.000 inhabitMost of the dwellings are round mud huts with conical roofs. have regular governments. very unhealthy. and ostrich feathers to the Enrojjeans to exchange for cotton goods. gum copal. the whole Congo region is open to the trade of all nations. Natal. — Since the French took possession of their provinces they have drained large marshes and lakes and dug artesian wells on the borders of the deserts. the "Land oil. some of them tilling the soil. Senegambia comprises many small states ruled by native chiefs. woven in hand looms. European goods are forward under the direction of the great African explorer. there are nomads with their herds. a province of France. tallow. diversified." The chief manufactures are morocco. or states. and cheaper huts of matting are occasionally seen. is ruled by an Arab sultan. and have ancient Ethiopians. wine. Grain and olives are cultivated in the north. but square clay houses with thatched roofs. Spanish. governed by a sultan. Canary. Most poultry. and support a settled population. who lead a pastoral life. They bring their palm oil. who till the soil. Ivory. depending on differences in elevation. gums. Paganism is the religion of the savage tribes. hides. Guinea is a name applied to a large part of the coast. The chief exports of gold. Other tribes are. The products are cotton. and consists of many kingdoms. There are vast regions of Africa stiU unexplored and without a name. raising grains and fruits. In other parts. inhabited by different tribes. of the oases. who lives on the island of Zanzibar. States. ' the coast from the Gulf of Barbary States are Tripoli. oil. others rude savages. Cape Colony. and in the south is Beled-el-Jerid. in the south. the Wann Temperate. and and yams. beer. — — raising ostriches for their feath- lics There are many towns. and feathers are important exports. twenty-two settlements were established. black. The government is a monarchy. beads. — This section includes the countries along Aden to Zulu Land. of Dates. Madeira. and Azores are groups of volcanic islands with tropical vegetation. shea butter. The diamond mines of Griqualand The Congo Free Association in 1877. — Abyssinia consists of several petty states ruled of the inhabitants are descendants of the mud huts. most of them governed by native kings. in the center. nearly learned weaving and other simple arts. The country is rich in coffee and fragrant gums. Zanguebar. Western Africa. dustries in all this section. Though there are three belts of climate and vegetation. South African Colonies and States. and a military system. The desert is crossed by caravans. ivory. and Morocco. and the South African Republic are republics inhabited by Dutch farmers called Boers. in the north. rice. gum.N AFBICA. and Portuguese have trading settlements along the coast from Cape Verde to Orange Elver. Mohammedan schools have been established. brass. is almost white. Gold dust. and other spirits are prohibited by the Koran. the former a well-formed. with ostrich feathers. the French. extending across the continent from the Atlantic coast to Abyssinia. guns. The country is thickly peopled by dark tribes. The Cape Verde. are very productive. Seventy-nine treaties were made with native chiefs. Some of the countries. The wealthy and their dwellings are miserable huts filth. and cloves are among the exports. especially in the east. The Sahara. especially in Central Soudan. the scientific exby the International African intrusted to an executive The work was is committee. peanuts. and are rich in minerals. the true home of the negro races. and tropical fruits. to which the pasturage of the hillyand the lowlands of the south is well suited. It takes its name from its chief rivers. dates. sugar-cane. "It is About one-third of the population of the English provinces consists of The natives are Kaffirs and Hottentots. knives. and most of their wealth by a king. Soudan are palm and gum arable. but subject to Great Britain." As a whole. especially in the equatorial regions. Stanley. virtually governed by France. olive indigo. less civilized. honey. Their craftsmen work in iron. and grain are the leading exports. sugar-cane. These. 125 consists in cattle. — Some are fertile. and some are still in a barbarous state. Soudan. sugar-cane.AFRICA— ABYSSi:^! A— THE SAHAEA— MADAGASCAR. rice. Sheep and cattle raising are great inEuropeans. sheep and goats are reared in the mountain districts. The Mohammedan religion prevails in the most civilized sections. The republic of Liberia was founded as a home for slaves liberated in the United States. some of which have 50. "the land of the blacks. cocoanuts. State is ploration of which was begun a vast region. Ostrich farming ers is receiving much attention. courts. and the plants of the Torrid. an independent Mohammedan state. very fertile. tillage is limited to the growing of cereals and cotton. Guinea. Madagascar is inhabited by Malays. and salt. The oases are the resting places. and copper. sometimes numbering thousands of camels. and the climate. The inhabitants are principally negroes. and is carried on in the rudest way. a province of Turkey. wool. convened in Berlin in 1884. and fruits are cultivated. Their prevailing color. ivory. Abyssinia. coffee. ostrich feathers. — Though the coast belt is intensely hot. and liquors. and thickly peopled. Zulu Land and Kaffraria are native states governed by chiefs. sheep. spices. and the Temperate Zones may be raised. Wool. whose wealth is in cattle. Cotton. The Dutch repubare fine agricultural regions. The distance between them requires a journey of eiglit or ten days. especially in the north. and from two to three months are usually spent in going from Central Africa to the Barbary States. copper. English. Tunis. The people of the towns are shrewd traders. The people till the soil and manufacture many varieties of cloth. Wine. and Griqualand are provinces of Great Britain. the region is well watered.

.

Celebes. Mention some of EXERCISES. and wear scanty clothing. Sumatra. who form the bulk of the native popxilation. The native inhabitants may be divided into two great classes the savage and the semi-civilized. of Micronesia.i From north to south? Wliat is the distance straight line from east to west? from Australia to New Zealand? To the Sandwich Islands? From the Sandwich Islands to the Philippine Islands? What is the length of New Guinea? Of Sumatra? Mention the chief islands of Australasia. and New Guinea. and use many tools and weapons. DESCRIPTION." Micronesia. Borneo. divisions of Australia. a term used to denote the world of islands. the sixth reat division of the globe. weave cotton and other fabrics. Of Malaysia. They wear clothing. which signifies "Southern Asia. the the lowest of the in the cities human family. who rank among by many European colonists. describe the coast waters. and Papuan Ifegroes. but they build houses. ' General Questions. no regular goTemment or religion. rivers. make pottery and canoes. The savages have no writing. Oceania peopled chiefly by three races. many islands. all Malaysia V the richest of the great island groups of the earth.000 miles from east to west and Oceania is 5. the groups of Polynesia. stretching nearly 9. including Java. its rivaling Brazil in the number and variety of vegetable products. and a religion. till the ground. MAP drawn on a large or a small scale? STUDIES. Australasia. meaning is small islands. of the population The Chinese-Mongolians form an important portion and is villages of Malaysia.It may be considered Ma- in four divisions: so the named from Malays. regular governments. some of whom are partly civilized. and Polynesia. New Zealand. and locate chief towns. the Moluccas. — In what ocean are these islands situated Is the map "What is the distance across Australia in . and even work in iron. Other Malayan tribes have written languages.000 from north to south. ' 127 . OCEANIA.—Locate and lakes. the Malays. mountains. Java. ^Nearly all the groups south of the Philippines. Sketch Australia.

and spices are exported. rice. and fanned by balmy airs. which they ornament with bamboo combs. all the islands of Australasia are about one-half greater the size of the United States. parks.000. sometimes 100 feet long. lizards. and gold. and a neat petticoat . — The Australia. horses. Its productions are Sugar. tin. coffee. and weapons of Australia. tea. is a fine city and the center of trade. and they make fish- nets.000." The women of the most civilized tribes weave cloths of the fibers of the banana and A single dress of pifia has been pineapple. number 1. or feathers The face. They form a territory more than four times as large as California. coal. The natives have been converted to Christianity. fruits. The has a fine climate. and New Guinea. bark cloth thin as the finest paper. —Polynesia includes several archiThe inhabitants are and by some writers pelagoes. at Botany Bay. their habits. Cups. They are sooty in color. and cordage. Copper. was over and coal are extensively mined. The gold the world. tion is nearly 4. fields of and parts of Borneo and Sumatra. ^^^ \ i \ pine of very fine Zealand and flexible. wool.000 sheep feed on its pastures.-—The island-continent is about as large as the United States without Alaska. bowls. blue. The leading exports are wool. are marvels of ingenuity. S. The products are sugar. It is divided into several provinces. while the woodlands and gardens are beautilul with the dazzling hues of their blossoms and fruits. — Polynesia.128 OCEANIA— AUSTEAL ASIA— POLYNESIA— MICRONESIA. fish. a penal settlement. Little clothing breast are sometin>es tatooed. plates. and plumes. They make the most delicate mats. and the colonies own a number of sailing vessels. known to bring $1. The govern- The Sandwich uninhabitable. camphor. by Tasman. are regarded as distinct from the Malays. and their manufactures are very beautiful. Iheir houses are oval.000. of leaves for the women. and the vineyards yield large quantities of wine. Cities Melbourne and Sydney are large . Australia are the most important in The yield of its gold mines in 1885 tin. with a few smaller groups. Papua. Over 66. wheat. Wheat and other grains are extensively grown. and gardens. belong to the Netherlands and constitute the Dutch East Indies. The first colony was established in 1788.000. and bottles are made of wood and cocoanut shells. who are trying to improve The Dutch claim the savage natives. native inhabitants belong to the lowest type of mankind. and two Houses of Parliament elected by the people. indigo. — cities. . sticks. and sunny waters" of the Pacific. flax. manilla hemp. The present population is 2. and wool is the great agricultural product. Manilla is the great emporium of trade. ranking next to the British Indies in extent and in trade.000. The greater portion of the island is The Friendly Islanders are described as follows: "They are cleanly in Though without metals. thins the inhabitants. and coffee. Wallace. and named They for Philip II. and fcvsteful wood and tortoise-shell carvings. The Philippines were discovered by Magellan in 1521. unglazed ]K)ttery.000. Nose and ears are also adorned with bones.. and have a population of 22. clouds of locusts come to devour. of the Equator the ocean is studded Micronesia —North with countless small islands. pepper. coffee.000. and mother-of-pearl are exported.500.s Zealand together. tools stone and shell. The is roots. and timber.300. New i. large portions of the island. is a monarchy. bits of bone. arms. and is well adapted to grazing It Its and agriculture. Tasmania was discovered in 1642. with many fine public buildings. . "Half concealed by cocoanut palms lie the towns and villages.200 islands. Railroads and telegraph lines connect the chief cities. with central pillars and ratters to support the thatched roof. Magnificent lines of steamers keep up regular communication with large Europe and America. and have many schools and churches. and ornamented with graceful patterns in various colors. The only European inhabitants are missionaries. beautifully carved. cinnamon. far superior to the natives of Australasia. and have a taste for neatness and order. and thrust through them. its capital. and insects. But even here lurks the serpent with its fang. Cotton and silks are also woven. amidst the vivid green of the rice fields and sugar plantations. and New is highly valued for ship building. $83. Cattle. in ment taro. Australasia. Gold. more than one-third of which is in Victoria and one-fifth in Melbourne and Sydney. each under a governor appointed by the English Crown. have curly hair. to which country they still belong. first four principal islands of this division are similar to those of Australia. and the frightful pestilence A. rice.000. An ocean telegraph cable extends to Europe by way of Java and India. diamonds. and Batavia. wooden ))Owls. and pigs are raised immense numbers. exports are worn. Islands. the most important group. The popula- than New England. New Zealand. a Dutch navigator. of Spain. some rivaling the finest Indian muslin. TTismania. The looms used are very rude in construction. Java is the most populous and important of the islands. and salt are abundant. and they live in rude huts or holes in the ground and subsist on is gold. shell fish-hooks. and are among the most beautiful on the globe. are washed by the "soft. On some of the islands the natives are more advanced. The Taken three are provinces of Great Britain. or New Guinea. and a root much used for food. "Their canoes. The clothing consists of the ordmary bandage for the men.

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0 29. 1887.10 3. 18. 5. Danut>e.25 2. Sketch ten Important islands.9 2.0 13 58.0 2. What For their furs? Iron mines? Coal countries are noted for their fisheries? mines? Saltmines? Oil wells? Silver mines? Goldmines? Diamond mines? What countries take the lead in the manufacture of cotton goods? Woolen goods? Iron goods? Fancy goods? Carpets? In foreign tnwle ? States and Canada. EXERCISES.664 2.000 Sq.124 1.000 9. 8.80 .21.160. and chief centers of trade.000 21. and give a general idea of the habits. British Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela Total for South America 76 21 Ganges Indus . education.000 square miles of territory 9 countries depend largely on caravans? On river and lake routes? Every important country is to be represented in a "World's Fair.000 1.0 7.000 Sq.600 2.833 AFRICA.0 13.08 .000 Turkey Total for Europe 537 120. the chief absolute monarchies.800 2. Sketch the most important countries of Europe of Asia. state what products each country will be likely to contribute.120 1. Norway Portugal 976 948 89 29 51 128.. of manufactories —whatever will best represent each country. and what Point out the regions where most of the inhabitants are what food they What five countries of the mines.376 0.0 25.600 1..000 714.000 263 102 10.000 195. nomads.024 241 6. Miles per 1.0 Barbadoes 26 10.741 4.8 7.0 111. coffee.773 1.0 42.000 1.744 ASIA.300 1.6 93. EUROPE. For area and population of United States see page 91. Name.000 130 . Nile AUSTRALASIA. South America.90 . inhabitants are savages.0 4. spice. 1. Length in Miles..5 0.000 900.0 7. page '62.0 242. 141 4. Reunion Senegambia..000 400.850 2. NORTH AMERICA. 15 21.010.000 Algeria Cape Colony and Natal Egypt. Niger. of the waters. sugar. 4.0 30.100 1. 19. With the map before you. Length in Miles.16 1. 1885-1886.500 1.i7 16. monarchies. and locate the chief cities of both hemispheres on the belts formed by these lines. Miles of Territory. Name.000 Sq..060 7.800 1. 327 6. 6. sketch the United MISCELLANEOUS TABLES. Length. dwellings. silk. Countries. Name the chief limited countries that have a republican form of government.. Miles per 1.275. (The contributions should include products of agriculture. Length. Zambesi Congo.0 5.. cotton. and trace a route over which they may be sent. Area of Basin. What two parallels include the largest number of cities? Mention ten large cities in the order of their population. Miles per 1. and religion of the people.000 800.601 3.8 Guatemala Honduras Jamaica Martinique Mexico Nicaragua Salvador Trinidad United States Total for North America 176 937 19 72 69 94 121 3. Countries.307 1. Amazon. in wool growing. Length in Miles.250. AND COMPILED FROM STATESMAN'S YEAR BOOK. AREA OF RIVER BASINS.000 3. Miles of Territory.400 3. Length. Mauritius 1. world have the most extensive territory? Name the six most densely populated countries.000 Sq.000 23.169 Germany Great Britain Greece Italv & Ireland. Name two countries which together Name all the contain three-sevenths of the total population of the globe..) How many great cities of the world are north of the parallel on which London is situated? Draw four lines to represent the parallels 30°.8 1 8 4. What countries are famed for their institutions of learning? Where are the finest cities? The most extensive libraries. Countries. order of their civilization. Countries.W Lena Amoor Hoang-ho Brahmapootra.000 250.0 3. Asia Minor Asiatic Russia British India . 45 1. Miles of Territory.60 . in commerce.000 4. Obi Yenisei Yang-tse-kiang Length in Miles.— From memory. Austria-Hungary Belgium Bulgaria 13.957 2. and works of art? What countries provide schools for all the ijeople.4 6.000 130..002 Me-Kong Euphrates 1.0 117. Name. how their dwell- weapons are used..650 2.0 22. 50°. La Plata Orinoco.. Length. Area of Basin.550 2. United States.242. Tunis Total for above countries 92 78 329 256 4. One pupil may work up Asia. liength of principal rivers.000 170.971 2.051 26.421 2. Countries. 819 19. What ten countries have the most miles of railway ? What country has as many miles of railway as all of the other countries of the world together? What countries have the most miles of railroad to the 1.9. Area of Basin..5 EUROPE. Name them in the Point out those regions of the globe where the how the eat. Miles per 1. Comparative height of principal RAILWAYS OPEN IN THE PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD. what ornaments are worn.0 Cuba Guadeloupe.9 . in mining.300 1.0 8. of people are clothed .000 800. and ings are constructed. Area of Basin. Miles per 1 . tobacco.320 2.0 159.280 6.0 8.S69 616 12. Length in Miles.500 1. Miles per 1.. Miles of Territory.6 26..621 3. LENGTH OF PRINCIPAL RIVERS.300 1. Name.000 2. AFRICA. page mountains of the globe.414 1.50." at New York.6 Canada Costa Rica 268 1. Point out those portions of the earth where the people are most intelligent..4 Ecuador Guiana.28 .000 811.6 Murray.000 340. ASIA.425.0 SOUTH AMERICA. property.087 Boumania Bussia.0 3. area of Great Lakes.000 90. Name. another Oceania.610 1. government.600 3.000 786. tea.0 New Zealand 1.19 . in lumbering. 40°.538 19.49 2. without regard to class or wealth? indicating' the great industrial regions Make a com..4 Volga. tropical fruit.000 830 600.1 7.0 16. Length. wine.2 Area of Basin.836 156.967 145.760 2. and so on.4 1. Argentine Republic Brazil 3. Miles of Territory.'i0.500 1.750 410. 130. Indian rice.758 68.000 Ceylon 178 8 China Cochin China Dutch East Indies Japan Total for above countries 90 591 349 14.778 Don Dwina.318 4. .30 .9 0.TEST QUESTIONS Name the continents in the order of their population. Dnieper. stivte AND What EXEECISES. Miles of Territory. Rhine. and 60° north latitude. Countries. in manufacturing. AUSTRALIA.5 318. list of those countries where wheat is a leading product.0 81.000 Sq.482 Netherlands 111.1 Denmark Finland France 88.500 600.000 1. Spain Sweden Switzerland 16. Ta-sraania Australia Total for Australasia 6. SOUTH AMERICA.4 Length in Miles.7 Chili Colombia.5 3. Servia • 1.000 402.000 Sq. of the forest. Africa. Make a list of those countries which are largely engaged in stock raising. and height of chief mountains of North America.

Population.000 619.000 12.218.000 220.000 SERVIA..000 40.703 13.000 354.170.000.000 600.000 300. British Guiana.000 87.000 339.000 TURKEY.677 2. Caracas Valencia Salford 70.086 842. Countries.000 4.651 269.000 345.806. Denmark France Germany Italy .sh India Farther India (Siam.000.174.330 36. 37.178 5.179.206.259 38.278 1. Montreal Toronto CJuebec 141.000 70.000 40. United States of.000 16. Countries.000 280.511 5.000 120.000 60.000 BRITISH INDIA.104.000 Panama SWEDEN. 600.376.000 198. 2.000 Bogota Medellln Birmingham Manchester Leeds Sheffield Bristol DENMARK.000 42.000 60. French Guiana.150.000.000 50.030 208.000 143.ooo. Including Fezzan 219.497.000 12.000 155.000 151. Geneva Basle CHINESE EMPIRE.100. Athens }»atras „ SOUTH AMERICA.781 193.000 211.000 Mandalay Singapore SIBERIA.3.000 200. Persia Afghanistan Beloochistan Briti.345 4.040.00(1 EKypt Abyssinia.948 179.000 36.325.763 2.000 118.000.000 262.000 South African Republic Madagascar Mozambique Other Countries (Elstimated)..600 729.456 »4. AFRICA.000 376.708. Square Miles. Square Miles.000.000 44.012 1.Bur. 3.000 135.000 260.703 2.000 90.000 .000 28. Cabul Smyrna Damascus Bagdad 65.000 6. 230.760 68. 200.000 231.000 GERMAN EMPIRE.000 106.277.000 BULGARIA.442 4.000 165.000 434. Cape Colony Natal . Population.000 2.000 Guayaquil Bordeaux Lille PERU. Great Britain and Ireland Greece 240. Fiji Islands Sandwich Islands.000 80.000 16.000 191.000 10.000 BOLIVIA.520.000 Australia Tasmania New Zealand New Guinea Java Borneo Celebes Sumatra Philippine Islands. Calcutta. Canton.000 115.000 5.657 12.504 18.000 FARTHER Bangkok Saigon INDIA.945.000 4.837 2.460 699.810 50. Bucharest Jassy Galati 221.000 84. London Liverpool Magdeberg Hanover 299.245 1.000.375 2.218.000 310.559 Galapagos 60 Japan Bokhara Trans Caucasia 148. Georgetown Paramaribo 37.000 129.922.073.000 249.699. OCEANIA. Berlin PARAGUATT.000 Toulouse Etienne 2.000 80.6S.000 2.323 34.415 11.682.000 Lemberg _ 423.180.000 110.000 120.729 3.000 13.102 9.000 274.756 4.000 131 .000 255.000 13.000 95.780 35.000 51. Spain Sweden Switzerland Population.000 255.000 200.501.000 13.000 Kioto Yokohama 903.000 35.000 170.000 306.000 Argentine Republic Jiolivia Brazil Chili Colombia.000. Lisbon Oporto 247.ooe 3.000 ECUADOR. Constantinople Adriauople Salonica 874.')23 39.000 800.817.000 114. Asuncion Villa Rica 20.'i9. 26. U. Norway Portugal Roumania Russia Servia SOUTH AMERICA.5.000 144.718 837.000 376.817.780 72. Guatemala San Salvador San Jose 59.950 2.000 20.316.000 138.000.548.900 4.000 95.300. 100.072.000 Venice 130.812 197.460. Square Miles.574. Turkey 122. SWITZERLAND.500.000 Naples Milan Rome Turin Palermo ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.000 8.000 OF THE WORLD.727. Maracaybo SCOTLAND.000 FRANCE.000 23. Tokio SPAIN.000 2.908 130.000 847. DOM.) Chinese Empire Uruguay Venezuela Faliciand Islands 72.040 Morocco Algeria Tunis Tripoli..661.332 9.000 169.000 4. Population.000 128.000 3.000 Matanzas Kingston Cologne Konigsburg EUROPE.868.380 3.000 6.927 15.370 85.534.000 104.000 Arequipa 331.624 121.000 162.000 34.000 216.000 100. Montenegro Netherlands .000 600.000 1.000 60.000 31.000 26.<. Belgrade 42.000 1.000 176.125. Bombay Madras Hyderabad Benares Delhi 872.000 35.000 134. COMPILED FEOM THE STATESMAN'S YEAR BOOK AND THE ALMANACK DE GOTHA.000 32.000 Berne Lausanne Zurich 68.852.000 206.000 87.000 158.000 Hamburg Breslau 1.000 188.000 36.O00 ASIA. Asiatic Russia Asiatic Turkey Arabia. Countries.310 504. AFGHANISTAN.166 293. Montevideo 105.'i2.000 1.000 246.000 80.000 VENEZUELA.000 ARABIA..000 42.000 Glasgow Edinburgh Buda-Pesth i'rague Trieste Dundee Aberdeen „ Cayenne 236.000 174.000 45.000 1.000 21. Square Miles.000 6. RUSSLA. Orange Free State Liberia.000 134.000 180.000 567.000 4.000 404.000 CITIES 353.846.844 2.445 Austria-Hungary Belgium .300.000 1.000 75.000 142.000 Cawnpore 200.000 POPULATION OF THE CHIEF NORTH AMERICA.000 ASIA.336.000 Hull Newcastle Bergen 129. ENGLAND.982.. Population.000 16. Anam.000 60.453 29.000 25.785 236. Ecuador (luiana. Canatla.000 30.000 TURKEY.000 36.595 50.000 60.482 1.5.000 120. Teheran Tabris 104.000 140.000 1.586 4.865 46.000 4.000 24.000 ROUMANIA.000 Dublin Belfast St.000 234.252. Rustchuk Varna 26.056 4.000.000 26.400 46.000 73. 358.000 130. Rio Janeiro Bahia IRELAND.404 743. United States (including Indians). 7 Central America West Indies Bermudas Newfoundland Greenland Iceland 94.000 _ _ 1.000 60.000 295.773 248.000 407. Paris Halifax Hamilton Ottawa. GUIANA.000 AUSTRIA-HUNGARY.000 332.279 19 42.000 Rotterdam The Hague 373.653.369 14.000 80.095.000 208.000 122. 503.000 162.000 586.000 750.018 114.980 500.000 60.000 BELGIUM.000.826.AEEA AND POPULATION OF THEPEINOIPAL COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD.979. Countries.784 204.844 4.000 1.000.000 Cracow JAPAN.000 50.153.058 91.380 950.412.394 6.000 20.000 Tomsk PERSIA. NORTH AMERICA.000 40.000 151.000 80. THE NETHERLANDS.621..000 40.571 20.000 1.000 36.769 2. Dominion of.634.000 402.490 1.000 16. Countries.000 15. OF CANADA.000 (Est. Countries. Mexico.000 439. Brussels Pekin 417.000 130.000 463.000 100.' .903 46.000 628. Vienna 67.000 2.. Petersburg Muscat Pernambuco Para San Paulo Cork Moscow Warsaw Odessa Riga Kishenev J.000 60.000 600.300.000 140.000 140. Amsterdam 4.000 145.000 45.000 36. Madrid Barcelona Valencia Seville _ Osaka 398. Square Miles.000 174.500. Tiflis GREECE.000 OF COLOMBIA.000 ITALY.6.000 Genoa Florence MEXICO.000 47. Stockholm Gottenburg 216.345.000 Guanaxato Munich Dresden Leipsic WEST Havana Santiago de Cuba INDIES.000 100.000 62. Quito Lyons Marseilles 80. Santiago Valparaiso _ CENTRAL AMERICA.000 106.000 134.000 URUGUAY.3.980.000 Tashkent Samarcand Irkutsk „ PORTUGAL.171 170.000 84.000 5.381 293.000 UNITED STATES.000 231.0(10 3. 1886) 1.000 50. EUROPE.159 2. Dutch Paraguay Peru 1.324. Christiania Meshed Ispahan k „ 200. New York Philadelphia 1.000 I.000 91.935 39. Copenhagen Aarhuus 286. S.931.853.224. Lima Callao 102.000 NORWAY. Buenos Ayres Cordova Rosario 400.000 70.000 240.000 228.000 754.000 148.000 7.0ii0 Brooklyn Chicago Boston Louis Baltimore Cincinnati San Francisco New Orleans St. 4.173.241. 930. Sierra Leone 468 114.000 405.004.500. La Paz Cochabamba CHILI.000 773. Square Miles. BRAZIL.000 66..000 37...000 Herat Candahar - „ Aleppo Beyrout Trebizond _ ».000 37.000 35.000 Tientsin Antwerp Ghent Liege Hang Chow Foo Chow Shanghai 930. Mexico (1882) Leon Guadalaxara Puebla 300.000 1.000 425.8i0.. Aden Mecca Medina 60.068.000 25.000 168.120 4..392 3. Population.000 256.057 10.000 155.

^0 Selma.979 17. Millville. III tFargo.308 8.372 26. San Francisco.). I-lainfield. Mich Manitowoc.220 8.636 6.339 18. Minn Bridgeport.845 9. H Nashville.248 6. Neb Orange.630 5.956 6. Mass NewYork. Fla Peoria. N. Minn Me •Fergus Falls Minn Fishkill Flint.OOO 100.665 11. Conn Brldgeton.000 24.125 6. 7. N. N. Syracuse N. 6. N. C Waterbury. Belleville. HI Maysville. Mo City.857 27.995 1 .346 7.000 9. tMitchell.315 80.186 11.J.600 6.357 Mo 4.'2 11.910 13. Pa Alliance. I Quincy.). Conn Danville. Conn Oakland. N. N.682 18.172 13.650 Plattsburg. N.9.277 18. 111 Chicopee (tp.139 6. Ky Bradford. Ind 55. 5. Galena. Conn Middletown. Kan Athens. Miss Jackson.431 4. Manchester. St.729 6. Little Rock. N. (tp.029 19.629 22.070 29.280 48.181 12. N.« Paterson. 111 MahanoyCitv. O Norwich.058 8. N. I>el Wilmington.683 13.). Rochester. la.). Wis Hagerstown.682 6. Wis 6.).599 12. N. Conn Norwalk. Freeport.). Y Andover (tp. Ala Moline.814 7.693 9.312 10.898 42.081 10. N. N. Dak Coldwater.209 10.684 7.st Saginaw.039 9. Md Bangor. J Phcemxville.200 4.355 Stoningtou St. Ill Pa Evanston.038 8..153 8. la Owego. Sedalia.031 Streator.466 6.063 PEI:N'0IPAL CITIES AI^D TOWI^S ACCORDING TO THE CENSUS OF 1880.367 7.335 4. Franiingham (tp.254 17. Y Gloucester. Ind Lawrence. 111 10.. Cairo GUINEA COAST. Tex Waltham (tp.525 27.697 7. Conn New Brunswick.004 6. R. Charles. N.181 6. Fla Kingston. Manila Batavia 270. Minn Appleton.063 10. Mich.251 6.439 12.000 6.592 18. N. Y Roekford. Mass Northampton (tp. Mich. Ore Portsmouth.299 62.129 11.737 6.016 7. Me 4. Ind Petersburg.116 7.762 6.713 6.314 10.966 13.455 9.014 4.. Marlboro (tp. H Kenosha. Wis Ogden. N.).845 Dover. S. R.892 I.St. Minn Woburn (tp. Wis Jefferson City.657 7.Mass ChiUicothe. Pa Piqua.). J Troy.443 12.777 4. Mass Plymouth.284 10.N.110 27. J Joliet. Carbondale. N.321 6.000 60. . O Portsmouth.105 6. Wis New Albany.ong Island C. Y 6. la Scott. J Newburg.522 20.248 4. H Corry.000 35. Va Philadelphia. Dak Bloomfield (tp. Richmond. la Martinsburg. N.324 7. Bellaire. Silver Cliff. N. Minn Y Dunmore.U9 8. N. Mass •Neenah. 111 Pensacola.891 8.204 5.513 8.437 6.397 43.197 7.259 4.0 tYankton. Ind Madison.122 11.690 6. J Quincy Ilacine.372 6.278 6. Sterling.268 7.). Y Scranton.. D. W.873 4.231 8.).882 10..4^6 6.714 6.360 16.. Wis Ashland.4.509 8. Ind Austin. Wis tWatertown.927 10. Tenn Chelsea.). J Belfast.291 6. J Attleboro (tp. EGYPT. N.500 15.678 4.. III » Pa O Alpena.400 22.Mass Manchester. Mass •. Y York. Mass Cohoes.Mass Marquette. Ind Mass Mo St.).6. N..892 21. Columbus. Mass Gloucester C.930 6.000 70. Y ). Pittsfield (tp.235 6.132 7.). N. Erie.197 6.Pa Annapolis.664 6. Ky Paducah. Col Elyria.508 9..550 15. la Detroit. N. „ Hempstead (tp.(M0 6.561 7.959 38. Mass Wis Rahway.758 59.505 14. O Hannibal. Mich Port Jervis. Mich Eau Claire.046 160. Ma-ss Y Lynchburg. Providence..418 62. N.).555 4. J Hartford.).191 12. Kan Lebanon.418 6. Pa Meadville.000 SANDWICH ISLANDS. la Clinton (tp. J Peru. Mo Harrisburg.803 25.984 18.J Bloomington.m Kansas Keene.808 6. O *Anoka.431 10. Mich 7 . Ga.017 32.—CONTINUED.)..7 . Oil City. Cal •Oconto. Miss Vincennes. Pa Sherman.149 7. La. R.). 111 16.036 4. Mich Akron.924 21.). J„ Mt. Y Wis Binghamton N.066 6.389 13.000 280.089 9. Pa Mich Cambridge.520 5.444 10. Dak Adrian. Pa Taunton. C Chattanooga.074 30. Henderson.. o Newark. Pa Sheboygan.679 13.).246 7. 6.031 19. O Pittsburgh.910 66. Mass Norwalk.087 12.000 232. Ky Paris. Y Fond du Fort Fort Fort Fort fBismarck.834 9. N. Mo Minn •St. N.061 4.743 33. 145.933 13. N.475 15. H Perth Amboy. Tenn Jacksonville. Conn New ijondon. Parkersburg..000 20. Ind Newark. Mass Memphis. Albany.643 8. 111 Cumberland. Tex Sandusky.000 4. Minn. S.296 11. Pa Braidwood. N. Pa Y'oungstown. N. 111. Pa Lockport.030 6.J Urbana.547 6.893 6. 80. C •Winona. Ga Madison.138 6.377 7.. Dak Grand Haven.169 6. Emporia.364 7.000 60. Pa Sharon. Pa. Mass Frankfort.792 6. Conn Waterloo.787 Elizabeth N. la Dayton. Baton Rogue.587 (tp. Mex Saratoga Sp. Tex Gardiner.389 21. 111 Galesburg.524 7.016 Jamaica (tp. >r. Pa Harrison.132 POPULATIOlf OP THE CHIEF CITIES OP THE WORLD— OP THE UNITED OCEANIA. Ind Richmond. Wis Mo Santa Fe.036 10.. III Boston. Mass Newcastle. 111 Brainerd.800 32.849 6.860 7.747 7.V>40 15.894 35.114 9.057 666.). 350. Ark Y Lock Haven..768 20. Mass Lawrenceourgh. 216.820 10.567 Kankakee (tp.408 116. Chester.843 5.416 4.).961 9.366 13. C Columbus.000 6. Springfield. Mass Woonsocket. POPULATION OP THE CHIEF CITIES OF THE WORLD. 111 Columbus. Paul de Loanda Surabaya Khartoum Damietta Samarang Honolulu FIJI ISLANDS.730 7. N.). Pa Frederick.433 15. Holyoke. N. Pa 29. Pa Ashtabula.960 332.862 82. Dak *Faribault. N.512 90.J Minn Dak Milwaukee. Cal San Jose.000 50.093 16.879 9.025 10. Cal Louisville. Utah San Antonio.321 11. Mass Terre Haute.J _ Pawtucket.293 20. H Dubuque. J Va Pa BrookUne (tp. N. la Oshkosh. R..056 20.000 MALAY'SIA. Y Newburyport.900 19.149 6.984 7.678 7. 61. N. Mich Montgomery.950 12. Pa Pomeroy. Springfield.679 6. Marblehead Mass Mass O Pittston. N.8.052 20. la Dunkirk.).). Mo Mobile.')00 Norristown Pa North Adaiiis.500 9. Tex Sing Sing.560 4. . Mass Camden. W.y.358 11. Tex. (tp. Y New Orleans. N.).. 111 Madison. N. Washington.005 Va Davenport. C Glen Falls. Me Elmira. C Reading. Pa Columbia. Mich GrandRapids Mich Green Bay.183 123. 1 Wooster.467 6. Utah Ogdensburg.329 6. Ind Ellsworth.459 4.516 8.105 16.104 5.252 33. Tenn 8. N.018 5. (tp. N. Va Lynn. Me Flushing.538 8.472 8. Mich 10.880 6.347 7.000 71. Louis. Mass Bennington Biddeford. Mich Bay City. Rockland.883 8. Y tHuron. Ua Atlanta. I Newton.146 9. N.366 8.240 6.170 7.'i40 Plymouth (tp. Wis Oswego. N. Va St.010 8.839 6. 111 Galveston. Dak Westchester.000 89.987 4.472 6.631 27. Moberly. Ky Ishpeming.164 6. Dak Janesville. Ky Franklin.437 6..265 43. N. Cal Salt 10.212 8.249 5. 21.663 6.880 6.313 16.206. Lancaster. Saco.).429 8. Atchison. N. MonrOTia THE BAEBARY Tunis Algiers INDIAN COAST. Y Sioux City.).048 46.690 11. Tenn Meriden (tp.656 5. Y Augusta.518 111. Ill Va Lancaster. Kpn Xenia. Nashua.195 8.000 Dunedin Ballarat Durban Sandhurst „ Levuka 30.117 9.000 4. Mas-s Horncllsville.134 19. N.340 6.282 7.748 17. N. N.935 18. Ind Tiffin.000 IM. Y Pa tGrand Forks.870 12. Tex Baltimore.845 6. Portland. La Newport.698 15. Y New Britain (tp. Union. Mass Salem.032 Shreveport. III 10.461 11.219 8. la Jacksonville.629 8.123 51. Conn Mo Minn 111 Paul.669 41.55 45.737 23..280 19. Medford (tp).600 26. *.849 16.).000 CAPE COAST.'541 Lansingburg. la Watertcwn.207 4. (Tp. Ky Newport. Y Rutland (tp. Scbenectai.683 6. N. Canton. N. Md Fredericksburg.993 6.587 129.758 13. N. N. Lexington.840 68. Mich Marshall.726 12. Pa Maiden (tp. Va Marysville.659 6.860 18.). Concord. N.213 26. Danville. Pa Carlisle.).423 136.681 4. Nev Waco.670 3.106 49. Georgetown D. Mass West Troy N.127 4.133 7. Mich Hyde Park. •Stillwater.326 6. W.384 165. Cloud.090 20.6.478 17. Me Rome. Miss Natick (tp.003 4.769 8. Ala Seneca Falls. Dak Somerville. Wis •Minneapolis. la Key La West. Ky Pa McKeesport. Me Auburn. Ypsilanti.663 6.651 17.934 42.866 4. Va Passaic City. Y Me Portland. Y Jamestown. Vernon.193 11.845 18. Vt.000 44.859 7. Pa •Red Wing. Danville. N.010 8. Y fJamestown. Y N. Ga.565 21.180 362.166 18.670 30.573 33.668 14. Ind Columbia. Clinton. 21. New Gloversville.7.). Springfield.659 78. Md Hamilton.953 6. Kan Trenton.011 8. Wis Mansfield. Va Wilkcsbarre. N. 111 Mas.063 29.639 13. N. 111 . Wis Elgin.052 8.635 4.924 8. Me Ky III Neb Litchfield.168 4. Circleville.009 Mass III South Bend. Kan Lawrence. Mich Amsterdam. III Ottumwa.704 21.627 12. Wis Lafayette. Mass Bowling Green.350 Poughkecpsie. Pa New Haven.. Vt Stamford (tp. Pontiae.366 11. Pottsville.151 11.253 20.270 6.518 13. C Charlotte.184 5. Cal 7. 111 Wyandotte.296 11.733 8.147 6. Dallas. Ind Jersey City.938 255. N.975 19. Cincinnati. Me.479 4. Conn Haverhill.748 21.268 10.635 10. N.J Jersey. Ind Worth.123 8.845 29. Y Watertown.660 116. Y Owensboro.958 5. N. I'a Williamsport.624 6.'i37 Crawfordsville. Y Cleveland.624 10.720 Evansville. Me Aurora.782 14.J Burlington (tp.039 12.344 9. Mich Duluth.477 11.007 5.742 5. N.000 STATES. Pa Cedar Rapids. Mich.000 Zanzibar Gondar Mozambique Cape Town 46.046 7.). 111 Dedham (tp.445 15.090 11. N. Pa Allentown. N. Y IjOgansport. Md Tex Danbury (tp. N.464 6. la Burlington.047 6. Me Baraboo.510 39.357 120.373 6.494 7. Bristol.198 17. Muskegon.106 6.742 63. Ind Vicksburg.914 6. Coomassie MADAGASCAR.000 68. Brunswick Buffalo. N. Y Pa Omaha.*avenworth.831 38. Pa Lansing. Toledo.233 6. Y La Porte. Pa East Orange (tp. N. Utica.. Mich Alton. J Elkhart.t96 Pa Mo 13. Mass Macon.069 10. O Pa Titusville. J Calumet (tp. Mass Hazleton.930 16. Ind Creston.313 89.026 6.129 11. Tex Marshalltown.).. 111 Altoona. III Steubenvllle. Ga Augusta.366 30. 111 Monmouth 111 Monroe.526 21.). Mass Denver Col Des Moines.563 5. Wis Batavia. Pa Pa 7.666 7. Lincoln.274 12.271 9.432 6.000 Abomey 375.194 12. Kan (tp. Zanesville. Va •Rochester. Kaleijjh..522 11.693 OF THE UNITED STATES.703 29.151 4. Vt Mich I^c.945 10. (tp Me Y O Burlington. N.'>2 Y N.836 6. Mass Pa Chicago.319 7.546 8.299 Shamokin.). Sacramento.435 10.286 10... Ky Hoboken.Y Tucson. Y Vallejo.409 5. N. la tSioux Falls. J Ea.050 6. STATES.049 13. Mass Bayonne.) f Estimated. Minn St.578 J.880 8.680 10. 111 Aurora.Y Savannah.094 12. Springfield.. Mass Kock Island.113 * Censos of 188S. iiriz.748 8. Fla 4.000 57. Gallon.418 7. Y Ottawa. N. Mich Port Huron. Ind Virginia C.820 16.782 Natchez. Cal 6.997 603.712 4. N. Portsmouth.157 61.917 7.l. Mass New Berne. Tenn Crosse.Y Weymouth (tpj.931 16. Gallipolis. Delaware.280 21.397 5.710 9. N..722 5. 100. N.360 5. Ky Lowell. Ind Middletown (tp. III Little Falls.999 21. denotes township.659 6. Pa Westfield (tp. Y Knoxville.838 233. 111 Charleston.. V Jackson.000 TananariTO Port Louis AUSTRALASIA.056 7. Mich New Bedford. Los Angeles. 6.883 6. Mass Warren.693 14. N. N Y Alexandria.273 8.000 Alexandria Lagos St. Pa Phillipsburg.143 34..630 10. Pa liBwiston.262 13. Cal Valparaiso.890 18.693 16. J Saginaw.570 Topeka.577 9. Melbourne Sydney Adelaide Auclcland „ 365.229 6.083 10. Ind I.678 83.. La Battle Creek.820 30.341 7. Vt Joseph.642 8.Vt Cairo.031 6. Y Tamaqua. Kan Wayne. Ga Atlantic City.915 8.000 20. Dak Yonkers. Albans (tp.Y Canandaigua. N.063 20.' Keokuk.042 7.365 9. Tex Hudson. Worcester. Salem.000 7.000 15.).800 6. Ind Leadville. Mass Wheeling.195 16.039 37.813 8. Freemont.52 Mankato.305 13. Johnsbury (tp. Y' Mattoon. Va Allegheny. Lake (tp. Conn Lake C.093 6. Muncie.388 5.425 147. 156. Auburn. Jeffersonville. Mo Stockton. Mass 4.582 6. Conn Michigan Citv.59 Wilmington. la Marshall.). C New Brighton.333 12. Kalamazoo. N. Va H Pottstown. Minn O (tp. la Ironton.450 6. Ind Muscatine. N.000 POPULATION OF THE Aberdeen.525 6. Va Manistee.s Brooklyn.000 6.207 104. Dak Decatur.647 13... AFRICA.349 19. Conn Staunton.094 4.600 7.093 8. Lincoln.000 41.000 17. Mich Jackson. Pa Council Bluffs.687 22.732 12.046 60. la CoTingtoD.857 6. Marietta. Joplin.000 18. Ind Fall River. la Champaign.317 8.015 18. N. O tDeadwood. N.785 6. Cal Massillon. J Oskaloosa. I Peekskill. Wis Shenandoah.420 8. Ala Morristown.052 4.656 847.340 11.910 16. Y 28.137 1. Y Pekin. Minn. Ind Iowa City. Y Houston. Mich Ithaca.111 9. Pa Easton.Y Fitchburg. Y . 60.J. Md Ann Arbor.778 19.730 21.000 15.716 75.810 17.784 6. Col 9. Y Norfolk.451 11.297 6.709 .409 6. Indianapolis.

Haig. Ath-a-bas'-ka. Ahn-teelz'. Brit'-ta-ne. Dar-foor*.. In the words which follow. chah'-ko. Juan Femandes. En-uis-kil'-len. Baton-Rouge Bavaria Ha'-te. and the teacher should make a careful distinction between this sound joined with h. Hesse-Da rmstadt. Kor'-se-ka. Dieppe Dnieper Dniester Baku Balearic Balize (Is. Chat-ta-hoo'-che. Ken'-igs-burg. Ab-is-sin'-e-a.Brah-dore'. Hang-chow-foo. Dunkirk Dun-kirk' (Dun'-). Konigsburg Kordofan Kosciusko Kremnitz Krishna Kur-geez'. Bah'-zl. Cardigan Carlisle Kar'-de-gan. Karakorum Kelat Kah-rah-ko'-rum.) Cevennes. Bo-na^ven-tu'. Foo'-nen. Kan-ton'. Gwah-dal-keveer'. Chimborazo Chincha Cholula Christiania Chim-bo-rah'-zo. Foo-chow-foo'. I'-ber-vil. Shar'-lot. Bor-do'. Ke-lat'. . Je-nee'-va. Is-pa-hahn'. Gee'-zeh. Ba-va-re-a. Carlaruhe Carpathian Cartagena Karls'-roo. Kal-e-for'-ne-a. Bil-bah'-o. Bah-leez'. Baden Bagdad Bahamas Bahia Bahr el Azrek Baikal Bah'-den (Bad-). Ka-na'-reez.. Shah-loor'.. Kas-se-ke-ah'-ra. Bah-yon'. An-tip'-a-ros. Dun-furm'-Hn (-fur'-J. Fri'-burg. Ar-zhan-tool'. Damascus Damielta Dantzic Gol-kon'-dah. Kal-kut'-ta. Dam e-et'-ta. An a-deer'. . Kal-yah'-o. Green'-idj. Et'-na. Kong'-go.nahng-chou-foo'. Chems'-ford.. (-la'- Ad-re-atMk. Boo-ka'-re-a. For-mo'-sa. Fundy Funen Galapagos Galena Galicia Gallas Gallinas Gallipoli Fun'-de. Kanawa Kangaroo Kankakee Kara Kahmt-chat'-kah. Ek-wah-dore'. Kang-ga-roo'. In'-de-a Me-}. Lank'-as-sheer. Bel-ed-el-jo-reed'. Elba El'-ba. Bangkok Bannockburn Barbadoes Barca Barcelona Bang-kok'. Arequipa Argenteuil Argentine Aroostook Ar-ke-pol'-a-go. Kra'-ko. Bal-e-ar' ik. An-<ia-man'. Ar-a'-be-a. Eurenbreitstein. Jax ar'-teez. Aragou Aral Ararat Archangel. Ka-naw'-wa. Ah-moor'. Bahr-ol-az'-rek. Kal'-i-kut. Buda Buenos Ayres Boo'-dah. Atacama Assyria Ah-tah-kah'-mah. Kan'-de-ah •- Capua Caraccas Cardiff. Aws'-ter-litz. Bar-ce-lo'-nah. Her-ku la'-no-um. Gah-lee'-she-a.. Al-geeri... Formosa Fremont Fribourg Frio Funchal Fon-tane-blo'. Den'-mark.rah Bo-neen'. Kucnlun Kurdistan Kurile Douro Dovrefield Guiana Guinea Ge-ah'-nah.vis. Cashmere Caspian Cassiquiare Ca.. Del'-a-ware. Brunn Bnissels Broon. Jug'-gur-nawt. Ab-o-may'. All-ti'. Jut'-land. Bo-kah'-rah. Ina^ua India Indies E-nah'-gwah. Alabama Al-ah-bah'-ma.. At-bah'-rah.. Be-af'-ra. Drez'den. Dongola Dom-e-nee'-kah.-Hess-darm' Himalaya . Jo-an'-nees. Amoy Anadir Auaui Fernando Po Ferrara Fezzan Finisterre J'"i!iland Fer-nan'-do-po. Es-se-ke'-bo. Ju'-ahn-«e-foo'- Cracow Crete . El'-e-fan'-tah EI' gin. Kor-dil'-le-rah. Bahl-kash'.PEONOUNOING YOOABULART. Coburg Cochin Cologne Colorado Columbia Bwah-le-du. Ben Wyvis Bergen Berkshire Berlin Ben. Bi'-kal.. Chel'-ten-ham.Ath'-ens. Bo'-nus a'-riz (Bu'-). Brit'-tn. Ir-kootsk. Dahomey Dalhousie Bug Cal>es Boog. Ah-poo'-ra. Kon-net'-e-kut. In'-decz (-jiz'). Brah-bant'. . Gaw-te-mah'-lah. has where f Basel t Basle it is the sound of final a in Amcri-ca. I'>o'-na. Ex'-e-tcr. Ki-en'. Haarlem Hague Hainan. Burg'-en. Dal hoo'-ze. Sel'-e-b^s. Krom'-ar-te. Cattegat Caucasus Kaw'-ka-sus.stile Abomey Abyssinia Acapulco Acarai Kash'-mere (-mere'). Ko-lone'. Fez-zahn'. Gwah-na-hwah'to. Bag'-dad (-dad'). Ki'-ro. Appalachian Apure Arabia Ap'-pen-nines. Bos'-po-rus. Cenis Cenis (Mont. Kor-foo'. Ispahan Italy Itasca Iztaccihuatl Jaffa. Balkan Balkash Balmoral Bahl-khan'. Kam-pe'-che. Dar-da-nels'. Blanco Bogota Bohmerwald BoLs le Due B'jkhara Bo-go. Ev'-e-rest.. Hatteras Hah-wi'-e. Bo-lor'-tagh'. Ebro Ecbatana Ecuador Edinburgh Ek-bat'-a-nah. As-sir'-e-a. Ai-jee'-re-a. 133 . Bre-tahn'. A'-she-a. Elbe Elb. Bassorah Batavia Kas'-pe-an.. Air. Stat. Goa Dakota Da-ko'-tah. Dov-re-fe-eld'. Awgs'-burg. Il-le-noi. Kalahari Kaf'-ra-re-ah. Hamadan Ilamburg Hammerfest Hampshire Banda Oriental Bahn'-dah-o-reen-tal'.. Bres'-law. Candahar Candia Canso Canton Cape Breton Caprera De-ep'. Fee'-jee. Je-lah-lah-bahd'. Ka-rak'-kas. Kar-ta-ge'-na. Bolan Bolivia Flamborough Florence Florida Fontainebleau Foo-chow-foo Angora Annan Annapolis Anticosti An-go'-rah. Sa^ven'. Chuquisaoa Cincinnati Choo-ke-sah'-kah. Be-nish'-e-a. Fal'-mouth. Burk' sheer. El pah'-so.tab'. An-go -lah. Ko-to-pax'-e. Kon-stan-te-no'pl. Kah'-rah. Dun-ed'-in. Koor-dis-tau'. In-ver-uess'. (Calcutta Austria Auvergne Calicut California (Dallao Ava Avignon A'-va (Ah'-vah). Mong-blong'. Ladrones Lahore Lanark Lancashire Lancaster Lah-hon/. Du-book'. Breni'-en. Ko-to'. Des-a-gwah-da'-ro Dcs-po-blah'-do. Archipelago Arctic Brabant Brahmaoootra Bras d' Or Brazil Boo. Auckland Augsburg Austerlitz Australasia Australia Awk'-land. Bon-ga'-lah. Durham Dusseldorf Dur'-am. Aleutian (Is. Ka-rib'-dis. Ah'-den ( A'-den). Lah'-os. Si'-prus. Hiu-<lus-tan'. Kar'-dif. Bu'-tort. Agra Agulims Ah'-grah (A'-gra). Gal-lip'-o-le. Hel'-sing-fors. Ah-veen-vong'. Bahl. Dong'-go-la. Ah-kah-pool'-ko. Dum-frees'. (zone'). Bresh'-e-ah. Aden Adirondack Adrianopie Adriatic Bechuanas Behring Belod-eT-Jerid Belfast Bet-choo-ah'-naz. A-zores'. E-je'-an. La Plata LaPuebla La Rochello Lah-plah'-tah. Lalvra-dore. Drontheim Dubuque. Gurn'-ze. Drakenberg Drave Dresden Drogheda Drah'-ken-berg. Algiers Benares Ben-coolea Bengal Ben^uela Benicia Benin Ben l. Ham'-mer-fest.s8<d Ka-yu'-ga.. All'-ba-ne. Egypt Har'-ford. and that heard In word« Aberdeen Ab-er-deen'. A-moi'. Ko'-rao. Kah-lah-hah'-re. Brazos Bremen Brescia Breslau Argyle Arica Arizona Arkansas A-roos'-took. Laaland Labrador Laccadive —Law'-land. Carlscrona Karls-kro'-na (-kroo'-). Bologna Bolor Tagh Bo-lone'-yah. Falmouth Faroe Fayetteville Fiji Amiens Araoor Am'-e-enz(Ah-meang').. Coblenz Kob'-lents. Drog'-e-da (Droh'he-da). Koo'-ril. Alaska Albany Albemarle Aldertiey A-Ia-s'-kah. Ke-ev'. It'-a-le. JEgean ^tna Afghanistan Belgium Belle Isle Belleville Bel-je-um. Boo'-the-a. Ant'-wurp.. Ilah-mah-dahn. / * Kap'-u-a. Broo'-jez. Birmingham Biscay Blanc (Mont) Bur'-ming-ham. Al'-le-ga'-ny. Gobi Golconda Gondar Gottenburg Gottingen Astrakhan Atbara Athabasca Athens As-tra-kan'.. Boor'-bon{-bong'). Sbah-pah'-lah. Ar'-a-rat. Gre-zon' rah. Jib-rawl' tar. Kahb'-ez. Kah-lwol'. (Bi'-). Ir'-tish. Altamaha Altorf AU-ta-ma-haw'. Bretagne Brighton Britain Bra-zeel' (-zil'). Uurdwar Iberville Hurd-war'. Ert. Baalbec Bawl'-bek (-bekOBab-el-Mandeb. Glos'-ter. Ko-lum'-be-a. Ham'-burg. Hartz Hat'-te-ras. Erzeroum Erz-gebirge Essiquibo Ur'-ze-room (Urzroom'). Glas'-go. Je-hon'. Irrawaddy Irtish E-rahn'. As-sen'-shun. Dwi'-nah. As-sin'-e-boin. Ben-koo'-len. Hon-doo'-ras. Aws-tral-a'-she-a. Chiv-e-ut. JCil-ken'-ne.'. Ar'-a-gon. Kor do-fan'. Kar-pa'-the-an. Fre'-mont. Bri'-ton. Hung'-ga-re. Dem-e-rah'-rah. Bel-ile'.. Ar-kan'-sas. Der'-went. Dominica. Lank'-a»-ter. Brus'-sels. Ar-e-zo'-na. Sin-si n-nah'-ti. Guatemala Guaviarc Guayaquil Guernsey Gwar-daf-wee'. final a. Krish'-na. Kape-brit'-tn. Ber'-wick Ba'-root Idumea Illinois Id-oo-me'-ah. Ja-pan'. Kron'-stat. Herculaneum Hereford Hertford Hesse-Ca. Ins'-prook.. Aix-la-Chai)elle. Go'-ah. Bo-liv'-e-a. Keel.Kol-o-rah'-do. Jor'-je-a. Ko'-boorg. Ju-dee'-a. Nees'-ter.wi'.. Copenhagen Coquet Cordillera CoriloVa Ko-pen-ha'-gen. HoD-o-loo'-loo. and has the sound of a in ah or art. Gent. Got'-ting-eu. . Gwi-a-keel'. Kor-re-en'-tes. .. Ba-ta'-ve-a. Genoa Georgia Ah-reek'-ah. Ka'-diz. Ke-oo'-seoo'. Dumfries.Ju'-ahn-fer-nan'Judea Juggernaut Jungfrau Jura Jutland Kaffraria dez. U-fra'-tez.s-ga-becr'-ga. Kank-a-kee'.. Chiloe Che-lo-a'. Bel-fast' (Ber-). E'-jipt. Erin Ben-lo'-mond. Chary txiis Chattahooche Chelmsford Chelsea Be-neen'. Gwah-ve-ah'-ra. Ar-gyle'. Cremona Crimea Cromarty Cronstadt Culloden Kre-mo'-na. Hayti Hebrides Heidelberg Heligoland Heshugfors Henlopen Herat Aconcagua Adt'laioe Ah-kon-kah'-gwah Ad'-e-lade. Foon-shal'. Bal-mor'-al. Bar-ba'-doz. Jaf'-fah fi'affah). Kan-dah-har'.Ba'-bel-man''-deb. Bor-noo'. Ko'-ket. Dek'-kan. A-lu'-she-an.. Ees-tak-se-hwatl'. Idaho I'-da-ho. Grand-nia-uan'. Kar-lile'. Heb'-ri-deez. Kan'-«o. Bar'-ka. . Hawaii Laos La Paz Lah-path' (-pas). Ark-an'-jel. Ghauts Ghent Ghizeh Gibraltar Gawts. Ash-an-tee'. . Kiev Kilimandjaro Killkenny Killarney Kil-e-nian-jah-rr. Beer'-ing. Bermudas Berne Berwick Beyrout Biafra Bilbao Ber-mu'-da.) Alexandria Algeria. An'-deez. Gal-a-pa'-gus. Ir-ra-wod'-de. Harts. Doo'-ro.Ky'-o-len. Fin-is-tair'. . Dunedin Dunfermline Dront'-im. Bucharest Bucharia Boo-ka-rest'. 0-vairn'. Ems England Enniskillen Erie Ems. .nan. Ko'-chin.. Gree'-nok. Aws-tra'-le-a. Darfur Darien Deccan Delaware Delhi Grampians Granada Grand Chaco Grand Manan Grand Pre Gratz Greenock Gram'-pe-ans. kah. Dnr'-be(Dar'-be). Kon'-stance. Fer-rah'-rah. Kil-lar'-ne. Ben-no'-vis... Da' re-en. Drave (Drahv). Kamtchatka Assam Assinniboin As-sam'. E'-bro. Ing'-gland. Aws'-tre-a.. Kan-yah'-ver-al.s'-kus. Armenia Ascension Ashantee Asia Ar-mee'-ne-a. Ahr-e-kee'-pah. Ips'-wich. Cabul Cadiz Caj^liari Dant'-sik. Beloochistau Bel'-vil (-vecl'i. Bor'-ne-o. Kreet. Free'-o. Gal'-laz. In'-dus. Brittany Brocken Bruges Brok'-en. Lah-ro-shel'. . Jen'-o-a. Ad-re-an-o'-pl. I-tas'-ka. Hol'-e-hed. Berne. as in Ne-ahu'-za.s'-80-rah. Chel'-se. Danube Dardanelles Dan'-ube. Ber-iin' (Ber'-). Ho-ang'-ho. Bis'-ka.s' (-noi').Da-ma. Kan'-onia. Grets. Gin'-e. Af-gahn-is-tahn'. All'-torf. Ad-i-rou'-dak. E'-rin. Al-be-niarl'. Kam-pahn'-yah. Ah-kah-rah'-e. Jamaica Japan Java Jaxartes Jelalabad Jersey Ja-ma'-ka... Jerusalem Joannes Joliet Jer-oo'-sa-lcm. Fin'-Iand. Lan'-ark. Curacoa Cutch Cuzco Cyprus Gihon Girgeh Glasgow Gloucester Kutch. Kam-bo'-de-ai Kame'-bridge. Chin'-chah. Ba-ha'-maz. Kul-lo'-den. See-Ion {-lone'). Hel'-e-go-Iand.. Demerara Cambay Cambodia Cambridge Cameroon Campagna Campeachy Canada Canaries Canaveral Ayr Azof. An-nap'-o-lis. Ajiores Kam'-ba'. Hindoo Koosh Hindustan Hispaniola Iloang Ho Hin'-doo-koosh. Sher'-burg. Kos-se-us'-ko.Brah'-zos... . Brah-ma-poo'-tra. Fah'-ro (Fa-). Got'-en-burg. Grang-pra'. Antiparos Antisana Antrim Antwerp Apalachee A|>en nines Ahn-te-sah'-nah. Kal'-is.A-ren-brite'-8tine. Ar'-jen-tine. Kam-er-roon'. Cawupore Cayenne Cayuga Celebes Kawn-pore'. when the syllable is unaccented. Dus'-sel-dorf. Hahl'-le. Indus Innspruck Inverary Inverness lona Ionian Fxnster-Aar-IIorn F 1 n'-s t e r-a h r'horn. An'-trim. Ang'-el-se. E'-re. Bos'-fo-rus.Jol-le-et'. Ho-en-lin'-deu.Flam'bur-ro. Mong-se-nee'. Gaw-de-loop'. An-te'-gah. Ban'-nok-burn. Kwen-Ioon'. Guadeloupe Guanaxuato Guardafui.nmond Ben Nevis Ben-ah'-roz. Yoong'-frow.) Bah-koo'. Ark'-tik. JoruUo Juan de Fuca Ho-rool'-vo. Como Comorin Congo Connanght Connecticut Bombay Bonaven turo Benin Boothia Antigua Antilles Bom-ba'. . Cho-loo'-lah. She-kaw'-go. Iowa Ipswich Iran Irkutsk I-o'-no-an. Chamouni Champlain Chapala Charlotte Shah-moo-nce'. Bo'-nier-wawld. Ap-a-lach'-ee. Kah-pra'-ra. Guadalaxara Guadalquivir Gwah-da-lax ah'- Kilmarnock Kiolen Kirghiz Kiusiu Kil-mar'-nok. (-rik). Etna Euphrates Everest Exeter. Corunna Costa Rica Coteau Cotopaxi Ko-run'-na. Gal-lee'-nas.. Jah'-va. Ajaccio Ah-yaht-cho'. Grah-nah'-dah. Kas-teel'. Krim-e'-a.' Lak'-kadiv^ Lab-drones'.. Denmark Derby Derwent Desaguadero Despoblados Des Moines Detroit Dcm'-be-a. Et'-na. Ches'-a-peek. Andaman Andes Anglesey Angola A-nani'(A'-nam). Hi-nan'. Jeer'-jeh. Ceylon Chaleur Elburz Elepbanta Elgin El Paso El'-ljoorz. Go'-l>ee.Akes-lah-sha-per. Kalil'-yah-re. Gah-ron'. Kon'-nawt.. Ken-ne Ki'-ber. Kenia Kennel>ec Ke'-ne-ah. Dei'-le. Kee'-vah. Ben-gawl'. Corfu Corrientes Corsica Kor'-do-va. Krein'-nitz. Bayonne Beaufort Bat-un-roozh'. bek'. Kos'-tah Ree -kah. Bordeaux Borneo Bornou f Bosphorus \ Bosporus Bothnia Boulogne Bourlron Connemara Constance Constantinople Kom'-o-rin. Gan'-jeez. Flor'-e-dah. Kon e-mar'-ah. Sen'-is. Hi'-del-burg. Greenwich Grison Dembea. Az'-of. Bah-e'-ah. Holyhead Honduras Honolulu Hoogly Hungary Hoog' le. Blan'-ko. Hamp'-shecr. Comayaga Ko-mi-ab'gwah. Bah. Flor'-ence. Cheltenham Cherbourg Chesapeake Cheviot Chicago Chichester Chili Allahabad Alleghany Altai Ahl-lah-hahbahd'.Him-a-li-a vah'). Ar'-al. Neeir-er. Cashgar Kash'-gar (•^ar'J. De-troit'. Jur'-ze. I'-o-wa. In-ve-ra'-re. Chil'-le. Hess-kas'-sel. Both -ne-a. Grahn Khartoum Khiva Khyber Kiel Kar-toom'. Dah-ho'-ma. Galway Gambia Ganges Garonne Geneva Gawl'-wa Gam'-be-ah. Kat'-te-gat. Hol'-stine. Fa'-et-vil. Hohenlinden Holstein Hispan-e-o'-la.Sham-plane'. Her'-e-ford. Kel-oo-cliis-tahn'. Joo'-ra. An-te-kos'-te. Halle Hahr'-Iem. Kooz'-ko.lone'. Cairo Caithness (i)alais Kath'-ness. Kris-te-ah'-ne-a. Bo-lahn'. Gon'-dar.. AU'-der-ny. Ku-ra-so'.. Ah-gool'-yas. Al-ex-an'-dre-a. Chitch'-es-ter. Hen-lo'-r»en. An'. Ap-pa-la'-che-an. Ga-le'-na. Lah-pweb'-lah. Ed'-in-bur-ruh (-burg). Dwina. De-moin'.. Her-aht'.

Valenciennes Valladolid Valparaiso Vah-long-se-en' Malabar Malacca. Tus-kah-loo'-Ba. Menam Mendocino Mendoza Palermo Palestine Anselme Bernard Croix Etienne Gothard Helena Lawrence Louis Lucas Saint^awl'-bans. Tee'-gra. Orkneys Orleans Ork'-nees Or'-le-anz. Rine. O-kotsk'. O-she-a'-ne-a. Tip-er-a'-re. Mobile Mocha Moluccas Monongahela Montague Montana „ Pembina Pembroke Penang Pennsylvania Penobscot Pensaooliu Pem'-be-na. Tor'-res. Si'-na (Si'-na-i). Shin-goo'. Mat-a-pan'. Penzance Peruambuco Persepolis Pen-zance'. Mawl'-ta. Oahu Obi Oceania Wah'-hoo. Wife. Tigris n'-gris.. Yapura(Japura). Zambesi Zanguebar Zanzibar Zealand. Pem'-hrook. Mad-a-gas'-kar. Luk'-kan. Tagus Tahiti Wisconsin Wittenburg Wollaston Wis-kon'-sin. Ix>o-eze-ah'-na. Wah'-de-moo'-«a. Poo-too-mi'-o. Sahn-Ioo'-is. St. Suez Suffolk Warsaw Washita Waterloo Wellesley Mecklenburg ) Schwerin J Mecklenburg 1 Strelitz.. Pest. Skoo'-tah-re. Patagonia Pedee Pekin Peling Pat-a-go'-ne-a. Tornca Torquay Torres Tortugas Tor'-no-a.Janeiro Rio Negro Roanoke Rosetta Ree'-gah (Ri'-). Ski. Trebisond Treves Trieste Tritjoli Trans-vahl'. Raw'-le. Pen-s»-ko'-ia.. Men'-a (-i). O-ne'-ga. Skye Skag'-er-rak. Tahlequah Tallabasse Tab'-Ie-kwah. Sahn-ho-sa'. Sierra-Gredos Sierra Leone Sierra Madre Se-er'-rah-gra'dos. Mek'-lin. Pan-a-raah'. Sah-lah'-do.. Mis-sls-sip'-pe.Nizh'-ne-nov -go Nikolaiev Nile rod Ne-ko-U-ev'. Prush'-y a (Proosh'-a). Wrexhaui Wurtemburg Wur'-tem-burg. Loango Loire Lo-ang'-go. Reesh-e-loo'. O-tran'-to. Pa-ling'. Sahu-hoo-ahn'. Macao Kacassar. Zee'-land. Ti-rone'. Mer'-e-da. Ne-as'-se. Ki'-o-na'-gro. J Mek -len-burgf Ormuz Ortegal Or -muz. Pon-de-sher'-rc. Swits'-er^land.ig. Nu-or'-le-anz. Ne-ahn'-za. U'-sel. Val-Ia-do-lid' (-lee<l'J. Wener Weser We'-ner (Va'-ner). Led. Mair-de-glaa'. St.. Lip-a-re (Le-pah're). Santee San-tee'. Mon-tre-all'. Loo-choo'. Nerbuddah Neufcbatel Lucknow Lupata Luk'-DOW. Soong-gah'-re-ah. U'-trekt. Pitcaim Plymouth Po Poland Polynesia Plim'-utb.. Mon-tah-na. Merthyr Tydvil. Mag-da-le-na. Saint-he-le'-na. Se-er'-rah le-o'-ne. Tnx'st'. St. New New Orleans Siam Siberia Sicily Shen-an-do'-a. Sumbawa Sunda Surat Soom-baw'-wah.Se-vas'-to-pol. Kwat-lara'-bah. Weymouth Wiesbaden Mekong Melbourne Ma-kong'. Yoo-ka-tan'. Pa-roo'-jah. Tib'-et (-ef). Pee'-zah. Padua Paisley Pad'-u-a. Mi-sore'. Se-go'-ve-a. Zi'-der-zee. Scotland Scutari Sevastopol Seeland Segovia Seine Senegal Skot'-land. Ver-salz'.Yah-]x>o'-rah. Po.Ter'-rah-del-fwa'go. Le'-na. Sen-e-gam'-be-a.. Domingo. Mos-sa-choo'-sets. Tennessee Terra del Fuego. Ver-nia-ho. Mar-te-neek'. San-fran-cis-co. Leg'-horn. Po-nob'-skot. Loo-pah'-tah. Lombardy Lomond Loo Choo Lotbiau Louisiana Lo'-mond. Toulon Toulouse Tours Trafalgar Transvaal Too-long\ Too-looz'.' Yem'-cn. Schwarlzwald Shwarts'-wahld. (Oolra). Zani-ba'-ze. Rap-pa-han'-nok. Van-koo'-ver. Wah-satch'. Montmorency Mout|)elier Mont-mo-ren'-se. Soo-dahn'. Sar-ra-gos'-fia. Sev'r. Sar-din'-e-a. Ta-hwan-ta-pek'. Siout Sitka Sing-ga-pore'.roo (-gwi'. Natch'-ez.' Ma-lak'-ka. Marino Sahnraah-ree'-no. Mus-kat'. Tabriz Tadoussac Tah-breez'. Po-po-cat-a-petl'.. Stockholm Strasbourg Spits-burg'-en. Mik-o-lon'. Pal'-es-tine. Nu-zee'-land. Per-nam-boo'-ko. Link'-uu. Zee'land. Volga Vosges Vol'-ga. Sahnt-a-te-en'. Rex'-ani. Thu-riu'-je-an. Ri-o-grand. Soo'-ez.. - Tuscany Tyrone Troo-heel'-yo.Val'-da (-di). Maw-rish'-e-us. Mar-ka'-sas. Scilly Sil'-le. Zan-gwe-bai' (-ga-). Saint-pee'-ters- Par-a-mar'-i-bo (Pa-ra-ma-rc'-bo). Medina Mediterranean Me-tii-na. Terre Haute Ter'-reh-hote'. Nevada Se^r -rah-na-vah'dah. Sal-a-man'-ca. Albans St. Malo'-strum. St. Stet-teen St ok' holm. Par'-ah^wa.dah -daNu-fund-laud'. Vancouver Vahl-pah-ri'-so.. Pam'-le-ko. Sut'-lej. Ve-cn'-na. so rah'-ta... Thames Thebes Thian Shan Thibet Thuringian Tiber Tiflis Temz. Na-vah'-dah. Ot-ta^waw. Tur'-ke. Ma-nil'-la. Uruguay Ushant Oo. « Zurich Tigre Zuyder Zee . Men-do'-za. Sah-van'-na. Xingu Yablonoi Panama Papua Para Paraguay Paramaribo Tab-pah '-zhose. Zah-eer'. Win-e pe-saw'-ke. Sun'-da. Mex'-e-ko. Somali Soodan Soongaria Sorel So-maw'-le. Susquehanna Sutlej Sus-kwe-han'-na. Ostend Otranto Ottawa Ouse Rouen Russia Rot'-ter-dam.. Re-do'. On-ta'-re-o. Ravenna Reading Reikiavik Restigouche Ra-ven'-na. Nicaragua Nik-ah-rah'-gwah Nice Neece. Yesso Yes'-«o. . _ Sah-hah'-rah. Mon'-ta-gu. Ne'-va (Na-vah'). Yed'-do. Moscow Mozambique Munich Muscat Mysore Nagpore Naniaqua Lena lAegfi Lille Mo-rok'-ko. Natchez Navarino Naze Nebraska Negropont Nepaul 1 r^o-aern' ji^o-sern. Sierra Valdai . Chad. Wees'-bali-dcn. Pol'-e-nec'-she-a. Sumatra Suf-fok. Kwe bek'. Montreal Morocco Leitb Leitrim Lc«th. » Lee'-irim. Man'-tu-a. .. Van Diemen's Venezuela Venice Vera Cruz Van-dee'-mcnz. Sevres Seychelles Tunis Turin Turkestan Turkey Tuscaloosa Nevada-de-Sorata. Rothesay Rotterdam Roth'-sa. Tc-ahn'-shahn. Res-te-goosh'. 1 | ( strel'-itz. Savannah Save Saa-katch'-e-wan. Zahk-a-ta-kas. 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^v

KEW

CAPITOL, INDIANAPOLIS.

INDIANA.
DESCRIPTION.
Situation and Extent. 1. The state of Indiana occupies the north central part of the eastern half of the Mississippi Basin, and a strip of the southern part of the basin of the Great Lakes. Its greatest extent is from latitude 37° 47' N. to 41° 46' N.
or 276 miles.
to 88°
2'

Wabash,
4. its

it is

313

feet.

Of

this descent 27 feet is

made
miles.

at the

falls at Louisville,

in the distance of

two and a half

The whole

central part of the state (about four-fifths of

and

its

breadth is from longitude 84° 49' W. Its average length is about 250 miles average breadth about 145 miles. Its area is 35,910
Its greatest

by the Wabash and its tributaries, the most important of which are White Eiver, Wild Cat Creek, Tippecanoe Eiver, Eel Eiver, Salamonie and Mississinewa rivers.
entire area) is drained

W., or 177

miles.

square miles, or 22,982,400 acres. Indiana is bounded on the north by Michigan, on the 2. east by Ohio, on the south by Kentucky, and on the west by Illinois. Its only natural boundaries are Lake Michigan at the northwest, the Ohio Eiver on the south, and the Wabash Eiver on the west, below longitude 39° 20' N.

The northeastern corner of the state is drained by the Joseph's and St. Mary's rivers, which unite at Port Wayne and form the Maumee. The Maumee flows into Lake Erie at Toledo, Ohio, at an altitude of 573 feet above sea level.
5.

St.

6.

The extreme northern part

St. Joseph's,

of the state is drained by the the Calumet, and several smaller streams, to Lake
is

Michigan, whose altitude above sea level
7.

585

feet.

The surface of Indiana is the difference between the altitudes of the highest and lowest points being less than 1,000 feet. The northwestern portion is very flat; the central slightly rolling; and the southern is somewhat hilly, which is due chiefly to the deep channels cut by streams. There are no mountains. There are five principal drainage systems, viz. : the Ohio 2. (including the Whitewater), the Wabash, the Maumee, the Kankakee, and Lake Michigan. These are separated by low watersheds, all of which, directly or indirectly, come together in a Nearly all of the table-land, in the eastern part of the state. state head in this table-land, of the streams important more which has an average elevation of 1,150 feet above the sea level. Its highest point is in Eandolph County, and is estimated to be 1,285 feet above the sea level; the highest point in Indiana. The extreme southern and southeastern parts of the state 3. are drained by the Ohio and its tributaries, all of which, except the Whitewater, which unites with the Big Miami before reachThe low-water level ing the Ohio, are unimportant streams. of the Ohio at the southeastern corner of the state is 436 feet above sea level. At the southwestern corner, the mouth of the
level,

Topography and Drainage. —^1.

The remainder of the northwest corner of the state is drained by the Kankakee and its tributaries to the Mississippi.
Lakes. 1. Indiana has about 45 miles of coast line on Lake Michigan, and a fine harbor at Michigan City.
2. There are many beautiful lakes in the state, especially in the northern part. These are all small and of no value to commerce, but owing to their beauty and the healthfulness of the country about them, many of them have become popular resorts. They have sandy beds and are well stocked with the finest kinds

of

fish.

Climate. 1. The climate of Indiana is pleasant and healthThe temperature ranges from an average of 31° Fahrenheit in the winter to an average of 76° in the summer. The mean temperature is 53°. The average annual rain-fall is 42 inches, and is somewhat greater in the southern part of the state than
ful.

in the northern.

For many years artificial drainage has been encouraged 2. by law in Indiana, and, by ditching and tiling, a large amount of marshy land has been made tillable. On account of this drainage the healthfulness of the country has continually improved, and malarial diseases have almost disappeared in sections where they were once prevalent.

2
Soil.

THE STATE OF INDIANA.

of about four-fifths of Indiana is the deposit during geologic time. Beneath this is a surface of vast glaciers out at numerous points in the state, but of rock, which crops with the glacial drift to a depth of from usually it is covered surface of this drift has been changed by the 25 to 400 feet. The decomposition of vegetable matwater and the action of air and cultivated loam, which is mixed with and easily ter into a fertile regions which the glacial sections. In the some clay or sand in drift did not reach, chiefly in the southern part of the state, the soil is the product of the decomposition of the surface rocks and of vegetation. The alluvial bottomlands of streams and the
soil

—The

prairies have the richest soils, and are usually plant-

ed in corn. The uplands are better adapted to wheat and other small grains and
grasses.

Natural Wonders.

1.

There are a number of caves in Southern Indiana, formed by the action of water on
limestone.

The largest is the Wyandotte Cave in Crawford County, which rivals the

Indiana is the sixth state in the Union in the production 2. bituminous of coal. Anthracite coal is not found, but coking, block and cannel coal exist in large quantities. The workable coal fields are more than 6,000 square miles in extent, and extend over and into 23 counties in the southwestern part of the state. In 1880 the number of persons employed in coal mining in the state was 4,500, and the product was 1,500,000 tons. The annual capacity of the mines is over 3,000,000 tons. Enormous reservoirs of natural gas have been opened in 3. the past two years. It has been ascertained that this valuable fuel exists in large quantities under a tract of country extending north and south for 165 miles through the eastern and central parts of the state, and at several points in the west and south. Thirty-four counties are known to be wholly or partly in the gas field, and it is probable that it includes half the counties in the state. Four hundred and fifty flowing wells have been opened and the daily flow of gaa is now estimated at 900,000,000 cubic feet; 20,000 cubic feet are estimated to equal one ton of coal in heat power. The abundance and cheapness of this fuel has made the gas belt an unusually fine field for manufacture and the. manufacturing interests of the state are rapidly increasing. The great supply of this gas is found in the rock of the Trenton period, but it exists in smaller quantities in all the strata that show remains of animal or vegetable life. It is supposed by scientists It has to be the product of decomposition of organic matter. great expansive force and in all active wells has a pressure of
over 300 pounds to the square inch at the surface.

Mammoth Cave
A NATURAL GAS WELL.

of

Kentucky

in its extent, the size of its
its

chambers and the beauty of
2.

rock formations. Springs of mineral water are found in

all

parts of the

state.

much

of these possess great curative properties, and are frequented by persons afflicted with diseases. French Lick,

Many

Martinsville,

and West Baden are among the most important.

Animal

Life.

1.

The

larger wild animals, such as buflfalo,

deer, elk, bears

and panthers, which once were numerous, have

disappeared. Minks, weasels, foxes, raccoons, opossums, rabbits and smaller wild animals are still quite common. Wild turkeys, pheasants and prairie chickens are found, 2. but in small numbers. Hawks, buzzards, water-fowl and the

smaller birds are abundant. The streams and lakes of Indiana are well supplied with 3. bass, perch, bream, pickerel, bufifalo-fish, catfish, suckers and smaller species. Carp and salmon have been introduced and are

found in many streams. 4. Fish and game birds are protected by law during the nesting season. Killing song birds or disturbing their nests at any time is a penal offense.

Vegetation. 1. There are extensive prairies in Northwestern Indiana, but the ijreater part of the surface was originally The hardwood trees, such as oak, hickory, covered by forests. maple, walnut and beech, are most common; but ash, sycamore, It is supposed poplar, willow and other trees are abundant. that about one-third of the forests still remain. 2. Wild fruits are common in Indiana, particularly plums, All the fruits and pawpaws, May-apples, cherries and grapes. cultivated plants of the Temperate Zone thrive and are very
profitable.

soldiers'

and

sailors'

monument, INDIANAPOLIS.

4.

ural product.

The building stone of Indiana is its most important natThe most valuable varieties are the oolitic limeDevonian period, the gray lime-

stone, the blue limestone of the

The mineral wealth of Indiana is 1. chiefly coal, natural gas, building stone, glass sand, kaolin and other clays. Gold and copper are found in several parts in very email quantities; they occur only in the glacial drift.
Mineral Resources.

stone of the Niagara period, and the sandstone of the lower coal measures. All of these are celebrated for their strength and durability. The oolitic (egg-stone) limestone is so called beresembles a mass of fish eggs. It is composed of minute cause it

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republican.432 in trade and transportation. Petroleum has been found in several localir ties. In 1880 the farm product — was valued at $114. 2.983 are in farms. A state fair is held annually.000 cubic feet of stone were taken out. Owing to the use of natural gas the manufacture.104.000 in 1880 were as follows: pidity. $100.700 persons were employed in the quarries.ii99.927 9. 6. but exportation and importation are steadily growing in extent.825 miles of railroad within the and double track.209^204 14. The new soldiers' capitol of the state is built of and the magnificent Foundries and ironwork Agricultural implements Liquors $26.933. Flour and grist mills Products. in facturing interests are increasing with great raFARM fossil shells. The only water transportation worthy of mention is by Lake Michigan. Kaolin and glass sand are found in large quantities in several counties and are profitably mined.707.420. all over the country. and to the breeding of stock.411 were produced. TEBEE UAUTX. The government of Indiana is. 1. 635. but can be profitably mined at only a few places.622. mechanical and mining pursuits. and cemented together by carbonate of lime. The chief farm products in 1880 were as follows: Com . and 13. State Board of Agriculture is established by law and much atten- A tion is given to the improvement of agriculture QIDIANA STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL. state exclusive of side hereafter. Population. 1. 1.262.. was 80. Government. 110. . the total population over ten years of age. Good clay is abundant.. includ- ing 331. and Raw Materials Used. but their permanence not assured. The leading vegetable products Manufactures.982.917 of raw materials were consumed and goods of the value of $148.097 7.797 and sailors' monument is being constructed of it. as the deposits are of the best quality. Commerce is chiefly domestic.018.300 Hay tons. 144.000. hay and oats.228 colored. 5. The value added by manufacture is the difference between the two sums. and brick and tile making are extensive industries throughout the state.978. easily Meatpacking Saw mills bility it is being used in large buildings it. In 1880. but hardens rapidly on exposure to the air.413 in the order of their value. These industries are but slightly developed. 20.500.587 6.080 were engaged in occupations. Iron ore is found in large quantities in the coal measures. The most important industry of Indiana is agriculture. 578.757.518 Forest product $5.137 3.103. worked when taken from the quarries.645.178 were foreign born.232.. At the head of the executive department are a Governor of other states. The railroads furnish the principal means of are engaged in transportation. and similar fairs are held in the various counties.482. at which premiums are given for the best products. Oilstone and shoemaker's sandstone are profitably mined in Orange County.853 15.830 12.400 acres in the state.THE STATE OF INDIAKA. 2. wheat. —In 1880 the population of Indiana Of these 1..260. There are 5.^— Nearly one-tenth of the people in occupations commerce and transportation.637 13. —Next in importance is manuwhich one-ninth of the people are eraployed.006.082. than five per cent were unable to read and seven and one-half per cent were unable to write.408 5.361. On account of this remarkable duraIt is soft The manufactures whose product was over $4.083 Wheat.246 Orchard product.627.591. and 56.508 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. the executive.. The canals in the state are practically abandoned.. filled bCl^>E~lIAKVL:Sll. Of the 22. the Ohio Eiver and the Wabash below Terre Haute.460.758.070 2.ti WHEAT.397 15.240 in agriculture.521 4.756 were born in the in the German Empire and 40.978 were white and 39.284.301.127 in manufactures. and 8. less Of Agriculture. are corn.072.bushels. the legislative and the judicial. 115. and there are now flowing wells in the is state.. and the value of live stock on farms was $71. of whom 1. and will be of much importance Commerce.359 Garden product.938 are under cultivation.182.068.. The annual production has more than doubled since that time. The longer it stands the harder it becomes.938. In 1880 Indiana was the fifth state in the Union in the production of building stone. Gate Potatoes " " " 47.554. like those — It is divided into three departments.446 $29.

and the presidents of school boards of in- Benevolent Institutions.000. and one at Inblind the dianapolis. and. Each county has a er. They decide the mass of the civil and criminal cases. purchase supplies. The Governor may veto a bill but it may be passed again over his veto by a majority of the General expenses. an assessor of taxes. LAFAYETTE. gist. The annual expenditure in The supreme jupower is vested a Supreme Court of 4. 4. Secretary. There are 1. sheriff. at Michigan City and Jeffersonville. five judges. one for for the deaf and dumb independent control of their schools. Indiana is represented in Congress by two senators and thirteen representatives. and a reformatory for women and girls. with Illinois and Wisconsin. The minor cases are decided by justices of the peace. — There is a permanent school fund of $9. of which only the interest is mem- bers elected for two years. The the presidents of the State University. of remainder from interest licenses. Public Instruction. state has. and Geolo- two penitentiaries for men. nually. record- matters The immediate supervision of school is by the township trustees. and numerous .schools. Attorney General. who employ etc. elected by the people for a term of The Lieutenant Governor is president of the Senate.000. and more if business requires 6. Penal Institutions. Only three states in the Union Assembly. 3. hospitals and benevolent institutions are maintained state has by private support. 3. etc. 1. clerk. He has genand re- each township.000.000 is raised by taxation and the on the permanent fund. at Indianapolis. and a home for soldiers' and sailors' have general supervision of the orphans at Knightstown. Superintendent of Statistician. used for school This is held by the counties and loaned at interest at the rate of six per cent. at Indianapolis. — The state main- tains four hospitals for the insane. and two-thirds of them are enrolled in the 2. The is legislative power vested in a General Assembly composed of two houses.000. constiBoard of Education.000. a Senate of 50 members elected for four years and a House of Representatives of 100 Education. fifteen votes in the choice of the President and Vice President Purdue University. therefore. commissioning high schools.012 townships Cities and towns have independin the state. State Normal School. As a member of the United States. There are also five Superior Courts in the larger counties and a special Criminal Court in Marion County. PURDUE UNIVERSITY. The larger cities have public hospitals. of which $4.000. which has special charge of courses of study and township libraries. and report annually to the Each county has a home for indigent and helpless Superintendent of Public Instruction. the three principal cities of the state. a school for feeble minded youth at 5. liquor The value of the school property in the state is about $15. It has jurisdiction over the examining and licensing Local Government. for public schools is about $5. the Governor. auditor and board of county commissioners. —The of teachers. In the judicial system of the United States Indiana forms a district. locate school houses. areform school for boys at Plainfield. The Superintendent at the of Public Instruction is whom there is one in head of the school system.600. Logansport and Evansville. The school system of the state of Indiana is one of the best in the world. BLOOM ly occupied in deciding appeals from lower courts. treasurer. ent control of their local affairs. corporated cities and towns. The Superintendent. The taxpayers of each school district are empowered to 6. cona State Board of Education. Each of these has a township trustee and ships. people. There are 54 Circuit Courts which hold sessions in each of the several counties during the year. fines. and the superintendents of public schools of stitute by the electoral college. — The Treasurer.THE STATE OP INDIANA. state is divided into 92 counties for purposes of local government. examine and license teachers. For convenience each county is divided into town- In each county the trustees. Auditor. teachers. dicial have larger funds. It is chief- LIBRARY OF INDIANA UNIVERSITY. common schools. at an expense of about $700. Fort "Wayne. The more important of the other executive officers are the four years. The county superintendents TWO OF MAIN BUILDINGS.000. and Lieatenant Governor. The number of school children in the state is about 750. etc. forms the Seventh Judicial Circuit. eral supervision of all school matters ports every second year in regard to them. Intute a County corporated cities and towns have Eichmond. together with a county superintendent of schools elected by them.000 an.

on the north side of the Wabash.500 of whom lived within the present In 1816 the population of the state was limits of the state. It has a population of about 100. Five in the southern part. marched against them and defeated their forces under the Prophet. Besides and universities. In 1816 Indiana adopted her first constitution and was admitted as a state. Terro Haute. began settling in Central Indiana. and three years later a government was established for the territory northwest of the Ohio Kiver by the celebrated ordinance of 1787. driven from the East. where Vincennes now stands. 14. General William Henry Harrison. In what county do you live? In what part of the state is it? What counties bound it? What is the county seat? How many townstiips are there in your county? Namethem. What streams flow through your county 7 What railroads pass through it? . The state in addition to the common schools maintains three institutions for higher learning. They concalled Post Vincennes. and this state remained uninhabited until 1700. Weas. then surrendered it to the English. one in 1720. and one in 1727. ers' institutes and associations.LE. on November 7th. commonly known by his title.000. and numerous seminaries and schools maintained at private expense. who takes charge of the school house and property. a short distance below Lafayette. In 1851 a new constitution was adopted and is now in force. In 1800 all the northwest territory west of a line drawn 5. Fort Wayne. what part of Indiana would you suppose to lie the highest? What lowest? Why? What stream flows into the Ohio at the southeastern corner of Indiana? What at the southwestern? Into what stream does the Whitewater River flow? Name the streams on which the following cities and towns are situated. at the site of Fort Wayne. 29. In 1805 Michigan Territory was created. the first Governor of Indiana Territory. and teachers' and pupils' reading Allowance circles. for the United In States. these there are seventeen colleges schools. The efficiency of the system is much promoted by teach7. meet and elect a director.74iJ Richmond Logansport 11. and since 1825. explored the northern part of the state. is made to teachers for attendance on the township institutes. opposite the mouth of Wea Creek. at Tippecanoe.THE STATE OP INDIANA. Fifty years later the Delawares and Shawnees. They all belonged to the Miami Nation. and in 1682-3. EVANSVII. The population of Indiana Territory in 1800 was 5. 6. excludes refractory pupils from school. Could you go by water from Michigan City to Evansville? How? What is the capital of Indiana? In what part of the state Is it situated? Name five counties in the northern part of the state and the county feats. north from the mouth of the Big Miami Eiver was made Indiana Territory. is situated hear the center of the state. trolled the country until 1763. Richmond. settling principally on the Maumee and Wabash rivers. on the West Fork of White River. and passed under the immediate control of Virginia. the former compulsory. and tell into what each stream flows: Indianapolis. Lafayette. Indianapolis. turing and commercial interests. 8. 1. the latter voluntary. In 1811. VIEW OF THE OHIO EIVER. 1813 to 1825. the capital. nine normal a polytechnic institute. Corydon. and were known as Miamis. The English remained in possession until 1779. 4. He passed down the Ohio in 1670. The first white man who explored Indiana was Eobert Cavalier. Kickapoos. called Post Ouiatanon. or simply La Salle. Evansville.280 26. — — New Albany Nearly ests.042 16. 1784 Virginia surrendered her claims to the Union. and a State Normal School at Terre Haute.280 12. From 1800 to 1813 Vincennes was the capital. New Albany.1S8 the cities of Indiana have grown rapidly since The French established three posts in Indiana. Purdue University (a school of technology) at Lafayette. fiom 65. the Indians having become hostile. when it was conquered by General George Eogers Clarke. Sieur de la Salle. when the Indians began moving east. Cities and Towns. and in 1809 Illinois Territory. Indianapolis. JeffersonTillc. In what part of the Onited States is Indiana situated T What state bounds it on the north ? On the east? On the south? On the west? Into which of the great drainage systems of the continent do its waters flow? Why? What natural boundaries has Indiana? From the map.880 26. The remaining cities and towns having a population of 10.000 or more in 1880 were as follows: Evansville Fort Wayne Terre Haute History. MAP QUESTIONS. 2.000. leaving to Indiana Territory about the present dimensions of the state. or Ouiatanons and Piankeshaws.423 all Lafayette South Bend . and is one of the greatIt has extensive manufacest railroad centers in the world. one called 1880 and increased their manufacturing and commercial inter- Port Miamis.860 13. and makes necessary repairs under the direction of the township trustee. La Salle induced all of the Indians in Indiana to remove to Illinois. about 2. 3. a State University at Bloomington.641.

.

Kenewed^S^^-subieCto— ..erecaU.This book 15 <iVf^X«to which renewed. (B132l8l0)476 .

YF 00709 584717 T UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY .

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